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  1. Intracranial imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, M.; Cook, G.; Al-Kutoubi, A.

    1996-01-01

    This article concentrates on the imaging of intracranial structures and outlines some basic imaging strategies for common clinical presentations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:8935596

  2. The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Yale: the first one hundred fifty years, from Nathan Smith to Lee Buxton.

    PubMed Central

    Kohorn, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    The persons who directed the academic teaching of women's health at Yale Medical School are presented by biographical sketches recounting their achievements and some of the difficulties they encountered. Three who provided particular catalysis were Nathan Smith, Herbert Thoms, and Lee Buxton. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:8303913

  3. Nonpenetrating Clips Successfully Replacing Sutures in Base of Skull Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Wolff M.; Zhu, Yong Hua; Hardesty, Robert A.; Petti, George; Furnas, David

    1993-01-01

    Reconstructive challenges engendered by skull base surgery are critical determinants of outcome. A novel nonpenetrating, arcuate-legged clip has proven to be both technically and biologically effective for management of these difficult closures. Clips have facilitated reconstructions associated with the surgical management of eight skull base cases: leiomyosarcoma of the orbit, middle fossa, ptyergopalatine fossa, two meningiomas (petrotentorial, cavernous sinus), vagus nerve paraganglioma, complex traumatic orbital dural tear, and one basilar and two vertebral artery aneurysms. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 14Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18 PMID:17170909

  4. Anaerobic orbital cellulitis: a clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed Central

    Jedrzynski, M S; Bullock, J D; McGuire, T W; Elder, B L; Bullock, J D

    1991-01-01

    In this article we have reviewed the clinical and bacteriologic aspects of anaerobic orbital cellulitis and have presented six patients to illustrate these points. Physicians who treat patients with orbital cellulitis should have a high index of suspicion for possible instances involving anaerobes, so that appropriate management can be started early. To investigate this problem further, we created an animal model of anaerobic orbital cellulitis. This model may be useful in future studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of this serious and often devastating disease. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:1808813

  5. A proposal for a standardized system of reporting human lymph node morphology in relation to immunological function

    PubMed Central

    Cottier, H.; Turk, J.; Sobin, L.

    1972-01-01

    This Memorandum proposes a standardized system of reporting the histology of human lymph nodes based on commonly used simple staining techniques. The purpose is to provide a uniform, internationally acceptable system by which the histological structure of lymph nodes can be correlated with other parameters of immunological status. The proposed protocols are intended to provide information that is not available in conventional written reports, that use such terms as “hyperplasia” or “nonspecific lymphadenitis”. ImagesFigure 22Figure 13Figure 5Figure 4Figure 3Figure 14Figure 15Figure 9Figure 21Figure 8Figure 12Figure 17Figure 16Figure 2Figure 7Figure 6Figure 20Figure 19Figure 11Figure 10Figure 18 PMID:4539822

  6. Histopathology of spontaneous regression in virus-induced murine leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, I.; Russo, J.; Baldwin, J.; Rich, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    The histopathology of the spontaneous regression of murine leukemia induced by a particular strain of Friend leukemia virus was studied in Swiss ICR/Ha mice. Animals inoculated with the regressing strain of Friend virus exhibited an initial pathologic response identical to that induced by conventional strains of Friend virus. Unlike the fatal leukemia produced by conventional Friend virus, the pathology of the disease induced by the regressing strain of Friend virus appeared to be self-limiting. The histopathology of the two diseases is compared in this report. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:970443

  7. Observation of living cells using the atomic force microscope.

    PubMed Central

    Kasas, S; Gotzos, V; Celio, M R

    1993-01-01

    We used an atomic force microscope (AFM) to image samples immersed in a fluid in order to study the dynamic behavior of the membranes of living cells. AFM images of cultured cells immersed in a buffer were obtained without any preliminary preparation. We observed surface changes and displacements which suggest that the cells were still alive during the measurements. Some membrane details imaged with the AFM have also been observed using a scanning electron microscope and their dynamic behavior has been confirmed by microcinematography. We believe that the AFM will offer new insights into the exploration of dynamic changes affecting cell membranes. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURES 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURES 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8457678

  8. Experimental lead nitrate poisoning: microscopic and ultrastructural study of the gills of tench (Tinca tinca, L.).

    PubMed Central

    Roncero, V; Vincente, J A; Redondo, E; Gãzquez, A; Duran, E

    1990-01-01

    A microscopic, ultrastructural, and morphometric study was made of the gills of tench (Tinca tinca, L.) subjected to acute experimental lead nitrate poisoning. Twenty-one adult tench were subjected to poisoning and a further 22 were used as controls. Lesions were characterized by the appearance of edema and epithelial hyperplasia and necrosis, both in cells forming part of the filtration barrier and in those in the interlamellar space. These processes developed in the course of the experiment, leading to the death of tench after 12 to 15 days of exposure to 75 ppm lead nitrate, at which point the concentrations of lead in the gills had reached their maximum. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. FIGURE 19. PMID:2088740

  9. Studies on the structure and permeability of the microvasculature in normal rat lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, A. O.; Anderson, N. D.

    1975-01-01

    The structure and permeability of the microvasculature in normal rat lymph nodes was studied by regional perfusion techniques. The results indicated that characteristic vascular units supplied each cortical lobule of lymphatic tissue. Numerous arteriovenous communications and venous sphincters innervated by unmyelinated nerve fibers were found in this vascular bed. These specialized vascular structures permitted regional control of blood flow through high endothelial venules. Lymphocytes migrated across these venular walls by moving through intercellular spaces in the endothelium and between gaps in the laminated, reticular sheath. No direct anastomoses between blood vessels and lymphatics were seen, but tracer studies with horseradish peroxidase suggested that functional lymph node-venous communications were present in the walls of high endothelial venules. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:1163637

  10. Karl Schwarzschild Lecture: The Ups and Downs of the Hubble Constant (With 12 Figures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammann, G. Andreas

    2006-01-01

    A brief history of the determination of the Hubble constant H_0 is given. Early attempts following Lemaitre (1927) gave much too high values due to errors of the magnitude scale, Malmquist bias and calibration problems. By 1962 most authors agreed that 75< H_0 <130. After 1975 a dichotomy arose with values near 100 and others around 55. The former came from apparent-magnitude-limited samples and were affected by Malmquist bias. New distance indicators were introduced; they were sometimes claimed to yield high values of H_0, but the most recent data lead to H_0 in the 60's, yet with remaining difficulties as to the zero-point of the respective distance indicators. SNe Ia with their large range and very small luminosity dispersion (avoiding Malmquist bias) offer a unique opportunity to determine the large-scale value of H_0. Their maximum luminosity can be well calibrated from 10 SNe Ia in local parent galaxies whose Cepheids have been observed with HST. An unforeseen difficulty - affecting all Cepheid distances - is that their P-L relation varies from galaxy to galaxy, presumably in function of metallicity. A proposed solution is summarized here. The conclusion is that H_0 = 63.2 +/- 1.3 (random) +/- 5.3 (systematic) on all scales. The expansion age becomes then (with Omega_m=0.3, Omega_Lambda=0.7) 15.1 Gyr.

  11. The pathogenesis of experimentally induced amebic liver abscess in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed Central

    Chadee, K.; Meerovitch, E.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential development and pathology of experimentally induced amebic liver abscess in the gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) were studied from 1 to 60 days after inoculation. Early lesions were characterized by an acute inflammatory response, which became granulomatous at 5 days. Early granulomas were discrete, with well-defined fibrohistiocytic walls. Trophozoite dissemination as a result of fibrolysis of granuloma wall was confined to the liver parenchyma. The granulomatous cellular infiltrate (less than 20 days) was characterized by granulocytes and histiocytes; older granulomas (greater than 30 days) were composed of lymphocytic infiltrate, plasma cells, and a few granulocytes, and were characterized by the absence of epithelioid histiocytes. The degree of pathologic change adjacent to liver granulomas followed the sequential development of the amebic liver abscess. Severe changes observed were portal canal lymphocytic infiltration, the presence of foreign body giant cells, periportal fibrosis, proliferation of bile duct epithelium, and hepatocyte anisonucleosis and ballooning degeneration. The pathogenesis of the infection and the usefulness of the gerbil model for the study of human amebiasis are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:6385727

  12. The pathology of experimentally induced cecal amebiasis in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Liver changes and amebic liver abscess formation.

    PubMed Central

    Chadee, K.; Meerovitch, E.

    1985-01-01

    The pathogenesis of experimentally induced cecal amebiasis in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) was studied from 5 to 60 days after inoculation. Ulcerative lesions were noted 10 to 60 days after inoculation. The sequential development of lesions was asynchronous and progressed from destruction of the interglandular epithelium and of glandular crypt elements to loss of mucosa and formation of granulomatous lesions in the submucosa involving the muscularis mucosae. Pathologic changes in the liver correlated with the formation of ulcerative cecal lesions. Subacute hepatic changes showed lymphocytic portal infiltrate, Kupffer cell hyperplasia, multinucleated giant cells, granuloma formation, and sinusoidal mononuclear and granulocytic infiltrates. Metastatic amebic liver abscesses occurred as early as 10 days after inoculation, and small abscesses were found in the portal areas of the right liver lobe. The sequential development and pathologic manifestation of the infection and the usefulness of the gerbil for the study of human intestinal amebiasis are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:4014436

  13. A Workstation for Interactive Display and Quantitative Analysis of 3-D and 4-D Biomedical Images

    PubMed Central

    Robb, R.A.; Heffeman, P.B.; Camp, J.J.; Hanson, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The capability to extract objective and quantitatively accurate information from 3-D radiographic biomedical images has not kept pace with the capabilities to produce the images themselves. This is rather an ironic paradox, since on the one hand the new 3-D and 4-D imaging capabilities promise significant potential for providing greater specificity and sensitivity (i.e., precise objective discrimination and accurate quantitative measurement of body tissue characteristics and function) in clinical diagnostic and basic investigative imaging procedures than ever possible before, but on the other hand, the momentous advances in computer and associated electronic imaging technology which have made these 3-D imaging capabilities possible have not been concomitantly developed for full exploitation of these capabilities. Therefore, we have developed a powerful new microcomputer-based system which permits detailed investigations and evaluation of 3-D and 4-D (dynamic 3-D) biomedical images. The system comprises a special workstation to which all the information in a large 3-D image data base is accessible for rapid display, manipulation, and measurement. The system provides important capabilities for simultaneously representing and analyzing both structural and functional data and their relationships in various organs of the body. This paper provides a detailed description of this system, as well as some of the rationale, background, theoretical concepts, and practical considerations related to system implementation. ImagesFigure 5Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16

  14. Stabilization of intermediate density states in globular proteins by homogeneous intramolecular attractive interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, I; Jernigan, R L

    1994-01-01

    On-lattice simulations of two-dimensional self-avoiding chains subject to homogeneous intramolecular attractive interactions were performed as a model for studying various density regimes in globular proteins. For short chains of less than 15 units, all conformations were generated and classified by density. The range of intramolecular interactions was found to increase uniformly with density, and the average number of topological contacts is directly proportional to density. The uniform interaction energy increases the probability of high density states but does not necessarily lead to dominance of the highest density state. Typically, several large peaks appear in the probability distribution of packing densities, their location and amplitude being determined by the balance between entropic effects enhancing more expanded conformations and attractive interactions favoring compact forms. Also, the homogeneous interaction energy affects the distribution of most probable interacting points in favor of the longer range interactions over the short range ones, but in addition it introduces some more detailed preferences even among short range interactions. There are some implications about the characteristics of the intermediate density states and also for the likelihood that the native state does not correspond completely to the lowest energy conformation. Images FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8161699

  15. Familial canine dermatomyositis. Initial characterization of the cutaneous and muscular lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Hargis, A. M.; Haupt, K. H.; Hegreberg, G. A.; Prieur, D. J.; Moore, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    Familial canine dermatomyositis is a recently identified disease of collie dogs that resembles human juvenile dermatomyositis. The lesions in the skin and muscles obtained by biopsy from two litters of dogs were characterized for the purpose of determining the similarity of the lesions to those of human dermatomyositis. The cutaneous lesions began between 7 and 11 weeks of age and were present on the face, lips, ears, and skin over bony prominences of the limbs, feet, sternum, and tip of the tail. Histologically the cutaneous lesions frequently consisted of vesicles, pustules, and ulcers on the lips, face, and ears. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, mast cells, and macrophages were present throughout the dermis. Neutrophils and lymphocytes were also present in and around vessels. Between 13 and 19 weeks of age generalized muscle atrophy was noted. The muscle lesions consisted of interstitial lymphocyte, plasma cell, macrophage, and neutrophil accumulation; myofiber degeneration, regeneration, and atrophy; and fibrosis. Perivascular neutrophils, lymphocytes, and plasma cells were also seen. Histologically, the lesions resembled those present in human juvenile dermatomyositis; and these observations, coupled with clinical, immunologic, and clinical pathologic observations presented elsewhere, suggest that familial canine dermatomyositis is an appropriate and potentially useful model for human juvenile dermatomyositis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:6465285

  16. The ultrastructure of spontaneous coronary arterial lesions in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

    PubMed Central

    House, E. W.; Benditt, E. P.

    1981-01-01

    Electron-microscopic examination of spontaneously occurring coronary arterial lesions in adult spawning steelhead trout showed them to be subendothelial accumulations of modified smooth muscle cells covered by an intact endothelium. Some of the cells in the nodules appeared highly vacuolated and seemed to be associated with varying amounts of collagen and elastin. The internal elastic lamina was often doubled with smooth muscle cells between the layers. The thickness of the internal elastica was altered and, in some lesions, penetrated by smooth muscle cells. In the smallest lesions, smooth muscle cells appeared to be penetrating the internal elastic lamina and were usually close to a highly vacuolated intimal endothelial cell. The underlying medial layer frequently exhibited altered orientation of the cells, with the frequent appearance of increased collagen and amorphous extracellular material. No lipid was present in any lesion. Although vacuolation of endothelial cells suggested some alteration in endothelial cells, at least in developed lesions, no evidence of endothelial denudation over lesions was observed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:7294154

  17. Senile cerebral amyloid. Prealbumin as a common constituent in the neuritic plaque, in the neurofibrillary tangle, and in the microangiopathic lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Shirahama, T.; Skinner, M.; Westermark, P.; Rubinow, A.; Cohen, A. S.; Brun, A.; Kemper, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Three lesions that characterize the nosologic findings in the brain of Alzheimer's presenile dementia and senile dementia of Alzheimer type, ie, neuritic plaque, neurofibrillary tangle, and microangiopathy, all are frequently associated with amyloid deposition. There has been some question, however, as to whether these lesions share the same etiology. Moreover, the specific chemical nature of amyloid associated with these lesions has not yet been determined. In the present study, formalin-fixed paraffin sections of the affected brains were tested immunocytochemically for their reactivity against antiserum to prealbumin (recently disclosed as the major constituent of amyloid associated with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy as well as senile cardiac amyloid) and known components of other types of amyloid (AA, AP, etc.). The results demonstrated that amyloid deposits in all three lesions reacted with anti-prealbumin, suggesting that it is a common constituent of these lesions. Indeed, it is likely that prealbumin is the major constituent of amyloid associated with neuritic plaque, neurofibrillary tangle, and microangiopathy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:6950666

  18. Monoclonal antibodies to Alzheimer neurofibrillary tangles. 1. Identification of polypeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Yen, S. H.; Crowe, A.; Dickson, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    Ten monoclonal antibodies to Alzheimer neurofibrillary tangles (ANTs) were produced by immunizing mice with a brain homogenate from senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT). In methanol-fixed isolated neuronal perikarya, six of these antibodies reacted with nearly every ANT, three recognized 70-88% of ANTs, and one bound to less than 30% of ANT. In paraffin sections, three of the antibodies did not bind to tangles that had been fixed in formalin, three stained weekly, and four reacted with tangles in tissues that had been in formalin for more than a decade. Immunoblotting of brain homogenates showed that all but one antibody reacted with proteins from SDAT samples insoluble in SDS and too large to enter even the 3% polyacrylamide stacking gel. Polypeptides extractable by Tris buffer of molecular weight 58, 66, and 70 kd were detected in both normal and SDAT brains by two antibodies and only in SDAT brain by two other antibodies. One antibody did not show any reaction on the immunoblot. The results demonstrate that the epitopes recognized by these antibodies are not identical and that ANTs contain unique antigenic determinants as well as determinants in common with normal brain. Whether the unique determinants are acquired during tangle development or are essential in tangle formation remains to be investigated. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:2411142

  19. Ultrastructural alterations in the atrial myocardium of pigs with acute monensin toxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    Monensin, A Na+-selective carboxylic ionophore, produces left atrial damage in pigs given toxic doses. Eight weanling pigs were given mycelial monensin orally (40 mg/kg body weight) and were killed on days 1, 2, 4, and 16 (two animals at each time interval) for ultrastructural study of the left atrial lesions. On days 1-4, extensive necrosis with contraction bands was present. Rapid macrophagic invasion and phagocytosis of sarcoplasmic debris was seen on days 2 and 4. Missing necrotic myocytes were outlined by persistent "tubes" of external laminas. In some surviving myocytes, sublethal injury was evident on day 1 by mitochondria with condensed conformation and on days 2, 4, and 16 by moderate to marked myofibrillar lysis and sarcoplasmic vacuolation. Monensin cardiotoxicity in pigs constitutes a unique example of selective injury to atrial myocardium. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6696048

  20. A brief history of historical scholarship in chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides a cursory overview of attempts to discover, preserve and disseminate the history of the chiropractic profession, up to and including the organization of the Association for the History of Chiropractic (AHC). A surprisingly wide range of materials have been available for many decades, but sustained efforts at historical scholarship are more recent (past quarter century). The quality of these works has been uneven, but has improved with the emergence of chiropractic scholarly periodicals and interest from non-chiropractor investigators. Affiliates of the American-based AHC are located in Australia and Canada; organized historical scholarship in other regions of the world has yet to develop. Several substantial archival resources for historical investigations are available, and merit greater scrutiny and support within the profession. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25p136-ap136-bp136-cp136-dp136-e

  1. In vitro astrocytic differentiation from embryoid bodies of an experimental mouse testicular teratoma.

    PubMed Central

    VandenBerg, S. R.; Ludwin, S. K.; Herman, M. M.; Bignami, A.

    1976-01-01

    Astrocytic differentiation in monolayer cultures of ascitic embryoid bodies from the experimental teratoma OTT-6050 was studied by conventional light microscopy and by indirect immunofluorescence with antisera to glial fibrillary acidic (GFA) protein, a protein specific for astorcytes. Primitive neuroepithelial cells were identified in 24-hour cultures. Within 72 hours, two cell types diverged. One cell type, with a flattened epithelial morphology in early cultures, demonstrated delicate GFA protein-positive fibrils within 48 hours. In later cultures, this type progressively displayed more typical stellate astrocytic features, with denser, more compact GFA protein-positive fluorescence in the perinuclear cytoplasm and cell processes. As indicated by GFA protein expression, the appearance of astrocytes of typical morphology therefore was preceded by biochemical differentiation. The second cell type, interpreted as neuroblastic, failed to demonstrate GFA protein and had a small perikaryon with slender bipolar processes that were argyrophilic with Bodian's protargol in late cultures. Divergent neuroepithelial differentiation occurred within mitotically active cell populations and proceeded without apparent tissue relationships to other germ layer derivatives. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:776002

  2. XH1--a new cervical carcinoma cell line and xenograft model of tumour invasion, 'metastasis' and regression.

    PubMed Central

    Han, X.; Lyle, R.; Eustace, D. L.; Jewers, R. J.; Parrington, J. M.; Das, A.; Chana, T.; Dagg, B.; Money, S.; Bates, T. D.

    1991-01-01

    A new cell line, XH1, has been derived from an invasive focally keratinising adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix in a 32 year old patient. It has been maintained in long term monolayer culture for 26 months, and passaged over 100 times (much greater than 300 population doublings). It is aneuploid with a mean chromosome number of 78. Examination using two minisatellite hypervariable DNA probes has shown it to be different from other cell lines maintained in this laboratory and from HeLa. Two sublines, XH1a and XH1b, show marked differences in monolayer culture, growth in soft agar, and xenograft formation. XH1 and XH1a cells readily form subcutaneous xenografts, and lung colonies can be established by their intravenous injection. Subcutaneous injection of XH1b cells results in rapid cell growth for a few days after which the tumour undergoes degeneration and then regresses completely. The XH1 karyotype has many rearranged chromosomes. Parental XH1 cells and both sublines show integration of HPV16 into the genome. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 10 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 PMID:1911212

  3. Clinicopathologic responses in cats with feline leukemia virus-associated leukemia-lymphoma treated with staphylococcal protein A.

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, R. W.; Tyler, R. D.; Trang, L. Q.; Liu, W. T.; Good, R. A.; Day, N. K.

    1985-01-01

    Purified protein A from Staphylococcus aureus Cowan I was injected intraperitoneally or was incorporated in filters ex vivo through which plasma from cats with feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-associated leukemia-lymphoma was passed. Before treatment, 65% of the FeLV-infected cats were anemic, and 70% were thrombocytopenic. Concomitant infections, or immune-mediated disease, was common. During treatment 50% of the cats with FeLV-associated disease improved objectively with normal posttreatment hematocrits, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts, disappearance of dysplastic hematologic elements, and correction of marrow dyscrasias. A 33% response to treatment occurred in cats with unequivocal manifestations of malignant disease and was characterized by reductions in tumor size and marrow and peripheral blood neoplastic cell populations. Clearance of FeLV viremia was documented in 28% of the treated cats. The several possible mechanisms by which treatment with staphylococcal protein A causes reduction in the extent of malignant disease are considered. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:2983560

  4. THE TREATMENT OF URINARY TRACT CALCULI

    PubMed Central

    Leadbetter, Wyland F.

    1958-01-01

    From review of recent information relative to calculus formation in the kidney, the conclusion reached that we do not yet understand, despite much effort, the basic physicochemical mechanisms involved. Since this is so, it has seemed best to the author for the present to rely, in treating patients with renal stones, on simple therapeutic concepts, which, if carefully and conscientiously applied, produce good results. The concepts are the elimination of known causes such as parathyroid adenomas and obstructive lesions, elimination or at least treatment of infections, diminution of urinary components which form the basis of calculi by limiting the oral intake or absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and maintenance of a dilute urine of desired pH. A plan for preoperative study is suggested to allow planned therapy. Indications for operative removal of calculi as well as some points of technique are discussed. It is emphasized that surgical removal of a calculus is but an incident in the care of patients with calculi and that treatment during the postoperative period and followup therapy is most important if success is to be achieved. Reports of cases to illustrate the application of these concepts are presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16 PMID:13523394

  5. Surgical treatment of obesity: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Fobi, M. A. L.

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease due to excess fat storage, a genetic predisposition, and strong environmental contributions. This problem is worldwide, and the incidence is increasing daily. There are medical, physical, social, economic, and psychological comorbid conditions associated with obesity. There is no cure for obesity except possibly prevention. Nonsurgical treatment has been inadequate in providing sustained weight loss. Currently, surgery offers the only viable treatment option with longterm weight loss and maintenance for the morbidly obese. Surgeries for weight loss are called bariatric surgeries. There is no one operation that is effective for all patients. Gastric bypass operations are the most common operations currently used. Because there are inherent complications from surgeries, bariatric surgeries should be performed in a multidisciplinary setting. The laparoscopic approach is being used by some surgeons in performing the various operations. The success rate--usually defined as >50% excess weight loss that is maintained for at least five years from bariatric surgery--ranges from 40% in the simple to >70% in the complex operations. The weight loss from surgical treatment results in significant improvements and, in some cases, complete resolution of comorbid conditions associated with obesity. Patients undergoing surgery for obesity need lifelong nutritional supplements and medical monitoring. Images Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:14746355

  6. Light- and electron-microscopic histochemistry of Fabry's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Faraggiana, T.; Churg, J.; Grishman, E.; Strauss, L.; Prado, A.; Bishop, D. F.; Schuchman, E.; Desnick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A histochemical study was performed on light- and electron-microscopic level in a case of Fabry's disease. The patient underwent kidney transplantation for renal failure and died of heart failure 6 months later. Patient's tissues were studied at the light- and electron-microscopic levels with various embedding and staining techniques for lipids and carbohydrates. Two peroxidase-labeled lectins (from Ricinus communis and from Bandeiraea simplicifolia) known to have affinity for alpha- and beta-D-galactose, were strongly reactive with the storage material on frozen sections. The ultrahistochemical and extraction tests showed that the typical granules had a variable reactivity and morphologic characteristics in different cells, probably reflecting different composition. A small number of typical deposits were also observed in the transplanted kidney. This is the first reported case of recurrence of the storage disease in the allograft. Of interest was also the fact that the patient's blood inhibited normal alpha-galactosidase activity, suggesting a possible inhibitor-related mechanism in the pathogenesis of the recurrence. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 PMID:6786101

  7. The presence and possible role of monocyte infiltration in human chronic proliferative glomerulonephritides. Light microscopic, immunofluorescence, and histochemical correlations.

    PubMed Central

    Monga, G.; Mazzucco, G.; di Belgiojoso, G. B.; Busnach, G.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-seven cases of chronic glomerulonephritis with proliferative pattern (11 cases of primary mixed IgG-IgM cryoglobulinemia, 8 cases of SLE, and 8 cases of primary membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis) were studied with particular attention to the glomerular monocyte infiltration. The latter, detected by means of nonspecific esterase technique, was compared with the presence of hyaline thrombi and intraluminal immunoglobulin lumps. Monocyte infiltration was heavy and almost constant in cryoglobulinemia, less important in SLE, and practically absent in membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. By means of immunofluorescence technique on paraffin embedded material, monocytes are shown to contain IgG and IgM, suggesting a phagocytic activity on some types of immune complexes. Since monocytes are migrant cells, and therefore easily removable from the glomeruli by the bloodstream, it seems that they could be responsible for regression of glomerular hypercellularity as reported in some patients with cryoglobulinemia showing clinical improvement. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:371410

  8. Before Nugent took charge: early efforts to reform chiropractic education, 1919-1941

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2003-01-01

    John J. Nugent, D.C. is remembered by many as either the “Abraham Flexner of Chiropractic” or the “anti-Christ of Chiropractic.” From 1941 until his forced retirement in 1959, the Irish-born Palmer graduate was one of the most important factors in the profession's educational reforms. Yet Nugent's work as the National Chiropractic Association's (NCA's) director of research was not the beginning of the campaign to upgrade chiropractic education. This paper looks at earlier influences and events which set the stage for Nugent's campaign. Among these were the introduction of licensure for chiropractors, the self-defeating actions of B.J. Palmer, the introduction of basic science legislation, the lethargy of the schools, and the struggle for control of education between the schools, on the one hand, and the NCA and the Council of State Chiropractic Examining Boards on the other ImagesFigure 1Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 23Figure 24Figure 25Figure 26Figure 28Figure 29Figure 30Figure 31Figure 32Figure 33Figure 34Figure 35Figure 36Figure 37Figure 38

  9. Rehabilitation of a child with partial unilateral cryptophthalmos and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Konrad, H; Merriam, J C; Jones, I S

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: This paper describes the surgical rehabilitation of a child with craniofacial anomalies, unilateral syndactyly, and partial unilateral cryptophthalmos associated with inferior colobomata of the iris and optic nerve and agenesis of the inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles. The clinical presentation of cryptophthalmos is described. METHODS: The medical literature since the original description of cryptophthalmos in 1872 was reviewed to define patterns of inheritance and the incidence of associated anomalies. RESULTS: Including this patient, 149 case reports of cryptophthalmos were identified. In two families transmission from parent to child suggests dominant inheritance. None of the five dominant cases had any other anomalies, and all had bilateral complete cryptophthalmos. The incidence of cryptophthalmos in the remaining families is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. This group includes patients with bilateral, unilateral, and partial cryptophthalmos. Other anomalies are common, including those of the ear and nose, limbs, genitourinary system, and mouth and palate. Mortality in the perinatal period is associated with renal agenesis, laryngeal atresia, and pulmonary hypoplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptophthalmos is a rare congenital anomaly with two patterns of inheritance. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8719680

  10. An experimental mouse testicular teratoma as a model for neuroepithelial neoplasia and differentiation. II. Electron microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Herman, M. M.; Sipe, J. C.; Rubinstein, L. J.; Vandenberg, S. R.; Spence, A. M.; Vraa-Jensen, J.

    1975-01-01

    The electron microscopic features of the stages of divergent neuroepithelial differentiation in the solid implants of a transplantable mouse testicular teratoma (OTT-6050) are presented and compared to the sequential stages of cytogenesis that have been described in the developing avian and mammalian central nervous system. Primitive neuroepithelial tumor cells showed the features of undifferentiated multipotential matrix (or ventricular) cells of the neural tube. They formed primitive medullary rosettes, from which various transitions were traced to more differentiated, cilia-containing ependymoblastomatous rosettes; the transitional features included increased granular endoplasmic reticulum and microvilli formation. Glial differentiation was characterized by the presence of mature ependymal rosettes and of astrocytes containing glial filaments. Neuronal differentiation included the development of synapses and the presence of dense-core vesicles in nerve cell processes. No intermediate cell forms were found that suggested multiple lines of differentiation occurring within a single cell. Images Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 21 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 PMID:171962

  11. Biochemical and cellular mechanisms of dust-induced lung fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, R J; Curtis, C G

    1984-01-01

    The sequence of cellular and biochemical events in response to the deposition of dust particles in lung tissue is described. Primary reactions at the lung surface include changes in the free cell population, the alveolar surface protein and in the quantity of pulmonary surfactant, a lipoprotein-rich material secreted by Type II cells. The relationship between these changes and lung fibrogenesis is discussed. It is suggested that such primary changes are protective mechanisms which may assist in the prevention of fibrogenesis rather than lead to an increase in collagen formation and deposition. If these primary defenses are overcome, then the interstitial fibroblastlike cell may have a prominent role in fibrogenesis. Therefore detailed observations of the interaction between lung fibroblasts and mineral dusts in vitro are described. As fibrogenesis may be arrested in vivo, or possibly reversed, and does not always progress to fibrosis, final consideration is given to the step from fibrogenesis to fibrosis. It is suggested that this step may involve other tissue proteins apart from collagen and that the irreversible nature of fibrosis can be explained by the formation of strong intermolecular crosslinks between different proteins. The types of crosslinks that may be involved are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the role of calcium-dependent transglutaminases in fibrosis, as these enzymes have hitherto received little attention. Images FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 20. FIGURE 21. FIGURE 22. FIGURE 23. PMID:6376109

  12. Chemically induced bidirectional differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Speers, W. C.; Birdwell, C. R.; Dixon, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    N,N-dimethylacetamide, hexamethylene bisacetamide, and Polybrene induced rapid and extensive differentiation in vitro in an otherwise slowly differentiating subline of embryonal carcinoma cells. The type of differentiated cell induced was dependent on the spatial organization of the stem cells during drug treatment. In monalayer culture "epithelial" cells were produced exclusively. However, treatment of aggregated suspension cultures yielded predominantly "fibroblast-like" cells. The undifferentiated embryonal carcinoma cells and the two differentiated cell types were morphologically distinct when examined by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy; and they had differences in cell surface antigens. Both differential cell types produced large amounts of fibronectin, whereas the embryonal carcinoma cells produced only minimal amounts. This system provides a convenient way to induce relatively synchronous differentiation of embryonal carcinoma cells into specific differentiated cell types. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:507191

  13. The course and nature of acinar cell death following pancreatic ligation in the guinea pig.

    PubMed Central

    Zeligs, J. D.; Janoff, A.; Dumont, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The course and nature of acinar cell death (ACD) following pancreatic ligation in the guinea pig was studied as a possible model for human disease. Ultrastructural studies after various periods of ligation suggested a biphasic pattern of ACD. Early phase ACD involved only a small portion of acinar cells and occurred within a few hours of ligation. It was preceded by swelling and vesiculation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Morphometric measurements disclosed celular swelling at this time, and NaCl equilibration studies demonstrated a change in cellular osmoregulation. Late phase ACD, characterized by cellular wasting and autophagic vacuole formation, became prominent several days after ligation. Marked increases in lysosomal enzyme activities were found in tissue homogenates at this time, and acid phosphatase electron histochemistry localized the majority of this increased activity to lysosomes and autophagic vacuoles within the acinar cells. The etiology and nature of both phases of ACD are discussed. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 12 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:169698

  14. Age as a factor in the bacteriology and response to treatment of subperiosteal abscess of the orbit.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, G J

    1993-01-01

    The clinical course of SPA of the orbit is associated with the age of the patient. That association might be explained through a series of intermediate relationships: the clinical course correlates with the bacterial constituency, the bacterial constituency is related to physiologic derangement within the sinuses, the physiologic derangement may vary with the degree of obstruction of the sinus ostia, and the ostial caliber relative to the volume of the cavity that must be drained decreases with patient age into late adolescence. The controversy between pediatricians and surgeons over the appropriate indications for drainage might be resolved with the acknowledgement that each side is correct on the basis of the patient populations treated. It is hoped that recognition of the age-related variations in SPA will permit a more systematic approach to the management of this complex infectious disease. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 PMID:8140703

  15. Management of Rotator Cuff and Impingement Injuries in the Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gerald R.; Kelley, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To review current concepts of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of rotator cuff and impingement injuries in the athlete. Data Sources: The information we present was compiled from a review of classic and recently published material regarding rotator cuff and impingement injuries. These materials were identified through a search of a personal literature database compiled by the authors, as well as by selective searching of the MEDLINE. In addition, much of the information presented represents observations and opinions of the authors developed over 8 to 10 years of treating shoulder injuries in athletes. Data Synthesis: Biomechanics of the normal shoulder and pathophysiology of rotator cuff injuries in the athletic population are discussed, followed by a summary of the important diagnostic features of rotator cuff and impingement injuries. The principles of rehabilitation are extensively presented, along with indications and important technical aspects of selected surgical procedures. General principles and specific protocols of postoperative rehabilitation are also summarized. Conclusions/Recommendations: Rotator cuff and impingement injuries in the athletic population are multifactorial in etiology, exhibiting significant overlap with glenohumeral instability. Nonoperative treatment is successful in most athletic patients with rotator cuff and impingement injuries. When nonoperative treatment fails, arthroscopic surgical techniques such as rotator cuff repair and subacromial decompression may be successful in returning the athlete to competition. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12.Figure 13. PMID:16558644

  16. Alignment and defect structures in oriented phosphatidylcholine multilayers.

    PubMed Central

    Asher, S A; Pershan, P S

    1979-01-01

    The alignment of dilauryl-, dimyristoyl-, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine at various water concentrations into large oriented monodomain multilayers by annealing at elevated temperatures (Powers and Clark, 1975, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 72:840; Powers and Pershan. 1977. Biophys. J. 20:137) is accompanied by the formation and subsequent dissolution of various defect structures. Some of these defects appear similar to those observed in thermotropic and other lyotropic liquid crystals, reflecting the lamellar structure of these materials. The formation and evolution of defects during the alignment of the lipids into the defect-free, monodomain, multilamellar geometry is studied using polarized microscopy. A combination of polarized and dark-field microscopy facilitated characterization of the defects; specific structural models are proposed. A new alignment technique involving compression and dilation of the lipid, which effects sample alignment at temperatures that are lower than those required by the Powers technique, is described. Lower temperature alignment avoids thermal decomposition that will sometimes occur if the lipid is maintained at elevated temperatures for prolonged periods. With this technique, samples (80 micrometer thick) of dilaurylphosphatidylcholine with 20% water by weight were aligned at room temperature. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 PMID:263691

  17. Ultrastructural observations on experimentally produced melanin pigmentation of the corneal epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    McCracken, J. S.; Klintworth, G. K.

    1976-01-01

    Melanin pigmentation of the corneal epithelium was induced in pigmented guinea pigs by the topical application of colchicine to their eyes or by corneal cauterization with silver nitrate. With colchicine the pigmentation was preceded by the development of an abnormal corneal epithelium in which numerous cells became arrested in cell division. The corneal melanosis resulted largely from the migration of melanocytes into the corneal epithelium from the normally pigmented contiguous conjunctiva and to a lesser extent from the presence of melanin granules within corneal epithelial cells. In both models a leukocytic and vascular invasion of the cornea proceded and accompanied the migration of melanocytes into the corneal epithelium. Electron microscopy disclosed cells with the same morphology as conjunctival melanocytes between the epithelial cells of the cornea. Mature melanin granules were also present within some squamous epithelial cells as individual granules or as clusters. The ultrastructural findings are viewed in relation to how melanin granules are transferred from melanocytes to epithelial cells. Evidence is presented which suggests that malanin granule transfer may follow the fusion of the membranes of the melanocytes and epithelial cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:970438

  18. Autopsy pathology in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, C. M.; O'Leary, T. J.; Levens, D. L.; Simrell, C. R.; Macher, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new illness which appears to be sexually and parenterally transmissible. AIDS was first described in the male homosexual community; however, the disease has more recently been described among intravenous drug abusers, Haitians, hemophiliacs, and others. The etiologic agent is unknown. AIDS may represent an infection by a previously undescribed organism, a mutant of a known microorganism, or a multifactorial combination of environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors. As a consequence of the disease's seemingly irreversible ablation of the cell-mediated immune system, AIDS victims succumb to a variety of infections and/or unusual neoplasms. In its fully developed form, mortality approaches 100%. At autopsy the gross and microscopic pathology of the syndrome can be divided into three general categories: 1) morphologic manifestations of profound lymphoid depletion; 2) infections, usually with mixed opportunistic pathogens; and 3) unusual neoplasms, most frequently Kaposi's sarcoma or high-grade lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 PMID:6311021

  19. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid in relation to hormone production.

    PubMed Central

    Kameya, T.; Shimosato, Y.; Adachi, I.; Abe, K.; Kasai, N.; Kimura, K.; Baba, K.

    1977-01-01

    Eighteen cases of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid were analyzed immunohistochemically for calcitonin- and ACTH-containing cells, and tumor cells in 8 cases were examined by an electron microscope and analyzed by manual and computer procedures with particular attention paid to the size and quality of secretory granules. Calcitonin- and ACTH-containing cells were found singly or in clusters in 14 and 11 tumors, respectively. In 4 cases, calcitonin-positive cell clusters and an increase in number of singly scattered C cells were seen apart from the main tumor, suggesting a multicentric nature of certain medullary carcinomas. Some ACTH-containing cells were apparently also positive for calcitonin. In a case of familial Sipple disease, follicular lining cells were replaced in areas with ACTH-containing cells. Three to five frequency distribution curves of the size of secretory granules were obtained in all of 6 cases analyzed, and at least two different types of granule matrix were identified. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 PMID:202164

  20. Ultrastructure of human malignant diffuse mesothelioma.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Y.; Kannerstein, M.

    1976-01-01

    Eleven cases of malignant diffuse mesotheliomas, histologically classified into two groups, epithelial (5 pleural and 3 peritoneal) and biphasic or mixed (2 pleural and 1 peritoneal) forms, were stuied by electron microscopy to elucidate their ultrastructural characteristics. The neoplastic cells of the epithelial forms were varied in ultrastructure, from well differentiated (marked by polarity, micovilli, glycogen granules, junctional structures, tonofilaments, intracellular vacuoles, and a basement membrane) to poorly differentiated (which lacked some of these epithelial characteristics). In four of eight instances in epithelial type tumors, nonepithelial or mesenchymal neoplastic cells were recognized. The biphasic or mixed cases included three major cell types: epithelial, atypical epithelial, and mesenchymal. It appeared that there were transitional forms among the three cell types. The observations support the concept that the neoplastic cell of malignant mesothelioma can differentiate into a number of cell lines. Images Figures 20 and 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figures 24 and 25 Figure 26 Figure 27A Figure 27B and C Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 Figure 31 Figures 32 and 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figures 1-4 Figures 5 and 6 Figure 37 Figures 7-10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figures 17 and 18 Figure 19 PMID:998721

  1. Reconstruction of the lids of a child with microblepharon and multiple congenital anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Merriam, J C; Stalnecker, M C; Merriam, G R

    1988-01-01

    The initial stages in the rehabilitation of a male child with severe microblepharon, corneal opacities, bilateral facial clefts, bilateral complete cleft lip and palate, and unilateral syndactyly are described. Review of the literature suggests that severe microblepharon is associated with other craniofacial anomalies, and often the child is stillborn or retarded. Surviving children have been abandoned because of their appearance. The child described in this case appears to be unique because his intelligence is normal, and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case of penetrating keratoplasty after reconstruction of functional eyelids. The principal problems after corneal grafting appear to have been chronic partial exposure due to inadequate lid length and a poor Bell's reflex and the persistence of a rim of vascularized fibrous tissue around the corneal graft. Future reconstructive surgery is outlined. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 PMID:2979029

  2. Role of Periductal and Ductular Epithelial Cells of the Adult Rat Pancreas in Pancreatic Hepatocyte Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Rao, M. Sambasiva; Dwivedi, Rama S.; Yeldandi, Anjana V.; Subbarao, V.; Tan, Xiaodi; Usman, Mohammed I.; Thangada, Shobha; Nemali, Mohan R.; Kumar, Sujata; Scarpelli, Dante G.; Reddy, Janardan K.

    1989-01-01

    Development of pancreatic hepatocytes in adult rats maintained on copper dificient diet containing 0.6% trien (CuDT) has been reported recently. To elucidate the histogenesis of hepatocytes a sequential study was undertaken using morphologic, histochemical, immunochemical, in situ hybridization, and Northern blot analysis. Male F-344 rats weighing 80 to 90 g were fed CuDT for 8 weeks and returned to normal rat chow. Beginning from 4 weeks of copper depletion, there was a progressive loss of acinar cells and by 8 weeks more than 90% of the acinar tissue was lost. During this period, there was an increase in the number of adipocytes in the interstitium, and in the number of interstitial and ductular cells. Morphologic observations were confirmed by immunoblot and Northern blot analysis, in which the amount of pancreatic proteins and their mRNAs decreased between 5 and 8 weeks. During this period, a progressive increase in the level of albumin mRNA was observed. In situ hybridization, performed at 7 weeks of copper deficiency, showed localization of albumin mRNA over interstitial and ductular cells. Pancreatic hepatocytes were identified immediately after the rats were returned to a normal diet and gradually increased in number. The hepatocytes occupied almost 60% of the pancreatic volume by 8 weeks. During the early recovery phase, hepatocytes were identified in ductules as well as in the interstitium. Based on these studies, it is concluded that both the ductular cells and interstitial cells, which resemble oval cells of liver, are capable of transforming into pancreatic hepatocytes and these cells may be considered stem-cell equivalent. ImagesFigure 9Figure 10Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16 PMID:2470253

  3. Salivary gland monomorphic adenoma. Ultrastructural, immunoperoxidase, and histogenetic aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Dardick, I.; Kahn, H. J.; Van Nostrand, A. W.; Baumal, R.

    1984-01-01

    Monomorphic adenoma of basal cell type is a salivary gland tumor believed to result from a proliferation of a single type of cell. However, ultrastructural and immunocytochemical investigations of 6 monomorphic adenomas (5 from parotid and 1 from intraoral minor salivary gland) indicate that there are two classes of these lesions, one composed of two types of tumor cells and the other wholly or predominantly made up of one type of cell (isomorphic). In the former group, the organization of the tumor cells closely mimicked that of normal and hyperplastic salivary gland intercalated ducts. Aggregates of tumor cells were arranged as an inner layer of luminal epithelial cells which were surrounded by an outer layer of cells that, in some cases, had ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features indicating myoepithelial cell differentiation. In some adenomas formed by two types of tumor cells, basal-lamina-lined extracellular spaces were identified ultrastructurally in relation to modified myoepithelial cells; such spaces had the same fine-structural features as those reported in pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Predominantly isomorphic adenomas were composed exclusively of luminal epithelial cells. These results indicate that despite the varied histologic patterns in the numerous subtypes of monomorphic adenoma, there is a central theme of differentiation and organization in this type of neoplasm which recapitulates the ductoacinar unit of normal salivary gland parenchyma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:6375388

  4. Characterization of indoor particle sources: A study conducted in the metropolitan Boston area.

    PubMed Central

    Abt, E; Suh, H H; Allen, G; Koutrakis, P

    2000-01-01

    An intensive particle monitoring study was conducted in homes in the Boston, Massachusetts, area during the winter and summer of 1996 in an effort to characterize sources of indoor particles. As part of this study, continuous particle size and mass concentration data were collected in four single-family homes, with each home monitored for one or two 6-day periods. Additionally, housing activity and air exchange rate data were collected. Cooking, cleaning, and the movement of people were identified as the most important indoor particle sources in these homes. These sources contributed significantly both to indoor concentrations (indoor-outdoor ratios varied between 2 and 33) and to altered indoor particle size distributions. Cooking, including broiling/baking, toasting, and barbecuing contributed primarily to particulate matter with physical diameters between 0.02 and 0.5 microm [PM((0.02-0.5))], with volume median diameters of between 0.13 and 0.25 microm. Sources of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters between 0.7 and 10 microm [PM((0.7-10))] included sautéing, cleaning (vacuuming, dusting, and sweeping), and movement of people, with volume median diameters of between 3 and 4.3 microm. Frying was associated with particles from both PM((0.02-0.5)) and PM((0.7-10)). Air exchange rates ranged between 0.12 and 24.3 exchanges/hr and had significant impact on indoor particle levels and size distributions. Low air exchange rates (< 1 exchange/hr) resulted in longer air residence times and more time for particle concentrations from indoor sources to increase. When air exchange rates were higher (> 1 exchange/hr), the impact of indoor sources was less pronounced, as indoor particle concentrations tracked outdoor levels more closely. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:10620522

  5. Acute respiratory bronchiolitis: an ultrastructural and autoradiographic study of epithelial cell injury and renewal in rhesus monkeys exposed to ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Castleman, W. L.; Dungworth, D. L.; Schwartz, L. W.; Tyler, W. S.

    1980-01-01

    The pathogenesis of acute respiratory bronchiolitis was examined in rhesus monkeys exposed to 0.8 ppm ozone fpr 4--50 hours. Epithelial injury and renewal was qualitatively and quantitatively characterized by correlated techniques of scanning and transmission electron microscopy as well as by light-microscopic autoradiography following labeling with tritiated thymidine. Extensive degeneration and necrosis of Type 1 epithelial cells occurred on the respiratory bronchiolar wall during the initial 4--12 hours of exposure. Increased numbers of labeled epithelial cells were present in this region after 18 hours of exposure, and the highest labeling index (18% was measured after 50 hours of exposure. Most (67--80%) of the labeled cells and all the mitotic epithelial cells (22) observed ultrastructurally were cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells. Of the labeled epithelial cells, 20--33% were Type 2 epithelial cells. After 50 hours of exposure the respiratory bronchiolar epithelium was hyperplastic. The predominant inflammatory cell in respiratory bronchiolar exudate was the alveolar macrophage. Monkeys that were exposed for 50 hours and allowed to recover in unozonized air for 7 days had incomplete resolution of respiratory bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia. The results indicate that Type 1 epithelial cells lining respiratory bronchioles are the cell type most sensitive to injury and that both cuboidal bronchiolar epithelial cells and Type 2 epithelial cells function as stem cells in epithelial renewal. Images Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:6767409

  6. Immature sinus histiocytosis. Light- and electron-microscopic features, immunologic phenotype, and relationship with marginal zone lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    van den Oord, J. J.; de Wolf-Peeters, C.; De Vos, R.; Desmet, V. J.

    1985-01-01

    The light-microscopic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical features of immature sinus histiocytosis were studied in 10 lymph nodes with the histologic picture of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis and compared with the features of lymphoid cells present in the marginal zone of the splenic white pulp. Areas of immature sinus histiocytosis consisted largely of medium-sized lymphoid cells with markedly irregular nuclei and abundant pale cytoplasm. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies, the predominating lymphoid cells were found to carry the B-cell phenotype B1+Ba1-sIgM+sIgD-OKIa1+. Admixed were variable numbers of larger, blastic lymphoid cells, small lymphocytes, histiocytic elements, and polymorphonuclear granulocytes. The marginal zone of the splenic white pulp was composed of a similar mixture of cells, and marginal-zone lymphocytes demonstrated an analogous immunohistochemical phenotype. Our results indicate that immature sinus histiocytes are B-lymphoid cells that are closely related to marginal zone lymphocytes. As such, immature sinus histiocytes may have a role similar to that of marginal-zone lymphocytes, which have been claimed to transport antigens or immune complexes toward the follicular center or to serve as precursors of plasma cells. We suggest that immature sinus histiocytosis represents an abnormal expansion of the marginal zone, normally present at the sinusoidal pole of lymphoid follicles. The reason for this marginal-zone hyperplasia, recognized as immature sinus histiocytosis in a variety of reactive lymph node conditions, may be a maturation arrest in the normal development of immature sinus histiocytes into small, sIgM+ sIgD+ lymphocytes. Images Figure 3 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:3970140

  7. Hazard evaluation of chemicals that cause accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin, hyaline droplet nephropathy, and tubule neoplasia in the kidneys of male rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hard, G C; Rodgers, I S; Baetcke, K P; Richards, W L; McGaughy, R E; Valcovic, L R

    1993-01-01

    This review paper examines the relationship between chemicals inducing excessive accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin (alpha 2u-g) (CIGA) in hyaline droplets in male rat kidneys and the subsequent development of nephrotoxicity and renal tubule neoplasia in the male rat. This dose-responsive hyaline droplet accumulation distinguishes CIGA carcinogens from classical renal carcinogens. CIGA carcinogens also do not appear to react with DNA and are generally negative in short-term tests for genotoxicity, CIGA or their metabolites bind specifically, but reversibly, to male rat alpha 2u-g. The resulting complex appears to be more resistant to hydrolytic degradation in the proximal tubule than native, unbound alpha 2u-g. Single cell necrosis of the tubule epithelium, with associated granular cast formation and papillary mineralization, is followed by sustained regenerative tubule cell proliferation, foci of tubule hyperplasia in the convoluted proximal tubules, and renal tubule tumors. Although structurally similar proteins have been detected in other species, including humans, renal lesions characteristic of alpha 2u-g nephropathy have not been observed. Epidemiologic investigation has not specifically examined the CIGA hypothesis for humans. Based on cancer bioassays, hormone manipulation studies, investigations in an alpha 2u-g-deficient strain of rat, and other laboratory data, an increased proliferative response caused by chemically induced cytotoxicity appears to play a role in the development of renal tubule tumors in male rats. Thus, it is reasonable to suggest that the renal effects induced in male rats by chemicals causing alpha 2u-g accumulation are unlikely to occur in humans. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. PMID:7686485

  8. The morphologic characteristics of intercellular junctions between normal human liver cells and cells from patients with extrahepatic cholestasis.

