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Sample records for 10exp 6 mmexp

  1. 39 photons/bit direct detection receiver at 810 nm, BER = 1 x 10 exp -6, 60 Mb/s QPPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, Andrew; Dion, Bruno; Noeldeke, Christoph; Duchmann, Olivier

    1991-06-01

    39 photons/bit direct detection receiver sensitivity is reported, at a BER of 1 x 10 exp -6, for a 2-percent extinction ratio, 810 nm, 60 Mb/s QPPM signal. The sensitivity is 68 photons/bit at a BER of 1 x 10 exp -9. These figures represent a record sensitivity for a direct detection receiver. They are achieved by a combination of a novel silicon avalanche photodiode, an optimized preamplifier and a maximum likelihood demodulator. The work was a part of Phase B Breadboarding activities for the European Space Agency (ESA) SILEX (Semiconductor Intersatellite Link EXperiment) program on Intersatellite Optical Links.

  2. Longitudinal-stability Investigation of High-lift and Stall-control Devices on a 52 Degree Sweptback Wing with and Without Fuselage and Horizontal Tail at a Reynolds Number of 6.8 x 10(exp 6).

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Gerald V; Fitzpatrick, James E

    1948-01-01

    Contains low-speed longitudinal stability characteristics of a 52 degree sweptback wing of aspect ratio 2.88, taper ratio 0.625, and NACA 64 (sub 1)-112 airfoil sections normal to the 0.282-chord line, in combination with split flaps, leading-edge flaps, and upper-surface fences. Low-wing and midwing-fuselage aerodynamic characteristics are presented with and without a horizontal tail at various vertical locations. Tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 6.8 x 10(exp 6).

  3. Preliminary Investigation of Molybdenum Disulfide-air-mist Lubrication for Roller Bearings Operating to DN Values of 1 x 10(exp 6) and Ball Bearings Operating to Temperatures of 1000 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macks, E F; Nemeth, Z N; Anderson, W J

    1951-01-01

    The effectiveness of molybdenum disulfide MoS2 as a bearing lubricant was determined at high temperature and at high speeds. A 1-inch-bore ball bearing operated at temperatures to 1000 F, a speed of 1725 rpm, and a thrust load of 20 pounds when lubricated only with MoS2-air mist. A 75-millimeter-bore cageless roller bearing, provided with a MoS2-syrup coating before operation, operated at DN values to 1 x 10(exp 6) with a load of 368 pounds.

  4. Measurements of Local Heat Transfer and Pressure on Six 2-Inch-Diameter Blunt Bodies at a Mach Number of 4.95 and at Reynolds Numbers Per Foot up to 81 x 10(exp 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Morton; Mayo, Edward E.

    1959-01-01

    Measurements of the local heat transfer and pressure distribution have been made on six 2-inch-diameter, blunt, axially symmetric bodies in the Langley gas dynamics laboratory at a Mach number of 4.95 and at Reynolds numbers per foot up to 81 x 10(exp 6). During the investigation laminar flow was observed over a hemispherical-nosed body having a surface finish from 10 to 20 microinches at the highest test Reynolds number per foot (for this configuration) of 77.4 x 10(exp 6). Though it was repeatedly possible to measure completely laminar flow at this Reynolds number for the hemisphere, it was not possible to observe completely laminar flow on the flat-nosed body for similar conditions. The significance of this phenomenon is obscured by the observation that the effects of particle impacts on the surface in causing roughness were more pronounced on the flat-nosed body. For engineering purposes, a method developed by M. Richard Dennison while employed by Lockheed Aircraft Corporation appears to be a reasonable procedure for estimating turbulent heat transfer provided transition occurs at a forward location on the body. For rearward-transition locations, the method is much poorer for the hemispherical nose than for the flat nose. The pressures measured on the hemisphere agreed very well with those of the modified Newtonian theory, whereas the pressures on all other bodies, except on the flat-nosed body, were bracketed by modified Newtonian theory both with and without centrifugal forces. For the hemisphere, the stagnation-point velocity gradient agreed very well with Newtonian theory. The stagnation-point velocity gradient for the flat- nosed model was 0.31 of the value for the hemispherical-nosed model. If a Newtonian type of flow is assumed, the ratio 0.31 will be independent of Much number and real-gas effects.

  5. Low-Speed Longitudinal Stability and Lateral-Control Characteristics of a 0.3-Scale Model of the Republic RF-84F Airplane at a Reynolds Number of 9x10(exp 6)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollech, Thomas V.; Kelly, H. Neale

    1954-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 19-foot pressure tunnel on a 0.3-scale model of the Republic RF-84F airplane to determine modifications which would eliminate the pitch-up that occurred near maximum lift during flight tests of the airplane. The effects of high-lift and stall-control devices, horizontal tail locations, external stores, and various inlets on the longitudinal characteristics of the model were investigated. For the most part, these tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 9.0 x 10(exp 6) and a Mach number of 0.19. The results indicated that from the standpoint of stability the inlets should possess blunted side bodies. The horizontal tail located at either the highest or lowest position investigated improved the stability of the model. Three configurations were found for the model equipped with the production tail which eliminated the pitch-up through the lift range up to the maximum lift and provided a stable static margin which did not vary more than 15% of the mean aerodynamic chord through the lift range up to 85% of maximum lift. The three configurations are as follows: the production wing-fuselage-tail combination with an inlet similar to the production inlet but smaller in plan form in conjunction with either (1) a wing fence located at 65% of the win semispan or (2) an 11.7% chord leading-edge extension extending from 65.8 to 95.8% of the wing semispan and (3) the production wing-fuselage-tail combination with the production inlet and an 11.7% chord leading-edge extension extending from 70.8 to 95.8% of the wing semispan.

  6. A geodetic laser radar rangefinder with 10(exp -7) resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizushima, Y.; Takeichi, M.; Warashima, Y.; Takeshima, A.; Ogawa, I.; Ichie, K.; Schiller, N. H.

    1992-01-01

    A novel geodetic laser radar rangefinder (GLRR) unit utilizing a pair of synchronized 10-psec streak camera systems was developed for displacement measurements of the earth's plates. In order to achieve minimum computing error and assure extremely high spatial resolution, an optical pulse registration clock was developed and used to register a fiducial mark on the time scale of the system. Conventional optical rangefinders have been limited to a relative resolution of 10(exp -6) even for short distances. The system to be reported on today has the capability of measuring a 50km range with an accuracy of 4mm corresponding to a relative resolution of 10(exp -7). With a gain of greater than 3 x 10(exp 3), the system has the capability of detecting extremely weak signals on the order of photon counting. This combined with temporal gating makes daytime measurements comparable in signal-to-noise ratio to nighttime viewing. This is useful for measuring faint signals returning over a range of several tens of kilometers. The present ranging system was designed to observe the mutual displacement of geodetic plates and was employed to measure the boundary between the Philippine and Asian geodetic plates that pass beneath the Suruga Bay near Hamamatsu City, Japan. The system has been in operation for over 3 years. In addition, the system has the ability of producing and detecting optical ranging pulses of several wavelengths simultaneously, making this a complete multicolor system. The basic GLRR system consists of a frequency stabilizing crystal, optical clock, YAG laser, KDP doubling crystal, DK*P tripling crystal, two matched streak cameras (A and B), a control computer, and an output/input periscope system.

  7. Heat-Transfer and Pressure Measurements from a Flight Test of the Third 1/18-Scale Model of the Titan Intercontinental Ballistic Missile up to a Mach Number of 3.86 and Reynolds Number per Foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and a Comparison with Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, John B., Jr.

    1958-01-01

    Heat-transfer and pressure measurements were obtained from a flight test of a 1/18-scale model of the Titan intercontinental ballistic missile up to a Mach number of 3.86 and Reynolds number per foot of 23.5 x 10(exp 6) and are compared with the data of two previously tested 1/18-scale models. Boundary-layer transition was observed on the nose of the model. Van Driest's theory predicted heat-transfer coefficients reasonably well for the fully laminar flow but predictions made by Van Driest's theory for turbulent flow were considerably higher than the measurements when the skin was being heated. Comparison with the flight test of two similar models shows fair repeatability of the measurements for fully laminar or turbulent flow.

  8. The study of pressure measurement techniques and devices in the range of 10(exp -1) to 10(exp -5) torr (2 millipsi to 0.2 micropsi)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure range was studied in a region where conventional pressure sensing devices do not provide meaningful measurements. However, a hot filament gauge was developed and miniaturized which will measure the pressure in the 10(exp -1) to 10(exp -5) torr (2 millipsi to 0.2 micropsi) region, hence the name Micropsi gauge. Laboratory studies were made comparing the currently available devices with the newly developed miniature low power 'Micropsi' pressure sensor.

  9. A vacuum (10 exp -9 torr) friction apparatus for determining friction and endurance life of MoS(x) films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Honecy, Frank S.; Abel, Phillip B.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Spalvins, Talivaldis; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1993-01-01

    An ultrahigh-vacuum tribometer for use in a ball-on-disk configuration was specially designed for measuring the friction and endurance life of magnetron-sputtered solid lubricating MoS(x) films deposited on sputter-cleaned 400 C stainless-steel disks, when slid against a 6-mm-diameter 440 C stainless-steel ball. The results of tests showed that the tribometer performs satisfactorily in unidirectional rotation in vacuum at a pressure of 10 exp -7 Pa, 10 exp -9 torr. Similarities are observed in the life cycle friction behavior and the coefficient of friction as a function of the number of disk revolutions, for MoS(x) films at average Hertzian contact from 0.33 to 0.69 GPa.

  10. A vacuum (10(exp -9) Torr) friction apparatus for determining friction and endurance life of MoSx films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Honecy, Frank S.; Abel, Phillip B.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Spalvins, Talivaldis; Wheeler, Donald R.

    1992-01-01

    The first part of this paper describes an ultrahigh vacuum friction apparatus (tribometer). The tribometer can be used in a ball-on-disk configuration and is specifically designed to measure the friction and endurance life of solid lubricating films such as MoS(x) in vacuum at a pressure of 10 exp -7 Pa. The sliding mode is typically unidirectional at a constant rotating speed. The second part of this paper presents some representative friction and endurance life data for magnetron sputtered MoS(x) films (110 nm thick) deposited on sputter-cleaned 440 C stainless-steel disk substrates, which were slid against a 6-mm-diameter 440 C stainless-steel bearing ball. All experiments were conducted with loads of 0.49 to 3.6 N (average Hertzian contact pressure, 0.33 to 0.69 GPa), at a constant rotating speed of 120 rpm (sliding velocity ranging from 31 to 107 mm/s due to the range of wear track radii involved in the experiments), in a vacuum of 7 x 10 exp -7 Pa and at room temperature. The results indicate that there are similarities in friction behavior of MoS(x) films overs their life cycles regardless of load applied. The coefficient of friction (mu) decreases as load W increases according to mu = kW exp -1/3. The endurance life E of MoS(x) films decreases as the load W increases according to E = KW exp -1.4 for the load range. The load- (or contract-pressure-) dependent endurance life allows us to reduce the time for wear experiments and to accelerate endurance life testing of MoS(x) films. For the magnetron-sputtered MoS(x) films deposited on 440 C stainless-steel disks: the specific wear rate normalized to the load and the number of revolutions was 3 x 10 exp -8 mm exp 3/N-revolution; the specific wear rate normalized to the load and the total sliding distance was 8 x 10 exp -7 mm exp 3/N-m; and the nondimensional wear coefficient of was approximately 5 x 10 exp -6. The values are almost independent of load in the range 0.49 to 3.6 N (average Hertzian contact

  11. Laboratory Demonstration of Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) Coronagraph with Better than 10(exp -9) Contrast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Brian; Guyon, Olivier; Kuhnert, Andreas; Niessner, Albert; Martinache, Frantz; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham

    2013-01-01

    We present coronagraphic images from the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph on NASA's High Contrast Imaging Testbed (HCIT) at the Jet Propulsion Lab, showing contrasts of 5x10(exp -1) averaged from 2-4 lambda/D, in monochromatic light at 808 nm. In parallel with the coronagraph and its deformable mirror and coronagraphic wavefront control, we also demonstrate a low-order wavefront control system, giving 100 x rms suppression of introduced tip/tilt disturbances down to residual levels of 10(exp -3) lambda/D. Current limitations, as well as broadband (10% fractional bandpass) preliminary results are discussed.

  12. Reconstruction of 10(exp 20)ev Showers in EUSO and JEM EUSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V.; Adams, J.; Cline, D.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the procedure to reconstruct 10(exp 20) ev showers in Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO). We show the angular and energy resolution is excellent. We now apply this to the newly proposed Japanese JEM-EUSO and will present results at the meeting.

  13. The measurement of elemental abundances above 10 exp 15 eV at a lunar base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swordy, S. P.

    1990-03-01

    At about 10 exp 15 eV the slope of the energy spectrum of cosmic rays becomes significantly steeper than at lower energies. The measurement of relative elemental abundances at these energies is expected to provide a means to resolve the origin of this feature and greatly contribute to the understanding of the sources of cosmic rays. A moon-based detector for making well-resolved elemental measurements at these energies is described using hadronic calorimetry. This detector is particularly well suited for a site on the lunar surface because there is no overlying layer of atmosphere and the large mass required can be provided by the lunar regolith.

  14. An Instrument to Measure Elemental Energy Spectra of Cosmic Ray Nuclei Up to 10(exp 16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Chilingarian, A.; Drury, L.; Egorov, N.; Golubkov,S.; Korotkova, N.; Panasyuk, M.; Podorozhnyi, D.; Procqureur, J.

    2000-01-01

    A longstanding goal of cosmic ray research is to measure the elemental energy spectra of cosmic rays up to and through the "knee" (approx. equal to 3 x 10 (exp 15) eV. It is not currently feasible to achieve this goal with an ionization calorimeter because the mass required to be deployed in Earth orbit is very large (at least 50 tonnes). An alternative method will be presented. This is based on measuring the primary particle energy by determining the angular distribution of secondaries produced in a target layer using silicon microstrip detector technology. The proposed technique can be used over a wide range of energies (10 (exp 11)- 10 (exp 16) eV) and gives an energy resolution of 60% or better. Based on this technique, a design for a new lightweight instrument with a large aperture (KLEM) will be described.

  15. Wear-Resistant, Self-Lubricating Surfaces of Diamond Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1995-01-01

    In humid air and dry nitrogen, as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films and polished, coarse-grain diamond films have low steady-state coefficients of friction (less than 0.1) and low wear rates (less than or equal to 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/N-m). In an ultrahigh vacuum (10(exp -7) Pa), however, they have high steady-state coefficients of friction (greater than 0.6) and high wear rates (greater than or equal to 10(exp -4) mm(exp 3)/N-m). Therefore, the use of as-deposited, fine-grain and polished, coarse-grain diamond films as wear-resistant, self-lubricating coatings must be limited to normal air or gaseous environments such as dry nitrogen. On the other hand, carbon-ion-implanted, fine-grain diamond films and nitrogen-ion-implanted, coarse-grain diamond films have low steady-state coefficients of friction (less than 0.1) and low wear rates (less than or equal to 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/N-m) in all three environments. These films can be effectively used as wear-resistant, self-lubricating coatings in an ultrahigh vacuum as well as in normal air and dry nitrogen.

  16. CVD Diamond, DLC, and c-BN Coatings for Solid Film Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    When the main criteria for judging coating performance were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which had to be less than 0.1 and 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/N-m, respectively, carbon- and nitrogen-ion-implanted, fine-grain CVD diamond and DLC ion beam deposited on fine-grain CVD diamond met the requirements regardless of environment (vacuum, nitrogen, and air).

  17. Friction and Wear Properties of As-deposited and Carbon Ion-implanted Diamond Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1994-01-01

    Recent work on the friction and wear properties of as-deposited and carbon ion-implanted diamond films was reviewed. Diamond films were produced by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Diamond films with various grain sizes and surface roughnesses were implanted with carbon ions at 60 ke V ion energy, resulting in a dose of 1.2310(exp 17) carbon ions/cm(exp 2). Various analytical techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, proton recoil analysis, Rutherford backscattering, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction, were utilized to characterize the diamond films. Sliding friction experiments were conducted with a polished natural diamond pin in contact with diamond films in the three environments: humid air (40 percent relative humidity), dry nitrogen (less than 1 percent relative humidity), and ultrahigh vacuum (10(exp -7) Pa). The CVD diamond films indeed have friction and were properties similar to those of natural diamond in the three environments. The as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films can be effectively used as self-lubricating, wear-resistant coatings that have low coefficients of friction (0.02 to 0.04) and low wear rates (10(exp -7) to 10(exp -8)mm(exp 3)/N-m) in both humid air and dry nitrogen. However, they have high coefficients of friction (1.5 to 1.7) and a high wear rate (10(exp -4)mm(exp 3/N-m) in ultrahigh vacuum. The carbon ion implanation produced a thin surficial layer (less than 0.1 micron thick) of amorphous, nondiamond carbon on the diamond films. In humid air and dry nitrogen, the ion-implanted, fine- and coarse-grain diamond films have a low coefficient of friction (around 0.1) and a low wear rate (10(exp -7)mm(exp 3/N-m). Even in ultrahigh vacuum, the presence of the nondiamond carbon layer reduced the coefficient of friction of fine-grain diamond films to 0.1 or lower and the wear rate to 10(exp -6)mm(exp 3)/N-m. Thus, the carbon ion-implanted, fine

  18. Friction and Wear Properties of As-Deposited and Carbon Ion-Implanted Diamond Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1996-01-01

    Recent work on the friction and wear properties of as-deposited and carbon ion-implanted diamond films was reviewed. Diamond films were produced by the microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique. Diamond films with various grain sizes and surface roughnesses were implanted with carbon ions at 60 keV ion energy, resulting in a dose of 1.2 x 10(exp 17) carbon ions per cm(exp 2). Various analytical techniques, including Raman spectroscopy, proton recoil analysis, Rutherford backscattering, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, were utilized to characterize the diamond films. Sliding friction experiments were conducted with a polished natural diamond pin in contact with diamond films in the three environments: humid air (40% relative humidity), dry nitrogen (less than 1 percent relative humidity), and ultrahigh vacuum (10(exp -7) Pa). The CVD diamond films indeed have friction and wear properties similar to those of natural diamond in the three environments. The as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films can be effectively used as self-lubricating, wear-resistant coatings that have low coefficients of friction (0.02 to 0.04) and low wear rates (10(exp -7) to lO(exp -8) mm(exp 3) N(exp -1) m(exp -1)) in both humid air and dry nitrogen. However, they have high coefficients of friction (1.5 to 1.7) and a high wear rate (10(exp -4) mm(exp 7) N(exp -1) m(exp -1)) in ultrahigh vacuum. The carbon ion implantation produced a thin surficial layer (less than 0.1 micron thick) of amorphous, non-diamond carbon on the diamond films. In humid air and dry nitrogen, the ion-implanted, fine and coarse-grain diamond films have a low coefficient of friction (around 0.1) and a low wear rate (10(exp -7) mm(exp 3) N(exp -1) m(exp-1)). Even in ultrahigh vacuum, the presence of the non-diamond carbon layer reduced the coefficient of friction of fine-grain diamond films to 0.1 or lower and the wear rate to 10(exp -6

  19. A calibration of the production rate ratio P-21/P-26 by low energy secondry neutrons: Identification of Ne spallation components at the 10(exp 6) atoms/g level in terrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, TH.; Niedermann, S.; Marti, K.

    1993-01-01

    The spallation ratio (Ne-22/Ne-21)(sub c) from Si was determined as 1.243 plus or minus 0.022 in a terrestrial quartz sample. We carried out a calibration of the in-situ production rate ratio P-21/P-26 in quartz samples for which Be-10 and Al-26 production rates were previously measured. A ratio P-21/P-26 of 0.67 plus or minus 0.12 is obtained.

  20. Electrical characterization of 6H crystalline silicon carbide. M.S. Thesis Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lempner, Stephen E.

    1994-01-01

    Crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) substrates and epilayers, undoped as well as n- and p-doped, have been electrically characterized by performing Hall effect and resistivity measurements (van der Pauw) over the temperature range of approximately 85 K to 650 K (200 K to 500 K for p-type sample). By fitting the measured temperature dependent carrier concentration data to the single activation energy theoretical model: (1) the activation energy for the nitrogen donor ranged from 0.078 eV to 0.101 eV for a doping concentration range of 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3) to 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3) and (2) the activation energy for the aluminum acceptor was 0.252 eV for a doping concentration of 4.6 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3). By fitting the measured temperature dependent carrier concentration data to the double activation energy level theoretical model for the nitrogen donor: (1) the activation energy for the hexagonal site was 0.056 eV and 0.093 eV corresponding to doping concentrations of 3.33 x 10 (exp 17) cm(exp -3) and 1.6 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3) and (2) the activation energy for the cubic site was 0.113 and 0.126 eV corresponding to doping concentrations of 4.2 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -3) and 5.4 x 10(exp 18) cm(exp -3).

  1. Tribological evaluation of PS300: A new chrome oxide based solid lubricant coating sliding against Al2O3 From 25 to 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, C.; Laskowski, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the tribological characteristics of Al203 sliding against PS300; a chrome oxide based self lubricating coating. Al203 pins were slid against PS300 coated superalloy disks in air, under a 4.9 N load at velocities of 1 to 8 m/s. At a sliding velocity of 1 m/s, friction ranged from 0.6 at 25 C to 0.2 at 650 C. Wear factors for the Al203 pins were in the 10(exp -7) mm(exp 3)/N-m range and for the PS300 coating was in the 10(exp -5) mm(exp 3)/N-m range. The test results suggest that increased surface temperature resulting from either frictional heating, generated by increased sliding velocity, or ambient heating caused a reduction in friction and wear of the sliding couple. Based upon these results, the tested material combination is a promising candidate for high temperature wear applications.

  2. Aerothermodynamic Measurement and Prediction for Modified Orbiter at Mach 6 and 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micol, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Detailed heat-transfer rate distributions measured laterally over the windward surface of an orbiter-like configuration using thin-film resistance heat-transfer gauges and globally using the newly developed relative intensity, two-color thermographic phosphor technique are presented for Mach 6 and 10 in air. The angle of attack was varied from 0 to 40 deg, and the freestream Reynolds number based on the model length was varied from 4 x 10(exp 5) to 6 x 10(exp 6) at Mach 6, corresponding to laminar, transitional, and turbulent boundary layers; the Reynolds number at Mach 10 was 4 x 10(exp 5), corresponding to laminar flow. The primary objective of the present study was to provide detailed benchmark heat-transfer data for the calibration of computational fluid-dynamics codes. Predictions from a Navier-Stokes solver referred to as the Langley aerothermodynamic upwind relaxation algorithm and an approximate boundary-layer solving method known as the axisymmetric analog three-dimensional boundary layer code are compared with measurement. In general, predicted laminar heat-transfer rates are in good agreement with measurements.

  3. Satellite Boreal Measurements over Alaska and Canada During June-July 2004: Simultaneous Measurements of Upper Tropospheric CO, C2H6, HCN, CH3Cl, CH4, C2H2, CH2OH, HCOOH, OCS, and SF6 Mixing Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Dufour, Gaelle; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Chiou, Linda; Coheur, Pierre-Francois; Turquety, Solene; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    Simultaneous ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) upper tropospheric CO, C2H6, HCN, CH3Cl, CH4 , C2H2 , CH30H, HCOOH, and OCS measurements show plumes up to 185 ppbv (10 (exp -9) per unit volume) for CO, 1.36 ppbv for C2H6, 755 pptv (10(exp -12) per unit volume) for HCN, 1.12 ppbv for CH3C1, 1.82 ppmv, (10(exp -6) per unit volume) for CH4, 0.178 ppbv for C2H2, 3.89 ppbv for CH30H, 0.843 ppbv for HCOOH, and 0.48 ppbv for OCS in western Canada and Alaska at 50 deg N-68 deg N latitude between 29 June and 23 July 2004. Enhancement ratios and emission factors for HCOOH, CH30H, HCN, C2H6, and OCS relative to CO at 250-350 hPa are inferred from measurements of young plumes compared with lower mixing ratios assumed to represent background conditions based on a CO emission factor derived from boreal measurements. Results are generally consistent with the limited data reported for various vegetative types and emission phases measured in extratropical forests including boreal forests. The low correlation between fire product emission mixing ratios and the S176 mixing ratio is consistent with no significant SF6 emissions from the biomass fires.

  4. Toward 10(exp 9) GPS geodesy: Vector baselines, Earth rotation and reference frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.

    1993-01-01

    The University of Texas Center for Space Research research efforts under NASA Grant No. NAG-1936 from 1 Jan. 1992 - 31 Dec. 1992 were in the following areas: GPS orbit accuracy assessments and efforts to improve the accuracy; analysis of global GPS data collected during the first three months of the IGS campaign, and analysis of regional data. A brief summary of each of the above activities is presented in the following.

  5. Towards 10(exp 9) GPS geodesy: Vector baselines, Earth rotation and reference frames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutz, Bob E.

    1994-01-01

    Effort during the period form January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1993 were in the following areas: GPS orbit accuracy assessments and efforts to improve the accuracy; analysis and effects of GPS receiver antenna phase center variation; analysis of global GPS data being collected for the IGS campaign; and analysis of regional (south west Pacific) campaign data. A brief summary of each of the above activities is presented.

  6. Friction, Wear, and Evaporation Rates of Various Materials in Vacuum to 10(exp -7) mm Hg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, Donald H.; Swikert, Max; Johnson, Robert L.

    1961-01-01

    The requirements for bearings and seals to operate in the environment of space dictate a new area for lubrication research. The low ambient pressures encountered in space can be expected to influence the behavior of oil, grease, and solid-film lubricants. The property of these materials most significantly affected by low ambient pressures is the evaporation rate. Various investigators have therefore measured the evaporation rates of oils and greases in vacuum as one method of establishing their relative merit for space applications (1-3). The results of this work have given some indication as to the oils and greases with the greatest stability at reduced ambient pressures. Only limited experimental work, however, has been reported in the literature for inorganic solids and soft metals which have potential use as solid lubricant films or coatings for hard alloy substrates [e.g. Reference ( 4 )]. In general, the evaporation rates of these materials would be lower than those of oils and greases. These films might therefore be very attractive as lubricants for high vacuum service.

  7. Microstructural Evolution of Ti-6Al-4V during High Strain Rate Conditions of Metal Cutting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dong, Lei; Schneider, Judy

    2009-01-01

    The microstructural evolution following metal cutting was investigated within the metal chips of Ti-6Al-4V. Metal cutting was used to impose a high strain rate on the order of approx.10(exp 5)/s within the primary shear zone as the metal was removed from the workpiece. The initial microstructure of the parent material (PM) was composed of a bi-modal microstructure with coarse prior grains and equiaxed primary located at the boundaries. After metal cutting, the microstructure of the metal chips showed coarsening of the equiaxed primary grains and lamellar. These metallographic findings suggest that the metal chips experienced high temperatures which remained below the transus temperature.

  8. Blunt body near wake flow field at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; McGinley, Catherine B.; Hannemann, Klaus

    1996-01-01

    Tests were conducted in a Mach 6 flow to examine the reattachment process of an axisymmetric free shear layer associated with the near wake of a 70 deg. half angle, spherically blunted cone with a cylindrical after body. Model angle of incidence was fixed at 0 deg. and free-stream Reynolds numbers based on body diameter ranged from 0.5 x 10(exp 6) to 4 x 10(exp 6). The sensitivity of wake shear layer transition on reattachment heating was investigated. The present perfect gas study was designed to compliment results obtained previously in facilities capable of producing real gas effects. The instrumented blunted cone model was designed primarily for testing in high enthalpy hypervelocity shock tunnels in both this country and abroad but was amenable for testing in conventional hypersonic blowdown wind tunnels as well. Surface heating rates were inferred from temperature - time histories from coaxial surface thermocouples on the model forebody and thin film resistance gages along the model base and cylindrical after body. General flow feature (bow shock, wake shear layer, and recompression shock) locations were visually identified by schlieren photography. Mean shear layer position and growth were determined from intrusive pitot pressure surveys. In addition, wake surveys with a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer were utilized to qualitatively characterize the state of the shear layer prior to reattachment. Experimental results were compared to laminar perfect gas predictions provided by a 3-D Navier Stokes code (NSHYP). Shear layer impingement on the instrumented cylindrical after body resulted in a localized heating maximum that was 21 to 29 percent of the forebody stagnation point heating. Peak heating resulting from the reattaching shear layer was found to be a factor of 2 higher than laminar predictions, which suggested a transitional shear layer. Schlieren flow visualization and fluctuating voltage time histories and spectra from the hot wire surveys

  9. Experimental Determination of the Recovery Factor and Analytical Solution of the Conical Flow Field for a 20 deg Included Angle Cone at Mach Numbers of 4.6 and 6.0 and Stagnation Temperatures to 2600 degree R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfyl, Frank A.; Presley, Leroy L.

    1961-01-01

    The local recovery factor was determined experimentally along the surface of a thin-walled 20 deg included angle cone for Mach numbers near 6.0 at stagnation temperatures between 1200 deg R and 2600 deg R. In addition, a similar cone configuration was tested at Mach numbers near 4.5 at stagnation temperatures of approximately 612 deg R. The local Reynolds number based on flow properties at the edge of the boundary layer ranged between 0.1 x 10(exp 4) and 3.5 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R and between 6 x 10(exp 4) and 25 x 10(exp 4) for tests at temperatures near 612 deg R. The results indicated, generally, that the recovery factor can be predicted satisfactorily using the square root of the Prandtl number. No conclusion could be made as to the necessity of evaluating the Prandtl number at a reference temperature given by an empirical equation, as opposed to evaluating the Prandtl number at the wall temperature or static temperature of the gas at the cone surface. For the tests at temperatures above 1200 deg R (indicated herein as the tests conducted in the slip-flow region), two definite trends in the recovery data were observed - one of increasing recovery factor with decreasing stagnation pressure, which was associated with slip-flow effects and one of decreasing recovery factor with increasing temperature. The true cause of the latter trend could not be ascertained, but it was shown that this trend was not appreciably altered by the sources of error of the magnitude considered herein. The real-gas equations of state were used to determine accurately the local stream properties at the outer edge of the boundary layer of the cone. Included in the report, therefore, is a general solution for the conical flow of a real gas using the Beattie-Bridgeman equation of state. The largest effect of temperature was seen to be in the terms which were dependent upon the internal energy of the gas. The pressure and hence the pressure drag terms were

  10. Physical and Tribological Characteristics of Ion-Implanted Diamond Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Heidger, S.; Korenyi-Both, A. L.; Jayne, D. T.; Herrera-Fierro, P.; Shogrin, B.; Wilbur, P. J.; Wu, R. L. C.; Garscadden, A.; Barnes, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    Unidirectional sliding friction experiments were conducted with a natural, polished diamond pin in contact with both as-deposited and carbon-ion-implanted diamond films in ultrahigh vacuum. Diamond films were deposited on silicon, silicon carbide, and silicon nitride by microwave-plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition. The as-deposited diamond films were impacted with carbon ions at an accelerating energy of 60 keV and a current density of 50 micron A/cm(exp 2) for approximately 6 min, resulting in a dose of 1.2 x 10(exp 17) carbon ions/cm(exp 2). The results indicate that the carbon ion implantation produced a thin surface layer of amorphous, nondiamond carbon. The nondiamond carbon greatly decreased both friction and wear of the diamond films. The coefficients of friction for the carbon-ion-implanted, fine-grain diamond films were less than 0.1, factors of 20 to 30 lower than those for the as-deposited, fine-grain diamond films. The coefficients of friction for the carbon-ion-implanted, coarse-grain diamond films were approximately 0.35, a factor of five lower than those for the as-deposited, coarse-grain diamond films. The wear rates for the carbon-ion-implanted, diamond films were on the order of 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/Nm, factors of 30 to 80 lower than that for the as-deposited diamond films, regardless of grain size. The friction of the carbon-ion-implanted diamond films was greatly reduced because the amorphous, nondiamond carbon, which had a low shear strength, was restricted to the surface layers (less than 0.1 micron thick) and because the underlying diamond materials retained their high hardness. In conclusion, the carbon-ion-implanted, fine-grain diamond films can be used effectively as wear resistant, self-lubricating coatings for ceramics, such as silicon nitride and silicon carbide, in ultrahigh vacuum.

  11. Rate Coefficients of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 from 150 to 359 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opansky, Brian J.; Leone, Stephen R.

    1996-01-01

    Rate coefficients for the reactions C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 are measured over the temperature range 150-359 K using transient infrared laser absorption spectroscopy. The ethynyl radical is formed by photolysis of C2H2 with a pulsed excimer laser at 193 nm, and its transient absorption is monitored with a color center laser on the Q(sub 11)(9) line of the A(sup 2) Pi-Chi(sup 2) Sigma transition at 3593.68 cm(exp -1). Over the experimental temperature range 150-359 K the rate constants of C2H with C2H4, C2H6, and H2 can be fitted to the Arrhenius expressions k(sub C2H4) = (7.8 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -11) exp[(134 +/- 44)/T], k(sub C2H6) = (3.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(2.9 +/- 16)/T], and k(sub H2) = (1.2 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp -11) exp[(-998 +/- 57)]/T cm(exp 3) molecule(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The data for C2H with C2H4 and C2H6 indicate a negligible activation energy to product formation shown by the mild negative temperature dependence of both reactions. When the H2 data are plotted together with the most recent high-temperature results from 295 to 854 K, a slight curvature is observed. The H2 data can be fit to the non-Arrhenius form k(sub H2) = 9.2 x 10(exp -18) T(sup 2.17 +/- 0.50) exp[(-478 +/- 165)/T] cm(exp 3) molecules(exp -1) sec(exp -1). The curvature in the Arrhenius plot is discussed in terms of both quantum mechanical tunneling of the H atom from H2 to the C2H radical and bending mode contributions to the partition function.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Project Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Aeroheating: LaRC 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel Test 6931

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    An investigation of the aeroheating environment of the Project Orion Crew Entry Vehicle has been performed in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. Data were measured on a approx.3.5% scale model (0.1778-m/7-inch diameter) of the vehicle using coaxial thermocouples at free stream Reynolds numbers of 2.0 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.30 10(exp 6)/ft and computational predictions were generated for all test conditions. The primary goals of this test were to obtain convective heating data for use in assessing the accuracy of the computational technique and to validate test methodology and heating data from a test of the same wind tunnel model in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Tunnel 9. Secondary goals were to determine the extent of transitional/turbulent data which could be produced on a CEV model in this facility, either with or without boundary-layer trips, and to demonstrate continuous pitch-sweep operation in this tunnel for heat transfer testing.

  13. The effect of prolonged exposure to 750 C air on the tribological performance of PM212

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bemis, Kirk; Bogdanski, Michael S.; Dellacorte, Christopher; Sliney, Harold E.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of prolonged exposure to 750 C air on the tribological performance and dimensional stability of PM212, a high temperature, self-lubricating composite, is studied. PM212, by weight, contains 70 percent metal-bonded Cr3C2, 15 percent BaF2/CaF2 eutectic, and 15 percent silver. Rub blocks were fabricated from PM212 by cold isostatic pressing followed by sintering. Prior to tribo-testing, the rub blocks were exposed to 750 C air for periods ranging from 100 to 1000 hours. Then, the rub blocks were slid against nickel-based superalloy disks in a double-rub-block tribometer in air under a 66 N load at temperatures from 25 to 750 C with a sliding velocity of 0.36 m/s. Unexposed rub blocks were tested for baseline comparison. Friction coefficients ranged from 0.24 to 0.37 for the unexposed rub blocks and from 0.32 to 0.56 for the exposed ones. Wear for both the composite blocks and superalloy disks was typically in the moderate to low range of 10(exp -5) to 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/N-m. Friction and wear data were similar for the rub blocks exposed for 100, 500, and 1000 hours. Prolonged exposure to 750 C air increased friction and wear of the PM212 rub blocks at room temperature, but their triboperformance remained unaffected at higher temperatures, probably due to the formation of lubricious metal oxides. Dimensional stability of the composite was studied by exposing specimens of varying thicknesses for 500 hours in air at 750 C. Block thicknesses were found to increase with increased exposure time until steady state was reached after 100 hours of exposure, probably due to oxidation.

  14. Elevated Temperature Deformation of Fe-39.8Al and Fe-15.6Mn-39.4Al

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The elevated temperature compressive properties of binary Fe-39.8 at % Al and Fe-15.6Mn-39.4Al have been measured between 1000 and 1300 K at strain rates between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 3)/ s. Although the Mn addition to iron aluminide did not change the basic deformation characteristics, the Mn-modified alloy was slightly weaker. In the regime where deformation of FeAl occurs by a high stress exponent mechanism (n = 6), strength increases as the grain size decreases at least for diameters between approx. 200 and approx. 10 microns. Due to the limitation in the grain size-flow stress-temperature-strain rate database, the influence of further reductions of the grain size on strength is uncertain. Based on the appearance of subgrains in deformed iron aluminide, the comparison of grain diameters to expected subgrain sizes, and the grain size exponent and stress exponent calculated from deformation experiments, it is believed that grain size strengthening is the result of an artificial limitation on subgrain size as proposed by Sherby, Klundt and Miller.

  15. Rate Constant for the Reaction CH3 + CH3 Yields C2H6 at T = 155 K and Model Calculation of the CH3 Abundance in the Atmospheres of Saturn and Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cody, Regina J.; Romani, Paul N.; Nesbitt, Fred L.; Iannone, Mark A.; Tardy, Dwight C.; Stief, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    The column abundances of CH3 observed by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) satellite on Saturn and Neptune were lower than predicted by atmospheric photochemical models, especially for Saturn. It has been suggested that the models underestimated the loss of CH3 due to poor knowledge of the rate constant k of the CH3 + CH3 self-reaction at the low temperatures and pressures of these atmospheres. Motivated by this suggestion, we undertook a combined experimental and photochemical modeling study of the CH3 + CH3 reaction and its role in determining planetary CH3 abundances. In a discharge flow-mass spectrometer system, k was measured at T = 155 K and three pressures of He. The results in units of cu cm/molecule/s are k(0.6 Torr) = 6.82 x 10(exp -11), k(1.0 Torr) = 6.98 x 10(exp -11), and k(1.5 Torr) = 6.91 x 10(exp -11). Analytical expressions for k were derived that (1) are consistent with the present laboratory data at T = 155 K, our previous data at T = 202 K and 298 K, and those of other studies in He at T = 296-298 K and (2) have some theoretical basis to provide justification for extrapolation. The derived analytical expressions were then used in atmospheric photochemical models for both Saturn and Neptune. These model results reduced the disparity with observations of Saturn, but not with observations of Neptune. However, the disparity for Neptune is much smaller. The solution to the remaining excess CH3 prediction in the models relative to the ISO observations lies, to a large extent, elsewhere in the CH3 photochemistry or transport, not in the CH3 + CH3 rate.

  16. Aeroheating Characteristics for a Two-Stage-To-Orbit Concept During Separation at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the proximity aeroheating characteristics for a two-stage-to-orbit concept in close proximity in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel. A new hybrid discrete thin-film resistance gauge technique was evaluated in this study and used to measure experimental interference heating levels between the booster and the orbiter at a constant freestream Reynolds number of 8.25 x 10(exp 6)/m and a variety of separation and axial offset distances. It was found that, as the orbiter separates from the booster and the booster falls away, the windward centerline heating increased on the orbiter by as much as 13-times over the baseline, single model heating distribution, and on the booster by as much as 6-times. The aeroheating database developed can be used for computational fluid dynamic code validation.

  17. Population II Li-6 as a probe of nucleosynthesis and stellar structure and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigman, Gary; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.; Walker, Terry P.

    1993-01-01

    We discuss the importance of Population II Li-6 as a diagnostic for models of primordial nucleosynthesis, cosmic-ray nucleosyntheses in the early Galaxy, and the structure and evolution of metal-poor solar-type stars. The observation of Li-6 in the subdwarf HD 84937 is shown to be consistent with the existing Population II LiBeB data within the context of a simple three-component model: (1) standard big bang nucleosynthesis, (2) Population II cosmic-ray nucleosynthesis, (3) standard (nonrotating) stellar LiBeB depletion. If this interpretation is correct, we predict a potentially detectable boron abundance for this star: about 2 x 10 exp -12. Subsequent Population II LiBeB observations, and in particular further observations of Population II Li-6, are shown to be crucial to our understanding of the primordial and early galactic creation and destruction mechanisms for light elements.

  18. X-33 Rev-F Turbulent Aeroheating Results From Test 6817 in NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel and Comparisons With Computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Berry, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements and predictions of the X-33 turbulent aeroheating environment have been performed at Mach 6, perfect-gas air conditions. The purpose of this investigation was to compare measured turbulent aeroheating levels on smooth models, models with discrete trips, and models with arrays of bowed panels (which simulate bowed thermal protections system tiles) with each other and with predictions from two Navier-Stokes codes, LAURA and GASP. The wind tunnel testing was conducted at free stream Reynolds numbers based on length of 1.8 x 10(exp 6) to 6.1 x 10(exp 6) on 0.0132 scale X-33 models at a = 40-deg. Turbulent flow was produced by the discrete trips and by the bowed panels at ill but the lowest Reynolds number, but turbulent flow on the smooth model was produced only at the highest Reynolds number. Turbulent aeroheating levels on each of the three model types were measured using global phosphor thermography and were found to agree to within .he estimated uncertainty (plus or minus 15%) of the experiment. Computations were performed at the wind tunnel free stream conditions using both codes. Turbulent aeroheating levels predicted using the LAURA code were generally 5%-10% lower than those from GASP, although both sets of predictions fell within the experimental accuracy of the wind tunnel data.

  19. Toward 10(exp 10) Contrast for Terrestrial Exoplanet Detection: Demonstration of Wavefront Correction in a Shaped Pupil Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan; Give'on, Amir; Trauger, John T.; Carr, Michael; Kasdin, Jeremy N.; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Shi, Fang; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Kuhnert, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Experimental demonstration of wavefront control with shaped pupils. Contrast level is maintained across different wavelengths and 10% broadband light. Further improvements in contrast believed to have been possible with more time and parameter optimizations.

  20. Aerothermodynamic Testing of Protuberances and Penetrations on the NASA Crew Exploration Vehicle Heat Shield in the NASA Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liechty, Derek S.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel program is being conducted in support of an Agency wide effort to develop a replacement for the Space Shuttle and to support the NASA s long-term objective of returning to the moon and then on to Mars. This paper documents experimental measurements made on several scaled ceramic heat transfer models of the proposed Crew Exploration Vehicle. Global heat transfer images and heat transfer distributions obtained using phosphor thermography were used to infer interference heating on the Crew Exploration Vehicle Cycle 1 heat shield from local protuberances and penetrations for both laminar and turbulent heating conditions. Test parametrics included free stream Reynolds numbers of 1.0x10(exp 6)/ft to 7.25x10(exp 6)/ft in Mach 6 air at a fixed angle-of-attack. Single arrays of discrete boundary layer trips were used to trip the boundary layer approaching the protuberances/penetrations to a turbulent state. Also, the effects of three compression pad diameters, two radial locations of compression pad/tension tie location, compression pad geometry, and rotational position of compression pad/tension tie were examined. The experimental data highlighted in this paper are to be used to validate CFD tools that will be used to generate the flight aerothermodynamic database. Heat transfer measurements will also assist in the determination of the most appropriate engineering methods that will be used to assess local flight environments associated with protuberances/penetrations of the CEV thermal protection system.

  1. Meridional Variations of C2H2 and C2H6 in Jupiter's Atmosphere from Cassini CIRS Infrared Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Conrath, B. J.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Fouchet, T.; Parrish, P. D.; Romani, P. N.; Abbas, M.; LeClair, A.; Strobel, D.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrocarbons such as acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6) are important tracers in Jupiter's atmosphere, constraining our models of the chemical and dynamical processes. However, our knowledge of the vertical and meridional variations of their abundances has remained sparse. During the flyby of the Cassini spacecraft in December 2000, the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument was used to map the spatial variation of emissions from 10-1400 cm(sup -1) (1000-7 microns). In this paper we analyze a zonally-averaged set of CIRS spectra taken at the highest (0.5 cm(sup -1)) resolution, to infer atmospheric temperatures in the stratosphere at 0.5-20 mbar via the v4 band of CH4, and in the troposphere at 150-400 mbar, via the H2 absorption at 600-800 cm(sup -1). Simultaneously, we retrieve the abundances of C2H2 and C2H6 via the v5 and vg bands respectively. Tropospheric absorption and stratospheric emission are highly anti-correlated at the CIRS resolution, introducing a non-uniqueness into the retrievals, such that vertical gradient and column abundance cannot both be found without additional constraints. Assuming profile gradients from photochemical calculations, we show that the column abundance of C2H2 decreases sharply towards the poles by a factor approximately 4, while C2H6 is unchanged in the north and increasing in the south, by a factor approximately 1.8. An explanation for the meridional trends is proposed in terms of a combination of photochemistry and dynamics. Poleward, the decreasing UV flux is predicted to decrease the abundances of C2H2 and C2H6 by factors 2.7 and 3.5 respectively at a latitude 70 deg. However, the lifetime of C2H6 in the stratosphere (5 x 10(exp 9)) is much longer than the dynamical timescale for meridional motions inferred from SL-9 debris (5 x 10(exp 8 s)), and therefore the constant or rising abundance towards high latitudes likely indicates that meridional mixing dominates over photochemical effects. For C2H2, the opposite

  2. Modeling of the Dust and Gas Outflows from OH 26.5+0.6: The Superwind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justtanont, K.; Skinner, C. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Meixner, M.; Baas, F.

    1996-01-01

    We have observed the extreme OH/IR star, OH 26.5+0.6, in the infrared dust continuum and in the sub- millimeter rotational lines of CO. Mid-infrared images reveal the compact nature of the circumstellar shell (less than 0.5 sec). A deep 9.7 microns absorption feature and an absorption at 18 microns show that the dust mass-loss rate is very high. However, the low antenna temperatures of CO J = 1-0 and 2-1 lines suggest that the outer part of the circumstellar shell is much more tenuous. In order to resolve this discrepancy, we have observed the J = 3-2 and 4-3 CO rotational transitions. We have developed a model for the circumstellar shell for OH 26.5 + 0.6 which is consistent with the infrared and submillimeter observations. The dust and gas data are well fitted by a two-shell model, consisting of a dense shell surrounded by a more tenuous shell. The former we identify with the superwind (M = 5.5 x 10(exp -4) solar mass/ yr), and the latter we identify with mass loss on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) (M = 10(exp -6) solar mass/ yr). The transition between the two mass-loss phases is shown to be rather abrupt ((Delta)t less than 150 yr). Depending on the mass of the progenitor, this superwind phase may be the last thermal pulse (for M(sub *) less than 1.5 solar mass), or the first of a series of the superwind phases (for up to 8 solar mass), punctuated by a period of low mass-loss rates, before the star evolves off the AGB.

  3. Origin of the Galactic Disk 6.7 kev Line Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churchwell, Ed

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this program was to determine if the extended FeXXV 6.7 kev line emission might possibly be produced and confined by the hot wind-shocked bubbles to accompany UC HII regions. The main result of this study are: (1) FeXXV is detected in the W3 complex, but at a level that could only explain a small fraction of the galactic disk emission if all UC HII regions emit at about the same intensity as the W3 complex; (2) Two X-ray sources are detected in W3. W3-X 1 coincides with the radio image of this region, but W3-X2 has no radio, optical, or infrared counterpart; (3) There is no evidence for variability of W3-X1 during the period of observations (approx, 40,000 sec); (4) The X-ray spectrum of W3-X1 has no emission shortward of 1 kev, it peaks at approx. 2 kev and show significant emission out to approx. 6 kev. No individual lines are resolved. There is currently no generally accepted theory for extended hard X-ray emission in HII regions. Perhaps the most significant discovery of this program has been the detection of extended hard X-rays and the realization that some entirely new processes must be invoked to understand this; and (5)A minimum (chi)(sup 2) fit of the spectrum implies a H absorbing column of N(sub H) approx, equals to 2.1 x 10(exp 22)/ cm, a temperature of the emitting plasma of 7 x 10(exp 7) K, and a luminosity of approx. equal to 10(33)erg/s.

  4. Experimental Impacts into Chondritic Targets. Part 1; Disruption of an L6 Chondrite by Multiple Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Horz, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    A fragment of an L6 chondrite (ALH 85017,13) with an initial mass (M(sub 0)) of 464.1 g was the target in a series of experimental impacts in which the largest remaining fragment (M(sub R)) after each shot was impacted by a 3.18-mm ceramic sphere at a nominal speed of 2 km/s. This continued until the mass of the largest remaining piece was less than half the mass of the target presented to that shot (M(sub S)). Two chunks of Bushveldt gabbro with similar initial masses were also impacted under the same conditions until M(sub R) was less than half M(sub 0). The two gabbro targets required a total of 1.51x10(exp 7) and 1.75x10(exp 7) erg/g to attain 0.27 and 0.33 M(sub R)/M(sub 0), respectively; the chondrite, however, was considerably tougher, reaching 0.40 and 0.21 M(sub R)/M(sub 0) only after receiving 2.37x10(exp 7) and 3.10x10(exp 7) erg g-1, respectively. The combined ejecta and spallation products from the gabbro impacts were coarser than those from the chondrite and in sufficient quantities that the new surface areas exceeded those from the meteorite until the fifth shot in the chondrite series, which was the number of impacts required to disrupt each gabbro target (i.e., MR/M0 = 0.5). Unlike the behavior shown in previous regolith-evolution series, neither gabbro target produced an enhancement in the size fraction reflecting the mean size of the crystals composing the rock (about 3 mm), an effect possibly related to the width of the shock pulse. The original chondrite was so fine-grained and fractured, and the variance in its grain-size distribution so large, that effects related to grain-size were relegated to the <63- m fraction. Impacts into ALH 85017 produced abundant, fine-grained debris, but otherwise the slopes of its size distributions were comparable to those from other experiments involving natural and fabricated terrestrial targets. The characteristic slopes of the chondrite's size distributions, however, were notably more constant over the entire

  5. Viscoelastic Response of the Titanium Alloy Ti-6-4: Experimental Identification of Time- and Rate-Dependent Reversible and Irreversible Deformation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    In support of an effort on damage prognosis, the viscoelastic behavior of Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-6-4) was investigated. This report documents the experimental characterization of this titanium alloy. Various uniaxial tests were conducted to low load levels over the temperature range of 20 to 538 C to define tensile, creep, and relaxation behavior. A range of strain rates (6x10(exp -7) to 0.001/s) were used to document rate effects. All tests were designed to include an unloading portion, followed by a hold time at temperature to allow recovery to occur either at zero stress or strain. The titanium alloy was found to exhibit viscoelastic behavior below the "yield" point and over the entire range of temperatures (although at lower temperatures the magnitude is extremely small). These experimental data will be used for future characterization of a viscoelastic model.

  6. High-Field Fast-Risetime Pulse Failures in 4H- and 6H-SiC pn Junction Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Fazi, Christian

    1996-01-01

    We report the observation of anomalous reverse breakdown behavior in moderately doped (2-3 x 10(exp 17 cm(exp -3)) small-area micropipe-free 4H- and 6H-SiC pn junction diodes. When measured with a curve tracer, the diodes consistently exhibited very low reverse leakage currents and sharp repeatable breakdown knees in the range of 140-150 V. However, when subjected to single-shot reverse bias pulses (200 ns pulsewidth, 1 ns risetime), the diodes failed catastrophically at pulse voltages of less than 100 V. We propose a possible mechanism for this anomalous reduction in pulsed breakdown voltage relative to dc breakdown voltage. This instability must be removed so that SiC high-field devices can operate with the same high reliability as silicon power devices.

  7. Improvement of critical current density in thallium-based (Tl,Bi)Sr(1.6)Ba(0.4)Ca2Cu3O(x) superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ren, Z. F.; Wang, C. A.; Wang, J. H.; Miller, D. J.; Goretta, K. C.

    1995-01-01

    Epitaxial (Tl,Bi)Sr(1.6)Ba(0.4)Ca2Cu3O(x) ((Tl,Bi)-1223) thin films on (100) single crystal LaAlO3 substrates were synthesized by a two-step procedure. Phase development, microstructure, and relationships between film and substrate were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Resistance versus temperature, zero-field-cooled and field cooled magnetization, and transport critical current density (J(sub c)) were measured. The zero-resistance temperature was 105-111 K. J(sub c) at 77 K and zero field was greater than 2 x 10(exp 6) A/sq cm. The films exhibited good flux pinning properties.

  8. Debinding Process of Fe-6Ni-4Cu Compact Fabricated by Metal Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jenn-Shing; Lin, Shih-Pin; Hon, Min-Hsiung; Wang, Moo-Chin

    2000-02-01

    The debinding process in the case of metal injection molding for fabrication of the Fe-6Ni-4Cu compact and variables such as temperature and time has been studied. The debinding process of multiple organic binders in the Fe-6Ni-4Cu compact was investigated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) weight loss and mercury porosimetry analysis. The weight loss of wax and SA dramatically increases from below 10 wt% to 76.0 wt% and 86.0 wt% after immersion in 35°C and 40°C n-hexane for 6 h, respectively. The interdiffusion coefficients of the binder and solvent are 9.763× 10-7 cm2/s and 1.295× 10-6 cm2/s, respectively. The temperature dependent interdiffusion coefficient for the Fe-6Ni-4Cu compact can be expressed as Dx=4.534× 10\\exp({-}5437.2/T). The distribution of pore size is about 0.1-1.9 μm for the Fe-6Ni-4Cu compact.

  9. Surface Chemistry, Friction, and Wear Properties of Untreated and Laser-Annealed Surfaces of Pulsed-Laser-Deposited WS(sub 2) Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Wheeler, Donald R.; Zabinski, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the surface chemistry, friction, and wear behavior of untreated and annealed tungsten disulfide (WS2) coatings in sliding contact with a 6-mm-diameter 440C stainless-steel ball. The WS2 coatings and annealing were performed using the pulsed-laser-deposition technique. All sliding friction experiments were conducted with a load of 0.98 N (100 g), an average Hertzian contact pressure of 0.44 GPa, and a constant rotating speed of 120 rpm. The sliding velocity ranged from 31 to 107 mm/s because of the range of wear track radii involved in the experiments. The experiment was performed at room temperature in three environments: ultrahigh vacuum (vacuum pressure, 7X(exp -10) Pa), dry nitrogen (relative humidity, less than 1 percent), and humid air (relative humidity, 15 to 40 percent). Analytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), x-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), surface profilometry, and Vickers hardness testing, were used to characterize the tribological surfaces of WS2 coatings. The results of the investigation indicate that the laser annealing decreased the wear of a WS2 coating in an ultrahigh vacuum. The wear rate was reduced by a factor of 30. Thus, the laser annealing increased the wear life and resistance of the WS2 coating. The annealed WS 2 coating had a low coefficient of friction (less than O.1) and a low wear rate ((10(exp -7) mm(exp 3)/N-m)) both of which are favorable in an ultrahigh vacuum.

  10. An Unusual Coronal Mass Ejection: First Solar Wind Electron, Proton, Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) Results from the Advanced Composition Explorer. Appendix 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McComas, D. J.; Bame, S. J.; Barker, P. L.; Delapp, D. M.; Gosling, J. T.; Skoug, R. M.; Tokar, R. L.; Riley, P.; Feldman, W. C.; Santiago, E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the first scientific results from the Solar Wind Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) instrument on board the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft. We analyzed a coronal mass ejection (CME) observed in the solar wind using data from early February, 1998. This event displayed several of the common signatures of CMEs, such as counterstreaming halo electrons and depressed ion and electron temperatures, as well as some unusual features. During a portion of the CME traversal, SWEPAM measured a very large helium to proton abundance ratio. Other heavy ions, with a set of ionization states consistent with normal (1 to 2x10(exp 6) K) coronal temperatures, were proportionately enhanced at this time. These observations suggest a source for at least some of the CME material, where heavy ions are initially concentrated relative to hydrogen and then accelerated up into the solar wind, independent of their mass and first ionization potential.

  11. Measurements of Nucleation-Mode Particle Size Distributions in Aircraft Plumes during SULFUR 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, Charles A.; Bradford, Deborah G.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the participation of the University of Denver in an airborne measurement program, SULFUR 6, which was undertaken in late September and early October of 1998 by the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft und Raumfahrt (DLR). Scientific findings from two papers that have been published or accepted and from one manuscript that is in preparation are presented. The SULFUR 6 experiment was designed to investigate the emissions from subsonic aircraft to constrain calculations of possible atmospheric chemical and climatic effects. The University of Denver effort contributed toward the following SULFUR 6 goals: (1) To investigate the relationship between fuel sulfur content (FSC--mass of sulfur per mass of fuel) and particle number and mass emission index (El--quantity emitted per kg of fuel burned); (2) To provide upper and lower limits for the mass conversion efficiency (nu) of fuel sulfur to gaseous and particulate sulfuric acid; (3) To constrain models of volatile particle nucleation and growth by measuring the particle size distribution between 3 and 100 nm at aircraft plume ages ranging from 10(exp -1) to 10(exp 3) s; (4) To determine microphysical and optical properties and bulk chemical composition of soot particles in aircraft exhaust; and (5) To investigate the differences in particle properties between aircraft plumes in contrail and non-contrail situations. The experiment focused on emissions from the ATTAS research aircraft (a well characterized, but older technology turbojet) and from an in-service Boeing 737-300 aircraft provided by Lufthansa, with modem, high-bypass turbofan engines. Measurements were made from the DLR Dassault Falcon 900 aircraft, a modified business jet. The Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Program (AEAP) provided funding to operate an instrument, the nucleation-mode aerosol size spectrometer (N-MASS), during the SULFUR 6 campaign and to analyze the data. The N-MASS was developed at the University of Denver with the support of

  12. Voyager observations of O(+6) and other minor ions in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villanueva, Louis; Mcnutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Lazarus, Alan J.; Steinberg, John T.

    1994-01-01

    The plasma science (PLS) experiments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft began making measurements of the solar wind shortly after the two launches in the fall of 1977. In reviewing the data obtained prior to the Jupiter encounters in 1979, we have found that the large dynamic range of the PLS instrument generally allows a clean separation of signatures of minor ions (about 2.5% of the time) during a single instrument scan in energy per charge. The minor ions, most notably O(+6), are well separated from the protons and alpha particles during times when the solar wind Mach number (ratio of streaming speed to thermal speed) is greater than approximately 15. During the Earth to Jupiter cruise we find that the average ratio of alpha particle number density to that of oxygen is 66 +/- 7 (Voyager 1) and 71 +/- 17 (Voyager 2). These values are consistent with the value 75 +/- 20 inferred from the Ion Composition Instrument on ISEE 3 during the period spanning 1978 and 1982. We have inferred an average coronal temperature of (1.7 +/- 0.1) x 10(exp 6) K based on the ratio of O(+7) to O(+6) number densities. Our observations cover a period of increasing solar activity. During this time we have found that the alpha particle to proton number density ratio is increasing with the solar cycle, the oxygen to proton ratio increases, and the alpha particle to oxygen ratio remains relatively constant in time.

  13. HST eclipse mapping of dwarf nova OY Carinae in quiescence: An 'Fe II curtain' with Mach approx. = 6 velocity dispersion veils the white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Keith; Marsh, T. R.; Cheng, F. H.; Hubeny, Ivan; Lanz, Theirry

    1994-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the eclipsing dwarf nova OY Car in its quiescent state are used to isolate the ultraviolet spectrum (1150-2500 A at 9.2 A Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) resolution) of the white dwarf, the accretion disk, and the bright spot. The white dwarf spectrum has a Stark-broadened photospheric L(alpha) absorption, but is veiled by a forest of blended Fe II features that we attribute to absorption by intervening disk material. A fit gives T(sub w) approx. = 16.5 x 10(exp 3) K for the white dwarf with a solar-abundance, log g = 8 model atmosphere, and T approx. = 10(exp 4) K, n(sub e) approx. = 10(exp 13)/cu cm, N(sub H) approx. = 10(exp 22) sq cm, and velocity dispersion delta V approx. = 60 km/s for the veil of homogeneous solar-abundance local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) gas. The veil parameters probably measure characteristic physical conditions in the quiescent accretion disk or its chromosphere. The large velocity dispersion is essential for a good fit; it lowers (chi square)/778 from 22 to 4. Keplerian shear can produce the velocity dispersion if the veiling gas is located at R approx. = 5 R(sub W) with (delta R)/R approx. = 0.3, but this model leaves an unobscured view to the upper hemisphere of the white dwarf, incompatible with absorptions that are up to 80% deep. The veiling gas may be in the upper atmosphere of the disk near its outer rim, but we then require supersonic (Mach approx. = 6) but sub-Keplerian (delta V/V(sub Kep) approx. = 0.07) velocity disturbances in this region to produce both the observed radial velocity dispersion and vertical motions sufficient to elevate the gas to z/R = cos i = 0.12. Such motions might be driven by the gas stream, since it may take several Kepler periods to reestablish the disk's vertical hydrostatic equilibrium. The temperature and column density of the gas we see as Fe II absorption in the ultraviolet are similar to what is required to produce the strong Balmer jump and

  14. Growth of carbon-doped base GaAs/AlGaAs HBT by gas-source MBE using TEG, TEA, TMG, AsH3, and Si2H6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Hideyasu; Fujii, Toshio; Sandhu, Adarsh; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hideaki; Okamoto, Naoya; Yokoyama, Naoki

    1992-05-01

    High-performance carbon-doped-base GaAs/AlGaAs heterobipolar transistors (HBTs) were grown by gas-source MBE using only gaseous sources including dopant sources. The AlGaAs emitter layer was doped with Si from uncracked SI2H6 and the base layer was doped with carbon from TMG. From SIMS analysis it was confirmed that a well-defined emitter-base junction with sharp carbon profile was obtained. The base-current ideality factor from the Gummel plot was 1.47, and the emitter-base junction ideality factor was 1.12. A high dc current gain of 53 was obtained at a current density of 4 x 10 exp 4 A/sq cm. The device characteristics of our carbon-doped HBTs were found to be stable under current stress.

  15. Initial Results from a Search for Lunar Radio Emission from Interactions of >= 10(exp 19) eV Neutrinos and Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, P. W.; Liewer, K. M.; Naudet, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Using the NASA Goldstone 70m antenna DSS 14 both singly and in coincidence with the 34 m antenna DSS 13 (21.7 km to the southeast), we have acquired approximately 12 hrs of livetime in a search for predicted pulsed radio emission from extremely-high energy cascades induced by neutrinos or cosmic rays in the lunar regolith. In about 4 hrs of single antenna observations, we reduced our sensitivity to impulsive terrestrial interference to a negligible level by use of a veto afforded by the unique capability of DSS 14. In the 8 hrs of dual-antenna observations, terrestrial interference is eliminated as a background. In both observing modes the thermal noise floor limits the sensitivity. We detected no events above statistical background. We report here initial limits based on these data which begin to constrain several predictions of the flux of EHE neutrinos.

  16. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Gilmore Load Cell Machine: Load Cell Calibrations to 2.22 x 10(exp 7) Newtons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haynes, Michael W.

    2000-01-01

    Designed in 1964 and erected in 1966, the mission of the Gilmore Load Cell Machine was to provide highly accurate calibrations for large capacity load cells in support of NASA's Apollo Program. Still in use today, the Gilmore Machine is a national treasure with no equal.

  17. Effects of Fin Leading Edge Sweep on Shock-Shock Interaction at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Scott A.; Nowak, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of fin leading edge sweep on peak heating rates due to shock-shock interaction have been experimentally examined in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel. The shock interaction was produced by the intersection of a planar incident shock (16.8 deg shock angle relative to the freestream, generated by a 9 deg wedge) with the bow shock formed around a O.5-inch diameter cylindrical leading edge fin. Heating distributions along the leading edge stagnation line have been obtained using densely spaced thin film resistive-type sensors. Schlieren images were obtained to illustrate the very complex shock-shock interactions. The fin leading edge sweep angle was varied from 15-degrees swept back to 45-degrees swept forward for a freestream unit Reynolds number of 2 x 10(exp 6)/ft. Two models were utilized during the study, one with 0.025-inch spacing between gage centers, and the other 0.015-inch spacing. Gage spatial resolution on the order of 0.015-in appeared to accurately capture the narrow spike in heating. Peak heating due to shock interaction was maximized when the fin was swept forward 15 deg and 25 deg, both promoting augmentations about 7 times the baseline value. The schlieren images for these cases revealed Type 4 and Type 3 interactions, respectively.

  18. Boundary-Layer Instability Measurements in a Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berridge, Dennis C.; Ward, Christopher, A. C.; Luersen, Ryan P. K.; Chou, Amanda; Abney, Andrew D.; Schneider, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Several experiments have been performed in the Boeing/AFOSR Mach-6 Quiet Tunnel at Purdue University. A 7 degree half angle cone at 6 degree angle of attack with temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) and PCB pressure transducers was tested under quiet flow. The stationary crossflow vortices appear to break down to turbulence near the lee ray for sufficiently high Reynolds numbers. Attempts to use roughness elements to control the spacing of hot streaks on a flared cone in quiet flow did not succeed. Roughness was observed to damp the second-mode waves in areas influenced by the roughness, and wide roughness spacing allowed hot streaks to form between the roughness elements. A forward-facing cavity was used for proof-of-concept studies for a laser perturber. The lowest density at which the freestream laser perturbations could be detected was 1.07 x 10(exp -2) kilograms per cubic meter. Experiments were conducted to determine the transition characteristics of a streamwise corner flow at hypersonic velocities. Quiet flow resulted in a delayed onset of hot streak spreading. Under low Reynolds number flow hot streak spreading did not occur along the model. A new shock tube has been built at Purdue. The shock tube is designed to create weak shocks suitable for calibrating sensors, particularly PCB-132 sensors. PCB-132 measurements in another shock tube show the shock response and a linear calibration over a moderate pressure range.

  19. A Novel Tungsten-Nickel Alloy Ohmic Contact to SiC at 900 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Evans, Laura J.; Lukco, Dorothy; Morris, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    A novel tungsten-nickel ohmic contact metallization on 4H-SiC and 6H-SiC capable of surviving temperatures as high as 900 C is reported. Preliminary results revealed the following: 1) ohmic contact on n-type 4H-SiC having net doping levels (Nd's) of 1.4 and 2 x 10(exp 19) per cubic centimeter, with specific contact resistances rhosNd's of 7.69 x 10(exp -4) and 5.81 x 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeters, respectively, after rapid thermal annealing (RTA), and 5.9 x 10(exp -3) and 2.51 x 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeters, respectively, after subsequent soak at 900 C for 1 h in argon, and 2) ohmic contact on n- and p-type 6H-SiC having Nd > 2 x 10(exp 19) and Na > 1 x 10(exp 20) per cubic centimeter, with rhosNd = 5 x 10(exp -5) and rhosNa = 2 X 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeter, respectively, after RTA, and rhosNd = 2.5 x 10 (exp -5) and rhosNa = 1.5 x 10(exp -4) OMEGA (raised dot) square centimeter after subsequent treatment at 900 C for 1 h in argon, respectively.

  20. Star Formation in Hi Tails: HCG 92, HCG 100 and 6 Interacting Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deMello, D. F.; Urrutia-Viscarra, F.; MendesdeOliveira, C.; Torres-Flores, S.; Carrasco, E. R.; Cypriano, E.

    2012-01-01

    We present new Gemini spectra of 14 new objects found within the HI tails of Hickson Compact Groups 92 and 100. Nine of them are GALEX Far-UV (FUV) and Near-UV (NUV) sources. The spectra confirm that these objects are members of the compact groups and have metallicities close to solar, with an average value of 12+log(O/H)approx.8.5. They have average FUV luminosities 7 x 10(exp 40) erg/s, very young ages (< 100 Myr) and two of them resemble tidal dwarf galaxies (TDGs) candidates. We suggest that they were created within gas clouds that were ejected during galaxy-galaxy interactions into the intergalactic medium, which would explain the high metallicities of the objects, inherited from the parent galaxies from which the gas originated. We conduct a search for similar objects in 6 interacting systems with extended HI tails, NGC 2623, NGC 3079, NGC 3359, NGC 3627, NGC 3718, NGC 4656. We found 35 UV sources with ages < 100 Myr, however most of them are on average less luminous/massive than the UV sources found around HCG 92 and 100. We speculate that this might be an environmental effect and that compact groups of galaxies are more favorable to TDG formation than other interacting systems.

  1. Discovery of a 6.4 keV Emission Line in a Burst from SGR 1900+14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Ibrahim, Alaa I.

    2000-01-01

    We present evidence of a 6.4 key emission line during a burst from the soft gamma repeater SGR 1900+14. The Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) monitored this source extensively during its outburst in the summer of 1998. A strong burst observed on 1998 August 29 revealed a number of unique properties. The burst exhibits a precursor and is followed by a long (approx. 10(exp 3) s) tail modulated at the 5.16 s stellar rotation period. The precursor has a duration of approx. equals 0.85 s and shows both significant spectral evolution as well as an emission feature centered near 6.4 keV during the first 0.3 s of the event, when the X-ray spectrum was hardest. The continuum during the burst is well fit with an optically thin thermal bremsstrahlung spectrum with the temperature ranging from approx. equals 40 to 10 keV. The line is strong, with an equivalent width of approx. 400 eV, and is consistent with Fe K(alpha) fluorescence from relatively coot material. If the rest-frame energy is indeed 6.4 keV, then the lack of an observed redshift indicates that the source is at least approx. 80 km above the neutron star surface. We discuss the implications of the line detection in the context of models for SGRs.

  2. A numerical study of the laminar incompressible flow over a 6:1 prolate spheroid at 10 deg incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenfeld, Moshe; Wolfshtein, Micha; Israeli, Moshe

    1992-07-01

    The steady incompressible laminar flowfield over a 6:1 prolate spheroid at 10 deg incidence and a Reynolds number of 1.6 x 10 exp 6 is investigated numerically by solving a reduced set of the Navier-Stokes equations. The present study moves one step beyond the boundary-layer approximation by relaxing the requirement of an imposed pressure field to permit the calculation of both attached and longitudinal vortical flowfields. The results shed light on the flow properties over slender bodies at intermediate incidence. The longitudinal vortex is found to be weak relative to vortex-dominated flows. Nevertheless, it has pronounced effects on the flow near the surface and on global features of the flowfield. A displacement velocity which describes the effect of the vortical flow on the outer inviscid flow is defined. The line on the spheroid where the displacement velocity vanishes closely follows the projection of the vortex centerline on the surface of the spheroid. It is demonstrated numerically that the convergence of the skin friction lines is not a unique criterion for identifying a vortex flow.

  3. Effect of a solid insulator on the spark yield of S2F10 in SF6(*)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauers, I.; Mahajan, S. M.; Cacheiro, R. A.

    Because of its toxicity S2F10 production in SF6 discharges has been the focus of intensive study in recent years. In previous work we have examined the yield of S 2F10 for corona, spark and arc discharges and, in sparks, the effects of water and oxygen have been studied systematically. Here we report the influence of an insulating solid spacer on the production of S2F10 in SF6 when subjected to spark discharges in the energy range 1.6-43 J/spark at a gas pressure of 1 atm. Analyses of the sparked gases were performed using a cryogenic enrichment gas chromatography technique with a sensitivity of less than 10 ppb (parts-per-billion) or 1 in 10(exp 8). With this sensitivity S2F10 can be detected after one or just a few spark(s), minimizing secondary effects of gas contamination, electrode erosion and insulator damage that can influence S2F10 production and make quantitative yield determinations difficult to establish. For these studies Teflon was used as the spacer sandwiched between two stainless steel electrodes. Energy measurements were made after recording the voltage and current waveforms. The amount of S2F10 produced per unit energy deposited into the discharge was found to be greater in the presence of the spacer than for a purely gas gap. Factors which influence S2F10 stability such as surfaces and water will also b e discussed.

  4. Diamond and diamondlike carbon as wear-resistant, self-lubricating coatings for silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1995-01-01

    Recent work on the friction and wear properties of as-deposited fine-grain diamond, polished coarse-grain diamond, and as-deposited diamondlike carbon (DLC) films in humid air at a relative humidity of approximately 40 percent and in dry nitrogen is reviewed. Two types of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes are used to deposit diamond films on silicon nitride (Si3N4) substrates: microwave-plasma and hot-filament. Ion beams are used to deposit DLC films of Si3N4 substrates. The diamond and DLC films in sliding contact with hemispherical bare Si3N4 pins have low steady-state coefficients of friction (less than 0.2) and low wear rates (less than 10(exp -7) mm(exp 2)/N-m), and thus, can be used effectively as wear-resistant, self-lubricating coatings for Si3N4 in the aforementioned two environments.

  5. Sonic Boom Computations for a Mach 1.6 Cruise Low Boom Configuration and Comparisons with Wind Tunnel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Cliff, Susan E.; Wilcox, Floyd; Nemec, Marian; Bangert, Linda; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Parlette, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Accurate analysis of sonic boom pressure signatures using computational fluid dynamics techniques remains quite challenging. Although CFD shows accurate predictions of flow around complex configurations, generating grids that can resolve the sonic boom signature far away from the body is a challenge. The test case chosen for this study corresponds to an experimental wind-tunnel test that was conducted to measure the sonic boom pressure signature of a low boom configuration designed by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation. Two widely used NASA codes, USM3D and AERO, are examined for their ability to accurately capture sonic boom signature. Numerical simulations are conducted for a free-stream Mach number of 1.6, angle of attack of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 3.85x10(exp 6) based on model reference length. Flow around the low boom configuration in free air and inside the Langley Unitary plan wind tunnel are computed. Results from the numerical simulations are compared with wind tunnel data. The effects of viscous and turbulence modeling along with tunnel walls on the computed sonic boom signature are presented and discussed.

  6. 1,2-Dichlorohexafluoro-Cyclobutane (1,2-c-C4F6Cl2, R-316c) a Potent Ozone Depleting Substance and Greenhouse Gas: Atmospheric Loss Processes, Lifetimes, and Ozone Depletion and Global Warming Potentials for the (E) and (Z) stereoisomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadimitriou, Vassileios C.; McGillen, Max R.; Smith, Shona C.; Jubb, Aaron M.; Portmann, Robert W.; Hall, Bradley D.; Fleming, Eric L.; Jackman, Charles H.; Burkholder, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric processing of (E)- and (Z)-1,2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane (1,2-c-C4F6Cl2, R-316c) was examined in this work as the ozone depleting (ODP) and global warming (GWP) potentials of this proposed replacement compound are presently unknown. The predominant atmospheric loss processes and infrared absorption spectra of the R-316c isomers were measured to provide a basis to evaluate their atmospheric lifetimes and, thus, ODPs and GWPs. UV absorption spectra were measured between 184.95 to 230 nm at temperatures between 214 and 296 K and a parametrization for use in atmospheric modeling is presented. The Cl atom quantum yield in the 193 nm photolysis of R- 316c was measured to be 1.90 +/- 0.27. Hexafluorocyclobutene (c-C4F6) was determined to be a photolysis co-product with molar yields of 0.7 and 1.0 (+/-10%) for (E)- and (Z)-R-316c, respectively. The 296 K total rate coefficient for the O(1D) + R-316c reaction, i.e., O(1D) loss, was measured to be (1.56 +/- 0.11) × 10(exp -10)cu cm/ molecule/s and the reactive rate coefficient, i.e., R-316c loss, was measured to be (1.36 +/- 0.20) × 10(exp -10)cu cm/molecule/s corresponding to a approx. 88% reactive yield. Rate coefficient upper-limits for the OH and O3 reaction with R-316c were determined to be <2.3 × 10(exp -17) and <2.0 × 10(exp -22)cu cm/molecule/s, respectively, at 296 K. The quoted uncertainty limits are 2(sigma) and include estimated systematic errors. Local and global annually averaged lifetimes for the (E)- and (Z)-R-316c isomers were calculated using a 2-D atmospheric model to be 74.6 +/- 3 and 114.1 +/-10 years, respectively, where the estimated uncertainties are due solely to the uncertainty in the UV absorption spectra. Stratospheric photolysis is the predominant atmospheric loss process for both isomers with the O(1D) reaction making a minor, approx. 2% for the (E) isomer and 7% for the (Z) isomer, contribution to the total atmospheric loss. Ozone depletion potentials for (E)- and (Z

  7. Turbulent Aeroheating Testing of Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Collier, Arnold S.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation of turbulent aeroheating on the Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle heat shield has been conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel No. 9. Testing was performed on a 6-in. (0.1524 m) diameter MSL model in pure N2 gas in the tunnel's Mach 8 and Mach 10 nozzles at free stream Reynolds numbers of 4.1 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 49 x 10(exp 6)/ft (1.3 x 10(exp 7)/m to 19 x 10(exp 6/ft) and 1.2 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 19 x 10(exp 6)/ft (0.39 x 10(exp 7)/m to 62 x 10(exp 7)/m), respectively. These conditions were sufficient to span the regime of boundary-layer flow from completely laminar to fully-developed turbulent flow over the entire forebody. A supporting aeroheating test was also conducted in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel at free stream Reynolds number of 1 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 7 x 10(exp 6)/ft (0.36 x 10(exp 7)/m to 2.2 x 10(exp 7)/m) in order to help corroborate the Tunnel 9 results. A complementary computational fluid dynamics study was conducted in parallel to the wind tunnel testing. Laminar and turbulent predictions were generated for the wind tunnel test conditions and comparisons were performed with the data for the purpose of helping to define uncertainty margins on predictions for aeroheating environments during entry into the Martian atmosphere. Data from both wind tunnel tests and comparisons with the predictions are presented herein. It was concluded from these comparisons that for perfect-gas conditions, the computational tools could predict fully-laminar or fully-turbulent heating conditions to within 12% or better of the experimental data.

  8. A parametric experimental investigation of a scramjet nozzle at Mach 6 with Freon and argon or air used for exhaust simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cubbage, James M.; Monta, William J.

    1991-01-01

    A parametric experimental investigation of a scramjet nozzle was conducted with a gas mixture used to simulate the scramjet engine exhaust flow at a free-stream Reynolds number of approximately 6.5 x 10(exp 6) per foot. External nozzle surface angles of 16, 20, and 24 deg were tested with a fixed-length ramp and for cowl internal surface angles of 6 and 12 deg. Pressure data on the external nozzle surface were obtained for mixtures of Freon and argon gases with a ratio of specific heats of about 1.23, which matches that of a scramjet exhaust. Forces and moments were determined by integration of the pressure data. Two nozzle configurations were also tested with air used to simulate the exhaust flow. On the external nozzle surface, lift and thrust forces for air exhaust simulation were approximately half of those for Freon-argon exhaust simulation and the pitching moment was approximately a third. These differences were primarily due to the difference in the ratios of specific heats between the two exhaust simulation gases. A 20 deg external surface angle produced the greatest thrust for a 6 deg cowl internal surface angle. A flow fence significantly increased lift and thrust forces over those for the nozzle without a flow fence.

  9. Turbulent Aeroheating Testing of Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle in Perfect-Gas Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Collier, Arnold S.