    PubMed Central

    Robenek, H.; Herwig, J.; Themann, H.

    1980-01-01

    Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7395970

  9. Reflex-mediated desquamation of bronchiolar epithelium in guinea pigs exposed acutely to sulfuric acid aerosol.

    PubMed Central

    Brownstein, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    Terminal conducting airways are known to be vulnerable to direct injury by a variety of noxious aerosols. Sulfuric acid aerosol, a by-product of fossil fuel combustion, produces desquamation of terminal bronchiolar epithelium in guinea pigs that is believed to result from direct deep lung irritation, an effect separable from reflex airway constriction induced by sulfuric acid. To characterize desquamation of bronchiolar epithelium, 20 guinea pigs were exposed to 32.6 mg/cu m sulfuric acid aerosol with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.0 micron for 4 hours. The guinea pigs were killed upon termination of the exposure, or 24 hours later, and airway alterations were evaluated by light and transmission electron microscopy. To test whether the development of bronchiolar epithelial desquamation is independent of reflex airway constriction, 24 guinea pigs were exposed to an identical aerosol for 4 hours after pretreating half with 5 mg/kg atropine sulfate intraperitoneally to inhibit airway constriction. Sulfuric acid produced diffuse pulmonary hyperinflation with areas of consolidation and atelectasis. Epithelial desquamation occurred in airways supplying regions of developing atelectasis and was most extensive in terminal bronchioles. Parasympathetic effector blockade with atropine eliminated epithelial desquamation. These results indicate that sulfuric acid-produced desquamation of terminal bronchiolar epithelium is not separable from reflex airway constriction and that terminal conducting airways are vulnerable not only to direct injury by noxious aerosols but also to indirect, reflex-mediated injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 PMID:7361847

  10. Allylamine Cardiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Boor, Paul J.; Nelson, Thomas J.; Chieco, Pasquale

    1980-01-01

    . ImagesFigure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 17Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 9Figure 10Figure 18Figure 19Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 7Figure 8Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3 PMID:6448005

  11. Testicular obstruction: clinicopathological studies.

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, W. F.; Levison, D. A.; Parkinson, M. C.; Parslow, J. M.; Royle, M. G.

    1990-01-01

    Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 14 PMID:2241062

  12. The Ultrastructure of the Human Epidermis in Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gallucci, Betty B.; Shulman, Howard M.; Sale, George E.; Lerner, Kenneth G.; Caldwell, Leslie E.; Thomas, E. Donnall

    1979-01-01

    The epidermal ultrastructure of 11 allogeneic bone marrow recipients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was compared with that of 4 recipients without chronic GVHD. This electron microscope study revealed three patterns of epidermal injury typical of chronic GVHD. The first type was a nonacantholytic (nondissecting) injury with a prominent cellular infiltrate consisting primarily of lymphocytes accompanied by a few macrophages. The second type was an acantholytic (dissecting) injury with a prominent infiltrate, while the third was a nondissecting injury with a sparse infiltrate. Broad-zone contact was observed between lymphocytes and all epidermal cell types as well as between other lymphocytes and macrophages. Point contact was only observed between lymphocytes and epidermal cells. Lymphocytes appeared to detach desmosomes from adjacent keratinocytes by isolating them with cytoplasmic projections, a phenomenon not previously described. Typical damage to the epidermal cells in the basal and spinous layers consisted of either swelling of the organelles or condensation of the cytoplasm and nucleus. In the keratinocyte, the condensation reaction resulted in the formation of colloid bodies, some of which were phagocytized by macrophages. Besides the cytolytic events, a concurrent stimulatory reaction occurred in the epidermal cells. The number of melanosomes in melanocytes and of Langerhans cell granules and dense bodies in the Langerhans cells all increased. Extensive areas of replication and disruption of the basal lamina were subjacent to areas of necrosis in the basal layer. ImagesFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 17Figure 18Figure 19Figure 1Figure 2Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:36763

  13. Dietary Induced Atherogenesis in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Gerrity, Ross G.; Naito, Herbert K.; Richardson, Mary; Schwartz, Colin J.

    1979-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia was induced in pigs by feeding a chow diet supplemented with 1.5% cholesterol and 19.5% lard for periods up to 12 weeks. The aortic intima from areas of spontaneously differing permeability to proteins, as demarcated by their uptake of Evans blue dye, was examined using light microscopy and both scanning and transmission electron microscopy to describe the earliest detectable changes in intimal morphology induced by the diet. After 2, 4, and 6 weeks of feeding, cholesterol/lardfed pigs demonstrated monocyte adherence to the endothelium in areas of enhanced permeability (blue areas) in 86% of samples examined, as compared to 52% in areas of lesser permeability (white areas) and 17% in control animals. Similarly, the number of monocytes in the intima was higher in blue areas than in adjacent white areas or blue areas from control animals. After 12 weeks of feeding, all blue areas showed intimal monocytes, with fewer seen in white areas. Aortic endothelial cells in hypercholesterolemic pigs were normal in ultrastructural appearance, except they contained more lysosomes and cytoplasmic filaments than those from control animals. No lesions were observed at 2, 4, and 6 weeks, although plasma cholesterol levels were substantially elevated (200-400 mg/dl) at these times. A marked hyper-β-lipoproteinemia was evident from 4 weeks onward, but no elevation of serum triglycerides was evident at any stage. Plasma phospholipid concentrations increased but not in direct proportion to cholesterol levels. At 12 weeks, foam cell lesions were observed in areas of enhanced permeability but not in adjacent areas of normal permeability. Lesion foam cells appeared to be derived from the monocytes which adhered to and penetrated the endothelium at earlier stages, since no intimal involvement, or lipid engorgement, by medial smooth muscle cells was observed. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 1Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure

  14. Ultrastructural alterations in allylamine cardiovascular toxicity. Late myocardial and vascular lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Boor, P. J.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1985-01-01

    The late myocardial and vascular ultrastructural changes in rat hearts following consumption of the cardiovascular toxin allylamine were studied. Rats were given 0.1% allylamine HCl in drinking water for 10-104 days. From 10 to 21 days, there was organization of acute myocardial necrosis by macrophages and scattered polymorphonuclear leukocytes with prominent interstitial-cell proliferation. Alterations at 21-104 days included extensive scarring with formation of dense mature collagen with scattered fibroblasts present, grossly evident left-ventricular aneurysm, and gross and microscopic changes similar to those observed in the secondary form of endocardial fibroelastosis. Areas of scar contained highly cellular foci of smooth-muscle cells, myofibroblasts, and abundant extracellular elastin. Cardiac myocytes frequently showed markedly disorganized myofilaments, bizarrely distorted mitochondria with condensed cristae, and other severe degenerative changes. Small vessels within and adjacent to scar showed proliferation of intimal smooth-muscle cells. Endothelial lesions or recent or organized thrombi were not seen. Focal endocardial metaplasia, consisting of both chondroid and osseous tissue, was found in areas of transmural scarring, or ventricular aneurysm. Chondrocytes had the overall nuclear and cellular morphology, abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, and surrounding lacunae typical of mature fibrocartilage. In some areas, the collagen matrix was undergoing calcification with the typical cross-banded pattern of calcifying connective tissue. Osteocytes were located in a densely calcified bone matrix and displayed characteristic cellular extensions into surrounding canaliculi. These findings indicate a severe myocardial, small-vessel, and endocardial injury during the course of chronic allylamine intoxication. Images Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 15 Figure

  15. The soft keratoprosthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, D R

    1997-01-01

    appearance. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 17A FIGURE 17B FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 PMID:9440192

  16. Rat hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine and N-nitrosomorpholine continuously administered at low doses. From basophilic areas of hepatocytes to hepatocellular tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Cortinovis, C.; Klimek, F.; Nogueira, E.

    1991-01-01

    application of some carcinogens at high doses, they are not obligatory precursors of hepatocellular tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 PMID:1951631

  17. Eduard Jaeger's Test-Types (Schrift-Scalen) and the historical development of vision tests.

    PubMed Central

    Runge, P E

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Eduard Jaeger's original Test-Types were carefully evaluated: (1) to determine whether Jaeger had maintained a consistent standard, (2) to establish the correct Snellen equivalent for Jaeger's Test-Types, (3) to answer the question of why and how the standard was lost, and (4) to compare the visual angle of optotypes to lines of continuous text. METHODS: All original Viennese editions of Jaeger's Test-Types, as well as first generation United Kingdom (UK) and United States (US) versions, were evaluated. Data were collected objectively using a microruler with a 20X loupe and subjectively using a laser distance-measuring device. The data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel. All previous measurements of Jaeger's Test-Types, objective and subjective, collected over the past 133 years were compared to the current data and to each other. RESULTS: The correct Snellen equivalent of Jaeger's Test-Types was determined. The visual angle created from the measurement of the height of lowercase letters, without ascenders or descenders, provides an accurate method of assigning a visual angle of a line of continuous text. Comparing the typefaces used in printing first generation UK and US versions of Jaeger's Test-Types to the Viennese editions provided an explanation for the absence of a consistent standard for Jaeger's Test-Types today. CONCLUSIONS: All 10 versions of Jaeger's original Test-Types are virtually identical and established a gold standard for reading vision tests. Jaeger's standard was lost when his Test-Types were first printed in the UK and the US using local typefaces. The Jaeger standard has been re-established. Visual angles determined using continuous text are comparable to those obtained by using optotypes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7C FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19A FIGURE 19B p409-a FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE

  18. Products of cells cultured from gliomas. VI. Immunofluorescent, morphometric, and ultrastructural characterization of two different cell types growing from explants of human gliomas.

    PubMed Central

    McKeever, P. E.; Smith, B. H.; Taren, J. A.; Wahl, R. L.; Kornblith, P. L.; Chronwall, B. M.

    1987-01-01

    cell types may increase our understanding of the mechanism of antigenic changes in gliomas and may provide clues to improved therapeutic approaches. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 PMID:3555104

  19. Variability of expert observers in evaluating the optic disc.

    PubMed Central

    Lichter, P R

    1976-01-01

    most useful disc characteristics to observe. In this regard, a C/D ratio does nothing to indicate whether a disc is normal or not. A statement as to the observer's opinion should be made for each disc evaluation in addition to recording the appearance of the disc. Images FIGURE 4 1 FIGURE 4 2 FIGURE 4 3 FIGURE 4 4 FIGURE 4 5 FIGURE 4 6 FIGURE 4 7 FIGURE 4 8 FIGURE 4 9 FIGURE 4 10 FIGURE 4 11 FIGURE 4 12 FIGURE 4 13 FIGURE 4 14 FIGURE 4 15 FIGURE 4 16 FIGURE 4 17 FIGURE 4 18 FIGURE 4 19 FIGURE 4 20 PMID:867638

  20. Tumor vascularity and hematogenous metastasis in experimental murine intraocular melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, H E

    1998-01-01

    metastasizes through regional lymphatics. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:10360307

  1. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Sherif R.; Greer, Patricia w.; Coffield, Lisa M.; Goldsmith, Cynthia S.; Nolte, Kurt B.; Foucar, Kathy; Feddersen, Richard M.; Zumwalt, Ross E.; Miller, Gayle L.; Khan, Ali S.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Mahy, Brian W.J.; Peters, Clarence J.

    1995-01-01

    a newly recognized, often fatal disease, with a spectrum of microscopic morphological changes, which may be an important cause of severe and fatal illness presenting as adult respiratory distress syndrome. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15 PMID:7887439

  2. Histopathologic studies of ischemic optic neuropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Knox, D L; Kerrison, J B; Green, W R

    2000-01-01

    FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24 B FIGURE 24 C FIGURE 24 D FIGURE 24 E FIGURE 24 F FIGURE 25 A FIGURE 25 B FIGURE 25 C FIGURE 25 D FIGURE 25 E FIGURE 25 F FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 PMID:11190024

  3. A twin study on age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, S M

    1994-01-01

    ; this included the one dizygotic pair which was discordant for basal laminar drusen. The data of this study strongly suggest a genetic predisposition to AMD. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 1 (cont.) FIGURE 2 FIGURE 2 (cont.) FIGURE 2 (cont.) FIGURE 3 FIGURE 3 (cont.) FIGURE 3 (cont.) FIGURE 3 (cont.) FIGURE 4 FIGURE 4 (cont.) FIGURE 5 FIGURE 5 (cont.) FIGURE 5 (cont.) FIGURE 6 FIGURE 6 (cont.) FIGURE 7 FIGURE 7 (cont.) FIGURE 8 FIGURE 8 (cont.) FIGURE 9 FIGURE 9 (cont.) FIGURE 9 (cont.) FIGURE 10 FIGURE 10 (cont.) FIGURE 11 FIGURE 11 (cont.) FIGURE 11 (cont.) FIGURE 12 FIGURE 12 (cont.) FIGURE 12 (cont.) PMID:7886884

  4. Common Pediatric Urological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Wm. Lane M.; Leung, Alexander K.C.; Boag, Graham S.

    1991-01-01

    The clinical and radiological presentations of 12 pediatric urological disorders are described. The described disorders include pyelonephritis, vesicoureteral reflux, ureteropelvic obstruction, ureterovesical obstruction, ectopic ureterocele, posterior urethral valves, multicystic dysplastic kidney, polycystic kidney disease, ectopic kidney, staghorn calculi, urethral diverticulum, and urethral meatal stenosis. ImagesFigure 1-2Figure 3Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6-7Figure 8-9Figure 10Figure 11-12 PMID:21229068

  5. Mammary gland neoplasia in long-term rodent studies.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, I H; Russo, J

    1996-01-01

    in cancer initiation. Comparative studies with the development of the human breast and the pathogenesis of breast cancer have contributed to validate rodent-to-human extrapolations. However, it has not been definitively established what type of information is necessary for human risk assessment, whether currently toxicity testing methodologies are sufficient for fulfilling those needs, or whether treatment-induced tumorigenic responses in rodents are predictive of potential human risk. An alternative to the traditional bioassays are mechanism-based toxicology and molecular and cellular approaches, combined with comparative in vitro systems. These approaches might allow the rapid screen of chemicals for setting priorities for further studies to determine the dose-response relationship for chemical effects at low doses, to assess effects other than mutagenesis and/or tumorigenesis, or to establish qualitative and quantitative relationships of biomarkers to toxic effects. Until there is enough information on the predictive value of mechanism-based toxicology for risk assessment, this approach should be used in conjunction with and validated by the traditional in vivo long-term bioassays. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. A Figure 7. B Figure 8. A Figure 8. B Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 12. Figure 13. Figure 14. Figure 15. Figure 16. Figure 17. Figure 18. Figure 19. Figure 20. Figure 21. Figure 22. Figure 23. Figure 24. Figure 25. Figure 26. PMID:8899375

  6. The ultrastructure of conjunctival melanocytic tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobiec, F A

    1984-01-01

    melanocytes and exhibited more haphazard arrangements of the melanofilaments, which were only partially melaninized. Mitochondria were more numerous than in dendritic melanocytes, and monoribosomes predominated over polyribosomes. Cytoplasmic filaments were inconspicuous. Cells in the immediate subepithelial connective tissue zone had features identical to those of the cells within the junctional nests. Smaller, lymphocytoid cells with less numerous and more rudimentary melanosomes were found in the middle and deeper portions of the lesions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 67 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 47 FIGURE 48 FIGURE 49 FIGURE 50 FIGURE 51 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 53 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 55 FIGURE 56 FIGURE 57 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 63 FIGURE 64 FIGURE 65 FIGURE 66 FIGURE 68 FIGURE 69 FIGURE 70 FIGURE 71 FIGURE 72 FIGURE 73 FIGURE 74 FIGURE 75 FIGURE 76 FIGURE 77 FIGURE 78 FIGURE 79 FIGURE 80 FIGURE 81 FIGURE 82 FIGURE 83 FIGURE 84 FIGURE 85 FIGURE 86 FIGURE 87 FIGURE 88 FIGURE 89 PMID:6398936

  7. Morphology of neoplastic lesions induced by 1,3-butadiene in B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, R A; Boorman, G A

    1990-01-01

    . Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary were exposure-related neoplasms in both studies. Occasionally the granulosa cell tumors were malignant as evidenced by vascular invasion or pulmonary metastasis. Although there was an increased incidence of hepatocellular neoplasms in exposed females in the first study, by week 65 of the second study there was not evidence of a clear response of liver neoplasms. The preliminary results of the second study indicate there was induction of tumors similar to those seen in the first study but occurring in response to lower concentrations of 1,3-butadiene. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 13. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. FIGURE 19. FIGURE 20. FIGURE 21. FIGURE 22. FIGURE 23. FIGURE 24. FIGURE 25. FIGURE 26. FIGURE 27. FIGURE 28. FIGURE 29. FIGURE 30. FIGURE 31. FIGURE 32. FIGURE 33. FIGURE 34. PMID:2401271

  8. Scar remodeling after strabismus surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, I H

    1999-01-01

    limitation of versions, less separation of the tendons from sclera, and thicker appearance of the scar segments. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in the repair procedure reduced the recurrence rate. Histologic examination of the clinical stretched scar specimens showed dense connective tissue that was less well organized compared with normal tendon. In the tissue culture studies, cells cultured from the stretched scar specimens grew rapidly and were irregularly shaped. A high-molecular-weight protein was identified in the culture medium. By contrast, cells cultured from normal tendon (controls) grew more slowly and regularly, stopped growing at 4 days, and produced less total protein than cultured stretched scar specimens. In the animal model studies, the collagenase-treated sites showed elongated scars with increased collagen between the muscle and the sclera, as well as increased collagen creep rates, compared with the saline-treated controls. The use of nonabsorbable sutures in collagenase-treated animal model surgery sites was associated with shorter, thicker scars compared with similar sites sutured with absorbable sutures. CONCLUSIONS: A lengthened or stretched, remodeled scar between an operated muscle tendon and sclera is a common occurrence and is a factor contributing to the variability of outcome after strabismus repair, even years later. This abnormality may be revealed by careful exploration of previously operated muscles. Definitive repair requires firm reattachment of tendon to sclera with nonabsorbable suture support. Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 40 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 FIGURE 52

  9. Myocardial diseases of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1986-01-01

    seen less frequently; and, in contrast to man, coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia are rather infrequent in animals. The present review shows clearly that the spectrum of myocardial diseases in animals is enlarging and that many newly recognized diseases are emerging and assuming considerable importance. For example, various heritable cardiomyopathies have recently been described in the KK mouse, cattle, and rats. Increasingly recognized myocardial diseases include cardiomyopathies in cats, dogs, and birds; anthracycline cardiotoxicity; furazolidone cardiotoxicity; ionophore cardiotoxicity; myocardial damage associated with central nervous system injuries; myocardial hypertrophy in Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 45 Figure 46 Figure 47 Figure 48 Figure 61 Figure 62 Figure 63 Figure 64 Figure 79 Figure 75 Figure 76 Figure 77 Figure 78 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 & 30 Figure 31 Figure 32 Figure 33 Figure 34 Figure 35 Figure 36 Figure 37 Figure 38 Figure 39 Figure 40 Figure 41 Figure 42 Figure 43 Figure 44 Figure 49 Figure 50 Figure 51 Figure 52 Figure 53 Figure 54 Figure 55 Figure 56 Figure 57 Figure 58 Figure 59 Figure 60 Figure 65 Figure 66 Figure 67 Figure 68 Figure 69 Figure 70 Figure 71 & 72 Figure 73 & 74 PMID:3524254

  10. Ocular explosion during cataract surgery: a clinical, histopathological, experimental, and biophysical study.

    PubMed Central

    Bullock, J D; Warwar, R E; Green, W R

    1998-01-01

    -bank eyes and the theoretical analyses of this entity show that the pressure required to produce such an injury is much more easily obtained with a 3- or 5-mL syringe than with a syringe 10 mL or larger. CONCLUSIONS: Explosion of an eyeball during the injection of anesthesia for ocular surgery is a devastating injury that may go unrecognized. The probability of an ocular explosion can be minimized by careful use of a syringe 10 mL or larger with a blunt needle, by discontinuing the injection if resistance is met, and by inspecting the globe prior to ocular massage or placement of a Honan balloon. When ocular explosion occurs, immediate referral to and intervention by a vitreoretinal surgeon is optimal. Practicing ophthalmologists should be aware of this blinding but preventable complication of ocular surgery. Images FIGURE 1 Figure 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 PMID:10360292

  11. Early chiropractic education in Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Joseph C

    2002-01-01

    Chiropractic education in the northwestern United States has its origins in the Marsh School & Cure in 1904. Most of the early schools were located in Portland, Oregon, including the D.D. Palmer College of Chiropractic (1908-1910), and several of these had merged by 1912 or 1913 to form the Pacific Chiropractic College, forerunner of today's Western States College. The latter was organized as a non-profit institution during the Great Depression, and struggled not only to survive but to create a higher standard. The early broad-scope of chiropractic training in the state probably encouraged the liberal scope of practice enjoyed in Oregon to this day. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 11Figure 12Figure 13Figure 14Figure 15Figure 16Figure 18Figure 19Figure 20Figure 21Figure 22Figure 24

  12. Pulmonary mineral dust. A study of ninety patients by electron microscopy, electron microanalysis, and electron microdiffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, J. P.; Henoc, P.; Galle, P.; Pariente, R.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study of 90 patients are presented. Intrapulmonary mineral deposits were characterized by electron diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. Using this method, pneumoconioses may be distinguidhed from other pneumopathies. In cases of pneumoconiosis, there exists a specific relationship between the etiology of the dust exposure and the crystallographic characteristics of the intrapulmonary deposits. The nature of the deposits may be indicative of a specific type of pneumoconiosis. This method is particularly useful in differentiating between asbestos bodies and ferruginous bodies. The value of the method in general and its importance in the study of pneumoconiosis are discussed. Images Figure 4 Figure 13 Figure 5 Figure 14 Figure 6 Figure 15 Figure 7 Figure 16 Figure 8 Figure 17 Figure 1 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 12 PMID:937507

  13. Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, A W

    1990-01-01

    Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

  14. A historical perspective of thirteen unheralded contributors to medicodental progress.

    PubMed Central

    Dummett, C. O.

    1989-01-01

    Brief highlights of the careers of 13 Afro-American dentists have been presented. Their professional lives demonstrated both a commitment to the advancement of dentistry and a dedication to the betterment of humanity. Of the 13, three spent their professional lives exclusively in dental education, research, and public health. The remaining 10 were dental clinicians who served patients with competence, care, and concern. Additionally, they contributed to dentistry's image and progress by improving medicodental relations, pioneering in university dental education, engaging in philanthropy, qualifying for dental specialties, exerting leadership in dental professional organizations, integrating dentistry in hospital care, solving community health problems, and participating in all aspects of dental journalism. A sizable portion of their energies was expended in enhancing the quality of life in their communities and the nation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:2651678

  15. Application of Electron Diffraction to Biological Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Glaeser, Robert M.; Thomas, Gareth

    1969-01-01

    Three methods by which electron diffraction may be applied to problems in electron microscopy are discussed from a fundamental point of view, and experimental applications with biological specimens are demonstrated for each case. It is shown that wide-angle electron diffraction provides valuable information for evaluating specimen damage that can occur either during specimen preparation or while in the electron beam. Dark-field electron microscopy can be used both to enhance the image contrast and to provide highly restricted and therefore highly specific information about the object. Low-angle electron diffraction provides quantitative information about the object structure in the range from 20 A to ∼ 1000 A. Lowangle electron diffraction also demonstrates the important role of Fourier contrast with biological specimens, which are usually characterized by structural features with dimensions of 20 A or larger. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Figure 13 PMID:4896898

  16. The morphology of the Legionnaires' disease organism.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    The Pennsylvania Department of Health, Bureau of Laboratories, has isolated the Legionnaires disease organism from two patients with Legionnaires' disease proved by serologic techniques. We have studied the morphology which the isolate assumes in yolk sac tissue and on bacteriologic media. The organism was Giménez-positive and gram-variable. Using an indirect immunofluorescent procedure, it was shown to react with convalescent serum samples taken from patients who had Legionnaires' disease. The organism multiplies by binary fission extracellularly and intracellulary; is both coccoid and bacillary in form; and contains characteristic cytoplasm, nucleoids, a cytoplasmic membrane, and a small cell wall of variable size. It may produce spores of unusual appearance. Intracellular replication characteristically occurs within vacuoles. The Legionnaires' disease organism conforms to the morphologic criteria for a prokaryocyte. Images Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 2 Figure 11 Figure 3 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 4 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:629329

  17. ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC STUDIES OF RENAL DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Latta, Harrison

    1960-01-01

    The nephrotic syndrome, glomerulonephritis, disseminated lupus erythematosus and the Fanconi syndrome show characteristic changes with electron microscopy. Experimental studies of animals were carried out to determine the significance of such changes by observing reactions that occur under carefully controlled conditions. A lesion with collagen deposition that was found in the centrolobular region of glomeruli sheds new light on the function of this region. This evidence must be considered in developing an understanding of how the production of urine is controlled. Fluid-filled compartments and various bodies associated with the ultrastructure of tubule cells can be produced under conditions which suggest that these structures play a role in tubular resorption. ImagesFigure 1, 2.Figure 3.Figure 4, 5.Figure 6, 7.Figure 8, 9.Figure 10.Figure 11, 12.Figure 13, 14.Figure 15, 16.Figure 17. PMID:13759386

  18. An age-specific kinetic model of lead metabolism in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, R W

    1993-01-01

    with data on human subjects exposed to lead under a variety of experimental and natural conditions. Images p598-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. A Figure 7. B Figure 7. D Figure 7. E Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 10. Figure 10. Figure 11. Figure 11. Figure 12. p613-a PMID:8143593

  19. Brown's syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, K W

    1999-01-01

    forced duction testing by observing the pattern of strabismus including torsion. Because of the chance for spontaneous resolution, conservative management, not surgery, should be the first line of treatment for acquired Brown's syndrome. If surgery is indicated, a novel procedure, the silicone tendon expander, is an effective option with excellent long-term outcomes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 PMID:10703149

  20. The ocular manifestations of congenital infection: a study of the early effect and long-term outcome of maternally transmitted rubella and toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, J F

    1998-01-01

    and may vary from blindness and severe mental retardation to minor retinochoroidal lesions of little consequence. Effective solutions for either the prevention or treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis have not been developed in this country but are under intensive and continuing investigation. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 5C FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15A FIGURE 15B FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20A FIGURE 20B FIGURE 20C FIGURE 20D FIGURE 20E FIGURE 20F FIGURE 20G FIGURE 20H FIGURE 20J FIGURE 20K FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 A FIGURE 24B FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:10360309

  1. Transvitreal endocyclophotocoagulation.

    PubMed Central

    Haller, J A

    1996-01-01

    Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 37 FIGURE 38 PMID:8981713

  2. Heterogeneous distribution of Weibel-Palade bodies and von Willebrand factor along the porcine vascular tree.

    PubMed Central

    Gebrane-Younès, J.; Drouet, L.; Caen, J. P.; Orcel, L.

    1991-01-01

    Vessels obtained from different levels of pig vascular tree were examined by transmission electron microscope, with the aim of determining whether or not their endothelial cells contain Weibel-Palade bodies (WPB). As these organelles are known to store the von Willebrand factor (vWF), a two-step immunogold labeling of this protein also was performed. Our results showed for the first time a heterogeneous distribution of WPB along the vascular tree of the normal pig: These structures were absent from the thoracic aorta, rare in the abdominal aorta, present in myocardial capillaries, and numerous in the inferior vena cava and pulmonary artery. Atypical WPB devoid of tubules were seen in all endothelial cells. The ultrastructural labeling of vWF demonstrated its presence only in the WPB, being absent in the subendothelium, and showed the same variation in its distribution along the vascular tree as for its storage organelle. Pigs homozygous for the von Willebrand disease were found to have only the atypical WPB, and do not express the vWF. Images Figure 1 p1474-b Figure 2 p1474-d Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:1750513

  3. Lung injury mediated by antibodies to endothelium. II. Study of the effect of repeated antigen-antibody interactions in rabbits tolerant to heterologous antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Camussi, G.; Caldwell, P. R.; Andres, G.; Brentjens, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of repeated interactions of antibodies with cell surface antigens have been examined in in vitro, but not in in vivo systems. In this study are described the results of multiple antibody-cell surface antigen interactions in vivo. Rabbits were given repeated intravenous injections of goat antibodies to angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), an antigen expressed on the surface of lung endothelial cells. For prevention of anaphylactic reactions, which would have been induced by multiple injections of heterologous immune or nonimmune IgG, the rabbits were made neonatally tolerant to goat IgG. Divalent immune IgG given daily for 21 days induced chronic antigenic modulation (antigen disappearance) with resistance to antibody-mediated inflammatory lesions. The rabbits, however, developed degenerative changes of alveolar endothelial and epithelial cells. Administration of immune IgG every other day for 43 days allowed partial reexpression of ACE and was associated with intravascular, but not interstitial, inflammatory changes. In contrast, repeated administration of monovalent immune Fab did not induce antigenic modulation but caused severe, lethal, interstitial pneumonitis. Thus, in this experimental model the development of acute interstitial inflammatory changes correlates with persistence of antigen and is abrogated by disappearance of antigen induced by divalent antibodies. Further, repeated endothelial antigen antibody interactions fail to induce chronic inflammatory or sclerosing lung lesions. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:3034065

  4. Influence of surface chemistry on the structural organization of monomolecular protein layers adsorbed to functionalized aqueous interfaces.

    PubMed Central

    Lösche, M; Piepenstock, M; Diederich, A; Grünewald, T; Kjaer, K; Vaknin, D

    1993-01-01

    The molecular organization of streptavidin (SA) bound to aqueous surface monolayers of biotin-functionalized lipids and binary lipid mixtures has been investigated with neutron reflectivity and electron and fluorescence microscopy. The substitution of deuterons (2H) for protons (1H), both in subphase water molecules and in the alkyl chains of the lipid surface monolayer, was utilized to determine the interface structure on the molecular length scale. In all cases studied, the protein forms monomolecular layers underneath the interface with thickness values of approximately 40 A. A systematic dependence of the structural properties of such self-assembled SA monolayers on the surface chemistry was observed: the lateral protein density depends on the length of the spacer connecting the biotin moiety and its hydrophobic anchor. The hydration of the lipid head groups in the protein-bound state depends on the dipole moment density at the interface. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 FIGURE A1 PMID:8298041

  5. Use of tracheal organ cultures in toxicity testing.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, B P; Miller, S L; Drummond, E J

    1976-01-01

    Fragments of tracheal epithelium alone or in continuity with connective tissues, can be maintained in culture medium and used for short term or long term studies of toxicity of a variety of chemicals. Large numbers of uniform cultures are prepared with the aid of a slicing device or by application of simple method for dissecting sheets of epithelium free from underlying cartilage. The cultures may be placed in an exposure chamber-incubator mounted on a microscope stage and monitored continually for ciliostasis and exfoliation of cells. Morphology is further studied by fixation of selected specimens and preparation for light microscopy and electron microscopy. Synthetic functions are evaluated by autoradiographic measurement of incorporation of radioactive precursors into macromolecules and other dynamic features are indirectly assessed by histochemical and histoenzymatic methods. Short-term studies using these several techniques have shown that ciliostasis does not correlate with cell injury in all instances, and a long-term study has demonstrated dose dependence of a cytotoxic agent when duration of culture viability is measured. The method lends itself to a broad range of investigations in which dose, period of exposure, and role of cofactors must be independently and quantitatively assessed. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:1017423

  6. Structural characterization of the mesangial cell type IV collagenase and enhanced expression in a model of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Lovett, D. H.; Johnson, R. J.; Marti, H. P.; Martin, J.; Davies, M.; Couser, W. G.

    1992-01-01

    Secretion of glomerular cell-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their specific inhibitors, TIMP-1,2, may play an important role in the turnover of the glomerular extracellular matrix under basal and pathologic conditions. A 66-68 kd MMP secreted by cultured mesangial cells (MC) with activity against Type IV collagen and gelatin was purified and shown by amino-acid sequence analysis to be identical with a Type IV collagenase/gelatinase secreted by certain transformed tumor cell lines. The expression of the mesangial MMP in vivo was limited within the kidney to a small subset of the intrinsic glomerular mesangial cell population. After induction of acute anti-Thy 1.1 glomerulonephritis, there was a large increment in the number of Type IV collagenase-secreting MC, temporally coincident with the development of mesangial hypercellularity. The expression of the MMP inhibitor protein, TIMP-1, was not changed over this period. Ultrastructural studies localized the mesangial MMP to areas of evolving mesangiolysis and at sites of glomerular basement membrane disruption. Enhanced expression of the mesangial cell-derived Type IV collagenase may contribute to the evolution of glomerular injury in this model of immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis or may be involved in the extensive matrix remodeling process that accompanies this form of glomerular injury. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 and Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:1321565

  7. Expression of hemidesmosomes and component proteins is lost by invasive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Bergstraesser, L. M.; Srinivasan, G.; Jones, J. C.; Stahl, S.; Weitzman, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    Hemidesmosomes are multiprotein structures that attach basal cells of stratified epithelia to basement membranes. Although normal human breast epithelia are not stratified, we observed expression of electron-dense hemidesmosomes and hemidesmosome protein components by breast epithelial and myoepithelial cells at the basal lamina in vivo. Primary cultured normal human breast epithelial cells also contained hemidesmosomes and component proteins, and could be used as a model for hemidesmosome assembly and regulation. In these cultured cells, hemidesmosome proteins were expressed and localized basally in an unvaried temporal pattern, and electron-dense hemidesmosomes were not seen until the final protein was localized to the cell base. In addition, rate of localization was influenced by confluence, doubling time, and extracellular matrix. Invasive breast cancer cells did not express hemidesmosomes or most of the component proteins in vivo. In carcinoma in situ, cells away from the basement membrane lacked hemidesmosomes and hemidesmosome proteins, and cells at the basement membrane exhibited abnormalities of hemidesmosome protein expression. Primary human malignant breast cells in culture exhibited a mix of hemidesmosome phenotypes. These data suggest that hemidesmosomes may be important subcellular structures in determining the cytoarchitecture of the breast epithelium. Further, their downregulation may influence cytoarchitecture remodeling closely linked with cell cycle, motility, and extracellular matrix interactions; and their loss in carcinoma may be associated with loss of normal cytoarchitecture. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7495306

  8. The neuropathology of AIDS. UCLA experience and review.

    PubMed Central

    Anders, K. H.; Guerra, W. F.; Tomiyasu, U.; Verity, M. A.; Vinters, H. V.

    1986-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has been examined at autopsy in 89 patients who died of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), including 14 patients who died primarily of neurologic complications of the disease. A total of 66 brains (74%) showed significant pathologic abnormalities, with opportunistic infections including cytomegalovirus (14) and cryptococcal (11) infections, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (6), toxoplasmosis (6), and histoplasma microabscesses (1). Incidental Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection was found in 4 cases. Simultaneous CNS infection by more than one microorganism was encountered in 5 patients. Subacute (microglial nodule) encephalitis-related to cytomegalovirus infection or possibly brain infection by the causative agent of AIDS was present in 56 cases. Primary CNS lymphoma was noted in 3 patients. Secondary CNS deposits of lymphoma were found in 1 patient, and another patient had lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Vascular complications were not infrequently seen, and included infarcts secondary to vessel occlusion and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 4 patients and intracranial hemorrhage of variable severity in 13. White matter changes included vacuolar myelopathy (3 cases), central pontine myelinolysis (1 case), and foci of calcified, necrotizing leukoencephalopathy in pontocerebellar fibers of the basis pontis (2 cases). These findings highlight the variety of CNS complications in AIDS, some of which are not associated with clinical manifestations. Nevertheless, characterization of all lesions may be important in understanding the neurologic sequelae of AIDS. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 p540-a Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:2876640

  9. Glycosaminoglycans in the rat aorta. Ultrastructural localization with toluidine blue O and osmium--ferrocyanide procedure.

    PubMed Central

    Coltoff-Schiller, B.; Goldfischer, S.

    1981-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of sclerotic vascular disease. The localization of GAGs in the rat aorta was examined by two different ultrastructural cytochemical approaches. These procedures are believed to demonstrate 1) anionic sites, with fixatives that contain either toluidine blue or ruthenium red, both cationic dyes, and 2) polysaccharides, proteoglycans, and glycoproteins, with an osmium--ferrocyanide mixture that binds to vicinal diols. Both procedures stain a network of insoluble, 2--8-nm filaments that bridge collagen fibers, elastin, basement membranes, and plasma membranes. These structures resist digestion with chondroitinase ABC and appear to be identical to the filaments that have previously been demonstrated with ruthenium red. Focal 6--12-nm densities are present where filaments intersect. However, the large granules that are made visible with ruthenium red are not seen in toluidine blue or osmium--ferrocyanide preparations. A soluble and relatively amorphous component surrounds the tightly packed bundles of collagen in the media and is preserved and stained by toluidine blue and osmium--ferrocyanide mixtures. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6172040

  10. Susceptible periods during embryogenesis of the heart and endocrine glands.

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, T W

    2000-01-01

    One of the original principles of teratology states that, "Susceptibility to teratogenesis varies with the developmental stage at the time of exposure to an adverse influence" [Wilson JG. Environment and Birth Defects. New York:Academic Press, 1973]. The time of greatest sensitivity encompasses the period of organ formation during weeks 3-8 following fertilization in human gestation. At this time, stem cell populations for each organ's morphogenesis are established and inductive events for the initiation of differentiation occur. Structural defects of the heart and endocrine system are no exception to this axiom and have their origins during this time frame. Although the function and maturation of these organs may be affected at later stages, structural defects and loss of cell types usually occur during these early phases of development. Thus, to determine critical windows for studying mechanisms of teratogenesis, it is essential to understand the developmental processes that establish these organs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:10852854

  11. Field and laboratory studies of the etiology of liver neoplasms in marine fish from Puget Sound.

    PubMed Central

    Malins, D C; McCain, B B; Myers, M S; Brown, D W; Krahn, M M; Roubal, W T; Schiewe, M H; Landahl, J T; Chan, S L

    1987-01-01

    A series of field studies was conducted between 1979 and 1985 in Puget Sound, Washington State, to investigate etiological relationships between prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in bottom-dwelling marine fish species, with emphasis on English sole (Parophrys vetulus), and concentrations of toxic chemicals in sediments and affected fish. Statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) correlations have been found between the prevalences of hepatic neoplasms in English sole and the following parameters: sediment concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons, and concentrations of the metabolites of aromatic compounds in the bile of affected sole. A significant difference (p less than 0.001) was also found between the relative concentrations of aromatic free radicals in the liver microsomes of English sole with liver lesions compared to sole without liver lesions. Laboratory studies designed to evaluate the etiology of the liver neoplasms in English sole have also yielded evidence that is consistent with the view that high molecular weight aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g., benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), are hepatocarcinogens in English sole. The current status of a series of long-term (up to 18 months) exposures of English sole and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) to selected fractions of Puget Sound sediment extracts, enriched with aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds, and to individual carcinogens (e.g., BaP) is discussed. Images FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:3297664

  12. SALIVARY GLAND TUMORS

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, George S.; Helsper, James T.

    1960-01-01

    In a review of a series of 248 salivary gland tumors, seen over a 28-year period, all pathologic material was brought up to date by reclassification according to more recent criteria and nomenclature. In parotid tumors, a probable lowered recurrence rate and a definite decrease in incidence of permanent facial nerve paralysis was found in the more recent cases in which the “Y” incision was used, with identification of the seventh nerve as it leaves the stylomastoid foramen. The five-year recurrence rate for primary mixed tumor was 8.3 per cent, and in recurrent cases it was found to be 18.1 per cent. Of 44 patients with malignant salivary gland tumors in all sites who were observed for five years or more, 32 or 72.7 per cent survived five years. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:18732337

  13. The role of astrocytes in the formation of cartilage in gliomas. An immunohistochemical study of four cases.

    PubMed Central

    Kepes, J. J.; Rubinstein, L. J.; Chiang, H.

    1984-01-01

    The occasional presence of focal cartilage in gliomas is generally attributed to metaplasia of the mesenchymal supportive elements. While this mechanism undoubtedly exists, the present report describes a different mode of development of cartilage in four gliomas occurring in young individuals. Two of the tumors were pontine astrocytomas, one was a mixed ependymoma and astrocytoma involving the fourth ventricle and the brainstem, and one was an extraspinal malignant astrocytoma in the lumbar region of a young boy who earlier had been diagnosed as having a pontine glioma for which he received radiation treatment. In all four tumors, transitions from astrocytic to cartilaginous elements were seen, characterized by an increasing deposition of chondroid ground substance between the astrocytes and a gradual morphologic changes of the glial cells to more rounded forms with a vacuolated cytoplasm, indistinguishable from chondrocytes of mesenchymal origin. Many of these cells retained positive staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein by the immunoperoxidase method, attesting to their astrocytic nature. The production of cartilage by neoplastic astrocytes may be related to their ability to secrete, in certain circumstances and occasionally in large amounts, basement membrane material and other forms of mucopolysaccharides, which may become condensed to form a chondroid ground substance. The process appears analogous to that of cartilage formation by epithelial cells in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands. Images Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6391192

  14. Experimental extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary angiitis induced by intratracheal or intravenous challenge with Corynebacterium parvum in sensitized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Yi, E. S.; Lee, H.; Suh, Y. K.; Tang, W.; Qi, M.; Yin, S.; Remick, D. G.; Ulich, T. R.

    1996-01-01

    Extrinsic allergic alveolitis and pulmonary sarcoidosis are granulomatous diseases of the lung for which clinical presentation and anatomic site of granuloma formation differ. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is caused by inhaled antigens, whereas the nature and source of the inciting antigen in sarcoidosis is unknown. To test the hypothesis that the route via which antigen is introduced to the lung contributes to the clinicopathological presentation of pulmonary granulomatous disease, rats immunized with intravenous (i.v.) Corynebacterium parvum were challenged after 2 weeks with either intratracheal (i.t.) or i.v. C. parvum. The granulomatous inflammation elicited by i.t. challenge predominantly involved alveolar spaces and histologically simulated extrinsic allergic alveolitis. In contrast, the inflammation induced by i.v. challenge was characterized by granulomatous angiitis and interstitial inflammation simulating sarcoidosis. Elevations of leukocyte counts and TNF levels in bronchoalveolar fluid, which reflect inflammation in the intra-alveolar compartment, were much more pronounced after i.t. than after i.v. challenge. Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, CC chemokine, CXC chemokine, and adhesion molecule mRNA and protein expression occurred in each model. In conclusion, i.t. or i.v. challenge with C. parvum in sensitized rats caused pulmonary granulomatous inflammation that was histologically similar to human extrinsic allergic alveolitis and sarcoidosis, respectively. Although the soluble and cellular mediators of granulomatous inflammation were qualitatively similar in both disease models, the differing anatomic source of the same antigenic challenge was responsible for differing clinicopathological presentations. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 11 Figure 13 Figure 12 Figure 14 PMID:8863677

  15. Immune complex receptors on cell surfaces. II. Cytochemical evaluation of their abundance on different immune cells: distribution, uptake, and regeneration.

    PubMed Central

    McKeever, P. E.; Garvin, A. J.; Hardin, D. H.; Spicer, S. S.

    1976-01-01

    A recently developed method for ultrastructural demonstration of cell surface receptors for immune complexes is applied to evaluation of these receptors on various cell types. The method entailing incubation with a complex of horesradish peroxidase (HRP) and antibody to HRP (anti-HRP) disclosed dense foci indicative of immune complex receptors distributed at 30- to 120-mmu intervals over macrophage surfaces. Invaginations, loop-like evaginations, and pinocytotic vasicles stained prominently. The number of stained immune complex receptors averaged 200,000 per oil-induced macrophage and 120,000 per noninduced macrophage, as determined from counts of focal deposits in electron micrographs. Receptor periodicity on giant cells present in oil-induced exudates resembled that on macrophages, but the larger giant cells contained an estimated 1.5 million sites. Although receptor periodicity on eosinophils and neutrophils equaled that on macrophages, the staining was lighter and was interrupted by intervals of unstained membrane. Neutrophils averaged 28,000 and eosinophils 35,000 receptors per cell, whereas those lymphocytes with receptors averaged 3,500 per cell. Viable cells incubated with anti-HRP sequentially exhibited about half as many reactive sites as did cells incubated with immune complex. When warmed to 37 C, viable macrophages and eosinophils pinocytosed soluble immune complexes almost completely within 30 minutes and phagocytosed insoluble complexes more slowly. The endocytosed soluble immune complexes were sequestered within tubulovesicular structures in addition to the expected phagocytic vacuoles. Receptors appeared fully active on macrophages that were restained with soluble, cold immune complex after they had endocytosed immune complex in the course of a 30-minute warming interval. Images Figure 16 Figures 2 and 3 Figures 4-6 Figure 7 Figures 8-11 Figure 1 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figures 14 and 15 PMID:60883

  16. Glomerular lesions induced in the rabbit by physicochemically altered homologous IgG.

    PubMed Central

    Cavalot, F.; Miyata, M.; Vladutiu, A.; Terranova, V.; Dubiski, S.; Burlingame, R.; Tan, E.; Brentjens, J.; Milgrom, F.; Andres, G.

    1992-01-01

    Immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous or even autologous IgG induces formation of antibodies combining with IgG of rabbit and of foreign species. Cardiac but not renal lesions were reported in such animals. This study examined the nephritogenic potential of the immune response to cationized or heat-aggregated homologous IgG of b9 or b4 allotype in rabbits of the b4 allotype. Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 cationized IgG produced antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and with histones; they also developed abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 corresponding to alterations of the glomerular basement membranes (GBM). Rabbits injected with either b9 or b4 aggregated IgG developed antibodies reactive with rabbit and human IgG and abnormal glomerular deposits of IgG b4 and C3 in the GBM and in the mesangium with subendothelial and mesangial electron-dense deposits. Some rabbits in both groups had proliferative and exudative glomerulonephritis and proteinuria. The results showed that immunization of rabbits with physicochemically altered homologous IgG induces an immune response to rabbit and human IgG and to histones as well as glomerular deposits of autologous IgG and C3 and other glomerular lesions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 Figure 22 Figure 23 Figure 24 Figure 25 Figure 26 Figure 27 Figure 28 Figure 29 Figure 30 PMID:1546743

  17. Dirofilaria immitis. 5. Immunopathology of filarial nephropathy in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Abramowsky, C. R.; Powers, K. G.; Aikawa, M.; Swinehart, G.

    1981-01-01

    Fourteen beagles infected with larvae (microfilariae) of Dirofilaria immitis, were randomly selected from another study in which the toxic effects of subfilaricidal doses of diethylcarbamazine were being evaluated. This group of 14 dogs, together with 4 uninfected control animals, were variably sacrificed between 14 and 25 months after larval inoculations, and the ensuing renal lesions were studied by light and ultrastructural microscopy and by immunofluorescence and antibody elution techniques. On the basis of these studies, two groups of animals were distinguished. The first group was characterized by a striking pattern of linear fluorescence and fine ultrastructural dense deposits along the glomerular basement membrane, poor antibody response, and an inability to clear microfilariae from the tissues and circulation. The second group, with a nonlinear pattern of fluorescence, was characterized by a strong immune response, efficient elimination of microfilariae, and immunofluorescence and ultrastructural evidence of predominantly mesangiopathic immune complex renal disease. In both groups, elution studies demonstrated tissue deposits of antiworm antibodies, suggesting a filaria-antibody immune-complex nephropathy. No evidence was found for the presence of anti-basement-membrane antibodies. On the basis of a previous experimental model, it is postulated that in the first group of animals with linear fluorescence, the observed lesions may represent a natural form of an immunopathogenic mechanism of glomerular damage in which filarial antigen becomes uniformly localized in the glomerulus and elicits an autologous antibody response. The possible role of the drug diethylcarbamazine in inducing this mechanism of immune injury is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:7020425

  18. Reactive Neuromuscular Training for the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Knee: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Gray; Burton, Lee; Fields, Keith

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the response to a proprioceptive training model during a 1-week rehabilitation regime. The techniques were demonstrated on a college-aged female basketball player who had injured her anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) several weeks earlier. The athlete was tested, trained, and then retested during her semester break. Background: The ACL injury has become a fairly common occurrence in the world of athletics. Knowing this, the athletic trainer is constantly searching for ways to improve the rehabilitative process. New research demonstrates that rehabilitation should be based on proprioception. The ACL not only serves a mechanical role by limiting passive knee mobility but also serves a sensory role through the mechanoreceptors deep in its tissue, which communicate with the neuromuscular system to provide proprioceptive feedback during training and competition. Differential Diagnosis: Partial or complete tear of the ACL. Treatment: The athlete was treated with a rehabilitation protocol based on proprioception, which uses reactive neuromuscular training. Uniqueness: Our rehabilitation focused on the muscular imbalances about the hip, knee, and ankle. The athlete achieved dramatic decreases in muscular imbalances about the hip and knee in only 1 week of rehabilitation through reactive neuromuscular training. Conclusions: The athlete had significant gains in strength over her brief period of therapy. However, these gains can be viewed only as neuromuscular changes and not strictly as gains in strength. The athlete returned to postseason competition under the supervision of her surgeon, who later recommended surgical reconstruction at the completion of the basketball season with rehabilitation during the offseason. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11.Figure 12. PMID:16558562

  19. Morphology and growth characteristics of epithelial cells from classic Wilms' tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen-Martin, D. J.; Garvin, A. J.; Gansler, T.; Tarnowski, B. I.; Sens, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to establish cell cultures representing the epithelial component of Wilms' tumor was determined for 18 cases of classic Wilms' tumors. From these 18 cases only two resulted in the culture of epithelial cells. Although the tumors from both cases were composed of a prominent epithelial component, other classic tumors not producing epithelial cell cultures also possessed appreciable epithelial components. Likewise, heterotransplants of these two primary tumors failed to give rise to epithelial cell cultures, although cultures of the blastemal element were produced. This suggests that Wilms' tumors may be prone to differentiate in different directions at varying times during tumor growth, possibly dependent on local tumor environment. Epithelial cells from these two classic cases were grown in culture in basal medium composed of a 1:1 mixture of Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium and Ham's F-12 medium, supplemented with selenium, insulin, transferrin, hydrocortisone, tri-iodothyronine, and epidermal growth factor, on a collagen type I matrix with absorbed fetal calf serum proteins. One of the two cases also required the addition of bovine pituitary extract, ethanolamine, prostaglandin E1, and putrescine for optimum growth. Morphological analysis disclosed that the cultured cells were very similar to normal renal tubular cells in culture, except that the cells displayed little evidence for differentiated active ion transport and tended to grow in a multilayered arrangement. The culture of the epithelial cells from classic Wilms' tumors provides a model system for the study of tumor differentiation and progression. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8384407

  20. Computational functions in biochemical reaction networks.

    PubMed Central

    Arkin, A; Ross, J

    1994-01-01

    In prior work we demonstrated the implementation of logic gates, sequential computers (universal Turing machines), and parallel computers by means of the kinetics of chemical reaction mechanisms. In the present article we develop this subject further by first investigating the computational properties of several enzymatic (single and multiple) reaction mechanisms: we show their steady states are analogous to either Boolean or fuzzy logic gates. Nearly perfect digital function is obtained only in the regime in which the enzymes are saturated with their substrates. With these enzymatic gates, we construct combinational chemical networks that execute a given truth-table. The dynamic range of a network's output is strongly affected by "input/output matching" conditions among the internal gate elements. We find a simple mechanism, similar to the interconversion of fructose-6-phosphate between its two bisphosphate forms (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and fructose-2,6-bisphosphate), that functions analogously to an AND gate. When the simple model is supplanted with one in which the enzyme rate laws are derived from experimental data, the steady state of the mechanism functions as an asymmetric fuzzy aggregation operator with properties akin to a fuzzy AND gate. The qualitative behavior of the mechanism does not change when situated within a large model of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and the TCA cycle. The mechanism, in this case, switches the pathway's mode from glycolysis to gluconeogenesis in response to chemical signals of low blood glucose (cAMP) and abundant fuel for the TCA cycle (acetyl coenzyme A). Images FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 PMID:7948674

  1. Phase separation dynamics and lateral organization of two-component lipid membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, K; Mouritsen, O G

    1995-01-01

    The non-equilibrium dynamic ordering process of coexisting phases has been studied for two-component lipid bilayers composed of saturated di-acyl phospholipids with different acyl chain lengths, such as DC14PC-DC18PC and DC12PC-DC18PC. By means of a microscopic interaction model and computer-simulation techniques the non-equilibrium properties of these two mixtures have been determined with particular attention paid to the effects of the non-equilibrium ordering process on membrane heterogeneity in terms of local and global lateral membrane organization. The results reveal that a sudden temperature change that takes the lipid mixture from the fluid one-phase region into the gel-fluid phase-coexistence region leads to the formation of a large number of small lipid domains which slowly are growing in time. The growth of the lipid domains, which is limited by long-range diffusion of the lipid molecules within the two-dimensional membrane plane, gives rise to the existence of a highly heterogeneous percolative-like structure with a network of interfacial regions that have properties different from those of the phase-separated gel and fluid bulk phases. The results, which are discussed in relation to recent experimental observations interpreted in terms of a percolative-like membrane structure within the two phase region (Almeida, P.F.F., Vaz, W.L.C., and T.E. Thompson. 1992. Biochemistry 31:7198-7210), suggest that non-equilibrium effects may influence lipid domain formation and membrane organization on various length and time scales. Such effects might be of importance in relation to membrane processes that require molecular mobility of the membrane components in restricted geometrical environments of the compartmentalized lipid membrane. Images FIGURE 6 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 PMID:8519994

  2. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 679 - Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) 11 Figure 11 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to Part 679—Red King Crab Savings Area (RKCSA) ER15NO99.009...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 11 to Part 1633 - Diagrams for Glossary of Terms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Diagrams for Glossary of Terms 11 Figure 11 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 11 to Part 1633 - Diagrams for Glossary of Terms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Diagrams for Glossary of Terms 11 Figure 11 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 11 to Part 1633 - Diagrams for Glossary of Terms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Diagrams for Glossary of Terms 11 Figure 11 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 11 to Part 1633 - Diagrams for Glossary of Terms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diagrams for Glossary of Terms 11 Figure 11 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 11 to Part 1633 - Diagrams for Glossary of Terms

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Diagrams for Glossary of Terms 11 Figure 11 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 11 Figure 11 to...

  12. Origin and fate of oval cells in dipin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Factor, V. M.; Radaeva, S. A.; Thorgeirsson, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    terminal biliary ductules harbor the hepatic stem cell compartment from which oval cells, capable of differentiating into hepatocytes, may be derived. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8053498

  13. "Viable motheaten," a new allele at the motheaten locus. I. Pathology.

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, L. D.; Coman, D. R.; Bailey, C. L.; Beamer, W. G.; Sidman, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    spermatogenesis. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:6380298

  14. Acquired color vision loss and a possible mechanism of ganglion cell death in glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Nork, T M

    2000-01-01

    FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 PMID:11190032

  15. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 223 - Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED 12 Figure 12 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 223—Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 223 - Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED 12 Figure 12 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 12 Figure 12 to Part 223—Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 12 to Part 1633 - Labels for Domestic Mattress With Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels for Domestic Mattress With Foundation 12 Figure 12 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 12 Figure...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 12 to Part 1633 - Labels for Domestic Mattress With Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labels for Domestic Mattress With Foundation 12 Figure 12 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 12 Figure...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 12 to Part 1633 - Labels for Domestic Mattress With Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labels for Domestic Mattress With Foundation 12 Figure 12 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 12 Figure...

  20. Coloured Rings Produced on Transparent Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhr, Wilfried; Schlichting, H. Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Beautiful colored interference rings can be produced by using transparent plates such as window glass. A simple model explains this effect, which was described by Newton but has almost been forgotten. (Contains 11 figures.)

  1. Quadrilaterals and Tetrahedra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mammana, Maria Flavia; Micale, Biagio; Pennisi, Mario

    2009-01-01

    In this note we show the existence of a surprising analogy between quadrilaterals and tetrahedra, determining some properties that hold for both families of figures. This analogy suggests some new properties of quadrilaterals. (Contains 11 figures,)

  2. Generating Problems from Problems and Solutions from Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arcavi, Abraham; Resnick, Zippora

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a geometrical solution to a problem that is usually solved geometrically as an example of how alternative solutions may enrich the teaching and learning of mathematics. (Contains 11 figures.)

  3. Scintillator fiber optic long counter

    DOEpatents

    McCollum, T.; Spector, G.B.

    1994-03-29

    A flat response position sensitive neutron detector capable of providing neutron spectroscopic data utilizing scintillator fiber optic filaments embedded in a neutron moderating housing having an open end through which neutrons enter to be detected is described. 11 figures.

  4. When Is a Surface "Not" Orientable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braselton, James; Abell, Martha; Braselton, Lorraine

    2002-01-01

    The Mobius strip, torus, and Klein bottle are used to graphically and analytically illustrate the differences between orientable and non-orientable surfaces. An exercise/laboratory project using the non-orientable Boy surface is included. (Contains 11 figures.)

  5. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Subpart A of... - Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data Log Format

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data Log Format 10 Figure 10 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION.... 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation 10 Figure 10 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 1633—Jig...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  12. Organometallic chemistry of metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Muetterties, E.L.

    1981-06-01

    The organometallic chemistry of metal surfaces is defined as a function of surface crystallography and of surface composition for a set of cyclic hydrocarbons that include benzene, toluene, cyclohexadienes, cyclohexene, cyclohexane, cyclooctatetraene, cyclooctadienes, cyclooctadiene, cycloheptatriene and cyclobutane. 12 figures.

  13. Advanced Coats' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Haik, B G

    1991-01-01

    further study. Specimens from patients with intraocular hemorrhage should be viewed cautiously, since erythrocytes contain high levels of enolase. Analysis of subretinal aspirates is an extremely accurate method of confirming the diagnosis of Coats' disease. The key diagnostic findings are the presence of cholesterol crystals and pigment-laden macrophages and the absence of tumor cells on fresh preparations. The technique should be reserved for patients where retinoblastoma has been ruled out by all noninvasive means and massive subretinal drainage is anticipated. The natural progression in advanced Coats' disease is toward the development of a blind, painful eye. Spontaneous regression does rarely occur, and some eyes quietly progress to a phthisical state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 FIGURE 33 FIGURE 34 A FIGURE 34 B FIGURE 35 FIGURE 36 FIGURE 38 FIGURE 39 FIGURE 41 FIGURE 42 FIGURE 43 FIGURE 44 FIGURE 45 FIGURE 46 A FIGURE 46 B FIGURE 47 A FIGURE 47 B FIGURE 48 A FIGURE 48 B FIGURE 49 FIGURE 50 FIGURE 51 FIGURE 52 FIGURE 54 FIGURE 54 (cont.) FIGURE 55 FIGURE 57 FIGURE 58 FIGURE 59 FIGURE 60 FIGURE 61 FIGURE 62 FIGURE 63 FIGURE 64 FIGURE 65 FIGURE 66 A FIGURE 66 B FIGURE 67 A FIGURE 67 B PMID:1808814

  14. Wilbrand's knee of the primate optic chiasm is an artefact of monocular enucleation.

    PubMed Central

    Horton, J C

    1997-01-01

    chiasm. It forms gradually over a period of years following monocular enucleation, presumably from shrinkage of the optic chiasm caused by atrophy of fibers from the enucleated eye. Therefore, the superior temporal hemianopia in the "other eye" seen in the anterior chiasmal syndrome cannot be due to compression of Wilbrand's Knee. I propose that it occurs from combined compression of the optic chiasm and one (or both) optic nerves. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 7 F FIGURE 7 G FIGURE 7 H FIGURE 8A FIGURE 8B FIGURE 9A FIGURE 9B FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11A FIGURE 11B FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 20 PMID:9440188

  15. Designer Functions: Power Tools for Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinhold, Marcia Weller

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a student-oriented classroom activity for exploring polynomials. In this activity teacher candidates apply technology to explore mathematics that they will teach but that they have not studied since high school. (Contains 10 figures.)

  16. Current topics in relativistic nuclear collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1980-08-01

    First, current attempts to deduce the nuclear matter equation of state from inclusive data are discussed. Next, some puzzling projectile fragment properties found in emulsions are discussed. Finally, a new test of pion condensation is proposed, and current pion data are reviewed. 11 figures.

  17. Linear Algebra and Image Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allali, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty. (Contains 2 tables and 11 figures.)

  18. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  19. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figure 11 to Part 223...

  20. Raman-based system for DNA sequencing-mapping and other separations

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1994-04-26

    DNA sequencing and mapping are performed by using a Raman spectrometer with a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate to enhance the Raman signal. A SERS label is attached to a DNA fragment and then analyzed with the Raman spectrometer to identify the DNA fragment according to characteristics of the Raman spectrum generated. 11 figures.

  1. The Geometry of the Universe: Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Hyperbolic geometry occurs on hyperbolic planes--the most commonly cited one being a saddle shape. In this article, the author explores negative hyperbolic curvature, and provides a detailed description of how she constructed two hyperbolic paraboloids. Hyperbolic geometry occurs on surfaces that have negative curvature. (Contains 11 figures and 4…

  2. Finding Areas on Dot Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2007-01-01

    This article contains investigative activities to assist students in constructing formulas out of an understanding of the area of geometric shapes. Included with this article are a "Finding Areas on Square Dot Paper Activity Sheet" and a "Finding Areas on Triangle Dot Paper Activity Sheet." (Contains 1 table and 11 figures.)

  3. Research, Design and Manufacture of Functional Components of the Microsatellite's Components "Republica Moldova"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostan, Ion; Canter, Valeriu; Secrieru, Nicolae; Bodean, Ghenadie; Blaja, Valeriu

    2012-06-01

    This paper deals with the main current results of investigation , designing and manufacturing of functional components of microsatellite, obtained in the State investigation programm, "Valoristaion of renewable energy in the Republic of Moldova and development of Moldavian Satellite". The satellite will have a mass of 12.5 kg. The paper contains 8 chapters, 11 figures, 11 bibliographical references.

  4. 16 CFR Figures 11, 12 and 13 to... - Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil 11, Figures 11, 12 and 13 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Figs. 11, 12, 13 Figures...

  5. 16 CFR Figures 11, 12 and 13 to... - Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil 11, Figures 11, 12 and 13 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Figs. 11, 12, 13 Figures...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  7. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  8. 16 CFR Figures 11, 12 and 13 to... - Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil 11, Figures 11, 12 and 13 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Figs. 11, 12, 13 Figures...

  9. 16 CFR Figures 11, 12 and 13 to... - Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil 11, Figures 11, 12 and 13 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Figs. 11, 12, 13 Figures...

  10. 16 CFR Figures 11, 12 and 13 to... - Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil 11, Figures 11, 12 and 13 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Figs. 11, 12, 13 Figures...

  11. Japan's Landscape in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchetti, Bethany

    1993-01-01

    Presents an interdisciplinary approach combining geography and children's literature to teach about Japanese culture. Describes classroom activities that link the Five Fundamental Themes of Geography to literature and art. Includes 11 figures, 9 summaries of children's books about Japan, and a 15-item annotated bibliography. (CFR)

  12. Electrochemical planarization

    DOEpatents

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.

    1993-10-26

    In a process for fabricating planarized thin film metal interconnects for integrated circuit structures, a planarized metal layer is etched back to the underlying dielectric layer by electropolishing, ion milling or other procedure. Electropolishing reduces processing time from hours to minutes and allows batch processing of multiple wafers. The etched back planarized thin film interconnect is flush with the dielectric layer. 12 figures.

  13. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 223 - Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Escape Opening & Cover Dimensions for 71-inch TED 12 Figure 12 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE...

  14. Software for Fermat's Principle and Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihas, Pavlos

    2012-01-01

    Fermat's principle is considered as a unifying concept. It is usually presented erroneously as a "least time principle". In this paper we present some software that shows cases of maxima and minima and the application of Fermat's principle to the problem of focusing in lenses. (Contains 12 figures.)

  15. 50 CFR Figure 12 to Part 679 - Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bristol Bay Trawl Closure Area 12 Figure 12 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE...

  16. Summary of beryllium electrorefining technology developed by KBI Division of Cabot Berylco Inc

    SciTech Connect

    Pistole, C.O.

    1983-05-27

    Proprietary beryllium electrorefining technology has been purchased from the KBI Division of Cabot Berylco Inc. by Rockwell International, Rocky Flats Plant, as part of a DOE beryllium option study. This technology has been reviewed and is summarized. 12 figures, 7 tables.

  17. Fission properties and production mechanisms for the heaviest known elements

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Mass yields of the spontaneous fission of Fm isotopes, Cf isotopes, and /sup 259/Md are discussed. Actinide yields were measured for bombardments of /sup 248/Cm with /sup 16/O, /sup 18/O, /sup 20/Ne, and /sup 22/Ne. A superheavy product might be produced by bombarding /sup 248/Cm with /sup 48/Ca ions. 12 figures. (DLC)

  18. Method of producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane and associated product

    DOEpatents

    Liu, P.K.T.; Gallaher, G.R.; Wu, J.C.S.

    1993-11-16

    A method is described for producing a carbon coated ceramic membrane including passing a selected hydrocarbon vapor through a ceramic membrane and controlling ceramic membrane exposure temperature and ceramic membrane exposure time. The method produces a carbon coated ceramic membrane of reduced pore size and modified surface properties having increased chemical, thermal and hydrothermal stability over an uncoated ceramic membrane. 12 figures.

  19. 16 CFR Figure 12 to Part 1633 - Labels for Domestic Mattress With Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labels for Domestic Mattress With Foundation 12 Figure 12 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 12...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 12 to Part 1633 - Labels for Domestic Mattress With Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labels for Domestic Mattress With Foundation 12 Figure 12 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 12...

  1. Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.G.

    1993-11-09

    Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices. 11 figures.

  2. Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gyulai, Peter; Rabieh, Mohammad Mahdi; Seraj, Ali Asghar; Ronkay, Laslo; Esfandiari, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new Anagnorisma species, Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n., is described from Binaloud Mountains of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in north-eastern Iran, and compared with its sister species, Anagnorisma eucratides (Boursin, 1960). The adults, and male and female genitalia of both species are illustrated in 11 figures. The genus Anagnorisma is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Iran. PMID:23950668

  3. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose: a report on the Natick Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Contributions of Natick to enzymatic hydrolysis and the development of cellulase technologies are summarized. Their impact on the present economics of a commercial process is highlighted. Discussion is presented under the headings: microbial strains; growth and enzyme production in Trichoderma reesei; enzyme properties, analysis and assay; hydrolysis substrates; pretreatment; hydrolysis; process development and economics; and outlook and future developments. 99 references, 11 figures, 4 tables. (DMC)

  4. Stand-alone photovoltaic (PV) powered electrochromic window

    DOEpatents

    Benson, D.K.; Crandall, R.S.; Deb, S.K.; Stone, J.L.

    1995-01-24

    A variable transmittance double pane window includes an electrochromic material that has been deposited on one pane of the window in conjunction with an array of photovoltaic cells deposited along an edge of the pane to produce the required electric power necessary to vary the effective transmittance of the window. A battery is placed in a parallel fashion to the array of photovoltaic cells to allow the user the ability to manually override the system when a desired transmittance is desired. 11 figures.

  5. Alice in Numberland: Through the Standards in Wonderland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Donna; Lambe, Karen; Payson, Christine; Carnevale, Patricia; Scarpelli, Debra

    2008-01-01

    A whimsical mathematics event for children and adults, derived from Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, was held at the Providence Children's Museum in Rhode Island. NCTM's Standards were the basis of all the activities. (Contains 10 figures and 1 table.)

  6. "Context and Spoken Word Recognition in a Novel Lexicon": Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revill, Kathleen Pirog; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2009-01-01

    Reports an error in "Context and spoken word recognition in a novel lexicon" by Kathleen Pirog Revill, Michael K. Tanenhaus and Richard N. Aslin ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 2008[Sep], Vol 34[5], 1207-1223). Figure 9 was inadvertently duplicated as Figure 10. Figure 9 in the original article was correct.…

  7. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation 10 Figure 10 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation 10 Figure 10 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation 10 Figure 10 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Jig for Setting Burners at Proper Distances From Mattress/Foundation 10 Figure 10 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS...

  11. Employment Shifts in the Technical and Further Education Workforce in Victoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Chandra

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes changes in Technical and Further Education (TAFE) work force in Victoria, Australia, that occurred during the period 1993-98. Main changes include increased participation of women, significant growth in part-time employment, decline in full-time (mainly male) employment, and an increased use of seasonal teachers. (Includes 10 figures and…

  12. Applications for fission product data to problems in stellar nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.J.

    1983-10-01

    A general overview of the nucleosynthesis mechanisms for heavy (A greater than or equal to 70) nuclei is presented with particular emphasis on critical data needs. The current state of the art in nucleosynthesis models is described and areas in which fission product data may provide useful insight are proposed. 33 references, 10 figures.

  13. 17. Dining area of lobby/dining room, view to southsoutheast. Scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Dining area of lobby/dining room, view to south-southeast. Scale stick visible at left against corner of pillar; 5'10" figure for additional scale reference. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, Big Sur Inn Building, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA

  14. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1203 - Center of Gravity for Drop Assembly

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Center of Gravity for Drop Assembly 10 Figure 10 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Gravity for Drop Assembly ER10MR98.010...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1203 - Center of Gravity for Drop Assembly

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Center of Gravity for Drop Assembly 10 Figure 10 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Gravity for Drop Assembly ER10MR98.010...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1203 - Center of Gravity for Drop Assembly

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Center of Gravity for Drop Assembly 10 Figure 10 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Gravity for Drop Assembly ER10MR98.010...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1203 - Center of Gravity for Drop Assembly

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Center of Gravity for Drop Assembly 10 Figure 10 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Gravity for Drop Assembly ER10MR98.010...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Part 1203 - Center of Gravity for Drop Assembly

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Center of Gravity for Drop Assembly 10 Figure 10 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Gravity for Drop Assembly ER10MR98.010...

  19. Method of fabricating a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Minh, N.Q.; Horne, C.R.

    1994-03-01

    In a two-step densifying process of making a monolithic solid oxide fuel cell, a limited number of anode-electrolyte-cathode cells separated by an interconnect layer are formed and partially densified. Subsequently, the partially densified cells are stacked and further densified to form a monolithic array. 10 figures.

  20. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Subpart A of... - Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data Log Format

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data Log... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Subpart A of... - Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data Log Format

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data Log... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Subpart A of... - Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data Log Format

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data Log... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 10 to Subpart A of... - Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data Log Format

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data Log... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Subpart A of Part 1209—Insulation Radiant Panel Test Data...

  4. A Watery Whodunit: The Case of the Missing Zooxanthellae

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Kimberley A.; Bruno, Barbara C.; Achilles, Kate; Sherman, Sarah B.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding coral reefs and the threats they face is an essential precondition in preserving them. This activity helps to educate middle school students about coral biology and the problem of coral bleaching. It will inspire students to participate in marine conservation initiatives. (Contains 10 figures and 3 resources.)

  5. Who Was the Real William Shakespeare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michael Todd

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights a project that encourages students to connect reading and mathematics instruction by using a data analysis approach. Students analyze sonnets from statistical, literary, and historical points of view in an effort to uncover the true identity of William Shakespeare. (Contains 10 figures.)

  6. Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

    1984-05-25

    This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  7. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 679 - Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pribilof Islands Area Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea 10 Figure 10 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... Habitat Conservation Zone in the Bering Sea ER15NO99.008...

  12. Earthquakes in the New Zealand Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Cleland

    1995-01-01

    Presents a thorough overview of earthquakes in New Zealand, discussing plate tectonics, seismic measurement, and historical occurrences. Includes 10 figures illustrating such aspects as earthquake distribution, intensity, and fissures in the continental crust. Tabular data includes a list of most destructive earthquakes and descriptive effects…

  13. Ventilation of porous media

    DOEpatents

    Neeper, D.A.

    1994-02-22

    Methods are presented for distributing gases throughout the interstices of porous materials and removing volatile substances from the interstices of porous materials. Continuous oscillation of pressures and flows results in increased penetration of the interstices by flowing gases and increased transport of gaseous components out of the interstices. The invention is particularly useful in soil vapor extraction. 10 figures.

  14. Giving Exponential Functions a Fair Shake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanko, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    This article details an exploration of exponential decay and growth relationships using M&M's and dice. Students collect data for mathematical models and use graphing calculators to make sense of the general form of the exponential functions. (Contains 10 figures and 2 tables.)

  15. IHE material qualification tests description and criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Slape, R J

    1984-06-01

    This report describes the qualification tests presently being used at Pantex Plant, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory that are required by the Department of Energy prior to the approval for an explosive as an Insensitive High Explosive (IHE) material. The acceptance criteria of each test for IHE qualification is also discussed. 5 references, 10 figures.

  16. Simplifying the Mathematical Treatment of Radioactive Decay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Derivation of the law of radioactive decay is considered without prior knowledge of calculus or the exponential series. Calculus notation and exponential functions are used because ultimately they cannot be avoided, but they are introduced in a simple way and explained as needed. (Contains 10 figures, 1 box, and 1 table.)

  17. Mega-Universities and Knowledge Media: Technology Strategies for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John S

    This book explores the essentials of distance education and reviews issues facing large open universities (mega-universities) worldwide. It uses examples from industry and the knowledge media, to show how technology-based learning can be made attractive both to students and to institutions. The book's eight chapters, including 10 figures and 5…

  18. Knot Theory with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handa, Yuichi; Mattman, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    There are many interesting explorations that can be done in knot theory, the study of mathematical knots. This article offers some knot theory activities that are appropriate for elementary grade children. These activities teach some basic concepts from knot theory as a natural extension of commonly-taught geometric ideas. (Contains 10 figures.)

  19. Simple Verification of the Parabolic Shape of a Rotating Liquid and a Boat on Its Surface

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatka, Z.; Dvorak, L.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a simple and inexpensive way to create and to verify the parabolic surface of a rotating liquid. The liquid is water. The second part of the article deals with the problem of a boat on the surface of a rotating liquid. (Contains 1 table, 10 figures and 5 footnotes.)

  20. Active sites in char gasification. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January 1984-31 March 1984. [Polymers of phenol-formaldehyde family; chars produced from model compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Calo, J.M.; Suubers, E.M.; Wojtowicz, M.; Lilly, W.

    1984-05-01

    This project is concerned with the study of the nature and behavior of active sites in gasification of chars produced from synthesized model compounds, primarily of the phenol-formaldehyde family of resins. The current technical progress report presents further developments on resin synthesis and characterization and the design of a pyro-gasifier reactor for transient kinetic studies of the chars produced from the model compounds. 7 references, 12 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Floods on Duck and Little Duck Rivers and Grindstone Hollow, Hunt, Hickory Flat, and Wolf Creeks in the vicinity of Manchester, Tennessee. [Duck River; Little Duck River

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-09-01

    This flood hazard report describes the extent and severity of the flood potential along selected reaches of the Duck and Little Duck Rivers, and Grindstone Hollow, Hunt, Hickory Flat, and Wolf Creeks in the vicinity of Manchester, Tennessee. The report was prepared by TVA as a result of a request from the city of Manchester for TVA technical assistance in evaluating alternative solutions to local flood problems. 5 references, 12 figures, 12 tables.

  2. Composite quarterly technical report long-term high-level-waste technology, October-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Cornman, W.R.

    1982-06-01

    This document summarizes work performed at participating sites on the immobilization of high-level wastes from the chemical reprocessing of reactor fuels. The plan is to develop waste form alternatives for each of the three DOE sites (SRP, ICPP, and Hanford). Progress is reported in the following areas: waste preparation; fixation in glass, concrete, tailored ceramics, and coated particles; process and equipment development; and final handling. 12 figures, 19 tables. (DLC)

  3. Computer-controlled on-line gamma analysis for krypton-85

    SciTech Connect

    Canuette, R.P.

    1980-03-01

    /sup 85/Kr will be evolved from spent nuclear fuel during both the voloxidation and dissolution processes, so a reliable method for on-line analysis of /sup 85/Kr in the off-gas system is needed. Tritium, /sup 14/C, and /sup 129/I were trapped, and the activity of /sup 85/Kr was then measured using a Li-drifted Ge detector. Equipment used to carry out this analysis is described; the PET computer is used. The /sup 85/Kr evolution rate was correlated with the fuel dissolution rate; the close correlation permits one to monitor the fuel dissolution process. 11 figures. (DLC)

  4. Magnetically attached sputter targets

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; McKernan, M.A.

    1994-02-15

    An improved method and assembly for attaching sputtering targets to cathode assemblies of sputtering systems which includes a magnetically permeable material is described. The magnetically permeable material is imbedded in a target base that is brazed, welded, or soldered to the sputter target, or is mechanically retained in the target material. Target attachment to the cathode is achieved by virtue of the permanent magnets and/or the pole pieces in the cathode assembly that create magnetic flux lines adjacent to the backing plate, which strongly attract the magnetically permeable material in the target assembly. 11 figures.

  5. Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators

    DOEpatents

    Adolf, D.B.; Shahinpoor, M.; Segalman, D.J.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1993-10-05

    Electrically controlled polymeric gel actuators or synthetic muscles are described capable of undergoing substantial expansion and contraction when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. The actuators employ compliant containers for the gels and their solvents. The gels employed may be cylindrical electromechanical gel fibers such as polyacrylamide fibers or a mixture of poly vinyl alcohol-polyacrylic acid arranged in a parallel aggregate and contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as salt water. The invention includes smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon. These devices are capable of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structure such as robots. 11 figures.

  6. Plateau effects on diurnal circulation patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, E.R.; Tang, M.

    1984-04-01

    The diurnal variation of 850 mb heights, the detailed distribution of which could be assessed by the inclusion of surface data, and of resultant winds over, and in the vicinity of, the Great Basin reveals clearly a plateau-wind circulation during summer. This circulation reverses between day and night and appears to include the low-level jet stream over Texas and Oklahoma, as well as the time of occurrence of thunderstorms. This plateau circulation system interacts with local mountain-valley breeze systems. The thickness of the daytime inflow and nighttime outflow layer over the plateau is approximately 2 km. 19 references, 11 figures, 1 table.

  7. Method of controlling switching of a multiphase inductor-converter bridge. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Kustom, R.L.; Fuja, R.E.

    In an inductor-convertor circuit for transferring electrical energy between a storage coil and a load coil through a storage thyristor bridge, a load thyristor bridge, and a set of commutating capacitors, operation is improved by a method of changing the rate of delivery of energy in a given direction. The change in rate corresponds to a predetermined change in phase angle between the load bridge and the storage bridge, and comprises changing the phase of the bridge by two steps, each equal to half the predetermined change and occurring 180/sup 0/ apart. The method assures commutation and minimizes imbalances that lead otherwise to overvoltages. 11 figures.

  8. Field experiment of steam drive with in-situ foaming. Annual report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Brigham, W. E.

    1984-06-01

    Following the introduction this report contains the following two sections: (1) field work completed to date; and (2) results and conclusions to date. Field work covers: (1) review of past efforts; (2) well to well tracer testing: (3) injection program; (4) logging program; (5) pressure falloff testing; and (6) injectivity profiles. Results and conclusions cover: (1) injection pressure; (2) temperature at the producers; (3) injectivity profiles; (4) tracer studies; (5) carbon/oxygen logging; (6) well testing; and (7) production data. 12 references, 11 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Asymmetric membranes for gas separations

    SciTech Connect

    Finken, H.

    1985-01-01

    Recent membrane developments for gaseous mixture separations are compared to the development of reverse osmosis membranes for water desalination. The goals of these developments have been the search for ideal permselective polymeric materials, techniques for producing ultrathin membrane layers free of imperfections and transforming gelled reverse osmosis membranes into solid gas permeation membranes. A novel approach to meeting the basic requirements of high permselectivity is attempted by altering the physical polymer structure within the membrane prior to application for gas separation. The influence of these physical interactions on membrane properties is presented. 47 references, 11 figures, 6 tables.

  10. Zigzag laser with reduced optical distortion

    DOEpatents

    Albrecht, G.F.; Comaskey, B.; Sutton, S.B.

    1994-04-19

    The architecture of the present invention has been driven by the need to solve the beam quality problems inherent in Brewster's angle tipped slab lasers. The entrance and exit faces of a solid state slab laser are cut perpendicular with respect to the pump face, thus intrinsically eliminating distortion caused by the unpumped Brewster's angled faces. For a given zigzag angle, the residual distortions inherent in the remaining unpumped or lightly pumped ends may be reduced further by tailoring the pump intensity at these ends. 11 figures.

  11. Prehistoric variability of metal and /sup 13/C//sup 12/C content in bone: dietary and gender factors

    SciTech Connect

    Bumsted, M.P.; Boutton, T.W.; Barnes, R.M.; Armelagos, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Wolf Creek population from the Middle Missouri region was analyzed to determine if delta /sup 13/C and elemental composition will vary in a population, and what the nature of the variation is. It was concluded that: (1) delta /sup 13/C composition is different between remnant bone protein and soft tissues; (2) delta /sup 13/C varies between interior Amerindian populations primarily because of the presence or absence of maize horticulture; and (3) delta /sup 13/C clusters by sex in a C/sub 4/ population. 43 references, 11 figures. (ACR)

  12. Rain sampling device

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, D.A.; Tomich, S.D.; Glover, D.W.; Allen, E.V.; Hales, J.M.; Dana, M.T.

    1991-05-14

    The present invention constitutes a rain sampling device adapted for independent operation at locations remote from the user which allows rainfall to be sampled in accordance with any schedule desired by the user. The rain sampling device includes a mechanism for directing wet precipitation into a chamber, a chamber for temporarily holding the precipitation during the process of collection, a valve mechanism for controllably releasing samples of the precipitation from the chamber, a means for distributing the samples released from the holding chamber into vessels adapted for permanently retaining these samples, and an electrical mechanism for regulating the operation of the device. 11 figures.

  13. Acquiring water for energy: institutional aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherford, G.; Nardi, K.; Osterhoudt, F.; Roach, F.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides basic information about the legal, political and social constraints faced by energy developers in the acquisition of water. It is a guide to those institutional constraints which are general and pronounced enough to be important for regional assessments. It is not a manual for facility siting or site-specific assessments. Only the acquisition phase of the water use cycle is emphasized. The study focuses primarily on legal constraints and secondarily on political constraints, because they tend to encompass or reflect other forms of institutional constraints such as economic ones. 11 figures, 9 tables.

  14. Protein structure is only as good as the data

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenborn, B.P.

    1984-06-01

    Careful selection of the best diffraction geometry matched to the sample, with use of high resolution two-dimensional detectors and a mask integration procedure will allow the collection of statistically accurate data for many proteins and crystals with a sample size of at least 1 mm/sup 3/. Accurate data and improved refinement techniques will allow the determination of all atoms including hydrogens, hydrogen-deuterium exchange, water of hydration, and solvent water densities. The developments in the above described neutron techniques have been gradually used in the analysis of myoglobins, gramicidin, trypsin, and crambin. 16 references, 11 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Pion condensation and instabilities: current theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1980-05-01

    Current calculations of pion condensation phenomena in symmetric nuclear matter are reviewed. The RPA and MFA methods are compared. Latest results (LBL-10572) with a relativistic MFA theory constrained by bulk nuclear properties are presented. The differences between equilibrium (condensation) and nonequilibrium (dynamic) instabilities are discussed. Finally, two-proton correlation experiments aimed at looking for critical scattering phenomena and two-pion correlation experiments aimed at looking for pion field coherence are analyzed. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Multiple precision integer operation package. [EPADD, EPSUB, EPMULT, EPDIVR, ENTQRM, EBDTOB, EPBTOD, EPMDEX, EPCOPY, EPINIT, EPCHK, in FORTRAN for CDC 6600-7600

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, R. J.

    1980-05-01

    A package of FORTRAN codes has been developed for certain multiple precision integer operations. These operations include basic arithmetic, modular exponentiation, and conversion of numbers to and from decimal representation. Reliability of the results is maintained by cross-checking both the lengths of internal working storage arrays against the requirements of the operations, and the size and sign of the internal representation of the digits. 10 figures.

  17. Method for detection of antibodies for metallic elements

    DOEpatents

    Barrick, C.W.; Clarke, S.M.; Nordin, C.W.

    1993-11-30

    An apparatus and method for detecting antibodies specific to non-protein antigens. The apparatus is an immunological plate containing a plurality of plastic projections coated with a non-protein material. Assays utilizing the plate are capable of stabilizing the non-protein antigens with detection levels for antibodies specific to the antigens on a nanogram level. A screening assay with the apparatus allows for early detection of exposure to non-protein materials. Specifically metallic elements are detected. 10 figures.

  18. Variable-aperture screen

    DOEpatents

    Savage, G.M.

    1991-10-29

    Apparatus is described for separating material into first and second portions according to size including a plurality of shafts, a plurality of spaced disks radiating outwardly from each of the shafts to define apertures and linkage interconnecting the shafts for moving the shafts toward or away from one another to vary the size of the apertures while the apparatus is performing the separating function. 10 figures.

  19. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dosimeter and probe

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1995-03-21

    A dosimeter and probe for measuring exposure to chemical and biological compounds is disclosed. The dosimeter or probe includes a collector which may be analyzed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The collector comprises a surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active material having a coating applied thereto to improve the adsorption properties of the collector. The collector may also be used in automated sequential devices, in probe array devices. 10 figures.

  20. Filtratin and dewatering of fine coal

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, H.B.; Kakwani, R.; Chiang, S.H.; Tierney, J.W.; Klinzing, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    A fundamental study on filtration and dewatering of fine coal is described. Experiments are being conducted in three areas: (1) the microscopic analysis of filter cakes; (2) the measurement of equilibrium desaturation; and (3) the determination of filtration and dewatering rates. Preliminary experimental results are presented together with some observations on the microstructure of filter cakes. A three dimensional network model has also been developed and is being used to analyze experimental data. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Crystalline morphology of the matrix of PEEK-carbon fiber aromatic polymer composites. I. Assessment of crystallinity. [Polyetheretherketone

    SciTech Connect

    Blundell, D.J.; Chalmers, J.M.; Mackenzie, M.W.; Gaskin, W.F.

    1985-07-01

    The crystallinity of the polyetheretherketone (PEEK) matrix polymer in the Aromatic Polymer Composite APC-2 has been estimated using a combination of techniques based on wide angle x-ray diffraction and infrared reflection spectroscopy. Crystallinity varies systematically with cooling rate and annealing time over the range 20 to 40%. The occurrence of oriented crystal growth of the PEEK relative to the carbon fiber can be monitored by x-ray diffraction. 8 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  2. Superconducting active impedance converter

    DOEpatents

    Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.

    1993-11-16

    A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductors allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology. 12 figures.

  3. Monte Carlo 20 and 45 MeV Bremsstrahlung and dose-reduction calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Goosman, D.R.

    1984-08-14

    The SANDYL electron-photon coupled Monte Carlo code has been compared with previously published experimental bremsstrahlung data at 20.9 MeV electron energy. The code was then used to calculate forward-directed spectra, angular distributions and dose-reduction factors for three practical configurations. These are: 20 MeV electrons incident on 1 mm of W + 59 mm of Be, 45 MeV electrons of 1 mm of W and 45 MeV electrons on 1 mm of W + 147 mm of Be. The application of these results to flash radiography is discussed. 7 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

  4. New drift chamber for the Mark II at SLC

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.G.

    1984-04-01

    A new cylindrical drift chamber is being constructed for the Mark II detector for use at the new SLAC Linear Collider. The design of the new chamber is based on a multi-sense-wire cell of the jet-chamber type. In addition to drift-time measurements, pulse height measurements from the sense wires will provide electron-hadron separation by dE/dx. The design and construction of the chamber, tests of prototypes, and chamber electronics are discussed. 7 references, 12 figures.

  5. Bed-form climb models to analyze geometry and preservation potential of clastic facies and erosional surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Larue, D.K.; Martinez, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    Based on a combination of Walther's Law of Facies and bed-form climb theory, the authors propose a model that explains how erosion surfaces and vertical sequences of clastic strata are preserved where deposition occurs in channelized or locally erosional environments including fluvial and submarine-channel deposits, barred beaches, and transgressive coastlines. the model considers both lateral and vertical migration of a scour surface and its associated depositional products. As in studies of bed-form climb, they recognize subcritical, critical, and supercritical climb of scour surfaces relative to adjacent depositional forms. 12 figures.

  6. System for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot

    DOEpatents

    Burry, D.B.; Williams, P.M.

    1991-02-19

    A system and method for exchanging tools and end effectors on a robot permits exchange during a programmed task. The exchange mechanism is located off the robot, thus reducing the mass of the robot arm and permitting smaller robots to perform designated tasks. A simple spring/collet mechanism mounted on the robot is used which permits the engagement and disengagement of the tool or end effector without the need for a rotational orientation of the tool to the end effector/collet interface. As the tool changing system is not located on the robot arm no umbilical cords are located on robot. 12 figures.

  7. Composite lead for conducting an electrical current between 75--80K and 4. 5K temperatures

    DOEpatents

    Negm, Y.; Zimmerman, G.O.; Powers, R.E. Jr.; McConeghy, R.J.; Kaplan, A.

    1994-12-27

    A composite lead is provided which electrically links and conducts a current between about 75-80K and liquid helium temperature of about 4.5K. The composite lead may be employed singly or in multiples concurrently to provide conduction of electrical current from normal conductors and semi-conductors at room temperature to superconductors operating at 4.5K. In addition, a variety of organizational arrangements and assemblies are provided by which the mechanical strength and electrical reliability of the composite lead is maintained. 12 figures.

  8. Temperature-insensitive phase-matched optical harmonic conversion crystal

    DOEpatents

    Barker, C.E.; Eimerl, D.; Velsko, S.P.; Roberts, D.

    1993-11-23

    Temperature-insensitive, phase-matched harmonic frequency conversion of laser light at a preferred wavelength of 1.064 microns can be achieved by use of a crystal of deuterated l-arginine phosphate. The crystal is cut and oriented so that the laser light propagates inside the crystal along one of several required directions, which correspond to a temperature-insensitive, phase-matching locus. The method of measuring and calculating the temperature-insensitive, phase-matching angles can be extended to other fundamental wavelengths and other crystal compositions. 12 figures.

  9. Influence of the geothermal waters on fishes and aquatic invertebrates, in the Plain of Banat

    SciTech Connect

    Popescu-Marinescu, V.; Elain-Talau, L.; Papadopol, M.; Nicolescu, D.; Teodorescu, L.

    1982-01-01

    Research on the effects of geothermal waters (both used and unused) on vertebrates and invertebrates made the water's toxico-lethal character obvious in waters with a normal concentration or diluted up to over 17%. Among the organisms used in the experiment, Daphnia magna (a cladoceran) and young carp (Cyprinus carpio) have proved to be more sensitive. Tubifex tubifex (an oligochaete) have proved to be more resistant. Taking in account the toxicity of geothermal waters with addition of a specific smell and taste contracted by the meat fish, their overflow into natural receivers is not recommended. 7 references, 12 figures.

  10. Evidence for the stem cell origin of hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Sell, S.; Dunsford, H. A.

    1989-01-01

    A review of the morphologic, autoradiographic, and phenotypic analysis of the cellular changes seen during induction of cancer of the liver in rats by chemical carcinogens is used to develop an alternative to the established hypothesis that chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma arises from premalignant nodules. The authors propose that hepatocellular and ductular carcinomas arise from a pluripotent liver stem cell and that enzyme-altered foci and nodular changes are adaptive non-oncogenic responses to the toxic effects of carcinogens. It is further postulated that persistent nodules may provide an environment that nurtures development of neoplastic cells other than the altered hepatocytes that originally form the nodule. It is possible, however, that there may be more than one cellular lineage to hepatocellular cancer and that persistent nodules contain these different lineages. Images Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 11 Figure 13 PMID:2474256

  11. North Sabine Lake field: complex deposition and reservoir morphology of lower Hackberry (Oligocene), southwest Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Eubanks, L.G.

    1987-10-01

    Gas and condensate production at the North Sabine Lake field is from sands of the Hackberry wedge of the Oligocene Frio Formation. These lower Hackberry sands were deposited in a preexisting submarine canyon. Multiple sand bodies are present, and five patterns of sand deposition are recognized from SP logs: (1) incised channel fill, (2) braided fan channel, (3) intermediate suprafan, (4) proximal suprafan, and (5) overbank. Although three faults surround the field, the primary trapping mechanism is stratigraphic. The development and production history of the field indicate that many small sand lenses have coalesced to form a single large reservoir; however, differences in permeability have caused variations in water influx and in the levels of gas-water contacts. Sand lenses that are not connected to the larger reservoir are of limited size and have produced small amounts of hydrocarbon. Development of the field has been complicated by casing damage probably caused by reservoir compaction. 11 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Interactive computer graphics: the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Hafemeister, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    By using interactive computer graphics (ICG) it is possible to discuss the numerical aspects of some arms race issues with more specificity and in a visual way. The number of variables involved in these issues can be quite large; computers operated in the interactive, graphical mode, can allow exploration of the variables, leading to a greater understanding of the issues. This paper will examine some examples of interactive computer graphics: (1) the relationship between silo hardening and the accuracy, yield, and reliability of ICBMs; (2) target vulnerability (Minuteman, Dense Pack); (3) counterforce vs. countervalue weapons; (4) civil defense; (5) gravitational bias error; (6) MIRV; (7) national vulnerability to a preemptive first strike; (8) radioactive fallout; (9) digital-image processing with charge-coupled devices. 17 references, 11 figures, 1 table.

  13. Inclined monochromator for high heat-load synchrotron x-ray radiation

    DOEpatents

    Khounsary, A.M.

    1994-02-15

    A double crystal monochromator is described including two identical, parallel crystals, each of which is cut such that the normal to the diffraction planes of interest makes an angle less than 90 degrees with the surface normal. Diffraction is symmetric, regardless of whether the crystals are symmetrically or asymmetrically cut, enabling operation of the monochromator with a fixed plane of diffraction. As a result of the inclination of the crystal surface, an incident beam has a footprint area which is elongated both vertically and horizontally when compared to that of the conventional monochromator, reducing the heat flux of the incident beam and enabling more efficient surface cooling. Because after inclination of the crystal only a fraction of thermal distortion lies in the diffraction plane, slope errors and the resultant misorientation of the diffracted beam are reduced. 11 figures.

  14. Neutron spectra as a function of angle at two meters from the Little Boy assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, R.V.; Huntzinger, C.J.; Thorngate, J.H.

    1984-07-02

    Measurements of neutron spectra produced by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Little Boy replica assembly (Comet) were made with a combined multisphere and liquid scintillator system, that has been widely used at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The combined system was used for measurements at the side (90/sup 0/) and nose (0/sup 0/) of the assembly; additional measurements were made at 45/sup 0/ using only the liquid scintillator. Data were obtained at two meters from the center of the reactive region of the assembly, with good agreement between the multisphere and scintillator results. Comparison with liquid scintillator measurements performed by experimenters from the Canadian Defence Research Establishment, Ottawa (DREO) and calculations from LANL depended on the specific angle, obtaining the best agreement at 90/sup 0/. 32 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Purex diluent degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Tallent, O.K.; Mailen, J.C.; Pannell, K.D.

    1984-02-01

    The chemical degradation of normal paraffin hydrocarbon (NPH) diluents both in the pure state and mixed with 30% tributyl phosphate (TBP) was investigated in a series of experiments. The results show that degradation of NPH in the TBP-NPH-HNO/sub 3/ system is consistent with the active chemical agent being a radical-like nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) molecule, not HNO/sub 3/ as such. Spectrophotometric, gas chromatographic, mass spectrographic, and titrimetric methods were used to identify the degradation products, which included alkane nitro and nitrate compounds, alcohols, unsaturated alcohols, nitro alcohols, nitro alkenes, ketones, and carboxylic acids. The degradation rate was found to increase with increases in the HNO/sub 3/ concentration and the temperature. The rate was decreased by argon sparging to remove NO/sub 2/ and by the addition of butanol, which probably acts as a NO/sub 2/ scavenger. 13 references, 11 figures.

  16. Development of corrective measures technology for shallow land burial facilities at arid sites

    SciTech Connect

    Nyhan, J.W.; Abeele, W.V.; Perkins, B.A.; Lane, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The field research program involving corrective measure technologies for arid shallow land burial (SLB) sites is described. Soil erosion and infiltration of water into a simulated trench cap with various surface treatments was measured and compared with similar data from agricultural systems across the United States. Field testing of biointrustion barriers at closed-out waste disposal sites at Los Alamos and in the experimental clusters are reported. The final results of an experiment designed to measure the extent of contaminant transport to the surface of a SLB facility, and the influence of plants on this relationship, are presented. An experiment designed to determine the effects of subsidence on the performance of a cobble-gravel biobarrier system is described and current field data are presented. 11 references, 11 figures, 5 tables.

  17. Comparison of two lung clearance models based on the dissolution rates of oxidized depleted uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Crist, K.C.

    1984-10-01

    An in-vitro dissolution study was conducted on two respirable oxidized depleted uranium samples. The dissolution rates generated from this study were then utilized in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Task Group lung clearance model and a lung clearance model proposed by Cuddihy. Predictions from both models based on the dissolution rates of the amount of oxidized depleted uranium that would be cleared to blood from the pulmonary region following an inhalation exposure were compared. It was found that the predictions made by both models differed considerably. The difference between the predictions was attributed to the differences in the way each model perceives the clearance from the pulmonary region. 33 references, 11 figures, 9 tables.