    2007-01-01

    An experimental investigation of turbulent aeroheating on the Mars Science Laboratory entry vehicle heat shield has been conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center Hypervelocity Wind Tunnel No. 9. Testing was performed on a 6-in. (0.1524 m) diameter MSL model in pure N2 gas in the tunnel s Mach 8 and Mach 10 nozzles at free stream Reynolds numbers of 4.1x10(exp 6)/ft to 49x10(exp 6)/ft (1.3x10(exp 7)/m to 16x10(exp 7)/m) and 1.2x10(exp 6)/ft to 19x10(exp 6)/ft (0.39x10(exp 7)/m to 62x10(exp 7)/m), respectively. These conditions were sufficient to span the regime of boundary-layer flow from completely laminar to fully-developed turbulent flow over the entire forebody. A supporting aeroheating test was also conducted in the Langley Research Center 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel at free stream Reynolds number of 1x10(exp 6)/ft to 7x10(exp 6)/ft (0.36x10(exp 7)/m to 2.2x10(exp 7)/m) in order to help corroborate the Tunnel 9 results. A complementary computational fluid dynamics study was conducted in parallel to the wind tunnel testing. Laminar and turbulent predictions were generated for all wind tunnel test conditions and comparisons were performed with the data for the purpose of helping to define uncertainty margins on predictions for aeroheating environments during entry into the Martian atmosphere. Data from both wind tunnel tests and comparisons with the predictions are presented herein. It was concluded from these comparisons that for perfect-gas conditions, the computational tools could predict fully-laminar or fully-turbulent heating conditions to within 10% of the experimental data

  10. Spt6

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hiroaki; Okazaki, Kosuke; Urano, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    As posttranslational modifications of histones H3 and H4 determine the state of chromatin in cis, these histones should remain attached to template DNA during transcription in order to maintain the state of chromatin. RNA polymerase II itself can transcribe the nucleosome template without changing nucleosome positioning. However, it was uncertain whether Spt6, a highly conserved polymerase-associated histone chaperone, prevents “preexisting” histone molecules from being dissociated from template DNA during transcription. We recently showed that Spt6 prevents transcription-coupled loss of posttranslationally modified histone H3. Taking previous studies into account, we would like to propose here that Spt6 has two fundamentally distinct functions in the regulation of histone modification: one is to act as a platform for histone modifiers and the other is to act as a molecular liaison between histone molecules and template DNA to prevent cotranscriptional dissociation of preexisting histones in order to maintain locus-specific modifications. PMID:24107707

  11. Radio Detections During Two State Transitions of the Intermediate-Mass Black Hole HLX-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Natalie; Cseh, David; Lenc, Emil; Godet, Olivier; Barret, Didier; Corbel, Stephane; Farrell, Sean; Fender, Robert; Gehrels, Neil; Heywood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Relativistic jets are streams of plasma moving at appreciable fractions of the speed of light. They have been observed from stellar-mass black holes (approx. 3 to 20 solar masses) as well as supermassive black holes (approx.. 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 9) Solar Mass) found in the centers of most galaxies. Jets should also be produced by intermediate-mass black holes (approx. 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 5) Solar Mass), although evidence for this third class of black hole has, until recently, been weak. We report the detection of transient radio emission at the location of the intermediate-mass black hole candidate ESO 243-49 HLX-1, which is consistent with a discrete jet ejection event. These observations also allow us to refine the mass estimate of the black hole to be between approx. 9 × 10(exp 3) Solar Mass and approx. 9 × 10(exp 4) Solar Mass.

  12. A Comparison of Pressure Measurements Between a Full-Scale and a 1/6-Scale F/A-18 Twin Tail During Buffet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.; Pendleton, Ed

    1996-01-01

    In 1993, tail buffet tests were performed on a full-scale, production model F/A-18 in the 80 x 120-foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Steady and unsteady pressures were recorded on both sides of the starboard vertical tail for an angle-of-attack range of 20 to 40 degrees and at a sideslip range of -1 6 to 16 degrees at freestream velocities up to 100 knots (Mach 0.15, Reynolds number 1.23 x 10(exp 7). The aircraft was equipped with removable leading edge extension (LEX) fences that are used in flight to reduce tail buffet loads. In 1995, tail buffet tests were performed on a 1/6-scale F-18 A/B model in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) at NASA Langley Research Center. Steady and unsteady pressures were recorded on both sides of both vertical tails for an angle-of-attack range of 7 to 37 degrees at freestream velocities up to 65 knots (Mach 0.10). Comparisons of steady and unsteady pressures and root bending moments are presented for these wind-tunnel models for selected test cases. Representative pressure and root bending moment power spectra are also discussed, as are selected pressure cross-spectral densities.

  13. Performance of Soviet and US hydrogen masers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uljanov, Adolph A.; Demidov, Nikolai A.; Mattison, Edward M.; Vessot, Robert F. C.; Allan, David W.; Winkler, Gernot M. R.

    1990-01-01

    The frequencies of Soviet- and U.S.-built hydrogen masers located at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and at the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) were compared with each other and, via Global Positioning System (GPS) common-view measurements, with three primary frequency-reference scales. The best masers were found to have fractional frequency stabilities as low as 6 times 10(exp -16) for averaging times of approximately 10(exp 4) s. Members of the USNO maser ensemble provided frequency prediction better than 1 times 10(exp 14) for periods up to a few weeks. The frequency residuals of these masers, after removal of frequency drift and rate of change of drift, had stabilities of a few parts in 10(exp -15), with serveral masers achieving residual stabilities well below 1 times 10(exp -15) for intervals from 10(exp 5)s to 2 times 10(exp 6)s. The fractional frequency drifts of the 13 masers studied, relative to the primary reference standards, ranged from -0.2 times 10(exp -15)/day to +9.6 times 10(exp -15)/day.

  14. HST Observations of Star Formation in Interacting Galaxies: NGC 4194, the "Medusa"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weistrop, D.; Eggers, D.; Nelson, C. H.; Kaiser, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    Ultraviolet and visible imaging of the blue compact galaxy NGC4194 was obtained to survey the star-forming knots in the center of this galaxy. Photometry and image analysis were performed on these regions. Comparison with evolutionary tracks indicates many of the knots are reddened with a typical E(B-V)approx.0.3. The knot ages range from 10(exp 6-10(exp 8)years. Some of the knots may have masses 3-5x10(exp 5) solar mass. The FUV fluxes correspond to the flux from 60-3.8x10(exp 3) O5V stars.

  15. Tables of model atmospheres of bursting neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madej, Jerzy

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents tables of plane-parallel neutron star model atmospheres in radiative and hydrostatic equilibrium, with effective temperatures of 8 x 10 exp 6, 1.257 x 10 exp 7, 2 x 10 exp 7, and 3 x 10 exp 7 K, and surface gravities of 15.0 and less (cgs units). The equations of model atmospheres on which the tables are based fully account for nonisotropies of the radiation field and effects of noncoherent Compton scattering of thermal X-rays by free electrons. Both the effective temperatures and gravities listed above are measured on the neutron star surface.

  16. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Vol. 3: Medium-radius leading edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 120 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6), 60 x 10(exp 6), and 120 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  17. A YBCO RF-squid variable temperature susceptometer and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Luwei; Qiu, Jinwu; Zhang, Xianfeng; Tang, Zhimin; Cai, Yimin; Qian, Yongjia

    1991-01-01

    The Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) susceptibility using a high-temperature radio-frequency (rf) SQUID and a normal metal pick-up coil is employed in testing weak magnetization of the sample. The magnetic moment resolution of the device is 1 x 10(exp -6) emu, and that of the susceptibility is 5 x 10(exp -6) emu/cu cm.

  18. Anomalous Variability in Antarctic Sea Ice Extents During the 1960s With the Use of Nimbus Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallaher, David W.; Campbell, G. Garrett; Meier, Walter N.

    2013-01-01

    The Nimbus I, II, and III satellites provide a new opportunity for climate studies in the 1960s. The rescue of the visible and infrared imager data resulted in the utilization of the early Nimbus data to determine sea ice extent. A qualitative analysis of the early NASA Nimbus missions has revealed Antarctic sea ice extents that are significant larger and smaller than the historic 1979-2012 passive microwave record. The September 1964 ice mean area is 19.7x10(exp 6) sq. km +/- 0.3x10(exp 6) sq. km. This is more the 250,000 sq. km greater than the 19.44x10(exp 6) sq. km seen in the new 2012 historic maximum. However, in August 1966 the maximum sea ice extent fell to 15.9x10(exp 6) sq. km +/- 0.3x10(exp 6) sq. km. This is more than 1.5x10(exp 6) sq. km below the passive microwave record of 17.5x10(exp 6) sq. km set in September of 1986. This variation between 1964 and 1966 represents a change of maximum sea ice of over 3x10(exp 6) sq. km in just two years. These inter-annual variations while large, are small when compared to the Antarctic seasonal cycle.

  19. Stellar Laboratories: 3. New Ba 5, Ba 6, and Ba 7 Oscillator Strengths and the Barium Abundance in the Hot White Dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, Jeffrey Walter

    2014-01-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims. Reliable Ba 5-7 oscillator strengths are used to identify Ba lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ba abundances. Methods. We newly calculated Ba v-vii oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Ba lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results. For the first time, we identified highly ionized Ba in the spectra of hot white dwarfs. We detected Ba vi and Ba vii lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE 0503-289. The Ba vi/Ba vii ionization equilibrium is well reproduced with the previously determined effective temperature of 70 000 K and surface gravity of log g=7.5. The Ba abundance is 3.5 +/- 0.5 × 10(exp-4) (mass fraction, about 23 000 times the solar value). In the FUSE spectrum of G191-B2B, we identified the strongest Ba vii line (at 993.41 Å) only, and determined a Ba abundance of 4.0 +/- 0.5 × 10(exp-6) (about 265 times solar). Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a pre-requisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Ba vi-vii line profiles in two white dwarfs' (G191-B2B and RE 0503-289) far-ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. This allowed to determine the photospheric Ba abundance of these two stars precisely.

  20. 27 CFR 6.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Administrative provisions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.6 Administrative provisions. (a) General. The Act makes applicable...

  1. 27 CFR 6.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Administrative provisions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.6 Administrative provisions. (a) General. The Act makes applicable...

  2. 27 CFR 6.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Administrative provisions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.6 Administrative provisions. (a) General. The Act makes applicable...

  3. 27 CFR 6.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Administrative provisions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.6 Administrative provisions. (a) General. The Act makes applicable...

  4. 27 CFR 6.6 - Administrative provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Administrative provisions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Scope of Regulations § 6.6 Administrative provisions. (a) General. The Act makes applicable...

  5. Evidence for Live Cl-36 in Ca-Al-rich Inclusions from the Ningqiang Carbonaceous Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y.; Guan, Y.; Leshin, L. A.; Ouyang, Z.; Wang, D.

    2004-01-01

    The short-lived radionuclide Cl-36 decays to either Ar-36 (98.1%, beta(sup -)) or S-36 (1.9%, epsilon and beta(sup +)), with a half life of 3.01 x 10(exp 5) yr. Both the nucleosynthetic and spallation models suggest high initial Cl-36/Cl-35 ratios ((Cl-36/Cl-35)o up to approximately 10(exp -4)) in the early solar system. Previous observed excess Ar-36 in Efremovka matrix has been interpreted to represent a much lower (Cl-36/Cl-35)o ratio of approximately 1 x 10(exp -6). From the observed S-36 excesses in sodalite in calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), we report in this study the first direct evidence of the presence of Cl-36 in primitive meteorites. The inferred (Cl-36/Cl-35)o ratios range from approximately 5 x 10(exp -6) to approximately 1 x 10(exp -5).

  6. Pitot survey of exhaust flow field of a 2-D scramjet nozzle at Mach 6 with air or freon and argon used for exhaust simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monta, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A pitot-rake survey of the simulated exhaust of a half-span scramjet nozzle model was conducted in the Langley 20-Inch Mach 6 Tunnel to provide an additional data set for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code comparisons. A wind-tunnel model was tested with a 26-tube pitot rake that could be manually positioned along the mid-semispan plane of the model. The model configuration had an external expansion surface of 20 degrees and an internal cowl expansion of 12 degrees; tests were also performed with a flow fence. Tests were conducted at a free-stream Reynolds number of approximately 6.5 x 10(exp 6) per foot and a model angle of attack of -0.75 degrees. The two exhaust gas mediums that were tested were air and a Freon 12-argon mixture. Each medium was tested at two jet total pressures at approximately 28 and 14 psia. This document presents the flow-field survey results in graphical as well as tabular form, and several observations concerning the results are discussed. The surveys reveal the major expected flow-field characteristics for each test configuration. For a 50-percent freon 12 and 50-percent argon mixture by volume (Fr-Ar), the exhaust jet pressures were slightly higher than those for air. The addition of a flow fence slightly raised the pitot pressure for the Fr-Ar mixture, but it produced little change for air. For the Fr-Ar exhaust, the plume was larger and the region between the shock wave and plume was smaller.

  7. 6,6´-Dimethoxygossypolone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    6,6'-Dimethoxygossypolone [7,7'-dihydroxy-5,5'-diisopropyl-6,6'-dimethoxy-3,3'-dimethyl-(2,2'-binaphtho-1,4-quinone)-8,8'-dicarboxaldehyde], C32-H30-O10, has monoclinic (P21/c) symmetry. There are two molecules within the asymmetric unit. Of the four independent quinoid rings, three display flattene...

  8. 6 CFR 11.6 - Reporting debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(e), 31 CFR 901.4, and the Office of Management and Budget Circular A-129, “Policies for Federal... to the debtor in accordance with 6 CFR 11.3. DHS may authorize the Treasury Department's Financial... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reporting debts. 11.6 Section 11.6...

  9. 6 CFR 11.6 - Reporting debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...(e), 31 CFR 901.4, and the Office of Management and Budget Circular A-129, “Policies for Federal... to the debtor in accordance with 6 CFR 11.3. DHS may authorize the Treasury Department's Financial... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting debts. 11.6 Section 11.6...

  10. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  11. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  12. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  13. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  14. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  15. Relic gravitational waves and extended inflation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Michael S.; Wilczek, Frank

    1990-01-01

    In extended inflation, a new version of inflation where the transition from the false-vacuum phase to a radiation-dominated Universe is accomplished by bubble nucleation and percolation, bubble collisions supply a potent-and potentially detectable-source of gravitational waves. The present energy density in relic gravity waves from bubble collisions is expected to be about 10(exp -5) of closure density-many orders of magnitude greater than that of the gravity waves produced by quantum fluctuations. Their characteristic wavelength depends upon the reheating temperature T(sub RH): lambda is approximately 10(exp 4) cm (10(exp 14) GeV/T(sub RH)). If large numbers of black holes are produced, a not implausible outcome, they will evaporate producing comparable amounts of shorter wavelength waves, lambda is approximately 10(exp -6) cm (T(sub RH)/10(exp 14) GeV).

  16. First measurement of helium on Mars: Implications for the problem of radiogenic gases on the terrestrial planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Gladstone, G. R.; Mcdonald, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    The 108 photons of the Martian He 584 A airglow detected by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite during a two-day exposure (22-23 Jan. 1993) correspond to the effective disk average intensity of 43 (+/-) 10 Rayleigh. Radiative transfer calculations, using a model atmosphere appropriate to the conditions of the observation and having an exospheric temperature of 210 (+/-) 20 K, result in an He mixing ratio of 1.1 (+/-) 0.4 ppm in the lower atmosphere. Nonthermal escape of helium is due to the following: electron impact ionization and pickup of He(+) by the solar wind; collisions with hot oxygen atoms; and charge exchange with molecular species with corresponding column loss rates of 1.4 x 10(exp 5), 3 x 10(exp 4), and 7 x 10(exp 3) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1), respectively. The lifetime of helium on Mars is 5 x 10(exp 4) yr. The He outgassing rate, coupled with the Ar-40 atmospheric abundance and with the K:U:Th ratio measured in the surface rocks, is used as input to a simple two-reservoir degassing model which presumes the loss of all argon accumulated in the atmosphere during the first Byr by large-scale impacts. The model results in total planet mass ratios of 10(exp -5) g/g for K, 2.3 x 10(exp -9) g/g for U, 8.5 x 10(exp -9) g/g for Th, 4 x 10(exp -10) g/g for He, and 1.5 x 10(exp -9) g/g for Ar-40. The predicted radiogenic heat flux is 2 erg cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). Similar modeling for Venus results in total plant mass ratios of 4.7 x 10(exp -5) g/g for K, 6.7 x 10(exp -9) g/g for U, 2.2 x 10(exp -8) g/g for Th, 1.3 x 10(exp -9) for He, 6.7 x 10(exp -9) g/g for Ar-40, and a radiogenic heat flux of 15 erg cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). The implications of these results are discussed. The modeling shows that the radioactive elements were not distributed uniformly in the protoplanetary nebula, and their relative abundances differ very much in the terrestrial planets.

  17. Infrared Solar Spectroscopic Measurements of Free Tropospheric CO, C2H6, and HCN above Mauna Loa, Hawaii: Seasonal Variations and Evidence for Enhanced Emissions from the Southeast Asian Tropical Fires of 1997-1998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Stephen, T. M.; Pougatchev, N. S.; Fishman, J.; David, S. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Novelli, P. C.; Jones, N. B.

    1999-01-01

    High spectral resolution (0.003 per cm) infrared solar absorption measurements of CO, C2H6, and HCN have been recorded at the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change station on Mauna Loa, Hawaii, (19.5N, 155.6W, altitude 3.4 km). The observations were obtained on over 250 days between August 1995 and February 1998. Column measurements are reported for the 3.4-16 km altitude region, which corresponds approximately to the free troposphere above the station. Average CO mixing ratios computed for this layer have been compared with flask sampling CO measurements obtained in situ at the station during the same time period. Both show asymmetrical seasonal cycles superimposed on significant variability. The first 2 years of observations exhibit a broad January-April maximum and a sharper CO minimum during late summer. The C2H6 and CO 3.4-16 km columns were highly correlated throughout the observing period with the C2H6/CO slope intermediate between higher and lower values derived from similar infrared spectroscopic measurements at 32'N and 45'S latitude, respectively. Variable enhancements in CO, C2H6, and particularly HCN were observed beginning in about September 1997. The maximum HCN free tropospheric monthly mean column observed in November 1997 corresponds to an average 3.4-16 km mixing ratio of 0.7 ppbv (1 ppbv = 10(exp -9) per unit volume), more than a factor of 3 above the background level. The HCN enhancements continued through the end of the observational series. Back-trajectory calculations suggest that the emissions originated at low northern latitudes in southeast Asia. Surface CO mixing ratios and the C2H6 tropospheric columns measured during the same time also showed anomalous autumn 1997 maxima. The intense and widespread tropical wild fires that burned during the strong El Nino warm phase of 1997- 1998 are the likely source of the elevated emission products.

  18. Coseismic fault slip associated with the 1992 M(sub w) 6.1 Joshua Tree, California, earthquake: Implications for the Joshua Tree-Landers earthquake sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Richard A.; Reilinger, Robert E.; Rodi, William; Li, Yingping; Toksoz, M. Nafi; Hudnut, Ken

    1995-01-01

    Coseismic surface deformation associated with the M(sub w) 6.1, April 23, 1992, Joshua Tree earthquake is well represented by estimates of geodetic monument displacements at 20 locations independently derived from Global Positioning System and trilateration measurements. The rms signal to noise ratio for these inferred displacements is 1.8 with near-fault displacement estimates exceeding 40 mm. In order to determine the long-wavelength distribution of slip over the plane of rupture, a Tikhonov regularization operator is applied to these estimates which minimizes stress variability subject to purely right-lateral slip and zero surface slip constraints. The resulting slip distribution yields a geodetic moment estimate of 1.7 x 10(exp 18) N m with corresponding maximum slip around 0.8 m and compares well with independent and complementary information including seismic moment and source time function estimates and main shock and aftershock locations. From empirical Green's functions analyses, a rupture duration of 5 s is obtained which implies a rupture radius of 6-8 km. Most of the inferred slip lies to the north of the hypocenter, consistent with northward rupture propagation. Stress drop estimates are in the range of 2-4 MPa. In addition, predicted Coulomb stress increases correlate remarkably well with the distribution of aftershock hypocenters; most of the aftershocks occur in areas for which the mainshock rupture produced stress increases larger than about 0.1 MPa. In contrast, predicted stress changes are near zero at the hypocenter of the M(sub w) 7.3, June 28, 1992, Landers earthquake which nucleated about 20 km beyond the northernmost edge of the Joshua Tree rupture. Based on aftershock migrations and the predicted static stress field, we speculate that redistribution of Joshua Tree-induced stress perturbations played a role in the spatio-temporal development of the earth sequence culminating in the Landers event.

  19. Aeroacoustic Experiments in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan M.; Lockard, David P.; Macaraeg, Michele G.; Singer, Bart A.; Streett, Craig L.; Neubert, Guy R.; Stoker, Robert W.; Underbrink, James R.; Berkman, Mert E.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2002-01-01

    A phased microphone array was used in the NASA Langley Low-Turbulence Pressure Tunnel to obtain acoustic data radiating from high-lift wing configurations. The data included noise localization plots and acoustic spectra. The tests were performed at Reynolds numbers based on the cruise-wing chord, ranging from 3.6 x 10(exp 6) to 19.2 x 10(exp 6). The effects of Reynolds number were small and monotonic for Reynolds numbers above 7.2 x 10(exp 6).

  20. Curriculum development of 6for6

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Patti; Bethune, Cheri; Fitzgerald, Shari; Graham, Wendy; Asghari, Shabnam; Heeley, Thomas; Godwin, Marshall

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed To address barriers challenging the engagement of rural and remote family physicians (RRFPs) in research, Memorial University of Newfoundland in St John’s has developed a longitudinal faculty development program (FDP) called 6for6. Objective of program To establish and evaluate a longitudinal FDP that promotes a foundation of research activity. Program description Informed by a needs assessment in phase 1, phase 2 saw the 6for6 curriculum designed, developed, and implemented to reflect the unique needs of RRFPs. Preliminary evaluations have been conducted and results will be presented after year 1 of the program. Conclusion The 6for6 FDP has been positively received by participants, and it is evident that they will serve as champions of rural research capacity building. It is anticipated that by April 2017, 18 RRFPs will be equipped with the research and leadership skills required to foster research networks within and outside their communities. PMID:27331222

  1. Warm Molecular Gas Traced with CO J = 7 --> 6 in the Galaxy's Central 2 Parsecs: Dynamical Heating of the Circumnuclear Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, C. M.; Stacey, G. J.; Nikola, T.; Bolatto, A. D.; Jackson, J. M.; Savage, M. L.; Davidson, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    We present an 11" resolution map of the central 2 pc of the Galaxy in the CO J = 7 --> 6 rotational transition. The CO emission shows rotation about Sgr A* but also evidence for noncircular turbulent motion and a clumpy morphology. We combine our data set with available CO measurements to model the physical conditions in the disk. We find that the molecular gas in the region is both warm and dense, with T approx. 200-300 K and n(sub H2) approx. (5-7) x 10(exp 4) cm(exp -3). The mass of warm molecular gas we measure in the central 2 pc is at least 2000 M(solar), about 20 times the UV-excited atomic gas mass, ruling out a UV heating scenario for the molecular material. We compare the available spectral tracers with theoretical models and conclude that molecular gas is heated with magnetohydrodynamic shocks with v approx. 10-20 km s(exp -1) and B approx. 0.3- 0.5 mG. Using the conditions derived with the CO analysis, we include the other important coolants, neutral oxygen and molecular hydrogen, to estimate the total cooling budget of the molecular material. We derive a mass-to-luminosity ratio of approx. 2-3 M(solar)(L(solar)exp -1), which is consistent with the total power dissipated via turbulent decay in 0.1 pc cells with v(sub rms) approx. 15 kilometers per second. These size and velocity scales are comparable to the observed clumping scale and the velocity dispersion. At this rate, the material near Sgr A* is dissipating its orbital energy on an orbital timescale and cannot last for more than a few orbits. Our conclusions support a scenario in which the features near Sgr A* such as the circumnuclear disk and northern arm are generated by infalling clouds with low specific angular momentum.

  2. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  3. Environmental Perturbations Caused by the Impacts of Comets and Asteroids on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Lawless, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The extinction mechanisms proposed at the Cretaceous-Tertiary geological boundary are reviewed and related to the impact of asteroids or comets in general. For impact energies below 10(exp 4) Megatons (less than 6 x 10(exp 4) years; asteroid diameter less than 650 m), blast, earthquake, and fire may destroy local areas up to 10(exp 5) square m. Tidal waves could flood a kilometer inland over entire ocean basins. The energy range from 105 to 106 Megatons (less than 2 x 10(exp 6) years; asteroid diameter less than 3 km) is transitional. Dust lifted, sulfur released from within impacting asteroids, and soot from fires started by comets can produce climatologically significant optical depths of 10. At energies beyond 10(exp 7) Megatons, blast and earthquake damage is regional (10(exp 6) square cm). Tsunami cresting to 100 m and flooding 20 km inland will sweep the coastal zones of the world's oceans. Fires will be set globally. Light levels may drop so low from the smoke, dust and sulfate that vision is not possible. At energies approaching 10(exp 9) Megatons the ocean surface waters may be acidified by sulfur. The combination of these effects would be devastating.

  4. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Vol. 4: Large-radius leading edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 120 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  5. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Volume 2; Small-Radius Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg. delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 84 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 10(exp 6) and 60 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  6. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Vitamin B6 Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? ... out more about vitamin B6? Disclaimer What is vitamin B6 and what does it do? Vitamin B6 ...

  7. The Composition of Titan's Lower Atmosphere and Simple Surface Volatiles as Measured by the Cassini-Huygens Probe Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemann, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Demick, J. E.; Gautier, D.; Haberman, J. A.; Harpold, D. N.; Kasprzak, W. T.; Lunine, J. I.; Owen, T. C.; Raulin, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Probe Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) determined the composition of the Titan atmosphere from 140km altitude to the surface. After landing, it returned composition data of gases evaporated from the surface. Height profiles of molecular nitrogen (N2), methane (CH4) and molecular hydrogen (H2) were determined. Traces were detected on the surface of evaporating methane, ethane (C2H6), acetylene (C2H2), cyanogen (C2N2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The methane data showed evidence that methane precipitation occurred recently. The methane mole fraction was (1.48+/-0.09) x 10(exp -2) in the lower stratosphere (139.8 km to 75.5 km) and (5.65+/-0.18) x 10(exp -2) near the surface (6.7 km to the surface). The molecular hydrogen mole fraction was (1.01+/-0.16) x 10(exp -3) in the atmosphere and (9.90+/-0.17) x 10(exp -4) on the surface. Isotope ratios were 167.7+/-0.6 for N-14/N-15 in molecular nitrogen, 91.1+/-1.4 for C-12/C-13 in methane and (1.35+/-0.30) x 10(exp -4) for D/H in molecular hydrogen. The mole fractions of Ar-36 and radiogenic Ar-40 are (2.1+/-0.8) x 10(exp -7) and (3.39 +/-0.12) x 10(exp -5) respectively. Ne-22 has been tentatively identified at a mole fraction of (2.8+/-2.1) x 10(exp -7) Krypton and xenon were below the detection threshold of 1 x 10(exp -8) mole fraction. Science data were not retrieved from the gas chromatograph subsystem as the abundance of the organic trace gases in the atmosphere and on the ground did not reach the detection threshold. Results previously published from the GCMS experiment are superseded by this publication.

  8. Cryogenic Tunnel Pressure Measurements on a Supercritical Airfoil for Several Shock Buffet Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartels, Robert E.; Edwards, John W.

    1997-01-01

    Steady and unsteady experimental data are presented for several fixed geometry conditions from a test in the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. The purpose of this test was to obtain unsteady data for transonic conditions on a fixed and pitching supercritical airfoil at high Reynolds numbers. Data and brief analyses for several of the fixed geometry test conditions will be presented here. These are at Reynolds numbers from 6 x 10(exp 6) to 35 x 10(exp 6) bases on chord length, and span a limited range of Mach numbers and angles of attack just below and at the onset of shock buffet. Reynolds scaling effects appear in both the steady pressure data and in the onset of shock buffet at Reynolds numbers of 15 x 10(exp 6) and 3O x 10(exp 6) per chord length.

  9. [IL-6 blockade].

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Yuko; Takeuchi, Tsutomu

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tocilizumab, anti-human IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody developed in Japan, prevents IL-6 from binding to IL-6 receptor blocking IL-6 signal. The clinical and radiographic efficacy of tocilizumab has proved in many clinical studies. Tocilizumab monotherapy is superior to methotrexate, which has not proved in TNF inhibitors, although tocilizuab in combination with methotrexate is more effective than tocilizumab monotherapy in inducing remission. Hepatotoxicity and infection are adverse events to be careful about. PMID:27311186

  10. 6 CFR 11.6 - Reporting debts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... report delinquent debts to credit bureaus and other automated databases in accordance with 31 U.S.C. 3711(e), 31 CFR 901.4, and the Office of Management and Budget Circular A-129, “Policies for Federal... to the debtor in accordance with 6 CFR 11.3. DHS may authorize the Treasury Department's...

  11. Population of Nitrifying Bacteria and Nitrification in Ammonium Saturated Clinoptilolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGilloway, R. L.; Weaver, R. W.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gruener, J.

    1999-01-01

    As humans begin to spend longer periods of time in space, plants will be incorporated into life support systems. Ammonium saturated clinoptilolite is one plant growth substrate but a balance between ammonium and nitrate is needed. A laboratory study was conducted to determine effects of nitrifying bacteria on ammonium concentrations and kinetics of nitrification. Columns containing clinoptilolite substrate amended with nitrifying bacteria obtained from soil enrichment were analyzed weekly for a 90 day period. The enrichment culture initially contained 1 x 10(exp 5) ammonium oxidizing bacteria and 1 x 10(exp 2) nitrite oxidizing bacteria per gram of substrate. Populations of ammonium oxidizing bacteria increased to 1 x 10(exp 6) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria increased to 1 x 10(exp 3) per gram of substrate. The nitrification rate was approximately 0.25mg NO3(-)-N/kg.hr. Experiments were also conducted to enumerate nitrifying bacteria in a clinoptilolite substrate used to grow wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Seventy days following the initial inoculation with an unknown number of commercial nitrifying bacteria, 1 x 10(exp 5) ammonium oxidizing bacteria per gram of substrate were present. The number of nitrite oxidizing bacteria was between 1 x 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) per gram of substrate as measured by the most probable number method. Nitrification rates were approximately 0.20mg NO3(-)-N/kg.hr. Clinoptilolite readily exchanged sufficient concentrations of ammonium to support nitrifying bacteria and they survived well in this medium.

  12. Phobos and Deimos are sources of meteoroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreev, V. V.; Belkovich, Oleg I.

    1992-01-01

    Data of Pioneer 10 meteoroid penetration detectors were revised taking into account the orientation of detectors and the spacecraft velocity relative to the sporadic meteor flux. The meteor flux density increases as an exponent to the orbit of Mars for two times for the particles with masses greater than 10(exp -6) g and six times for the particles with masses greater than 10(exp -12) - 10(exp -9) g then decreases after the orbit. Ejections of secondary meteoroid particles from surfaces of Phobos and Deimos are a possible explanation for the increase in meteoroid flux.

  13. Pulsed high-energy gamma-radiation from Geminga (1E0630 + 178)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K. T. S.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Lin, Y. C.; Mattox, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The detection of pulsed gamma rays with energy above 50 MeV from the soft X-ray source 1E0630 + 178 is reported, confirming the identification of Geminga with this X-ray source. The period derivative (11.4 +/- 1.7) x 10 exp -15 s/s suggests that Geminga is a nearby isolated rotating neutron star with a magnetic field of 1.6 x 10 exp 12 gauss, a characteristic age of 300,000 yr, and a spin-down energy loss rate of 3.5 x 10 exp 34 erg/s.

  14. Vitamin B6

    MedlinePlus

    ... care provider which amount is best for you. Dietary Reference Intakes for vitamin B6: Infants 0 to 6 months: ... Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference ... Academy Press, Washington, DC, 1998. PMID: 23193625 www.ncbi. ...

  15. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean ... from studying specific omega-6 fatty acids or plant oils containing omega-6 fatty acids. See the separate ...

  16. Papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Vande Pol, Scott B.; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

    2013-01-01

    Papillomaviruses induce benign and malignant epithelial tumors, and the viral E6 oncoprotein is essential for full transformation. E6 contributes to transformation by associating with cellular proteins, docking on specific acidic LXXLL peptide motifs found on the associated cellular proteins. This review examines insights from recent studies of human and animal E6 proteins that determine the three-dimensional structure of E6 when bound to acidic LXXLL peptides. The structure of E6 is related to recent advances in the purification and identification of E6 associated protein complexes. These E6 protein-complexes, together with other proteins that bind to E6, alter a broad array of biological outcomes including modulation of cell survival, cellular transcription, host cell differentiation, growth factor dependence, DNA damage responses, and cell cycle progression. PMID:23711382

  17. Human herpesvirus 6.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, D K; Dominguez, G; Pellett, P E

    1997-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 variant A (HHV-6A) and human herpesvirus 6 variant B (HHV-6B) are two closely related yet distinct viruses. These visuses belong to the Roseolovirus genus of the betaherpesvirus subfamily; they are most closely related to human herpesvirus 7 and then to human cytomegalovirus. Over 95% of people older than 2 years of age are seropositive for either or both HHV-6 variants, and current serologic methods are incapable of discriminating infection with one variant from infection with the other. HHV-6A has not been etiologically linked to any human disease, but such an association will probably be found soon. HHV-6B is the etiologic agent of the common childhood illness exanthem subitum (roseola infantum or sixth disease) and related febrile illnesses. These viruses are frequently active and associated with illness in immunocompromised patients and may play a role in the etiology of Hodgkin's disease and other malignancies. HHV-6 is a commensal inhabitant of brains; various neurologic manifestations, including convulsions and encephalitis, can occur during primary HHV-6 infection or in immunocompromised patients. HHV-6 and distribution in the central nervous system are altered in patients with multiple sclerosis; the significance of this is under investigation. PMID:9227865

  18. HCl dissolved in solid mixtures of nitric acid and ice - Implications for the polar stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marti, James; Mauersberger, Konrad; Hanson, David

    1991-01-01

    The solubility of HCl in polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles plays an important role in the heterogeneous chemistry of the lower polar stratosphere. New laboratory studies are reported showing a strong dependence of the HCl solubility on the HNO3 content in ice particles. At 200 K and a partial HCl pressure of 10 exp -6 torr, the HCl content in NAT is 0.35 mol pct, decreasing about a factor of 3 for every ten-fold decrease in the substrate's HNO3 content. At an HCl pressure of 10 exp -7 torr, the content is about 40 percent of that at 10 exp -6 torr. HCL dissolved in pure water ice at these partial pressures is less than 0.002 mol pct. The surface coverage of HCl on small ice samples was estimated to be about 0.1 monolayer at 10 exp -6 torr exposure.

  19. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    A unified science approach is incorporated in this K-6 curriculum mode. The program is organized into six major cycles. These include: (1) science, math, and technology cycle; (2) universe cycle; (3) life cycle; (4) water cycle; (5) plate tectonics cycle; and (6) rock cycle. An overview is provided of each cycle's major concepts. The topic…

  20. Far-infrared emissivity measurements of reflective surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, J.; Lange, A. E.; Bock, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    An instrument developed to measure the emissivity of reflective surfaces by comparing the thermal emission of a test sample to that of a reference surface is reported. The instrument can accurately measure the emissivity of mirrors made from lightweight thermally insulating materials such as glass and metallized carbon fiber reinforced plastics. Far infrared measurements at a wavelength of 165 micrometers are reported. The instrument has an absolute accuracy of Delta epsilon = 9 x 10(exp -4) and can reproducibly measure an emissivity of as small as 2 x 10(exp -4) between flat reflective surfaces. The instrument was used to measure mirror samples for balloon-borne and spaceborne experiments. An emissivity of (6.05 +/- 1.24) x 10(exp -3) was measured for gold evaporated on glass, and (6.75 +/- 1.17) x 10(exp -3) for aluminum evaporated on glass.

  1. Wide-bandwidth low-voltage PLL for powerPC(sup TM) microprocessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Jose; Sanchez, Hector; Gerosa, Gianfranco; Countryman, Roger

    1995-04-01

    A 3.3 V Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) clock synthesizer implemented in 0.5 micron CMOS technology is described. The PLL supports internal to external clock frequency ratios of 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 as well as numerous static power down modes for PowerPC(sup TM) microprocessors. The CPU clock lock range spans from 6 to 175 MHz. Lock times below 15 mu s, PLL power dissipation below 10mW as well as phase error and jitter below +/- 100 ps have been measured. The total area of the PLL is 0.52 mm(exp 2).

  2. 6-Bromocholesterol derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, R.J.

    1984-02-07

    Novel 6-bromo derivatives of cholesterol have the formula 3-(R-O-),6-BR,17-((H3C-)2-HC-H2C-H2C-H2C-HC(-CH3)-)-ESTR-5-ENE Such compounds are prepared from the known 6-iodocholesterol by treatment with cuprous bromide. These compounds, labelled with radioisotopes of Br-82 or Br-77, are localized in the adrenal, mammary and ovary tissue of female mammals and in the adrenal or prostate tissue of males when administered to such individuals. This provides a method for imaging adrenal, ovary or prostate tissue which is superior to use of the prior art 6-iodo-cholesterol.

  3. ATS-6 - Flight accelerometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattson, R.; Honeycutt, G.; Lindner, F.

    1975-01-01

    The Applications Technology Satellite-6 (ATS-6) flight accelerometers were designed to provide data for verifying the basic spacecraft vibration modes during launch, to update the analytical model of the ATA structure, and to provide a capability for detection and diagnosis of inflight and anomalies. The experiment showed accelerations less than 2.5 g during liftoff and 1.1 g or less during staging with frequencies below 80 Hz. Measured values were generally within 1 g of predicted.

  4. Features of MCNP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goorley, T.; James, M.; Booth, T.; Brown, F.; Bull, J.; Cox, L. J.; Durkee, J.; Elson, J.; Fensin, M.; Forster, R. A.; Hendricks, J.; Hughes, H. G.; Johns, R.; Kiedrowski, B.; Martz, R.; Mashnik, S.; McKinney, G.; Pelowitz, D.; Prael, R.; Sweezy, J.; Waters, L.; Wilcox, T.; Zukaitis, T.

    2014-06-01

    MCNP6 is simply and accurately described as the merger of MCNP5 and MCNPX capabilities, but it is much more than the sum of these two computer codes. MCNP6 is the result of six years of effort by the MCNP5 and MCNPX code development teams. These groups of people, residing in Los Alamos National Laboratory's X Computational Physics Division, Monte Carlo Codes Group (XCP-3) and Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Radiation Transport Modeling Team (NEN-5) respectively, have combined their code development efforts to produce the next evolution of MCNP. While maintenance and major bug fixes will continue for MCNP5 1.60 and MCNPX 2.7.0 for upcoming years, new code development capabilities only will be developed and released in MCNP6. In fact, the initial release of MCNP6 contains numerous new features not previously found in either code. These new features are summarized in this document. Packaged with MCNP6 is also the new production release of the ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data files usable by MCNP. The high quality of the overall merged code, usefulness of these new features, along with the desire in the user community to start using the merged code, have led us to make the first MCNP6 production release: MCNP6 version 1. High confidence in the MCNP6 code is based on its performance with the verification and validation test suites, comparisons to its predecessor codes, our automated nightly software debugger tests, the underlying high quality nuclear and atomic databases, and significant testing by many beta testers.

  5. High Q Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Rabi T.; Tjoelker, R. L.

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated high Q measurements in a room temperature Miniature Sapphire Acoustic Resonator (MSAR). Initial measurements of bulk acoustic modes in room temperature sapphire at 39 MHz have demonstrated a Q of 8.8 x 10(exp 6). The long term goal of this work is to integrate such a high Q resonator with small, low noise quartz oscillator electronics, providing a fractional frequency stability better than 1 x 10(exp -14) @ 1s.

  6. EGRET Observations of the Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission in Orion: Analysis Through Cycle 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digel, S. W.; Aprile, E.; Hunter, S. D.; Mukherjee, R.; Xu, F.

    1999-01-01

    We present a study of the high-energy diffuse emission observed toward Orion by the Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The total exposure by EGRET in this region has increased by more than a factor of two since a previous study. A simple model for the diffuse emission adequately fits the data; no significant point sources are detected in the region studied (1 = 195 deg to 220 deg and b = -25 deg to -10 deg) in either the composite dataset or in two separate groups of EGRET viewing periods considered. The gamma-ray emissivity in Orion is found to be (1.65 +/- 0.11) x 10(exp -26)/s.sr for E > 100 MeV, and the differential emissivity is well-described as a combination of contributions from cosmic-ray electrons and protons with approximately the local density. The molecular mass calibrating ratio is N(H2)/W(sub CO) = (1.35 +/- 0.15) x 10(exp 20)/sq cm.(K.km/s).

  7. Measurement of the cosmic microwave background spectrum by the COBE FIRAS instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, J. C.; Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Fixsen, D. J.; Hewagama, T.; Isaacman, R. B.; Jensen, K. A.; Meyer, S. S.; Noerdlinger, P. D.