  18. Motor vehicle tampering survey - 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    A survey of light duty motor vehicles in six urban areas found that tampering with at least one component of pollution control equipment increased from 17% in 1982 to 26%. The rates were even higher in areas without inspection/maintenance programs. The rate of arguable tampering, 30%, is down from 38%, while the malfunctioning rate increased from 1.2% to 3%. The component-specific rates show significant increases in tampering with certain critical components, specifically with catalytic converters, positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) and evaporative systems, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems, and air pump systems. The latter increased by over 70%. The report surveys the history of these trends, breaking out the result on a site-by-site basis. Eight appendices present survey forms and explain survey procedures. 11 figures, 10 tables.

  19. Integrated Data Base Program: a status report

    SciTech Connect

    Notz, K.J.; Klein, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    The Integrated Data Base (IDB) Program provides official Department of Energy (DOE) data on spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics. The accomplishments of FY 1983 are summarized for three broad areas: (1) upgrading and issuing of the annual report on spent fuel and radioactive waste inventories, projections, and characteristics, including ORIGEN2 applications and a quality assurance plan; (2) creation of a summary data file in user-friendly format for use on a personal computer and enhancing user access to program data; and (3) optimizing and documentation of the data handling methodology used by the IDB Program and providing direct support to other DOE programs and sites in data handling. Plans for future work in these three areas are outlined. 23 references, 11 figures.

  20. Assessing the dynamics of wild populations

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Lotka's equations summarizing population dynamics can be approximated by functional models of the survivorship and reproductive curves, incorporating three stages of survival and reproduction, respectively. An abbreviated form uses a single reproductive parameter and two survival values. Survivorship and reproductive curves were fitted to data on northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), domestic and feral sheep, white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), African buffalo (Syncerus caffer), free-ranging horses, and fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus). Data for 10 species suggest a useful relationship between senescence parameters. A bias due to senescence may lead to serious underestimation of survival rates. Observed annual rates of increase of 18-20% for feral horses, 16% for southern fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), and 60% for white-tailed deer are compatible with observed population parameters. 43 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

  1. High power rf klystrons for linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Konrad, G.T.

    1984-04-01

    Recent klystron developments at SLAC are described. The standard 40 MW klyston, which typically operates at 35 MW on the SLAC linac, is the starting point for the push to higher peak and average power. The standard tube is capable of a 2.5 ..mu..s rf pulse width at 360 pps. For the SLC a 50 MW klystron capable of 5 ..mu..s pulse width at 180 pps is under development. Another tube currently being worked on is a 150 MW klystron capable of 1 ..mu..s rf and 180 pps. Design criteria and actual operating experience for both developmental tubes are described. 10 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Transparent selective illumination means suitable for use in optically activated electrical switches and optically activated electrical switches constructed using same

    DOEpatents

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1991-09-10

    A planar transparent light conducting means and an improved optically activated electrical switch made using the novel light conducting means are disclosed. The light conducting means further comprise light scattering means on one or more opposite planar surfaces thereof to transmit light from the light conducting means into adjacent media and reflective means on other surfaces of the light conducting means not containing the light scattering means. The optically activated electrical switch comprises at least two stacked photoconductive wafers, each having electrodes formed on both surfaces thereof, and separated by the planar transparent light conducting means. The light scattering means on the light conducting means face surfaces of the wafers not covered by the electrodes to transmit light from the light conducting means into the photoconductive wafers to uniformly illuminate and activate the switch. 11 figures.

  3. Internationalization: an alternative to nuclear proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Meller, E.

    1980-01-01

    Leading personalities in the field of nuclear energy worldwide assess possible improvements to the present nonproliferation regime and explore the possibilities for the internationalization of sensitive parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Their studies address past and current nonproliferation policies, the current controversy between the United States and its European allies on the development of fast breeder reactors and plutonium recycling, implications of the recent US Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 upon US/Euratom relations, industrial government relationships, safety concerns, and the special needs of developing countries. Their conclusions stress the recognition of complex factors such as military security, technical competition, the spread of nuclear technology, and politics that will limit any mechanism to govern nonproliferation. They urge greater effort in educating the public to the political and economic complexities of nuclear power and recommend strengthening international agreements and other arrangements, including controls and safeguards, and the general rules for the international trade of nuclear fuel. 11 figures, 7 tables.

  4. Energy futures, human values, and lifestyles: a new look at the energy crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.C.; Harman, W.W.; Schwartz, P.

    1982-01-01

    A group of SRI International scholars looks beyond the technical difficulties of the energy crisis to determine the basic reasons for the severity of our energy and environmental problems, and finds them in our individual choices of life style. The authors depict two detailed energy-use scenarios for the year 2050, using California as a model. One scenario portrays a future that is a result of our present habits in which we have squandered nearly all of the world's nonrenewable energy resources and neither conserved nor developed renewable resources. The other envisions a slower economic progress that serves long-range human goals and values. As a pacesetter, California illustrates what is possible for the entire country. 82 references, 11 figures, 64 tables.

  5. Metal to ceramic sealed joint

    DOEpatents

    Lasecki, J.V.; Novak, R.F.; McBride, J.R.

    1991-08-27

    A metal to ceramic sealed joint which can withstand wide variations in temperature and maintain a good seal is provided for use in a device adapted to withstand thermal cycling from about 20 to about 1000 degrees C. The sealed joint includes a metal member, a ceramic member having an end portion, and an active metal braze forming a joint to seal the metal member to the ceramic member. The joint is positioned remote from the end portion of the ceramic member to avoid stresses at the ends or edges of the ceramic member. The sealed joint is particularly suited for use to form sealed metal to ceramic joints in a thermoelectric generator such as a sodium heat engine where a solid ceramic electrolyte is joined to metal parts in the system. 11 figures.

  6. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOEpatents

    Atac, R.; Fischler, M.S.; Husby, D.E.

    1991-01-15

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured. 11 figures.

  7. Structural interpretation of seismic reflection data from eastern Salt Range and Potwar Plateau, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, E.S.; Lillie, R.J.; Zaman, A.S.H.; Yousaf, M.

    1989-07-01

    Approximately 1600 km of seismic reflection profiles from the eastern Salt Range and Potwar Plateau (SR/PP) of Pakistan is integrated with available magnetostratigraphic, surface geologic, and well data to classify structural styles, determine the timing of deformation, and estimate the amount of telescoping of the sedimentary cover. The eastern SR/PP are similar to other fold-and-thrust belts underlain by evaporites in that (1) it is part of a zone of overthrusting that extends considerably farther over the Himalayan foreland than adjacent areas not underlain by evaporites, (2) the overall thrust wedge has a narrow cross-sectional taper, (3) structures verge toward the hinterland as well as toward the foreland, and (4) fold trends are long and continuous, consisting of tight salt-cored anticlines separated by broad synclines. 11 figures, 1 table.

  8. Relativistically parametrized extended Hueckel calculations. 11. Energy bands for elemental tellurium and polonium

    SciTech Connect

    Lohr, L.L.

    1987-06-17

    An extension of the REX relativistically parametrized extended Hueckel LCAO molecular orbital method to periodic solids is outlined. The method provides a simple and systematic approach to the description of the spin-orbit splitting of energy bands. The method is illustrated with results for the main-group elements tellurium and polonium, with trigonal-helical and simple-cubic structures, respectively. The helical structure of tellurium is described as a distortion of a simple-cubic structure, with the distortion being quenched in the case of polonium by its very large spin-orbit coupling. 36 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  9. Lung cancer in rats exposed to fibrogenic dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.M.; Wilson, J.S.; Tillery, M.I.; Smith, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    Fischer-344 rats were exposed to quartz dusts and to quartz-bearing oil shale dusts in long-term inhalation studies. Aerosol concentrations of 12 mg/m/sup 3/ and 152-176 mg/m/sup 3/ for quartz and shale dusts, respectively, were used in exposure regimens lasting up to two years. Pulmonary fibrosis was observed in most animals surviving beyond 400 days. Adenocarcinomas and epidermoid carcinomas of the lung were observed in animals from all exposure groups, including those exposed to quartz alone. The pulmonary tumors were a late effect, with the earliest lung tumor being observed after 651 days. 13 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Method for fusion bonding thermoplastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Benatar, A.; Gutowski, T.G.

    1986-10-01

    Bonding of thermoplastic composites is a critical step in the manufacture of aerospace structures. The objective of this project is to investigate different methods for fusion bonding thermoplastic composites quickly, with a good bond strength, and without warping and deconsolidation. This is best accomplished by heating and melting the thermoplastic on the bond surface only, and then pressing the parts together for a fusion bond. For this purpose, a variety of surface heating techniques were examined for bonding of PEEK and J Polymer composites. These included: resistance heating, infrared heating, induction heating, dielectric/microwave heating, and ultrasonic welding. 20 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  11. Reusable crucible for containing corrosive liquids

    DOEpatents

    Pruneda, J.A.H. de.

    1995-01-24

    A reusable, non-wetting, corrosion-resistant material suitable for containment of corrosive liquids is formed of a tantalum or tantalum alloy substrate that is permeated with carbon atoms. The substrate is carburized to form surface layers of TaC and Ta[sub 2]C, and then is heated at high temperature under vacuum until the carbon atoms in the carbide layers diffuse throughout the substrate to form a solid solution of carbon atoms randomly interspersed in the tantalum or tantalum alloy lattice. 10 figures.

  12. Apparatus for characterizing conductivity of materials by measuring the effect of induced shielding currents therein

    DOEpatents

    Doss, J.D.

    1991-05-14

    Apparatus and method for noncontact, radio-frequency shielding current characterization of materials is disclosed. Self- or mutual inductance changes in one or more inductive elements, respectively, occur when materials capable of supporting shielding currents are placed in proximity thereto, or undergo change in resistivity while in place. Such changes can be observed by incorporating the inductor(s) in a resonant circuit and determining the frequency of oscillation or by measuring the voltage induced on a coupled inductive element. The present invention is useful for determining the critical temperature and superconducting transition width for superconducting samples. 10 figures.

  13. Final epidemic: physicians and scientists on nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, R.; Cullen, S.

    1981-01-01

    Symposia held by Physicians for Social Responsibility and the Council for a Livable World are part of an aggressive assault on the threat of thermonuclear war as a preventable disease. This collection, mostly by doctors, examines the issues of nuclear war in terms of the medical mission that doctors accept of preserving public health. The authors find that prevention is the only viable answer, while civil defense is only an illusion. The papers are grouped under the headings: Symptoms, Causes, Pathogenesis, Prognosis, and Treatment. 121 references, 10 figures, 22 tables. (DCK)

  14. Primary structures of one elicitor-active and seven elicitor-inactive hexa(. beta. -D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glucitols isolated from the mycelial walls of Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J.K.; McNeil, M.; Albersheim, P.

    1984-09-25

    The primary structures of eight hexa(..beta..-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glucitols purified from partially hydrolyzed Phytophthora megasperma f. sp. glycinea mycelial walls were determined by microscale glycosyl-sequence analysis. The similarity in structure of six of the elicitor-inactive hexa(..beta..-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glucitols to the elicitor-active hexa(..beta..-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glucitol established that a highly defined structure is required for elicitor activity. The elicitor-active hexa(..beta..-D-glucopyranosyl)-D-glucitol is the first example of a complex carbohydrate acting as a regulatory molecule in plants. 49 references, 10 figures, 6 tables.

  15. NNWSI exploratory shaft site and construction method recommendation report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, S.G.

    1984-08-01

    This report documents the process by which alternative construction methods were evaluated and by which potential sites were screened by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project for the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, in Nye County, Nevada. The evaluation was made by the Ad Hoc Technical Overview Contractor Committee. Our recommendations were to construct a vertical shaft using conventional mining techniques in a dry canyon known as Coyote Wash, located on the east flank of the mountain. 11 references, 10 figures, 15 tables.

  16. Apparatus for characterizing conductivity of superconducting materials

    DOEpatents

    Doss, J.D.

    1993-12-07

    Apparatus and method for noncontact, radio-frequency shielding current characterization of materials. Self- or mutual inductance changes in one or more inductive elements, respectively, occur when materials capable of supporting shielding currents are placed in proximity thereto, or undergo change in resistivity while in place. Such changes can be observed by incorporating the inductor(s) in a resonant circuit and determining the frequency of oscillation or by measuring the voltage induced on a coupled inductive element. The present invention is useful for determining the critical temperature and superconducting transition width for superconducting samples. 10 figures.

  17. Design of a tensor polarized deuterium target polarized by spin-exchange with optically pumped NA

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.C.

    1984-05-01

    A proposed design for a tensor polarized deuterium target (approx. 10/sup 15/ atoms/cm/sup 2/) for nuclear physics studies in an electron storage ring accelerator is presented. The deuterium atoms undergo electron spin exchange with a highly polarized sodium vapor; this polarization is transferred to the deuterium nuclei via the hyperfine interaction. The deuterium nuclei obtain their tensor polarization through repeated electron spin exchange/hyperfine interactions. The sodium vapor polarization is maintained by standard optical pumping techniques. Model calculations are presented in detail leading to a discussion of the expected performance and the technical obstacles to be surmounted in the development of such a target. 15 references, 10 figures.

  18. Phosphate-bonded calcium aluminate cements

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.

    1993-09-21

    A method is described for making a rapid-setting phosphate-bonded cementitious material. A powdered aluminous cement is mixed with an aqueous solution of ammonium phosphate. The mixture is allowed to set to form an amorphous cementitious material which also may be hydrothermally treated at a temperature of from about 120 C to about 300 C to form a crystal-containing phosphate-bonded material. Also described are the cementitious products of this method and the cement composition which includes aluminous cement and ammonium polyphosphate. 10 figures.

  19. Sensitivity of tomato cultivars to sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Howe, T.K.; Woltz, S.S.

    1982-04-01

    The sensitivity of 26 cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were compared at 2 concentrations of SO/sub 2/in specially designed exposure greenhouses. Cultivars studied included fresh market, processing, and specialty types. Insensitive and sensitive cultivars were identified by assessment of acute SO/sub 2/-induced foliar necrosis. Cultivars found to be insensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Ace', 'Bonanza', 'Heinz 1350', 'Tarquinia Tondino', and 'VF 145-B 7879'. Cultivars found to be sensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Bellarina', 'Chico III', 'Flora-Dade', 'Red Cherry Large' 'Sub-Arctic Delight', and 'Vetomold. 10 figures, 1 table.

  20. Evaluation of the effects of acid rain on low conductivity headwater streams in Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.R.; Brown, A.E.

    1981-09-01

    Analyses of water collected at 32 sites on headwater streams in Pennsylvania during low-flow conditions in 1979-1980 were compared to pre-1971 data to evaluate whether acid rain had changed the chemistry of the streams in the previous decade. Most pH alkalinity, and sulfate values of the samples collected in 1979-1980 fell within the ranges of values for samples collected before 1971. The limited data indicate, however, that pH may have increased and alkalinity and sulfate may have decreased with time. 7 references, 10 figures, 5 tables.

  1. Giant Solitary Synovial Chondromatosis of the Temporomandibular Joint with Intracranial Extension

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Salú, José L.; Lázaro, Rafael; Aldasoro, José; Gonzalez-Darder, José M.

    1998-01-01

    Synovial chondromatosis are rare entities but are well-described lesions in the literature that can affect many joint areas of the body. A case of tumoral synovial chondromatosis involving the temporomandibular joint with intracranial extension through mandibular fossa is reported. As long as there was significant infratemporal and extradural invasion of the middle and posterior fossa, a transtemporal and infratemporal approach was performed and total removal of the lesions was achieved. A brief review of skull base synovial chondromatosis is presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11 PMID:17171059

  2. Calorimetry for the SSC

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, H.A.; Grannis, P.D.

    1984-01-01

    The activities related to calorimetry at Snowmass took place in three main areas. These were: (1) The performance criteria for SSC calorimetry, including the requirements on hermeticity, shower containment, segmentation and time resolution. The use of calorimetric means of particle identification was studied. (2) The study of triggering methods using calorimeter energy, angle and timing information. (3) A review of a wide variety of calorimeter materials for absorber and sampling, as well as several means of obtaining the readout of the energy deposits. 48 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  3. Internal R and D task summary report: analytical methods development

    SciTech Connect

    Schweighardt, F.K.

    1983-07-01

    International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) conducted two research programs to develop analytical procedures for characterizing the feed, intermediates,and products of the proposed SRC-I Demonstration Plant. The major conclusion is that standard analytical methods must be defined and assigned statistical error limits of precision and reproducibility early in development. Comparing all SRC-I data or data from different processes is complex and expensive if common data correlation procedures are not followed. ICRC recommends that processes be audited analytically and statistical analyses generated as quickly as possible, in order to quantify process-dependent and -independent variables. 16 references, 10 figures, 20 tables.

  4. Hafnium-implanted nickel studied with TDPAC and RBS/channeling before and after laser-surface melting and thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, E.N.; Buene, L.; McDonald, M.L.; Kotthaus, J.; Freitag, K.; Vianden, R.; Draper, C.W.

    1982-09-15

    The Hf implanted Ni system has been studied by the time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique and by Rutherford backscattering (RBS)/channeling. Low fluence implants were thermally annealed in vacuum at increasing temperature in order to study the evolution of substitutional and defect-associated solutes using TDPAC. Both detrapping and precipitation (or segregation) effects have been observed. Higher fluence implants were studied by both TDPAC and RBS/channeling in as-implanted as well as laser-surface-melted regimes. 10 figures.

  5. Coal structure vs flash pyrolysis products

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    The fast pyrolysis of coal produces tar, char and a range of low molecular weight gases in various proportions and amounts depending on the pyrolysis conditions (temperature, pressure) and the coal being pyrolyzed. Much research effort has been devoted to study of the reaction kinetics and effect of process variables, attempting thereby to elucidate the pyrolysis mechanism. Less effort has been focused on coal chemical structure and its relationship to the pyrolysis reactions and pyrolysis products. It was to attempt to better understand coal structure and its influence on pyrolysis products and pyrolysis mechanisms that this project was undertaken. This paper reports only on that portion of the work concerned with the aliphatic hydrocarbon products and particularly the light olefins. (7 tables, 12 figures, 16 refs.)

  6. SRC-water slurry rheology. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, K.C.

    1984-02-01

    SRC-water slurries exhibit properties that qualify them for use as fuel in conventional oil-fired combustion facilities. However, to date, the slurries tested have shown storage instability, which requires constant agitation and recirculation to avoid sedimentation in the storage tanks. High viscosities of the material being evaluated hampered the test performance. A program was instituted to better understand the variables responsible for viscosity and static stability of these slurries. Effective additives and concentrations were determined. This report presents laboratory data demonstrating that solid concentration, particle size distribution, additive concentration, and slurry preparation technique influence the viscosity and stability characteristics of an SRC-water slurry. 7 references, 12 figures, 11 tables.

  7. Nasal mites from birds of a Guatemalan cloud forest (Acarina: rhinonyssidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of the nasal mites from Guatemalan cloud forest birds is reported. Seventy-eight birds, representing 10 families and 18 species, were examined. Prevalence of infection was 24%. Two new species are described: Sternostoma darlingi from Mitrephanes phaeocercus (Tyrannidae) and S. pencei from Empidonax flavescens (Tyrannidae). New host records are reported for S. priangae from Chlorospingus opthalmicus (Thraupidae), S. hutsoni from Catharus dryas (Turdidae), Ptilonyssus sairae from Chlorospingus opthalmicus (Thraupidae), and Myioborus miniatus (Parulidae), P. euroturdi from Catharus dryas (Turdidae), P. tyrannus from Empidonax flavescens and Mitrephanes phaeocercus (both Tyannidae), and Tinaminyssus ixoreus from Catharus dryas (Turdidae). The subspecies Ptilonyssus euroturdi mimicola Fain and Hyland is synonymized with the nominate subspecies. Data are presented to suggest that the Rhinonyssidae may be a polyphyletic assemblage. 35 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

  8. Neutron scattering studies of the H2a-H2b and (H3-H4)/sub 2/ histone complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron scattering experiments have shown that both the (H3-H4)/sub 2/ and H2a-H2b histone complexes are quite asymmetric in solution. The (H3-H4)/sub 2/ tetramer is an oblate or flattened structure, with a radius of gyration almost as large as that of the core octamer. If the tetramer is primarily globular, it must have an axial ratio of about 1:5. It is more likely, however, that this asymmetry results in part from N-terminal arms that extend outward approximately within the major plane of the particle. If this is the case, less asymmetric models for the globular part of the tetramer, including a dislocated disk, can be made consistent with the scattering data. The H2a-H2b dimer, on the other hand, is an elongated structure. 48 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

  9. System for tomographic determination of the power distribution in electron beams

    DOEpatents

    Elmer, J.W.; Teruya, A.T.; O'Brien, D.W.

    1995-01-17

    A tomographic technique is disclosed for measuring the current density distribution in electron beams using electron beam profile data acquired from a modified Faraday cup to create an image of the current density in high and low power beams. The modified Faraday cup includes a narrow slit and is rotated by a stepper motor and can be moved in the x, y and z directions. The beam is swept across the slit perpendicular thereto and controlled by deflection coils, and the slit rotated such that waveforms are taken every few degrees form 0[degree] to 360[degree] and the waveforms are recorded by a digitizing storage oscilloscope. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional images of the current density distribution in the beam can be reconstructed by computer tomography from this information, providing quantitative information about the beam focus and alignment. 12 figures.

  10. Guide to plutonium isotopic measurements using gamma-ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.F.; Rakel, D.A.

    1982-08-26

    Purpose of this guide is to assist those responsible for plutonium isotopic measurements in the application of gamma-ray spectrometry. Objectives are to promote an understanding of the measurement process, including its limitations and applicability, by reviewing the general features of a plutonium spectrum and identifying the quantities which must be extracted from the data; to introduce state-of-the-art analysis techniques by reviewing four isotopic analysis packages and identifying their differences; to establish the basis for measurement control and assurance by discussing means of authenticating the performance of a measurement system; and to prepare for some specific problems encountered in plutonium isotopic analyses by providing solutions from the practical experiences of several laboratories. 29 references, 12 figures, 17 tables.

  11. Heat-pipe development for the SPAR space-power system. [100 kW(e)

    SciTech Connect

    Ranken, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The SPAR space power system design is based on a high temperature fast spectrum nuclear reactor that furnishes heat to a thermoelectric conversion system to generate an electrical power output of 100 kW/sub (e)/. An important feature of this design is the use of alkali metal heat pipes to provide redundant, reliable, and low-loss heat transfer at high temperature. Three sets of heat pipes are used in the system. These include sodium/molybdenum heat pipes to transfer heat from the reactor core to the conversion system, potassium/niobium heat pipes to couple the conversion system to the radiator in a redundant manner, and potassium/titanium heat pipes to distribute rejected heat throughout the radiator surface. The designs of these units are discussed and fabrication methods and testing results are described. 12 figures.

  12. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  13. Striped bass, temperature, and dissolved oxygen: a speculative hypothesis for environmental risk

    SciTech Connect

    Coutant, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Striped bass Morone saxatilis has a paradoxical record of distribution and abundance, including population declines in coastal waters and variable success of freshwater introductions. This record is analyzed for consistency with a hypothesis that striped bass are squeezed between their thermal and dissolved oxygen preferences or requirements. A commonality among diverse field and laboratory observations supports an inherent thermal niche for the species that changes to lower temperatures as fish age. This shift can cause local conditions, especially warm surface strata and deoxygenated deep water, to be incompatible with the success of large fish. Crowding due to temperature preferences alone or coupled with avoidance of low oxygen concentrations can lead to pathology and overfishing, which may contribute to population declines. Through a mixture of evidence and conjecture, the thermal niche-dissolved oxygen hypothesis is proposed as a unified perspective of the habitat requirements of the species that can aid in its study and management. 139 references, 12 figures.

  14. Northern States Power Company (NSP) Black Dog generating plant - Unit 2 emission reduction, capacity increase and life extension through atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Jenness, B.L.; Rosendahl, S.M.; Gamble, R.L.

    1985-08-01

    The authors report on progress to date of the atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) boiler retrofit at the Black Dog Unit 2 plant of the Northern States Power Company. Construction began in September 1984 after the completion of technical and economic feasibility studies, and initial operation is scheduled for the second quarter of 1986. The project features the largest AFBC boiler to date, a 40 MW capacity regain/upgrade, and 25-year extension of unit life, low leakage regenerative air preheater design, electrostatic precipitator performance improvement, alternate fuel co-firing capacity, and reduced emission on a per MW basis. The authors describe the management and engineering developments associated with the project. 12 figures, 4 tables.

  15. Organic-Rankine-cycle systems for waste-heat recovery in refineries and chemical process plants

    SciTech Connect

    Meacher, J.S.

    1981-09-01

    The use of organic Rankine cycles (ORC) for the recovery and conversion of low-temperature waste heat has received considerable attention during recent years. The number of demonstration systems developed and put into service is small, and only a fraction of the possible energy-conserving benefits of the concept have been realized to date. This situation is due partly to the fact that energy costs have only recently risen to the point where such units provide acceptable return on investment. A second contributing factor may be that the design of ORC equipment has not yet responded to the special needs of the dominant market for ORC systems. 2 references, 12 figures, 5 tables.

  16. Techniques for measuring the vertical hydraulic conductivity of flood basalts at the Basalt Waste Isolation Project site

    SciTech Connect

    Javandel, I.

    1983-06-01

    A regional model that can predict groundwater movement through the reference repository location and surrounding area is essential to assessing the site suitability for a nuclear waste repository. During the last two decades, several models have been developed to handle complicated flow patterns through complex geologic materials. The basic problem, however, is obtaining the data base needed to apply these models. The hydrological data needed include the spatial distribution of effective porosity, the hydraulic conductivity tensor and its variation in space, values of specific storage, the hydraulic head distribution, and the fluid properties. In this report, we discuss conventional methods of obtaining vertical hydraulic conductivity and examine their applicability to the BWIP site. 39 references, 12 figures, 4 tables.

  17. South Fork Clearwater River Habitat Enhancement, Crooked and Red Rivers : Annual Report, 1989.

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, William H.

    1990-01-01

    In 1983, the Nez Perce National Forest and the Bonneville Power Administration entered into an interagency agreement to enhance and improve habitat for two anadromous fish species, spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawyscha) and summer steelhead trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss), in the South Fork Clearwater River tributaries. The South Fork Clearwater River was dammed in 1927 for hydroelectric development. Anadromous fish runs were virtually eliminated until the dam was removed in 1962. To complicate the problem, upstream spawning and rearing habitats were severely impacted by dredge and hydraulic mining, road building, timber harvest, and over-grazing. Fish habitat improvement projects under the above contract are being carried out in two major tributaries to the South Fork Clearwater River. Both the Red River and the Crooked River projects began in 1983 and will be completed in 1990. 12 figures., 1 tab.

  18. Electromagnetic shower development and applications to sampling calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, C.Y.

    1984-07-01

    The application of electromagnetic theory to particle interactions is an old subject which represented one of the early successes in the study of particle interactions and fundamental forces. The ability to describe properties of electron, positron, and photon interactions has led to applications in numerous experimental devices used in high energy experiments. The subject is now considered to be relatively mature, but applications continue to evolve as new ideas are tried and new techniques become available. This report is a review of the underlying processes, a discussion of the application to electromagnetic calorimetry, discussions of some scaling laws and approximations that serve to guide designs of experimental devices, and examples where these principles are put to work. 13 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  19. US Department of Energy Transportation Programs: computerized techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.; Fore, C.S.; Peterson, B.E.

    1984-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently sponsoring the development of four specialized transportation programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The programs function as research tools that provide unique computerized techniques for planning the safe shipment of radioactive and hazardous materials. Major achievements include the development of rail and highway routing models, an emergency response assistance program, a data base focusing on legislative requirements, and a resource file identifying key state and local contacts. A discussion of each program and data base is presented, and several examples reflecting each project's applications to the overall DOE transportation program are provided. The interface of these programs offers a dynamic resource of data for use during preshipment planning stages. 9 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Chronic lead administration in neonatal rats: electron microscopy of the retina

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Anderson, R.M.; Tso, M.O.M.; Valdes, J.J.; Annau, Z.

    1984-03-01

    The morphologic effects on the retina resulting from chronic lead exposure were assessed in neonatal rats. Newborn rats nursed from dams were given a low (0.115%) or a high (4.5%) concentration of lead in their diet. At day 21 the pups were weaned to the mother's diet. The retinas of the pups were studied by electron microscopy at various ages up to day 60. High and low lead concentrations produced necrosis of photoreceptor cells and cells of the inner nuclear layer. The high lead concentration, in addition, was associated with swelling of endothelial cells of the retinal vessels and narrowing of the lumen. Increased permeability of the retinal vessels and pigment epithelium to horseradish peroxidase were also observed under the high-dose condition. The authors conclude that lead can produce direct neuronal damage and, at high doses, produces retinal vascular lesions and alteration of the blood-retinal barrier. 10 figures.

  1. Extraction of uranium from seawater using magnetic adsorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, H.; Fujita, K.; Nakajima, F.; Ozawa, Y.; Murata, T.

    1981-01-01

    A new process for the extraction of uranium from seawater was developed. In the process, uranium adsorption is effected using powdered magnetic adsorbents; the adsorbents are then separated from seawater using magnetic separation technology. This process is superior to a column method using a granulated hydrous titanium oxide adsorber bed in the following ways: (1) a higher rate of adsorption is realized because smaller particles are used in the uranium adsorption; and (2) blocking, which is inevitable in an adsorber bed, is eliminated. The composite hydrous titanium-iron oxide as a magnetic adsorbent having high uranium adsorption capacity and magnetization can be prepared by adding urea to a mixed solution of titanium sulfate and ferrous sulfate. Adsorption and desoprtion of uranium and the removal of the adsorbent using a small-scale uranium extraction plant (about 15 m/sup 3//d) is reported, and the feasibility of uranium extraction from seawater by this process is demonstrated. 10 figures.

  2. Storage of methane as volatile fatty acids for intermittent fuel use

    SciTech Connect

    Nghiem, N.P.; Mehta, K.; Callihan, C.D.

    1983-01-01

    A process for on-site production of methane from sweet potato canning wastes was developed. In this process methane is stored conveniently as a liquid in the form of organic acids which are produced in an acid pond. When methane is needed, the acids are pumped into a methane pond underneath a sludge blanket, where high rates of methane production begin shortly after feeding. A demonstration plant has been designed and is being constructed using the existing pond system and facilities in a sweet potato canning factory in Louisiana. The methane produced is burned on-site to generate process steam for use in the main plant. 14 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Nuclear structure and reactions studied with the Darmstadt-Heidelberg crystal ball

    SciTech Connect

    Metag, V.; Fischer, R.D.; Koch, G.; Kuehn, W.; Muehlhans, R.; Novotny, R.; Ruckelshausen, A.; Stroeher, H.; Habs, D.; Hennrich, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    Angular momentum distribution in compound nuclei have been derived from ..gamma..-ray multiplicities and angular distributions measured with the Darmstadt-Heidelberg crystall ball. The influence of dynamic barrier fluctuation on the amount of angular momentum absorbed in the fusion process is discussed. Entrance channel effects have been observed which result in different decay paths for compound nuclei at the same excitation energy and spin in different target-projectile combinations. The ..gamma..-decay of resonances in the /sup 12/C + /sup 12/C system has been investigated. The measured ..gamma..-ray yields are consistently smaller than expected for collectively enhanced E2 transitions in a deformed and rigidly rotating intermediate system. The order of magnitude of the experimentally observed ..gamma..-intensity is, however, reproduced in theoretical calculations of nuclear bremsstrahlung, using realistic wave functions of the scattering states. 29 references, 10 figures.

  4. Phase-locked loop with controlled phase slippage

    DOEpatents

    Mestha, L.K.

    1994-03-29

    A system for synchronizing a first subsystem controlled by a changing frequency sweeping from a first frequency to a second frequency, with a second subsystem operating at a steady state second frequency is described. Trip plan parameters are calculated in advance to determine the phase relationship between the frequencies of the first subsystem and second subsystem in order to obtain synchronism at the end of the frequency sweep of the first subsystem. During the time in which the frequency of the first subsystem is sweeping from the first frequency to the second frequency, the phase locked system compares the actual phase difference with the trip plan phase difference and incrementally changes the sweep frequency in a manner so that phase lock is achieved when the first subsystem reaches a frequency substantially identical to that of the second subsystem. 10 figures.

  5. Subsidence in the craters of nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, D.E.; Swift, R.P.; Bryan, J.B.; Glenn, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The craters from high-yield nuclear tests at the Pacific Proving Ground are very broad and shallow in comparison with the bowl-shaped craters formed in continental rock at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and elsewhere. Attempts to explain the difference in terms of device yield (which was much larger in the Pacific tests than at NTS) have been generally unsatisfactory. We have for the first time successfully modeled the Koa Event, a representative coral-atoll test. On the basis of plausible assumptions about the geology and about the constitutive relations for coral, we have shown that the size and shape of the Koa crater can be accounted for by subsidence and liquefaction phenomena. If future studies confirm these assumptions, it will mean that some scaling formulas based on data from the Pacific will have to be revised to avoid overestimating weapons effects in continental geology. 41 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  6. Chemical and histochemical studies of human alveolar collagen fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, W.

    1977-01-01

    Light and electron microscopic studies have established that the normal human alveolar argyrophilic (reticulum) fiber is collagen fiber. The silver impregnation method is highly sensitive and specific for histologic demonstration of the elaborate collagen fiber network of alveolar septa. The argyrophilic alveolar collagen fiber does not stain with the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) or periodic acid-thiocarbohydrazide-osmium tetroxide (PTO) reaction. The materials positive for the PAS and PTO reactions in alveolar septa are epithelial and endothelial basal laminas, which are nonargyrophilic. Chemically, lung collagen fibers are composed of Type I and Type III collagens, which differ in amino acid composition, chain composition, and carbohydrate content. The chemical heterogeneity of lung collagen may have important biologic implications in the maintenance of normal structure and in the repair of lung injury. Images Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:64120

  7. Monoclonal antibodies to Alzheimer neurofibrillary tangles. 2. Demonstration of a common antigenic determinant between ANT and neurofibrillary degeneration in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, D. W.; Kress, Y.; Crowe, A.; Yen, S. H.

    1985-01-01

    Neurofibrillary degeneration is an argyrophilic intraneuronal lesion found in several unrelated neurologic conditions. The relationship between different types of neurofibrillary tangles is investigated with two monoclonal antibodies raised against Alzheimer neurofibrillary tangles (anti-ANT). Using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase technique, the authors demonstrate that neurofibrillary tangles of progressive supranuclear palsy, containing 15-nm straight filaments, share an antigenic determinant with ANTs. Ultrastructural studies localize the antigenic determinant to filamentous elements in the parakarya. The determinant is not present in normal brain, aluminum-induced experimental tangles in the rabbit, Lewy bodies, Hirano bodies, or axonal filamentous inclusions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and giant axonal neuropathy. It is, however, present in ANTs regardless of the pathologic condition in which they are found, including Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome, and postencephalitic Parkinson's disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:2411143

  8. Tilt measurements at Long Valley Caldera, California, May-August 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Dzurisin, D.; Cashman, K.; Sylvester, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    The Mammoth Lakes area in east-central California has experienced unusual seismicity and ground deformation since 1978, highlighted by four M > 6 earthquakes in May 1980 and by the discovery soon thereafter of a broad uplift within Long Valley caldera. Recurrent seismic swarms during June 1980-May 1982 raised concern over the possibility of renewed volcanic activity in the foreseeable future, prompting a USGS Notice of Potential Volcanic Hazard on 28 May 1982. As part of an intensified Long Valley monitoring effort sponsored by the USGS Volcanic Hazards program, a network of nine tilt sites was established near mammoth lakes in May and July 1982. This report describes those stations and presents results from three tilt resurveys during July-August 1982. 8 references, 10 figures, 8 tables.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of miniature endplate current generation in the vertebrate neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed Central

    Bartol, T M; Land, B R; Salpeter, E E; Salpeter, M M

    1991-01-01

    A Monte Carlo method for modeling the neuromuscular junction is described in which the three-dimensional structure of the synapse can be specified. Complexities can be introduced into the acetylcholine kinetic model used with only a small increase in computing time. The Monte Carlo technique is shown to be superior to differential equation modeling methods (although less accurate) if a three-dimensional representation of synaptic geometry is desired. The conceptual development of the model is presented and the accuracy estimated. The consequences of manipulations such as varying the spacing of secondary synaptic folds or that between the release of multiple quantal packets of acetylcholine, are also presented. Increasing the spacing between folds increases peak current. Decreased spacing of adjacent quantal release sites increases the potentiation of peak current. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 1 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:1873466

  10. Dynamics of proteins in different solvent systems: analysis of essential motion in lipases.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, G H; van Aalten, D M; Edholm, O; Toxvaerd, S; Bywater, R

    1996-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of different solvents on the dynamics of Rhizomucor miehei lipase. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed in water, methyl hexanoate, and cyclohexane. Analysis of the 400-ps trajectories showed that the solvent has a pronounced effect on the geometrical properties of the protein. The radius of gyration and total accessibility surface decrease in organic solvents, whereas the number of hydrogen bonds increases. The essential motions of the protein in different solvents can be described in a low-dimensional "essential subspace," and the dynamic behavior in this subspace correlates with the polarity of the solvent. Methyl hexanoate, which is a substrate for R. miehei lipase, significantly increases the fluctuations in the active-site loop. During the simulation, a methyl hexanoate entered the active-site groove. This observation provides insight into the possible docking mechanism of the substrate. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:8913568

  11. Maggots, mutilations and myth: Patterns of postmortem scavenging of the bovine carcass

    PubMed Central

    Nation, P. Nick; Williams, Elisabeth S.

    1989-01-01

    Based upon what is known about the habits of common carrion eaters in Alberta, we review the patterns of postmortem scavenging of carcasses of cattle. We then compare with these patterns those reported in the lay press and by veterinarians investigating cattle mutilations in Alberta. We conclude that the so-called “mutilation” of cattle in Alberta was due to scavenging of carcasses and further conclude that claims of human involvement in such incidents require, as a first condition, that postmortem scavenging of the carcass be excluded. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11. PMID:17423422

  12. Axi-symmetrical flow reactor for [sup 196]Hg photochemical enrichment

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.

    1991-04-30

    The present invention is directed to an improved photochemical reactor useful for the isotopic enrichment of a predetermined isotope of mercury, especially, [sup 196]Hg. Specifically, two axi-symmetrical flow reactors were constructed according to the teachings of the present invention. These reactors improve the mixing of the reactants during the photochemical enrichment process, affording higher yields of the desired [sup 196]Hg product. Measurements of the variation of yield (Y) and enrichment factor (E) along the flow axis of these reactors indicates very substantial improvement in process uniformity compared to previously used photochemical reactor systems. In one preferred embodiment of the present invention, the photoreactor system was built such that the reactor chamber was removable from the system without disturbing the location of either the photochemical lamp or the filter employed therewith. 10 figures.

  13. Oil and gas developments in South America, Central America, Caribbean area, and Mexico in 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Tappmeyer, D.M.

    1984-10-01

    Petroleum exploration in the region was generally less in 1983 than in 1982. Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Barbados increased crude production, whereas Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and Trinidad-Tobago reported increases in gas production. Although drilling activities remained low compared to past years, significant oil discoveries were reported in Colombia, Mexico, and Brazil. In Colombia, Cano Limon field is reported to be the largest field found in the Llanos region. In Brazil, important oil discoveries were made offshore in the Para, Potiquas, and Ampos basins. In Mexico, discoveries were reported in the Cerro Azul, Poza Rica (Chicontepec, Villahermosa, and Tabasco) areas onshore and in the Bay of Campeche offshore. In Argentina, discoveries were made in the San Jorge basin and the Noreste Tarija basin. 10 figures, 11 tables.

  14. Apparatus for coating a surface with a metal utilizing a plasma source

    DOEpatents

    Brown, I.G.; MacGill, R.A.; Galvin, J.E.

    1991-05-07

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for coating or layering a surface with a metal utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source. The apparatus includes a trigger mechanism for actuating the metal vacuum vapor arc plasma source in a pulsed mode at a predetermined rate. The surface or substrate to be coated or layered is supported in position with the plasma source in a vacuum chamber. The surface is electrically biased for a selected period of time during the pulsed mode of operation of the plasma source. Both the pulsing of the metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source and the electrical biasing of the surface are synchronized for selected periods of time. 10 figures.

  15. Integral measurements of neutron and gamma-ray leakage fluxes from the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Muckenthaler, F.J.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents integral measurements of neutron and gamma-ray leakage fluxes from a critical mockup of the Hiroshima bomb Little Boy at Los Alamos National Laobratory with detector systems developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Bonner ball detectors were used to map the neutron fluxes in the horizontal midplane at various distances from the mockup and for selected polar angles, keeping the source-detector separation constant. Gamma-ray energy deposition measurements were made with thermoluminescent detectors at several locations on the iron shell of the source mockup. The measurements were performed as part of a larger progam to provide benchmark data for testing the methods used to calculate the radiation released from the Little Boy bomb over Hiroshima. 3 references, 10 figures.

  16. Alcohol from whey permeate: strain selection, temperature, and medium optimization. [Candida pseudotropicalis, Kluyveromyces fragilis, and K. lactis

    SciTech Connect

    Vienne, P.; Von Stockar, U.

    1983-01-01

    A comparative study of shaken flask cultures of some yeast strains capable of fermenting lactose showed no significant differences in alcohol yield among the four best strains. Use of whey permeate concentrated three times did not affect the yields. An optimal growth temperature of 38/sup 0/C was determined for K. fragilis NRRL 665. Elemental analysis of both the permeate and the dry cell mass of two strains indicated the possibility of a stoichiometric limitation by nitrogen. Batch cultures in laboratory fermentors confirmed this finding and revealed in addition the presence of a limitation due to growth factors. Both types of limitations could be overcome by adding yeast extract. The maximum productivity of continuous cultures could thus be improved to 5.1 g/l-h. The maximum specific growth rate was of the order of 0.310 h/sup -1/. 15 references, 10 figures, 9 tables.

  17. Estimation of small area populations using remote sensing and other approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Honea, R.B.; Shumpert, B.L.; Edwards, R.G.; Margle, S.M.; Coleman, P.R.; Smyre, J.L.; Rush, R.M.; Durfee, R.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper documents the results of an assessment of a variety of techniques for estimating residential population for a five-mile radial grid around a nuclear power plant. The study area surrounded the proposed Limerick Nuclear Power Plant located near Philadelphia, PA. Techniques evaluated ranged from the use of air photos to infer population from housing distributions to the use of Landsat data to characterize probable residential population around the plant site. Although the techniques involving the use of Landsat data provided good results, a simple proportional area allocation method and the current procedure used by Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission were among the best techniques. Further research using other sites and better resolution satellite data is recommended to investigate the possible refinement of population estimates using remote sensing media. 34 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Gel-liquid extraction and separation of U(VI), Th(IV), Ce(III), and Co(II)

    SciTech Connect

    Shakir, K.; Beheir, S.G.

    1980-01-01

    The gel-liquid extraction of U(VI), Th(IV), Ce(III), and Co(II) has been investigated in the 0.01 to 2 M HNO/sub 3/ range using a gel prepared by swelling styrene divinylbenzene with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid. Obtained results indicate that all of the tested cations can be extracted and that the extraction coefficients increase in the order Ce(III) < Co(II) < Th(IV) < U(VI) and generally decrease with acidity. Under suitable conditions, separation of Th(IV), Ce(III), or Co(II) from U(VI) or of Th(IV) from Ce(III) can be achieved. Kinetic studies indicate that the extraction process is controlled by a progressive shell sorption mechanism. 10 figures, 3 tables

  19. First results with Mercedes-Benz DI diesel engines running on monoesters of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ventura, L.M.; Nascimento, A.C.; Bandel, W.

    1982-01-01

    In their pure form the vegetable oils are not suitable for the use in modern DI diesel engines, due to the excessive carbon deposit on the injection nozzles and in the combustion chamber. Nevertheless, these oils are promising candidates as raw materials for alternative diesel fuels. Processes are being developed to transform the long vegetable oil molecules into smaller molecules in order to fulfill the fuel requirements of DI diesel engines. Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids e.g. obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils through their catalytic reaction with methanol and ethanol, have shown a typical diesel fuel behaviour in conventional DI engines without excessive deposit formation. Problems concerning lubricating oil contamiation, and possibile remedial measures to avoid it, are being examined. There are also problems to be solved in relation to white smoke formation and the odor of exhaust gases. 10 figures.

  20. Dry powder mixes comprising phase change materials

    DOEpatents

    Salyer, I.O.

    1993-10-19

    Free flowing, conformable powder-like mix of silica particles and a phase change material (pcm) is disclosed. The silica particles have a critical size of about 7[times]10[sup [minus]3] to about 7[times]10[sup [minus]2] microns and the pcm must be added to the silica in an amount of 80 wt. % or less pcm per combined weight of silica and pcm. The powder-like mix can be used in tableware items, medical wraps, tree wraps, garments, quilts and blankets, and in cementitious compositions of the type in which it is beneficial to use a pcm material. The silica-pcm mix can also be admixed with soil to provide a soil warming effect and placed about a tree, flower, or shrub. 10 figures.

  1. Changes in permeability and fluid chemistry of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush tuff (Nevada Test Site) when held in a temperature gradient: summary of results

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.E.; Morrow, C.A.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1984-06-01

    The permeability and groundwater chemistry results for the Topopah Spring Member are reported and compared with the results from the previous work on Bullfrog. Permeability measurements made on samples of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff at room-temperature and in a temperature gradient show that the initially high (3-65 {mu}da) permeabilities are little affected by heating to at least 150{sup 0}C. These permeability relationships are favvorable for the disposal of nuclear waste in this stuff in an unsaturated zone at the Nevada Test Site. The fluids discharged from the samples of tuff during the experiments are dilute, nearly neutral solutions that differ only slightly from the starting groundwater composition. 8 references, 10 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Xylose fermentation to ethanol by Pachysolen tannophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Schvester, P.; Robinson, C.W.; Moo-Young, M.

    1983-01-01

    Results of batch studies on the bioconversion of D-xylose by the pentose-fermenting yeast Pachysolen tannophilus are reported. A significant level of aeration was found to be necessary to stimulate biomass growth and to enhance the rate of ethanol production. Ethanol production appears to be restricted by substrate inhibition at initial D-xylose concentrations in excess of about 40 g/l. At this value, a maximum ethanol yield from substrate of only 27.4 mass % was achieved, which was only 53.7% of the theoretical maximum. Significant amounts (up to 14% mass yield) of by-product xylitol also were produced. The advantages and disadvantages of this direct bioconversion process for industrial application are discussed and compared to other ethanol production processes. 15 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Advancement of remote technology: past perspectives and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, M J; Hamel, W R

    1984-01-01

    In the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a comprehensive remote systems development program has existed for the past five years. The new remote technology under development is expected to significantly improve remote operations by extending the range of admissible remote tasks and increasing remote work efficiency. The motivation and justification for the program are discussed by surveying the 40 years of remote operating experience which exists and considering the essential features of various old and new philosophies which have been, or are being, used in remote engineering. A future direction based upon the Remotex concept is explained, and recent progress in the development of an advanced servomanipulator-based maintenance concept is summarized to show that a new generation of remote systems capability is feasible through advanced technology. 20 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  4. A Malaysian Experience with Animal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Little, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    The report summarizes a one year period of investigation of death losses in West Malaysian livestock. Lesions and etiological agents are mentioned for cattle, sheep, goats, swine, poultry and companion animals as well as some miscellaneous species. Special observations related to a common paramphistome induced hepatic biliary infestation in cattle, a serious malignant head catarrh outbreak in which possible cattle to cow aerosol transmission occurred. Trismus observed in some cattle with malignant head catarrh was associated with arteriolitis and ganglioneuritis of the V cranial nerve. Parasitic, bacterial, viral toxic and neoplastic diseases are recorded in the various species. The occurrence of fatal chronic fluorosis in laboratory guinea pigs and cerebral nematodiasis in a Thoroughbred racehorse are documented. ImagesFigure 1.FIGURE 2.FIGURE 3.FIGURE 4.FIGURE 5.FIGURE 6.FIGURE 7.FIGURE 8.FIGURE 9.FIGURE 10.FIGURE 11. PMID:761153

  5. Relationships among observed metal concentrations, criteria, and benthic community structural responses in 15 streams

    SciTech Connect

    LaPoint, T.W.; Melancon, S.M.; Morris, M.K.

    1984-09-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected summer and fall, 1980, from 15 river systems impacted by publicly owned treatment works. Elevated metal concentrations in these polluted streams were compared to federally recommended aquatic life criteria and to resident macro-invertebrate communities above and below pollutant sources. In those rivers limited to metal problems benthic invertebrate fauna were predictable indicators of pollution impact. In more complicated systems subject to influence from complex organic effluents or with variable substrate characteristics, community structural responses were less readily predictable. In these cases, particularly in rivers with low hardness, recommended criteria had limited utility for predictions of biological community health. Use of seasonal sampling to establish critical flow periods and the value of supplemental on-site toxicity bioassays using resident taxa and effluent waters are also discussed. 55 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  6. Automatic rapid attachable warhead section

    DOEpatents

    Trennel, A.J.