    1994-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) has a blackbody spectrum within 3.4 x 10(exp -8) ergs/sq cm/s/sr cm over the frequency range from 2 to 20/cm (5-0.5 mm). These measurements, derived from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotomer (FIRAS) instrument on the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite, imply stringent limits on energy release in the early universe after t approximately 1 year and redshift z approximately 3 x 10(exp 6). The deviations are less than 0.30% of the peak brightness, with an rms value of 0.01%, and the dimensionless cosmological distortion parameters are limited to the absolute value of y is less than 2.5 x 10(exp -5) and the absolute value of mu is less than 3.3 x 10(exp -4) (95% confidence level). The temperature of the CMBR is 2.726 +/- 0.010 K (95% confidence level systematic).

  8. 4H-SiC UV Photo Detector with Large Area and Very High Specific Detectivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Feng; Shahid, Aslam; Franz, David; Xin, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jian H.; Zhao, Yuegang; Winer, Maurice

    2004-01-01

    Pt/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes have been fabricated with the device areas up to 1 sq cm. The I-V characteristics and photo-response spectra have been measured and analyzed. For a 5 mm x 5 mm area device leakage current of 1 x 10(exp 15)A at zero bias and 1.2 x 10(exp 14)A at -IV have been established. The quantum efficiency is over 30% from 240nm to 320nm. The specific detectivity, D(sup *), has been calculated from the directly measured leakage current and quantum efficiency data and are shown to be higher than 10(exp 15) cmHz(sup 1/2)/W from 210nm to 350nm with a peak D(sup *) of 3.6 x 10(exp 15)cmH(sup 1/2)/W at 300nm.

  9. Comparison of the impact of volcanic eruptions and aircraft emissions on the aerosol mass loading and sulfur budget in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, Glenn K.; Poole, Lamont R.

    1992-01-01

    Data obtained by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) 1 and 2 were used to study the temporal variation of aerosol optical properties and to assess the mass loading of stratospheric aerosols from the eruption of volcanos Ruiz and Kelut. It was found that the yearly global average of optical depth at 1.0 micron for stratospheric background aerosols in 1979 was 1.16 x 10(exp -3) and in 1989 was 1.66 x 10(exp -3). The eruptions of volcanos Ruiz and Kelut ejected at least 5.6 x 10(exp 5) and 1.8 x 10(exp 5) tons of materials into the stratosphere, respectively. The amount of sulfur emitted per year from the projected subsonic and supersonic fleet is comparable to that contained in the background aerosol particles in midlatitudes from 35 deg N to 55 deg N.

  10. Osmium Solubility in Silicate Melts: New Efforts and New Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borisov, A.; Walker, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    In a recent paper, Borisov and Palme reported the first experimental results on the partitioning of Os between metal (Ni-rich OsNi alloys) and silicate melt of anorthite-diopside eutectic composition at 1400 C and 1 atm total pressure and and at function of O2 from 10(exp -8) to 10(exp -12) atm. Experiments were done by equilibrating OsNi metal loops with silicate melt. Metal and glass were analyzed separately by INAA. D(sup 0s) ranged from 10(exp 6) to 10(exp 7), which is inconsistent with core/ mantle equilibrium for HSEs and favors the late veneer hypothesis. Unfortunately, there was practically no function of O2 dependence of Os partitioning, and the scatter of experimental results was quite serious, so the formation of Os nuggets was suspected. This new set of experiments was specifically designed to avoid of at least minimize the nugget problem

  11. Energetic particle-induced enhancements of stratospheric nitric acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, Arthur C.

    1994-01-01

    Inclusion of complete ion chemistry in the calculation of minor species production during energetic particle deposition events leads to significant enhancement in the calculated nitric acid concentration during precipitation. An ionization rate of 1.2 x 10(exp 3)/cu cm/s imposed for 1 day increases HNO3 from 3 x 10(exp 5) to 6 x 10(exp 7)/cu cm at 50 km. With an ionization rate of 600 cu cm/s, the maximum HNO3 is 3 x 10(exp 7)/cu cm. Calculations which neglect negative ions predict the nitric acid will fall during precipitation events. The decay time for converting HNO3 into odd nitrogen and hydrogen is more than 1 day for equinoctial periods at 70 deg latitude. Examination of nitric acid data should yield important information on the magnitude and frequency of charged particle events.

  12. CF 6 engine diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stricklin, R.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of the activities which led to defining deterioration rates of the CF6 family of engines, a description of what was learned, and an identification of means of conserving fuel based upon the program findings are presented. The program to define the deterioration levels and modes for the CF6 family of engines involved four distinct phases: analysis of inbound engine test results, analysis of airline cruise data, analysis of airline test cell data resulting from testing of refurbished engines, and inspection of engine hardware.

  13. RADTRAN 6 Technical Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Neuhauser, Karen Sieglinde; Heames, Terence John; O'Donnell, Brandon M.; Dennis, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Manual contains descriptions of the calculation models and mathematical and numerical methods used in the RADTRAN 6 computer code for transportation risk and consequence assessment. The RADTRAN 6 code combines user-supplied input data with values from an internal library of physical and radiological data to calculate the expected radiological consequences and risks associated with the transportation of radioactive material. Radiological consequences and risks are estimated with numerical models of exposure pathways, receptor populations, package behavior in accidents, and accident severity and probability.

  14. RADTRAN 6 technical manual.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Neuhauser, Karen Sieglinde; Heames, Terence John; O'Donnell, Brandon M.; Dennis, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    This Technical Manual contains descriptions of the calculation models and mathematical and numerical methods used in the RADTRAN 6 computer code for transportation risk and consequence assessment. The RADTRAN 6 code combines user-supplied input data with values from an internal library of physical and radiological data to calculate the expected radiological consequences and risks associated with the transportation of radioactive material. Radiological consequences and risks are estimated with numerical models of exposure pathways, receptor populations, package behavior in accidents, and accident severity and probability.

  15. Minimal E6 unification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susič, Vasja

    2016-06-01

    A realistic model in the class of renormalizable supersymmetric E6 Grand Unified Theories is constructed. Its matter sector consists of 3 × 27 representations, while the Higgs sector is 27 +27 ¯+35 1'+35 1' ¯+78 . An analytic solution for a Standard Model vacuum is found and the Yukawa sector analyzed. It is argued that if one considers the increased predictability due to only two symmetric Yukawa matrices in this model, it can be considered a minimal SUSY E6 model with this type of matter sector. This contribution is based on Ref. [1].

  16. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency), or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI), is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea). Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty), generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma) and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency). GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia) which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib). Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21) and SLC37A4 (11q23) respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most commonly confirmed

  17. Assessment of Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion Potential in the International Space Station Internal Active Thermal Control System Heat Exchanger Materials: A 6-Momths Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Monsi C.; Macuch, Patrick; McKrell, Thomas; VanDerSchijff, Ockert J.; Mitchell, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The fluid in the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) of the International Space Station (ISS) is water based. The fluid in the ISS Laboratory Module and Node 1 initially contained a mix of water, phosphate (corrosion control), borate (pH buffer), and silver sulfate (Ag2SO4) (microbial control) at a pH of 9.5+/-0.5. Over time, the chemistry of the fluid changed. Fluid changes included a pH drop from 9.5 to 8.3 due to diffusion of carbon dioxide (CO2) through Teflon(reistered Trademark) (DuPont) hoses, increases in dissolved nickel (Ni) levels, deposition of silver (Ag) to metal surfaces, and precipitation of the phosphate (PO4) as nickel phosphate (NiPO4). The drop in pH and unavailability of a antimicrobial has provided an environment conducive to microbial growth. Microbial levels in the fluid have increased from >10 colony-forming units (CFUs)/100 ml to 10(exp 6) CFUs/100 ml. The heat exchangers in the IATCS loops are considered the weakest point in the loop because of the material thickness (=7 mil). It is made of a Ni-based braze filler/CRES 347. Results of a preliminary test performed at Hamilton Sundstrand indicated the possibility of pitting on this material at locations where Ag deposits were found. Later, tests have confirmed that chemical corrosion of the materials is a concern for this system. Accumulation of micro-organisms on surfaces (biofilm) can also result in material degradation and can amplify the damage caused by the chemical corrosion, known as microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC). This paper will discuss the results of a 6-mo test performed to characterize and quantify the damage from microbial accumulation on the surface of the ISS/ATCS heat exchanger materials. The test was designed to quantify the damage to the materials under worst-case conditions with and without micro-organisms present at pH 8.3 and 9.5.

  18. 2,6-Dimethylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,6 - Dimethylphenol ; CASRN 576 - 26 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  19. Papillomavirus E6 proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Howie, Heather L.; Katzenellenbogen, Rachel A.; Galloway, Denise A.

    2009-02-20

    The papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses that encode approximately eight genes, and require the host cell DNA replication machinery for their viral DNA replication. Thus papillomaviruses have evolved strategies to induce host cell DNA synthesis balanced with strategies to protect the cell from unscheduled replication. While the papillomavirus E1 and E2 genes are directly involved in viral replication by binding to and unwinding the origin of replication, the E6 and E7 proteins have auxillary functions that promote proliferation. As a consequence of disrupting the normal checkpoints that regulate cell cycle entry and progression, the E6 and E7 proteins play a key role in the oncogenic properties of human papillomaviruses with a high risk of causing anogenital cancers (HR HPVs). As a consequence, E6 and E7 of HR HPVs are invariably expressed in cervical cancers. This article will focus on the E6 protein and its numerous activities including inactivating p53, blocking apoptosis, activating telomerase, disrupting cell adhesion, polarity and epithelial differentiation, altering transcription and reducing immune recognition.

  20. Infrared Solar Spectroscopic Measurements of Free Tropospheric CO, C2H6, and HCN above Mauna Loa, Hawaii: Seasonal Variations and Evidence for Enhanced Emissions from the Southeast Asian Fires of 1997-1998. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Stephen, T. M.; Pougatchev, N. S.; Fishman, J.; David, S. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Novelli, P. C.; Jones, N. B.; Connor, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    High spectral resolution (0.003/ cm) infrared solar absorption measurements of CO, C2H6, and HCN have been recorded at the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change station on Mauna Loa, Hawaii, (19.5 deg N, 155.6 deg W, altitude 3.4 km). The observations were obtained on over 250 days between August 1995 and February 1998. Column measurements are reported for the 3.4 - 16 km altitude region, which corresponds approximately to the free troposphere above the station. Average CO mixing ratios computed for this layer have been compared with flask sampling CO measurements obtained in situ at the station during the same time period. Both show asymmetrical seasonal cycles superimposed on significant variability. The first two years of observations exhibit a broad January-April maximum and a sharper CO minimum during late summer. The C2H6 and CO 3.4 - 16 km columns were highly correlated throughout the observing period with the C2H6/CO slope intermediate between higher and lower values derived from similar infrared spectroscopic measurements at 32 deg N and 45 deg S latitude, respectively. Variable enhancements in CO, C2H6, and particularly HCN were observed beginning in about September 1997. The maximum HCN free tropospheric monthly mean column observed in November 1997 corresponds to an average 3.4 - 16 km mixing ratio of 0.7 ppbv (1 ppbv = 10(exp -9) per unit volume), more than a factor of 3 above the background level. The HCN enhancements continued through the end of the observational series. Back-trajectory calculations suggest that the emissions originated at low northern latitudes in southeast Asia. Surface CO mixing ratios and the C2H6 tropospheric columns measured during the same time also showed anomalous autumn 1997 maxima. The intense and widespread tropical wild fires that burned during 3 the strong El Nino warm phase of 1997-1998 are the likely source of the elevated emission products.

  1. Planar dicyclic B6S6, B6S6(-), and B6S6(2-) clusters: boron sulfide analogues of naphthalene.

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Zhi; Bai, Hui; Ou, Ting; Chen, Qiang; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic analogues of hydrocarbons or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of current interest in chemistry. Based upon global structural searches and B3LYP and CCSD(T) calculations, we present herein the perfectly planar dicyclic boron sulfide clusters: D2h B6S6 (1, (1)Ag), D2h B6S6(-) (2, (2)B3u), and D2h B6S6(2-) (3, (1)Ag). These are the global minima of the systems, being at least 0.73, 0.81, and 0.53 eV lower in energy, respectively, than their alternative isomers at the CCSD(T) level. The D2h structures feature twin B3S2 five-membered rings, which are fused together via a B2 unit and terminated by two BS groups. Bonding analyses show that the closed-shell B6S6(2-) (3) cluster possesses 10 delocalized π electrons, closely analogous to the bonding pattern of the aromatic naphthalene C10H8. The B6S6(-) (2) and B6S6 (1) species are readily obtained upon removal of one or two π electrons from B6S6(2-) (3). The results build a new analogous relationship between boron sulfide clusters and their PAH counterparts. The B6S6(-) (2) monoanion and B6S6(2-) (3) dianion can be effectively stabilized in neutral LiB6S6 and Li2B6S6 salts, respectively.

  2. Heterogeneous Reaction of ClONO2(g) + NaCl(s) to Cl2(g) + NaNO3(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun; Keyser, Leon F.

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of ClON02 + NaCl yields Cl2 + NaNO3 (eq 1) was investigated over a temperature range 220-300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer. Partial pressures of ClON02 in the range 10(exp -8) - 10(exp -5) Torr were used. Granule sizes and surface roughness of the NaCl substrates were determined by using a scanning electron microscope, and in separate experiments, surface areas of the substrates were measured by using BET analysis of gas-adsorption isotherms. For dry NaCl substrates, both the decay rates of ClON02 and the growth rates Of C12 were used to obtain reaction probabilities, gamma(sub l) = (4.6 +/- 3.0) x 10(exp -3) at 296 K and (6.7 +/- 3.2) x 10(exp -1) at 225 K, after considering the internal surface area, The error bars represent 1 standard deviation. The Cl2 yield based on the ClONO2 reacted was measured to be 1.0 +/- 0.2. In order to mimic the conditions encountered in the lower stratosphere, the effect of water vapor pressures between 5 x 10(exp -5) and 3 x 10(exp -4) Torr on reaction 1 was also studied. With added H20, reaction probabilities, gamma = (4.1 +/- 2.1) x 10(exp -3) at 296 K and (4.7 +/- 2.9) x 10(exp -3) at 225 K, were obtained. A trace of HOCl, the reaction product from the ClON02 + H20 yield HOCl + HN03 reaction, was observed in addition to the C12 product from reaction 1. The implications of this result for the enhancement of hydrogen chloride in the stratosphere after the El Chichon volcanic eruption and for the marine troposphere are discussed.

  3. Distinct lymphocyte antigens 6 (Ly6) family members Ly6D, Ly6E, Ly6K and Ly6H drive tumorigenesis and clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Linlin; McGarvey, Peter; Madhavan, Subha; Kumar, Rakesh; Gusev, Yuriy; Upadhyay, Geeta

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is used to isolate and characterize tumor initiating cell populations from tumors of various murine models [1]. Sca-1 induced disruption of TGF-β signaling is required in vivo tumorigenesis in breast cancer models [2, 3-5]. The role of human Ly6 gene family is only beginning to be appreciated in recent literature [6-9]. To study the significance of Ly6 gene family members, we have visualized one hundred thirty gene expression omnibus (GEO) dataset using Oncomine (Invitrogen) and Georgetown Database of Cancer (G-DOC). This analysis showed that four different members Ly6D, Ly6E, Ly6H or Ly6K have increased gene expressed in bladder, brain and CNS, breast, colorectal, cervical, ovarian, lung, head and neck, pancreatic and prostate cancer than their normal counter part tissues. Increased expression of Ly6D, Ly6E, Ly6H or Ly6K was observed in sub-set of cancer type. The increased expression of Ly6D, Ly6E, Ly6H and Ly6K was found to be associated with poor outcome in ovarian, colorectal, gastric, breast, lung, bladder or brain and CNS as observed by KM plotter and PROGgeneV2 platform. The remarkable findings of increased expression of Ly6 family members and its positive correlation with poor outcome on patient survival in multiple cancer type indicate that Ly6 family members Ly6D, Ly6E, Ly6K and Ly6H will be an important targets in clinical practice as marker of poor prognosis and for developing novel therapeutics in multiple cancer type. PMID:26862846

  4. 11 CFR 6.152-6.159 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 6.152-6.159 Section 6.152-6.159 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION §§ 6.152-6.159...

  5. 11 CFR 6.112-6.129 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 6.112-6.129 Section 6.112-6.129 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION §§ 6.112-6.129...

  6. 11 CFR 6.104-6.109 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 6.104-6.109 Section 6.104-6.109 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION §§ 6.104-6.109...

  7. 11 CFR 6.161-6.169 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 6.161-6.169 Section 6.161-6.169 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION §§ 6.161-6.169...

  8. 11 CFR 6.171-6.999 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 6.171-6.999 Section 6.171-6.999 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION §§ 6.171-6.999...

  9. 11 CFR 6.141-6.148 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 6.141-6.148 Section 6.141-6.148 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION §§ 6.141-6.148...

  10. 11 CFR 6.131-6.139 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 6.131-6.139 Section 6.131-6.139 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION §§ 6.131-6.139...

  11. 42 CFR 6.6 - Covered acts and omissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered acts and omissions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Public... CLAIMS ACT COVERAGE OF CERTAIN GRANTEES AND INDIVIDUALS § 6.6 Covered acts and omissions. (a) Only acts and omissions occurring on and after the effective date of the Secretary's determination under §...

  12. 31 CFR 6.6 - Allowable fees and other expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowable fees and other expenses. 6.6 Section 6.6 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury APPLICATIONS FOR AWARDS UNDER THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT General Provisions § 6.6 Allowable fees and other...

  13. 5 CFR 6.6 - Revocation of exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revocation of exceptions. 6.6 Section 6.6 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES EXCEPTIONS FROM THE COMPETITIVE SERVICE (RULE VI) § 6.6 Revocation of exceptions. OPM may remove any position from or may revoke in...

  14. ATS-6 description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redisch, W. N.

    1975-01-01

    The major design features of the sixth Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-6) are discussed. The three-axis stabilized, geostationary satellite, launched in May 1974, features a 9.1 meter parabolic antenna permitting the use of low cost 3 meter ground terminals for the reception of direct broadcast high quality color television programming. The communication subsystem is an integrated multifrequency RF repeater capable of receiving up to three signals in C, S, L, and VHF bands and retransmitting them at any commanded frequency in C, S, L, and UHF bands. A summary of the experiments carried aboard ATS-6 is provided, and early results from the GEOS Tracking and Data Relay Experiment are presented.

  15. Lab 6 winding facility

    SciTech Connect

    Guerra, J.; Hansen, S.; Mangene, C.

    1983-02-02

    This note describes the winding machine installed by the facility support group at lab 6 in the Fermilab village. It is available for use by outside users and groups within the lab. The machine can wind wire planes whose longest dimension is less than 10 feet. The Wire spacing range has an upper practical limit of about 5mm. Spacing beyond this requires a very long index time and therefore slows down the winding speed prohibitively.

  16. 6 K Cryocooler Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gully, Willy; Herrero, Fred (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The report summarizes experimental and theoretical work on an Oxford type Stirling Cycle mechanical precooler operating in the temperature range of 13-20 degrees Kelvin. It includes measurements of the thermal losses of particle regenerators made from lead, and rare earth and rare earth alloys in an operating three stage cryocooler. A 6 K hybrid cooler is designed using the technical information gathered on regenerator performance.

  17. MCNP6 Status

    SciTech Connect

    Goorley, John T.

    2012-06-25

    We, the development teams for MCNP, NJOY, and parts of ENDF, would like to invite you to a proposed 3 day workshop October 30, 31 and November 1 2012, to be held at Los Alamos National Laboratory. At this workshop, we will review new and developing missions that MCNP6 and the underlying nuclear data are being asked to address. LANL will also present its internal plans to address these missions and recent advances in these three capabilities and we will be interested to hear your input on these topics. Additionally we are interested in hearing from you additional technical advances, missions, concerns, and other issues that we should be considering for both short term (1-3 years) and long term (4-6 years)? What are the additional existing capabilities and methods that we should be investigating? The goal of the workshop is to refine priorities for mcnp6 transport methods, algorithms, physics, data and processing as they relate to the intersection of MCNP, NJOY and ENDF.

  18. E6 Gamma Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B. Alex; Rae, W. D. M.

    2011-05-06

    Rare electric hexacontatetrapole (E6) transitions are studied in the full (f{sub 7/2},f{sub 5/2},p{sub 3/2},p{sub 1/2}) shell-model basis. Comparison of theory to the results from the gamma decay in {sup 53}Fe and from inelastic electron scattering on {sup 52}Cr provides unique and interesting tests of the valence wavefunctions, the models used for energy density functionals and into the origin of effective charge.

  19. GOMA 6.0 :

    SciTech Connect

    Schunk, Peter Randall; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Chen, Ken S; Labreche, Duane A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Hopkins, Matthew M; Moffat, Harry K.; Roach, Robert Allen; Hopkins, Polly L.; Notz, Patrick K.; Roberts, Scott Alan; Sackinger, Philip A.; Subia, Samuel Ramirez; Wilkes, Edward Dean; Baer, Thomas A.; Noble, David R.; Secor, Robert B.

    2013-07-01

    Goma 6.0 is a finite element program which excels in analyses of multiphysical processes, particularly those involving the major branches of mechanics (viz. fluid/solid mechanics, energy transport and chemical species transport). Goma is based on a full-Newton-coupled algorithm which allows for simultaneous solution of the governing principles, making the code ideally suited for problems involving closely coupled bulk mechanics and interfacial phenomena. Example applications include, but are not limited to, coating and polymer processing flows, super-alloy processing, welding/soldering, electrochemical processes, and solid-network or solution film drying. This document serves as a users guide and reference.

  20. 33 CFR 6.01-6 - Area Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Area Commander. 6.01-6 Section 6... AND SECURITY OF VESSELS, HARBORS, AND WATERFRONT FACILITIES Definitions § 6.01-6 Area Commander. Area... command a Coast Guard Area....

  1. 33 CFR 6.01-6 - Area Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Area Commander. 6.01-6 Section 6... AND SECURITY OF VESSELS, HARBORS, AND WATERFRONT FACILITIES Definitions § 6.01-6 Area Commander. Area... command a Coast Guard Area....

  2. 33 CFR 6.01-6 - Area Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Area Commander. 6.01-6 Section 6... AND SECURITY OF VESSELS, HARBORS, AND WATERFRONT FACILITIES Definitions § 6.01-6 Area Commander. Area... command a Coast Guard Area....

  3. 33 CFR 6.01-6 - Area Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Area Commander. 6.01-6 Section 6... AND SECURITY OF VESSELS, HARBORS, AND WATERFRONT FACILITIES Definitions § 6.01-6 Area Commander. Area... command a Coast Guard Area....

  4. 33 CFR 6.01-6 - Area Commander.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Area Commander. 6.01-6 Section 6... AND SECURITY OF VESSELS, HARBORS, AND WATERFRONT FACILITIES Definitions § 6.01-6 Area Commander. Area... command a Coast Guard Area....

  5. 29 CFR 6.6 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Administrative Law Judge. 6.6 Section 6.6 Labor Office of... Administrative Law Judge. (a) Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under this part are not subject to the... provisions of this part 6, Administrative Law Judges shall have no power or authority to award attorney...

  6. 29 CFR 6.6 - Administrative Law Judge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Administrative Law Judge. 6.6 Section 6.6 Labor Office of... Administrative Law Judge. (a) Equal Access to Justice Act. Proceedings under this part are not subject to the... provisions of this part 6, Administrative Law Judges shall have no power or authority to award attorney...

  7. Evaluation of Several Space Lubricants using a Vacuum Four-Ball Tribometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Poslowski, Agnieszka K.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Herrera-Fierro, Pilar; Jansen, Mark J.

    1998-01-01

    The friction and wear behavior of seven space lubricants was investigated under boundary lubrication conditions using a vacuum four-ball tribometer. Three of the lubricants were perfluoropolyethers (143AC, S-200, and Z-25). Three were synthetic hydrocarbons (a multiply alkylated cyclopentane, 2001a), and a formulated version with an antiwear and an antioxidant additive (2001). The third hydrocarbon was an unformulated polyalphaolefin (PAO-100). An unformulated silahydrocarbon (SiHC) was also evaluated. Test conditions included: a pressure less than 6.7 x 10(exp 4) Pa, a 200 N load, a sliding velocity of 28.8 mm/sec (100 RPM), and room temperature (approx. 23 C). The wear rate for each lubricant was determined from the slope of wear volume as a function of sliding distance. The lowest wear rate (0.033 x 10(exp-9) cu mm/mm) was obtained with the silahydrocarbon. The formulated synthetic hydrocarbon had a wear rate off O.037 x 10(exp -9)cu mm/mm, which was a 36% reduction compared to the unformulated fluid. The polyalphaolefin had the highest wear rate of the non-PFPE fluids. Of the perfluoropolyethers (PFPEs), wear rates decreased by about 50% from Z-25 (1.7 x 10(exp -9)cu mm/mm) to S-200 (0.70 x 10(exp -9)cu mm/mm) to 143AC (0.21 x 10(exp -9)cu mm/mm).

  8. Landsat 6 contract signed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    A new agreement provides $220 million for development and construction of the Landsat 6 remote sensing satellite and its ground systems. The contract, signed on March 31, 1988, by the Department of Commerce (DOC) and the Earth Observation Satellite (EOSAT) Company of Lanham, Md., came just days after approval of DOC's Landsat commercialization plan by subcommittees of the House and Senate appropriations committees.The Landsat 6 spacecraft is due to be launched into orbit on a Titan II rocket in June 1991 from Vandenburg Air Force Base, Calif. The satellite will carry an Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensor, an instrument sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in seven ranges or bands of wavelengths. The satellite's payload will also include the Sea Wide Field Sensor (Sea-WiFS), designed to provide information on sea surface temperature and ocean color. The sensor is being developed in a cooperative effort by EOSAT and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A less certain passenger is a proposed 5-m resolution, three-band sensor sensitive to visible light. EOSAT is trying to find both private financing for the device and potential buyers of the high-resolution imagery that it could produce. The company has been actively courting U.S. television networks, which have in the past used imagery from the European Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite for news coverage.

  9. Femaxi-6 Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Motoe

    2006-10-01

    FEMAXI-6(Updated) predicts the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a light water reactor fuel rod during normal and transient (not accident) conditions. It can analyse the integral behaviour of a whole fuel rod throughout its life as well as the localised behaviour of a small part of fuel rod. Temperature distribution, radial and axial deformations, fission gas release, and inner gas pressure are calculated as a function of irradiation time and axial position. Stresses and strains in the pellet and cladding are calculated and PCMI analysis is performed. Also, thermal conductivity degradation of pellet and cladding waterside oxidation are modeled. Its analytical capabilities also cover the boiling transient anticipated in BWR. RODBURN calculates the power generation density profile in the radial and axial directions and fast neutron flux, and concentrations of fission product isotopes and fissile materials of a single rod irradiated in PWR, BWR and Halden BWR. RODBURN gives an output file which can be read by FEMAXI-6. NEA-1080/10: This version differs from the previous one in the following: a few formulae were updated in the manual and the source code. the input options were expanded in the following points: Thermal expansion modelling; Pellet swelling option; Pellet plasticity model; Cladding surface heat transfer model All changes are marked in red in the reference report.

  10. Femaxi-6 Version 1

    2006-10-01

    FEMAXI-6(Updated) predicts the thermal and mechanical behaviour of a light water reactor fuel rod during normal and transient (not accident) conditions. It can analyse the integral behaviour of a whole fuel rod throughout its life as well as the localised behaviour of a small part of fuel rod. Temperature distribution, radial and axial deformations, fission gas release, and inner gas pressure are calculated as a function of irradiation time and axial position. Stresses and strainsmore » in the pellet and cladding are calculated and PCMI analysis is performed. Also, thermal conductivity degradation of pellet and cladding waterside oxidation are modeled. Its analytical capabilities also cover the boiling transient anticipated in BWR. RODBURN calculates the power generation density profile in the radial and axial directions and fast neutron flux, and concentrations of fission product isotopes and fissile materials of a single rod irradiated in PWR, BWR and Halden BWR. RODBURN gives an output file which can be read by FEMAXI-6. NEA-1080/10: This version differs from the previous one in the following: a few formulae were updated in the manual and the source code. the input options were expanded in the following points: Thermal expansion modelling; Pellet swelling option; Pellet plasticity model; Cladding surface heat transfer model All changes are marked in red in the reference report.« less

  11. Comparison of capsular genes of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D isolates.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Hoon; Baek, Jin Yang; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2011-05-01

    Recently, Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes 6C and 6D have been identified. It is thought that they emerged by the replacement of wciN(β) in the capsular loci of serotypes 6A and 6B, respectively. However, their evolution has not been unveiled yet. To investigate the evolution of four serotypes of S. pneumoniae serogroup 6, four genes of the capsular polysaccharide synthesis (cps) locus, wchA, wciN, wciO, and wciP, of isolates of S. pneumoniae serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D were sequenced. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to investigate their genetic backgrounds. The wchA gene of serotype 6C and 6D isolates was distinct from that of serotype 6A and 6B isolates, which may suggest cotransfer of wchA with wciN(β). Otherwise, serotypes 6C and 6D displayed different genetic backgrounds from serotypes 6A and 6B, which was suggested by MLST analysis. In addition, serotype 6C isolates showed distinct wciP polymorphisms from other serotypes, which also indicated that serotype 6C had not recently originated from serotype 6A. Although serotype 6D shared the same amino acid polymorphisms of wciO with serotype 6B, wciP of serotype 6D differed from that of serotype 6B. The data indicate the implausibility of the scenario of a recent emergence of the cps locus of serotype 6D by genetic recombination between serotypes 6B and 6C. In addition, five serotype 6A and 6B isolates (6X group) displayed cps loci distinct from those of other isolates. The cps locus homogeneity and similar sequence types in MLST analysis suggest that most of the 6X group of isolates originated from the same ancestor and that the entire cps locus might have recently been transferred from an unknown origin. Serotype 6B isolates showed two or more cps locus subtypes, indicating a recombination-mediated mosaic structure of the cps locus of serotype 6B. The collective data favor the emergence of cps loci of serotypes 6A, 6B, 6C, and 6D by complicated recombination.

  12. 39 CFR 6.6 - Quorum and voting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quorum and voting. 6.6 Section 6.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.6 Quorum and voting. As provided by 39 U.S.C. 205(c), the Board acts by resolution upon a...

  13. 39 CFR 6.6 - Quorum and voting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quorum and voting. 6.6 Section 6.6 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.6 Quorum and voting. As provided by 39 U.S.C. 205(c), the Board acts by resolution upon a...

  14. 27 CFR 6.46-6.47 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 6.46-6.47 Section 6.46-6.47 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value §§ 6.46-6.47 Paying for Advertising, Display or Distribution...

  15. 27 CFR 6.46-6.47 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 6.46-6.47 Section 6.46-6.47 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value §§ 6.46-6.47 Paying for Advertising, Display or Distribution...

  16. 27 CFR 6.46-6.47 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 6.46-6.47 Section 6.46-6.47 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value §§ 6.46-6.47 Paying for Advertising, Display or Distribution...

  17. Pioneer 6 through 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozier, D.; Fimmel, R.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Pioneer 6, 7 and 8 are summarized. The primary objective of these Pioneer missions is to collect scientific data relative to interplanetary phenomena within a range of approximately 0.8 to 1.2 astronomical units from the sun. Following orbital injection, each spacecraft was oriented with its spin axis normal to the ecliptic plane so that the high gain antenna pattern would be aligned with Earth's orbit. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profiles; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  18. invspheroids6.f

    2013-01-03

    Program invspheroid6.f inverts time domain measurements of normalized magnetic dipole polarizabilities in axial and transverse directions, for the parameters of a conducting magnetic (ferrous) spheroid: axial and transverse diameters, relative magnetic permeability and conductivity. It uses the sphere/spheroid approximation of J.T. Smith and H.F. Morrison, 2006, "Approximating spheroid inductive responses using spheres" (Geophysics, vol 71, G21-G25). It estimates uncertainty in the inverted parameters, based on a Monte Carlo method using multiple inversions with additional noisemore » added to the data. The transmitter time function may be a step function pulse, a square wave pulse, or a half sine of given duration , at a given repetition rate. Any subset of spheroid parameters may be held fixes while solving for the others.« less

  19. G6PD: The Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... is it used? Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme testing is used to screen for and help ... and the District of Columbia. G6PD is an enzyme found in all cells, including red blood cells ( ...

  20. Developmental milestones record - 6 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Growth milestones for children - 6 months ... the weight on hands (often occurs by 4 months) Able to pick up a dropped object Able ...

  1. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    G6PD deficiency; Hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency; Anemia - hemolytic due to G6PD deficiency ... Saunders; 2016:chap 161. Janz TG, Hamilton GC. Anemia, polycythemia, and white blood cell disorders. In: Marx ...

  2. 6. Coordination and control.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Any complex operation requires a system for management. In most societies, disaster management is the responsibility of the government. Coordination and control is a system that provides the oversight for all of the disaster management functions. The roles and responsibilities of a coordination and control centre include: (1) planning; (2) maintenance of inventories; (3) activation of the disaster response plan; (4) application of indicators of function; (5) surveillance; (6) information management; (7) coordination of activities of the BSFs; (8) decision-making; (9) priority setting; (10) defining overarching goal and objectives for interventions; (11) applying indicators of effectiveness; (12) applying indicators of benefit and impact; (13) exercising authority; (14) managing resources; (15) initiating actions; (16) preventing influx of unneeded resources; (17) defining progress; (18) providing information; (19) liasing with responding organisations; and (20) providing quality assurance. Coordination and control is impossible without communications. To accomplish coordination and control, three factors must be present: (1) mandate; (2) power and authority; and (3) available resources. Coordination and control is responsible for the evaluation of the effectiveness and benefits/impacts of all interventions. Coordination and control centres (CCCs) are organised hierarchically from the on-scene CCCs (incident command) to local provincial to national CCCs. Currently, no comprehensive regional and international CCCs have been universally endorsed. Systems such as the incident command system, the unified command system, and the hospital incident command system are described as are the humanitarian reform movement and the importance of coordination and control in disaster planning and preparedness.

  3. 27 CFR 6.86-6.87 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 6.86-6.87 Section 6.86-6.87 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §§...

  4. 27 CFR 6.89-6.90 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 6.89-6.90 Section 6.89-6.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §§...

  5. 27 CFR 6.86-6.87 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 6.86-6.87 Section 6.86-6.87 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §§...

  6. 27 CFR 6.86-6.87 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 6.86-6.87 Section 6.86-6.87 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §§...

  7. 27 CFR 6.86-6.87 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 6.86-6.87 Section 6.86-6.87 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §§...

  8. 27 CFR 6.89-6.90 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 6.89-6.90 Section 6.89-6.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §§...

  9. 27 CFR 6.89-6.90 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 6.89-6.90 Section 6.89-6.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §§...

  10. 27 CFR 6.89-6.90 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 6.89-6.90 Section 6.89-6.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §§...

  11. 27 CFR 6.89-6.90 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 6.89-6.90 Section 6.89-6.90 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §§...

  12. 27 CFR 6.86-6.87 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 6.86-6.87 Section 6.86-6.87 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exceptions §§...

  13. 48 CFR 6.302-6 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National security. 6.302-6... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-6 National security. (a) Authority. (1... for when the disclosure of the agency's needs would compromise the national security unless the...

  14. 48 CFR 6.302-6 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National security. 6.302-6... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-6 National security. (a) Authority. (1... for when the disclosure of the agency's needs would compromise the national security unless the...

  15. 6 CFR 13.6 - Prerequisites for issuing a Complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prerequisites for issuing a Complaint. 13.6 Section 13.6 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.6 Prerequisites for issuing a Complaint. (a) The Reviewing Official may issue...

  16. 6 CFR 5.6 - Responses to requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responses to requests. 5.6 Section 5.6 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 5.6 Responses to requests. (a) Acknowledgements of requests. On receipt of...

  17. 48 CFR 6.302-6 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National security. 6.302-6... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-6 National security. (a) Authority. (1... for when the disclosure of the agency's needs would compromise the national security unless the...

  18. 48 CFR 6.302-6 - National security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National security. 6.302-6... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.302-6 National security. (a) Authority. (1... for when the disclosure of the agency's needs would compromise the national security unless the...

  19. RADTRAN 6/RadCat 6 user guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Hinojosa, Daniel; Heames, Terence John; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna

    2013-09-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 6.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN code, Version 6. RadCat 6.0 integrates the newest analysis capabilities of RADTRAN 6.0, including an economic model, updated loss-of-lead shielding model, a new ingestion dose model, and unit conversion. As of this writing, the RADTRAN version in use is RADTRAN 6.02.

  20. Venusian hydrology: Steady state reconsidered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinspoon, David H.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, Grinspoon proposed that the data on hydrogen abundance, isotopic composition, and escape rate were consistent with the hypothesis that water on Venus might be in steady state rather than monotonic decline since the dawn of time. This conclusion was partially based on a derived water lifetime against nonthermal escape of approximately 10(exp 8) yr. De Bergh et al., preferring the earlier Pioneer Venus value of 200 ppm water to the significantly lower value detected by Bezard et al., found H2O lifetimes of greater than 10(exp 9) yr. Donahue and Hodges derived H2O lifetimes of 0.4-5 x 10 (exp 9) yr. Both these analyses used estimates of H escape flux between 0.4 x 10(exp 7) and 1 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from Rodriguez et al. Yet in more recent Monte Carlo modeling, Hodges and Tinsley found an escape flux due to charge exchange with hot H(+) of 2.8 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). McElroy et al. estimated an escape flux of 8 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from collisions with hot O produced by dissociative recombination of O2(+). Brace et al. estimated an escape flux of 5 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from ion escape from the ionotail of Venus. The combined estimated escape flux from all these processes is approximately 4 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). The most sophisticated analysis to date of near-IR radiation from Venus' nightside reveals a water mixing ratio of approximately 30 ppm, suggesting a lifetime against escape for water of less than 10(exp 8) yr. Large uncertainties remain in these quantities, yet the data point toward a steady state. Further evaluation of these uncertainties, and new evolutionary modeling incorporating estimates of the outgassing rate from post-Magellan estimates of the volcanic resurfacing rate are presented.

  1. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. 6: Properties of the metal-rich systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, Jacqueline; Petitjean, Patrick; Sargent, W. L. W.; Bahcall, John N.; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Savage, Blair D.; Schneider, Donald P.

    1994-01-01

    , as is also probably the case at high redshift. These O VI absorbers can be ionized by the UV metagalactic field if their density is low, nH approximately less than 3 x 10(exp -4)/cc. The O VI phase would then be a homogeneous region of large extent, r approximately greater than 50 kpc. A detailed photoionization model of the z(sub abs) = 0.791 absorber toward PKS 2145+06 confirms the properties derived from the Mg II, C IV, O VI, and Lyman-limit samples. The galaxy causing this extensive metal-line absorption system has been identified, and its possible contribution to the UV ionizing flux does not substantially modify the value of the derived parameters. The heavy element abundances are about half the solar values. The O VI region has a density about 20 times lower than the Mg II clouds and a size of approximately 70 kpc. Alternatively, the high-ionization phase could be collisionally ionized and trace gas associated with a possible group of galaxies at the absorber redshift.

  2. Reynolds Number Effects on the Performance of Lateral Control Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, Raymond E.

    2000-01-01

    The influence of Reynolds number on the performance of outboard spoilers and ailerons was investigated on a generic subsonic transport configuration in the National Transonic Facility over a chord Reynolds number range 41 from 3x10(exp 6) to 30xl0(exp 6) and a Mach number range from 0.50 to 0.94, Spoiler deflection angles of 0, 10, 15, and 20 deg and aileron deflection angles of -10, 0, and 10 deg were tested. Aeroelastic effects were minimized by testing at constant normalized dynamic pressure conditions over intermediate Reynolds number ranges. Results indicated that the increment in rolling moment due to spoiler deflection generally becomes more negative as the Reynolds number increases from 3x10(exp 6) to 22x10(exp 6) with only small changes between Reynolds numbers of 22x10(exp 6) and 30x10(exp 6). The change in the increment in rolling moment coefficient with Reynolds number for the aileron deflected configuration is generally small with a general trend of increasing magnitude with increasing Reynolds number.

  3. LOOKOUT & DORMER WINDOW DETAILS, SHEET 6 OF 6. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKOUT & DORMER WINDOW DETAILS, SHEET 6 OF 6. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  4. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the...

  5. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the...

  6. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the...