    1994-05-10

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for automatically selecting warheads or reentry vehicles from a storage area containing a plurality of types of warheads or reentry vehicles, automatically selecting weapon carriers from a storage area containing at least one type of weapon carrier, manipulating and aligning the selected warheads or reentry vehicles and weapon carriers, and automatically coupling the warheads or reentry vehicles with the weapon carriers such that coupling of improperly selected warheads or reentry vehicles with weapon carriers is inhibited. Such inhibition enhances safety of operations and is achieved by a number of means including computer control of the process of selection and coupling and use of connectorless interfaces capable of assuring that improperly selected items will be rejected or rendered inoperable prior to coupling. Also disclosed are a method and apparatus wherein the stated principles pertaining to selection, coupling and inhibition are extended to apply to any item-to-be-carried and any carrying assembly. 10 figures.

  7. TRAC-PF1 choked-flow model

    SciTech Connect

    Sahota, M.S.; Lime, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The two-phase, two-component choked-flow model implemented in the latest version of the Transient Reactor analysis Code (TRAC-PF1) was developed from first principles using the characteristic analysis approach. The subcooled choked-flow model in TRAC-PF1 is a modified form of the Burnell model. This paper discusses these choked-flow models and their implementation in TRAC-PF1. comparisons using the TRAC-PF1 choked-flow models are made with the Burnell model for subcooled flow and with the homogeneous-equilibrium model (HEM) for two-phae flow. These comparisons agree well under homogeneous conditions. Generally good agreements have been obtained between the TRAC-PF1 results from models using the choking criteria and those using a fine mesh (natural choking). Code-data comparisons between the separate-effects tests of the Marviken facility and the Edwards' blowdown experiment also are favorable. 10 figures.

  8. Review of proposed EPA ambient lead criteria standard document. Final report. Task assignment No. 10

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-04

    The proposed October 1983 EPA ambient lead criteria document, Air Quality Criteria for Lead is reviewed from the perspective of DOE's policies and programs and addresses potential impacts on energy production and energy-intensive industries. Following an introduction, the study is organized in five subsequent sections. Section 2.0 addresses environmental and health effects of exposure to lead. Section 3.0 reviews sources of lead emissions. Section 4.0 presents information on lead concentrations in ambient air. Section 5.0 examines dose-effect relationships among lead emissions, ambient air concentrations and blood lead levels. Section 6.0 presents Radian's evaluation of the regulatory implications of the criteria document and the information it provides. 10 figures, 11 tables.

  9. Laser Surveillance System for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M. S.; Bieber, Jr., A. M.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures.

  10. MAP3S precipitation chemistry network: seventh periodic summary report, 1983. [MAP3S Network

    SciTech Connect

    Rothert, J.E.; Dana, M.T.

    1984-11-01

    This summary report, the seventh in the series, contains complete field and chemical data from the MAP3S Precipitation Chemistry Network for the year 1983. Sections cover QA/QC of the MAP3S/PCN; network history, network site information and a MAP3S/PCN bibliography; and a brief statistical look at the laboratory operations for 1983. There is also a brief statistical summary for 1982 to 1983. Included under the Quality Control section are the QA audits for site performance, laboratory comparisons, field blank and pH test results, and sample shipping and analysis results. Included is a listing of cooperating organizations and personnel for the MAP3S/PCN. 10 references, 10 figures, 32 tables.

  11. Effects of CO/sub 2/ on total phenolics, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, and polyphenol oxidase in lettuce tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Siriphanich, J.; Kader, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    An atmosphere of air + 15% CO/sub 2/ caused CO/sub 2/ injury in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in about 10 days at 0/sup 0/C. However, subsequent removal of CO/sub 2/ was necessary for the brown stain symptoms to develop. Under CO/sub 2/ treatment, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) was induced and its activity correlated well with the development of the injury. Nevertheless, PAL activity did not seem responsible for the differences in susceptibility to CO/sub 2/ injury among the 3 lettuce cultivars included in this study. Prevention of the development of brown stain symptoms by CO/sub 2/ probably was due to its inhibition of phenolics production and the inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity. 27 references, 10 figures.

  12. Composition of heavy ends of a Russian petroleum

    SciTech Connect

    Boduszynski, M.M.; McKay, J.F.; Latham, D.R.

    1981-09-01

    The compound-type composition of the > 675/sup 0/C residue of the Russian crude oil is compared with those of > 675/sup 0/C residua of crude oils previously investigated. The results indicate that the residue represents 11.8% of the total crude oil. The residue comprises compounds of mol wt of 350 to 1811, corresponding to 30 to 130 carbom atoms in a molecule. The smaller molecules must contain polar heteroatom functional groups; otherwise they would distill in lower boiling fractions. These compounds were classified by ir spectrometry, mass spectroscopy, vapor-pressure osmometry, and elemental analysis. Polar compound types identified include amides, pyrroles, pyridine derivatives, phenols and carboxylic acids, accounting for 2/3 of the total residue. The amounts of acids in the > 675/sup 0/C residua of the Russian, Gach Saran and Wilmington crude oils represent 17.5% but their compound type compositions are unique. High amide content and trace amounts of carboxylic acids are the major components of the Russian residue which make it different from the Gach Saran and Wilmington crudes. 11 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Impurity diffusion in transition-metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, N.L.

    1982-06-01

    Intrinsic tracer impurity diffusion measurements in ceramic oxides have been primarily confined to CoO, NiO, and Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/. Tracer impurity diffusion in these materials and TiO/sub 2/, together with measurements of the effect of impurities on tracer diffusion (Co in NiO and Cr in CoO), are reviewed and discussed in terms of impurity-defect interactions and mechanisms of diffusion. Divalent impurities in divalent solvents seem to have a weak interaction with vacancies whereas trivalent impurities in divalent solvents strongly influence the vacancy concentrations and significantly reduce solvent jump frequencies near a trivalent impurity. Impurities with small ionic radii diffuse more slowly with a larger activation energy than impurities with larger ionic radii for all systems considered in this review. Cobalt ions (a moderate size impurity) diffuse rapidly along the open channels parallel to the c-axis in TiO/sub 2/ whereas chromium ions (a smaller-sized impurity) do not. 60 references, 11 figures.

  14. Irradiation applications in vegetables and fruits: a review.

    PubMed

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Stratakos, Alexandros Ch; Tsarouhas, Panagiotis

    2009-05-01

    There is an increasing trend both in advanced countries and many developing countries to centrally process fresh fruits and vegetables, properly packaged, for distribution and marketing. Irradiation technology proved to be effective in reducing post-harvest losses, and controlling the stored product insects and the microorganisms. Gamma irradiation was employed to restrain potato sprouting and kill pests in grain. Irradiation proved to be extremely beneficial in terms of prolonging the fruit and vegetable shelf life by 3-5 times. In order not to expose fruits and vegetables to high irradiation doses another approach is to use the "hurdle technology," that is to apply more than one technology toward better quality and longer shelf life. This review summarizes a) all the obtained results in this field (either irradiation on its own or in conjunction with other technologies) on fruits and vegetables in 11 figures and eight (8) very comprehensive tables, and b) provides an insight in the various methods (EPR, TL, Comet assay among others) for detection of irradiated foods. PMID:19399670

  15. Generation of low-divergence laser beams

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-09-14

    Apparatus for transforming a conventional beam of coherent light, having a Gaussian energy distribution and relatively high divergence, into a beam in which the energy distribution approximates a single, non-zero-order Bessel function and which therefore has much lower divergence. The apparatus comprises a zone plate having transmitting and reflecting zones defined by the pattern of light interference produced by the combination of a beam of coherent light with a Gaussian energy distribution and one having such a Bessel distribution. The interference pattern between the two beams is a concentric array of multiple annuli, and is preferably recorded as a hologram. The hologram is then used to form the transmitting and reflecting zones by photo-etching portions of a reflecting layer deposited on a plate made of a transmitting material. A Bessel beam, containing approximately 50% of the energy of the incident beam, is produced by passing a Gaussian beam through such a Bessel zone plate. The reflected beam, also containing approximately 50% of the incident beam energy and having a Bessel energy distribution, can be redirected in the same direction and parallel to the transmitted beam. Alternatively, a filter similar to the Bessel zone plate can be placed within the resonator cavity of a conventional laser system having a front mirror and a rear mirror, preferably axially aligned with the mirrors and just inside the front mirror to generate Bessel energy distribution light beams at the laser source. 11 figures.

  16. Some important issues in developing basic radiation protection recommendations: dosimetric aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, R.H.

    1984-03-01

    Some aspects of the difficulties encountered in the dose equivalent system used in radiation protection are explored and recent work to improve these deficiencies described. The philosophical advantages of a departure from the dose equivalent-based system and its replacement by a risk-based system are briefly discussed. The definition of dose equivalent and the debate concerning its physical dimensions and units are described. Dose equivalent is related to other physiological quantities in physics and the treatment of these quantities in the International System of Units compared. Practical problems in the determination of dose equivalent are illustrated using neutrons as an example. The proliferation of operational quantities for the evaluation of neutron dose equivalent and the concomitant potential for confusion when determinations of neutron dose equivalent are intercompared is described. The evaluation of fluence to dose equivalent conversion coefficients and methods of interpolation between recommended values are described. Particular emphasis is given to the accuracy and precision of dose equivalent estimation. Recent work of a Task Group of the ICRP to improve recommended conversion coefficients and the work of an ICRU committee to improve the definition of operational dose equivalent quantities is summarized. 125 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

  17. Combustion-turbulence interaction in the turbulent boundary layer over a hot surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, T.T.; Cheng, R.K.; Robben, F.; Talbot, L.

    1982-01-01

    The turbulence-combustion interaction in a reacting turbulent boundary layer over a heated flat plate was studied. Ethylene/air mixture with equivalence ratio of 0.35 was used. The free stream velocity was 10.5 m/s and the wall temperature was 1250/sup 0/K. Combustion structures visualization was provided by high-speed schlieren photographs. Fluid density statistics were deduced from Rayleigh scattering intensity measurements. A single-component laser Doppler velocimetry system was used to obtain mean and root-mean-square velocity distributions, the Reynolds stress, the streamwise and the cross-stream turbulent kinetic energy diffusion, and the production of turbulent kinetic energy by Reynolds stress. The combustion process was dominated by large-scale turbulent structures of the boundary layer. Combustion causes expansion of the boundary layer. No overall self-similarity is observed in either the velocity or the density profiles. Velocity fluctuations were increased in part of the boundary layer and the Reynolds stress was reduced. The turbulent kinetic energy diffusion pattern was changed significantly and a modification of the boundary layer assumption will be needed when dealing with this problem analytically. 11 figures, 1 table.

  18. Buoyant plume calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, J.E.; Haselman, L.C.; Edwards, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Smoke from raging fires produced in the aftermath of a major nuclear exchange has been predicted to cause large decreases in surface temperatures. However, the extent of the decrease and even the sign of the temperature change, depend on how the smoke is distributed with altitude. We present a model capable of evaluating the initial distribution of lofted smoke above a massive fire. Calculations are shown for a two-dimensional slab version of the model and a full three-dimensional version. The model has been evaluated by simulating smoke heights for the Hamburg firestorm of 1943 and a smaller scale oil fire which occurred in Long Beach in 1958. Our plume heights for these fires are compared to those predicted by the classical Morton-Taylor-Turner theory for weakly buoyant plumes. We consider the effect of the added buoyancy caused by condensation of water-laden ground level air being carried to high altitude with the convection column as well as the effects of background wind on the calculated smoke plume heights for several fire intensities. We find that the rise height of the plume depends on the assumed background atmospheric conditions as well as the fire intensity. Little smoke is injected into the stratosphere unless the fire is unusually intense, or atmospheric conditions are more unstable than we have assumed. For intense fires significant amounts of water vapor are condensed raising the possibility of early scavenging of smoke particles by precipitation. 26 references, 11 figures.

  19. cDNA encoding a polypeptide including a hevein sequence

    DOEpatents

    Raikhel, N.V.; Broekaert, W.F.; Chua, N.H.; Kush, A.

    1995-03-21

    A cDNA clone (HEV1) encoding hevein was isolated via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using mixed oligonucleotides corresponding to two regions of hevein as primers and a Hevea brasiliensis latex cDNA library as a template. HEV1 is 1,018 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 204 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal sequence of 17 amino acid residues followed by a 187 amino acid polypeptide. The amino-terminal region (43 amino acids) is identical to hevein and shows homology to several chitin-binding proteins and to the amino-termini of wound-induced genes in potato and poplar. The carboxyl-terminal portion of the polypeptide (144 amino acids) is 74--79% homologous to the carboxyl-terminal region of wound-inducible genes of potato. Wounding, as well as application of the plant hormones abscisic acid and ethylene, resulted in accumulation of hevein transcripts in leaves, stems and latex, but not in roots, as shown by using the cDNA as a probe. A fusion protein was produced in E. coli from the protein of the present invention and maltose binding protein produced by the E. coli. 11 figures.

  20. Relative sea level changes during the Cretaceous in Israel

    SciTech Connect

    Flexer, A.; Rosenfeld, A.; Lipson-Benitah, S.; Honigstein, A.

    1986-11-01

    Detailed lithologic, microfaunal, and biometric investigations, using relative abundances, diversity indexes, and duration charts of ostracods and foraminifera, allowed the recognition of sea level changes during the Cretaceous of Israel. Three major transgressive-regressive sedimentation cycles occur on the northwest margins of the Arabian craton. These cycles are the Neocomian-Aptian, which is mostly terrigenous sediments; the Albian-Turonian, which is basin marls and platform carbonates; and the Senonian, which is uniform marly chalks. The cycles are separated by two major regional unconformities, the Aptian-Albian and Turonian-Coniacian boundaries. The sedimentary cycles are related to regional tectonic and volcanic events and eustatic changes. The paleodepth curve illustrates the gradual sea level rise, reaching its maximum during the Late Cretaceous, with conspicuous advances during the late Aptian, late Albian-Cenomanian, early Turonian, early Santonian, and early Campanian. Major lowstands occur at the Aptian-Albian, Cenomanian-Turonian, Turonian-Coniacian, and Campanian-Maastrichtian boundaries. This model for Israel agrees well with other regional and global sea level fluctuations. Four anoxic events (black shales) accompanying transgressions correspond to the Cretaceous oceanic record. They hypothesize the presence of mature oil shales in the present-day eastern Mediterranean basin close to allochthonous reef blocks detached from the Cretaceous platform. 11 figures.

  1. Radio-frequency powered glow discharge device and method with high voltage interface

    DOEpatents

    Duckworth, D.C.; Marcus, R.K.; Donohue, D.L.; Lewis, T.A.

    1994-06-28

    A high voltage accelerating potential, which is supplied by a high voltage direct current power supply, is applied to the electrically conducting interior wall of an RF powered glow discharge cell. The RF power supply desirably is electrically grounded, and the conductor carrying the RF power to the sample held by the probe is desirably shielded completely excepting only the conductor's terminal point of contact with the sample. The high voltage DC accelerating potential is not supplied to the sample. A high voltage capacitance is electrically connected in series between the sample on the one hand and the RF power supply and an impedance matching network on the other hand. The high voltage capacitance isolates the high DC voltage from the RF electronics, while the RF potential is passed across the high voltage capacitance to the plasma. An inductor protects at least the RF power supply, and desirably the impedance matching network as well, from a short that might occur across the high voltage capacitance. The discharge cell and the probe which holds the sample are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components, which are maintained at ground potential, from bridging between the relatively low vacuum region in communication with the glow discharge maintained within the cell on the one hand, and the relatively high vacuum region surrounding the probe and cell on the other hand. The probe and cell also are configured and disposed to prevent the probe's components from electrically shorting the cell's components. 11 figures.

  2. Flux of energy and essential elements through the Continental Shelf ecosystem. Progress report, June 1, 1983-May 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Pomeroy, L.R.

    1983-12-01

    The summer of 1981 was one of unusually intense intrusion of cold Gulf Stream subsurface water onto the southeastern continental shelf, not only off northern Florida, where summer intrusions are frequent, but off Georgia as well. Numbers of free bacteria were 10/sup 6//ml over most of the continental shelf throughout the period of observation. These high numbers, an order of magnitude above usual numbers for the outer shelf, were associated with both newly arrived intrusions and old, stranded intrusions. Our third study of the coastal water and coastal front (FRNFLX II) in April 1981 showed that microbial numbers and heterotrophic activity are quite uniformly and continuously high in the coastal water and in water on both sides of the coastal front. Heterotrophic uptake of glucose shows that microorganisms are not substrate limited but probably are limited by protozoan grazers. The populations appear to be in steady state at high rates of production. Numbers of bacteria attached to particles are high in the coastal water compared with the water of the outer shelf, even during periods of Gulf Stream intrusion. 21 references, 11 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Early Carboniferous (Visean) lacustrine oil shale in Canadian Arctic archipelago

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, G.R.; Nassichuk, W.W.

    1988-01-01

    The Lower Carboniferous (Visean) Emma Fiord Formation in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago is an oil shale of lacustrine origin composed of black carbonaceous shale, siltstone, and marlstone with interbedded sandstone, conglomerate, and oolitic and algal limestones. At Kleybolte Peninsula on Ellesmere Island, the Emma Fiord Formation was deposited on the tectonically active northwestern rim of the Sverdrup basin; it is now thermally overmature and well beyond the dry gas zone of organic maturation (vitrinite reflectance approx. = 5.0). In contrast, the Emma Fiord sequence on Grinnell Peninsula, Devon Island, near the southern edge of the Sverdrup basin, is immature to marginally mature (vitrinite reflectance = 0.26-0.44) and is composed predominantly of liptinite-rich oil shale. These kerogen-rich rocks contain a high volume of microcrystalline calcite and compositionally are marlstones. The Emma Fiord oil shales were deposited in lakes formed immediately prior to or possibly synchronous with the initiation of rifting in the Sverdrup basin. Syntectonic red-bed conglomerates derived from uplifted horst blocks directly overlie the Emma Fiord rocks. A few beds of conglomerate and sandstone in the upper part of the Emma Fiord Formation possibly record the onset of faulting. The formation closely resembles contemporaneous sequences in northern Alaska, Yukon Territory, Greenland, and Spitsbergen. Clearly, similar tectonic and paleoclimatic factors influenced sedimentation over this area in the Early Carboniferous, with the Sverdrup basin locations lying within 10/sup 0/-15/sup 0/ of the paleoequator. 11 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Unayzah Formation: a new Permian-Carboniferous unit in Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The sandstones, shales, and thin beds of argillaceous limestone previously included as the basal part of the Permian Khuff Formation were described as the Unayzah Formation by al-Laboun in 1982 and 1986. The type locality (stratotype.) of this formation is in the town of Unayzah, and a reference section was established in the Qusayba area, al-Qasim district, Saudi Arabia. Fossil flora collected from outcrops and palynomorphs obtained from boreholes support a Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age for these strata. The Unayzah Formation is conformably overlain by the massive carbonates of the Khuff Formation, whereas its basal contact is marked by a regional angular unconformity with various older units. The Unayzah Formation is widespread in the Greater Arabian basin. The formation represents cyclic transgressive and regressive deposits preceding the Permian regional marine transgression, during which the massive carbonates of the Khuff Formation were deposited. This Permian transgression marked a major change in the Sedimentation and evolution of the Greater Arabian basin. The porous sandstones of the Unayzah Formation are important exploration targets because several fields in the eastern and southeastern parts of the Greater Arabian basin produce hydrocarbons from the Unayzah. 11 figures, 1 table.

  5. Morphology of supposed cellulose-synthesizing structures in higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Willison, J.H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The structure, frequency of occurrence, and distribution of structures, revealed by freeze fracturing plasma membranes and claimed to be associated with cellulose microfibril biosynthesis/bioassembly, is presented. P. fracture face ''rosettes'' are shown to consist of six equivalent particles. It is argued that rosettes are not involved with microfibril biosynthesis and assembly because they are absent from isolated protoplasts known to be assembling microfibrils; their frequency is 2.5 to 6 times lower than that of ''terminal globules'' in root tissues and cotton fibres; and they are not microfibril terminal. It is reasoned that E fracture face terminal globules constitute evidence of microfibril tip growth (an involvement of the globules with microfibril biosynthesis/bioassembly is a valid hypothesis) in view of their attachment to microfibril tips. Since terminal globules appear to vary in the intimacy of their association with the plasma membrane, it is argued that an integral association between the terminal globule and the plasma membrane may be inessential for microfibril bioassembly. Not all microfibril tips have terminal globules, and it is speculated that different types of microfibrils may have different types of terminal synthetic structures. 40 references, 11 figures, 1 table.

  6. Robotic vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Box, W.D.

    1994-03-15

    A robotic vehicle is described for travel through an enclosed or partially enclosed conduit or pipe including vertical and/or horizontal conduit or pipe. The robotic vehicle comprises forward and rear housings each provided with a surface engaging mechanism for selectively engaging the walls of the conduit through which the vehicle is travelling, whereby the housings are selectively held in a stationary position within the conduit. The vehicle also includes at least three selectively extendable members, each of which defines a cavity therein. The forward end portion of each extendable member is secured to the forward housing and the rear end portion of each housing is secured to the rear housing. Each of the extendable members is independently extendable from a retracted position to an extended position upon the injection of a gas under pressure into the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively increased. Further, each of the extendable members is independently retractable from the extended position to the retracted position upon the application of a vacuum to the cavity of the extendable member such that the distance between the forward housing and the rear housing can be selectively decreased. 11 figures.

  7. Effects of copolymer composition on the formation of ionic species, hydrogen evolution, and free-radical reaction in el-irradiated styrene-butadiene random and block copolymers

    SciTech Connect

    Basheer, R.; Dole, M.

    1984-01-01

    Block and random copolymers of butadiene and styrene as well as polybutadiene and polystyrene homopolymers have been investigated with respect to formation of trapped electrons, contribution of ionic species to crosslinking, and hydrogen gas evolution due to el radiation. The decay kinetics of the disubstituted benzyl radical has also been studied. The yields of electron trapping G(e ) are measured. The G(e ) increase linearly with increased polystyrene content in block polymers, while in random copolymer a deviation from a linear relation is observed. The contribution of ionic reactions to crosslinking is about 25-35% of the total crosslinking yield. Hydrogen production in block copolymers is approximately a linear function of the weight-fraction additivity of the yield of hydrogen formation in polystrene and polybutadiene homopolymers. Energy transfer from butadiene units to styrene units in random copolymers resulted in a deviation from such an additivity relation. The decay of the disubstituted benzyl free radical in block copolymers is a second-order reaction. In random copolymer, the decay is best interpreted in terms of equation based on a second-order decay mechanism of a fraction of the free radicals decaying in the presence of other nondecaying free radicals. 24 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Apparatus and method for laser beam diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Salmon, J.T. Jr.

    1991-08-27

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for accurate, real time monitoring of the wavefront curvature of a coherent laser beam. Knowing the curvature, it can be quickly determined whether the laser beam is collimated, or focusing (converging), or de-focusing (diverging). The apparatus includes a lateral interferometer for forming an interference pattern of the laser beam to be diagnosed. The interference pattern is imaged to a spatial light modulator (SLM), whose output is a coherent laser beam having an image of the interference pattern impressed on it. The SLM output is focused to obtain the far-field diffraction pattern. A video camera, such as CCD, monitors the far-field diffraction pattern, and provides an electrical output indicative of the shape of the far-field pattern. Specifically, the far-field pattern comprises a central lobe and side lobes, whose relative positions are indicative of the radius of curvature of the beam. The video camera's electrical output may be provided to a computer which analyzes the data to determine the wavefront curvature of the laser beam. 11 figures.

  9. Lacustrine-humate model for primary uranium ore deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Turner-Peterson, C.E.

    1985-11-01

    Two generations of uranium ore, primary and redistributed, occur in fluvial sandstones of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation in the San Juan basin; the two stages of ore formation can be related to the hydrologic history of the basin. Primary ore formed soon after Morrison deposition, in the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, and a model, the lacustrine-humate model, is offered that views primary mineralization as a diagenetic event related to early pore fluid evolution. The basic premise is that the humate, a pore-filling organic material closely associated with primary ore, originated as humic acids dissolved in pore waters of greenish-gray lacustrine mudstones deposited in the mud-flat facies of the Brushy Basin Member and similar K shale beds in the Westwater Canyon Member. During compaction associated with early burial, formation water expelled from lacustrine mudstone units carried these humic acids into adjacent sandstone beds where the organics precipitated, forming the humate deposits that concentrated uranium. During the Tertiary, much later in the hydrologic history of the basin, when Jurassic sediments were largely compacted, oxygenated ground water flowed basinward from uplifted basin margins. This invasion of Morrison sandstone beds by oxidizing ground waters redistributed uranium from primary ores along redox boundaries, forming ore deposits that resemble roll-front-type uranium ores. 11 figures.

  10. Evaluation of inorganic sorbent treatment for LWR coolant process streams

    SciTech Connect

    Roddy, J.W.

    1984-03-01

    This report presents results of a survey of the literature and of experience at selected nuclear installations to provide information on the feasibility of replacing organic ion exchangers with inorganic sorbents at light-water-cooled nuclear power plants. Radioactive contents of the various streams in boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors were examined. In addition, the methods and performances of current methods used for controlling water quality at these plants were evaluated. The study also includes a brief review of the physical and chemical properties of selected inorganic sorbents. Some attributes of inorganic sorbents would be useful in processing light water reactor (LWR) streams. The inorganic resins are highly resistant to damage from ionizing radiation, and their exchange capacities are generally equivalent to those of organic ion exchangers. However, they are more limited in application, and there are problems with physical integrity, especially in acidic solutions. Research is also needed in the areas of selectivity and anion removal before inorganic sorbents can be considered as replacements for the synthetic organic resins presently used in LWRs. 11 figures, 14 tables.

  11. Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  12. Soil sampling kit and a method of sampling therewith

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, C.V.

    1991-02-05

    A soil sampling device and a sample containment device for containing a soil sample is disclosed. In addition, a method for taking a soil sample using the soil sampling device and soil sample containment device to minimize the loss of any volatile organic compounds contained in the soil sample prior to analysis is disclosed. The soil sampling device comprises two close fitting, longitudinal tubular members of suitable length, the inner tube having the outward end closed. With the inner closed tube withdrawn a selected distance, the outer tube can be inserted into the ground or other similar soft material to withdraw a sample of material for examination. The inner closed end tube controls the volume of the sample taken and also serves to eject the sample. The soil sample containment device has a sealing member which is adapted to attach to an analytical apparatus which analyzes the volatile organic compounds contained in the sample. The soil sampling device in combination with the soil sample containment device allows an operator to obtain a soil sample containing volatile organic compounds and minimizing the loss of the volatile organic compounds prior to analysis of the soil sample for the volatile organic compounds. 11 figures.

  13. Money to burn. The high costs of energy subsidies

    SciTech Connect

    Kosmo, M.

    1987-01-01

    Although many countries have reduced petroleum subsidies substantially since 1981 or so, such subsidies still persist, especially in the oil-exporting countries. Moreover, subsidies to electricity, natural gas, and coal are even more pervasive. As for both microeconomic and macroeconomic effects, Kosmo shows that the putative benefits of subsidies - economic stimulation, enhanced trade performance, and inflation control - aren't the true effects. Indeed, subsidies tend to increase unemployment (as energy is substituted for labor) and encourage over-investment in energy-intensive industries at the expense of other sectors. At the same time, they have little impact on overall trade balances, inflation, or the lot of the poor. Energy subsidies also translate into foregone revenues and the inefficient use of energy. Of course, the ill effects of energy subsidies cannot be rooted out overnight without traumatizing a nation's economy, even if politics permitted. But Money to Burn. does point the way to a politically and economically acceptable transition to the next energy era, one based on sharp increases in energy efficiency in rich and poor countries alike. Chapters are devoted to the following: Energy Pricing Policy: Hwat is at Stake; Current Fuel-Pricing Trends; Macroeconomic Effects of Energy Subsidies; and Microeconomic Effects of Energy Subsidies. 83 references, 11 figure, 14 tables.

  14. New methods for detection of low levels of DNA damage in human populations.

    PubMed Central

    Haseltine, W A; Franklin, W; Lippke, J A

    1983-01-01

    The use of a postlabeling method to characterize and to detect infrequent base modifications in DNA is outlined. This method has the advantage that low levels of DNA modifications, approximately 1 modified base per 10(5) nucleotides, can be detected. Moreover, a broad spectrum of modification can be identified by using this methodology. The basis for the method involves transfer of a radioactive phosphate from the gamma position of ATP to the 5'-hydroxyl terminus of 3'-phosphoryl nucleotides that are derived from modified DNA by appropriate nuclease digestion. The second method involves use of a defined DNA sequence within human cells. The alpha sequence is used as a probe for DNA damage to specific nucleotides. The alpha DNA sequence is reiterated approximately 300,000 times in the human genome and exists in tandem arrays. It comprises approximately 1% of the entire genome. The reiterated sequence is sufficiently homogeneous to permit its use as a probe for a site specific in DNA damage. Examples of the application of both of these methodologies to DNA damage inflicted in human cells by chemicals and ultraviolet light are provided. Images FIGURE 9. FIGURE 11. FIGURE 12. PMID:6825632

  15. Wetland Biomass Production: emergent aquatic management options and evaluations. A final subcontract report. [Includes a bibliography containing 686 references on Typha from biological abstracts

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, D.C.; Dubbe, D.R.; Garver, E.G.; Linton, P.J.

    1984-07-01

    The high yield potential and attractive chemical composition of Typha make it a particularly viable energy crop. The Minnesota research effort has demonstrated that total annual biomass yields equivalent to 30 dry tonnes/ha (13 tons/acre) are possible in planted stands. This compares with yields of total plant material between 9 and 16 dry tonnes/ha (4 to 7 tons/acre) in a typical Minnesota corn field. At least 50% of the Typha plant is comprised of a belowground rhizome system containing 40% starch and sugar. This high level of easily fermentable carbohydrate makes rhizomes an attractive feedstock for alcohol production. The aboveground portion of the plant is largely cellulose, and although it is not easily fermentable, it can be gasified or burned. This report is organized in a manner that focuses on the evaluation of the management options task. Results from stand management research performed at the University of Minnesota during 1982 and 1983 are integrated with findings from an extensive survey of relevant emergent aquatic plant research and utilization. These results and findings are then arranged in sections dealing with key steps and issues that need to be dealt with in the development of a managed emergent aquatic bio-energy system. A brief section evaluating the current status of rhizome harvesting is also included along with an indexed bibliography of the biology, ecology, and utilization of Typha which was completed with support from this SERI subcontract. 686 references, 11 figures, 17 tables.

  16. GSI-LBL plastic ball/wall spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafsson, H.A.; Doss, K.G.R.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Kolb, B.; Ludewigt, B.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Renner, T.; Riedesel, H.; Ritter, H.G.; Warwick, A.

    1984-09-01

    For the high multiplicity events occurring in relativistics nuclear collisions an electronic 4..pi.. detector with particle identification has been built. It consists of 815 ..delta..E - E telescopes and 176 TOF telescopes covering 97% of 4..pi... Very good particle identification has been obtained for hydrogen and helium isotopes and also ..pi../sup +/ have been detected with high efficiency. This spectrometer was used at the Berkeley Bevalac to study the reactions Ca + Ca, Nb + Nb and Au + Au at energies between 0.15 and 1.05 GeV/nucleon. Various exclusive observables like the degree of thermalization, the multiplicity dependence of composite particle formation, and freeze-out densities are discussed. From global analyses the collective flow of nuclear matter has been deduced. A method of separating efficiently participant and spectator particles has been applied in order to disentangle the two collective effects: The side-splash of the participants and the bounce-off in the fragmentation region. 9 references, 11 figures.

  17. Radiometric ages of Tennessee rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Corgan, J.X.; Bradley, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    This report compiles and summarizes all known radiometric age determinations based on bedrock samples from Tennessee. Data are available for 89 sites. Specimens record both igneous and metamorphic events ranging in age from 1.3 billion to 220 million years before present. Tennessee rocks have been dated by techniques that measure the results of four different kinds of radioactive decay: thorium-lead, uranium-lead, potassium-argon, and rubidium-strontium. Most determinations meet normal scientific standards for reliability. This study focuses on clarifying published data by bringing together geochemical, geological, and geographical information for each site. In addition to data on the age of bedrock samples, this study presents basic information on the ages of meteorites from Tennessee and on the ages of sediments and organic remains from Ice Age fossil sites and more recent archeological sites. While bedrock ages are the thrust of the report, other kinds of absolute age determinations are briefly discussed. 98 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Cocytotoxicity/comutagenicity of arsenic in a Chinese hamster ovary triple auxotroph

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.T.; Stewart, S.A.; Hanna, M.L.

    1984-06-04

    Among four forms of As that are measurable in human tissues (arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate, and dimethylarsinate), non-cytotoxic concentrations of arsenite specifically enhance cell killing by various mutagenic agents in a Chinese hamster ovary auxotroph that requires glycine + adenosine + thymidine (CHO AUXB1). Arsenite is cocytotoxic at low concentrations of 2 to 12 ..mu..M. It is also the most growth rate inhibitory and cytotoxic of these As compounds, when each is incubated alone in AUXB1 cell cultures. None of these four As compounds are mutagenic per se, using an assay that we have developed to measure reversion to prototrophy at the FPGS gene locus. But arsenite (10 ..mu..M) specifically enhances induced reversion by the direct acting chemical mutagens cis-Pt(NH/sub 3/)/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/, methylglyoxal, and glycidal with which it is also cocytotoxic. Its comutagenicity with other agents is being tested. The foregoing experiments represent the first systematic comparison in mammalian cells of As growth inhibition, cytotoxicity, and mutagenicity versus its chemical form. Moreover, they provide the first evidence for the specific cocytotoxicity/comutagenicity of trivalent As in a mammalian cell line. Our findings support the suggestion that one role of As in its association with cancer could be to serve as a cocarcinogen. By functioning as a comutagen, perhaps through the inhibition of DNA repair, trivalent As may increase the initiation of tumor formation by enhancing the mutagenic activities of a large collection of primary environmental carcinogens. 55 references, 11 figures.

  19. Cooperative involvement and opportunities in oilseeds

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.R.; Reynolds, B.J.; Eversull, E.E.; Skinner, R.A.; Thurston, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    This report focuses on the opportunities for US cooperatives to improve their position in the oilseeds complex as they face increasing vertical integration and restructuring by large, competing noncooperative firms. Cooperatives operated 38 oilseed processing plants, 19 of them soybean plants, 17 cottonseed plants, 1 peanut plant, and 1 sunflower/flaxseed plant. Total cooperative soybean crushing capacity was 280 million bushels in 1979-1980, representing a 20.7% share of US crushing capacity and an 8.2% share of world crushing capacity. Cooperative soybean crushing capacity increased by 75% during the 1970's. The four largest soybean processing firms in terms of crushing capacity operated 54.5% of total US capacity. The top eight firms operated 75.1%, and the top 20 firms operated 96.4%. Eight of the top 20 soybean processing firms are cooperatives. Cooperatives operated 17 of the 78 cottonseed mills active in 1979. These mills had a total capacity of 6690 tons per day for a 35% share of total US cottonseed crushing capacity. 28 references, 11 figures, 44 tables.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: mm continuum and line images of G0.253+0.016 (Johnston+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, K. G.; Beuther, H.; Linz, H.; Schmiedeke, A.; Ragan, S. E.; Henning, T.

    2014-06-01

    Observations of G0.253+0.016 were conducted on 9 June 2012 with the SMA in its compact array configuration. The two 4GHz sidebands were placed at 218.9 and 230.9GHz (1.37 and 1.30mm). Observations were also carried out on 16 and 22 October 2012 using the Eight MIxer Receiver (EMIR) installed on the IRAM 30m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain. We also made use of archival data from the Herschel satellite. FITS images corresponding to Figs. 2, 4, 10 and 11. Figure 2 presents 1.37 and 1.3mm continuum images taken with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). Fig. 4 contains an SMA 1.3mm continuum image combined with a model of the larger-scale 1.3mm continuum emission derived from an 450micron continuum image taken by the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA). Figure 10 displays integrated maps derived from: a combined SMA and IRAM 30m 13CO image cube, and SMA C18O, CH3OH 4(2,2) - 3(1,2)-E, SiO, HNCO and H2CO 3(0,3) - 2(0,2) image cubes. Figure 11 displays the channel maps of the combined SMA and IRAM 30m 13CO image cube mentioned above. Further details of the observations which produced these images are given in Section 2 of the paper. (2 data files).

  1. Microanalysis of fixed-interval responding

    SciTech Connect

    Gentry, G.D.; Weiss, B.; Laties, V.G.

    1983-03-01

    The fixed-interval schedule of reinforcement is one of the more widely studied schedules in the experimental analysis of behavior and is also a common baseline for behavior pharmacology. Despite many intensive studies, the controlling variables and the pattern of behavior engendered are not well understood. The present study examined the microstructure and superstructure of the behavior engendered by a fixed-interval 5- and a fixed-interval 15-minute schedule of food reinforcement in the pigeon. Analysis of performance typical of fixed-interval responding indicated that the scalloped pattern does not result from smooth acceleration in responding, but, rather, from renewed pausing early in the interval. Individual interresponse-time (IRT) analyses provided no evidence of acceleration. There was a strong indication of alternation is shorter-longer IRTs, but these shorter-longer IRTs did not occur at random, reflecting instead a sequential dependency in successive IRTs. Furthermore, early in the interval there was a high relative frequency of short IRTs. Such a pattern of early pauses and short IRTs does not suggest behavior typical of reinforced responding as exemplified by the pattern found near the end of the interval. Thus, behavior from clearly scalloped performance can be classified into three states: postreinforcement pause, interim behavior, and terminal behavior. 31 references, 11 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Nuclear criticality safety analysis of a spent fuel waste package in a tuff repository

    SciTech Connect

    Weren, B.H.; Capo, M.A.; O`Neal, W.C.

    1983-12-01

    An assessment has been performed of the criticality potential associated with the disposal of spent fuel in a tuff geology above the water table. Eleven potential configurations were defined which cover a vast range of geometries and conditions from the nominal configuration at emplacement to a hypothetical configuration thousands of years after emplacement in which the structure is gone, the fuel pellets disintegrated and the borehole flooded. Of these eleven configurations, four have been evaluated at this time. The results of this evaluation indicate that even with very conservative assumptions (4.5 w/o fresh fuel), criticality is not a problem for the nominal configuration either dry or fully flooded. In the cases where the condition of the waste package is assumed to have severely deteriorated, over long times, calculations were performed with less conservative assumptions (depleted fuel). An assessment of these calculations indicates that criticality safety could be demonstrated if the depletion of the fissile inventory during fuel irradiation is taken into account. A detailed discussion of the calculations performed is presented in this report. Also included are a description of the configurations which were considered, the analytical methods and models used, and a discussion of additional related work which should be performed. 15 references, 11 figures, 8 tables.

  3. Exploring for subtle traps with high-resolution paleogeographic maps: Reklaw 1 interval (Eocene), south Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bulling, T.P.; Breyer, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution paleogeographic maps depicting the depositional history of the Reklaw 1 interval provide a basis for prospecting for subtle traps in the updip Reklaw trend in south Texas. The Reklaw 1 interval began with sand being carried southwestward by longshore currents to form the barrier bar that became Atkinson field. The hydrocarbons were trapped by the updip pinch-out of barrier-bar sand into lagoonal mud. Stratigraphic traps similar to Atkinson field could be present along depositional strike if the sand in the field were part of an extensive barrier-bar system. After the barrier bar formed, distributary mouth bars prograded seaward, depositing the bar-finger sands that became the Hysaw and Flax fields. Subtle structural traps could be present today where small up-to-the-coast faults associated with the sample fault system cut the bar-finger sands downdip from established production. Farther down paleoslope, the distributary channels began to bifurcate and the distributary mouth bars coalesced to form a broad delta-front sheet sand. Burnell, Hondo Creek, and Runge West fields produce from this sheet sand at the unstable shelf margin. A rapid rise in relative sea level terminated the Reklaw 1 interval. Many of the oil and gas fields still to be discovered in the US are in mature petroleum provinces where much of the remaining oil and gas probably resides in subtle traps. High-resolution paleogeographic maps are the key to finding these subtle traps. 11 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Performance of BGO in a high radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Bobbink, G.J.; Engler, A.; Kraemer, R.W.; Nash, J.; Sutton, R.B.; Gearhart, R.A.; Linde, F.L.; Sens, J.C.

    1984-05-01

    Bismuth Germanate (Bi/sub 4/Ge/sub 3/O/sub 12/), an inert, high Z, and non-hygroscopic material, with a short radiation length L/sub RAD/ = 1.1 cm, has been proposed as the scintillator in a 4..pi.. electromagnetic calorimeter at LEP. Recently long BGO crystals have become available and studies of the effect of radiation have been made by several groups. We report here on the decrease of the light output of long BGO crystals due to irradiation by /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays and 25 MeV electrons with doses from 50 to 5000 rad and on the performance of a 4 x 4 matrix of BGO crystals located at small angles (5 to 9 mrad, a high radiation environment) at the e/sup +/e/sup -/ storage ring PEP at SLAC. All crystals used are 2 x 2 x 23 or 2 x 2 x 24 cm/sup 3/, have all six faces polished, and are wrapped in white teflon tape. 9 references, 11 figures.

  5. Results of the groundwater monitoring program performed at the former St. Louis Airport Storage Site for the period of January 1981 through January 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.; Berven, B.A.

    1984-03-01

    Results of a two-year groundwater monitoring program performed at the former St. Louis Airport Storage Site in January 1981 though January 1983 are presented. Data indicate that radionuclides stored onsite are leaching into the groundwater; however, the radionuclide concentrations are well below the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for effluents to unrestricted areas. The only radionuclide detected in measurable amounts in the groundwater at these wells was /sup 238/U. One well averaged approximately 1860 pCi/L of /sup 238/U during the two-year period. The maximum concentration of /sup 238/U observed at this well was 2230 pCi/L. This well water sample exceeded the maximum background /sup 238/U concentration (45 pCi/L) measured in groundwater throughout the state of Missouri by a factor of 50. Based on the results of the /sup 238/U concentration measured (in well water) at the former St. Louis Airport Storage Site, leaching of radionuclides is occurring, resulting in concentrations of /sup 238/U in the groundwater above background levels. However, the concentration of the radionuclides analyzed did not exceed the MPC for effluents as given in Appendix B, Table II, Column 2 of 10 CRF 20. Although there appears to be some movement of the groundwater into Coldwater Creek, adjacent to the site, due to dilution of the creek water, the concentrations of radionuclides in Coldwater Creek are expected to be substantially below MPC. 7 references, 11 figures, 5 tables.

  6. Estimating exploration potential in mature producing area, northwest shelf of Delaware Basin, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.

    1985-11-01

    The case history presented here describes an investigation of the Northwest shelf of the Delaware basin carried out in 1979 for estimating the potential of finding new reserves and a follow-up study to measure predictions against results. A total of 191 new-field wildcats had been drilled during 1974-1979 in the study area. An analysis of target zones and success ratios showed that the best chances of drilling a successful test were in the San Andres (Permian) and Silurian-Devonian. However, cumulative frequency plots of existing fields in these two intervals showed that the chance of finding a field larger than 1 million bbl (159,000 m/sup 3/) in either of these zones was relatively low. As a result of the 1979 analysis, three prospective areas representing 8% of the total study area were high graded, or rated as having a higher potential than other parts of the study area. The 1980-1983 drilling results show that the original high-graded areas contain 52% of the 21 successful San Andres tests and the only discovery in the Silurian-Devonian. However, as predicted by the analysis, all of these discoveries appear to be small. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Geophysical studies of large blind thrust, Valley and Ridge province, central Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, T.H.

    1989-03-01

    Possible thrust-sheet geometries in the unexposed Cambrian-Ordovician lithotectonic unit in the Nittany anticlinorium of the Valley and Ridge province in West Virginia are defined through analysis of geophysical data. Calculated gravity for different subsurface interpretations is compared with observed gravity. Comparisons of model calculations to terrain-corrected Bouguer gravity indicate that a large blind thrust of the Cambrian-Ordovician lithotectonic unit, extending across the entire width of the anticlinorium, is an acceptable subsurface interpretation. A seismic line across the anticlinorium is also presented. The seismic line reveals that a large part of the area is underlain by a double thickness of the Cambrian-Ordovician lithotectonic unit. Data can be interpreted many ways. However, the gravity data require that an acceptable model have only minor lateral density contrasts across the anticlinorium so that effectively, a double thickness of the Cambrian Ordovician lithotectonic unit exists across it. Both the gravity and seismic data indicate that the presence of separate horses beneath the major Silurian-Devonian structures exposed at the surface is unlikely. 12 figures.

  8. Research, development and demonstration of lead-acid batteries for electric vehicle propulsion. Annual report, 1979. [165 Ah, 36. 5 Wh/kg

    SciTech Connect

    Bodamer, G.W.; Branca, G.C.; Cash, H.R.; Chrastina, J.R.; Yurick, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Progress during the 1979 fiscal year is reported. All the tooling and capital equipment required for the pilot line production has been installed. A limited amount of plate production has been realized. A highly automated and versatile testing facility was established. The fabrication and testing of the initial calculated design is discussed. Cell component adjustments and the trade-offs associated with those changes are presented. Cells are being evaluated at the 3-hour rate. They have a capacity of 165 Ah and an energy density of 36.5 Wh/kg, and have completed 105 cycles to date. Experimental results being pursued under the advanced battery development program to enhance energy density and cycle life are presented. Data on the effects of different electrolyte specific gravity, separators, retainers, paste densities, battery additives and grid alloy composition on battery performance are presented and evaluated. Advanced battery prototype cells are under construction. Quality Assurance activities are summarized. They include monitoring the cell and battery fabrication and testing operations as well as all relevant documentation procedures. 12 figures, 28 tables.

  9. Open apex shaped charge-type explosive device having special disc means with slide surface thereon to influence movement of open apex shaped charge liner during collapse of same during detonation

    DOEpatents

    Murphy, M.J.

    1993-10-12

    An open apex shape charge explosive device is disclosed having an inner liner defining a truncated cone, an explosive charge surrounding the truncated inner liner, a primer charge, and a disc located between the inner liner and the primer charge for directing the detonation of the primer charge around the end edge of the disc means to the explosive materials surrounding the inner liner. The disc comprises a material having one or more of: a higher compressive strength, a higher hardness, and/or a higher density than the material comprising the inner liner, thereby enabling the disc to resist deformation until the liner collapses. The disc has a slide surface thereon on which the end edge of the inner liner slides inwardly toward the vertical axis of the device during detonation of the main explosive surrounding the inner liner, to thereby facilitate the inward collapse of the inner liner. In a preferred embodiment, the geometry of the slide surface is adjusted to further control the collapse or [beta] angle of the inner liner. 12 figures.

  10. Biogeochemical mass balance approach to reservoir acidification by atmospheric deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Eshleman, K.N.

    1982-01-01

    The alkalinity balance of Bickford Reservoir and its forested watershed in central Massachusetts was investigated in an experimental field study. The mass balance of all major inorganic acids and bases in the reservoir and on the watershed was determined from six months of continuous surface water monitoring and periodic chemical analyses. The results confirm that Bickford Reservoir is poorly buffered with alkalinities between 0 and 25 ..mu..eq/liter (pH 5.4-6.4). Reservoir alkalinities and pH showed significant seasonal trends. Mass balance results demonstrated that groundwater inflow to the reservoir was less than 20% of the total hydrologic flux, but groundwater alkalinity more than neutralized the mineral acidity of direct precipitation. Nitric acid neutralization through phytoplankton uptake resulted in a small, but important, internal alkalinity production. The most important neutralizing process on the watershed was aluminosilicate weathering, but nitric acid consumption by the vegetation was nearly quantitative. Nitrogen transformations produced 150 eq/ha/yr of alkalinity, while mineral weathering generated 960 eq/ha/yr. The data further suggest that neutralization of sulfuric acid by sulfate reduction may be occuring on certain subwatersheds. 74 references, 12 figures, 15 tables.

  11. Climax Granite, Nevada Test Site, as a host for a rock mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high level nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Heuze, F.E.

    1981-02-01

    This document discusses the potential of the Climax pluton, at the Nevada Test Site, as the host for a granite mechanics test facility related to the geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The Climax granitic pluton has been the site of three nuclear weapons effects tests: Hard Hat, Tiny Tot, and Piledriver. Geologic exploration and mapping of the granite body were performed at the occasion of these tests. Currently, it is the site Spent Fuel Test (SFT-C) conducted in the vicinity of and at the same depth as that of the Piledriver drifts. Significant exploration, mapping, and rock mechanics work have been performed and continue at this Piledriver level - the 1400 (ft) level - in the context of SFT-C. Based on our technical discussions, and on the review of the significant geological and rock mechanics work already achieved in the Climax pluton, based also on the ongoing work and the existing access and support, it is concluded that the Climax site offers great opportunities for a rock mechanics test facility. It is not claimed, however, that Climax is the only possible site or the best possible site, since no case has been made for another granite test facility in the United States. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  12. AVLIS Production Plant work breakdown structure and Dictionary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-15

    The work breakdown structure has been prepared for the AVLIS Production Plant to define, organize, and identify the work efforts and is summarized in Fig. 1-1 for the top three project levels. The work breakdown structure itself is intended to be the primary organizational tool of the AVLIS Production Plant and is consistent with the overall AVLIS Program Work Breakdown Structure. It is designed to provide a framework for definition and accounting of all of the elements that are required for the eventual design, procurement, and construction of the AVLIS Production Plant. During the present phase of the AVLIS Project, the conceptual engineering phase, the work breakdown structure is intended to be the master structure and project organizer of documents, designs, and cost estimates. As the master project organizer, the key role of the work breakdown structure is to provide the mechanism for developing completeness in AVLIS cost estimates and design development of all hardware and systems. The work breakdown structure provides the framework for tracking, on a one-to-one basis, the component design criteria, systems requirements, design concepts, design drawings, performance projections, and conceptual cost estimates. It also serves as a vehicle for contract reporting. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  13. Pulmonary and thoracic macrophage subpopulations and clearance of particles from the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Lehnert, B E

    1992-01-01

    Pulmonary macrophages consist of several subpopulations that can be defined by their anatomical locations as well as by other criteria. In addition to the well-known alveolar macrophages that reside on the alveolar surface, pulmonary macrophages also occur in the conducting airways, in various pulmonary interstitial regions, and, in some mammalian species, in the lung's intravascular compartment. Other thoracic macrophages of relevance to pulmonary defense and some lung disease processes are the pleural macrophages resident in the pleural space and macrophages present in regional lymph nodes that receive lymphatic drainage from the lung. Of the above subpopulations of pulmonary and thoracic macrophages, the alveolar macrophages have received the most experimental attention in the context of the pulmonary clearance and retention of deposited particles. Accordingly, less information is currently available regarding the roles other pulmonary and thoracic populations of macrophages may play in the removal of particles from the lower respiratory tract and associated tissue compartments. This report provides an overview of the various subpopulations of pulmonary and thoracic macrophages, as defined by their anatomical locations. The known and postulated roles of macrophages in the pulmonary clearance and retention of particles are reviewed, with particular emphasis on macrophage-associated processes involved in the pulmonary clearance of relatively insoluble particles. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 5. FIGURE 8. FIGURE 12. FIGURE 14. FIGURE 15. FIGURE 16. FIGURE 17. FIGURE 18. FIGURE 19. A FIGURE 19. B FIGURE 21. FIGURE 22. PMID:1396454

  14. Movement and self-control in protein assemblies. Quasi-equivalence revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Caspar, D L

    1980-01-01

    Purposeful switching among different conformational states exerts self-control in the construction and action of protein assemblies. Quasi-equivalence, conceived to explain icosahedral virus structure, arises by differentiation of identical protein subunits into different conformations that conserve essential bonding specificity. Mechanical models designed to represent the energy distribution in the structure, rather than just the arrangement of matter, are used to explore flexibility and self-controlled movements in virus particles. Information about the assembly of bacterial flagella, actin, tobacco mosaic virus and the T4 bacteriophage tail structure show that assembly can be controlled by switching the subunits from an inactive, unsociable form to an active, associable form. Energy to drive this change is provided by the intersubunit bonding in the growing structure; this self-control of assembly by conformational switching is called "autostery", by homology with allostery. A mechanical model of the contractile T4 tail sheath has been constructed to demonstrate how self-controlled activation of a latent bonding potential can drive a purposeful movement. The gradient of quasi-equivalent conformations modelled in the contracting tail sheath has suggested a workable mechanism for self-determination of tail tube length. Concerted action by assemblies of identical proteins may often depend on individually differentiated movements. Images Figure 4 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6894706

  15. A method for volume determination of the orbit and its contents by high resolution axial tomography and quantitative digital image analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, W C

    1985-01-01

    The various congenital and acquired conditions which alter orbital volume are reviewed. Previous investigative work to determine orbital capacity is summarized. Since these studies were confined to postmortem evaluations, the need for a technique to measure orbital volume in the living state is presented. A method for volume determination of the orbit and its contents by high-resolution axial tomography and quantitative digital image analysis is reported. This procedure has proven to be accurate (the discrepancy between direct and computed measurements ranged from 0.2% to 4%) and reproducible (greater than 98%). The application of this method to representative clinical problems is presented and discussed. The establishment of a diagnostic system versatile enough to expand the usefulness of computerized axial tomography and polytomography should add a new dimension to ophthalmic investigation and treatment. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13 FIGURE 14 FIGURE 15 FIGURE 16 FIGURE 17 FIGURE 18 FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 A FIGURE 26 B FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:3938582

  16. Ecological studies of a regulated stream: Huntington River, Emery County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Winget, R.N.

    1984-04-30

    A 36.9 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 3/ reservoir constructed on Huntington River, Emery County, Utah, resulted in changes in physical habitat, water quality, temperature, and flow regime. The greatest changes in physical habitat resulted from: (1) sediment additions from dam and road construction plus erosion of reservoir basin during filling; and (2) changing stream flow from a spring high runoff regime to a moderated flow regime. Elimination of spring nutrient concentration peaks and overall reduction of total dissolved nutrient availability in the river plus moderate reductions in pH were the most apparent water quality changes below the reservoir. Water temperature changes were an increased diurnal and seasonal constancy, summer depression, and winter elevation, generally limited to a 10-12 km reach below the dam. Physical and chemical changes altered macroinvertebrate community structure, with changes greatest near the dam and progressively less as distance downstream increased. Below the dam: (1) more environmentally tolerant taxa increased their dominance; (2) relative numbers of smaller sized individuals increased in relation to larger individuals; and (3) filter feeding, collector/gatherers, and scapers gained an advantage over shredders. Macroinvertebrate taxa with small instar larvae present from late summer to early fall were negatively impacted by the unnaturally high July and August flows. The reservoir became a physical barrier to downstream larval drift and upcanyon and downcanyon immigration of adults, resulting in reduced numbers of several species above and below the reservoir. 50 references, 12 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Nicolas and Eel submarine fans, California continental borderland

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.; Gorsline, D.S.

    1987-04-01

    Nicolas and Eel Submarine Fans occur in the San Nicolas basin - an outer basin of the California continental borderland that has a low sedimentation rate. Nicolas Fan lies southeast of San Nicolas Island and the broad San Nicolas Bank. The upper fan is characterized by numerous channels. The midfan region may be divided into three distinct areas: a central midfan and two subfans. The central midfan deposition system is typical of Normark's suprafan. The subfans are essentially flat, sandy lobes. Eel Fan lies west of San Clemente Island and is fed by an erosional valley. Its midfan region may also be characterized as a flat, sandy lobe. Box-core data show that holocene turbidity currents have occurred on the central Nicolas Fan, whereas the subfans and Eel Fan are nearly inactive. The local tectonic regime influences these fans by determining slope trends, creating bathymetric obstacles, controlling canyon location, and triggering mass movements. Sea level changes affect sedimentation patterns of the fans by increasing the mean grain size and the amount of sediment delivered to the fan during lowstands. These changes may, in turn, affect the morphology of the fan. The characteristics of these fans represent variations of the generalized fan models described in the literature. 12 figures, 1 table.

  18. SRC-II slurry preheater technical uncertainties. Report for the technical data analysis program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-06-01

    This report reviews the performance, and draws conclusions therefrom, the coal slurry preheaters of the Ft. Lewis, Washington, Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Pilot Plant in the following areas: Coking, Erosion Corrosion, Heat transfer and pressure drop effects. Using prudent engineering judgement it postulates how such conclusions should affect the design and operability of large preheaters in future commercial scale plants. Also a recommendation is made for a small scale research and development effort that should result in a much firmer preheater design for any future facility. This report should be read in conjunction with the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Final Report, and volumes 1 and 2 of Slurry Preheater Design, SRC-II Process and also Ft. Lewis Slurry Preheater Data Analysis, 1-1/2 Inch Coil by Gulf Science and Technology Company of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Pittsburg and Midway Coal Mining Co.'s background is based primarily on a racetrack shaped up-flow coil and these comments pertain specifically to a commercial heater of that type of design. 5 references, 12 figures, 1 table.

  19. Effect of preparation methods on the catalytic properties of zeolite-supported ruthenium in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.W.; Wang, H.T.; Goodwin, J.G. Jr.

    1983-10-01

    Three preparation techniques (incipient wetness using a solution of ruthenium chloride (RuCl/sub 3/), vapor impregnation by the ruthenium carbonyl (Ru/sub 3/(CO)/sub 12/), and ion exchange with Ru(NH/sub 3/)/sub 6/Cl/sub 3/) have been used to prepare sodium (Na)Y zeolite-supported ruthenium catalysts. The effect of these preparation methods on the activity and product selectivity of the Ru catalysts in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was examined at temperatures in the range of 220 to 320/sup 0/C, a pressure of 1 atm, a CO/H/sub 2/ ratio of 1, and flow rates in the range GHSV = 1800 to 3600 h/sup -1/. It was found that there is a good inverse correlation of turnover numbers for CO conversion to the CO/H adsorption ratio, suggesting that the relative availability of adsorbed H/sub 2/ and CO determines catalyst activity during reaction. Selectivity in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was greatly influenced by the preparation method and metal loading. Catalysts prepared by incipient wetness produced mainly methane. Catalysts prepared by vapor impregnation had the best selectivities for higher hydrocarbons and olefins even though they had the smallest average Ru particle sizes. The observed changes in adsorption, activity, and selectivity with preparation method appear to result from differences produced in metal location in/on the zeolite, metal particle size, and zeolite-metal interactions. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  20. Production potential of biomass feedstocks. Final report. [Saltbush, Johnsongrass, Kochia, Mesquite

    SciTech Connect

    Goodin, J.R.; Newton, R.J.

    1983-08-31

    This final report summarizes biomass research on unconventional plants utilizing the concept that semi-arid lands may be advantageous and unique for biomass production because there would be little competition for irrigation water and land areas traditionally used for food and fiber production. The objectives are to: (1) evaluate the establishment and productivity potential of plant species in west Texas as influenced by rainfall, temperature and minimum cultural practices; and (2) accurately assess the present distribution and acreages inhabited by the four candidates in west Texas as well as the soil, geographical and climatic factors which govern their adaptation; and (3) provide productivity data in order to make adequate economic and sociological assessments of biomass production in west Texas. Seedlings of four biomass plant species originally screened from 2900 potential species have been established in a greenhouse and transplants of saltbush (Atriplex canescens), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), kochia (Kochia scoparia), and mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) have been planted at Brady, Big Lake, El Paso and Lubbock. Saltbush seedlings have also been established at Pecos. 35 references, 12 figures, 21 tables.

  1. Hematite at Meridiani Planum, Mars, Investigated by Simultaneous Fitting of MER Mossbauer Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, I.; Agresti, D. G.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, Richard V.

    2010-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity encountered sedimentary outcrop rocks at its landing site. Spherules with diameters in the millimeter range were found to weather from the outcrop rocks. With Opportunity s miniaturised M ssbauer spectrometer MIMOS II, hematite was detected in spherules and in the outcrop matrix [1,2]. Figure 1 shows the target Berry Bowl, where brushed outcrop and an accumulation of spherules could be investigated on sols 46 and 48 of Opportunity s mission. Hematite undergoes a transition from a weakly ferromagnetic above to an antiferromagnetic state below the Morin temperature (T(sub M) approx.265 K for chemically pure, crystalline hematite). The magnetic hyperfine splitting (B(sub hf)) shows a general decrease with increasing temperature and a drop of approx.0.8 T at T(sub M). The quadrupole splitting ((Delta)EQ) changes its sign at T(sub M), with negative values above and positive values below the transition. Crystallinity and particle size influence the magnitude and temperature dependence of the magnetic splitting and the quadrupole splitting [3].

  2. Effect of microstructure on the susceptibility of low-alloy steels to hydrogen attack

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.O.

    1981-08-01

    In an alloy steel in which one or more alloy additions stabilize the carbide phase, the carbon activity depends on the microstructure and the prior thermal history. The carbon activity is a major factor in the susceptibility of such steels to form internal methane bubbles when heated in high-pressure hydrogen. Thus one can expect to vary the susceptibility to hydrogen attack of a given steel by its prior treatment. The problem has two aspects. First, one needs to be able to calculate the equilibrium carbon activity when the steel is in internal equilibrium. A computer program in the appendix of this report takes care of part of this problem. When the thermodynamics of the mixed carbide phase is adequately modeled, then this problem can be solved. The second part is the rate of approach to equilibrium. An analysis of the rate of coarsening of carbides in such steels shows that this rate is enhanced by a fine carbide dispersion. Such a fine dispersion is also desirable for the maximum strength. Thus, we believe that under favorable circumstances the resistance to hydrogen attack can be enhanced by suitable thermal treatments of the steels used for the pressure vessels for hydrogen service. 12 figures.

  3. Attack of high-strength, oxidation-resistant alloys during in-can melting of simulated waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.N.

    1980-01-01

    The restistance of candidate canister alloys to penetration under the most severe conditions expected during in-can melting was directly proportional to the chromium content of the alloy, and inversely proportional to the Na/sub 2/O content of the glass melt. Specimens were exposed for 24 hours, which is the time required for in-can melting full-size waste-glass forms based on tests carried out at Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and at SRL. The penetration resistance to Frit 211 at 1150/sup 0/C for 24 hours of most alloys tested was satisfactory. The amount of penetration would not affect the integrity of the waste form. Inconel 625, Hastelloy X, and Inconel 601 were penetrated < 20 mils. This was considered excellent. Incoloy 801, Type 310 stainless steel, Type 304L stainless steel, Inconel 600, and Type 347 stainless steel were penetrated < 40 mils. This was considered good. Hastelloy C-4 was penetrated > 100 mils by a glass composed of 65 wt % Frit 21 and 35 wt % composite sludge (with uranium) at 1150/sup 0/C for only 7 hours. This amount of penetration of an in-can melting canister would not be satisfactory. 12 figures.

  4. The Clinical Physiology of Water Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Weitzman, Richard E.; Kleeman, Charles R.

    1979-01-01

    Water balance is tightly regulated within a tolerance of less than 1 percent by a physiologic control system located in the hypothalamus. Body water homeostasis is achieved by balancing renal and nonrenal water losses with appropriate water intake. The major stimulus to thirst is increased osmolality of body fluids as perceived by osmoreceptors in the anteroventral hypothalamus. Hypovolemia also has an important effect on thirst which is mediated by arterial baroreceptors and by the renin-angiotensin system. Renal water loss is determined by the circulating level of the antidiuretic hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP is synthesized in specialized neurosecretory cells located in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei in the hypothalamus and is transported in neurosecretory granules down elongated axons to the posterior pituitary. Depolarization of the neurosecretory neurons results in the exocytosis of the granules and the release of AVP and its carrier protein (neurophysin) into the circulation. AVP is secreted in response to a wide variety of stimuli. Change in body fluid osmolality is the most potent factor affecting AVP secretion, but hypovolemia, the renin-angiotensin system, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hyperthermia and pain also have important effects. Many drugs have been shown to stimulate the release of AVP as well. Small changes in plasma AVP concentration of from 0.5 to 4 μU per ml have major effects on urine osmolality and renal water handling. ImagesFigure 5.Figure 12.Figure 15.Figure 16. PMID:394480

  5. Exploration in Ordovician of central Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, J.H.; Barratt, M.W.

    1985-12-01

    Deep wells in the central Michigan basin have provided sufficient data to define two new mappable formations - the Foster Formation and the Bruggers Formation. Recent conodont studies have corrected the age assignments of the strata containing these formations. Previously, the lower section (Foster) was classified as mostly Cambrian, and the upper unit (Bruggers) was identified as Early Ordovician. Conodont identifications indicate an Early and Middle Ordovician age for the Foster Formation and a Middle Ordovician age for the Bruggers Formation. The Michigan basin existed in embryonic form in the Late Cambrian, but the full outline of the present-day basin did not develop until Early Ordovician. Gas and condensate are produced from the Bruggers Formation as deep as 11,252 ft (3429 m). Geothermal investigations suggest that gas production is possible to the base of the Paleozoic section in the central basin (17,000 ft or 5181 m). Paleotemperatures were higher during the Paleozoic owing to 3000-4000 ft (914-1291 m) of additional sedimentary cover. Five wells are producing from the Bruggers Formation. All are deeper tests in anticlines producing from Devonian reservoirs discovered earlier. The structures are the result of vertical movements of basement fault blocks activated by regional stresses. 12 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Analysis of stratigraphic barriers (caprock) between sands in the cretaceous Mesa Verde formation, US DOE Multiwell Experiment, Garfield County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Soeder, D.J.

    1984-03-01

    Pressure differences between the caprock tests performed and the in-situ reservoir pressures at the Multiwell site preclude any conclusions as to whether drawdown of one sandstone could result in production from an adjacent sand by gas breaching the stratigraphic barriers. On the other hand, the caprock tests performed at IGT do provide the following useful conclusions: (1) In-situ water permeability of the stratigraphic barrier material is extremely low. (2) There is a fairly good inverse correlation between permeability to water and threshold pressure. (3) All of the permeability and threshold pressure data was taken on these samples in a vertical direction. Because of the layered and laminated structure of these rocks, one would expect to find far different numbers in a horizontal direction. This has implications with regard to horizontal flow between adjacent sand lenses at the same depth, as opposed to vertical flow between underlying and overlying sand bodies. (4) Although a few of the barrier cores appeared marginally adequate to transmit gas between sand units based on the CTA data, whether they will do so in the ground is doubtful. (5) The material most likely to allow gas migration between sand lenses was that in the Coastal Zone. (6) It is far more likely that if gas migration occurs between sand lenses in the Multiwell, gas will move through the barrier material by way of natural or man-made fractures. Fracture permeability is probably many orders of magnitude higher than the ultra-tight shale and siltstone matrix, and threshold pressure in a fracture is quite low. The tests performed by IGT, however, were done on carefully chosen, unfractured core, and we have no information on the dynamics of gas movement through fractured stratigraphic barriers. The stratigraphic barrier material between sand lenses in the Mesa Verde at the Multiwell site would make an excellent caprock for an underground gas storage field. 11 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Discussion of the Ionian and Levantine Seas, NATO workshop on atmospheric and oceanic circulation in the Mediterranean basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, T.S.

    1983-01-01

    The Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) is the most critical water mass in the thermohaline heart of the Mediterranean. It is comprised of North Atlantic Water (NAW) which was transformed to salty water (36.2 to 39.2 ppt). In the eastern Mediterranean (EMED) the NAW changes to a warm saline surface layer and a cool less saline layer. Much of the LIW is produced from winter cooling of surface waters. The distribution is patchy, dependant on original surface type, circulation, and atmospheric exposure. Convective depths range to 400 m; the densest water not necessarily correlated with the deepest convective layers. Survival of the LIW depends on circulation and density. The circulation of the EMED is barotropically controlled by sea level. The annual low frequency signal is a trough extending zonally south of center and deepening eastward. The resulting cyclonic circulation is skewed to the south and east. The westerly winds exaggerate the African eastward coastal flow. Wind stress, positive curl in northern Levantine and negative curl in the Gulf of Sirte, contribute to the circulations. Higher frequency variations in water loss impose barotropic noise on the lower-frequency pattern; higher frequency wind energy affects surface circulations and deeper barotropic flows. The internal pressure gradient, resulting from the denser LIW, causes the westward return flow on the northern side within the LIW layer. The deep layers lack potential to drive baroclinic shear; consequently, they react to any unadjusted barotropic pressure gradients. This is substantial even at low frequencies. Deep Water tends to follow the basic barotropic pattern, flowing eastward along the African coast beneath the NAW. 22 references, 11 figures.

  8. Non-averaged human brain potentials in somatic attention: the short-latency cognition-related P40 component.

    PubMed Central

    Tomberg, C; Desmedt, J E

    1996-01-01

    1. Non-averaged scalp-recorded brain potentials were studied in humans during selective attention to randomly intermixed series of stimuli to fingers. Physiological tests were use for validating the presence or absence of the short-latency cognition-related P40 electrogeneses in parietal cortex in the response to a single-target stimulus (P40 signifies a positive polarity of about 40 ms peak latency). 2. To minimize interference from the electroencephalogram and noise we mapped single brain responses over the scalp and identified P40 topographies by an updated form of the numerical estimator Z for assessment of recorded potentials over time. We found that Z should exceed 0.96 for at least 15 ms for validation of the topographical congruity between the single P40 and an averaged P40 template. 3. Individual responses to 145 target finger stimuli correctly identified by the subject were analysed. P40 occurred only intermittently (34.5%) in a series of targets, but its voltage was unexpectedly large, exceeding the P40 voltage in averaged responses by a factor of about 10. 4. The usual assumption in the averaging method that the single brain responses combined in the average are stable but merely contaminated by unrelated noise was shown to be false for the cognition-related P40, which was considerably underestimated because of its intermittency in the averaged single trials. 5. The reaction time of the subject was on average 19% shorter in the trials in which a P40 was present, thus suggesting that P40 can influence subsequent perceptual processing by the brain in the same trial. 6. The feasibility of identifying specific cognition-related electrogeneses in single brain responses opens up the study of momentary shifts in brain processing strategies thereby allowing the neurophysiology of cognition to be based in real time. Images Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8910238

  9. Identifying areas with potential for high indoor radon levels: analysis of the national airborne radiometric reconnaissance data for California and the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Moed, B.A.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Schwehr, M.B.; Van Heuvelen, A.

    1984-04-01

    Radon-222 is an important indoor air pollutant which, through the inhalation of its radioactive decay products, accounts for nearly half of the effective dose equivalent to the public from natural ionizing radiation. Indoor radon concentrations vary widely, largely because of local and regional differences in the rate of entry from sources. The major sources are soil and rock near building foundations, earth-based building materials, and domestic water; of these, soil and rock are thought to be predominant in many buildings with higher-than-average concentrations. Thus, one key factor in determining radon source potential is the concentration of radium, the progenitor of radon, in surficial rocks and soils. Aerial radiometric data were analyzed, collected for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program, for seven Western states to: (1) provide information on the spatial distribution of radium contents in surficial geologic materials for those states; and (2) investigate approaches for using the aerial data, which have been collected throughout the contiguous United States and Alaska, to identify areas where high indoor radon levels may be common. Radium concentrations were found to be relatively low in central and western portions of Washington, Oregon, and northern California; they were found to be relatively high in central and southern California. A field validation study, conducted along two flight-line segments near Spokane, Washington, showed close correspondence between the aerial data, in situ measurements of both radium content and radon flux from soil, and laboratory measurements of both radium content of and radon emanation rate from soil samples. 99 references, 11 figures, 3 tables.

  10. Factors controlling depositional patterns of Ebro turbidite systems, Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.

    1988-06-01

    Tectonic control by subsiding grabens parallel to the Ebro continental margin created a steep narrow slope and rise that resulted in development of coexisting aprons, channel-levee complexes, and a fan, all fed by the same Ebro River source. In unstable steep-slope terrain, mass movement of material caused wide gullied canyons and deposition of nonchannelized base-of-slope aprons that extend 50 km across the rise. Within stable continental-margin areas, channelized turbidity currents formed individual narrow canyons and channel-levee complexes from north to south, successively, at different low sea level stands. Tectonically induced steep gradients (1:25-1:130) across the continental rise and northeastward in Valencia Trough caused sediment to bypass 200 km down Valencia Valley and deposit on Valencia Fan at its end, thus preventing direct development of Ebro channel-levee complexes into fans. When a single source fed channel B for a relatively long period, however, (1) fan-valley sinuosity increased, (2) channel walls were modified through undercutting, slumping, and crevasse splays, and (3) channel bifurcation occurred, although lower fan lobes and a complete fan never developed. The dominance of local tectonic control thus aborted fan development in proximal regions on the continental margin near the Ebro River source and displaced fan formation to a distal site in the Valencia Trough basin. During low sea level stands, continued different local tectonic and sediment-source controls resulted in aprons, channel-levee complexes, and fans forming simultaneously from the same source and without evolving from one type of turbidite system to another. Complex ancient turbidite systems similar to those along the Ebro margin may be anticipated in the stratigraphic record of tectonically active settings like the alpine basins of Europe. 11 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-10-21

    The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process and component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies. Some of the highlights for this period are: TP-032-1, a single stage, oxygen-steam blown gasifier test was conducted in three operational phases from March 30, 1982 through May 2, 1982; TP-032-2 was conducted in two operational phases from May 20, 1982 through May 27, 1982; TP-032-1 and TP-032-2 successfully served as shakedown and demonstrations of the full cyclone cold wall; no visible deposits were found on the cold wall after processing highly fouling coals; samples of product gas produced during TP-032-1, were passed through four different scrubbing solutions and analyzed for 78 EPA primary organic pollutants, all of which were found to be below detection limits; TP-M004, a CO/sub 2/ tracer gas test, was initiated and completed; data analysis of test TP-M002-2 was completed and conclusions are summarized in this report; design, procurement and fabrication of the solids injection device were completed; laboratory studies involved gas-solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 2 references, 11 figures, 39 tables.

  12. Kinematically incomplete breakup reaction /sup 1/H(vector d,p)pn at 16 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Ohlsen, G.G.; Correll, F.D.; Brown, R.E.; Jarmie, N.; Hardekopf, R.A.

    1980-12-01

    Angular distributions of the differential cross section sigma(E*,theta/sub 1//sup l/) and of the vector and tensor analyzing powers A/sub y/(E*,theta/sub 1//sup l/), A/sub xz/(E*,theta/sub 1//sup l/), A/sub xx/(E*,theta/sub 1//sup l/), A/sub yy/(E*,theta/sub 1//sup l/) for the 3-nucleon breakup reaction /sup 1/H(vector d,p)pn were measured for a deuteron bombarding energy of 16.0 MeV. The data are reported as functions of the excitation energy E* in the pn system and of the laboratory angle theta/sub 1//sup l/. Laboratory angles between 15 and 42.5/sup 0/ were studied. The excitation energy range varies from 0 to 2.6 MeV at 15/sup 0/ to 0 to 0.2 MeV at 42.5/sup 0/. An excitation energy range (bin) of 0.2 MeV, which corresponds to laboratory energy bins from 0.3 to 0.4 MeV, was used to partition the proton continua. The experimental laboratory energy resolution is about 0.15 MeV. Large effects are seen in the tensor analyzing powers, particularly in A/sub xz/, at the lowest excitation energies. Except for A/sub yy/, there is no similarity of the observed analyzing powers to the corresponding elastic-scattering analyzing powers. Some data for A/sub xz/(E*,theta/sub 1//sup l/) at other energies are also presented. 11 figures, 6 tables.

  13. Transient disruptions of aortic endothelial cell plasma membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Q. C.; McNeil, P. L.

    1992-01-01

    Cells of gut, skin, and muscle frequently suffer transient survivable plasma membrane disruptions ("wounds") under physiological conditions, but it is not known whether endothelial cells of the aorta, which are constantly exposed to hemodynamically generated mechanical forces, similarly are injured in vivo. We have used serum albumin as a molecular probe for identifying endothelial cells of the rat aorta that incurred and survived transient plasma membrane wounds in vivo. Such wounded endothelial cells were in fact observed in the aortas of all rats examined. However, the percentage of wounded cells in the total aortic endothelial population varied remarkably between individuals ranging from 1.4% to 17.9% with a mean of 6.5% (+/- 4.6% SD). Wounded endothelial cells were heterogeneously distributed, being found in distinct clusters often in the shape of streaks aligned with the long axis of the vessel, or in the shape of partial or complete rims surrounding bifurcation openings, such as the ostia of the intercostal arteries. Physical exercise (running) did not increase the frequency of aortic endothelial cell membrane wounding, nor did spontaneous hypertension. Surprisingly, 80% of mitotic endothelial cell figures were identified as wounded. This article identified a previously unrecognized form of endothelial cell injury, survivable disruptions of the plasma membrane, and shows that injury to the endothelial cells of the normal aorta is far more commonplace than previously suspected. Plasma membrane wounding of endothelial cells could be linked to the initiation of atherosclerosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 11 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:1466399

  14. MODELING OF FLOW AND TRANSPORT INDUCED BY PRODUCTION OF HYDROFRACTURE-STIMULATED GAS WELLS NEAR THE RULISON NUCLEAR TEST

    SciTech Connect

    Hodges, Rex A.; Cooper, Clay; Falta, Ronald

    2012-09-17

    The Piceance Basin in western Colorado contains significant reserves of natural gas in poorly connected, low-permeability (tight) sandstone lenses of the Mesaverde Group. The ability to enhance the production of natural gas in this area has long been a goal of the oil and gas industry. The U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, a predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, participated in three tests using nuclear detonations to fracture tight formations in an effort to enhance gas production. The tests were conducted under Project Plowshare, a program designed to identify peaceful, beneficial uses for nuclear devices. The first, Project Gasbuggy, was conducted in 1967 in the San Juan Basin of New Mexico. The two subsequent tests, Project Rulison in 1969 and Project Rio Blanco in 1973, were in the Piceance Basin. The ability to enhance natural gas production from tight sands has become practical through advances in hydraulic fracturing technology (hydrofracturing). This technology has led to an increase in drilling activity near the Rulison site, raising concerns that contamination currently contained in the subsurface could be released through a gas well drilled too close to the site. As wells are drilled nearer the site, the DOE Office of Legacy Management has taken the approach outlined in the June 2010 Rulison Path Forward document (DOE 2010), which recommends a conservative, staged approach to gas development. Drillers are encouraged to drill wells in areas with a low likelihood of encountering contamination (both distance and direction from the detonation zone are factors) and to collect data from these wells prior to drilling nearer the site’s 40 acre institutional control boundary (Lot 11). Previous modeling results indicate that contamination has been contained within Lot 11 (Figure 1). The Path Forward document couples the model predictions with the monitoring of gas and produced water from the gas wells

  15. Cambrian to Holocene structural and burial history of Nashville dome

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, R.G.; Reesman, A.L.

    1986-02-01

    About 14,000 ft (4270 m) of strata covered basement over the present crest of the Nashville dome by the end of the Paleozoic (calculated by estimating the geothermal gradient, and using temperatures of veins in Stones River Group and Knox Dolomite). At least 7500 ft (2290 m) of post-Devonian strata have been removed by subsequent erosion. Estimates of other erosional episodes include 350 ft (107 m) of upper Knox (during the Middle Ordovician) and 500 ft (152 m) of Devonian-Ordovician (during the Late Devonian). Mesozoic to Holocene uplift was at least 6350 ft (1940 m), 1500 ft or 460 m (25%) of which occurred in the latest 100 m.y. and 450 ft or 140 m (7%) during the latest 2 m.y., a rate ranging from about 15 ft/m.y. (4.6 m/m.y.) for the longer term to over 225 ft/m.y. (70 m/m.y.) in the Pleistocene to Holocene. Earliest structure of the area was a series of elongate basins, probably rifts synchronous with Reelfoot rift to the west. Uplifts trending N10/sup 0/E moved about 40 mi (65 km) westward during the Middle Ordovician. These may relate to similar trending (and moving) Appalachian orogenic events. A change to uplifts trending N50/sup 0/E (parallel to strikes of Appalachian thrusts) occurred in the Late Ordovician and continued to the Devonian; this may reflect a similar Late Ordovician change in the orientation of Appalachian tectonism. In the interval from post-Mississippian to Late Cretaceous, the dome curved westward to join the Pascola arch in response to Ouachita activity. 11 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Spectral properties of protonated Schiff base porphyrins and chlorins. INDO-CI calculations and resonance raman studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, L.K.; Chang, C.K.; Ward, B.; Callahan, P.M.; Babcock, G.T.; Head, J.D.

    1984-07-11

    INDO-CI calculations successfully reproduce the striking changes in optical spectra that occur upon protonation of mono- and disubstituted porphyrin, chlorin, and bacteriochlorin Schiff base complexes. They ascribe the changes to Schiff base C=N ..pi..* orbitals which drop in energy upon protonation and mix with and perturb the ..pi..* orbitals of the macrocycle, a result consistent with resonance Raman data. The perturbation is predicted to affect not only transition energies and intensities but also dipole moment directions. The symmetry of the porphyrin and the substitution site of the chlorin are shown to play an important role, especially in governing whether the lowest energy transition will red shift or blue shift. Blue shifts are calculated for protonation of ketimine and enamine isomers of pyrochlorophyll a (PChl). Comparison with reported optical spectra suggests that PChl a Schiff base may undergo isomerization upon protonation. Resonance Raman data on CHO, CHNR, CHNHR/sup +/, and pyrrolidine adducts of chlorin demonstrate the isolation of the peripheral C=O and C=N groups from the macrocycle ..pi.. system intramolecular hydrogen bonding, and selective enhancement of v/sub C=N/ for those species with a split Soret band. V/sub C=N/ is observed with 488.0-nm excitation into the lower-energy Soret and absent for 406.7-nm excitation into the higher-energy Soret, a result predicted by the calculations. 44 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  17. Developmental and anatomical changes in leaves of yellow birch and red kidney bean exposed to simulated acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Paparozzi, E.T.; Tukey, H.B. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Leaves of Betula alleghaniensis Britt. (yellow birch) and Phaseolus vulgaris L cv. Red Kidney (bean) were examined microscopically during development and after exposure to simulated rain of pH 5.5, 4.3, 3.2, and 2.8. Yellow birch leaves attained maximal leaf area, midvein length, and cuticle thickness at 21 days. Trichomes were either long, unicellular, or multicellular with caplike head and stalk. Epicuticular wax was a bumpy and amorphous layer. The 2nd trifoliolate leaf of red kidney bean attained maximal leaf area, midvein length, and cuticle thickness when the 3rd trifoliolate leaf was expanding. Trichomes present were long, with a unicellular head and a multicellular base; long, unicellular, and terminally hooked; and small and multicellular. Epicuticular wax was present as small irregular flakes. After 2 days of pH 2.8 and 4 days of pH 3.2 simulated acid rain, round yellow and small tan lesions appeared on birch and bean leaves, respectively. Most injury occurred on or between small veins. Most trichome types were uninjured. Lesions formed as a result of collapsed epidermal and highly plasmolyzed palisade cells. The cuticle was still present over injured epidermal cells and epicuticular waxes were unchanged. There was not statistical difference in mean cuticle thickness due to pH of simulated rain. 25 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  18. Pathologic and ultrastructural changes of acute and chronic delta hepatitis in an experimentally infected chimpanzee.

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, S.; Fields, H. A.; Humphrey, C. D.; Margolis, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    A hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) chronic carrier chimpanzee experimentally superinfected with delta virus (DV) developed chronic DV infection. Over a period of 12 months, serologic and biochemical changes were correlated with morphologic abnormalities of the liver. Severe hepatic necrosis and inflammation accompanied the initial acute episode of hepatitis on Day 35 after inoculation, followed by complete resolution of these lesions over the next 3 months. A second episode of hepatitis occurred on Day 145, and severe necrosis and inflammation recurred along with the reappearance of delta antigen in the hepatocytes. Delta antigen persisted in the liver following the second episode of hepatitis and has remained positive throughout the observation period of 1 year. During the initial acute episode, the hepatocytes exhibited foamy cytoplasmic changes resembling microvesicular fat. However, ultrastructural studies of the same cells revealed only vacuolization of the cytoplasm without evidence of fat droplets. The inflammatory infiltrate during both episodes of hepatitis demonstrated a striking predominance of macrophages over lymphocytes. Hepatocyte abnormalities observed by electron microscopy included vacuoles, proliferated endoplasmic reticulum, and tubules similar to those seen in posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. However, the tubular and reticular abnormalities coincided with delta antigen expression in liver biopsies detected by direct immunoperoxidase staining and abnormal alanine aminotransferase levels in the serum, which suggests a possible causal relationship. Nuclear abnormalities were not seen. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:3511726

  19. A Combined Intradural Presigmoid-Transtransversarium-Transcondylar Approach to the Whole Clivus and Anterior Craniospinal Region

    PubMed Central

    Ammirati, Mario; Ma, Jianya; Canalis, Rinaldo; Martin, Neil; Black, Keith; Cheatham, Mel; Bloch, Joseph; Becker, Donald

    1993-01-01

    Surgical exposure of the clivus is difficult because of its proximity to vital neurovascular structures. The anatomic bases of a new surgical approach to this area are discussed. A supra-auricular skin incision is extended toward the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. The vertebral artery is exposed from C2 to the occiput unroofing the foramen transversarium of C1. The bone removal consists of a posterior temporal craniotomy, a suboccipital craniectomy, including mastoidectomy with sigmoid sinus unroofing, removal of the lateral margin of the foramen magnum, of the medial third of the occipital condyle, and retrolabyrinthine petrous drilling. Posterior retraction of the vertebral artery facilitates occipital condyle drilling. Intradural exposure of the petroclival region is achieved by L-shaped cutting of the dura with the long branch placed infratentorially anterior to the sigmoid sinus. Intradural exposure of the craniospinal/upper cervical areas is achieved by cutting of the dura medial to the distal sigmoid sinus and by longitudinal cutting of the dura anterior to the vertebral artery. This approach allows multiple ports of entry to the clivus with full control of the vertebrobasilar system, and of the dural sinuses, and is anatomically suited for controlled removal of tumors located in these areas. This approach, or segments of it, has been used successfully in the treatment of large neoplasms of the craniovertebral junction. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11 PMID:17170911

  20. Volcanic activity: a review for health professionals.

    PubMed Central

    Newhall, C G; Fruchter, J S

    1986-01-01

    Volcanoes erupt magma (molten rock containing variable amounts of solid crystals, dissolved volatiles, and gas bubbles) along with pulverized pre-existing rock (ripped from the walls of the vent and conduit). The resulting volcanic rocks vary in their physical and chemical characteristics, e.g., degree of fragmentation, sizes and shapes of fragments, minerals present, ratio of crystals to glass, and major and trace elements composition. Variability in the properties of magma, and in the relative roles of magmatic volatiles and groundwater in driving an eruption, determine to a great extent the type of an eruption; variability in the type of an eruption in turn influences the physical characteristics and distribution of the eruption products. The principal volcanic hazards are: ash and larger fragments that rain down from an explosion cloud (airfall tephra and ballistic fragments); flows of hot ash, blocks, and gases down the slopes of a volcano (pyroclastic flows); "mudflows" (debris flows); lava flows; and concentrations of volcanic gases in topographic depressions. Progress in volcanology is bringing improved long- and short-range forecasts of volcanic activity, and thus more options for mitigation of hazards. Collaboration between health professionals and volcanologists helps to mitigate health hazards of volcanic activity. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 6a-6e FIGURE 6a-6e FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:3946726

  1. X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopic study of the adsorption of molecular iodine on uranium metal and uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Dillard, J.G.; Moers, H.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Kirch, G.; Pfennig, G.; Ache, H.J.

    1984-08-30

    The adsorption of molecular iodine on uranium metal and on uranium dioxide has been investigated at 25/sup 0/C. Clean surfaces were prepared in an ultrahigh vacuum apparatus and were characterized by X-ray photoelectron (XPS) and X-ray and electron-induced Auger electron spectroscopies (AES). Adsorption of I/sub 2/ was studied for exposures up to 100 langmuirs (1 langmuir = 10/sup -6/ torr s) on uranium metal and to 75 langmuirs on uranium dioxide. Above about 2-langmuir I/sub 2/ exposure on uranium, spectroscopic evidence is obtained to indicate the beginning of UI/sub 3/ formation. Saturation coverage for I/sub 2/ adsorption on uranium dioxide occurs at approximately 10-15 langmuirs. Analysis of the XPS and AES results as well as studies of spectra as a function of temperature lead to the conclusions that a dissociative chemisorption/reaction process occurs on uranium metal while nondissociative adsorption occurs on uranium dioxide. Variations in the iodine Auger kinetic energy and in the Auger parameter are interpreted in light of extra-atomic relaxation processes. 42 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  2. Effects of oil and oil dispersant on an enclosed marine ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Lindin, O.; Rosemarin, A.; Lindskog, A.; Hoeglund, C.; Johansson, S.

    1987-04-01

    The effects of a North Sea oil with and without the addition of an oil spill dispersant were studied in a model of the littoral ecosystem of the Baltic Sea. Measured ecosystem parameters included abundance of heterotrophic bacteria, periphyton and phytoplankton photosynthesis, growth of bladderwrack, zooplankton abundance and diversity, physiological responses of certain crustaceans and molluscs, and growth of blue mussels. In addition, net photosynthesis and respiration of the ecosystem were studied. Concentrations of oil in water and blue mussels were monitored. The results of the experiments showed that almost all the measured parameters were affected, although several of the results indicated a stronger response to oil alone than to oil plus dispersant. On the basis of the results of this experiment, it may be concluded that the use of oil dispersants on diverse shallow water communities may produce greater acute effects than if a dispersant is not used. The long-term effects, however, may prove to be less severe than the dispersion of oil by natural processes. 40 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Infrared multiphoton absorption and reaction of 2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Setser, D.W.; Lee, T.S.; Danen, W.C.

    1985-12-19

    The infrared multiphoton absorption and dissociation of CF/sub 3/CH/sub 2/Cl has been studied by measuring the dependence of the reaction probability and product distribution on the laser fluence and bath gas pressure. Absorption measurements were performed at two laser frequencies to establish the absorbed laser energy; the absorption measurements displayed Beer's law behavior except at very low laser fluence. Sensitized reactions with SiF/sub 4/ were conducted for comparison to the direct laser-induced process; the effective temperature within the irradiated volume for the SiF/sub 4/ experiments was determined as a function of incident laser energy. The three main reaction channels are four-centered HF elimination, three-centered HCl elimination, and C-Cl homolysis; the product ratios were very dependent on the incident laser fluence. The infrared laser-induced energy absorption and reaction processes of CF/sub 3/CH/sub 3/, CF/sub 3/CH/sub 2/Cl, and CF/sub 3/CH/sub 2/Br are compared. The data provide evidence for a fluence-dependent fractionation of absorbed laser energy producing a two-component energy distribution for the former two compounds. 24 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Airborne microwave measurements of the southern Greenland ice sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, C.T.; Hayes, P.S.; Herd, J.S.; Jones, W.L.; Delmore, V.E.

    1985-02-01

    Microwave remote sensing measurements were collected over Greenland with the NASA C-130 aircraft used as a platform. The principal instruments were a C band radiometer and an X band scatterometer, which simultaneously collected both active and passive microwave remote sensing data. The data collected fully support the conclusions drawn by others that volume scattering from subsurface ice lenses and glands is the major influence on microwave signature. Both thermal emission and radar backscattering results are self-consistent with rather simple theories of volume scattering. The remote sensing measurements also provide a relative measure of the number density of scatterers; however, additional theoretical work is required to establish the cross section per scatterer in order to measure absolute number density. Along this avenue of thought, the data rule out Rayleigh scattering and strongly support a high frequency model. The measured anisotropy over the ice cap appears to be a new observation, and future exploitation of remote sensing techniques may provide information relating to the average shape of subsurface patterns and information relative to glacial flow. 14 references, 10 figures.

  5. Response of sensitive human ataxia and resistant T-1 cell lines to accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Tobias, C.A.; Blakely, E.A.; Chang, P.Y.; Lommel, L.; Roots, R.

    1983-07-01

    The radiation dose responses of fibroblast from a patient with Ataxia telangiectasis (AT-2SF) and an established line of human T-1 cells were studied. Nearly monoenergetic accelerated neon and argon ions were used at the Berkeley Bevalac with various residual range values. The LET of the particles varied from 30 keV/..mu..m to over 1000 keV/..mu..m. All Ataxia survival curves were exponential functions of the dose. Their radiosensitivity reached peak values at 100 to 200 keV/..mu..m. Human T-1 cells have effective sublethal damage repair as has been evidenced by split dose experiments, and they are much more resistant to low LET than to high LET radiation. The repair-misrepair model has been used to interpret these results. We have obtained mathematical expressions that describe the cross sections and inactivation coefficients for both human cell lines as a function of the LET and the type of particle used. The results suggest either that high-LET particles induce a greater number of radiolesions per track or that heavy-ions at high LET induce lesions that kill cells more effectively and that are different from those produced at low LET. We assume that the lesions induced in T-1 and Ataxia cells are qualitatively similar and that each cell line attempts to repair these lesions. The result in most irradiated Ataxia cells, however, is either lethal misrepair or incomplete repair leading to cell death. 63 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  6. CHNTRN: a CHaNnel TRaNsport model for simulating sediment and chemical distribution in a stream/river network

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, G.T.

    1983-09-01

    This report presents the development of a CHaNnel TRaNsport model for simulating sediment and chemical distribution in a stream/river network. A particular feature of the model is its capability to deal with the network system that may consist of any number of joined and branched streams/rivers of comparable size. The model employs a numerical method - an integrated compartment method (ICM) - which greatly facilitates the setup of the matrix equation for the discrete field approximating the corresponding continuous field. Most of the possible boundary conditions that may be anticipated in real-world problems are considered. These include junctions, prescribed concentration, prescribed dispersive flux, and prescribed total flux. The model is applied to two case studies: (1) a single river and (2) a five-segment river in a watershed. Results indicate that the model can realistically simulate the behavior of the sediment and chemical variations in a stream/river network. 11 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Comparative pathology of silicate pneumoconiosis.

    PubMed Central

    Brambilla, C.; Abraham, J.; Brambilla, E.; Benirschke, K.; Bloor, C.

    1979-01-01

    A simple pneumoconiosis with lamellar birefringent crystals was observed in animals dying in the San Diego Zoo. We studied 100 autopsies from 11 mammalian and eight avian species. In mammals, mild pulmonary lesions comprised crystal-laden macrophages in alveoli and lymphatics. Interstitial fibrosis was present in 20% of cases. There were no nodules. In birds, dust retention produced large granulomas around tertiary bronchi without fibrosis. Mineralogic analysis using scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed most of the crystals to be silicates. Ninety percent were complex silicates, with aluminum-potassium silicates comprising 70% of the analyzed particles. Electron and x-ray diffraction showed the silicates to be muscovite mica and its hydrothermal degradation product, ie, illite clay. This mica was also present on filtration membranes of atmospheric air samples obtained from the San Diego Zoo. The amount of dust retention was related to the animal's age, anatomic or ecologic variances, and length of stay in the San Diego Zoo. Its semidesert atmosphere is rich in silicates, which are inhaled and deposited in the lungs. Similar mica-induced lesions are found in humans living in this region or the Southwest of the USA. This simple pneumoconiosis is likely to be widespread in human populations living in desert or semidesert climates. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:223447

  8. The height of biomolecules measured with the atomic force microscope depends on electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, D J; Engel, A

    1997-01-01

    In biological applications of atomic force microscopy, the different surface properties of the biological sample and its support become apparent. Observed height differences between the biomolecule and its supporting surface are thus not only of structural origin, but also depend on the different sample-tip and support-tip interactions. This can result in negative or positive contributions to the measured height, effects that are described by the DLVO (Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, Overbeek) theory. Experimental verification shows that the electrostatic interactions between tip and sample can strongly influence the result obtained. To overcome this problem, pH and electrolyte concentration of the buffer solution have to be adjusted to screen out electrostatic forces. Under these conditions, the tip comes into direct contact with the surface of support and biological system, even when low forces required to prevent sample deformation are applied. In this case, the measured height can be related to the thickness of the native biological structure. The observed height dependence of the macromolecules on electrolyte concentration makes it possible to estimate surface charge densities. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:9284330

  9. Evacuated optical structure comprising optical bench mounted to sidewall of vacuum chamber in a manner which inhibits deflection and rotation of the optical bench

    DOEpatents

    Bowers, J.M.

    1994-04-19

    An improved evacuated optical structure is disclosed comprising an optical bench mounted in a vacuum vessel in a manner which inhibits transmission of movement of the vacuum vessel to the optical bench, yet provides a compact and economical structure. The vacuum vessel is mounted, through a sidewall thereof, to a support wall at four symmetrically positioned and spaced apart areas, each of which comprises a symmetrically positioned group of mounting structures passing through the sidewall of the vacuum vessel. The optical bench is pivotally secured to the vacuum vessel by four symmetrically spaced apart bolts and spherical bearings, each of which is centrally positioned within one of the four symmetrically positioned groups of vacuum vessel mounting structures. Cover plates and o-ring seals are further provided to seal the vacuum vessel mounting structures from the interior of the vacuum vessel, and venting bores are provided to vent trapped gases in the bores used to secure the cover plates and o-rings to the vacuum vessel. Provision for detecting leaks in the mounting structures from the rear surface of the vacuum vessel sidewall facing the support wall are also provided. Deflection to the optical bench within the vacuum vessel is further minimized by tuning the structure for a resonant frequency of at least 100 Hertz. 10 figures.

  10. Temporal sequence and spatial distribution of early events of fertilization in single sea urchin eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Eisen, A.; Kiehart, D.P.; Wieland, S.J.; Reynolds, G.T.

    1984-11-01

    Measurements and observations of five early events of fertilization, singly and in pairs, from single sea urchin eggs have revealed the precise temporal sequence and spatial distribution of these events. In the Arbacia punctulata egg, a wave of surface contraction occurs coincident with membrane depolarization (t = 0). These two earliest events are followed by the onset of a rapid, propagated increase in cytoplasmic-free calcium at approx.23 s as measured by calcium-aequorin luminescence. The luminescence reaches its peak value by 40 s after the membrane depolarization. The luminescence remains uniformly elevated for some time before its decay over several minutes. The onset of an increase in the pyridin nucleotide (NAD(P)H) fluorescence follows the membrane depolarization at approx.51 s. The fertilization membrane begins its elevation in a wave-like fashion coincidentally with the increase in NAD(P)H fluorescence. Similar results are observed in the Lytechinus variegatus egg. The results suggest that while the increase in cytoplasmic-free calcium may be important for many changes occurring in the egg, the elevated-free calcium is not directly responsible for the propagated wave of cortical granule exocytosis. 32 references, 10 figures.

  11. Electrically operated magnetic switch designed to display reduced leakage inductance

    DOEpatents

    Cook, E.G.