  7. 43 CFR 3141.6-6 - Rejection of bid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Leasing in Special Tar Sand Areas § 3141.6-6 Rejection of bid. If the high bid is rejected for failure by the...

  8. G6PD Deficiency (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... are high-risk areas for the infectious disease malaria . Researchers have found evidence that the parasite that ... deficiency may have developed as a protection against malaria. continue G6PD Deficiency Symptom Triggers Kids with G6PD ...

  9. 6 CFR 13.6 - Prerequisites for issuing a Complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prerequisites for issuing a Complaint. 13.6 Section 13.6 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD... Complaint under § 13.7 only if: (1) The Department of Justice approves the issuance of a Complaint in...

  10. 6 CFR 13.6 - Prerequisites for issuing a Complaint.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prerequisites for issuing a Complaint. 13.6 Section 13.6 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY PROGRAM FRAUD... Complaint under § 13.7 only if: (1) The Department of Justice approves the issuance of a Complaint in...

  11. Polyamide 6/Layered Silicate Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dębowska, M.; Rudzińska-Girulska, J.; Pigłowski, J.; Dołęga, J.

    2008-05-01

    Polyamide 6 (PA6) and its two exfoliated nanocomposites (PA6/Nf919 and PA6/BZ-COCO), with bentonite (2.5 wt.%) organophilically treated with different cations, were studied. Improved mechanical properties, changes in crystallinity and morphology as well as higher glass transition temperature values were observed for the nanocomposites in comparison to the neat PA6. For the nanocomposite PA6/BZ-COCO, of better surface modification of platelets and better interaction between the polymeric matrix and the organobentonite, higher values of Young's modulus and yielding point together with higher contribution of larger free volume holes to free volume distributions occurred.

  12. Aerodynamic characteristics and pressure distributions for an executive-jet baseline airfoil section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Dennis O.; Mineck, Raymond E.

    1993-01-01

    A wind tunnel test of an executive-jet baseline airfoil model was conducted in the adaptive-wall test section of the NASA Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. The primary goal of the test was to measure airfoil aerodynamic characteristics over a wide range of flow conditions that encompass two design points. The two design Mach numbers were 0.654 and 0.735 with corresponding Reynolds numbers of 4.5 x 10(exp 6) and 8.9 x 10(exp 6) based on chord, respectively, and normal-force coefficients of 0.98 and 0.51, respectively. The tests were conducted over a Mach number range from 0.250 to 0.780 and a chord Reynolds number range from 3 x 10(exp 6) to 18 x 10(exp 6). The angle of attack was varied from -2 deg to a maximum below 10 deg with one exception in which the maximum was 14 deg for a Mach number of 0.250 at a chord Reynolds number of 4.5 x 10(exp 6). Boundary-layer transition was fixed at 5 percent of chord on both the upper and lower surfaces of the model for most of the test. The adaptive-wall test section had flexible top and bottom walls and rigid sidewalls. Wall interference was minimized by the movement of the adaptive walls, and the airfoil aerodynamic characteristics were corrected for any residual top and bottom wall interference.

  13. Vibrational relaxation of hexafluoride compounds: MoF6, ReF6, SeF6, and WF6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bass, Henry E.; Jensen, Verner; Ezell, Jean

    1982-10-01

    Ultrasonic attenuation has been measured in MoF6, ReF6, SeF6, and WF6 at 293 K. In all cases, a single relaxation process was observed and attributed to the total vibrational energy of the relaxing molecule. Isothermal relaxation times were found to be 2.8×10-8, 8.8×10-9, 2.9×10-7, and 2.3×10-8 s atm for MoF6, ReF6, SeF6, and WF6, respectively. Assuming series relaxation, those relaxation times can be converted to the number of collisions required for relaxation Zvib. The values of Zvib vary with the energy of the lowest vibrational mode as expected from the simple Lambert-Salter correlation.

  14. Characterization of voids formed during liquid impregnation of nonwoven multifilament glass networks as related to composite processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahale, Anant D.; Prudhomme, Robert K.; Rebenfeld, Ludwig

    1993-01-01

    A technique based on matching the refractive index of an invading liquid to that of a fiber mat was used to study entrapment of air ('voids') that occurs during forced in-plane radial flow into nonwoven multifilament glass networks. The usefulness of this technique is demonstrated in quantifying and mapping the air pockets. Experiments with a series of fluids with surface tensions varying from 28 x 10(exp -3) to 36 x 10(exp -3) N/m, viscosities from 45 x 10(exp -3) to 290 x 10(exp -3) Pa.s, and inlet flow rates from 0.15 x 10(exp -6) to 0.75 x 10(exp -6) m(exp 3)/s, showed that void content is a function of the capillary number characterizing the flow process. A critical value of capillary number, Ca = 2.5 x 10(exp -3), identifies a zone below which void content increases exponentially with decreasing capillary number. Above this critical value, negligible entrapment of voids is observed. Similar experiments carried out on surface treated nonwoven mats spanning a range of equilibrium contact angles from 20 deg to 78 deg showed that there is a critical contact angle above which negligible entrapment is observed. Below this value, there is no apparent effect of contact angle on the void fraction - capillary number relationship described earlier. Studies on the effect of filament wettability, and fluid velocity and viscosity on the size of the entrapment (voids) were also carried out. These indicate that larger sized entrapments which envelop more than one pore are favored by a low capillary number in comparison to smaller, pore level bubbles. Experiments were carried out on deformed mats - imposing high permeability spots at regular intervals on a background of low permeability. The effect of these spatial fluctuations in heterogeneity of the mat on entrapment is currently being studied.

  15. Experimental Surface Pressure Data Obtained on 65 deg Delta Wing Across Reynolds Number and Mach Number Ranges. Volume 1; Sharp Leading Edge; [conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 36 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at a Reynolds number of 6 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.

  16. Absorption of water and lubricating oils into porous nylon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertrand, P. A.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and water absorption from air into sintered porous nylon can be described by infiltration into the pores of the material. This process can be modeled by a diffusion-like mechanism. For water absorption, we find a formal diffusion coefficient of 1.5 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min when the nylon is initially dry. The diffusion coefficient is 4 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min when the nylon is oil-impregnated prior to air exposure. In a 52% RH atmosphere, dry nylon absorbs 3% w/w water, and oil-impregnated nylon absorbs 0.6% w/w water. For oil absorption there are three steps: (1) surface absorption and infiltration into (2) larger and (3) smaller pores. Surface absorption is too fast to be measured in these experiments. The diffusion coefficient for the second step is 6 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for SRG-60 oil into dry nylon and 4 x 10(exp -4)sq cm/min for air-equilibrated nylon. The diffusion coefficient for the third step is about 1 x 10(exp -6)sq cm/min for both cases. The total amount of oil absorbed is 31% w/w. The interaction between water and nylon is not as strong as that between water and cotton-phenolic: oil can replace water, and only a small amount of water can enter previously oil-impregnated nylon.

  17. Microwave Conductivity of Laser Ablated YBa2Cu3O7-delta Superconducting Films and Its Relation to Microstrip Transmission Line Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Warner, J. D.; Chorey, C. M.; Ebihara, B. T.; Romanofsky, R. R.; Heinen, V. O.

    1990-01-01

    We report on the values of the microwave conductivity in the normal (sigma(subN)) and superconducting (sigma*=sigma(sub1)-j sigma(sub2)) states of two laser ablated YBa2CU3O7(sigma) thin films at 35 GHz, in the temperature range from 20 to 300 K. The films 0.7 and 0.4 micrometers) were deposited on LaA10(sub3) by laser ablation. The conductivity was obtained from the microwave power transmitted through the films and assuming a two-fluid model. Values of sigma(subN) approximately 2.3 X 10(exp5) S/m at room temperature for both films, and of sigma(sub1) approximately 6.3 X 10(exp5) and 4.6 X 10(exp5) S/m at temperatures around 80 K were obtained for the 0.7 and 0.4 micrometer films respectively. For sigma(sub2) values of 4.9 X 10(exp6) and 5.4 X 10(exp6) S/m were obtained for the 0.7 and 0.4 micrometer films at 80 K. The expected conductor losses and Q-factor of a superconducting ring resonator were calculated using these conductivity values. The theoretical values were then compared with the experimental results obtained for a resonator fabricated from one of these films.

  18. X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and autosomal 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) polymorphisms in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    VandeBerg, J.L.; Aivaliotis, M.J.; Samollow, P.B. )

    1992-12-01

    Electrophoretic polymorphisms of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) were examined in captive colonies of five subspecies of baboons (Papio hamadryas). Phenotype frequencies and family data verified the X-linked inheritance of the G6PD polymorphism. Insufficient family data were available to confirm autosomal inheritance of the 6PGD polymorphism, but the electrophoretic patterns of variant types (putative heterozygotes) suggested the codominant expression of alleles at an autosomal locus. Implications of the G6PD polymorphism are discussed with regard to its utility as a marker system for research on X-chromosome inactivation during baboon development and for studies of clonal cell proliferation and/or cell selection during the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the baboon model. 61 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  19. NMR studies on polyphosphide Ce6Ni6P17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, T.; Yamada, H.; Ueda, K.; Mito, T.; Aoyama, Y.; Nakano, T.; Takeda, N.

    2016-02-01

    We report the result of 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies on Ce6Ni6P17. The observed NMR spectra show a Lorentzian-type and an asymmetric shapes, reflecting the local symmetry around each P site in the cubic unit cell. We have identified the observed NMR lines corresponding to three inequivalent P sites and deduced the temperature dependence of the Knight shift for each site. The Knight shifts increase with decreasing temperature down to 1.5 K, indicating a localized spin system of Ce6Ni6P17. Antiferromagnetic correlation between 4f spins is suggested from the negative sign of the Weiss-temperature.

  20. CCN6 regulates mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Patra, Milan; Mahata, Sushil K; Padhan, Deepesh K; Sen, Malini

    2016-07-15

    Despite established links of CCN6, or Wnt induced signaling protein-3 (WISP3), with progressive pseudo rheumatoid dysplasia, functional characterization of CCN6 remains incomplete. In light of the documented negative correlation between accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and CCN6 expression, we investigated whether CCN6 regulates ROS accumulation through its influence on mitochondrial function. We found that CCN6 localizes to mitochondria, and depletion of CCN6 in the chondrocyte cell line C-28/I2 by using siRNA results in altered mitochondrial electron transport and respiration. Enhanced electron transport chain (ETC) activity of CCN6-depleted cells was reflected by increased mitochondrial ROS levels in association with augmented mitochondrial ATP synthesis, mitochondrial membrane potential and Ca(2+) Additionally, CCN6-depleted cells display ROS-dependent PGC1α (also known as PPARGC1A) induction, which correlates with increased mitochondrial mass and volume density, together with altered mitochondrial morphology. Interestingly, transcription factor Nrf2 (also known as NFE2L2) repressed CCN6 expression. Taken together, our results suggest that CCN6 acts as a molecular brake, which is appropriately balanced by Nrf2, in regulating mitochondrial function. PMID:27252383

  1. Discrete-Roughness-Element-Enhanced Swept-Wing Natural Laminar Flow at High Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Mujeeb; Liao, Wei; Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan

    2015-01-01

    Nonlinear parabolized stability equations and secondary-instability analyses are used to provide a computational assessment of the potential use of the discrete-roughness-element technology for extending swept-wing natural laminar flow at chord Reynolds numbers relevant to transport aircraft. Computations performed for the boundary layer on a natural-laminar-flow airfoil with a leading-edge sweep angle of 34.6 deg, freestream Mach number of 0.75, and chord Reynolds numbers of 17 × 10(exp 6), 24 × 10(exp 6), and 30 × 10(exp 6) suggest that discrete roughness elements could delay laminar-turbulent transition by about 20% when transition is caused by stationary crossflow disturbances. Computations show that the introduction of small-wavelength stationary crossflow disturbances (i.e., discrete roughness element) also suppresses the growth of most amplified traveling crossflow disturbances.

  2. DRE-Enhanced Swept-Wing Natural Laminar Flow at High Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Mujeeb; Liao, Wei; Li, Fe; Choudhari, Meelan

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear parabolized stability equations and secondary instability analyses are used to provide a computational assessment of the potential use of the discrete roughness elements (DRE) technology for extending swept-wing natural laminar flow at chord Reynolds numbers relevant to transport aircraft. Computations performed for the boundary layer on a natural laminar flow airfoil with a leading-edge sweep angle of 34.6deg, free-stream Mach number of 0.75 and chord Reynolds numbers of 17 x 10(exp 6), 24 x 10(exp 6) and 30 x 10(exp 6) suggest that DRE could delay laminar-turbulent transition by about 20% when transition is caused by stationary crossflow disturbances. Computations show that the introduction of small wavelength stationary crossflow disturbances (i.e., DRE) also suppresses the growth of most amplified traveling crossflow disturbances.

  3. Photochemistry of Triton's Atmosphere and Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1995-01-01

    The photochemistry of 32 neutral and 21 ion species in Triton's atmosphere is considered. Parent species N2, CH4, and CO (with a mixing ratio of 3 x 10(exp -4) in our basic model) sublime from the ice with rates of 40, 208, and 0.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Chemistry below 50 km is driven mostly by photolysis of methane by the solar and interstellar medium Lyman-alpha photons, producing hydrocarbons C2H4, C2H6, and C2H2 which form haze particles with precipitation rates of 135, 28, and 1.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Some processes are discussed which increase the production of HCN (by an order of magnitude to a value of 29 g/sq cm/b.y.) and involve indirect photolysis of N2 by neutrals. Reanalysis of the measured methane profiles gives an eddy diffusion coefficient K = 4 x 10(exp 3) sq cm/s above the tropopause and a more accurate methane number density near the surface, (3.1 +/- 0.8) x 10(exp 11)/cc cm. Chemistry above 200 km is driven by the solar EUV radiation (lambda less than 1000 A)) and by precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with a total energy input of 10(exp 8) W (based on thermal balance calculations). The most abundant photochemical species are N, H2, H, O, and C. They escape with the total rates of 7.7 x 10(exp 24)/ s, 4.5 x 10(exp 25)/ s, 2.4 x 10(exp 25)/ s, 4.4 x 10(exp 22)/ s, and 1.1 x 10(exp 24)/ s, respectively. Atomic species are transported to a region of 50-200 km and drive the chemistry there. Iono- spheric chemistry explains the formation of an E region at 150-240 km with HCO(+) as a major ion, and of an F region above 240 km with a peak at 320 km and C(+) as a major ion. The ionosphere above 500 km consists of almost equal densities of C(+) and N(+) ions. The model profiles agree with the measured atomic nitrogen and electron density profiles. A number of other models with varying rate coefficients of some reactions, differing properties of the haze particles (chemically passive or active), etc., were developed. These models show

  4. Microorganisms, Organic Carbon, and Their Relationship with Oxidant Activity in Hyper-Arid Mars-Like Soils: Implications for Soil Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valdivia-Silva, Julio E.; Karouia, Fathi; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; McKay, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Soil samples from the hyper-arid region in the Atacama 23 Desert in Southern Peru (La Joya Desert) were analyzed for total and labile organic carbon (TOC & LOC), phospholipid fatty acids analysis (PLFA), quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), 4',6- diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-fluorescent microscopy, culturable microorganisms, and oxidant activity, in order to understand the relationship between the presence of organic matter and microorganisms in these types of soils. TOC content levels were similar to the labile pool of carbon suggesting the absence of recalcitrant carbon in these soils. The range of LOC was from 2 to 60 micro-g/g of soil. PLFA analysis indicated a maximum of 2.3 x 10(exp 5) cell equivalents/g. Culturing of soil extracts yielded 1.1 x 10(exp 2)-3.7 x 10(exp 3) CFU/g. qRT-PCR showed between 1.0 x 10(exp 2) and 8 x 10(exp 3) cells/g; and DAPI fluorescent staining indicated bacteria counts up to 5 x 104 cells/g. Arid and semiarid samples (controls) showed values between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 11) cells/g with all of the methods used. Importantly, the concentration of microorganisms in hyper-arid soils did not show any correlation with the organic carbon content; however, there was a significant dependence on the oxidant activity present in these soil samples evaluated as the capacity to decompose sodium formate in 10 hours. We suggest that the analysis of oxidant activity could be a useful indicator of the microbial habitability in hyper-arid soils, obviating the need to measure water activity over time. This approach could be useful in astrobiological studies on other worlds.

  5. Comparative Studies for the Sodium and Potassium Atmospheres of the Moon and Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    1999-01-01

    A summary discussion of recent sodium and potassium observations for the atmospheres of the Moon and Mercury is presented with primary emphasis on new full-disk images that have become available for sodium. For the sodium atmosphere, image observations for both the Moon and Mercury are fitted with model calculations (1) that have the same source speed distribution, one recently measured for electron-stimulated desorption and thought to apply equally well to photon-stimulated desorption, (2) that have similar average surface sodium fluxes, about 2.8 x 10(exp 5) to 8.9 x 10(exp 5) atoms cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) for the Moon and approximately 3.5 x 10(exp 5) to 1.4 x 10(exp 6) atoms cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) for Mercury, but (3) that have very different distributions for the source surface area. For the Moon, a sunlit hemispherical surface source of between approximately 5.3 x 10(exp 22) to 1.2 x 10(exp 23) atoms/s is required with a spatial dependence at least as sharp as the square of the cosine of the solar zenith angle. For Mercury, a time dependent source that varies from 1.5 x 10(exp 22) to 5.8 x l0(exp 22) atoms/s is required which is confined to a small surface area located at, but asymmetrically distributed about, the subsolar point. The nature of the Mercury source suggest that the planetary magnetopause near the subsolar point acts as a time varying and partially protective shield through which charged particles may pass to interact with and liberate gas from the planetary surface. Suggested directions for future research activities are discussed.

  6. A burst from a thermonuclear runaway on an ONeMg white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starrfield, S.; Politano, M.; Truran, J. W.; Sparks, W. M.

    1992-01-01

    Studies which examine the consequences of accretion, at rates of 10(exp -9) solar mass/yr and 10(exp -10) solar mass/yr, onto an ONeMg white dwarf with a mass of 1.35 solar masses are performed. In these studies, a Lagrangian, hydrodynamic, one-dimensional computer code was used. The code now includes a network with 89 nuclei up to Ca-40, elemental diffusion, new opacities, and new equation of state. The initial abundance distribution corresponded to a mixture that was enriched to either 25, 50, or 75 percent in products of carbon burning. The remaining material in each case is assumed to have a solar composition. The evolution of the thermonuclear runaway in the 1.35 solar mass white dwarf, with M = 10(exp -9) solar mass, produced peak temperatures in the shell source exceeding 300 million degrees. The sequence produced significant amounts of Na-22 from proton captures onto Ne-20 and significant amounts of Al-26 from proton captures on Mg-24. This sequence ejected 5.2 x 10(exp -6) solar mass moving with speeds from approximately 100 km/s to 2300 km/s. When the mass accretion rate was decreased to 10(exp -10) solar mass, the resulting thermonuclear runaway produced a shock that moved through the outer envelope of the white dwarf and raised the surface luminosity to L greater than 10(exp 7) solar luminosity and the effective temperature to values exceeding 10(exp 7) K. The interaction of the material expanding from off of the white dwarf with the accretion disk should produce a burst of gamma-rays.

  7. Environmental Perturbations Caused by the Impacts of Asteroids and Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Zahnle, Kevin; Morrison, David; Turco, Richard; Covey, Curt

    1997-01-01

    We review the major mechanisms proposed to cause extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary geological boundary following an asteroid impact. We then discuss how the proposed extinction may relate to the impact of asteroids or comets in general. We discuss the limitations of these mechanisms in terms of the spatial scale that may be affected, and the time scale over which the effects may last. Our goal is to provide relatively simple prescriptions for evaluating the importance of colliding objects having a range of energies and compositions. We also identify the many uncertainties concerning the environmental effects of impacts. We conclude that, for impact energies below about 10(exp 4) Mts (megatons of TNT equivalent) - i.e., impact frequencies less than in 6 x 10(exp 4) yr, corresponding to comets and asteroids with diameters smaller than about 400 m and 650 m, respectively - blast damage, earthquakes, and fires should be important on a scale of 10(exp 4) or 10(exp 5) km (exp 2), which corresponds to the area damaged in many natural disasters of recent history. However, tsunami could be more damaging, flooding a kilometer of coastal plane over entire ocean basins. In the energy range of 10(exp 4) to 10 (exp 5) Mts (intervals up to 3 x 10(exp 5) yr; comets and asteroids with sizes up to 800 m and 1.5 km, respectively) water vapor injections and ozone loss become significant on the global scale. In the submicrometer dust injection fraction from the pulverized target material is much higher than is presently thought to be most likely, then dust injection could be important in this energy range.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema

    Anderson, Diana

    2016-07-12

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas — one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas — one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  10. The Nimbus-6 User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sissala, J. E. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Background information was given on the Nimbus 6 spacecraft and experiments as a basis for selecting, obtaining, and utilizing Nimbus 6 data in research studies. The basic spacecraft system operation and the objectives of the Nimbus 6 flight are outlined, followed by a detailed discussion of each of the experiments. The format, archiving, and access to the data are also described. Finally, the contents and format of the Nimbus 6 data catalogs are described. These catalogs will be issued periodically after the launch of Nimbus 6. They will contain representative pictorial data and daily temperature, humidity, infrared and radiometer data obtained during each period, as well as information on the collection and availability of all Nimbus 6 data.

  11. 6. Photograph of a line drawing. SHEET 6, WEST AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photograph of a line drawing. SHEET 6, WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS AND LONGITUDINAL SECTIONS; 9-16-1940. Assembly Building for Tank Plant for the Chrysler Corporation, Macomb County, Michigan. Delineator: W. A. G. - Detroit Arsenal, 6501 East Eleven Mile Road, Warren, Macomb County, MI

  12. 38 CFR 6.6 - Change of beneficiary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Beneficiary of United States Government Life Insurance § 6.6 Change of beneficiary. The insured under United States Government life insurance shall have the right at any time and from... privilege given under the provisions of a United States Government life insurance policy without the...

  13. Transport properties of SF_{6}^{-} in SF6-Ne, SF6-N2 and SF6-O2 mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhenni, M.; Yousfi, M.; de Urquijo, J.; Hennad, A.

    2009-06-01

    The mobility of SF_{6}^{-} has been calculated for the gas mixtures SF6-Ne, SF6-N2 and SF6-O2 using an optimized Monte Carlo code for the ion transport simulation in a drift tube. The elastic momentum transfer collision cross sections needed for the calculation were determined from a semi-classical JWKB approximation, while the inelastic ones (detachment, dissociative charge transfer and SF_{6}^{-} conversion to SF_{5}^{-} and F-) were taken from the literature for the case of the SF_{6}^{-}/Ne collision system. The resulting sets of collision cross sections were validated by comparing the SF_{6}^{-} calculated mobilities with those measured in the above mixtures with a time-resolved pulsed Townsend technique. The SF_{6}^{-} longitudinal and transverse density-normalized diffusion coefficients were calculated for these mixtures for the case where the share of SF6 in the mixture was 50%. Finally, the validity of Blanc's law was discussed at low and high electric fields, whereby we show that it fails at high fields, where inelastic processes are dominant.

  14. Treatability study for WAG 6 (SWSA 6) trench water

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, P.A.

    1991-08-01

    The Environmental Restoration Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is examining methods for remediation and final closure of Waste Area Grouping 6 (WAG 6) under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) closure plan. WAG 6 consists primarily of Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6), where solid low- level radioactive waste (and some hazardous waste) was buried from 1968 to 1985 in shallow trenches. To support the feasibility study that is being prepared for closure of WAG 6, lab-scale treatability tests were performed on the water from selected trenches in SWSA 6 to determine if the trench water could be treated at the existing wastewater treatment plants at ORNL. Water from 23 of the 500 trenches in SWSA 6 has been sampled and analyzed to date, and the 4 most highly contaminated trenches identified thus far supplied the water used in the treatability tests. The softening and ion-exchange processes used in the Process Wastewater Treatment Plant (PWTP) reduced the {sup 90}Sr concentration, which was the only radionuclide present in the trench water at above the discharge limits, from 260 to 0.2 Bq/L. The air stripping and activated carbon adsorption processes used in the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP) removed volatile and semivolatile organics (mostly toluene, xylene, and naphthalene), which were the main contaminants in the trench water, to below detection limits. The trench water treated in the lab-scale equipment easily met all discharge limits for the PWTP and the NRWTP. 6 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Interleukin-6 stimulates defective angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gopinathan, Ganga; Milagre, Carla; Pearce, Oliver M.T.; Reynolds, Louise E.; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan; Leinster, David A.; Zhong, Haihong; Hollingsworth, Robert E.; Thompson, Richard; Whiteford, James R.; Balkwill, Frances

    2015-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) has a number of tumor-promoting activities in human and experimental cancers, but its potential as an angiogenic agent has not been fully investigated. Here we show that IL-6 can directly induce vessel sprouting in the ex vivo aortic ring model, as well as endothelial cell proliferation and migration, with similar potency to VEGF. However, IL-6-stimulated aortic ring vessel sprouts had defective pericyte coverage compared to VEGF-stimulated vessels. The mechanism of IL-6 action on pericytes involved stimulation of the Notch ligand Jagged1 as well as Angiopoietin2 (Ang2). When peritoneal xenografts of ovarian cancer were treated with an anti-IL-6 antibody, pericyte coverage of vessels was restored. In addition, in human ovarian cancer biopsies there was an association between levels of IL-6mRNA, Jagged1 and Ang2. Our findings have implications for the use of cancer therapies that target VEGF or IL-6 and for understanding abnormal angiogenesis in cancers, chronic inflammatory disease and stroke. PMID:26081809

  16. Meprin Metalloproteases Inactivate Interleukin 6*

    PubMed Central

    Keiffer, Timothy R.; Bond, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Meprins have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, in which the cytokine IL-6 is a prominent effector molecule. Because IL-6 levels are elevated markedly in meprin α and α/β knockout mice in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease, the interaction between meprins and IL-6 was studied. The results demonstrate that rodent and human meprin A and B cleave IL-6 to a smaller product and, subsequently, are capable of extensive degradation of the cytokine. Analysis of the limited degradation product formed by meprin A indicated that three to five amino acids are removed from the C terminus of the cytokine. Meprin A and meprin B cleaved IL-6 with micromolar affinities (Km of 4.7 and 12.0 μm, respectively) and with high efficiencies (kcat/Km of 0.2 and 2.5 (m−1/s−1) × 106, respectively). These efficiency constants are among the highest for known meprin substrates. Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transiently transfected with meprin α or meprin β constructs also cleave exogenous IL-6. Both human and murine IL-6 cleaved by meprin A or B are inactivated, as demonstrated by their decreased capability to stimulate proliferation of B9 cells. These results are consistent with the proposition that one function of meprin metalloproteases is to modulate inflammation by inactivating IL-6. PMID:24474695

  17. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades…

  18. Infrared and Ultraviolet Spectra of Diborane(6): B2H6 and B2D6.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Chain; Chou, Sheng-Lung; Lo, Jen-Iu; Lin, Meng-Yeh; Lu, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Ogilvie, J F

    2016-07-21

    We recorded absorption spectra of diborane(6), B2H6 and B2D6, dispersed in solid neon near 4 K in both mid-infrared and ultraviolet regions. For gaseous B2H6 from 105 to 300 nm, we report quantitative absolute cross sections; for solid B2H6 and for B2H6 dispersed in solid neon, we measured ultraviolet absorbance with relative intensities over a wide range. To assign the mid-infrared spectra to specific isotopic variants, we applied the abundance of (11)B and (10)B in natural proportions; we undertook quantum-chemical calculations of wavenumbers associated with anharmonic vibrational modes and the intensities of the harmonic vibrational modes. To aid an interpretation of the ultraviolet spectra, we calculated the energies of electronically excited singlet and triplet states and oscillator strengths for electronic transitions from the electronic ground state. PMID:27351464

  19. Experimental Progress and Results of a Visible Nulling Coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuele, Rocco; Wallace, J. Kent; Schmidtlin, Edouard; Shao, Mike; Levine, B. Martin; Fregoso, Santos

    2007-01-01

    The crux of visible exoplanet detection is overcoming significant star-planet contrast ratios on the order of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -10)-at very small angular separations. We are developing an interferometric nulling coronagraph designed to achieve a 10(exp -6) contrast ratio at a working science bandpass of 20% visible light. Achieving large, broadband suppression requires a pseudo-achromatic phase flip, while maintaining a strict error budget. Recent results from our nulling interferometer testbed yield contrast ratios at the 1.05x10(exp -6) level, with a 15% visible bandpass. This result is at 65% of our final bandpass requirement, although limitations of our current configuration make major hardware changes essential to broadening the bandpass. We make the argument that broadening the bandpass should not necessarily adversely affect the null depth until beyond the 20% visible light level. Using the same setup we are able to reach monochromatic null depths of 1.11x10(exp -7) (?= 638 nm)averaged over three seconds. This paper will describe our experimental approach for achieving deep broadband nulls, as well as error considerations and limitations, and the most recent results for our nulling coronagraph testbed.

  20. The Observed Galactic Annihilation Line: Possible Signature of Accreting Small Mass Black Holes in the Galactic Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Chardonnet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Various balloon and satellite observatories have revealed what appears to be an extended source of 0.511 MeV annihilation radiation with flux of approx. 10(exp -3) photons/sq cm/s centered on the Galactic Center. Positrons from radioactive products of stellar explosions can account for a significant fraction of the emission. We discuss an additional source for this emission: namely e(+)e(-) pairs produced when X-rays generated from the approx. 2.6 x 10(exp 6) solar mass Galactic Center Black Hole interact with approx. 10 MeV temperature blackbody emission from 10(exp 17) g black holes within 10(exp 14-l5) cm of the center. The number of such Small Mass Black Holes (SMMBHs) can account for the production of the 10(exp 42) e(+)/s that produces the observed annihilation in the inner Galaxy when transport effects are taken into account. We consider the possibility for confirming the presence of these SMMBHs in the Galactic Center region with future generations of gamma-ray instruments if a blackbody like emission of approx. 10 MeV temperature would be detected by them. Small Mass Black Hole can be a potential candidate for dark (invisible) matter hal

  1. Time-dependent analysis of 8 days of CN spatial profiles in comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combi, Michael; Huang, Bormin; Cochran, Anita; Fink, Uwe; Schulz, Rita

    1994-01-01

    CN profiles in comet P/Halley were constructed from observations taken at three observatories during an 8 day period in April 1986. These data provide a time series of CN spatial profiles spanning just over one 7.37 day period from 1986 April 7 to April 15 and sample distances from the nucleus from just over 10(exp 3) km to 10(exp 6) km. The effect of the 7.37 day periodic variation on the CN distribution in P/Halley has been examined by using the time-dependent model applied earlier to a subset of the data. Because of the large spatial scale of the data on April 7, 8, and 9 (approx. 10(exp 6) km), and the corresponding transport time in the coma, information present in the spatial profiles regarding the gas production rate actually covers nearly two full periods. These spatially extended profiles clearly show the wavy structures outside 10(exp 5) km. Such structures were predicted in a previous analysis (Combi & Fink 1993) that was based solely on the photometric light curve and on profiles which only extended to distances less than 10(exp 5) km. We are now able to reproduce the highly variable Halley correction for the variation in gas production rate.

  2. Turbulent mixing layers in the interstellar medium of galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. D.; Shull, J. M.; Begelman, M. C.

    1993-01-01

    We propose that turbulent mixing layers are common in the interstellar medium (ISM). Injection of kinetic energy into the ISM by supernovae and stellar winds, in combination with density and temperature inhomogeneities, results in shear flows. Such flows will become turbulent due to the high Reynolds number (low viscosity) of the ISM plasma. These turbulent boundary layers will be particularly interesting where the shear flow occurs at boundaries of hot (approximately 10(exp 6) K) and cold or warm (10(exp 2) - 10(exp 4) K) gas. Mixing will occur in such layers producing intermediate-temperature gas at T is approximately equal to 10(exp 5.0) - 10(exp 5.5) that radiates strongly in the optical, ultraviolet, and EUV. We have modeled these layers under the assumptions of rapid mixing down to the atomic level and steady flow. By including the effects of non-equilibrium ionization and self-photoionization of the gas as it cools after mixing, we predict the intensities of numerous optical, infrared, and ultraviolet emission lines, as well as absorption column densities of C 4, N 5, Si 4, and O 6.

  3. AFIP-6 Characterization Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Dennis D. Keiser

    2011-12-01

    The AFIP-6 (ATR Full-size-plate In center flux trap Position) Characterization Summary Report outlines the fresh fuel characterization efforts performed during the AFIP-6 experiment. The AFIP-6 experiment was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a scale prototypic of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel plates (45-inches long). The AFIP-6 test was the first test with plates that were swaged into the rails of the assembly. This test served to examine the effects of a plate in a swaged condition with longer fuel zones (22.5-inches long), that were centered in the plate. AFIP-6 test plates employed a zirconium interlayer that was co-rolled with the fuel foil. Previous mini-plate and AFIP irradiation experiments performed in ATR have demonstrated the stable behavior of the interface between the U-Mo fuel and the zirconium interlayer.

  4. Mechanism for 6-methylcoumarin photoallergenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, S.; Seki, T.; Katsumura, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Komatsu, K.; Fukushima, S.

    1985-11-01

    6-Methylcoumarin (6-MC), a synthetic fragrance material, has been reported to be photoallergenic both in man and in guinea pigs. To elucidate the possible mechanism of photoallergenicity, 6-MC in ethanolic solution was exposed to 200 joules/cm2 of long-wavelength ultraviolet (UV) ranging from 320 to 400 nm for 16 hr, and was examined for its contact allergenicity by means of a modified guinea pig maximization test. Strong allergic responses were observed, indicating that UV plays a catalytic role in forming contact allergens during irradiation. The solution was fractionated to isolate and purify contact sensitizers by gel-permeation chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. By employing mass spectrometry and proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance, mono- and diethyl esters of 6-MC dimer were compounds identified which showed allergic reactions in guinea pigs sensitized with UV-irradiated 6-MC.

  5. 30-Year Satellite Record Reveals Accelerated Arctic Sea Ice Loss, Antarctic Sea Ice Trend Reversal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Parkinson, C. L.; Vinnikov, K. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Arctic sea ice extent decreased by 0.30 plus or minus 0.03 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per decade from 1972 through 2002, but decreased by 0.36 plus or minus 0.05 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per decade from 1979 through 2002, indicating an acceleration of 20% in the rate of decrease. In contrast to the Arctic, the Antarctic sea ice extent decreased dramatically over the period 1973-1977, then gradually increased, with an overall 30-year trend of -0.15 plus or minus 0.08 x 10(exp 6) square kilometers per 10yr. The trend reversal is attributed to a large positive anomaly in Antarctic sea ice extent observed in the early 1970's.

  6. Comparison of computational and experimental results for a supercritical airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Melissa B.; Wahls, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    A computational investigation was performed to study the flow over a supercritical airfoil model. Solutions were obtained for steady-state transonic flow conditions using a thin-layer Navier-Stokes flow solver. The results from this computational study were compared with time-averaged experimental data obtained over a wide Reynolds number range at transonic speeds in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. Comparisons were made at a nominal Mach number of 0.72 and at Reynolds numbers ranging from 6 x 10(exp 6) to 35 x 10(exp 6).

  7. ISMIP6: Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowicki, S.

    2015-01-01

    ISMIP6 (Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6) targets the Cryosphere in a Changing Climate and the Future Sea Level Grand Challenges of the WCRP (World Climate Research Program). Primary goal is to provide future sea level contribution from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, along with associated uncertainty. Secondary goal is to investigate feedback due to dynamic ice sheet models. Experiment design uses and augment the existing CMIP6 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6) DECK (Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Characterization of Klima) experiments. Additonal MIP (Model Intercomparison Project)- specific experiments will be designed for ISM (Ice Sheet Model). Effort builds on the Ice2sea, SeaRISE (Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution) and COMBINE (Comprehensive Modelling of the Earth System for Better Climate Prediction and Projection) efforts.

  8. CF6-6D engine performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wulf, R. H.; Kramer, W. H.; Pass, J. E.; Smith, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Cruise cockpit recordings and test cell performance data in conjunction with hardware inspection data from airline overhaul shops were analyzed to define the extent and magnitude of performance deterioration of the General Electric CF6-6D model engine. These studies successfully isolated short-term deterioration from the longer term, and defined areas where a significant reduction in aircraft energy requirements for the 1980's can be realized. Unrestored losses which remain after engine refurbishment represent over 70% of the loss at engine shop visit. Sixty-three percent of the unrestored losses are cost-effective to restore which could reduce fuel consumed by CF6-6D engines in 1980 by 10.9 million gallons.

  9. OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The description, development history, test history, and orbital performance analysis of the OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory are presented. The OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory was the sixth flight model of a series of scientific spacecraft designed to provide a stable platform for experiments engaged in the collection of solar and celestial radiation data. The design objective was 180 days of orbital operation. The OSO-6 has telemetered an enormous amount of very useful experiment and housekeeping data to GSFC ground stations. Observatory operation during the two-year reporting period was very successful except for some experiment instrument problems.

  10. 6-Azido-6-de­oxy-α-l-galactose (6-azido-l-fucose) monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Booth, K. Victoria; Jenkinson, Sarah F.; Rao, Devendar; Simonisi, Tsuyosi; Fleet, George W. J.; Izumori, Ken; Watkin, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Although 6-azido-6-de­oxy-l-galactose in aqueous solution is in equilibrium between the open-chain, furan­ose and pyran­ose forms, it crystallizes solely as 6-azido-6-de­oxy-α-l-galactopyran­ose monohydrate, C6H11N3O5·H2O, with the six-membered ring adopting a chair conformation. The structure exists as hydrogen-bonded chains, with each mol­ecule acting as a donor and acceptor of five hydrogen bonds. There are no unusual crystal packing features and the absolute configuration was determined from the use of 1-azido-1-de­oxy-d-galactitol as the starting material. PMID:21203271

  11. ATS-6 and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Braun, Wernher

    1975-01-01

    Emphasizes the beneficial application of tools developed as a result of the space program in communications and education. Explains the use of a communication satelite, the ATS-6, in telemedicine and individualized instruction. (GS)

  12. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents ... for Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the ...

  13. Friction surfaced Stellite6 coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, K. Prasad; Damodaram, R.; Rafi, H. Khalid; Ram, G.D. Janaki; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2012-08-15

    Solid state Stellite6 coatings were deposited on steel substrate by friction surfacing and compared with Stellite6 cast rod and coatings deposited by gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred arc welding processes. Friction surfaced coatings exhibited finer and uniformly distributed carbides and were characterized by the absence of solidification structure and compositional homogeneity compared to cast rod, gas tungsten arc and plasma transferred coatings. Friction surfaced coating showed relatively higher hardness. X-ray diffraction of samples showed only face centered cubic Co peaks while cold worked coating showed hexagonally close packed Co also. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stellite6 used as coating material for friction surfacing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Friction surfaced (FS) coatings compared with casting, GTA and PTA processes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Finer and uniformly distributed carbides in friction surfaced coatings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Absence of melting results compositional homogeneity in FS Stellite6 coatings.

  14. Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)

  15. 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Prostate Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... early screening. Photo: AP Photo/Danny Moloshok Prostate Cancer The prostate gland is a walnut-sized structure ...

  16. 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Breast Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... her down. Photo: AP Photo/Brett Flashnick Breast Cancer Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that ...

  17. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  18. AFIP-6 Fabrication Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn A. Moore; M. Craig Marshall

    2011-09-01

    The AFIP-6 (ATR Full-size plate In center flux trap Position) experiment was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. Two qualified fueled plates were fabricated for the AFIP-6 experiment; to be irradiated in the INL Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This report provides details of the fuel fabrication efforts, including material selection, fabrication processes, and fuel plate qualification.