    1994-05-10

    An electrically operated magnetic switch is disclosed herein for use in opening and closing a circuit between two terminals depending upon the voltage across these terminals. The switch so disclosed is comprised of a ferrite core in the shape of a toroid having opposing ends and opposite inner and outer sides and an arrangement of electrically conductive components defining at least one current flow path which makes a number of turns around the core. This arrangement of components includes a first plurality of electrically conducive rigid rods parallel with and located outside the outer side of the core and a second plurality of electrically conductive rigid rods parallel with and located inside the inner side of the core. The arrangement also includes means for electrically connecting these rods together so that the define the current flow path. In one embodiment, this latter means uses rigid cross-tab means. In another, preferred embodiment, printed circuits on rigid dielectric substrates located on opposite ends of the core are utilized to interconnect the rods together. 10 figures.

  12. Determining optimum pumping rates for creation of hydraulic barriers to ground-water pollutant migration

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    In certain ground-water flow regimes control of the migration of pollutants can be achieved by hydraulic barriers created by ground-water withdrawal and/or injection. However, for complicated flow domains and situations where multiple wells may be installed, the determination of pumping rates to achieve a pollution control objective can be difficult. A nonlinear programming (NLP) algorithm is coupled to a two-dimensional, steady-state, ground-water flow model and an advective transport model for determination of optimum pumping rates for creation of hydraulic barriers. This technique is a screening tool for the selection of pumping rates to be subsequently confirmed with more detailed simulation. Two example applications of this technique are presented. The first example shows how NLP can be used to determine pumping rates required to develop a stagnation point. Optimum pumping rates for eight wells arranged in a circular configuration are determined so as to reduce the ground-water velocity to near zero over a precise region within a nonhomogeneous aquifer. The second example involves the determination of optimum steady-state pumping rates for six wells in a nonhomogeneous flow domain where the objective is the control (i.e., steering) of the trajectory of a contaminant plume. 17 references, 10 figures, 5 tables.

  13. Soil attenuation of leachates from low-rank coal combustion wastes: a literature survey. [116 references

    SciTech Connect

    Gauntt, R. O.; DeOtte, R. E.; Slowey, J. F.; McFarland, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    In parallel with pursuing the goal of increased utilization of low-rank solid fuels, the US Department of Energy is investigating various aspects associated with the disposal of coal-combustion solid wastes. Concern has been expressed relative to the potential hazards presented by leachates from fly ash, bottom ash and scrubber wastes. This is of particular interest in some regions where disposal areas overlap aquifer recharge regions. The western regions of the United States are characterized by relatively dry alkaline soils which may effect substantial attenuation of contaminants in the leachates thereby reducing the pollution potential. A project has been initiated to study the contaminant uptake of western soils. This effort consists of two phases: (1) preparation of a state-of-the-art document on soil attenuation; and (2) laboratory experimental studies to characterize attenuation of a western soil. The state-of-the-art document, represented herein, presents the results of studies on the characteristics of selected wastes, reviews the suggested models which account for the uptake, discusses the specialized columnar laboratory studies on the interaction of leachates and soils, and gives an overview of characteristics of Texas and Wyoming soils. 116 references, 10 figures, 29 tables.

  14. Fire initiation and spread in urban areas due to nuclear attack

    SciTech Connect

    Reitter, T.A.; Takata, A.N.; Kang, S.W.

    1984-09-01

    Calculation of fire development in urban areas is a critical step in estimating the global effects of nuclear warfare with regard to smoke production and transport. As part of the first phase of a program to improve our ability to calculate fire starts and spread in urban areas, we have performed a parameter sensitivity analysis using the three codes originally developed for civil defense planning by the IIT Research Institute. We have added graphics and made slight improvements to the codes and applied them to the representation of the San Jose urban area used in the Five-City Study of the late 1960s. For a chosen reference attack scenario, we have varied parameters and compared the results to those of a representative baseline case. The parameters varied included: atmospheric visibility, lowest of the various critical ignition energies of window coverings, shading of windows by trees and awnings, extent of blast extinguishment of fires, secondary ignitions, window glass transmittance, specific firebrand generation rate, firebrand distribution range, windspeed, building densities, specific fuel loadings, and window sizes. 13 references, 10 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Comparative analysis of tissue reactions to anesthetic solutions: histological analysis in subcutaneous tissue of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Paulo Domingos; Sanches, Marcio Giampietro; Okamoto, Tetuo

    2003-01-01

    Postanesthetic pain is a relatively common complication after local anesthesia. This complication may be caused by the anesthetic technique or by the anesthetic solution used. Tissue reactions induced by the anesthetic solutions may be one of the factors resulting in pain after anesthesia. The objective of this study was to comparatively analyze tissue reactions induced by different anesthetic solutions in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. The following solutions were utilized: 2% lidocaine without vasoconstrictor; a 0.5% bupivacaine solution with 1:200,000 adrenaline; a 4% articaine solution and 2% mepivacaine, both with 1:100,000 adrenaline; and a 0.9% sodium chloride solution as a control. Sterilized absorbent paper cones packed inside polyethylene tubes were soaked in the solutions and implanted in the subcutaneous region. The sacrifice periods were 1, 2, 5, and 10 days after surgery. The specimens were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological analysis. The results showed that there is a difference in tissue irritability produced by the local anesthetic solutions. The results also showed that there is no relation between the concentration of the drug and the inflammatory intensity, that the mepivacaine and articaine solutions promoted less inflammatory reaction than the bupivacaine, and that the lidocaine solution produced the least intense inflammation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:14959905

  16. Magnetic measurements of the transuranium elements and charge state characterization of actinides in monazite. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Huray, P. G.

    1980-01-01

    A micromagnetic susceptometer for the purpose of measuring extremely small sample quantities (on the microgram level) was designed, constructed, and calibrated in previous years. (The 1979 progress report gives details of its operation.) This device has operated without significant downtime in this funding period, and much progress has been made in the magnetic characterization of elements beyond Am in the periodic table. This program has roughly doubled man's knowledge of magnetism in Cm, Bk, and Cf, and includes the only Es magnetic measurements to date. The incorporation of an automatic data collection system in this period has made analysis much more accurate, and has allowed quicker turnaround of compounds and metals for study. Results obtained for the compounds and metals studied this year are summarized. The lanthanide orthophosphates are being investigated as an alternate means of primary containment for high-level actinide wastes. Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory are involved in preparation of actinide-doped compounds for all of the lanthanide transition series (La through Lu) for a study of leaching characteristics and E.S.R. classification. To aid this study the charge state of /sup 237/Np or /sup 57/Fe has been identified, either in the as-prepared compounds or following radioactive decay of /sup 241/Am via the Moessbauer Effect. The final charge state will be an influential variable in the immobilization characteristics of the waste products stored in this synthetic monazite form. 10 figures, 1 table. (RWR)

  17. Capillary remodeling in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Schraufnagel, D. E.; Mehta, D.; Harshbarger, R.; Treviranus, K.; Wang, N. S.

    1986-01-01

    Lung fibrosis is a process in which collagen is laid down and the delicate capillary-alveolar relationship is disturbed. The architectural changes which occur in the capillaries, a main element of the oxygen transferring unit, are difficult to illustrate without a three-dimensional tool, such as scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, a scanning electron microscopic study was undertaken to show the capillary changes of lung fibrosis. Fibrosis was induced in rats by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. After 30 days the rats were sacrificed, and the vascular tree of the lung was cast with methacrylate. The fibrosis was patchy. The intercapillary space became wider; and some capillaries had large, irregular dilatations. Occasionally giant capillaries (up to 19 mu in diameter) were noted. The pleural and alveolar capillary diameters increased (P less than 0.01), and the branching frequency decreased (P = 0.02). The center of the capillary rings, which has been suggested to be the site of contractile interstitial cells, increased in size (P = 0.03). The appearance of irregularly shaped capillaries and an increase in diameter without a change in density of alveolar capillaries, resulting in a loss of surface area and a decrease in branching, are the main scanning electron microscopic findings of the remodeling which occurs in pulmonary capillaries in lung fibrosis. These changes may partially explain the functional derangement of this disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:2430459

  18. Alveolar response to experimental Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Lanken, P. N.; Minda, M.; Pietra, G. G.; Fishman, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    In order to characterize the alveolar response to Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, light and electron miscropy were used to trace the development of experimental infections with P carinii in rats treated with cortisone acetate and a low-protein diet. The first changes were found by the eighth day of treatment and consisted of the selective attachment of Pneumocystis organisms, mostly trophozoites, to alveolar Type 1 pneumocytes; the host cells were undamaged, and no inflammatory response was seen. After approximately one month of treatment, the seemingly innocuous host-parasite interaction was succeeded by focal necrosis of the Type 1 pneumocytes adjacent to organisms; hyperplasia of nearby Type 2 pneumocytes also occurred, to replace the dead Type 1 pneumocytes. Even at this stage, inflammatory reaction was conspicuously absent except for occasional alveolar macrophages in the diseased alveoli; in addition, all cells of the alveolar-capillary membrane other than Type 1 pneumocytes appeared entirely normal. Not only does the present study clarify the nature of alveolar injury caused by Pneumocystis carinii, but it also provides an experimental animal model in which selective injury of the alveolar lining cells occurs. Images Figure 5 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 10 Figure 3 Figure 7 Figure 4 Figure 8 PMID:6966893

  19. Habitat availability and animal community characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Seagle, S.W.; Shugart, H.H.; West, D.C.

    1984-12-01

    The microhabitat utilization and niche characteristics of Peromyscus leucopus, Ochrotomys nuttalli, and Blarina brevicauda were examined within a pine plantation on the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park (NERP) in East Tennessee. Although general microhabitat utilization was the same, niche parameters (such as niche breadth) for each species varied between two study grids, apparently in response to differing understory density. Specialization is thus proposed to be a function of local microhabitat structure. Removal of the generalist species, P. leucopus, from one grid while maintaining the other as a control elicited a significant microhabitat shift and increase in niche breadth by O. nuttalli. B. brevicauda displayed a slight but nonsignificant microhabitat shift and increased niche breadth. These results are a counter example to the hypothesis that generalist species are poor competitors. Spatial microhabitat heterogeneity created by plant secondary succession and extrinsic disturbances such as tree blow-down is suggested to allow coexistence of these species by altering competitive abilities or microhabitat selection at a small spatial scale. Since interspecific competition affects small mammal niche characteristics, two hypotheses to explain the relative abundances of coexisting animal species are examined. Analysis of the small mammal fauna of the Oak Ridge NERP indicates that habitat availability, not niche breadth, is a good predictor of abundance. This result is discussed in the context of habitat dynamics and the evolutionary history of the species. 103 references, 10 figures, 10 tables.

  20. Comparison of costs for automobile energy conservation vs synthetic fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, R.; Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    This preliminary analysis suggests that there are a large number of potential technical options for reducing energy consumption in automobiles. Furthermore, the cost to the user of purchasing these conservation options is less than the discounted cost of purchasing the additional fuel required if the conservation option is not chosen. There is a significant cost savings even if fuel costs remain at current levels. These savings would increase if fuel prices continue to rise or if more costly than synthetic fuels, at least for another 15 to 20 years. Cost-effective conservation could enable new vehicles to reach 40 to 50 mpg corporate average fuel economy by the year 2000. It is clear that the potential for making these changes exists, but better data are needed to evaluate many of these options and to ensure the development and implementation of those that are desirable. Specifically, there is a need for more applied research in government and industry laboratories. Key areas for this work are discussed here for: (1) optimized engine designs, and (2) efficient vehicle body structures. 10 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  1. In Vitro and in Vivo Phosphorylation of Polypeptides in Plasma Membrane and Tonoplast-Enriched Fractions from Barley Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Garbarino, Joan E.; Hurkman, William J.; Tanaka, Charlene K.; DuPont, Frances M.

    1991-01-01

    Phosphorylation of polypeptides in membrane fractions from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv CM 72) roots was compared in in vitro and in vivo assays to assess the potential role of protein kinases in modification of membrane transport. Membrane fractions enriched in endoplasmic reticulum, tonoplast, and plasma membrane were isolated using sucrose gradients and the membrane polypeptides separated using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. When the membrane fractions were incubated with γ-[32P]ATP, phosphorylation occurred almost exclusively in the plasma membrane fraction. Phosphorylation of a band at 38 kilodaltons increased as the concentration of Mg2+ was decreased from millimolar to micromolar levels. Phosphorylation of bands at 125, 86, 58, 46, and 28 kilodaltons required millimolar Mg2+ concentrations and was greatly enhanced by Ca2+. When roots of intact plants were labeled with [32P]orthophosphate, polypeptides at approximately 135, 116, 90, 46 to 53, 32, 28, and 19 kilodaltons were labeled in the plasma membrane fraction and polypeptides at approximately 73, 66, and 48 kilodaltons were labeled in the tonoplast fraction. Treatment of the roots of intact plants with 150 millimolar NaCl resulted in increased phosphorylation of some polypeptides while treatment with 100 mm NaCl had no effect. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:16668115

  2. The effect of phorbol myristate acetate on the metabolism and ultrastructure of human alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Hoidal, J. R.; Repine, J. E.; Beall, G. D.; Rasp, F. L.; White, J. G.

    1978-01-01

    In the present investigation we examined the influence of the surface-active agent phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and opsonized heat-killed bacteria (HKB) on oxygen consumption, superoxide release, and glucose oxidation of human alveolar macrophages (AM). Both PMA and HKB produced a surge in oxygen consumption, superoxide release, and oxidation of 1-14C-glucose and 6-14C-glucose by human AM. Examination of AM by electron microscopy following stimulation by these two agents demonstrated membrane ruffling, loss of microvilli, and increased vacuolization in PMA-treated cells and phagocytic vacuoles containing bacteria in HKB-treated cells. The vacuolization produced by PMA-treated AM was much less striking than the vacuolization produced in PMA-treated leukocytes. The similarity in the metabolic and some of the physical responses of AM stimulated by PMA and HKB suggest that PMA may be a useful agent for evaluating cell-membrane-related events of phagocytosis in AM. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figures 9 and 10 Figures 11 and 12 PMID:207188

  3. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Phase I. Final report. Vol. 4

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1984-05-01

    Licensing and regulation of commercial low-level waste (CLLW) burial facilities require that anticipated risks associated with burial sites be evaluated for the life of the facility. This work reviewed the existing capability to evaluate dose to man resulting from the potential redistribution of buried radionuclides by plants and animals that we have termed biotic transport. Through biotic transport, radionuclides can be moved to locations where they can enter exposure pathways to man. We found that predictive models currently in use did not address the long-term risks resulting from the cumulative transport of radionuclides. Although reports in the literature confirm that biotic transport phenomena are common, assessments routinely ignore the associated risks or dismiss them as insignificant without quantitative evaluation. To determine the potential impacts of biotic transport, we made order-of-magnitude estimates of the dose to man for biotic transport processes at reference arid and humid CLLW disposal sites. Estimated doses to site residents after assumed loss of institutional control were comparable to dose estimates for the intruder-agricultural scenario defined in the DEIS for 10 CFR 61 (NRC). The reported lack of potential importance of biotic transport at low-level waste sites in earlier assessment studies is not confirmed by order of magnitude estimates presented in this study. 17 references, 10 figures, 8 tables.

  4. An Evaluation of Nonsuppurative Joint Disease in Slaughter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Kathleen M.; Doige, Cecil E.; Osborne, A. Dudley

    1987-01-01

    Fifty-two joints from pigs with nonsuppurative joint disease from a local abattoir were examined grossly, histologically, and microbiologically in order to establish macroscopic differences between degenerative arthropathy and arthritis due to an infectious organism. The joints were grouped grossly according to the type and severity of lesions of the synovial membrane and cartilage, and microscopically according to the severity of synovial membrane lesions. Osteochondrosis and Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae were the most common causes of nonsuppurative joint disease in the joints examined. The major macroscopic differences between these two arthropathies were in the nature and severity of the synovial and cartilaginous lesions and involvement of the lymph node draining the diseased joint. Typically, in osteochondrosis, the changes are feathery hypertrophy of villi, focal full-thickness cartilage buckles, ulcers or flaps, and no change in the draining lymph node, whereas in Erysipelothrix- caused arthritis, the villous hypertrophy is severe and polypoid in nature, there is diffuse erosion of articular cartilage, and the draining lymph node is consistently hypertrophic and often cystic. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10.Figure 11. PMID:17422755

  5. Sediment mixing and accumulation rate effects on radionuclide depth profiles in Hudson estuary sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.R.; Simpson, H.J.; Peng, T.H.; Bopp, R.F.; Trier, R.M.

    1981-11-01

    Measured anthropogenic radionuclide profiles in sediment cores from the Hudson River estuary were compared with profiles computed by using known input histories of radionuclides to the estuary and mixing coefficients which decreased exponentially with depth in the sediment. Observed /sup 134/Cs sediment depth profiles were used in the mixing rate computation because reactor releases were the only significant source for this nuclide, whereas the inputs of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 239,240/Pu to the estuary were complicated by runoff or erosion in upstream areas, in addition to direct fallout from precipitation. Our estimates for the rates of surface sediment mixing in the low salinity reach of the estuary range from 0.25 to 1 cm/sup 2//yr, or less. In some areas of the harbor adjacent to New York City, where fine-particle accumulation rates are generally 3 cm/yr, and often as high as 10 to 20 cm/yr, sediment mixing rates as high as 10 cm/sup 2//yr would have little effect on radionuclide peak distributions. Consequently, anthropogenic radionuclide maximum activities in subsurface sediments of the Hudson appear to be useful as time-stratigraphic reference levels, which can be correlated with periods of maximum radionuclide inputs for estimating rates and patterns of sediment accumulation. 10 figures.

  6. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel: status and program

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Ayrault, G.

    1983-10-01

    A program has been initiated to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. The existing data are reviewed to determine the critical parameters that control the aging behavior and to define the objectives and scope of the investigation. The test matrices for microstructural studies and mechanical property measurements are presented. The initial experimental effort is focussed on characterizing the microstructure of long-term, low-temperature aged material. Specimens from three heats of cast CF-8 and CF-8M stainless steel aged for up to 70,000 h at 300, 350, and 400/sup 0/C were obtained from George Fisher Ltd., of Switzerland. Initial analyses reveal the formation of three different types of precipitates which are not ..cap alpha..'. An FCC phase, similar to the M/sub 23/C/sub 6/ precipitates, was present in all the long-term aged material. 15 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Reaction of plutonium with water kinetic and equilibrium behavior of binary and ternary phases in the Pu + O + H system

    SciTech Connect

    Haschke, J.M.; Hodges, A.E. III; Bixby, G.E.; Lucas, R.L.

    1983-02-03

    The kinetic and equilibrium behavior of the Pu + O + H system has been studied by measuring the production of hydrogen gas formed by a sequence of hydrolysis reactions. The kinetic dependence of the Pu + H/sub 2/O reaction on salt concentration and temperature has been defined. The metal is quantitatively converted to a fine black powder which has been identified as plutonium monoxide monohydride, PuOH. Other hydrolysis products formed in aqueous media include a second oxide hydride, Pu/sub 7/O/sub 9/H/sub 3/, and the oxides Pu/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Pu/sub 7/O/sub 12/, Pu/sub 9/O/sub 16/, Pu/sub 10/O/sub 18/, Pu/sub 12/O/sub 22/, and PuO/sub 2/. Thermal decomposition products of PuOH include Pu/sub 2/O/sub 2/H and PuO. A tentative phase diagram for Pu + O + H is presented and structural relationships of the oxide hydrides and oxides are discussed. 10 figures, 5 tables.

  8. Laser for high frequency modulated interferometry

    DOEpatents

    Mansfield, D.K.; Vocaturo, M.; Guttadora, L.J.

    1991-07-23

    A Stark-tuned laser operating in the 119 micron line of CH[sub 3]OH has an output power of several tens of milliwatts at 30 Watts of pump power while exhibiting a doublet splitting of about ten MHz with the application of a Stark field on the order of 500 volts/cm. This output power allows for use of the laser in a multi-channel interferometer, while its high operating frequency permits the interferometer to measure rapid electron density changes in a pellet injected or otherwise fueled plasma such as encountered in magnetic fusion devices. The laser includes a long far-infrared (FIR) pyrex resonator tube disposed within a cylindrical water jacket and incorporating charged electrodes for applying the Stark field to a gas confined therein. With the electrodes located within the resonator tube, the resonator tube walls are cooled by a flowing coolant without electrical breakdown in the coolant liquid during application of the Stark field. Wall cooling allows for substantially increased FIR output powers. Provision is made for introducing a buffer gas into the resonator tube for increasing laser output power and its operating bandwidth. 10 figures.

  9. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide fluorescence spectroscopy and imaging of isolated cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Eng, J; Lynch, R M; Balaban, R S

    1989-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) plays a critical role in oxidative phosphorylation as the primary source of reducing equivalents to the respiratory chain. Using a modified fluorescence microscope, we have obtained spectra and images of the blue autofluorescence from single rat cardiac myocytes. The optical setup permitted rapid acquisition of fluorescence emission spectra (390-595 nm) or intensified digital video images of individual myocytes. The spectra showed a broad fluorescence centered at 447 +/- 0.2 nm, consistent with mitochondrial NADH. Addition of cyanide resulted in a 100 +/- 10% increase in fluorescence, while the uncoupler FCCP resulted in a 82 +/- 4% decrease. These two transitions were consistent with mitochondrial NADH and implied that the myocytes were 44 +/- 6% reduced under the resting control conditions. Intracellular fluorescent structures were observed that correlated with the distribution of a mitochondrial selective fluorescent probe (DASPMI), the mitochondrial distribution seen in published electron micrographs, and a metabolic digital subtraction image of the cyanide fluorescence transition. These data are consistent with the notion that the blue autofluorescence of rat cardiac myocytes originates from mitochondrial NADH. Images FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 11 PMID:2720061

  10. Morphologic studies in the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Sillence, D. O.; Horton, W. A.; Rimoin, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the delineation of the genetic skeletal dysplasias, a heterogeneous group of disorders, that consist of over 80 distinct conditions. Morphologic studies have added a further dimension to the delineation of these conditions, their diagnosis, and the investigation of their pathogenetic mechanisms. In certain diseases, the morphologic alterations are characteristic and pathognomonic. In others only nonspecific alterations are observed, whereas in still other disorders growth-plate structure is essentially normal. Histologic, histochemical, and electronmicroscopic studies of growth-plate cartilage have provided new insights into the complexity of morphogenetic events in normal growth through the demonstration of morphologic defects in the genetic disorders of skeletal growth. As yet, very little is known of the biochemical abnormalities underlying the morphologic abnormalities. However, the great variety of morphologic findings points to a number of different pathogenetic defects in the synthesis, release, and assembly of connective tissue macromolecules and in the cells involved in growth-plate metabolism. Images Figure 4 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 PMID:474720

  11. Simultaneous imaging of cell and mitochondrial membrane potentials.

    PubMed Central

    Farkas, D L; Wei, M D; Febbroriello, P; Carson, J H; Loew, L M

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of charged membrane-permeable molecular probes between intracellular organelles, the cytoplasm, and the outside medium is governed by the relative membrane electrical potentials of these regions through coupled equilibria described by the Nernst equation. A series of highly fluorescent cationic dyes of low membrane binding and toxicity (Ehrenberg, B., V. Montana, M.-D. Wei, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, 1988. Biophys. J. 53:785-794) allows the monitoring of these equilibria through digital imaging video microscopy. We employ this combination of technologies to assess, simultaneously, the membrane potentials of cells and of their organelles in situ. We describe the methodology and optimal conditions for such measurements, and apply the technique to concomitantly follow, with good time resolution, the mitochondrial and plasma membrane potentials in several cultured cell lines. The time course of variations induced by chemical agents (ionophores, uncouplers, electron transport, and energy transfer inhibitors) in either or both these potentials is easily quantitated, and in accordance with mechanistic expectations. The methodology should therefore be applicable to the study of more subtle and specific, biologically induced potential changes in cells. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:2611324

  12. X-ray emission in heavy-ion collisions. Progress report, April 1, 1980-February 28, 1981. [Cyclotron Inst. , Texas A and M Univ. , College Station, 4/1/80-2/28/81

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    During the past year, work on x-ray emission in heavy-ion collisions has concentrated on the following topics: environmental influences on the K..cap alpha.. x-ray spectra of 65-MeV sulfur ions traveling in solids; multiplet structure of few-electron sulfur ions; multiplet structure of Mg K..cap alpha.. x-ray satellites; polarization of 1s2p..-->..1s/sup 2/ transitions in He-like sulfur ions; and interatomic electron transfer in ionic fluorine compounds following 1s2p vacancy production. Among the most significant accomplishments of the program was a study of the dependence of dynamic screening energy shifts on electron density. It was found that the shifts measured for the 2/sup 1/P..-->..1/sup 1/S and 2/sup 2/P..-->..1/sup 2/S x-ray transitions of He- and H-like sulfur ions (respectively) were in remarkably good agreement with theoretical expectations. Another interesting discovery evolved from measurements of fluorine K..cap alpha.. x-ray spectra for the alkali metal and alkaline earth fluorides using 5.5-MeV He/sup +/ ions. The systematics of these spectra provide the first evidence for direct electron transfer between inner levels of neighboring atoms in a solid. 10 figures, 3 tables. (RWR)

  13. Perforated plates for cryogenic regenerators and method of fabrication

    DOEpatents

    Hendricks, J.B.

    1994-03-29

    Perforated plates having very small holes with a uniform diameter throughout the plate thickness are prepared by a [open quotes]wire drawing[close quotes] process in which a billet of sacrificial metal is disposed in an extrusion can of the plate metal, and the can is extruded and restacked repeatedly, converting the billet to a wire of the desired hole diameter. At final size, the rod is then sliced into wafers, and the wires are removed by selective etching. This process is useful for plate metals of interest for high performance regenerator applications, in particular, copper, niobium, molybdenum, erbium, and other rare earth metals. Er[sub 3]Ni, which has uniquely favorable thermophysical properties for such applications, may be incorporated in regions of the plates by providing extrusion cans containing erbium and nickel metals in a stacked array with extrusion cans of the plate metal, which may be copper. The array is heated to convert the erbium and nickel metals to Er[sub 3]Ni. Perforated plates having two sizes of perforations, one of which is small enough for storage of helium, are also disclosed. 10 figures.

  14. Environmental-control-technology activities of the Department of Energy in FY 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report provides an annual identification and summarization of environmental control RD and D activities and associated funding conducted by DOE in conjunction with developing environmentally acceptable energy technologies. Environmental control technology is an integral part of the DOE energy technology R, D, and D effort. As the third in a series of annual reports on environmental control R, D, and D activities within DOE, this report may serve as a basis for evaluating program trends. The report presents background material that contributes to the capability to evaluate and assess the environmental control accomplishments, issues, gaps, and overlaps associated with energy development within DOE, in conjunction with other agencies, and in the private sector. A measure of the change in emphasis in the environmental control technology activities within DOE is also presented, indicating shifts, if any, in funding levels for each of the energy technologies. Total DOE FY 1979 budget outlay allocated to environmental control activities was $421,533,000, or 5.0% of the total FY 1979 DOE budget. This report summarizes the inputs received from the energy technology areas. These inputs were submitted in accordance with a description of environmental control related activities, which are those activities directed at research, development, and demonstration of processes, procedures, systems, subsystems, and strategies that directly or indirectly eliminate, minimize, or mitigate environmental impacts. 25 references, 10 figures, 40 tables.

  15. The isolation and culture of DHBV-infected embryo and duckling hepatocytes and the effect of aflatoxin B1 or irradiation on these cells.

    PubMed Central

    Olubuyide, I. O.; Judah, D. J.; Riley, J.; Neal, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    The preparation of primary cultures of control and DHBV-infected duck hepatocytes from embryos and young ducklings is described. Cultures of both embryo and duckling hepatocytes secreted duck serum proteins. Cultures of hepatocytes established from ducklings maintained initial morphology for up to 3 weeks in culture and also exhibited high levels of metabolism of aflatoxin B1. Embryonic cell cultures rapidly lost ability to metabolise AFB1 and became overgrown by spindle-shaped cells. Both embryo and duckling cell cultures secreted infective DHBV, and had intracellular replicative forms of the virus. No integration of the virus into the duck genome was observed, and attempts to induce viral integration in the duckling hepatocytes using irradiation and aflatoxin B1 toxicity were unsuccessful. The results of the study lend further support to the suggestion that the rarity of liver cancer in DHBV-infected experimental ducks is related to an innate resistance of the hepatocytes to develop DHBV-DNA integration. Another possibility may be related to the lower oncogenic potential of the DHBV strain used for the study. However DHBV infected duckling hepatocytes would appear to offer a suitable material for studying viral replication and mechanisms of aflatoxin B1 toxicity during prolonged cell culture. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:1900699

  16. Inflammatory and immune processes in the human lung in health and disease: evaluation by bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed Central

    Hunninghake, G. W.; Gadek, J. E.; Kawanami, O.; Ferrans, V. J.; Crystal, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage is an invaluable means of accurately evaluating the inflammatory and immune processes of the human lung. Although lavage recovers only those cells and proteins present on the epithelial surface of the lower respiratory tract, comparison with open lung biopsies shows that these constituents are representative of the inflammatory and immune systems of the alveolar structures. With the use of these techniques, sufficient materials are obtained from normal individuals to allow characterization of not only the types of cells and proteins present but their functions as well. Such observations have been useful in defining the inflammatory and immune capabilities of the normal lung and provide a basis for the study of lung disease. Lavage methods have been used to characterize inflammatory and immune processes of the lower respiratory tract in destructive, infectious, neoplastic, and interstitial disorders. From the data already acquired, it is apparent that bronchoalveolar lavage will yield major insights into the pathogenesis, staging, and therapy decisions involved in these disorders. (Am J Pathol 97:149--206, 1979). Images Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 10 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 3 PMID:495693

  17. The image and advocacy of public health in American caricature and cartoons from 1860 to 1900.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, B

    1997-01-01

    The decades just before and after the founding of the American Public Health Association in 1872 saw an efflorescence of political cartooning and caricature in national-circulation weeklies. Part of the political and social critique that cartoonists and their editors provided the public focused on needs or opportunities for preventing illness and accidents. This paper presents a small selection of editorial cartoons that agitated in support of public health activities over 4 decades. The goals are to illustrate several concerns that rose to national prominence in that era, to examine the kinds of imagery that newspapers and magazine editors offered their readers, and to observe how frequently the public was encouraged to see politicians and commercial interests as responsible for preventable health problems. This discussion focuses exclusively on propagandistic images, leaving aside the reportorial depictions of events in the news and the neutral illustrations of methods and machines in scientific and technical publications. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:9366637

  18. Conformational transitions of the phosphodiester backbone in native DNA: two-dimensional magic-angle-spinning 31P-NMR of DNA fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Song, Z; Antzutkin, O N; Lee, Y K; Shekar, S C; Rupprecht, A; Levitt, M H

    1997-01-01

    Solid-state 31P-NMR is used to investigate the orientation of the phosphodiester backbone in NaDNA-, LiDNA-, MgDNA-, and NaDNA-netropsin fibers. The results for A- and B-DNA agree with previous interpretations. We verify that the binding of netropsin to NaDNA stabilizes the B form, and find that in NaDNA, most of the phosphate groups adopt a conformation typical of the A form, although there are minor components with phosphate orientations close to the B form. For LiDNA and MgDNA samples, on the other hand, we find phosphate conformations that are in variance with previous models. These samples display x-ray diffraction patterns that correspond to C-DNA. However, we find two distinct phosphate orientations in these samples, one resembling that in B-DNA, and one displaying a twist of the PO4 groups about the O3-P-O4 bisectors. The latter conformation is not in accordance with previous models of C-DNA structure. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 14 PMID:9284321

  19. Segmented instrumentation tube including a locking sleeve for interlocking the segments of the instrumentation tube

    DOEpatents

    Obermeyer, F.D.

    1993-11-16

    Segmented instrumentation tube including a locking sleeve for interlocking the segments of the instrumentation tube, so that the threaded ends of the instrumentation tube do not unthread when subjected to vibration, such an instrumentation tube being suitable for use in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The instrumentation tube has a first member having a threaded end portion that has a plurality of first holes circumferentially around the outside surface thereof. The instrumentation tube also has a second member having a threaded end portion that has a plurality of second holes circumferentially around the outside surface thereof. The threads of the second member are caused to threadably engage the threads of the first member for defining a threaded joint there between. A sleeve having an inside surface surrounds the end portion of the first member and the end portion of the second member and thus surrounds the threaded joint. The sleeve includes a plurality of first projections and second projections that outwardly extend from the inside surface to engage the first holes and the second holes, respectively. The outside surface of the sleeve is crimped or swaged at the locations of the first projections and second projections such that the first projections and the second projections engage their respective holes. In this manner, independent rotation of the first member with respect to the second member is prevented, so that the instrumentation tube will not unthread at its threaded joint. 10 figures.

  20. Pressurizer tank upper support

    DOEpatents

    Baker, T.H.; Ott, H.L.

    1994-01-11

    A pressurizer tank in a pressurized water nuclear reactor is mounted between structural walls of the reactor on a substructure of the reactor, the tank extending upwardly from the substructure. For bearing lateral loads such as seismic shocks, a girder substantially encircles the pressurizer tank at a space above the substructure and is coupled to the structural walls via opposed sway struts. Each sway strut is attached at one end to the girder and at an opposite end to one of the structural walls, and the sway struts are oriented substantially horizontally in pairs aligned substantially along tangents to the wall of the circular tank. Preferably, eight sway struts attach to the girder at 90[degree] intervals. A compartment encloses the pressurizer tank and forms the structural wall. The sway struts attach to corners of the compartment for maximum stiffness and load bearing capacity. A valve support frame carrying the relief/discharge piping and valves of an automatic depressurization arrangement is fixed to the girder, whereby lateral loads on the relief/discharge piping are coupled directly to the compartment rather than through any portion of the pressurizer tank. Thermal insulation for the valve support frame prevents thermal loading of the piping and valves. The girder is shimmed to define a gap for reducing thermal transfer, and the girder is free to move vertically relative to the compartment walls, for accommodating dimensional variation of the pressurizer tank with changes in temperature and pressure. 10 figures.

  1. System for generating shaped optical pulses and measuring optical pulses using spectral beam deflection (SBD)

    DOEpatents

    Skupsky, S.; Kessler, T.J.; Letzring, S.A.

    1993-11-16

    A temporally shaped or modified optical output pulse is generated from a bandwidth-encoded optical input pulse in a system in which the input pulse is in the form of a beam which is spectrally spread into components contained within the bandwidth, followed by deflection of the spectrally spread beam (SBD) thereby spatially mapping the components in correspondence with the temporal input pulse profile in the focal plane of a lens, and by spatially selective attenuation of selected components in that focal plane. The shaped or modified optical output pulse is then reconstructed from the attenuated spectral components. The pulse-shaping system is particularly useful for generating optical pulses of selected temporal shape over a wide range of pulse duration, such pulses finding application in the fields of optical communication, optical recording and data storage, atomic and molecular spectroscopy and laser fusion. An optical streak camera is also provided which uses SBD to display the beam intensity in the focal plane as a function of time during the input pulse. 10 figures.

  2. Metal boride catalysts for indirect liquefaction. Quarterly technical progress report, December 1, 1983-February 29, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholomew, C.H.

    1984-04-12

    During the sixth quarter four boron-promoted cobalt catalysts were prepared by a new boriding process using diborane gas as the boriding agent. These catalysts were characterized by chemical analysis, BET, H/sub 2/ chemisorption, and x-ray diffraction. Temperature-programmed desorption spectra of H/sub 2/ were obtained for a sodium-promoted cobalt boride and a sodium-promoted Co/SiO/sub 2/. Four cobalt catalysts (unsupported, boron-promoted, sodium-promoted, and doubly-promoted) were tested for CO hydrogenation activity and selectivity at 1 atm and 3 to 4 temperatures in the range of 190 to 240/sup 0/C. About 10% of the surface of cobalt boride consists of reduced metallic cobalt. The addition of sodium to cobalt increases its binding energy with H/sub 2/ and its activation energy for H/sub 2/ adsorption. Boron does not affect the activity of cobalt; sodium decreases it by a factor of 10. Cobalt boride produces lighter hydrocarbon products relative to cobalt; sodium-promoted cobalt produces heavier products, more alcohols, and more CO/sub 2/. 29 references, 10 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Report on the Oak Ridge sewage sludge land-farming experience. Part 1. Data presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Oakes, T.W.; Braunstein, H.M.; Daniels, K.L.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Kitchings, J.T.; Alexander, W.A.

    1984-08-01

    Disposal of sludge from the City of Oak Ridge's sewage treatment facility on a 65-acre site on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation was initiated in November 1983. On March 22, 1984, DOE and the City determined that the sludge contained radioactive materials. Application of sludge on the Reservation was suspended on March 25 and a comprehensive survey and sampling plan was instituted to radiologically characterize the disposal site. By April 1, a radiation walkover survey had been completed on the site and samples of air, water, and soil had been collected to be analyzed for the presence of radionuclides. The mean air dose rate, one meter above the ground surface, was found to be 13 ..mu..R/h with a range from about 8 ..mu..R/h, which is the usual background level in the area, to 21 ..mu..R/h. Concentrations of Cs-137 and Co-60, the principle contaminants in the soil, were essentially below the analytical detection limits in the air and water. About 350 soil samples were collected by extracting cores to a depth of 12 to 15 inches according to a systematic random sampling design. Each core was separated into three sections; the top 3 inches, a middle section, and the bottom 3 inches to represent layers on the site. The majority of the radioactivity was determined to be in the upper 3 inches of soil. A statistical treatment of the analytical results provided an estimate of the total activity at the site, the vertical distribution of the gamma activity, and the areal distribution of the primary radionuclides. A total of 170 mCi of activity was estimated as present in the top 3-inch layer of the 65-acre site, 69% of which was contributed by Co-60 and Cs-137, 23% by U-234 and Sr-90, and 8% by other minor radionuclides. 4 references, 12 figures, 43 tables.

  4. Ultrastructural immunohistochemical localization of virus in acute and chronic demyelinating Theiler's virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Dal Canto, M. C.; Lipton, H. L.

    1982-01-01

    Mice experimentally infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) develop a persistent infection of the central nervous system (CNS). The most striking feature of this infection is the occurrence of inflammatory primary demyelination in the spinal cord white matter. The pathogenesis of myelin degeneration in this model has not been clarified, but morphologic and immunologic data suggest that the host immune response plays a major role in the production of myelin injury. Because of low virus titers in infected adult mice and of the small size of TMEV, virus particles have never been observed in this demyelinating model. Yet elucidation of the types of cells in the CNS supporting virus replication would be important for a better understanding of both virus persistence and virus-induced demyelinating pathology. The present paper is a sequential study of the localization of TMEV in the spinal cord in infected mice by ultrastructural immunohistochemical techniques. Results indicate that virus replication is mainly in neurons during the acute phase of the disease, while in the chronic phase viral inclusions are mainly found in macrophages in and around demyelinating lesions. Other cells are also infected, but to a lesser degree. In the neuronal system both axoplasmic and dendritic flow appear to facilitate the spread of virus in the CNS. In macrophages, the presence of virus particles and the association of virus with altered components of the cytoskeleton support active virus production rather than simple internalization. The macrophage appears to play an important role in both the establishment of virus persistence and in the process of demyelination in this animal model. Images Figure 1 and 2 Figure 3 and 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10-12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 and 16 PMID:6275708

  5. Enhancing memory for lists by grouped presentation and rehearsal: a pilot study in healthy subjects with unexpected results.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Christian; Stojanovic, Jelena; Elger, Christian E

    2009-12-01

    List learning is probably the most established paradigm for the psychometric evaluation of episodic memory deficits in different neuropsychiatric conditions including epilepsy. Strategies which are capable of increasing the test performance might be promising candidates for a therapeutic improvement of daily memory performance. Based on the classical 'temporal grouping effect' we wanted to evaluate the memory-enhancing potential of disentangling perceiving, rehearsing and encoding by temporally grouped presentation and group-wise reproduction during acquisition. According to the ethical principle of subsidiary the study was performed in healthy adolescents (N=126) before setting-up a patient study. Subjects had to learn a list of 12 semantically unrelated nouns and a list of 12 figures during two acquisition trials under one of four experimental conditions defined by the size of presented item groups (GS): GS=1 (single items, i.e., 12 x 1 item), GS=3 (4 x 3 items), GS=6 (2 x 6 items), and GS=12 (standard presentation mode, i.e., 1 x 12 items). Repeated measures MANOVA confirmed a positive effect of smaller GS on acquisition performance but the grouping condition obtained no effect on immediate and delayed free recall or on yes/no recognition. For verbal retention, GS=12 even showed a tendency toward an advantage as compared to GS=3. Although appearing reasonable and promising, facilitating acquisition during list learning by temporal grouping and grouped overt rehearsal turned out to be ineffective with regard to long-term memory encoding and retrieval. A strategy however which fails in healthy subjects is unlikely to obtain a therapeutic potential in patients with memory deficits.

  6. Simulations of the magnet misalignments, field errors and orbit correction for the SLC north arc

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, S.; Chao, A.; Jaeger, J.; Shoaee, H.

    1983-11-01

    Given the intensity of linac bunches and their repetition rate the desired luminosity of SLC 1.0 x 10/sup 30/ cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/ requires focusing the interaction bunches to a spot size in the micrometer (..mu..m) range. The lattice that achieves this goal is obtained by careful design of both the arcs and the final focus systems. For the micrometer range of the beam spot size both the second order geometric and chromatic aberrations may be completely destructive. The concept of second order achromat proved to be extremely important in this respect and the arcs are built essentially as a sequence of such achromats. Between the end of the linac and the interaction point (IP) there are three special sections in addition to the regular structure: matching section (MS) designed for matching the phase space from the linac to the arcs, reverse bend section (RB) which provides the matching when the sign of the curvature is reversed in the arc and the final focus system (FFS). The second order calculations are done by the program TURTLE. Using the TURTLE histogram in the x-y plane and assuming identical histogram for the south arc, corresponding 'luminosity' L is found. The simulation of the misalignments and error effects have to be done simultaneously with the design and simulation of the orbit correction scheme. Even after the orbit is corrected and the beam can be transmitted through the vacuum chamber, the focusing of the beam to the desired size at the IP remains a serious potential problem. It is found, as will be elaborated later, that even for the best achieved orbit correction, additional corrections of the dispersion function and possibly transfer matrix are needed. This report describes a few of the presently conceived correction schemes and summarizes some results of computer simulations done for the SLC north arc. 8 references, 12 figures, 6 tables.

  7. Carbon dioxide measurements in tropical east African biomes

    SciTech Connect

    Schnell, R.C.; Odh, S.A.; Njau, L.N.

    1981-06-20

    From January 1977 through May 1978 atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations were measured hourly and/or continuously at bimonthly intervals over periods varying from 5 to 8 days at 10 different locations in Kenya, East Africa. During each of these periods, at least two, and in some cases five, vertical profile measurements of CO/sub 2/ concentrations were conducted above different biomes. A large diurnal CO/sub 2/ periodicity was observed over land, with daytime drawdowns to 322 ppm and nighttime buildups to more than 400 ppm observed in savannah regions. In and around tropical rain forests, drawdowns to 310 ppm and buildups to more than 400 ppm were regularly observed. On the higher reaches of Mount Kenya, the diurnal CO/sub 2/ cycle was considerably reduced in amplitude, with variations in the range of 2-6 ppm throughout the 16-month study period. On sunny days, the drawdown of CO/sub 2/ was measurable to heights of at least 4000 m above ground level. Other CO/sub 2/ measurements in air over the Indian Ocean (to distances of up to 450 km upwind of the coast) produced fairly consistent concentrations of about 328.5 ppm which did not fluctuate diurnally. The weekly mean CO/sub 2/ concentrations over Kenya appear to have a bimodal structure, with minima occurring in July and January. On the basis of the data collected during the study it appears likely that regular observations at a high-altitude station on Mount Kenya, either with flask sampling or continuous analyzer measurements, are likely to yield data useful for estimates of CO/sub 2/ concentration backgrounds and trends. Also, there is strong evidence that Mount Kenya would be a good location to measure large-scale interhemispheric CO/sub 2/ exchanges and provide a unique base from which to study the effects of the tropical biome on biogeochemical phenomena. 20 references, 12 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Critical periods of vulnerability for the developing nervous system: evidence from humans and animal models.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, D; Barone, S

    2000-01-01

    Vulnerable periods during the development of the nervous system are sensitive to environmental insults because they are dependent on the temporal and regional emergence of critical developmental processes (i.e., proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and apoptosis). Evidence from numerous sources demonstrates that neural development extends from the embryonic period through adolescence. In general, the sequence of events is comparable among species, although the time scales are considerably different. Developmental exposure of animals or humans to numerous agents (e.g., X-ray irradiation, methylazoxymethanol, ethanol, lead, methyl mercury, or chlorpyrifos) demonstrates that interference with one or more of these developmental processes can lead to developmental neurotoxicity. Different behavioral domains (e.g., sensory, motor, and various cognitive functions) are subserved by different brain areas. Although there are important differences between the rodent and human brain, analogous structures can be identified. Moreover, the ontogeny of specific behaviors can be used to draw inferences regarding the maturation of specific brain structures or neural circuits in rodents and primates, including humans. Furthermore, various clinical disorders in humans (e.g., schizophrenia, dyslexia, epilepsy, and autism) may also be the result of interference with normal ontogeny of developmental processes in the nervous system. Of critical concern is the possibility that developmental exposure to neurotoxicants may result in an acceleration of age-related decline in function. This concern is compounded by the fact that developmental neurotoxicity that results in small effects can have a profound societal impact when amortized across the entire population and across the life span of humans. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 14 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:10852851

  9. Experimental study of organically contaminated water in a cooling tower

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, D.J.; Aiyegbusi, O.

    1982-12-01

    A pilot model cooling system was set up and run so as to simultaneously cool heat exchanger tubes and biologically degrade phenol in the makeup water. The cooling tower used 1 ft/sup 2/ by 3 ft high, wetted film, polygrid, PVC packing. Water was circulated at 2.5 gpm (5.6 ft/sec) through two parallel heat exchange tubes immersed in a water bath controlled at 150/sup 0/F. Total water flow was 5 gpm/ft/sup 2/ of tower. Air was forced through the tower to give a liquid to gas mass ratio of 1.3. The cooling water circulated with an average temperature rise of 10/sup 0/F and an average approach to the air wet bulb temperature of 12/sup 0/F. Conclusions of this study are: (1) The pilot cooling tower was successfully operated to simultaneously cool and biodegrade phenol in the makeup water. Operation was not difficult and the experiments were reasonably reproducible. (2) An equivalent average concentration of phenol in the makeup water of 165 ppM (300 ppM BOD) should present little problem in commercial practice. An equivalent average concentration of up to 600 ppM phenol (1200 ppM BOD) may be acceptable in practice. Concentrations higher than 600 ppM phenol will cause such rapid biofouling and such rapid production of suspended solids in the circulating water as to be impractical. (3) More than 85 percent of the phenol removed was by biodegradation. Not more than 15 percent was stripped into the atmosphere. 12 figures, 12 tables.

  10. Electronic structure of metal clusters. 4. Photoelectron spectra and molecular orbital calculations on cobalt, iron, ruthenium, and osmium sulfide nonacarbonyl clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Chesky, P.T.; Hall, M.B.

    1983-10-01

    Gas-phase, ultraviolet photoelectron (PE) spectra and molecular orbital (MO) calculations are reported for SCo/sub 3/(CO)/sub 9/, SH/sub n-//sub 1/Fe/sub n/Co/sub 3//sub -n/(CO)/sub 9/ (n = 1-3), S/sub 2/Fe/sub 3/(CO)/sub 9/, and SH/sub 2/M/sub 3/(CO)/sub 9/ (M = Fe, Ru, Os). The first PE spectra reported for mixed-metal clusters are included in this series. As Co atoms are replaced by the isoelectronic FeH unit, the spectra show the loss of a Co band and the appearance of an Fe band. This phenomenon suggests that the d bands localize upon ionization. In a comparison with the PE spectrum of M/sub 3/(CO)/sub 12/ (M = Fe, Ru, Os), the major spectral changes for SH/sub 2/M/sub 3/(CO)/sub 9/ (M = Fe, Ru, Os) are the loss of a band corresponding to direct M-M interactions and the appearance of bands due to a mixture of energy-equivalent M-H-M and M-S interactions. The spectra also show a substantial rearrangement of the bands due to the t/sub 2g/-like electrons, which are usually considered M-CO ..pi.. bonding. An antibonding interaction between a S orbital and the t/sub 2g/-like orbitals is responsible for a unique band in the spectra which occurs at high ionization energy between the M-M bonding band and the main t/sub 2//sub g/-like band. 12 figures, 9 tables

  11. Transplant arteriosclerosis in a rat aortic model.

    PubMed Central

    Isik, F. F.; McDonald, T. O.; Ferguson, M.; Yamanaka, E.; Gordon, D.