  19. HPV E6, E6AP and cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Beaudenon, Sylvie; Huibregtse, Jon M

    2008-01-01

    Every year, approximately 470,000 new cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed and approximately 230,000 women worldwide die of the disease, with the majority (~80%) of these cases and deaths occurring in developing countries. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the etiological agents in nearly all cases (99.7%) of cervical cancer, and the HPV E6 protein is one of two viral oncoproteins that is expressed in virtually all HPV-positive cancers. E6 hijacks a cellular ubiquitin ligase, E6AP, resulting in the ubiquitylation and degradation of the p53 tumor suppressor, as well as several other cellular proteins. While the recent introduction of prophylactic vaccines against specific HPV types offers great promise for prevention of cervical cancer, there remains a need for therapeutics. Biochemical characterization of E6 and E6AP has suggested approaches for interfering with the activities of these proteins that could be useful for this purpose. Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; ). PMID:19007434

  20. Arf6 arbitrates fibrinogen endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Rondina, Matthew T; Weyrich, Andrew S

    2016-03-17

    In this issue of Blood, in a departure from studies of classic platelet function, Huang et al turn their attention to endocytosis and show that adenosine 5′-diphosphate-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) plays a key role in fibrinogen engulfment. Although platelets are known to bind, absorb, and load their granules with plasma proteins, this report is one of the first to explore mechanisms that control endocytosis in this anucleate cell. Huang et al demonstrate that Arf6-dependent endocytosis is restricted to fibrinogen, implying that Arf6 also modulates trafficking of αIIbβ3 integrins in platelets. Consistent with this notion, deletion of Arf6 in platelets enhances spreading on fibrinogen and accelerates clot retraction (see figure). However, activation of surface αIIbβ3 is unaffected, and Arf6 deficiency does not alter thrombosis in vivo. These incongruous results point toward the complexity of anucleate platelets and the need for more detailed studies to understand intracellular trafficking, recycling, and endocytosis in platelets and their precurs

  1. [Infrared spectrum analysis of SF6 and SF6 decomposition].

    PubMed

    Cai, Tao; Wang, Xian-pei; Huang, Yun-guang; Du, Shuang-yu

    2010-11-01

    Pressured SF6 gas is widely used in GIS for electrical insulation as well as for are extinction. And a chemical way for detecting the SF6 and its byproducts is a powerful diagnosis method for GIS. The present paper analyzes the decomposition of insulated gas of GIS (mostly SF6) in three cases with infrared spectrometer. As a result, it was found that the content of S2F10 can be used to decide whether spark or arc discharge leads to the fall down of GIS; CF4 can be used for judging the insulation grade of GIS. Besides, the gas leakage of the GIS should be concerned in the long lifetime of GIS. Finally, it is supposed that a data base containing the history of results from the gas diagnostics for each piece of equipment should be created for future maintenance activities. PMID:21284164

  2. X-ray Characterization of Detached-Grown Germanium Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Raghothamachar, B.; Dudley, M.; Szoke, J.; Cobb, S. D.; Szofran, F. R.

    2005-01-01

    Germanium (111)-oriented crystals have been grown by the vertical Bridgman technique, in both detached and attached configurations. Microstructural characterization of these crystals has been performed using synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) and double axis x-ray diffraction. Dislocation densities were measured from x-ray topographs obtained using the reflection geometry. For detached-grown crystals, the dislocation density is 4-6 x 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the seed region, and decreases in the direction of growth to less than 10(exp 3) per square centimeter, and in some crystals reaches less than 10(exp 2) per square centimeter. For crystals grown in the attached configuration, dislocation densities were on the order of 10(exp 4) per square centimeter in the middle of the crystals, increasing to greater than 10(exp 5) per square centimeter near the edge. The measured dislocation densities are in excellent agreement with etch pit density results. The rocking curve linewidths were relatively insensitive to the dislocation densities. However, broadening and splitting of the rocking curves were observed in the vicinity of subgrain boundaries identified by x-ray topography in some of the attached-grown crystals.

  3. Volatility and Wear Characteristics of a Variety of Liquid Lubricants for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quynhgiao N.; Jones, William R., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The vapor pressures and near characteristics are critical properties for liquid lubricants to assure long-term reliability and performance in space applications. Vapor pressures, obtained using a Knudsen cell technique, and near properties, obtained using a vacuum four-ball apparatus, were measured for a series of unformulated liquid lubricants. These include: two multiple alkylated cyclopentanes (MACs) (X-1000 and X-2000), two linear perfluoropolyalkylethers (PFPAEs) (Z-25 and 815Z), and four silahydrocarbons (a tri-, a tetra-, and two pentas). Vapor pressures were measured at three elevated temperatures (423, 448, and 498 K) and extrapolated to room temperature 298 K. The lowest 298 K vapor pressure of 5.7 x 10(exp -14) Pa, was obtained with the PFPAE fluid (815Z) and the highest value with the low molecular weight MAC (X-1000) at 3.6 x 10(exp -7) Pa. In addition, vacuum near rates were determined for some of the lubricants. The lowest wear rates (approximately 3 x 10(exp -11) cubic mm/mm) were observed for three of the silahydrocarbons while the highest wear rate (approximately 2 x 10(exp-9) cubic mm/mm) were observed with the two PFPAE fluids (Z-25 and 815Z). The MAC (X-2000) yielded a wear rate of about 10(exp -10) cubic mm/mm. The results indicated that the silahydrocarbon class of liquid lubricants offers the better potential for space applications.

  4. Volatility and Wear Characteristics of a Variety of Liquid Lubricants for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, QuynhGiao N.; Jones, William R., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The vapor pressures and wear characteristics are critical properties for liquid lubricants to assure long-term reliability and performance in space applications. Vapor pressures, obtained using a Knudsen cell technique, and wear properties, obtained using a vacuum four-ball apparatus, were measured for a series of unformulated liquid lubricants. These included two multiply alkylated cyclopentanes (MACs) (X-1000 and X2000), two linear perfluoropolyalkylethers (PFPAEs) (Z-25 and 815Z), and four silahydrocarbons (a tri, a tetra, and two pentas). Vapor pressures were measured at three elevated temperatures (423, 448, and 498 K) and extrapolated to room temperature 298 K. The lowest 298 K vapor pressure of 5.7 x 10(exp -14) Pa was obtained with the PFPAE fluid (815Z) and the highest value with the low molecular weight MAC (X-1000) at 3.6 x 10(exp -7) Pa. In addition, vacuum wear rates were determined for some of the lubricants. The lowest wear rates (approximately 3 x 10(exp -11) cubic mm/mm) were observed for three of the silahydrocarbons while the highest wear rates (approximately 2 x 10(exp -9) cubic mm/mm) were observed with the two PFPAE fluids (Z-25 and 815Z). The MAC (X-2000) yielded a wear rate of about 10(exp -10) cubic mm/mm. The results indicated that the silahydrocarbon class of liquid lubricants offers the better potential for space applications.

  5. An assessment of volatile release from recent volcanism in Elysium, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.

    1993-01-01

    The amount and rate of release of volatiles (H2O, CO2, etc.) from recent volcanism in Elysium, Mars, are estimated. Possible implications of these volatiles on the climate, weathering, and surface morphology are discussed. Total eruptic volcanics may amount to about 4 x 10 exp 5 cu km and would have released large quantities of volatiles into the Martian environment. Assuming that the lavas contained 1.0 wt pct water, about 7.6 x 10 exp 15 kg of the water, or about 1000 times the present atmospheric water inventory, would have been released. Release amounts of other volatiles are estimated to be 10 exp 15 kg of S, 10 exp 13 kg of Cl, and 10 exp 13 kg of F. The short-term effect of the SO2 gas would be to warm the climate due to its greenhouse properties. Conversion to sulfate aerosols might have resulted in a net surface cooling due to scattering of sunlight. As the sulfate aerosols settled from the atmosphere, the climate could have returned to its preeruption equilibrium.

  6. 6. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 1 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SITE OVERVIEW. PART 1 OF 6 PART PANORAMA WITH NOS. CA-265-7 TO CA-265-11. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY AS SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL (APPROXIMATELY 34° 5' BY 118° 12'30" ON USGS LOS ANGELES QUADRANGLE). PART 1 SHOWS GRAND VIEW POINT AT RIGHT REAR (LOCATION OF CAMERA POSITION FOR PHOTOGRAPHS NOS. 265-1 TO CA-265-5) AND FIGUEROA VIADUCT OVERCROSSING; DOWNTOWN LOS ANGELES IS AT LEFT REAR. LOOKING 234° SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Optimal and Local Connectivity Between Neuron and Synapse Array in the Quantum Dot/Silicon Brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duong, Tuan A.; Assad, Christopher; Thakoor, Anikumar P.

    2010-01-01

    This innovation is used to connect between synapse and neuron arrays using nanowire in quantum dot and metal in CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) technology to enable the density of a brain-like connection in hardware. The hardware implementation combines three technologies: 1. Quantum dot and nanowire-based compact synaptic cell (50x50 sq nm) with inherently low parasitic capacitance (hence, low dynamic power approx.l0(exp -11) watts/synapse), 2. Neuron and learning circuits implemented in 50-nm CMOS technology, to be integrated with quantum dot and nanowire synapse, and 3. 3D stacking approach to achieve the overall numbers of high density O(10(exp 12)) synapses and O(10(exp 8)) neurons in the overall system. In a 1-sq cm of quantum dot layer sitting on a 50-nm CMOS layer, innovators were able to pack a 10(exp 6)-neuron and 10(exp 10)-synapse array; however, the constraint for the connection scheme is that each neuron will receive a non-identical 10(exp 4)-synapse set, including itself, via its efficacy of the connection. This is not a fully connected system where the 100x100 synapse array only has a 100-input data bus and 100-output data bus. Due to the data bus sharing, it poses a great challenge to have a complete connected system, and its constraint within the quantum dot and silicon wafer layer. For an effective connection scheme, there are three conditions to be met: 1. Local connection. 2. The nanowire should be connected locally, not globally from which it helps to maximize the data flow by sharing the same wire space location. 3. Each synapse can have an alternate summation line if needed (this option is doable based on the simple mask creation). The 10(exp 3)x10(exp 3)-neuron array was partitioned into a 10-block, 10(exp 2)x10(exp 3)-neuron array. This building block can be completely mapped within itself (10,000 synapses to a neuron).

  8. Transport properties of F- in SF6-Xe, SF6-Ar and SF6-He mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhenni, M.; Yousfi, M.

    2012-02-01

    F- mobility was calculated in the gas mixtures SF6-Xe, SF6-Ar and SF6-He from a Monte Carlo code for ion transport simulation. The elastic momentum transfer cross sections were determined from the semi-classical JWKB approximation while the inelastic ones (detachment and charge transfer) were taken from the literature. The resulting collision cross section sets were validated from the good agreement between the calculated F- mobilities in the individual gases and the measured ones. Moreover, the longitudinal and transverse density normalized diffusion coefficients and the reaction rate coefficients were calculated in these mixtures for the case where the share of SF6 is 50%. Finally, a comparison of our calculated F- mobilities in these mixtures obtained from the Monte Carlo code and those obtained from linear Blanc's law showed good agreement in the case of SF6-Xe at low field but strong disagreement in the case of SF6-He mixture. However, at 2000 Td, deviation from Blanc's law is obtained for F- mobility in both mixtures.

  9. Photochemistry of Triton's Atmosphere and Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.; Cruikshank, Dale P.

    1995-01-01

    The photochemistry of 32 neutral and 21 ion species in Triton's atmosphere is considered. Parent species N2, CH4, and CO (with a mixing ratio of 3 x 10(exp -4) in our basic model) sublime from the ice with rates of 40, 208, and 0.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Chemistry below 50 km is driven mostly by photolysis of methane by the solar and interstellar medium Lyman-alpha photons, producing hydrocarbons C2H4, C2H6, and C2H2 which form haze particles with precipitation rates of 135, 28, and 1.3 g/sq cm/b.y., respectively. Some processes are discussed which increase the production of HCN (by an order of magnitude to a value of 29 g/sq cm/b.y.) and involve indirect photolysis of N2 by neutrals. Reanalysis of the measured methane profiles gives an eddy diffusion coefficient K = 4 x 10(exp 3)sq cm/s above the tropopause and a more accurate methane number density near the surface, (3.1 +/- 0.8)x IO(exp 11)/cu cm. Chemistry above 200 km is driven by the solar EUV radiation (lambda less than 1000 A) and by precipitation of magnetospheric electrons with a total energy input of 10(exp 8) W (based on thermal balance calculations). The most abundant photochemical species are N, H2, H, 0, and C. They escape with the total rates of 7.7 x 10(exp 24)/ s, 4.5 x 10(exp 25)/s, 2.4 x 10(exp 25)/s, 4.4 x 10(exp 22)/s, and 1.1 x 10(exp 24), respectively. Atomic species are transported to a region of 50-200 km and drive the chemistry there. Ionospheric chemistry explains the formation of an E region at 150-240 km with HCO(+) as a major ion, and of an F region above 240 km with a peak at 320 km and C(+) as a major ion. The ionosphere above 500 km consists of almost equal densities of C(+) and N(+) ions. The model profiles agree with the measured atomic nitrogen and electron density profiles. A number of other models with varying rate coefficients of some reactions, differing properties of the haze particles (chemically passive or active), etc., were developed. These models show that there

  10. ISMIP6: Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowicki, Sophie; Payne, Tony; Larour, Eric; Abe Ouchi, Ayako; Goelzer, Heiko; Gregory, Jonathan; Lipscomb, William; Seroussi, Helene; Shepherd, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The sea level projections made by the glaciological community as part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process have often been out of phase with the projections considered by the wider Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) community. For instance in AR5, the ice2sea and SeaRISE (Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution) ice sheet projects predominantly worked with AR4 scenarios, while the CMIP5 community used new future scenarios. As the next phase of CMIP is being designed (CMIP6), an effort for ice sheet models to be better integrated in the CMIP6 initiative has been proposed to the CMIP panel. We present the framework for the new effort, ISMIP6, the Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project for CMIP6. The primary goal of ISMIP6 is to improve projections of sea level rise via improved projections of the evolution of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets under a changing climate, along with a quantification of associated uncertainties (including uncertainty in both climate forcing and ice-sheet response). This goal requires an evaluation of AOGCM climate over and surrounding the ice sheets; analysis of simulated ice-sheet response from standalone models forced "offline" with CMIP AOGCM outputs and, where possible, with coupled ice sheet-AOGCM models; and experiments with standalone ice sheet models targeted at exploring the uncertainty associated with ice sheets physics, dynamics and numerical implementation. A secondary goal is to investigate the role of feedbacks between ice sheets and climate in order to gain insight into the impact of increased mass loss from the ice sheets on regional and global sea level, and of the implied ocean freshening on the coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation. These goals map into both Cryosphere and Sea-Level Rise Grand Challenges relevant to Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) and the World Climate Research Program (WCRP).

  11. 6Li from Solar Flares.

    PubMed

    Ramaty; Tatischeff; Thibaud; Kozlovsky; Mandzhavidze

    2000-05-10

    By introducing a hitherto ignored 6Li producing process, due to accelerated 3He reactions with 4He, we show that accelerated particle interactions in solar flares produce much more 6Li than 7Li. By normalizing our calculations to gamma-ray data, we demonstrate that the 6Li produced in solar flares, combined with photospheric 7Li, can account for the recently determined solar wind lithium isotopic ratio, obtained from measurements in lunar soil, provided that the bulk of the flare-produced lithium is evacuated by the solar wind. Further research in this area could provide unique information on a variety of problems, including solar atmospheric transport and mixing, solar convection and the lithium depletion issue, and solar wind and solar particle acceleration.

  12. 6α-Acetoxy-gedunin.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Margit; Greger, Harald; Mereiter, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: (1S,3aS,4aR,4bS,5S,6R,6aR,10aR,10bR,12aS)-5,6-bis-(acet-yloxy)-1-(3-fur-yl)-1,5,6,6a,7,10a,10b,11,12,12a-deca-hydro-4b,7,7,10a,12a-penta-methyl-oxireno[c]phenanthro[1,2-d]pyran-3,8(3aH,4bH)-dione], C(30)H(36)O(9), is a limonoid-type triterpene isolated from Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A. Juss.) Benth. (Meliaceae) from Queensland, northern Australia. It contains the gedunin core of four trans-fused six-membered rings with an oxirane ring annelated to the fourth ring. A terminal 3-furyl unity and two acet-oxy groups in a mutual cis-disposition supplement the mol-ecule. A comparison between the gedunin cores of the title compound, the parent compound gedunin, and three further gedunin derivatives revealed considerable variations in their conformation stemming from the conformational lability of the first screw-boat ring and the third twist-boat ring. A sensitive measure for the third ring is one C-C-C-C torsion angle, which is 14.2 (2)° in the title compound, but varies in other cases from ca 20 to ca -40°. In the crystalline state, 6α-acetoxy-gedunin shows ten comparatively weak C-H⋯O inter-actions, with H⋯O distances in the range of 2.33-2.69 Å. PMID:21583624

  13. DUF6 Materials Use Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.

    2002-09-04

    The U.S. government has {approx}500,000 metric tons (MT) of surplus depleted uranium (DU) in various chemical forms stored at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites across the United States. This DU, most of which is DU hexafluoride (DUF{sub 6}) resulting from uranium enrichment operations, is the largest amount of nuclear material in DOE's inventory. On July 6, 1999, DOE issued the ''Final Plan for the Conversion of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride as required by Public Law 105-204'', in which DOE committed to develop a ''Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Materials Use Roadmap'' in order to establish a strategy for the products resulting from conversion of DUF{sub 6} to a stable form. This report meets the commitment in the Final Plan by providing a comprehensive roadmap that DOE will use to guide any future research and development activities for the materials associated with its DUF{sub 6} inventory. The Roadmap supports the decision presented in the ''Record of Decision for Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride'', namely to begin conversion of the DUF{sub 6} inventory as soon as possible, either to uranium oxide, uranium metal, or a combination of both, while allowing for future uses of as much of this inventory as possible. In particular, the Roadmap is intended to explore potential uses for the DUF{sub 6} conversion products and to identify areas where further development work is needed. It focuses on potential governmental uses of DUF{sub 6} conversion products but also incorporates limited analysis of using the products in the private sector. The Roadmap builds on the analyses summarized in the recent ''Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Alternative Strategies for the Long-Term Management and Use of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride''. It also addresses other surplus DU, primarily in the form of DU trioxide and DU tetrafluoride. The DU-related inventory considered here includes the following: (1) Components directly associated with

  14. High accuracy ab initio studies of Li6+, Li6-, and three isomers of Li6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temelso, Berhane; Sherrill, C. David

    2005-02-01

    The structures and energetics of Li6+, Li6- and three isomers of Li6 are investigated using the coupled-cluster singles, doubles and perturbative triples [CCSD(T)] method with valence and core-valence correlation consistent basis sets of double- to quadruple-ζ quality (cc-pVXZ and cc-pCVXZ, where X =D-Q). These results are compared with qualitatively different predictions by less reliable methods. Our results conclusively show that the D4h isomer is the global minimum structure for Li6. It is energetically favored over the C5v and D3h structures by about 5.1 and 7.1kcalmol-1, respectively, after the inclusion of the zero-point vibrational energy (ZPVE) correction. Our most accurate total atomization energies are 123.2, 117.6, and 115.7kcalmol-1 for the D4h, C5v, and D3h isomers, respectively. Comparison of experimental optical absorption spectra with our computed electronic spectra also indicate that the D4h isomer is indeed the most stable structure. The cation, anion, and some higher spin states are investigated using the less expensive cc-pCVDZ basis set. Adiabatic ionization energies and electron affinities are reported and compared with experimental values. Predictions of molecular properties are found to be sensitive to the basis set used and to the treatment of electron correlation.

  15. 1,6-Hexamethylene diisocyanate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,6 - Hexamethylene diisocyanate ; CASRN 822 - 06 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  16. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,6 - Trichlorophenol ; CASRN 88 - 06 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  17. Big6 Turbotools and Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    The different tools that are helpful during the Synthesis stage, their role in boosting students abilities in Synthesis and the way in which it can be customized to meet the needs of each group of students are discussed. Big6 TurboTools offers several tools to help complete the task. In Synthesis stage, these same tools along with Turbo Report and…

  18. Desoxyhemigossypol-6-methyl-ether

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Desoxyhemigossypol-6-methyl ether is an antimicrobial compound produced by the cotton plant in response to attack by pathogens. For the first time, we now report the crystal structure of this compound. This may prove useful in studies on the interaction of the compound with pathogenic fungal cells...

  19. Patriotic Observances. Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    Materials and suggestions to help teachers in grades K-6 highlight special dates that hold significance for Canadian children are provided. The purpose is to arouse an awareness in children of their Canadian identity. The "patriotic observances" should take place at the beginning of every school day. Materials concerning Canadian natural wonders,…

  20. Brain IL-6 and autism.

    PubMed

    Wei, H; Alberts, I; Li, X

    2013-11-12

    Autism is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Emerging evidence suggests that aberrant neuroimmune responses may contribute to phenotypic deficits and could be appropriate targets for pharmacologic intervention. Interleukin (IL)-6, one of the most important neuroimmune factors, has been shown to be involved in physiological brain development and in several neurological disorders. For instance, findings from postmortem and animal studies suggest that brain IL-6 is an important mediator of autism-like behaviors. In this review, a possible pathological mechanism behind autism is proposed, which suggests that IL-6 elevation in the brain, caused by the activated glia and/or maternal immune activation, could be an important inflammatory cytokine response involved in the mediation of autism-like behaviors through impairments of neuroanatomical structures and neuronal plasticity. Further studies to investigate whether IL-6 could be used for therapeutic interventions in autism would be of great significance.

  1. Teacher's Guide: Social Studies, 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.

    This teacher's guide, part of a sequential K-12 series, provides objectives and activities for social studies students in grade 6. Five major sections focus on learning, inquiry, and discussion skills, concepts, and values and moral reasoning. Learning skills stress listening, speaking, viewing, reading, writing, map, and statistical abilities.…

  2. Skylab Experiments, Volume 6, Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Volume 6, one of a series of booklets designed to acquaint teachers with the Skylab Program, is focused on mechanics. Introductory material provides background information on Skylab and its related education program. Section 1 of the booklet presents relevant physics content concerning the concept of mechanics. Section 2 contains a discussion of…

  3. Metric Activities, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Bob, Comp.

    This pamphlet presents worksheets for use in fifteen activities or groups of activities designed for teaching the metric system to children in grades K through 6. The approach taken in several of the activities is one of conversion between metric and English units. The majority of the activities concern length, area, volume, and capacity. A…

  4. Valuing the Environment, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public Schools, Charlotte, NC.

    This guide was developed for use in grades K-6 as an enrichment program based on clarifying values. The program, designed by teachers, aims to develop in the student a greater awareness and understanding of the community, themselves, and the earth. The program includes a number of environmental encounters. Topical themes lead teachers and students…

  5. Ingress of water into solid nylon 6.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, P.; Bowtell, R.; Blackband, S.

    The ingress of water into Nylon 6.6 has been studied over a range of temperatures by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The results have been used to extract the translational diffusion coefficient as a function of water concentration for various temperatures. These results in turn allow the activation energies to be evaluated. Other experiments have been made to measure the spin relaxation times T1 and T2. The results are interpreted using a two-phase exchange model from which good agreement for both the diffusion and relaxation-time data is obtained. High-pressure diffusion results also presented support the view that water is taken up preferentially at the amorphous amide sites in the Nylon and that pressure increases serve to force water onto sitccupied sites and/or onto occupied sites, giving up to three waters per amide site.

  6. 6Li(p,Δ++)6He reaction reanalysed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Bijoy; Jain, B. K.

    1998-03-01

    Using our recently developed formalism for the (p,Δ) reaction, which includes the decay of Δ inside the nuclear medium, we study the 6Li(p,Δ++)6He reaction, and compare the calculated cross sections with those measured some time back at Saturne. In the formalism, the Δ resonance decays into pπ+ either inside or outside the nuclear medium. The medium effects on Δ as well as on p and π+ are incorporated through appropriate optical potentials. The transition potential for the elementary process pp-->nΔ++ is taken to be one pion-exchange, whose parameters are constrained to reproduce the measured spin averaged cross sections on the pp--> nΔ++ reaction over a large energy range. The calculated results agree well with the measured cross sections. © 1998

  7. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Receptor Antagonist Protects Against Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Li, Songsong; Wu, Zhenzhou; Li, Ling; Liu, Xuehua

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor antagonist tocilizumab (TCZ) on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its related mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty RA patients receiving long-term methotrexate therapy at moderate and severe active stages were selected and treated with TCZ 8 mg/kg/time iv gtt intravenously guttae every 4 weeks. Peripheral blood was extracted before and 24 weeks after TCZ treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected by density gradient centrifugation. Flow cytometry was used to detect the ratio of CD4 naïve T cells and CD4 memory T cells, Th17 cells, and Treg cells in PBMC. DAS28 score, CRP, RF, and CCP levels in patients were evaluated. RESULTS Compared with before treatment, IL-6 receptor antagonist TCZ significantly improved patients' condition, including DAS28 score, CRP, RF, and CCP levels (P<0.01). Furthermore, TCZ obviously upregulated CD4 naïve T cells proportion and decreased CD4 memory T cells ratio (P<0.01). TCZ also markedly reduced the proportion of Th17 cells and increased the proportion of Treg cells (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS TCZ can treat RA patients through regulating the ratio of CD4 naïve T cells, CD4 memory T cells, Th17 cells, and Treg cells in PBMC. PMID:27322646

  8. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) Receptor Antagonist Protects Against Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Songsong; Wu, Zhenzhou; Li, Ling; Liu, Xuehua

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor antagonist tocilizumab (TCZ) on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and its related mechanism. Material/Methods Thirty RA patients receiving long-term methotrexate therapy at moderate and severe active stages were selected and treated with TCZ 8 mg/kg/time iv gtt intravenously guttae every 4 weeks. Peripheral blood was extracted before and 24 weeks after TCZ treatment. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected by density gradient centrifugation. Flow cytometry was used to detect the ratio of CD4 naïve T cells and CD4 memory T cells, Th17 cells, and Treg cells in PBMC. DAS28 score, CRP, RF, and CCP levels in patients were evaluated. Results Compared with before treatment, IL-6 receptor antagonist TCZ significantly improved patients’ condition, including DAS28 score, CRP, RF, and CCP levels (P<0.01). Furthermore, TCZ obviously upregulated CD4 naïve T cells proportion and decreased CD4 memory T cells ratio (P<0.01). TCZ also markedly reduced the proportion of Th17 cells and increased the proportion of Treg cells (P<0.01). Conclusions TCZ can treat RA patients through regulating the ratio of CD4 naïve T cells, CD4 memory T cells, Th17 cells, and Treg cells in PBMC. PMID:27322646

  9. High Electron Mobility in SiGe/Si n-MODFET Structures on Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Carl H.; Croke, Edward T.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    2003-01-01

    For the first time, SiGe/Si n-Modulation Doped Field Effect Transistors (n-MODFET) structures have been grown on sapphire substrates. Room temperature electron mobility value of 1271 square centimeters N-sec at an electron carrier density (n(sub e) = 1.33x10(exp 12) per square centimeter)) of 1.6 x 10(exp 12) per square centimeter was obtained. At 250 mK, the mobility increases to 13,313 square centimeters/V-sec (n(sub e)=1.33x10(exp 12) per square centimeter)) and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations appear, showing excellent confinement of the two-dimensional electron gas.

  10. The Preparation Conditions of Chromium Doped ZnSe and Their Effect on the Infrared Luminescence Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, A.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Ndap, J.-O.; Ma, X.; Morgan, S. H.; Rablau, C. I.; Su, C. H.; Feth, S.

    2000-01-01

    We report the investigation by photoluminescence lifetime measurements of the near-IR emissions from a series of chromium-doped ZnSe samples, correlated to their preparation conditions. The samples were polycrystalline or single crystals prepared by post growth diffusion doping or single crystals doped during growth by the physical vapor transport method. Room temperature lifetime values between 6 and 8 micro seconds were measured for samples with Cr2+ from low 10(exp 17) to high 10(exp 18) / cubic cm range. Lifetime data taken down to 78 K was found to be rather temperature independent, reconfirming previous reports indicating a quantum yield of the corresponding emission of close to 100% at room temperature. A strong decrease in the room temperature lifetime was found for chromium concentrations higher than 10(exp 19) / cubic CM.

  11. Real-Tme Boron Nitride Erosion Measurements of the HiVHAc Thruster via Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Brian C.; Yalin, Azer P.; Gallimore, Alec; Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani

    2013-01-01

    Cavity ring-down spectroscopy was used to make real-time erosion measurements from the NASA High Voltage Hall Accelerator thruster. The optical sensor uses 250 nm light to measure absorption of atomic boron in the plume of an operating Hall thruster. Theerosion rate of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator thruster was measured for discharge voltages ranging from 330 to 600 V and discharge powers ranging from 1 to 3 kW. Boron densities as high as 6.5 x 10(exp 15) per cubic meter were found within the channel. Using a very simple boronvelocity model, approximate volumetric erosion rates between 5.0 x 10(exp -12) and 8.2 x 10(exp -12) cubic meter per second were found.

  12. Compressible Boundary Layer Predictions at High Reynolds Number using Hybrid LES/RANS Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Jung-Il; Edwards, Jack R.; Baurle, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of compressible boundary layer flow at three different Reynolds numbers (Re(sub delta) = 5.59x10(exp 4), 1.78x10(exp 5), and 1.58x10(exp 6) are performed using a hybrid large-eddy/Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes method. Variations in the recycling/rescaling method, the higher-order extension, the choice of primitive variables, the RANS/LES transition parameters, and the mesh resolution are considered in order to assess the model. The results indicate that the present model can provide good predictions of the mean flow properties and second-moment statistics of the boundary layers considered. Normalized Reynolds stresses in the outer layer are found to be independent of Reynolds number, similar to incompressible turbulent boundary layers.

  13. Possible applications of atomic frequency standards with an internal high resolution digital synthesizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Detoma, E.; Stern, A.

    1993-01-01

    The applications of Atomic Frequency Standards with an internal synthesizer (thereafter referred as 'Synthesized Frequency Standards or Oscillators') with a special emphasis on the Rb oscillator are reviewed. A fractional frequency synthesizer, developed by SEPA, was incorporated in the Frequency Locked Loop of a TFL Rubidium Frequency Standard. This combination allows a frequency settability in steps of 1.5 x 10(exp -12) (optional 1 x 10(exp -13) over a range of 6 x 10(exp -9) without having to resort to change the C-field to tune the output frequency of the device. This capability, coupled to the excellent short term stability of the Rb frequency standard, opens new possibilities for time and frequency users in the various fields (time metrology, navigation, communication, etc.) in which stable frequency standards find their application.

  14. Electron Field Emission Properties of Textured Platinum Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.

    2002-01-01

    During ground tests of electric microthrusters and space tests of electrodynamic tethers the electron emitters must successfully operate at environmental pressures possibly as high as 1x10(exp -4) Pa. High partial pressures of oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor are expected in such environments. A textured platinum surface was used in this work for field emission cathode assessments because platinum does not form oxide films at low temperatures. Although a reproducible cathode conditioning process did not evolve from this work, some short term tests for periods of 1 to 4 hours showed no degradation of emission current at an electric field of 8 V/mm and background pressures of about 1x10(exp -6) Pa. Increases of background pressure by air flow to about 3x10(exp -4) Pa yield a hostile environment for the textured platinum field emission cathode.

  15. The Preparation Conditions of Chromium Doped ZnSe and Their Effect on The Infrared Luminescence Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, A.; Chattopadhyay, K.; Ndap, J.-O.; Ma, X.; Morgan, S. H.; Rablau, C. I.; Su, C.-H.; Feth, S.; Page, Ralph H.; Schaffers, Kathleen I.; Rose, M. Franklin

    2000-01-01

    We report the investigation by photoluminescence lifetime measurements of the near-IR emissions from a series of chromium-doped ZnSe samples, correlated to their preparation conditions. The samples were polycrystalline or single crystals prepared by post growth diffusion doping or single crystals doped during growth by the Physical Vapor Transport method. Room temperature lifetime values between 6 and 8 microseconds were measured for samples with Cr (2+) concentrations from low 10 (exp 17) to high 10 (exp 18) per cubic centimeter range. Lifetime data taken down to 78 K was found to be rather temperature independent, reconfirming previous reports indicating a quantum yield of the corresponding emission of close to 100% at room temperature. A strong decrease in the room temperature lifetime was found for chromium concentrations higher than 10 (exp 19) per cubic centimeter.

  16. Electron-impact ionization of laser-excited Ba-138 (... 5p6 6s 6p) and Ba-138 (... 5p6 6s 5d) atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trajmar, S.; Nickel, J. C.; Antoni, T.

    1986-01-01

    Electron-impact ionization cross sections for laser-excited Ba-138 (... 5p6 6s 6p; 1P1, M = - 1) and cascade-populated Ba-138 (... 5p6 6s 5d; 1D + 3D) atoms were measured in the threshold to 10 eV energy range. The peak cross sections for the excited species are about a factor of 2 larger than that for ground-state Ba. In addition, it was demonstrated that ionization from individual magnetic substates of various hyperfine levels can be studied. The ionization cross sections in the case of Ba-138 (1P1) were found to be equal for the M = 0 and for the M = + or - 1 sublevels within the experimental error limit.

  17. X-Ray Emission from the Sun in Its Youth and Old Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorren, J. D.; Gudel, M.; Guinan, E. F.

    1995-01-01

    We have obtained ROSAT PSPC (Roentgen Satellite Position Sensitive Proportional Counter) pointed observations of two nearby G stars of ages 70 Myr and 9.5 Gyr that are of unique importance as proxies for the Sun at the two extremes of its main-sequence evolutionary lifetime. The younger star, HD 129333 (EK Dra; G0 V), a rapid rotator with a 2.7 day period, is a strong source with an X-ray luminosity L(x)(0.2-2.4 keV) = (7.5-11.5) x 10(exp 29) erg/s. Modeling suggests a two-temperature corona with T(1) = (2.0 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp 6) K and T(2) = (9.7 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp 6) K (formal uncertainties). A continuous emission measure distribution, increasing to higher temperatures and with a cutoff at (20-30) x 10(exp 6) K, yields even better fits to the data. The old star, beta Hyi (HR 98; G2 IV), represents the Sun in the future, near the end of its hydrogen-core burning stage, when it should be rotating more slowly (present P(rot) = 25.4 day) and should have lower levels of activity. The ROSAT measurements yield L(x) = (0.9-3.0) x 10(exp 27) ergs/s and a rather cool, single coronal temperature of T = (1.7 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp 6) K. For comparison, the Sun has L(x) approx. equal to 2 x 10(exp 27) ergs/s and a coronal temperature of about T = 2 x 10(exp 6) K. These stars provide information on the decline of the stellar (and specifically solar) magnetic activity from extreme youth to old age. HD 129333 is also important in that it yields an estimate of the solar soft X-ray flux in the early solar system at the epoch of the terminal stages of planetary accretion.

  18. Fractionation of hydrogen and deuterium on Venus due to collisional ejection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurwell, Mark A.; Yung, Yuk L.

    1993-01-01

    The collisional ejection process for hydrogen on Venus is reanalyzed. Improved values for the efficiency of H and D escape as a function of the ionospheric temperature are reported. It is proposed that the reduction of the hydrogen flux for collisional ejection be reduced from 8 to 3.5 x 10 exp 6/sq cm/s, and a revised D/H fractional factor of 0.47 due to collisional ejection is suggested. The resulting deuterium flux is 3.1 x 10 exp 4/sq cm/s, roughly six times the flux due to charge exchange, making collisional ejection the dominant escape mechanism for deuterium on Venus.

  19. Study of tellurium precipitates in CdTe crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayatirtha, H. N.; Henderson, D. O.; Burger, A.; Volz, M. P.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of tellurium precipitates was studied in medium resistivity (10 exp 3-10 exp 6 ohm cm) undoped and Cl-doped CdTe using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mid-infrared spectroscopy and the results were correlated with near-infrared microscopy photographs. When present in a significant quantity (about 0.25 wt pct), we show that Te precipitates are detectable using DSC measurements. In the mid-infrared, the contribution of the absorption by free-carriers is negligible, and therefore, the effect of the Te precipitates in these crystals can be considered uncoupled from the effects of Cd vacancies.

  20. Ultra-stable Hg(+) trapped ion frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Dick, G. John; Maleki, Lute

    1990-01-01

    A fieldable trapped ion frequency standard based on Hg-199(+) ions confined in a hybrid rf/dc linear ion trap is developed. This trap permits storage of large numbers of ions with reduced susceptibility to the second-order Doppler effect caused by the rf confining fields. In preliminary measurements a stability of 2 to 3 x 10(exp -15) was obtained for 10000 second averaging times. These measurements were carried out with a 120 mHz wide atomic resonance line for the 40.5 GHz clock transition with a second order Doppler shift from the rf trapping field of 6 x 10(exp -13).

  1. Deformation behavior of a Ni-30Al-20Fe-0.05Zr intermetallic alloy in the temperature range 300 to 1300 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Locci, I. E.; Noebe, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The deformation properties of an extruded Ni-30Al-20Fe-0.05Zr (at. pct) alloy in the temperature range 300-1300 K were investigated under initial tensile strain rates that varied between 10 exp -6 and 10 exp -3/sec and in constant load compression creep between 1073 and 1300 K. Three deformation regimes were observed: region I, occurring between 400 and 673 K, which consisted of an athermal regime of less than 0.3 percent tensile ductility; region II, between 673 and 1073, where exponential creep was dominant; and region III, between 1073 and 1300 K, where a significant improvement in tensile ductility was observed.

  2. Hard X-ray Observation of Cygnus X-1 By the Marshall Imaging X-ray Experiment (MIXE2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minamitani, Takahisa; Apple, J. A.; Austin, R. A.; Dietz, K. L.; Koloziejczak, J. J.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    The second generation of the Marshall Imaging X-ray Experiment (MIXE2) was flown from Fort Sumner, New Mexico on May 7-8, 1997. The experiment consists of coded-aperture telescope with a field of view of 1.8 degrees (FWHM) and an angular resolution of 6.9 arcminutes. The detector is a large (7.84x10(exp 4) sq cm) effective area microstrip proportional counter filled with 2.0x10(exp5) Pascals of xenon with 2% isobutylene. We present MIXE2 observation of the 20-80keV spectrum and timing variability of Cygnus X-1 made during balloon flight.

  3. In vitro Catecholamine Exposure Produces Variable Effects on the B7 Costimulatory Pathway in Human Monocytic Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salicru, A. N.; Crucian, B.; Sams, Clarence; Actor, J. K.; Marshall, G. D., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Catecholamines have been associated with immunomodulation of the adaptive immune system towards a Th2 response in vitro. We therefore examined the role of in vitro epinephrine (EPI) and norepinephrine (NE) exposure on the B7 costimulatory expression of antigen presenting cells (APC) from human monocytic cell lines and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). THP1 monocytic cells and CD14+ cells from normal human PBMC were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and incubated with physiologic stress levels (10(exp -6) - 10(exp -8)M) of EPI or NE for 24 hours. Cells were subsequently stained with CD80 FITC, CD86 PE, and CD14 PC5 antibodies and analyzed by flow cytometry for changes in fluorescence and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI). Exposure of THP1 to EPI in vitro at concentrations of 10(exp -6), 10(exp -7) and 10(exp -8)M significantly decreased mean CD80 from 42 plus or minus 0.7% to 11 plus or minus 0.44%, 19.1 plus or minus 2.0%, and 30.7 plus or minus 2.1% expression, respectively (p less than 0.01). In addition, CD86 expression increased with EPI at 10(exp -6), 10(exp -7) and 10(exp -8) M from 9.2 plus or minus 0.52% to 41 plus or minus 3.8%, 26.4 plus or minus 1.9%, and 15.74 plus or minus 1.8% expression, respectively (p less than 0.01). Similar results for mean CD80 and CD86 percent expression were observed for CD14+ cells from PBMC with a sample size of N = 6 and for NE when substituted for EPI. The data show that in vitro exposure to catecholamines significantly decreases %CD86 expression and significantly increases %CD86 expression in THP1 cells and human CD14+ APC. Previous studies have suggested an association between increased CD86 expression and TH2 activity. Thus, these data suggest that immunomodulation by catecholamines results in part by the variable effects of the B7 costimulatory pathway in APC.

  4. SCExAO: First Results and On-Sky Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, Thayne; Guyon, Olivier; Martinache, Frantz; Clergeon, Christophe; McElwain, Michael; Thalmann, Christian; Jovanovic, Nemanja; Singh, Garima; Kudo, Tomoyuki

    2013-01-01

    We present new on-sky results for the Subaru Coronagraphic Extreme Adaptive Optics imager (SCExAO) verifying and quantifying the contrast gain enabled by key components: the closed-loop coronagraphic low-order wavefront sensor (CLOWFS) and focal plane wavefront control ("speckle nulling"). SCExAO will soon be coupled with a high-order, Pyramid wavefront sensor which will yield greater than 90% Strehl ratio and enable 10(exp 6) -10(exp 7) contrast at small angular separations allowing us to image gas giant planets at solar system scales. Upcoming instruments like VAMPIRES, FIRST, and CHARIS will expand SCExAO's science capabilities.

  5. Carbon Nanotube Interconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun (Inventor); Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for fabricating an electrical interconnect capable of supporting very high current densities ( 10(exp 6)-10(exp 10) Amps/sq cm), using an array of one or more carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The CNT array is grown in a selected spaced apart pattern, preferably with multi-wall CNTs, and a selected insulating material, such as SiOw, or SiuNv is deposited using CVD to encapsulate each CNT in the array. An exposed surface of the insulating material is planarized to provide one or more exposed electrical contacts for one or more CNTs.

  6. Basic features of the STS/Spacelab vibration environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugher, Charles R.; Ramachandran, N.

    1994-01-01

    The Space Shuttle acceleration environment is characterized. The acceleration environment is composed of a residual or quasi-steady component and higher frequency components induced by vehicle structural modes and the operation of onboard machinery. Quasi-steady accelerations are generally due to atmospheric drag, gravity gradient effects, and rotational forces. These accelerations tend to vary with the orbital frequency (approx. 10(exp -4) Hz) and have magnitudes less than or equal to 10(exp -6) g(sub 0) (where 1 g(sub 0) is terrestrial gravity). Higher frequency g-jitter is characterized by oscillatory disturbances in the 1-100 Hz range and transient components. Oscillatory accelerations are related to the response of large flexible structures like antennae, the Spacelab module, and the Orbiter itself, and to the operation of rotating machinery. The Orbiter structural modes in the 1-10 Hz range, are excited by oscillatory and transient disturbances and tend to dominate the energy spectrum of the acceleration environment. A comparison of the acceleration measurements from different Space Shuttle missions reveals the characteristic signature of the structural modes of the Orbiter overlaid with mission specific hardware induced disturbances and their harmonics. Transient accelerations are usually attributed to crew activity and Orbiter thruster operations. During crew sleep periods, the acceleration levels are typically on the order of 10(exp -6) g(sub 0) (1 micro-g). Crew work and exercise tend to raise the accelerations to the 10(exp -3) g(sub 0) (1 milli-g) level. Vernier reaction control system firings tend to cause accelerations of 10(exp -4) g(sub 0), while primary reaction control system and Orbiter maneuvering system firings cause accelerations as large as 10(exp -2) g(sub 0). Vibration isolation techniques (both active and passive systems) used during crew exercise have been shown to significantly reduce the acceleration magnitudes.

  7. Methyl 6-chloro-nicotinate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Yang, Ling-Ling; Yang, Sheng-Yong; Liu, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The mol-ecule of the title compound, C(7)H(6)ClNO(2), is almost planar, with a dihedral angle of 3.34 (14)° between the COOMe group and the aromatic ring. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are arranged into (1[Formula: see text]2) layers by C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds and there are π-π stacking inter-actions between the aromatic rings in adjacent layers [centroid-centroid distance 3.8721 (4) Å].

  8. DWPF SB6 INITIAL CPC FLOWSHEET TESTING SB6-1 TO SB6-4L TESTS OF SB6-A AND SB6-B SIMULANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Best, D.

    2009-09-09

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will transition from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing to Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) processing in late fiscal year 2010. Tests were conducted using non-radioactive simulants of the expected SB6 composition to determine the impact of varying the acid stoichiometry during the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processes. The work was conducted to meet the Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2008-0043, Rev.0 and followed the guidelines of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT&QAP). The flowsheet studies are performed to evaluate the potential chemical processing issues, hydrogen generation rates, and process slurry rheological properties as a function of acid stoichiometry. These studies were conducted with the estimated SB6 composition at the time of the study. This composition assumed a blend of 101,085 kg of Tank 4 insoluble solids and 179,000 kg of Tank 12 insoluble solids. The current plans are to subject Tank 12 sludge to aluminum dissolution. Liquid Waste Operations assumed that 75% of the aluminum would be dissolved during this process. After dissolution and blending of Tank 4 sludge slurry, plans included washing the contents of Tank 51 to {approx}1M Na. After the completion of washing, the plan assumes that 40 inches on Tank 40 slurry would remain for blending with the qualified SB6 material. There are several parameters that are noteworthy concerning SB6 sludge: (1) This is the second batch DWPF will be processing that contains sludge that has had a significant fraction of aluminum removed through aluminum dissolution; (2) The sludge is high in mercury, but the projected concentration is lower than SB5; (3) The sludge is high in noble metals, but the projected concentrations are lower than SB5; and(4) The sludge is high in U and Pu - components that are not added in sludge simulants. Six DWPF process simulations were completed in 4-L laboratory-scale equipment using

  9. Modeling Rdamage-6 through -9

    SciTech Connect

    Kaul, Ann

    2012-06-13

    The RDamage series of ten experiments is part of a long-term collaboration with RFNC/VNIIEF in pulsed power technology. These experiments use a cylindrical configuration to study spallation damage, which allows for a natural recollection of the damaged material under proper driving conditions and post-shot collection of the damaged target material for subsequent metallographic analysis. Dynamic in-situ experimental velocimetry diagnostics are also employed. LANL is responsible for the design of the experimental load and velocimetry system. VNIIEF is responsible for the design and construction of the driving explosive magnetic generator. In the RDamage-0, -1 and -2 experiments, data was collected about failure initiation of a well-characterized material (aluminum) in a cylindrical geometry. The RDamage-3, -4 and -5 experiments produced data on the behavior of material recollected after damage from pressures in the damage initiation regime. Data on the behavior of material recollected after complete failure was collected in the RDamage-6, -7, -8 and -9 experiments. This presentation shows the recent LANL simulation results for RD-6 through -9.

  10. AFIP-6 Breach Assessment Report

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wachs; Adam Robinson; Pavel Medvedev

    2011-02-01

    Analysis of the AFIP-6 experiment is summarized in this report in order to determine the cause of gaseous fission product release observed during irradiation. During the irradiation, a series of small fission product releases were observed. In order to limit the potential for primary coolant contamination, the operating cycle was terminated and the AFIP-6 experiment was removed for examination. Both in-canal and post-irradiation examination revealed the presence of an unusually thick oxide layer and discrete surface blisters on the fuel plates. These blisters were the likely cause of fission product release. Subsequent detailed thermal hydraulic analysis of the experiment indicated that the combination of the high operating power and test vehicle configuration led to high nominal operating temperatures for the fuel plates. This elevated temperature led to accelerated surface corrosion and eventually spallation of the fuel plate cladding. The thermal insulating nature of this corrosion layer led to significantly elevated fuel meat temperatures that induced blistering. Analysis was performed to validate a corrosion rate model and criteria for onset of spallation type surface corrosion were determined. The corrosion rate model will be used to estimate the oxide thickness anticipated for experiments in the future. The margin to the spallation threshold will then be used to project the experiment performance.

  11. ALSSAT Version 6.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hue-Hsia; Brown, Cheryl; Jeng, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) at the time of this reporting has been updated to version 6.0. A previous version was described in Tool for Sizing Analysis of the Advanced Life Support System (MSC- 23506), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 43. To recapitulate: ALSSAT is a computer program for sizing and analyzing designs of environmental-control and life-support systems for spacecraft and surface habitats to be involved in exploration of Mars and the Moon. Of particular interest for analysis by ALSSAT are conceptual designs of advanced life-support (ALS) subsystems that utilize physicochemical and biological processes to recycle air and water and process human wastes to reduce the need of resource resupply. ALSSAT is a means of investigating combinations of such subsystems technologies featuring various alternative conceptual designs and thereby assisting in determining which combination is most cost-effective. ALSSAT version 6.0 has been improved over previous versions in several respects, including the following additions: an interface for reading sizing data from an ALS database, computational models of a redundant regenerative CO2 and Moisture Removal Amine Swing Beds (CAMRAS) for CO2 removal, upgrade of the Temperature & Humidity Control's Common Cabin Air Assembly to a detailed sizing model, and upgrade of the Food-management subsystem.

  12. Preliminary results of a balloon flight of the solar disk sextant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maier, E.; Twigg, L.; Sofia, S.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary results of a balloon flight on October 11, 1991, of the solar disk sextant (SDS) experiment are reported. The SDS is an instrument which measures the solar diameter at different orientations with respect to the solar polar axis. Fitting straight lines through two fixed-angle data sets with time as the independent variable yields slopes of (7.1 +/ - 1.5) x 10 exp -3 and (6.7 +/- 1.6) x 10 exp -3/mas s, consistent with the value of 6.47 x 10 exp -3/mas s expected from the earth's approach to the sun due to the orbital motion toward perihelion. Upon the instrument's rotation on its axis a sinusoidal component of the diameter measurement was observed in each rotation cycle, with a variable amplitude of about 150 mas. The present result is epsilon of (5.6 +/- 6.3) x 10 exp -6, about 30 deg offset from the polar-equator position. The absolute diameter obtained by means of the FFT definition is found to be 1919.269 +/- 0.240 arcsec or 1919.131 +/- 0.240 arcsec, depending on the orientation mode of the measurement.

  13. Preliminary results of a balloon flight of the solar disk sextant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, E.; Twigg, L.; Sofia, S.

    1992-04-01

    Preliminary results of a balloon flight on October 11, 1991, of the solar disk sextant (SDS) experiment are reported. The SDS is an instrument which measures the solar diameter at different orientations with respect to the solar polar axis. Fitting straight lines through two fixed-angle data sets with time as the independent variable yields slopes of (7.1 +/ - 1.5) x 10 exp -3 and (6.7 +/- 1.6) x 10 exp -3/mas s, consistent with the value of 6.47 x 10 exp -3/mas s expected from the earth's approach to the sun due to the orbital motion toward perihelion. Upon the instrument's rotation on its axis a sinusoidal component of the diameter measurement was observed in each rotation cycle, with a variable amplitude of about 150 mas. The present result is epsilon of (5.6 +/- 6.3) x 10 exp -6, about 30 deg offset from the polar-equator position. The absolute diameter obtained by means of the FFT definition is found to be 1919.269 +/- 0.240 arcsec or 1919.131 +/- 0.240 arcsec, depending on the orientation mode of the measurement.

  14. Coronal Magnetic Structures Observing Campaign. 3: Coronal plasma and magnetic field diagnostics derived from multiwaveband active region observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmelz, J. T.; Holman, G. D.; Brosius, J. W.; Willson, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    Simultaneous soft X-ray, microwave, and photospheric magnetic field observations were taken during the Coronal Magnetic Structures Observing Campaign (CoMStOC '87). The plasma electron temperature and emission measures determined from the X-ray data are used to predict the free-free emission expected at 20 and 6 cm. Comparing these predictions with the microwave observations, it is found that the predicted 20 cm brightness temperatures are higher than the observed, requiring cool absorbing material between the hot X-ray plasma and the observer. The model that is most consistent with all the observations and minimizes the required coronal fields indicates that this 20 cm emission is either free-free or a combination of free-free and fourth harmonic cyclotron emanating from the X-ray plasma with an electron temperature of approximately 3.1 x 10(exp 6) K and an emission measure of approximately 1.3 x 10(exp 29)/cm(exp 5). The observed 20 cm polarization requires a field strength of greater than or equal to 150 G. In addition, the 6 cm emission is free-free, emanating from cooler plasma with an electron temperature of approximately 1.5 x 10(exp 6) K and an emission measure of approximately 3-6 x 10(exp 29)/cm(exp 5). This model is consistent with the rather unusual combination of high 20 cm and low 6 cm polarization as well as the low extrapolated coronal fields.

  15. Sea Ice Concentration and Extent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3-6% of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 x 10(exp 6) sq km to 16 x 10(exp 6) sq km, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km to about 19 x 10(exp 6) sq km (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2-3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and compared to the average ocean depth of about 3 km, it is a relatively thin, fragile sheet that can break due to waves and winds or melt due to upwelling of warm water. Being constantly advected by winds, waves, and currents, sea ice is very dynamic and usually follows the directions of the many gyres in the polar regions. Despite its vast expanse, the sea ice cover was previously left largely unstudied and it was only in recent years that we have understood its true impact and significance as related to the Earths climate, the oceans, and marine life.

  16. Spectral and Timing Nature of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 4U 1954+319: The Slowest Rotating Neutron Star in AN X-Ray Binary System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'Ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jorn

    2014-01-01

    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its approx. 5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (is approx. 7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-K alpha line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (approx. 60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (approx. greater than 10(exp12) G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (10(exp33)-10(exp35) erg s(exp-1)), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a approx. 10(exp13) G NS, this scheme can explain the approx. 5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (approx. 10(exp16) G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (approx. 50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfv´en shell for a approx. 10(exp13) G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  17. SR90, strontium shaped-charge critical ionization velocity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, Eugene M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, Hans; Swift, Daniel W.; Valenzuela, Arnoldo; Rees, David

    1990-01-01

    In May 1986 an experiment was performed to test Alfven's critical ionization velocity (CIV) effect in free space, using the first high explosive shaped charge with a conical liner of strontium metal. The release, made at 540 km altitude at dawn twilight, was aimed at 48 deg to B. The background electron density was 1.5 x 10(exp 4) cu cm. A faint field-aligned Sr(+) ion streak with tip velocity of 2.6 km/s was observed from two optical sites. Using two calibration methods, it was calculated that between 4.5 x 10(exp 20) and 2 x 10(exp 21) ions were visible. An ionization time constant of 1920 s was calculated for Sr from the solar UV spectrum and ionization cross section which combined with a computer simulation of the injection predicts 1.7 x 10(exp 21) solar UV ions in the low-velocity part of the ion streak. Thus all the observed ions are from solar UV ionization of the slow (less than critical) velocity portion of the neutral jet. The observed neutral Sr velocity distribution and computer simulations indicate that 2 x 10(exp 21) solar UV ions would have been created from the fast (greater than critical) part of the jet. They would have been more diffuse, and were not observed. Using this fact it was estimated that any CIV ions created were less than 10(exp 21). It was concluded that future Sr CIV free space experiments should be conducted below the UV shadow height and in much larger background plasma density.

  18. BOREAS TE-6 Allometry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Gower, Stith T.; Vogel, Jason G.

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-6 team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the plant biomass, allometry, biometry, sapwood, leaf area index, net primary production, soil temperature, leaf water potential, soil CO2 flux, and multivegetation imagery of boreal vegetation. This data set includes tree measurements conducted on the above-ground biomass of trees in the BOREAS NSA and SSA during the growing seasons of 1994 and 1995 and the derived allometric relationships/equations. The data are stored in ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distrobuted Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  19. Marie Curie during ORT6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Marie Curie sits on the lander petal prior to deployment during the pre launch Operations Readiness Test (ORT) 6.

    Pathfinder, a low-cost Discovery mission, is the first of a new fleet of spacecraft that are planned to explore Mars over thenext ten years. Mars Global Surveyor, already en route, arrives at Mars on September 11 to begin a two year orbital reconnaissance of the planet's composition, topography, and climate. Additional orbiters and landers will follow every 26 months.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  20. 6th International Microbeam Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Dr Kevin M. Prise

    2004-01-01

    The extended abstracts which are submitted here present a summary of the proceedings of the 6th International Workshop/12th LH Gray Workshop: Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response, held at St. Catherine's College, University of Oxford, UK on March, 29th-31st, 2003. In 1993 the 4th LH Gray Workshop entitled ''Microbeam Probes of Cellular Radiation Response'' was held at the Gray Cancer Institute in Northwood. This was organized by Prof BD Michael, Dr M. Folkard and Dr KM Prise and brought together 40 participants interested in developing and applying new microbeam technology to problems in radiation biology (1). The workshop was an undoubted success and has spawned a series of subsequent workshops every two years. In the past, these workshops have been highly successful in bringing together groups interested in developing and applying micro-irradiation techniques to the study of cell and tissue damage by ionizing radiations. Following the first microbeam workshop, there has been a rapid growth in the number of centres developing radiobiology microbeams, or planning to do so and there are currently 15-20 worldwide. Much of the recent research using microbeams has used them to study low-dose effects and ''non-targeted'' responses such bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive responses. The goal of the 6th workshop was to build on our knowledge of the development of microbeam approaches and the application to radiation biology in the future with the meeting stretching over a 3 day period. Over 80 participants reviewed the current state of radiobiology microbeam research worldwide and reported on new technological developments both in the fields of physics and biology.

  1. Neutron-capture Cl-36, Ca-41, Ar-36, and Sm-150 in large chondrites: Evidence for high fluences of thermalized neutrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D. D.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bansal, B. M.; Garrison, D. H.; Wiesmann, H.; Herzog, G. F.; Albrecht, A. A.; Vogt, S.; Klein, J.

    1995-01-01

    We have measured significant concentrations of Cl-36, Ca-41, Ar-36 from decay of Cl-36, and Sm-150 produced from the capture of thermalized neutrons in the large Chico L6 chondrite. Activities of Cl-36 and Ca-41, corrected for a high-energy spallogenic component and a terrestrial age of approximately 50 ka, give average neutron-capture production rates of 208 atoms/min/g-Cl and 1525 atoms/min/kg-Ca, which correspond to thermal neutron (n) fluxes of 6.2 n/sq cm/s and 4.3 n/sq cm/s, respectively. If sustained for the approximately 65 Ma single-stage, cosmic ray exposure age of Chico, these values correspond to thermal neutron fluences of approximately 1.3 x 10(exp 16) and 0.8 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm for Cl-36 and Ca-41, respectively. Stepwise temperature extraction of Ar in Chico impact melt shows Ar-36/Ar-38 ratios as large as approximately 9. The correlation of high Ar-36/Ar-38 with high Cl/Ca phases in neutron-irradiated Chico indicates that the excess Ar-36 above that expected from spallation is due to decay of neutron-produced Cl-36. Excess Ar-36 in Chico requires a thermal neutron fluence of 0.9-1.7 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm. Decreases in Sm-149/Sm-152 due to neutron-capture by Sm-149 correlate with increases in Sm-150/Sm-152 for three samples of Chico, and one of the Torino H-chondrite. The 0.08% decrease in Sm-149 shown by Chico corresponds to a neutron fluence of 1.23 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm. This fluence derived from Sm considers capture of epithermal neutrons and effects of chemical composition on the neutron energy distribution. Excess Ar-36 identified in the Arapahoe, Bruderheim, and Torino chondrites and the Shallowater aubrite suggest exposure to neutron fluences of approximately 0.2-0.2 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm. Depletion of Sm-149 in Torino and the LEW86010 angrite suggest neutron fluences of 0.8 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm and 0.25 x 10(exp 16) n/sq cm, respectively. Neutron fluences of approximately 10(exp 16) n/sq cm in Chico are almost as large as those previously

  2. COP9 signalosome subunit 6 (CSN6) regulates E6AP/UBE3A in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Liem Minh; Qdaisat, Aiham; Yeung, Sai-Ching J.; Lee, Mong-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in women. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the major cause in almost 99.7% of cervical cancer. E6 oncoprotein of HPV and E6-associated protein (E6AP) are critical in causing p53 degradation and malignancy. Understanding the E6AP regulation is critical to develop treating strategy for cervical cancer patients. The COP9 signalosome subunit 6 (CSN6) is involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. We found that both CSN6 and E6AP are overexpressed in cervical cancer. We characterized that CSN6 associated with E6AP and stabilized E6AP expression by reducing E6AP poly-ubiquitination, thereby regulating p53 activity in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that CSN6-E6AP axis can be regulated by EGF/Akt signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of CSN6-E6AP axis hinders cervical cancer growth in mice. Taken together, our results indicate that CSN6 is a positive regulator of E6AP and is important for cervical cancer development. PMID:26318036

  3. COP9 signalosome subunit 6 (CSN6) regulates E6AP/UBE3A in cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shujun; Fang, Lekun; Phan, Liem Minh; Qdaisat, Aiham; Yeung, Sai-Ching J; Lee, Mong-Hong

    2015-09-29

    Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in women. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the major cause in almost 99.7% of cervical cancer. E6 oncoprotein of HPV and E6-associated protein (E6AP) are critical in causing p53 degradation and malignancy. Understanding the E6AP regulation is critical to develop treating strategy for cervical cancer patients. The COP9 signalosome subunit 6 (CSN6) is involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. We found that both CSN6 and E6AP are overexpressed in cervical cancer. We characterized that CSN6 associated with E6AP and stabilized E6AP expression by reducing E6AP poly-ubiquitination, thereby regulating p53 activity in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that CSN6-E6AP axis can be regulated by EGF/Akt signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of CSN6-E6AP axis hinders cervical cancer growth in mice. Taken together, our results indicate that CSN6 is a positive regulator of E6AP and is important for cervical cancer development. PMID:26318036

  4. Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter.

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, Diana L; Smith, Chris; Jenne, Dale Scott; Jacob, Paul; Copping, Andrea; Willits, Steve; Fontaine, Arnold; Brefort, Dorian; Gordon, Margaret Ellen; Copeland, Robert; Jepsen, Richard Alan

    2014-10-01

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. In this report, a conceptual design for an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (WEC) device appropriate for the modeled reference resource site was identified, and a detailed backward bent duct buoy (BBDB) device design was developed using a combination of numerical modeling tools and scaled physical models. Our team used the methodology in SAND2013-9040 for the economic analysis that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays, up to 100 devices. The methodology was applied to identify key cost drivers and to estimate levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for this RM6 Oscillating Water Column device in dollars per kilowatt-hour ($/kWh). Although many costs were difficult to estimate at this time due to the lack of operational experience, the main contribution of this work was to disseminate a detailed set of methodologies and models that allow for an initial cost analysis of this emerging technology. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program Office (WWPTO), within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE). Sandia National Laboratories, the lead in this effort, collaborated with partners from National Laboratories, industry, and universities to design and test this reference model.

  5. Boundary Layer Transition Correlations and Aeroheating Predictions for Mars Smart Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Liechty, Derek S.

    2002-01-01

    Laminar and turbulent perfect-gas air, Navier-Stokes computations have been performed for a proposed Mars Smart Lander entry vehicle at Mach 6 over a free stream Reynolds number range of 6.9 x 10(exp 6)/m to 2.4 x 10(exp 7)/m (2.1 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.3 x 10(exp 6)/ft) for angles-of-attack of 0-deg, 11-deg, 16-deg, and 20-deg, and comparisons were made to wind tunnel heating data obtained a t the same conditions. Boundary layer edge properties were extracted from the solutions and used to correlate experimental data on the effects of heat-shield penetrations (bolt-holes where the entry vehicle would be attached to the propulsion module during transit to Mars) on boundary-layer transition. A non-equilibrium Martian-atmosphere computation was performed for the peak heating point on the entry trajectory in order to determine if the penetrations would produce boundary-layer transition by using this correlation.

  6. Boundary Layer Transition Correlations and Aeroheating Predictions for Mars Smart Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Liechty, Derek S.

    2002-01-01

    Laminar and turbulent perfect-gas air, Navier-Stokes computations have been performed for a proposed Mars Smart Lander entry vehicle at Mach 6 over a free stream Reynolds number range of 6.9 x 10(exp 6/m to 2.4 x 10(exp 7)m(2.1 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.3 x 10(exp 6)ft) for angles-of-attack of 0-deg, 11-deg, 16-deg, and 20-deg, and comparisons were made to wind tunnel heating data obtained at the same conditions. Boundary layer edge properties were extracted from the solutions and used to correlate experimental data on the effects of heat-shield penetrations (bolt-holes where the entry vehicle would be attached to the propulsion module during transit to Mars) on boundary-layer transition. A non-equilibrium Martian-atmosphere computation was performed for the peak heating point on the entry trajectory in order to determine if the penetrations would produce boundary-layer transition by using this correlation.

  7. Mach 10 computational study of a three-dimensional scramjet inlet flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1995-01-01

    The present work documents the computational results for a combined computational and experimental parametric study of the internal aerodynamics of a generic three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlet configuration at Mach 10. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code SCRAMIN was chosen for the computational portion of the study because it uses a well-known and well-proven numerical scheme and has shown favorable comparison with experiment at Mach numbers between 2 and 6. One advantage of CFD was that it provided flow field data for a detailed examination of the internal flow characteristics in addition to the surface properties. The experimental test matrix at Mach 10 included three geometric contraction ratios (3, 5, and 9), three Reynolds numbers (0.55 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 1.14 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot), and three cowl positions (at the throat and two forward positions). Computational data for two of these configurations (the contraction ratio of 3, Re = 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot, at two cowl positions) are presented along with a detailed analysis of the flow interactions in successive computational planes.

  8. Mach 10 computational study of a three-dimensional scramjet inlet flow field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Scott D.

    1995-01-01

    The present work documents the computational results for a combined computational and experimental parametric study of the internal aerodynamics of a generic three-dimensional sidewall-compression scramjet inlet configuration at Mach 10. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code SCRAMIN was chosen for the computational portion of the study because it uses a well-known and well-proven numerical scheme and has shown favorable comparison with experiment at Mach numbers between 2 and 6. One advantage of CFD was that it provided flow field data for a detailed examination of the internal flow characteristics in addition to the surface properties. The experimental test matrix at mach 10 included three geometric contraction ratios (3, 5, and 9), three Reynolds numbers (0.55 x 10(exp 6) per foot, 1.14 x 10(exp 6) per foot, and 2.15 x 10(exp 6) per foot), and three cowl positions (at the throat and two forward positions). Computational data for two of these configurations (the contraction ratio of 3, Re = 2.15 x 10 (exp 6) per foot, at two cowl positions) are presented along with a detailed analysis of the flow interactions in successive computational planes.

  9. Saltstone SDU6 Modeling Study

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Si Y.; Hyun, Sinjae

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System Plan. The unit is a cylindrical disposal cell of 375 ft in diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has a minimum 30 million gallons of capacity. SRNL was requested to evaluate the impact of an increased grout placement height on the flow patterns radially spread on the floor and to determine whether grout quality is impacted by the height. The primary goals of the work are to develop the baseline Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as a function of elevation of grout discharge port and grout rheology. Two transient grout models have been developed by taking a three-dimensional multiphase CFD approach to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor and to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation height of the discharge port and fresh grout properties. For the CFD modeling calculations, air-grout Volume of Fluid (VOF) method combined with Bingham plastic and time-dependent grout models were used for examining the impact of fluid spread performance for the initial baseline configurations and to evaluate the impact of grout pouring height on grout quality. The grout quality was estimated in terms of the air volume fraction for the grout layer formed on the SDU6 floor, resulting in the change of grout density. The study results should be considered as preliminary scoping analyses since benchmarking analysis is not included in this task scope. Transient analyses with the Bingham plastic model were performed with the FLUENTTM code on the high performance parallel computing platform in SRNL. The analysis coupled with a transient grout aging model was performed by using ANSYS-CFX code

  10. Proteomic analysis of SETD6 interacting proteins

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Ofir; Chen, Ayelet; Feldman, Michal; Levy, Dan

    2016-01-01

    SETD6 (SET-domain-containing protein 6) is a mono-methyltransferase that has been shown to methylate RelA and H2AZ. Using a proteomic approach we recently identified several new SETD6 substrates. To identify novel SETD6 interacting proteins, SETD6 was immunoprecipitated (IP) from Human erythromyeloblastoid leukemia K562 cells. SETD6 binding proteins were subjected to mass-spectrometry analysis resulting in 115 new SETD6 binding candidates. STRING database was used to map the SETD6 interactome network. Network enrichment analysis of biological processes with Gene Ontology (GO) database, identified three major groups; metabolic processes, muscle contraction and protein folding. PMID:26937450

  11. Experimental investigation of the Marangoni effect on the stability of a double-diffusive layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanny, Josef; Chen, Chuan F.

    1994-01-01

    Stability experiments were carried out in 4-cm-thick, salt-stratified fluid layer by heating from below and cooling from above. The bottom boundary was rigid while the top was either free or rigid. The initial solute Rayleigh number varied from 2.5 x 10(exp 6) to 4.6 x 10(exp 7). For the rigid-free case, at initial solute Rayleigh numbers R(sub s) greater than 5.4 x 10(exp 6), thermal Marangoni instabilities were observed to onset along the free surface at a relatively low thermal Rayleigh number, R(sub t). The convection was very weak, and it had almost no effect on the concentration and temperature distributions. Double-diffusive instabilities along the top free surface were observed to onset at a higher R(sub t), with much stronger convection causing changes in the concentration and temperature distributions near the top. At a yet higher R(sub t), double-diffusive convection was observed to onset along the bottom boundary. Fluid motion in the layer then evolved into fully developed thermal convection of a homogeneous fluid without any further increase in the imposed Delta T. For layers with R(sub s) less than 5.4 x 10(exp 6), Marangoni and double-diffusive instabilities onset simultaneously along the free surface first, while double-diffusive instabilities along the bottom wall onset at a higher R(sub t).

  12. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2005-01-01

    Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

  13. An Experimental Investigation of the Pressure Distribution on A 1/15-Scale Model of the Lockheed WS-117L Vehicle Plus Booster "B" at Mach Numbers from 0.70 to 1.45

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, Russell E.; Marker, Ralph D.

    1959-01-01

    Results obtained with two nose shapes tested at a Reynolds number per foot of 5 x 10(exp 6) at angles of attack from -4 deg to +10 deg at 0 deg angle of sideslip are presented in tabulated pressure coefficient form without analysis.

  14. Specific Volumes of the Zr(41.2)Ti(13.8)Cu(12.5)Ni(10.0)Be(22.5) Alloy in the Liquid, Glass, and Crystalline States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohsaka, K.; Chung, S. K.; Rhim, W. K.; Johnson, W. L.; Peker, A.; Scruggs, D.

    1997-01-01

    The specific volumes of the Zr(41.2)Ti(3.8)Cu(2.5)Ni(10.0)Be(22.5) alloy as a function of temperature, T, are determined by employing an image digitizing technique and numerical calculation methods applied to the electrostatically levitated spherical alloy. The linear fitting of the volumes of the alloy in the liquid, V(sub l), glass, V(sub g) and crystalline V(sub c), states in the temperature ranges shown in parentheses are V(sub l)(T) = 0.1583 + 8.877 x 10(exp -6) T(cu cm/g) (700-1300 K);V(sub g)(T) = 0.1603 + 5.528 x 10(exp -6) T (400-550 K);V(sub c)(T) = 0.1583 + 6.21 x 10(exp -6)T(400-850 K). The average volume thermal expansion coefficients within the temperature ranges are determined to be 5.32, 3.39. and 3.83 x 10(exp -5) (1/K) for the liquid, glass, and crystalline states, respectively.

  15. Electric Propulsion Options for 10 kW Class Earth-Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, M. J.; Curran, Francis M.

    1989-01-01

    Five and 10 kW ion and arcjet propulsion system options for a near-term space demonstration experiment were evaluated. Analyses were conducted to determine first-order propulsion system performance and system component mass estimates. Overall mission performance of the electric propulsion systems was quantified in terms of the maximum thrusting time, total impulse, and velocity increment capability available when integrated onto a generic spacecraft under fixed mission model assumptions. Maximum available thrusting times for the ion-propelled spacecraft options, launched on a DELTA 2 6920 vehicle, range from approximately 8,600 hours for a 4-engine 10 kW system to more than 29,600 hours for a single-engine 5 kW system. Maximum total impulse values and maximum delta-v's range from 1.2x10 (exp 7) to 2.1x10 (exp 7) N-s, and 3550 to 6200 m/s, respectively. Maximum available thrusting times for the arcjet propelled spacecraft launched on the DELTA 2 6920 vehicle range from approximately 528 hours for the 6-engine 10 kW hydrazine system to 2328 hours for the single-engine 5 kW system. Maximum total impulse values and maximum delta-v's range from 2.2x10 (exp 6) to 3.6x10 (exp 6) N-s, and approximately 662 to 1072 m/s, respectively.

  16. Reynolds Number Effects on the Performance of Ailerons and Spoilers (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mineck, R. E.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of Reynolds number on the performance of outboard spoilers and ailerons was investigated on a generic subsonic transport configuration in the National Transonic Facility over a chord Reynolds number range from 3 to 30 million and a Mach number range from 0.70 to 0.94. Spoiler deflection angles of 0, 10, and 20 degrees and aileron deflection angles of -10, 0, and 10 degrees were tested. Aeroelastic effects were minimized by testing at constant normalized dynamic pressure conditions over intermediate Reynolds number ranges. Results indicated that the increment in rolling moment due to spoiler deflection generally becomes more negative as the Reynolds number increases from 3 x 10(exp 6) to 22 x 10 (exp 6) with only small changes between Reynolds numbers of 22 x 10(exp 6) and 30 x 10(exp 6). The change in the increment in rolling moment coefficient with Reynolds number for the aileron deflected configuration is generally small with a general trend of increasing magnitude with increasing Reynolds number.

  17. Beneficial Effects of Adenylyl Cyclase Type 6 (AC6) Expression Persist Using a Catalytically Inactive AC6 Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Tong; Lai, Ngai Chin; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Guo, Tracy; Tang, Rouying; Firth, Amy L.; Yuan, Jason X.; Hammond, H. Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac-directed expression of AC6 has pronounced favorable effects on cardiac function possibly not linked with cAMP production. To determine rigorously whether cAMP generation is required for the beneficial effects of increased AC6 expression, we generated a catalytically inactive AC6 mutant (AC6mut) that has markedly diminished cAMP generating capacity by replacing aspartic acid with alanine at position 426 in the C1 domain (catalytic region) of AC6. Gene transfer of AC6 or AC6mut (adenovirus-mediated) in adult rat cardiac myocytes resulted in similar expression levels and intracellular distribution, but AC6mut expression was associated with marked reduction in cAMP production. Despite marked reduction in cAMP generation, AC6mut influenced intracellular signaling events similarly to that observed after expression of catalytically intact AC6. For example, both AC6 and AC6mut reduced phenylephrine-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis (p < 0.001), expression of cardiac ankyrin repeat protein (p < 0.01), and phospholamban (p < 0.05). AC6mut expression, similar to its catalytically intact cohort, was associated with increased Ca2+ transients in cardiac myocytes after isoproterenol stimulation. Many of the biological effects of AC6 expression are replicated by a catalytically inactive AC6 mutant, indicating that the mechanisms for these effects do not require increased cAMP generation. PMID:21127130

  18. Differential tropism of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) variants and induction of latency by HHV-6A in oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Ahlqvist, Jenny; Fotheringham, Julie; Akhyani, Nahid; Yao, Karen; Fogdell-Hahn, Anna; Jacobson, Steven

    2005-08-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a ubiquitous beta -herpesvirus associated with a number of clinical disorders. Two closely but biologically distinct variants have been described. HHV-6 variant B causes the common childhood disease exhanthem subitum, and although the pathologic characteristics for HHV-6 variant A are less well defined, HHV-6A has been suggested to be more neurotropic. We studied the effect of both HHV-6 variants in an oligodendrocyte cell line (MO3.13). Infection of M03.13 was monitored by cytopathic effect (CPE), quantitative TaqMan PCR for viral DNA in cells and supernatant, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect viral RNA, and indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) to detect viral protein expression. HHV-6A infection induced significantly more CPE than infection with HHV-6B. HHV-6B induced an abortive infection associated with a decrease of the initial viral DNA load over time, early RNA expression, and no expression of viral antigen. In contrast, infection with HHV-6A DNA persisted in cells for at least 62 days. During the acute phase of infection with HHV-6A, intracellular and extracellular viral load increased and cells expressed the viral protein IE-2 and gp116/54/64. No HHV-6A RNA or protein was expressed after 30 days post infection, suggesting that HHV-6A formed a latent infection. These studies provide in vitro support to the hypothesis that HHV-6 can actively infect oligodendrocytes. Our results suggest that HHV-6A and HHV-6B have different tropism in MO3.13 cells and that an initially active HHV-6A infection can develop latency. Differences between HHV-6A and -6B infection in different neural cell types may be associated with different neurological diseases. PMID:16162481

  19. Serotype 6B from a pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine induces cross-functional antibody responses in adults to serotypes 6A, 6C, and 6D.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Wool; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Kyung-Hyo

    2016-09-01

    Cross-reactivity of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides is a key element for formulating pneumococcal vaccines and evaluating vaccine efficacy. This study examined whether 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23), which only contains 6B, can elicit cross-functional immune responses against recently discovered serotypes (6C and 6D), as well as against 6A, in 2 adult age groups.Young adults (25-51 years; N = 28) and elderly subjects (over 65 years; N = 60) were immunized with PPSV23. Functional antibody responses were determined in pre- and postimmune sera via multiplexed opsonophagocytic killing assay against serotypes 6A/B/C/D.At postimmunization, the geometric mean opsonic indices (OIs) for 6B and nonvaccine serotypes (6A, 6C, and 6D) significantly increased in both age groups. The geometric fold increases of OIs for 6B/A/C/D significantly differed (18.2, 24.8, 3.1, and 7.1, respectively). Proportions of subjects with 4-fold increases in OIs for 6B/A/C/D were 73%, 70%, 31%, and 49%, respectively. Correlations of fold increases in OIs were highest between 6B and 6A, followed by 6B and 6D, then by 6B and 6C. Comparisons of young adults and the elderly revealed that most immunogenicity variables were higher in the former group.Our data demonstrated that 6B in PPSV23 induced cross-functional immune responses against serotypes 6A, 6C, and 6D, according to the degree of similarity in their capsular polysaccharide structures. In addition, we found significant age-related differences in PPSV23-induced cross-reactivity. PMID:27631247

  20. 7 CFR 600.6 - Field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Field offices. 600.6 Section 600.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.6 Field offices. Each field office is under the direction...

  1. 7 CFR 600.6 - Field offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Field offices. 600.6 Section 600.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.6 Field offices. Each field office is under the direction...

  2. 11 CFR 9002.6 - Major party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 CFR 9002.6, candidate means, with respect to any preceding Presidential election, an individual... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major party. 9002.6 Section 9002.6 Federal... DEFINITIONS § 9002.6 Major party. Major party means a political party whose candidate for the office...

  3. 11 CFR 9002.6 - Major party.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 CFR 9002.6, candidate means, with respect to any preceding Presidential election, an individual... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Major party. 9002.6 Section 9002.6 Federal... DEFINITIONS § 9002.6 Major party. Major party means a political party whose candidate for the office...

  4. 46 CFR 160.036-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Container. 160.036-6 Section 160.036-6 Shipping COAST... § 160.036-6 Container. (a) General. The container for storing the signals on lifeboats and liferafts is not required to be of a special design or be approved by the Coast Guard. The container must meet...

  5. 40 CFR 164.6 - Time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Time. 164.6 Section 164.6 Protection... OTHER HEARINGS CALLED PURSUANT TO SECTION 6 OF THE ACT General § 164.6 Time. (a) Computation. In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by these rules, except as otherwise provided, the day...

  6. 40 CFR 164.6 - Time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time. 164.6 Section 164.6 Protection... OTHER HEARINGS CALLED PURSUANT TO SECTION 6 OF THE ACT General § 164.6 Time. (a) Computation. In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by these rules, except as otherwise provided, the day...

  7. 40 CFR 164.6 - Time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Time. 164.6 Section 164.6 Protection... OTHER HEARINGS CALLED PURSUANT TO SECTION 6 OF THE ACT General § 164.6 Time. (a) Computation. In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by these rules, except as otherwise provided, the day...

  8. 40 CFR 164.6 - Time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time. 164.6 Section 164.6 Protection... OTHER HEARINGS CALLED PURSUANT TO SECTION 6 OF THE ACT General § 164.6 Time. (a) Computation. In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by these rules, except as otherwise provided, the day...

  9. 32 CFR 1602.6 - Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Board. 1602.6 Section 1602.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.6 Board. The word board when used alone, unless the context otherwise indicates, includes a local board,...

  10. 32 CFR 1602.6 - Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Board. 1602.6 Section 1602.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.6 Board. The word board when used alone, unless the context otherwise indicates, includes a local board,...

  11. 32 CFR 1602.6 - Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Board. 1602.6 Section 1602.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.6 Board. The word board when used alone, unless the context otherwise indicates, includes a local board,...

  12. 32 CFR 1602.6 - Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Board. 1602.6 Section 1602.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.6 Board. The word board when used alone, unless the context otherwise indicates, includes a local board,...

  13. 32 CFR 1602.6 - Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Board. 1602.6 Section 1602.6 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 1602.6 Board. The word board when used alone, unless the context otherwise indicates, includes a local board,...

  14. 32 CFR 2402.6 - Business information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the requirements of Executive Order 12600 (3 CFR, 1988 Comp., p. 235); or (4) The designation made by... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Business information. 2402.6 Section 2402.6... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT § 2402.6 Business information. (a) In...

  15. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6... Original Classification § 2400.6 Classification levels. (a) National security information (hereinafter... three authorized classification levels, such as “Secret Sensitive” or “Agency Confidential.” The...

  16. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6... Original Classification § 2400.6 Classification levels. (a) National security information (hereinafter... three authorized classification levels, such as “Secret Sensitive” or “Agency Confidential.” The...

  17. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6... Original Classification § 2400.6 Classification levels. (a) National security information (hereinafter... three authorized classification levels, such as “Secret Sensitive” or “Agency Confidential.” The...

  18. 32 CFR 807.6 - Depositing payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Depositing payments. 807.6 Section 807.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION SALE TO THE PUBLIC § 807.6 Depositing payments. Obtain instructions from the local Accounting and Finance...

  19. 12 CFR 703.6 - Credit analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Credit analysis. 703.6 Section 703.6 Banks and... ACTIVITIES § 703.6 Credit analysis. A Federal credit union must conduct and document a credit analysis on an... Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. A Federal credit union must update this analysis at least...

  20. 12 CFR 703.6 - Credit analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit analysis. 703.6 Section 703.6 Banks and... ACTIVITIES § 703.6 Credit analysis. A Federal credit union must conduct and document a credit analysis on an... Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. A Federal credit union must update this analysis at least...

  1. 6 CFR 29.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., means validated CII, including information covered by 6 CFR 29.6(b) and (f), including the identity of... importance or use of the CII, when accompanied by an express statement as described in 6 CFR 29.5. (h... voluntary submission of information. Applications for SAFETY Act Designation or Certification under 6...

  2. 7 CFR 501.6 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Gambling. 501.6 Section 501.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.6 Gambling. Participating...

  3. 7 CFR 501.6 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gambling. 501.6 Section 501.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.6 Gambling. Participating...

  4. 7 CFR 501.6 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Gambling. 501.6 Section 501.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.6 Gambling. Participating...

  5. 7 CFR 501.6 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gambling. 501.6 Section 501.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.6 Gambling. Participating...

  6. 7 CFR 501.6 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gambling. 501.6 Section 501.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.6 Gambling. Participating...

  7. 32 CFR 1657.6 - Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation. 1657.6 Section 1657.6 National... PROCESSING § 1657.6 Transportation. (a) The Director shall furnish transportation for an overseas registrant... transportation from the place he reported for induction to the place to which his order to report for...

  8. 32 CFR 1657.6 - Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation. 1657.6 Section 1657.6 National... PROCESSING § 1657.6 Transportation. (a) The Director shall furnish transportation for an overseas registrant... transportation from the place he reported for induction to the place to which his order to report for...

  9. 32 CFR 1657.6 - Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation. 1657.6 Section 1657.6 National... PROCESSING § 1657.6 Transportation. (a) The Director shall furnish transportation for an overseas registrant... transportation from the place he reported for induction to the place to which his order to report for...

  10. 32 CFR 1657.6 - Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation. 1657.6 Section 1657.6 National... PROCESSING § 1657.6 Transportation. (a) The Director shall furnish transportation for an overseas registrant... transportation from the place he reported for induction to the place to which his order to report for...

  11. 32 CFR 1657.6 - Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation. 1657.6 Section 1657.6 National... PROCESSING § 1657.6 Transportation. (a) The Director shall furnish transportation for an overseas registrant... transportation from the place he reported for induction to the place to which his order to report for...

  12. 7 CFR 1126.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supply plant. 1126.6 Section 1126.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1126.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  13. 7 CFR 1001.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supply plant. 1001.6 Section 1001.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1001.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  14. 7 CFR 1131.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supply plant. 1131.6 Section 1131.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1131.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  15. 7 CFR 1126.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supply plant. 1126.6 Section 1126.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1126.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  16. 7 CFR 1131.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supply plant. 1131.6 Section 1131.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1131.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  17. 7 CFR 1005.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supply plant. 1005.6 Section 1005.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1005.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  18. 7 CFR 1006.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supply plant. 1006.6 Section 1006.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1006.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  19. 7 CFR 1124.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supply plant. 1124.6 Section 1124.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  20. 7 CFR 1006.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supply plant. 1006.6 Section 1006.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1006.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  1. 7 CFR 1032.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supply plant. 1032.6 Section 1032.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1032.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  2. 7 CFR 1032.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supply plant. 1032.6 Section 1032.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1032.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  3. 7 CFR 1124.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supply plant. 1124.6 Section 1124.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  4. 7 CFR 1124.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supply plant. 1124.6 Section 1124.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  5. 7 CFR 1033.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supply plant. 1033.6 Section 1033.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1033.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  6. 7 CFR 1033.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supply plant. 1033.6 Section 1033.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1033.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  7. 7 CFR 1006.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supply plant. 1006.6 Section 1006.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1006.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  8. 7 CFR 1030.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supply plant. 1030.6 Section 1030.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1030.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  9. 7 CFR 1005.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supply plant. 1005.6 Section 1005.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1005.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  10. 7 CFR 1007.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supply plant. 1007.6 Section 1007.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1007.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  11. 7 CFR 1030.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supply plant. 1030.6 Section 1030.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1030.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  12. 7 CFR 1032.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supply plant. 1032.6 Section 1032.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1032.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  13. 7 CFR 1033.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supply plant. 1033.6 Section 1033.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1033.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  14. 7 CFR 1030.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supply plant. 1030.6 Section 1030.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1030.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  15. 7 CFR 1001.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supply plant. 1001.6 Section 1001.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1001.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  16. 7 CFR 1126.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supply plant. 1126.6 Section 1126.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1126.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  17. 7 CFR 1001.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supply plant. 1001.6 Section 1001.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1001.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  18. 7 CFR 1007.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supply plant. 1007.6 Section 1007.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1007.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  19. 7 CFR 1005.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supply plant. 1005.6 Section 1005.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1005.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  20. 7 CFR 1131.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supply plant. 1131.6 Section 1131.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1131.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  1. 7 CFR 1007.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Supply plant. 1007.6 Section 1007.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1007.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  2. 7 CFR 510.6 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appeals. 510.6 Section 510.6 Agriculture Regulations... PUBLIC INFORMATION § 510.6 Appeals. Any person whose request is denied shall have the right to appeal such denial. Appeals shall be made in accordance with § 1.14 of this title and should be addressed...

  3. 7 CFR 510.6 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appeals. 510.6 Section 510.6 Agriculture Regulations... PUBLIC INFORMATION § 510.6 Appeals. Any person whose request is denied shall have the right to appeal such denial. Appeals shall be made in accordance with § 1.14 of this title and should be addressed...

  4. 7 CFR 510.6 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appeals. 510.6 Section 510.6 Agriculture Regulations... PUBLIC INFORMATION § 510.6 Appeals. Any person whose request is denied shall have the right to appeal such denial. Appeals shall be made in accordance with § 1.14 of this title and should be addressed...

  5. 49 CFR 510.6 - Administrative depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative depositions. 510.6 Section 510.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION GATHERING POWERS § 510.6 Administrative depositions....

  6. 49 CFR 510.6 - Administrative depositions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative depositions. 510.6 Section 510.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION GATHERING POWERS § 510.6 Administrative depositions....

  7. 40 CFR 164.6 - Time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time. 164.6 Section 164.6 Protection... OTHER HEARINGS CALLED PURSUANT TO SECTION 6 OF THE ACT General § 164.6 Time. (a) Computation. In computing any period of time prescribed or allowed by these rules, except as otherwise provided, the day...

  8. 7 CFR 1030.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supply plant. 1030.6 Section 1030.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1030.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  9. 7 CFR 1005.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supply plant. 1005.6 Section 1005.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1005.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  10. 7 CFR 1131.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Supply plant. 1131.6 Section 1131.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1131.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  11. 7 CFR 1005.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Supply plant. 1005.6 Section 1005.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1005.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  12. 7 CFR 1030.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Supply plant. 1030.6 Section 1030.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1030.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  13. 7 CFR 1131.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supply plant. 1131.6 Section 1131.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1131.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  14. 7 CFR 1007.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supply plant. 1007.6 Section 1007.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1007.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  15. 7 CFR 1001.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supply plant. 1001.6 Section 1001.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1001.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  16. 7 CFR 1007.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Supply plant. 1007.6 Section 1007.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1007.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  17. 7 CFR 1006.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supply plant. 1006.6 Section 1006.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1006.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  18. 7 CFR 1126.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supply plant. 1126.6 Section 1126.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1126.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  19. 7 CFR 1126.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Supply plant. 1126.6 Section 1126.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1126.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  20. 7 CFR 1033.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supply plant. 1033.6 Section 1033.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1033.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  1. 7 CFR 1006.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Supply plant. 1006.6 Section 1006.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1006.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  2. 7 CFR 1124.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supply plant. 1124.6 Section 1124.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  3. 7 CFR 1033.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Supply plant. 1033.6 Section 1033.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1033.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  4. 7 CFR 1124.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Supply plant. 1124.6 Section 1124.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  5. 7 CFR 1032.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supply plant. 1032.6 Section 1032.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1032.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  6. 7 CFR 1032.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Supply plant. 1032.6 Section 1032.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1032.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  7. 7 CFR 1001.6 - Supply plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Supply plant. 1001.6 Section 1001.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1001.6 Supply plant. See § 1000.6....

  8. Eleven microbial metabolites of 6-hydroxyflavanone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    6-Hydroxyflavanone (1) when fermented with fungal culture Cunninghamella blakesleeana (ATCC 8688a) yielded flavanone 6-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside (2), flavanone 6-sulfate (3), and 6-hydroxyflavanone 7-sulfate (4). Aspergillus alliaceus (ATCC 10060) also transformed 1 to metabolite 3 as well as 4'-hydrox...

  9. 49 CFR 552.6 - Technical review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Technical review. 552.6 Section 552.6... § 552.6 Technical review. The appropriate Associate Administrator conducts a technical review of the petition. The technical review may consist of an analysis of the material submitted, together...

  10. 49 CFR 552.6 - Technical review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Technical review. 552.6 Section 552.6... § 552.6 Technical review. The appropriate Associate Administrator conducts a technical review of the petition. The technical review may consist of an analysis of the material submitted, together...

  11. 7 CFR 550.6 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 550.6 Section 550.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 550.6 Duration. REE...

  12. 7 CFR 550.6 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration. 550.6 Section 550.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General § 550.6 Duration. REE...

  13. The Constrained Crystallization of Nylon-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Anushree; Tonelli, Alan

    2008-10-01

    Non-covalently bonded crystalline inclusion compounds (ICs) have been formed by threading host cyclic starches, cyclodextrins (CDs) onto guest nylon 6 (N6) chains. When excess N6 is employed, non-stoichiometric (n-s)-N6-CD-ICs with partially uncovered and dangling N6 chains result. While the crystalline CD lattice is stable to ˜300 C, the uncovered and dangling, yet constrained, N6 chains may crystallize below or, as shown below, be molten above ˜225 C. We have been studying the constrained crystallization of the dangling N6 chains in (n-S)-N6-CD-ICs, with comparison to bulk N6 samples, as a function of N6 molecular weights, lengths of uncovered N6 chains, and the CD host used. In the IC channels formed with host α- and γ-CDs containing 6 and 8 glucose units, respectively, single and pairs of side-by-side N6 chains are threaded and included. In the α-CD-ICs the ˜ 0.5 nm channels are separated by ˜ 1.4 nm, while in γ-CD-ICs the ˜ 1 nm channels are ˜ 1.7 nm apart, with each γ-CD channel including 2 N6 chains. N6 chains in the bulk and in the dense (n-s)-N6-CD-IC brushes show distinctly different kinetic and thermodynamic crystallization behaviors.

  14. 49 CFR 552.6 - Technical review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Technical review. 552.6 Section 552.6... § 552.6 Technical review. The appropriate Associate Administrator conducts a technical review of the petition. The technical review may consist of an analysis of the material submitted, together...

  15. 7 CFR 500.6 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Gambling. 500.6 Section 500.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ARBORETUM Conduct on U.S. National Arboreturm Property § 500.6 Gambling. Participating in...

  16. 7 CFR 500.6 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gambling. 500.6 Section 500.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ARBORETUM Conduct on U.S. National Arboreturm Property § 500.6 Gambling. Participating in...

  17. 7 CFR 500.6 - Gambling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Gambling. 500.6 Section 500.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL ARBORETUM Conduct on U.S. National Arboreturm Property § 500.6 Gambling. Participating in...

  18. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 160.054-6 Section 160.054-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be...

  19. 46 CFR 160.041-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 160.041-6 Section 160.041-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be...

  20. 46 CFR 160.041-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking. 160.041-6 Section 160.041-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be...

  1. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking. 160.054-6 Section 160.054-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be...

  2. 46 CFR 160.054-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking. 160.054-6 Section 160.054-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Inflatable Liferafts § 160.054-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be...

  3. 46 CFR 160.041-6 - Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking. 160.041-6 Section 160.041-6 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Kits, First-Aid, for Merchant Vessels § 160.041-6 Marking. (a) Each approved first-aid kit shall be...

  4. 43 CFR 5401.0-6 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Policy. 5401.0-6 Section 5401.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... § 5401.0-6 Policy. (a) All sales other than those specified in § 5402.0-6 shall be made only...

  5. 43 CFR 5401.0-6 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Policy. 5401.0-6 Section 5401.0-6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... § 5401.0-6 Policy. (a) All sales other than those specified in § 5402.0-6 shall be made only...

  6. 32 CFR 807.6 - Depositing payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Depositing payments. 807.6 Section 807.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ADMINISTRATION SALE TO THE PUBLIC § 807.6 Depositing payments. Obtain instructions from the local Accounting and Finance...

  7. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6.... § 87.6 Aircraft safety. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 36381, June 18, 2012. The provisions of... revised text is set forth as follows: § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of this part will be...

  8. 32 CFR 2400.6 - Classification levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Classification levels. 2400.6 Section 2400.6... Original Classification § 2400.6 Classification levels. (a) National security information (hereinafter... three authorized classification levels, such as “Secret Sensitive” or “Agency Confidential.” The...

  9. 48 CFR 1602.170-6 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Director. 1602.170-6 Section 1602.170-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... 1602.170-6 Director. Director means the Director of the Office of Personnel Management....

  10. 48 CFR 1602.170-6 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Director. 1602.170-6 Section 1602.170-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... 1602.170-6 Director. Director means the Director of the Office of Personnel Management....

  11. 48 CFR 1602.170-6 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Director. 1602.170-6 Section 1602.170-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... 1602.170-6 Director. Director means the Director of the Office of Personnel Management....

  12. 48 CFR 1602.170-6 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Director. 1602.170-6 Section 1602.170-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... 1602.170-6 Director. Director means the Director of the Office of Personnel Management....

  13. 48 CFR 1602.170-6 - Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Director. 1602.170-6 Section 1602.170-6 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... 1602.170-6 Director. Director means the Director of the Office of Personnel Management....

  14. Planar dicyclic B{sub 6}S{sub 6}, B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup −}, and B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup 2−} clusters: Boron sulfide analogues of naphthalene

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Da-Zhi; Bai, Hui; Ou, Ting; Chen, Qiang; Li, Si-Dian E-mail: lisidian@sxu.edu.cn; Zhai, Hua-Jin E-mail: lisidian@sxu.edu.cn

    2015-01-07

    Inorganic analogues of hydrocarbons or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of current interest in chemistry. Based upon global structural searches and B3LYP and CCSD(T) calculations, we present herein the perfectly planar dicyclic boron sulfide clusters: D{sub 2h} B{sub 6}S{sub 6} (1, {sup 1}A{sub g}), D{sub 2h} B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup −} (2, {sup 2}B{sub 3u}), and D{sub 2h} B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup 2−} (3, {sup 1}A{sub g}). These are the global minima of the systems, being at least 0.73, 0.81, and 0.53 eV lower in energy, respectively, than their alternative isomers at the CCSD(T) level. The D{sub 2h} structures feature twin B{sub 3}S{sub 2} five-membered rings, which are fused together via a B{sub 2} unit and terminated by two BS groups. Bonding analyses show that the closed-shell B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup 2−} (3) cluster possesses 10 delocalized π electrons, closely analogous to the bonding pattern of the aromatic naphthalene C{sub 10}H{sub 8}. The B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup −} (2) and B{sub 6}S{sub 6} (1) species are readily obtained upon removal of one or two π electrons from B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup 2−} (3). The results build a new analogous relationship between boron sulfide clusters and their PAH counterparts. The B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup −} (2) monoanion and B{sub 6}S{sub 6}{sup 2−} (3) dianion can be effectively stabilized in neutral LiB{sub 6}S{sub 6} and Li{sub 2}B{sub 6}S{sub 6} salts, respectively.

  15. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and receptor (IL6-R) gene haplotypes associate with amniotic fluid protein concentrations in preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Velez, Digna R; Fortunato, Stephen J; Williams, Scott M; Menon, Ramkumar

    2008-06-01

    Spontaneous preterm birth (PTB-gestational age <37 weeks) occurs in approximately 450 000 births annually in the United States and is one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Risk of PTB is affected by complex gene-environment interactions that are not well understood. We examined the PTB candidate gene, Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and its receptor (IL6-R) in both Caucasian (145 PTB and 194 term maternal; 140 PTB and 179 term fetal) and African-American (76 PTB and 191 term maternal; 66 PTB and 183 term fetal) DNA. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-6 and 22 SNPs in IL6R were examined for association with IL-6 amniotic fluid (AF) concentrations, as concentration of IL-6 is a hypothesized risk factor. In addition, IL-6 and IL6-R SNPs were analyzed for associations with PTB. Haplotype associations were tested by sliding windows. No strong single marker effects were observed in Caucasians; however, in African-American maternal IL-6R marker rs4553185 associated with PTB (allele P = 4.49 x 10(-3) and genotype P = 0.01). The strongest haplotype associations were observed in IL-6R with IL-6 cytokine concentration as outcome: Caucasian fetal (rs4601580-rs4845618) P = 1.6 x 10(-3) and African-American maternal (rs4601580-rs4845618-rs6687726-rs7549338) P = 2.30 x 10(-3). Significant results converged on three regions in the two genes: in IL-6 markers rs1800797, rs1800796 and rs1800795; in IL-6R markers rs4075015, rs4601580, rs4645618, rs6687726 and rs7549338 and markers rs4845623, rs4537545 and rs4845625. In conclusion, our results suggest that IL-6 AF concentration, in situations of PTB, result from variation in IL-6 and more importantly IL-6R.

  16. N6-methyladenosine–encoded epitranscriptomics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nian; Pan, Tao

    2016-02-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most abundant internal modification in eukaryotic mRNA. Recent discoveries of the locations, functions and mechanisms of m6A have shed light on a new layer of gene regulation at the RNA level, giving rise to the field of m6A epitranscriptomics. In this Perspective, we provide an update on the various effects of mammalian m6A modification, which affects many different stages of the RNA life cycle. PMID:26840897

  17. Search for Antihelium with the BESS-Polar Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, M.; Mitchell, J. W.; Hams, T.; Abe, K.; Fuke, H.; Haino, S.; Hasegawa, M.; Horikoshi, A.; Itazaki, A.; Kim, K. C.; Kumazawa, T.; Kusumoto, A.; Lee, M. H.; Makida, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Matsukawa, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Myers, Z.; Nishimura, J.; Nozaki, M.; Orito, R.; Ormes, J. F.; Sakai, K.; Seo, E. S.

    2012-01-01

    In two long-duration balloon flights over Antarctica, the BESS-Polar collaboration has searched for antihelium in the cosmic radiation with higher sensitivity than any reported investigation. BESSPolar I flew in 2004, observing for 8.5 days. BESS-Polar II flew in 2007-2008, observing for 24.5 days. No antihelium candidate was found in BESS-Polar I data among 8.4 x 10(exp 6) [Z] = 2 nuclei from 1.0 to 20 GV or in BESS-Polar II data among 4.0 x 10(exp 7) [Z] = 2 nuclei from 1.0 to 14 GV. Assuming antihelium to have the same spectral shape as helium, a 95% confidence upper limit of 6.9 x 10(exp -8) was determined by combining all the BESS data, including the two BESS-Polar flights. With no assumed antihelium spectrum and a weighted average of the lowest antihelium efficiencies from 1.6 to 14 GV, an upper limit of 1.0 x 10(exp -7) was determined for the combined BESS-Polar data. These are the most stringent limits obtained to date.

  18. X-33 Turbulent Aeroheating Measurements and Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollis, Brian R.; Berry, Scott A.; Horvath, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements and predictions of the X-33 turbulent aeroheating environment have been performed for Mach 6, perfect-gas air conditions. The purpose of this investigation was to compare turbulent aeroheating predictions from two Navier-Stokes codes, LAURA and GASP, with each other and with experimental data in which turbulent flow was produced through either natural transition or forced transition using roughness elements. The wind tunnel testing was conducted at free stream Reynolds numbers of 0.72 x 10(exp 7)/m to 2.4 x 10(exp 7)/m (2.2 x 10(exp 6)/ft to 7.3 x 10(exp 6)/ft) on 0.254 m (10.0-in.) X-33 models at alpha = 40 deg with smooth surfaces, smooth surfaces with discrete trips, and surfaces with simulated bowed thermal protection system panels. Turbulent flow was produced by the discrete trips and bowed panels for all but the lowest Reynolds number, while turbulent flow on the smooth model was produced only at the highest Reynolds number. Turbulent aeroheating levels on each of the three model types were measured using global phosphor thermography and agreed to within the experimental accuracy (+/= 15%) of the test technique. Computations were performed at the wind tunnel free stream conditions using both codes. Turbulent aeroheating levels predicted using the LAURA code were generally 5%-10% lower than those from GASP, although both sets of predictions fell within the experimental accuracy of the wind tunnel data.

  19. Test Status for Proposed Coupling of a Gravitational Force to Extreme Type II YBCO Ceramic Superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Li, Ning; Robertson, Tony; Koczor, Ron; Brantley, Whitt

    1999-01-01

    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair electron density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (about 10-6 g/cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with the percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 10(exp 4) was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In the present experiments reported using a sensitive gravimeter (resolution <10(exp -9) unit gravity or variation of 10(exp -6) cm/sq s in accelerations), bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field (0.6 Tesla) subject to lateral AC fields (60 Gauss at 60 Hz) and rotation. With magnetic shielding, thermal control and buoyancy compensation, changes in acceleration were measured to be less than 2 parts in 10(exp 8) of the normal gravitational acceleration. This result puts new limits on the strength and range of the proposed coupling between high-Tc superconductors and gravity. Latest test results will be reported, along with status for future improvements and prospects.

  20. Ammonia Observations of NGC 6334 I(N)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Peters, W. L., III; Foster, J. R.; Gardner, F. F.; Whiteoak, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    Coincident with the far-infrared source NGC 6334 I(N) and water maser source E is a massive dense cloud which has the most intense ammonia (1, 1) emission of any known interstellar cloud. We have mapped the (3, 3) emission and find the cloud is extended 0.8 pc in the direction parallel to the Galactic plane, and 0.5 pc perpendicular to it. It has a velocity gradient of 1 km/s.pc perpendicular to the Galactic plane. The gas kinetic temperature is about 30 K and the density is greater than 10(exp 6)/cc. The mass of the cloud is about 3000 solar mass, 3 times greater than previously estimated. The para-ammonia column density is 6 - 8 x 10(exp 15)/sq cm. An ammonia abundance of 0.5 - 1.5 x 10(exp -8) is inferred, where the larger number assumes an early time ortho/para ratio. This suggests either a cloud age of less than approximately 10(exp 6) yr, or substantial depletion of ammonia.

  1. 7 CFR 6.6 - Submission of recommendations under section 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of recommendations under section 22. 6.6 Section 6.6 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES General Provisions § 6.6 Submission of recommendations under section 22. (a) The Administrator shall make a report to...

  2. A Catalog of Soft X-Ray Shadows, and More Contemplation of the 1/4 KeV Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Freyberg, M. J.; Kuntz, K. D.; Sanders, W. T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a catalog of shadows in the 1/4 keV soft X-ray diffuse background 4 (SXRB) that were identified by a comparison between ROSAT All-Sky Survey maps and DIRB&corrected IRAS 100 micron maps. These "shadows" are the negative correlations between the surface brightness of the SXRB and the column density of the Galactic interstellar medium (ISIM) over limited angular regions (a few degrees in extent). We have compiled an extensive but not exhaustive set of 378 shadows in the polar regions of the Galaxy (Absolute value (beta) > and approximately equal 20 deg.), and determined their foreground and background X-ray intensities (relative to the absorbing features), and the respective hardness ratios of that emission. The portion of the sky that was examined to find these shadows was restricted in general to regions where the minimum column density is less than and approximately equal to 4 x 10(exp 20) H/square cm, i.e., relatively high Galactic latitudes, and to regions away from distinct extended features in the SXRB such as supernova remnants and superbubbles. The results for the foreground intensities agree well with the recent results of a general analysis of the local 1/4 KeV emission while the background intensities show additional. but not unexpected scatter. The results also confirm the existence of a gradient in the hardness of the local 1/4 keV emission along a Galactic center/ anticenter axis with a temperature that varies from 10(exp 6.13) K to 10(exp 6.02) K, respectively. The average temperature of the foreground component from this analysis is 10(exp 6.08) K, compared to 10(exp 6.06) K in the previous analysis. Likewise, the average temperature for the distant component for the current and previous analyses are 10(exp 6.06) K and 10(exp 6.02) K, respectively. Finally, the results for the 1/4 keV halo emission are compared to the observed fluxes at 3/4 keV, where the lack of correlation suggests that the Galactic halo's 1/4 keV and 3/4 ke

  3. High-Resolution N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) Map Using Photo-Crosslinking-Assisted m6A Sequencing**

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Lu, Zhike; Wang, Xiao; Fu, Ye; Luo, Guan-Zheng; Liu, Nian; Han, Dali; Dominissini, Dan; Dai, Qing; Pan, Tao; He, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an abundant internal modification in eukaryotic mRNA and plays regulatory roles in mRNA metabolism. However, methods to precisely locate the m6A modification remain limited. We present here a photo-crosslinking-assisted m6A sequencing strategy (PA-m6A-seq) to more accurately define sites with m6A modification. Using this strategy, we obtained a high-resolution map of m6A in a human transcriptome. The map resembles the general distribution pattern observed previously, and reveals new m6A sites at base resolution. Our results provide insight into the relationship between the methylation regions and the binding sites of RNA-binding proteins. PMID:25491922

  4. Human herpesvirus 6 in hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Masao

    2009-11-01

    Pathogenetic roles of human herpesvirus (HHV)-6 in lymphoproliferative diseases have been of continued interest. Many molecular studies have tried to establish a pathogenic role for HHV-6 in lymphoid malignancies. However, whether HHV-6 plays a role in these pathologies remains unclear, as positive polymerase chain reaction results for HHV-6 in those studies may reflect latent infection or reactivation rather than presence of HHV-6 in neoplastic cells. A small number of studies have investigated HHV-6 antigen expression in pathologic specimens. As a result, the lack of HHV-6 antigen expression on neoplastic cells argues against any major pathogenic role of HHV-6. The role of HHV-6 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has also been of interest but remains controversial, with 2 studies documenting higher levels of HHV-6 antibody in ALL patients, and another 2 large-scale studies finding no significant differences in HHV-6 seroprevalences between ALL patients and controls. Alternatively, HHV-6 is increasingly recognized as an important opportunistic pathogen. HHV-6 reactivation is common among recipients of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), and is linked to various clinical manifestations. In particular, HHV-6 encephalitis appears to be significant, life-threatening complication. Most HHV-6 encephalitis develops in patients receiving transplant from an unrelated donor, particularly cord blood, typically around the time of engraftment. Symptoms are characterized by short-term memory loss and seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging typically shows limbic encephalitis. Prognosis for HHV-6 encephalitis is poor, but appropriate prophylactic measures have not been established. Establishment of preventive strategies against HHV-6 encephalitis represents an important challenge for physicians involved with SCT.

  5. Metabolism of [6]-gingerol in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Takahiro; Ohsawa, Keisuke

    2002-03-22

    The metabolic fate of [6]-gingerol, one of the active constituents of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, was investigated using rats. The bile of rats orally administered [6]-gingerol was shown to contain a major metabolite (1) by HPLC analysis. Although the metabolites derived from [6]-gingerol were not detected in the urine, the ethyl acetate extract of the urine after enzymatic hydrolysis was shown to contain six minor metabolites (2-7). Their structures were determined to be (S)-[6]-gingerol-4'-O-beta-glucuronide (1), vanillic acid (2), ferulic acid (3), (S)-(+)-4-hydroxy-6-oxo-8-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) octanoic acid (4), 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)butanoic acid (5), 9-hydroxy [6]-gingerol (6) and (S)-(+)-[6]-gingerol (7) based on spectroscopic and chemical data. The total cumulative amount of 1 excreted in the bile and 2-7 in the urine during 60 h after the oral administration of [6]-gingerol were approximately 48% and 16% of the dose, respectively. The excretion of 2-7 in the urine decreased after gut sterilization. On the other hand, the incubations of [6]-gingerol with rat liver showed the presence of 9-hydroxy [6]-gingerol, gingerdiol (8), and (S)-[6]-gingerol-4'-O-beta-glucuronide (1). These findings suggest that the gut flora and enzymes in the liver play an important part in the metabolism of [6]-gingerol. PMID:12002808

  6. 6 CFR 7.30 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 CFR 7.31. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classification challenges. 7.30 Section 7.30... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.30 Classification challenges. (a) Authorized holders of...

  7. 6 CFR 7.30 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 CFR 7.31. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification challenges. 7.30 Section 7.30... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.30 Classification challenges. (a) Authorized holders of...

  8. 6 CFR 7.30 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 CFR 7.31. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classification challenges. 7.30 Section 7.30... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.30 Classification challenges. (a) Authorized holders of...

  9. 6 CFR 7.30 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 CFR 7.31. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification challenges. 7.30 Section 7.30... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.30 Classification challenges. (a) Authorized holders of...

  10. 29 CFR 6.54 - Hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FEDERALLY ASSISTED CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS AND FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Substantial Variance and Arm's Length Proceedings § 6.54 Hearing. (a) Except as provided in § 6.53(c) of this title, the hearing...

  11. 46 CFR 160.023-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals § 160.023-6... Subpart 160.021 (§ 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must be: “HAND COMBINATION...

  12. 46 CFR 160.023-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals § 160.023-6... Subpart 160.021 (§ 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must be: “HAND COMBINATION...

  13. 46 CFR 160.023-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals § 160.023-6... Subpart 160.021 (§ 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must be: “HAND COMBINATION...

  14. 46 CFR 160.023-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals § 160.023-6... Subpart 160.021 (§ 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must be: “HAND COMBINATION...

  15. 46 CFR 160.023-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals § 160.023-6... Subpart 160.021 (§ 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must be: “HAND COMBINATION...

  16. 6 CFR 7.30 - Classification challenges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 CFR 7.31. ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classification challenges. 7.30 Section 7.30... INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.30 Classification challenges. (a) Authorized holders of...

  17. 46 CFR 160.037-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-6 Container. (a....021 (§ 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must be: “Hand Orange Smoke...

  18. 46 CFR 160.037-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-6 Container. (a....021 (§ 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must be: “Hand Orange Smoke...

  19. 46 CFR 160.037-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-6 Container. (a....021 (§ 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must be: “Hand Orange Smoke...

  20. 46 CFR 160.037-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-6 Container. (a....021 (§ 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must be: “Hand Orange Smoke...

  1. 46 CFR 160.037-6 - Container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-6 Container. (a....021 (§ 160.021-6) except that the wording on the container must be: “Hand Orange Smoke...

  2. Photochemical removal of NpF sub 6 and PuF sub 6 from UF sub 6 gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Beitz, J.V.; Williams, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    A novel photochemical method of removing reactive fluorides from UF{sub 6} gas has been discovered. This method reduces generated waste to little more than the volume of the removed impurities, minimizes loss of UF{sub 6}, and can produce a recyclable by-product, fluorine gas. In our new method, impure UF{sub 6}, is exposed to ultraviolet light which dissociates the UF{sub 6} to UF{sub 5} and fluorine atom. Impurities which chemically react with UF{sub 5} are reduced and form solid compounds easily removed from the gas while UF{sub 5} is converted back to UF{sub 6}. Proof-of-concept testing involved UF{sub 6} containing NpF{sub 6} and PuF{sub 6} with CO added as a fluorine atom scavenger. In a single photolysis step, greater than 5000-fold reduction of PuF{sub 6} was demonstrated while reducing NpF{sub 6} by more than 40-fold. This process is likely to remove corrosion and fission product fluorides that are more reactive than UF{sub 6} and has been demonstrated without an added fluorine atom scavenger by periodically removing photogenerated fluorine gas. 44 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. A measurement of the medium-scale anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, E. S.; Cottingham, D. A.; Fixsen, D. J.; Inman, C. A.; Kowitt, M. S.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L. A.; Puchalla, J. L.; Silverberg, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    Observations from the first flight of the Medium Scale Anisotropy Measurement (MSAM) are analyzed to place limits on Gaussian fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). This instrument chops a 30 min beam in a three-position pattern with a throw of +/- 40 min; the resulting data is analyzed in statistically independent single- and double-difference sets. We observe in four spectral channels at 5.6, 9.0, 16.5, and 22.5/cm, allowing the separation of interstellar dust emission from CMBR fluctuations. The dust component is correlated with the IRAS 100 micron map. The CMBR component has two regions where the signature of an unresolved source is seen. Rejecting these two source regions, we obtain a detection of fluctuations which match CMBR in our spectral bands of 0.6 x 10(exp -5) is less than Delta (T)/T is less than 2.2 x 10(exp -5) (90% CL interval) for total rms Gaussian fluctuations with correlation angle 0.5 deg, using the single-difference demodulation. Fore the double difference demodulation, the result is 1.1 x 10(exp -5) is less than Delta(T)/T is less than 3.1 x 10(exp -5) (90% CL interval) at a correlation angle of 0.3 deg.

  4. Meteoroid Flux from Lunar Impact Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Robert; Moser, Danielle; Cooke, William; Suggs, Ronnie

    2015-01-01

    The flux of kilogram-sized meteoroids has been determined from the first 5 years of observations by NASA's Lunar Impact Monitoring Program (Suggs et al. 2014). Telescopic video observations of 126 impact flashes observed during photometric conditions were calibrated and the flux of meteoroids to a limiting mass of 30 g was determined to be 6.14 x 10(exp -10) m(exp -2) yr(exp -1) at the Moon, in agreement with the Grun et al. (1985) model value of 7.5 x 10(exp -10) m(exp -2) yr(exp -1). After accounting for gravitational focusing effects, the flux at the Earth to a limiting impact energy of 3.0 x10(exp -6) kilotons of TNT (1.3 x 10(exp 7) J) was determined to be consistent with the results in Brown et al. (2002). Approximately 62% of the impact flashes were correlated with major meteor showers as cataloged in visual/optical meteor shower databases. These flux measurements, coupled with cratering and ejecta models, can be used to develop impact ejecta engineering environments for use in lunar surface spacecraft design and risk analyses.

  5. Observations of the Minor Species Al, Fe and Ca(+) in Mercury's Exosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bida, Thomas A.; Killen, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first detections of Al and Fe, and strict upper limits for Ca(+) in the exosphere of Mercury, using the HIRES spectrometer at the Keck I telescope. We report observed 4-sigma tangent columns of 1.5x10(exp 7) Al atoms per square centimeter at an altitude of 1220 km (1.5 Mercury radii (R(sub M)) from planet center), and that for Fe of 1.6 x 10 per square centimeter at an altitude of 950 km (1.4 R(sub M)). The observed 3-sigma Ca(+) column was 3.9x10(exp 6) ions per square centimeter at an altitude of 1630 km (1.67 R(sub M). A simple model for zenith column abundances of the neutral species were 9.5 x 10(exp 7) Al per square centimeter, and 3.0 x 10(exp 8) Fe per square centimeter. The observations appear to be consistent with production of these species by impact vaporization with a large fraction of the ejecta in molecular form. The scale height of the Al gas is consistent with a kinetic temperature of 3000 - 9000 K while that of Fe is 10500 K. The apparent high temperature of the Fe gas would suggest that it may be produced by dissociation of molecules. A large traction of both Al and Fe appear to condense in a vapor cloud at low altitudes.

  6. Year 6 Planning Exemplification. National Literacy Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    First in a series, this booklet contains suggestions for planning literacy in Year 6. This Year 6 plan for 2001-2002 and the short-term unit plan for narrative writing are a distillation of the work of a representative group of Year 6 teachers. It contains the Year 6 Term 1 Units 2 and 5 on Narrative Writing. It begins with an outline of the basic…

  7. Monosomy 6q1: Syndrome delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Romie, S.S.; Hartsfield, J.K. Jr.; Sutcliffe, M.J.

    1996-03-15

    We report on a girl with a de novo 6q1 interstitial deletion. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case with a deletion of 6q11-q15. We review the phenotype of monosomy 6q1. Our patient has manifestations similar to others with monosomy 6q1 including mental deficiency, growth retardation, short neck, and minor facila anomalies. 18 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Research on 6R Military Logistics Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jie, Wan; Wen, Wang

    The building of military logistics network is an important issue for the construction of new forces. This paper has thrown out a concept model of 6R military logistics network model based on JIT. Then we conceive of axis spoke y logistics centers network, flexible 6R organizational network, lean 6R military information network based grid. And then the strategy and proposal for the construction of the three sub networks of 6Rmilitary logistics network are given.

  9. 7 CFR 6.9 - Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information. 6.9 Section 6.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture IMPORT QUOTAS AND FEES General Provisions § 6.9 Information. Persons desiring information from the Department of Agriculture regarding section 22 or section 8(a), or any action...

  10. 22 CFR 209.6 - Compliance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance information. 209.6 Section 209.6... § 209.6 Compliance information. (a) Cooperation and assistance. The Administrator shall to the fullest... and accurate compliance reports at such times, and in such form and containing such information,...

  11. 45 CFR 80.6 - Compliance information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance information. 80.6 Section 80.6 Public... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 80.6 Compliance information. (a) Cooperation and assistance. The... reports at such times, and in such form and containing such information, as the responsible...

  12. 32 CFR 56.6 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements. 56.6 Section 56.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN... DEFENSE § 56.6 Information requirements. (a) Each DoD Component shall maintain a log of all...

  13. 32 CFR 88.6 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements. 88.6 Section 88.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN TRANSITION ASSISTANCE FOR MILITARY PERSONNEL § 88.6 Information requirements. The quarterly...

  14. 7 CFR 1540.6 - Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information. 1540.6 Section 1540.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 1540.6 Information. Persons desiring information from the Department of Agriculture regarding...

  15. 32 CFR 110.6 - Information requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirement. 110.6 Section 110.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN... RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS § 110.6 Information requirement. The reporting requirement for...

  16. 32 CFR 70.6 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements. 70.6 Section 70.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN DISCHARGE REVIEW BOARD (DRB) PROCEDURES AND STANDARDS § 70.6 Information requirements. (a)...

  17. 32 CFR 172.6 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements. 172.6 Section 172.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING DISPOSITION OF PROCEEDS FROM DOD SALES OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY § 172.6 Information requirements. The...

  18. 32 CFR 185.6 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information requirements. 185.6 Section 185.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE CIVIL DEFENSE MILITARY SUPPORT TO CIVIL AUTHORITIES (MSCA) § 185.6 Information requirements. The reporting requirements in § 185.5...

  19. 40 CFR 35.925-6 - Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permits. 35.925-6 Section 35.925-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-6 Permits. That the...

  20. 40 CFR 35.925-6 - Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permits. 35.925-6 Section 35.925-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.925-6 Permits. That the...