    1992-01-01

    Transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) has emerged as an obstacle to the long-term survival of transplanted organs, especially cardiac transplants. The animal models that have been used to study TA have not been fully characterized with regard to features such as the time course of cell proliferation and the sequence of cell types arriving in the developing intimal lesion. We present a model of TA based on a transplanted segment of abdominal aorta that helps address these questions. Two strains of rats (PVG x DA) underwent orthotopic aortic transplantation without immunosuppression and were killed at 14, 20, 40, and 60 days after transplantation. The within-strain control group displayed minimal evidence of cellular rejection with minimal to absent intimal lesions. In contrast, the allograft group showed a linearly increasing intimal lesion, up through 60 days after transplantation. The mechanism of intimal thickening was by an increase in cell number at the earlier time points with the later deposition of extracellular matrix. The early intimal lesion consisted mostly of mononuclear inflammatory cells (45%) with gradually increasing presence of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in the intima between 20 and 60 days. Conversely, the media showed gradual infiltration by macrophage-type cells with virtual loss of all SMC from the media by 40 days. The proliferative index showed a peak of 6% and 8% at 20 days in both the intima and media, respectively, and was preceded by the presence of macrophages. In fact, most of the proliferating cells at the earlier time points were either monocytes/macrophages, or were immediately adjacent to monocyte-/macrophage-rich regions. This straight artery segment model of transplant arteriosclerosis provides an easily quantifiable system in which the effects of different interventions (e.g., immunosuppressive regimens) can be tested. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure

  12. Field lysimeter facility for evaluating the performance of commercial solidified low-level waste. [Shallow land burial

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, M.B.; Graham, M.J.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-11-01

    Analyzing the potential migration of radionuclides from sites containing solid low-level wastes requires knowledge of contaminant concentrations in the soil solution surrounding the waste. This soil solution concentration is generally referred to as the source term and is determined by such factors as the concentration of radionuclides in the solid waste, the rate of leachate formation, the concentration of dissolved species in the leachate, any solubility reactions occurring when the leachate contacts the soil, and the rate of water flow in the soil surrounding the waste. A field lysimeter facility established at the Hanford site is being used to determine typical source terms in arid climates for commercial low-level wastes solidifed with cement, Dow polymer (vinyl ester-styrene), and bitumen. The field lysimeter facility consists of 10, 3-m-deep by 1.8-m-dia closed-bottom lysimeters situated around a 4-m-deep by 4-m-dia central instrument caisson. Commercial cement and Dow polymer waste samples were removed from 210-L drums and placed in 8 of the lysimeters. Two bitumen samples are planned to be emplaced in the facility's remaining 2 lysimeters during 1984. The central caisson provides access to the instrumentation in the individual lysimeters and allows selective sampling of the soil and waste. Suction candles (ceramic cups) placed around the waste forms will be used to periodically collect soil-water samples for chemical analysis. Meteorological data, soil moisture content, and soil temperature are automatically monitored at the facility. Characterization of the soils and waste forms have been partially completed. These data consist of moisture release characteristics, particle-size distribution, and distributions and concentrations of radionuclides in the waste forms. 11 references, 12 figures, 5 tables.

  13. Actinide cross section program at ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Dabbs, J. W.T.

    1980-01-01

    The actinide cross section program at ORELA, the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, is aimed at obtaining accurate neutron cross sections (primarily fission, capture, and total) for actinide nuclides which occur in fission reactors. Such cross sections, measured as a function of neutron energy over as wide a range of energies as feasible, comprise a data base that permits calculated predictions of the formation and removal of these nuclides in reactors. The present program is funded by the Division of Basic Energy Sciences of DOE, and has components in several divisions at ORNL. For intensively ..cap alpha..-active nuclides, many of the existing fission cross section data have been provided by underground explosions. New measurement techniques, developed at ORELA, now permit linac measurements on fissionable nuclides with alpha half-lives as short as 28 years. Capture and capture-plus-fission measurements utilize scintillation detectors (of capture ..gamma.. rays and fission neutrons) in which pulse shape discrimination plays an important role. Total cross sections can be measured at ORELA on samples of only a few milligrams. A simultaneous program of chemical and isotopic analyses of samples irradiated in EBR-II is in progress to provide benchmarks for the existing differential measurements. These analyses are being studied with updated versions of ORIGEN and with sensitivity determinations. Calculations of the sensitivity to cross section changes of various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle are also being made. Even in this relatively mature field, many cross sections still require improvements to provide an adequate data base. Examples of recent techniques and measurements are presented. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-30

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2005 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2005 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (2) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (3) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (4) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2005 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2005 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  15. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2004

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC for the Environmental Compliance Department ES&H Division, Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    2003-09-30

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2004 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2004 will be in accordance with the following requirements of DOE Order 5400.1: (1) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (2) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (3) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (4) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2004 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2004 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  16. Evaluation of simulated acid precipitation effects on forest microcosms. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.M.; Strickland, R.C.; Weatherford, F.P.; Noggle, J.C.

    1984-04-01

    Microcosms were treated for a 30-month period with simulated precipitation acidified to four pH levels (5.7, 4.5, 4.0, and 3.5) to evaluate the impact of acid precipitation on foliar leaching, plant nutrient content, soil leaching, soil nutrient content, and litter decomposition. Direct effects of acid precipitation on diameter growth, bud break, leaf senescence, chlorophyll content, stomatal size, stomatal density, photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration, and cuticle erosion were evaluated on tulip poplar, white oak, and Virginia pine seedlings growing as mixed stands in the microcosms. None of the plant physiological or morphological parameters evaluated responded in a statistically significant manner as a result of treatment. A significant treatment canopy interaction was observed in the form of a 60 percent increase in calcium input in throughfall in response to the pH 3.5 treatment. Foliar nutrient content did not change in response to treatment nor did field measurements of decomposer activity. Soil analysis indicated a significantly lower concentration of exchangeable calcium and magnesium in the top 3.5 cm of the mineral soil in association with the pH 3.5 treatment. Soil leachate concentrations exhibited significant increases at both the 25 and 50 cm depths. However, at the 100 cm depth no significant response in concentration or elemental loss from the system was observed. Laboratory respiration measurements indicated a small, but statistically significant reduction in decomposer activity in the lower litter (02) horizon. This reduction was masked in the field measurements of decomposer activity due to the relatively small contribution of the 02 to total soil respiration. 38 references, 12 figures, 18 tables.

  17. Molecular dynamics investigation of the structure of a fully hydrated gel-phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer.

    PubMed Central

    Tu, K; Tobias, D J; Blasie, J K; Klein, M L

    1996-01-01

    We report the results of a constant pressure and temperature molecular dynamics simulation of a gel-phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer with nw = 11.8 water molecules/lipid at 19 degrees C. The results of the simulation were compared in detail with a variety of x-ray and neutron diffraction data. The average positions of specific carbon atoms along the bilayer normal and the interlamellar spacing and electron density profile were in very good agreement with neutron and x-ray diffraction results. The area per lipid and the details of the in-plane hydrocarbon chain structure were in excellent agreement with wide-angle x-ray diffraction results. The only significant deviation is that the chains met in a pleated arrangement at the bilayer center, although they should be parallel. Novel discoveries made in the present work include the observation of a bimodal headgroup orientational distribution. Furthermore, we found that there are a significant number of gauche conformations near the ends of the hydrocarbon chains and, in addition to verifying a previous suggestion that there is partial rotational ordering in the hydrocarbon chains, that the two chains in a given molecule are inequivalent with respect to rotations. Finally, we have investigated the lipid/water interface and found that the water penetrates beneath the headgroups, but not as far as the carbonyl groups, that the phosphates are strongly hydrated almost exclusively at the nonesterified oxygen atoms, and that the hydration of the ammonium groups is more diffuse, with some water molecules concentrated in the grooves between the methyl groups. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 12 FIGURE 16 PMID:8789079

  18. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2003 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2003 will be in accordance with the following requirements of DOE Order 5400.1: (1) to evaluate and maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (2) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (3) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (4) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2003 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2003 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  19. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    2001-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2002 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2002 will be in accordance with the following requirements of DOE Order 5400.1: to evaluate and maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2002 will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2002 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells, or wells could be added or removed from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan.

  20. Histological changes and wound healing response following noncontact holmium: YAG laser thermal keratoplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, D D

    1996-01-01

    9A FIGURE 9B FIGURE 10A FIGURE 10B FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12A FIGURE 12B FIGURE 12C FIGURE 12D FIGURE 13A FIGURE 13B FIGURE 14A FIGURE 14B FIGURE 15A FIGURE 15B FIGURE 15C FIGURE 15D FIGURE 16A FIGURE 16B FIGURE 16C FIGURE 16D PMID:8981715

  1. Unclassified Source Term and Radionuclide Data for Corrective Action Unit 98: Frenchman Flat Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, Irene

    2005-09-01

    Frenchman Flat is one of several areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) used for underground nuclear testing (Figure 1-1). These nuclear tests resulted in groundwater contamination in the vicinity of the underground test areas. As a result, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) of the Frenchman Flat underground test areas. Since 1996, the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) has regulated NNSA/NSO corrective actions through the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' ([FFACO], 1996). Appendix VI of the FFACO agreement, ''Corrective Action Strategy'', was revised on December 7, 2000, and describes the processes that will be used to complete corrective actions, including those in the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. The individual locations covered by the agreement are known as corrective action sites (CASs), which are grouped into corrective action units (CAUs). The UGTA CASs are grouped geographically into five CAUs: Frenchman Flat, Central Pahute Mesa, Western Pahute Mesa, Yucca Flat/Climax Mine, and Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (Figure 1-1). These CAUs have distinctly different contaminant source, geologic, and hydrogeologic characteristics related to their location (FFACO, 1996). The Frenchman Flat CAU consists of 10 CASs located in the northern part of Area 5 and the southern part of Area 11 (Figure 1-1). This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for Frenchman Flat, CAU 98. The methodology used to estimate hydrologic source terms (HSTs) for the Frenchman Flat CAU is also documented. The HST of an underground nuclear test is the portion of the total inventory of radionuclides that is released over time into the groundwater following the test. The total residual inventory of radionuclides associated with one or

  2. Differential beta-adrenergic regulation and phenotypic modulation of voltage-gated calcium currents in rat aortic myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Neveu, D; Quignard, J F; Fernandez, A; Richard, S; Nargeot, J

    1994-01-01

    1. We studied the beta-adrenergic regulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channel currents using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique (18-22 degrees C) in freshly isolated and in cultured (1-20 days) rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). These currents include a transient low-voltage-activated (LVA) current and two L-type-related high-voltage-activated currents (HVA1 and HVA2, respectively). 2. At 10 microM, the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoprenaline, increased the HVA2 current (65 +/- 30%, n = 10) but had no effect on LVA and HVA1 currents. This potentiation was dose dependent in the range 0.01-10 microM, developed with a slow time course and was mimicked by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP using the permeant analogue dibutyryl cyclic AMP (100 microM). 3. In the well-differentiated freshly isolated myocytes, only the HVA1 current was recorded. In cultured cells, a predominant frequency of occurrence of LVA and HVA1 currents was observed in modulated and differentiated myocytes, respectively. The occurrence of the HVA2 current was stable during culture but this current disappeared when the cells were confluent. It was retrieved when the confluent cells were dispersed and subcultured. 4. In conclusion, we present evidence for a differential beta-adrenergic regulation of three types of Ca2+ channel current in adult rat aortic VSMCs. The differential expression of these currents, associated with marked changes in cell phenotypes in vitro, suggests that they serve distinct physiological functions. Images Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7799219

  3. Aerosols generated by releases of pressurized powders and solutions in static air

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, S.L.

    1983-08-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases caused by accidents. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop the source terms for these releases. An upper boundary accidental release event would be a pressurized release of powder or liquid in static air. Experiments were run using various source sizes and pressures and measuring the mass airborne and the particle size distribution of aerosols produced by these pressurized releases. Two powder and two liquid sources were used: TiO/sub 2/ and depleted uranium dioxide (DUO); and aqueous uranine (sodium fluorescein) and uranyl nitrate solutions. Results of the experiments showed that pressurization level and source size were significant variables for the airborne powder releases. For this experimental configuration, the liquid releases were a function of pressure, but volume did not appear to be a significant variable. During the experiments 100 g and 350 g of DUO (1 ..mu..m dia) and TiO/sub 2/ (1.7 ..mu..m dia) powders and 100 cm/sup 3/ and 350 cm/sup 3/ of uranine and uranyl nitrate solutions were released at pressures ranging from 50 to 500 psig. The average of the largest fractions of powder airborne was about 24%. The maximum amount of liquid source airborne was significantly less, about 0.15%. The median aerodynamic equivalent diameters (AED) for collected airborne powders ranged from 5 to 19 ..mu..m; liquids ranged from 2 to 29 ..mu..m. All of the releases produced a significant fraction of respirable particles of 10 ..mu..m and less. 12 references, 10 figures, 23 tables.

  4. Pathogenesis of acute arthritis due to viable Chlamydia trachomatis (mouse pneumonitis agent) in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed Central

    Hough, A. J.; Rank, R. G.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the natural history and pathogenesis of the acute arthritis induced by inoculation of a viable Chlamydia trachomatis biovar (mouse pneumonitis agent or MoPn) in C57Bl/6 mice. Immunologically naive (previously unsensitized) mice as well as mice immunized against Chlamydia (MoPn) by vaginal infection were employed. Both intravenous and intraarticular inoculations were employed. No arthritis developed after intravenous injections of MoPn although statistically significant antibody titers and splenic enlargement ensued. Intra-articular inoculation into knee joints produced a definite arthritis of 7 to 10 days duration marked by granulocyte and mononuclear cell infiltration of the joint and vacuolated synovial macrophages that stained heavily for chlamydial antigen by immunoperoxidase technique. Statistically significant increases in articular acute and chronic inflammation (P less than 0.02 were observed in previously sensitized, but not unsensitized, female mice at 2 but not 7 days after intra-articular chlamydial challenge. Chlamydiae were isolated from injected joints up to day 5, but not at day 10, after challenge. Chlamydial antigen disappeared rapidly from knee joints between day 10 and 15 after challenge. Electron micrographs demonstrated vacuolated synovial cells of the macrophage type, many of which contained degenerating chlamydial elementary bodies. Reticulate and intermediate bodies also were seen but were far less frequent than degenerating elementary bodies. Unaltered elementary bodies were difficult to identify beyond day 2 after articular inoculation. Thus, it appears likely that intra-articular chlamydial survival is shorter than the duration of the arthropathy. This may have important implications in attempts to identify chlamydiae in human joints in Reiter's Disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:2705510

  5. Improved Engraftment of Human Spleen Cells in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid Mice as Compared with C.B-17-scid/scid Mice

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Dale L.; Shultz, Leonard D.; Yates, Jon; Appel, Michael C.; Perdrizet, George; Hesselton, RuthAnn M.; Schweitzer, Isabelle; Beamer, Wes G.; Shultz, Kathryn L.; Pelsue, Stephen C.; Leif, Jean H.; Rajan, Thiruchandurai V.

    1995-01-01

    T and B lymphocyte-deficient mice homozygous for the severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mutation can be immunologically engrafted with human lymphocytes. However, low levels of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell engraftment are commonly observed, impeding full use of this model We now demonstrate that strain background in mice homozygous for the scid mutation is a strong determinant of levels of human lymphocyte engraftment. NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice support higher levels of engraftment of both human spleen and peripheral blood mononuclear cells than do C.B-17-scid/scid mice. We observed, using human spleen cell injected scid mice, 1), high levels of engraftment of the host peripheral lymphoid tissues with human CD45+ (leukocytes), CD3+ (T cells), CD4+ (helper/inducer), and CD8+ (suppressor/cytotoxic) lymphoid cells for up to 24 weeks in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice; 2), migration of high numbers of human lymphocytes to peripheral lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid, but not in C.B-17-scid/scid mice; 3), higher levels of serum immunoglobulin of human origin in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice than in C.B-17-scid/scid mice; 4), histological lesions character-istic of human anti-mouse xenoreactivity in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice; and 5), human origin antibodies against filarial antigens after engraftment with naive human spleen cells. The use of NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice as recipients to achieve significantly enhanced human lymphopoietic cell engraftment will now enable human immunity to be more easily studied in animal models. ImagesFigure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 12 PMID:7717456

  6. Ultrastructural alterations in skeletal muscle of pigs with acute monensin myotoxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    Large doses of monensin, a Na+-selective carboxylic ionophore, produce polyfocal, monophasic necrosis of skeletal muscle, with Type I fiber selectivity, in swine. For a study of the sequential ultrastructural alterations in affected skeletal muscles, 14 weanling pigs were given 40 mg monensin/kg body weight and were euthanatized 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 days later. Myotoxicosis and myoglobinuria were apparent clinically. At necropsy, white, dry areas of necrosis were present in the muscle masses of the anterior and posterior thigh, shoulder, and loin. Two patterns of skeletal muscle necrosis were observed on Day 1, especially in Type I fibers. In fibers exhibiting the first of these patterns, the contractile material was disrupted, forming dense amorphous and filamentous clumps scattered within the persistent sheaths of external lamina (sarcolemmal tubes); the mitochondria were swollen and contained flocculent matrix densities, and the nuclei were pyknotic. Fibers showing the second pattern were uniformly dense, but their sarcoplasm was not disrupted. Sublethally injured fibers were also observed and showed focal myofibrillar lysis. On Days 2 and 4, the necrotic muscle had marked infiltration of macrophages in the interstitium and within sarcolemmal tubes. Rapid resolution of the fiber necrosis occurred by phagocytosis of the sarcoplasmic debris. Regeneration of affected muscles developed early following injury and progressed rapidly to complete restoration of the necrotic muscles without residual fibrosis. Regeneration was initiated on Day 1 by activation of satellite cells to form presumptive myoblasts; on Days 4 and 8 these cells showed evidence of fusion, forming myotubes to restore the necrotic fibers. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6696050

  7. Neglecting rice milling yield and quality underestimates economic losses from high-temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Lyman, Nathaniel B; Jagadish, Krishna S V; Nalley, L Lanier; Dixon, Bruce L; Siebenmorgen, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Future increases in global surface temperature threaten those worldwide who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. Past analyses of high-temperature stress on rice production have focused on paddy yield and have failed to account for the detrimental impact of high temperatures on milling quality outcomes, which ultimately determine edible (marketable) rice yield and market value. Using genotype specific rice yield and milling quality data on six common rice varieties from Arkansas, USA, combined with on-site, half-hourly and daily temperature observations, we show a nonlinear effect of high-temperature stress exposure on yield and milling quality. A 1 °C increase in average growing season temperature reduces paddy yield by 6.2%, total milled rice yield by 7.1% to 8.0%, head rice yield by 9.0% to 13.8%, and total milling revenue by 8.1% to 11.0%, across genotypes. Our results indicate that failure to account for changes in milling quality leads to understatement of the impacts of high temperatures on rice production outcomes. These dramatic losses result from reduced paddy yield and increased percentages of chalky and broken kernels, which together decrease the quantity and market value of milled rice. Recently published estimates show paddy yield reductions of up to 10% across the major rice-producing regions of South and Southeast Asia due to rising temperatures. The results of our study suggest that the often-cited 10% figure underestimates the economic implications of climate change for rice producers, thus potentially threatening future food security for global rice producers and consumers.

  8. Neglecting Rice Milling Yield and Quality Underestimates Economic Losses from High-Temperature Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lyman, Nathaniel B.; Jagadish, Krishna S. V.; Nalley, L. Lanier; Dixon, Bruce L.; Siebenmorgen, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Future increases in global surface temperature threaten those worldwide who depend on rice production for their livelihoods and food security. Past analyses of high-temperature stress on rice production have focused on paddy yield and have failed to account for the detrimental impact of high temperatures on milling quality outcomes, which ultimately determine edible (marketable) rice yield and market value. Using genotype specific rice yield and milling quality data on six common rice varieties from Arkansas, USA, combined with on-site, half-hourly and daily temperature observations, we show a nonlinear effect of high-temperature stress exposure on yield and milling quality. A 1°C increase in average growing season temperature reduces paddy yield by 6.2%, total milled rice yield by 7.1% to 8.0%, head rice yield by 9.0% to 13.8%, and total milling revenue by 8.1% to 11.0%, across genotypes. Our results indicate that failure to account for changes in milling quality leads to understatement of the impacts of high temperatures on rice production outcomes. These dramatic losses result from reduced paddy yield and increased percentages of chalky and broken kernels, which together decrease the quantity and market value of milled rice. Recently published estimates show paddy yield reductions of up to 10% across the major rice-producing regions of South and Southeast Asia due to rising temperatures. The results of our study suggest that the often-cited 10% figure underestimates the economic implications of climate change for rice producers, thus potentially threatening future food security for global rice producers and consumers. PMID:23991056

  9. Increased lung vascular permeability after pancreatitis and trypsin infusion.

    PubMed Central

    Tahamont, M. V.; Barie, P. S.; Blumenstock, F. A.; Hussain, M. H.; Malik, A. B.

    1982-01-01

    We examined the role of proteases in mediating lung vascular injury after acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis. Studies were made in sheep in which pulmonary lymph was collected for assessment of the changes in transvascular fluid and protein exchange. The induction of pancreatitis by injection of trypsin and sodium taurocholate into the pancreas resulted in increases in pulmonary lymph flow and transvascular protein clearance (lymph flow x lymph-to-plasma protein concentration ratio). The pulmonary vascular pressures did not change significantly after pancreatitis, indicating that the increases in pulmonary lymph flow and protein clearance were due to increased pulmonary endothelial permeability. The response to pancreatitis was also characterized by decreases in concentrations of fibrinogen, platelets, and granulocytes. Pulmonary leukostasis was a common morphologic feature in this group. In another group, an intravenous infusion of trypsin, which produced decreases in antiprotease activity comparable to those observed after pancreatitis, also resulted in increases in pulmonary lymph flow and transvascular protein clearance. These increases in lymph fluxes were comparable to those observed after pancreatitis and were also associated with decreases in concentrations of fibrinogen, platelets, and granulocytes. Pulmonary leukostasis was evident in this group upon histologic examination. In a third group, pretreatment with Trasylol prevented the increases in pulmonary lymph flow and transvascular protein clearance after pancreatitis, suggesting that the pancreatitis-induced pulmonary vascular injury is the result of the release of proteases. The results indicate a common pulmonary vascular response to acute pancreatitis and trypsin infusion. The release of proteases into the circulation after acute pancreatitis may be the initiating event mediating the pulmonary vascular injury. Images Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figures 11 and 12 PMID:6181692

  10. Apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat hepatocyte cell lines expressing hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot, S.; Miller, T.; Cornman, G.; Isom, H. C.

    1996-01-01

    Three well differentiated SV40-immortalized rat hepatocyte cell lines, CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14, and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-producing cell lines derived from them were examined for sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14 cells were co-transfected with a DNA construct containing a dimer of the HBV genome and the neo gene and selected in G418 to generate stable cell lines. Characterization of these cell lines indicated that they contain integrated HBV DNA, contain low molecular weight HBV DNA compatible with the presence of HBV replication intermediates, express HBV transcripts, and produce HBV proteins. The viability of CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV2 cells was not significantly altered when they were treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations as high as 20,000 U/ml. The HBV-expressing CWSV1 cell line, SV1di36, and the HBV-expressing CWSV14 cell line, SV14di208, were also not killed when treated with TNF-alpha. However, the HBV-expressing CWSV2 cell line, SV2di366, was extensively killed when treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations ranging from 200 to 20,000 U/ml. Analysis of several different HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines indicated that TNF-alpha killing depended upon the level of HBV expression. The TNF-alpha-induced cell killing in high HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines was accompanied by the presence of an oligonucleosomal DNA ladder characteristic of apoptosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8774135

  11. An evaluation of the utility of anti-granulocyte and anti-leukocyte monoclonal antibodies in the diagnosis of Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, R. F.; Gatter, K. C.; Pulford, K. A.; Mason, D. Y.

    1986-01-01

    The immunoreactivity of six different monoclonal antigranulocyte antibodies (Leu M1, TG1, 3C4, BY/87a, BY/37a, and 3CD1) has been evaluated in 23 cases of Hodgkin's disease (7 lymphocyte predominant, 12 nodular sclerosing, and 5 mixed cellularity); in a variety of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and in a series of reactive and benign lesions of lymph nodes. Applying a monoclonal antibody (PD7/26) to leukocyte common antigen (T200), we have also investigated reports that the L&H variants in nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's disease are strongly immunoreactive for leukocyte common antigen in contrast to the lack of reactivity of Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells and variants thereof in other forms of Hodgkin's disease. All six monoclonal anti-granulocyte antibodies reacted against RS cells and "Hodgkin's cells" in the nodular sclerosing (NSHD) and mixed cellularity (MCHD) types, with strong cell membrane and juxtanuclear (Golgi) staining. In contrast an anti-leukocyte antibody PD7/26 was unreactive with RS cells and variants thereof in NSHD and MCHD. On the other hand, RS cells and L&H variants thereof in the nodular L&H form of Hodgkin's disease (nodular lymphocyte predominant type) showed reactivity with PD7/26 but not with the anti-granulocyte markers. Rare L&H cells in 2 cases of diffuse lymphocyte predominant type showed reactivity with some, but not all, of the anti-granulocyte antibodies. These findings provide further support for the concept that the nodular L&H type of Hodgkin's disease represents an entity distinct from other forms of this disorder. Our studies also demonstrate the usefulness of these immunoperoxidase techniques when applied to formalinfixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5A and B Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:3717303

  12. Immunopathology of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Z. A.; Reed, S. G.; Roters, S. B.; Sadigursky, M.

    1984-01-01

    Relatively susceptible BALB/c and relatively resistant A/J mice were infected subcutaneously in the right hind footpad with promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis. A large localized lesion developed within 2 months after infection in the BALB/c mice, while A/J mice exhibited a small discrete fibrotic nodule. Sequential immunologic and histologic examination demonstrated that BALB/c mice developed a nodular foam-cell type of lesion and progressive depression of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to leishmania antigen, while the A/J mice had a mixed cellular fibrosing and encapsulating reaction and developed and maintained positive DTH responses to leishmania antigen. Anti-leishmania antibody responses were positive at similar levels in both strains. The lesions in BALB/c mice were found in bone marrow, tendon, skin appendages, and regional lymph nodes, with a tendency toward cutaneous metastases. Lesions in A/J mice remained localized. Fibrosis, focal fibrinoid necrosis, and lymphocytic and macrophagic infiltration were the outstanding features. Light and transmission electron microscopic studies indicated that no outstanding destruction of leishmanias seemed to occur within macrophages of either mouse strain. In the more resistant A/J mice, however, parasitized macrophages were frequently necrotic, and degenerating leishmanias were often seen free in the interstitial tissue. These observations help the interpretation of the histologic features, as well as the pathogenesis, of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in man. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6691411

  13. Bering Sea summary report: Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activities in the Bering Sea and their onshore impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Deis, J.; Pierson, R.; Kurz, F.

    1983-09-01

    Two federal offshore oil-and-gas lease sales have been held in the Bering Sea Subregion. Lease Sale 57, Norton Basin, was held on March 15, 1983. Lease Sale 70, St. George Basin, was held on April 12, 1983. The sale offered 479 tracts, of which 97 received bids. The Department of the Interior has indicated that it will accept 96 of the 97 high bids; however, to date, leases have not been awarded. The Department of the Interior was enjoined from issuing leases by the US District Court of Alaska because of possible impacts from postlease preliminary seismic activities on gray and right whales. In accordance with the Court's ruling, leases cannot be issued until the completion of a supplemental environmental impact statement, which is anticipated to occur in November 1983. Six lease offerings in the Bering Sea Subregion are scheduled through 1987. Six deep stratigraphic test wells are the only wells drilled to date in the Bering Sea Subregion. To date, oil companies have not submitted exploration plans for the Norton Basin Planning Area. Exploration in Norton Basin could begin in the summer of 1984, at the earliest. Exploration plans cannot be submitted for the St. George Basin Planning Area until the leases are awarded. At this time, various onshore areas are being considered as possible support bases for offshore oil-and-gas exploration. At this stage, before exploratory drilling has occurred and in the absence of a commercial discovery, plans for transporting petroleum from the Bering Sea to markets in the United States are unclear. The current estimates of risked resources for lands leased in Lease Sale 57, Norton Basin, are 33 million barrels of oil and 110 billion cubic feet of gas. Lease Sale 70, St. George Basin, estimates of risked resources for leased lands are 27 million barrels of oil and 310 billion cubic feet of gas. 55 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Identification of crevice corrosion in the titanium alloy TiCode-12 in simulated rock salt brine at 150/sup 0/C. [Ti-0. 3Mo-0. 8Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, T.M.; Lee, B.S.; Soo, P.

    1982-01-01

    TiCode-12 (Ti-0.3Mo-0.8Ni) is a prime corrosion-resistant material for high-level nuclear-waste containers which will be emplaced in mined geologic repositories such as those in rock salt. The crevice corrosion behavior of this alloy was investigated in simulated rock salt brine solutions at a temperature of 150/sup 0/C. A distinct corrosion product with a range of interference colors was observed in a mechanically simulated crevice after two to four-weeks' exposure. Low pH accelerated the reaction rate and deaerated solutions give less corrosion than aerated ones. Also, increasing specimen size, decreasing crevice gap, and preoxidation of the cathodic area gave more voluminous corrosion products inside the crevice. High temperature did not necessarily accelerate crevice corrosion. These results are consistent with those expected from macroscopic concentration cell formation accompanied by oxygen depletion, potential drop, and acidification inside the crevice. TEM and SEM techniques were extensively utilized to identify the film formed inside the crevice at each stage of the corrosion process. Based on the study, and pH and potential measurements inside the crevice of commercially pure titanium done by other workers, a mechanism for crevice corrosion in TiCode-12 has been developed. It involves the initial formation of compact anatase crystals inside the crevice.As the macroscopic cell develops further, it is postulated that either the anatase form of TiO/sub 2/ will transform to the lower oxide Ti/sub 3/O/sub 5/ and to the rutile form of TiO/sub 2/, or titanium dissolves into the solution after the breakdown of the protective film and subsequent hydrolysis takes place to form the lower oxide and the rutile form of TiO/sub 2/. The role of alloying elements (Mo and Ni) and dissolved solutes are discussed with respect to these postulations. 10 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Thermomechanical models of the Rio Grande rift

    SciTech Connect

    Bridwell, R.J.; Anderson, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    Fully two-dimensional, coupled thermochemical solutions of a continental rift and platform are used to model the crust and mantle structure of a hot, buoyant mantle diapir beneath the Rio Grande rift. The thermomechanical model includes both linear and nonlinear laws of the Weertman type relating shear stress and creep strain rate, viscosity which depends on temperature and pressure, and activation energy, temperature-dependent thermal conductivity, temperature-dependent coefficient of thermal expansion, the Boussinesq approximation for thermal bouyancy, material convection using a stress rate that is invariant to rigid rotations, an elastically deformable crust, and a free surface. The model determines the free surface velocities, solid state flow field in the mantle, and viscosity structure of lithosphere and asthenosphere. Regional topography and crustal heat flow are simulated. A suite of symmetric models, assumes continental geotherms on the right and the successively increasing rift geotherms on the left. These models predict an asthenospheric flow field which transfers cold material laterally toward the rift at > 300 km, hot, buoyant material approx. 200 km wide which ascends vertically at rates of 1 km/my between 175 to 325 km, and spreads laterally away from the rift at the base of the lithosphere. Crustal spreading rates are similar to uplift rates. The lithosphere acts as stiff, elastic cap, damping upward motion through decreased velocities of 1 km/10 my and spreading uplift laterally. A parameter study varying material coefficients for the Weertman flow law suggests asthenospheric viscosities of approx. 10/sup 22/ to 10/sup 23/ poise. Similar studies predict crustal viscosities of approx. 10/sup 25/ poise. The buoyant process of mantle flow narrows and concentrates heat transport beneath the rift, increases upward velocity, and broadly arches the lithosphere. 10 figures, 1 table.

  16. Behavior of the plasma membrane of isolated protoplasts during a freeze-thaw cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Dowgert, M.F.; Steponkus, P.L.

    1984-08-01

    Cryomicroscopy of protoplasts isolated from nonacclimated (NA) rye leaves (Secale cereale L. cv Puma) revealed that the predominant form of injury following cooling to the minimum temperature for 50% survival (LT/sub 50/) (-5/sup 0/C) was expansion-induced lysis of the plasma membrane during warming and thawing of the suspending medium when the decreasing osmolality resulted in osmotic expansion of the protoplasts. When cooled to temperatures below the LT/sub 50/, the predominant form of injury was loss of osmotic responsiveness following cooling so that the protoplasts were osmotically inactive during warming. Only a low incidence (< 10%) of expansion-induced lysis was observed in protoplasts isolated from acclimated (ACC) leaves, and the predominant form of injury following cooling to the LT/sub 50/ (-25/sup 0/C) was loss of osmotic responsiveness. The tolerable surface area increment (TSAI/sub 50/) which resulted in lysis of 50% of a population (TSAI) of NA protoplasts osmotically expanded from isotonic solutions was 1122 +/- 172 square micrometers. Similar values were obtained when the protoplasts were osmotically expanded from hypertonic solutions. Osmotic contractions were readily reversible upon return to isotonic solutions. During freeze-induced dehydration, endocytotic vesicles formed in NA protoplasts whereas exocytotic extrusions formed on the surface of ACC protoplasts. During osmotic expansion following thawing of the suspending medium, the endocytotic vesicles remained in the cytoplasm of NA protoplasts and the protoplasts lysed before their original volume and surface area were regained. In contrast, the exocytotic extrusions were drawn back into the surface of ACC protoplasts as the protoplasts regained their original volume and surface area. 25 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  17. Comparative toxicity of SRC-I wastewater to aquatic organisms. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    SRI International performed a series of acute and chronic toxicity studies on SRC-I wastewaters using fish, zooplankton, and algae as test organisms. The tests were designed to determine the toxicity of SRC-I wastewaters to quatic organisms and based on differences in toxicity of the various water samples, to evaluate the efficacy of various wastewater treatment methods. Survival data from acute and chronic daphnid studies indicate that phenol recovery markedly reduced wastewater toxicity. In treatment processes that did not include phenol recovery, powdered activated carbon reduced toxicity more effectively than granulated activated carbon. All treated water supported algal growth in excess of that in controls, particularly those waters subjected to phenol recovery. The toxicity of each SRC-I wastewater sample was compared with that of a corresponding synthetic salt solution to determine whether the salt load was the toxic element. The wastewaters typically exhibited higher toxicity than their associated salt solutions. The effect was greatest in the daphnid chronic studies. The aquatic ecotoxicity tests were performed as part of ICRC's post-Base-line environmental R and D program. One objective of the program was to evaluate the impact of phenol recovery on effluent quality. Another objective was to assess the potential impact of wastewater discharge on aquatic organisms. The results of this study have been integrated with results from the rest of the R and D program, and are documented in ICRC's Integration Report for SRC-I Post-Baseline Environmental R and D. 7 references, 10 figures and 22 tables.

  18. Parallel temperature dependence of contracture-associated enzyme release due to anoxia, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), or caffeine and the calcium paradox.

    PubMed Central

    Ganote, C. E.; Sims, M. A.

    1984-01-01

    Hypothermia during calcium-free perfusion of hearts protects them from injury caused by subsequent calcium repletion at 37 C (calcium paradox). Injury to calcium-free hearts is also associated with contracture caused by anoxia, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), or caffeine. This study was done for the purpose of determining whether hypothermia during calcium-free perfusions protects hearts from contracture-associated injury. Langendorff-perfused rat hearts were studied in four experimental groups: I) Anoxia: Thirty minutes of anoxic perfusion at 37 C was followed by thirty minutes of anoxic calcium-free perfusion at 37-18 C. II) Calcium paradox: Five minutes of calcium-free perfusion at 37-18 C was followed by calcium repletion at 37 C. III, IVa) Caffeine or DNP: Five minutes of calcium-free perfusion at 37-18 C was followed by addition of 10 mM caffeine or 1 mM DNP in calcium-free medium at 37 C or, IVb) 1 mM DNP in calcium-free medium at 22 C. Injury was assessed by measurement of serial releases of creatine kinase (CK) in effluents and by cellular morphology. The results show that progressive hypothermia to 22 C during calcium-free perfusion periods produced a progressive reduction of CK release and morphologic evidence of injury due to anoxia, caffeine, or DNP, which closely paralleled protection of hearts from the calcium paradox. Protection from injury in all experimental groups was associated with preservation of sarcolemmal membrane integrity and prevention of cell separations at intercalated disk junctions. It is proposed that weakening of intercalated disks occurs during calcium-free perfusions and may be a cause of mechanical fragility of the sarcolemma. Hypothermia may protect hearts from contracture-associated injury by preserving the integrity of intercalated disk junctions during periods of extracellular calcium depletion. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6742111

  19. Ground- and excited-state proton transfers in reversed micelles. Polarity restrictions and isotope effects

    SciTech Connect

    Politi, M.J.; Brandt, O.; Fendler, J.H.

    1985-05-23

    Ground- and excited-state proton transfers have been investigated with 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonate, POH, in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate, AOT, reversed micelle solubilized water pools in isooctane. Since POH is a much stronger acid in the singlet excited state, (POH)*, than in the ground state (pK/sub a/ = 7.2, pK/sub a/* = 0.5), excitation of POH by 1-5-mJ, 8-ns, 353-nm laser pulses, at pH values such that pK/sub a/* < pH < pK/sub a/, results in the dissociation of POH, governed by k/sub off/*. PO/sup -/ reprotonation rate, K/sub on/ values, have been determined by laser flash photolysis. In reversed micelles k/sub on/ values were found to depend on the water-to-AOT ratio(w values). Deuterium solvent isotope effects of 1.3 and 2.2 have been determined for k/sub on//k/sub on/(D/sub 2/O) in w = 33 and 12 AOT solubilized reversed micelles in isooctane. Combining these values with pK/sub a/ of POH led to isotope effects of 7.8 and 8.4 on k/sub off/ in the corresponding solutions. Steady-state and subnanosecond time-resolved fluorescence measurements have been utilized for assessing POH excited-state deprotonation, governed by k/sub off/*(D/sub 2/O), and reprotonation, governed by k/sub on/*(D/sub 2/O), in pure D/sub 2/O and in AOT entrapped water and AOT-d entrapped D/sub 2/O pools in isooctane. 51 references, 10 figures, 6 tables.

  20. A murine monoclonal antibody, MoAb HMSA-5, against a melanosomal component highly expressed in early stages, and common to normal and neoplastic melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Der, J. E.; Dixon, W. T.; Jimbow, K.; Horikoshi, T.

    1993-01-01

    The melanosome is a secretory organelle unique to the melanocyte and its neoplastic counterpart, malignant melanoma. The synthesis and assembly of these intracytoplasmic organelles is not yet fully understood. We have developed a murine monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against melanosomes isolated from human melanocytes (newborn foreskin) cultured in the presence of 12-O tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). This MoAb, designated HMSA-5 (Human Melanosome-Specific Antigen-5) (IgG1), recognised a cytoplasmic antigen in both normal human melanocytes and neoplastic cells, such as common and dysplastic melanocytic nevi, and malignant melanoma. None of the carcinoma or sarcoma specimens tested showed positive reactivity with MoAb HMSA-5. Under immunoelectron microscopy, immuno-gold deposition was seen on microvesicles associated with melanosomes, and a portion of the ER-Golgi complexes. Radioimmunoprecipitation analysis showed that the HMSA-5 reactive antigen was a glycoprotein of M(r) 69 to 73 kDa. A pulse-chase time course study showed that the amount of antigen detected by MoAb HMSA-5 decreased over a 24 h period without significant expression on the cell surface, or corresponding appearance of the antigen in the culture supernatant. This glycoprotein appears to play a role in the early stages of melanosomal development, and the HMSA-5 reactive epitope may be lost during subsequent maturation processes. Importantly, HMSA-5 can be identified in all forms of human melanocytes, hence it can be considered a new common melanocytic marker even on routine paraffin sections. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:7678981

  1. Microscopical comparison of cotton, corn, and soybean dusts.

    PubMed Central

    Goynes, W R; Ingber, B F; Palmgren, M S

    1986-01-01

    Specialized analytical methods are required for identification of components of agricultural dusts such as those generated in harvesting, transportation, storage, and processing of cotton, corn, and soybeans. The larger particles and trash components of the dusts can often be identified visually or with the aid of an optical microscope (OM). The respirable portion of the dust, that which causes lung dysfunction, retains few structural features for identification. Electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis, together with special optical microscopical techniques, can be used to characterize these microdusts. Combination studies with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis of cotton dusts have shown the presence of mineralogical particles probably of a soil origin and materials that can be associated with plant parts. Even in screened and filtered cotton dusts, fibrillar fragments are usually present due to their ability to penetrate openings the size of their diameters. The corn and soybean dusts studied were different from the cotton dust in that the large fibrillar component of the cotton dust was absent in the screened grain dusts. However, these dusts consisted of structurally unrecognizable particles that appeared similar to those found in cotton dust. In addition they contained many spheroid particles identified as starch. Dusts from all three sources were found to agglomerate into larger particles, some of which were still less than 10 micron. This agglomeration could confuse the instrumental measurement of dust particle size. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. a FIGURE 3. b FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. a FIGURE 5. b FIGURE 5. c FIGURE 5. d FIGURE 6. FIGURE 7. a FIGURE 7. b FIGURE 8. FIGURE 9. a FIGURE 9. b FIGURE 10. FIGURE 11. a FIGURE 11. b FIGURE 11. c FIGURE 11. d PMID:3709475

  2. Abscisic acid metabolism in relation to water stress and leaf age in Xanthium strumarium

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, K.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1984-12-01

    Intact plants of Xanthium strumarium L. were subjected to a water stress-recovery cycle. As the stress took effect, leaf growth ceased and stomatal resistance increased. The mature leaves then wilted, followed by the half expanded ones. Water, solute, and pressure potentials fell steadily in all leaves during the rest of the stress period. After 3 days, the young leaves lost turgor and the plants were rewatered. All the leaves rapidly regained turgor and the younger ones recommenced elongation. Stomatal resistance declined, but several days elapsed before pre-stress values were attained. Abscisic aid (ABA) and phaseic acid (PA) levels rose in all the leaves after the mature ones wilted. ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) levels increased to a lesser extent, and the young leaves contained little of this conjugate. PA leveled off in the older leaves during the last 24 hours of stress, and ABA levels declined slightly. The young leaves accumulated ABA and PA throughout the stress period and during the 14-hour period immediately following rewatering. The ABA and PA contents, expressed per unit dry weight, were highest in the young leaves. Upon rewatering, large quantities of PA appeared in the mature leaves as ABA levels fell to the pre-stress level within 14 hours. In the half expanded and young leaves, it took several days to reach pre-stress ABA values. ABA-GE synthesis ceased in the mature leaves, once the stress was relieved, but continued in the half expanded and young leaves for 2 days. Mature leaves, when detached and stressed, accumulated an amount of ABA similar to that in leaves on the intact plant. In contrast, detached and stressed young leaves produced little ABA. Studies with radioactive (+/-)-ABA indicated that in young leaves the conversion of ABA to PA took place at a much lower rate than in mature ones. 25 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Structural and biochemical changes in lungs of 3-methylindole-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, L. W.; Wilson, D. W.; Schiedt, M. J.; Giri, S. N.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of a single dose of 3-methylindole (3-MI) (250 mg/kg intraperitoneally) were studied at different times ranging from 12 hours to 2 weeks post-treatment (PT). Microscopic study revealed mild Clara cell injury 24 hours PT and mucus hyperplasia 24 hours to 2 weeks PT. Diffuse type I alveolar epithelial cell necrosis occurred at 48 hours, followed by type II cell hyperplasia. Septal edema and accumulation of interstitial and capillary polymorphonuclear leukocytes and perivascular mixed mononuclear inflammatory cells accompanied the injury and repair. A gradual resolution of lesions with persistent mononuclear inflammatory cellular clusters at septal junctions, focal septal fibrosis, and accumulation of alveolar macrophages was evident at 1 and 2 weeks PT. Collagen, measured as hydroxyproline, in 3-MI-treated rats was significantly increased to 130% and 139% of control (3.0 mg/lung) at 1 and 2 weeks PT, respectively. Biphasic peaks of plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha occurred at 12 to 24 hours and at 96 hours PT with 3-MI and thromboxane B2 was elevated 12, 48, and 96 hours PT. Right ventricular/left ventricular and septal weight was increased to 120% and 140% of the control 1 and 2 weeks PT. We concluded that 3-MI induces alveolar septal injury in the rat with relatively complete repair of the alveolar epithelium and residual mild focal septal fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension 2 weeks PT. Arachidonic acid-derived mediators and inflammation are associated with 3-MI-induced lung injury. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8424451

  4. M6.0 South Napa Earthquake Forecasting on the basis of jet stream precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    Currently earthquake prediction research methods can be divided into the crust change, radon concentration, well water level, animal behavior, Very high frequency (VHF) signals, GPS/TEC in ionospheric variations, thermal infrared radiation (TIR) anomalies. Before major earthquakes (M> 6) occurred, jet stream in the epicenter area will interrupt or velocity flow lines cross. That meaning is that before earthquake happen, atmospheric pressure in high altitude suddenly dropped during 6~12 hours (Wu & Tikhonov, 2014). This technique has been used to predict the strong earthquakes in real time, and then pre-registered on the website. For example: M6.0 Northern California earthquake on 2014/08/24(figure1) , M6.6 Russia earthquake on 2013/10/12(figure2), As far as 2014/08/24 M6.6 earthquake in CA, USA, the front end of the 60knots speed line was at the S.F. on 2014/06/16 12:00, and then after 69 days ,M6.1 earthquake happened. We predicted that magnitude is larger than 5.5 but the period is only 30 days on 2014/07/16 . The deviation of predicted point was about 70 km. Lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere (LAI) coupling model may be explained this phenomenon : Ionization of the air produced by an increased emanation of radon at epicenter. The water molecules in the air react with these ions, and then release heat. The heat result in temperature rise in the air. They are also accompanied by a large-scale change in the atmospheric pressure and jet streams morphology.We obtain satisfactory accuracy of estimation of the epicenter location. As well we define the short alarm period. That's the positive aspects of our forecast. However, estimates of magnitude jet contain a big uncertainty.Reference:H.C Wu, I.N. Tikhonov, 2014, "Jet streams anomalies as possible short-term precursors of earthquakes with M>6.0", Research in geophysics, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ rg.2014.4939 http://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/rg/article/view/rg.2014.4939

  5. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2008-12-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2009 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2009 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2009 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2009 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  6. Calendar Year 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2009-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2008 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2008 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2008 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2008 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the

  7. Preliminary investigation of a technique to separate fission noble metals from fission product mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Mellinger, G.B.; Jensen, G.A.

    1982-08-01

    A variation of the gold-ore fire assay technique was examined as a method for recovering Pd, Rh and Ru from fission products. The mixture of fission product oxides is combined with glass-forming chemicals, a metal oxide such as PbO (scavenging agent), and a reducing agent such as charcoal. When this mixture is melted, a metal button is formed which extracts the noble metals. The remainder cools to form a glass for nuclear waste storage. Recovery depended only on reduction of the scavenger oxide to metal. When such reduction was achieved, no difference in noble metal recovery efficiency was found among the scavengers studied (PbO, SnO, CuO, Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Sb/sub 2/O/sub 3/). Not all reducing agents studied, however, were able to reduce all scavenger oxides to metal. Only graphite would reduce SnO and CuO and allow noble metal recovery. The scavenger oxides Sb/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Bi/sub 2/O/sub 3/, and PbO, however, were reduced by all of the reducing agents tested. Similar noble metal recovery was found with each. Lead oxide was found to be the most promising of the potential scavengers. It was reduced by all of the reducing agents tested, and its higher density may facilitate the separation. Use of lead oxide also appeared to have no deterimental effect on the glass quality. Charcoal was identified as the preferred reducing agent. As long as a separable metal phase was formed in the melt, noble metal recovery was not dependent on the amount of reducing agent and scavenger oxide. High glass viscosities inhibited separation of the molten scavenger, while low viscosities allowed volatile loss of RuO/sub 4/. A viscosity of approx. 20 poise at the processing temperature offered a good compromise between scavenger separation and Ru recovery. Glasses in which PbO was used as the scavenging agent were homogeneous in appearance. Resistance to leaching was close to that of certain waste glasses reported in the literature. 12 figures. 7 tables.

  8. Glaciovolcanism and episodic ice-sheets: evidence for paleo-climate proxies and insights into eruption dynamics from the Kawdy-Tuya area of northern British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Benjamin R.; Ryane, Chanone; Russell, James K.; Lasher, Gregory K.; Dunnington, Gwen

    2010-05-01

    likely represents a different set of magmatic-ice conditions, potentially related to a combination of differing ice thicknesses and volumes of material erupted. Detailed observations that constrain more localized eruption-ice conditions include the presence of glacially-derived clasts as a component within dominantly volcaniclastic deposits; presumably ice-confined, steeply dipping, radially-jointed lava flows that locally directly overlie pillow lava; multiple passage zones with variable dips; and finer-grained, laminated sediments that may have formed by localized ponding of water on either small or possibly much larger spatial scales. Taken together, along with high precision Ar-Ar geochronometry, the glaciovolcanic deposits may provide the most detailed constraints on pre-LGM ice sheet presence in western North America yet documented. References: [1]Edwards, BR, Russell, JK, Simpson, K (in revision for Bull. Volc.) Physical and Chemical Evolution of Mathews Tuya, northern British Columbia, Canada: evidence for a pre-LGM Cordilleran icesheet, 32 manuscript pages, 11 figures, 2 tables. [2]Gabrielse, H (1970) Geology of the Jennings River map-area, British Columbia (104-O): Geological Survey of Canada Paper 68-55, 37 p. [3]Mathews, WH (1947) ‘‘Tuyas,'' flat-topped volcanoes in northern BC. Am J Sci 245, 560-570.

  9. Blast-like cell compartment in carcinogen-induced proliferating bile ductules.

    PubMed Central

    Novikoff, P. M.; Yam, A.; Oikawa, I.

    1996-01-01

    prominent nucleoli. The transitional cells exhibit a similar apical-basal polarity and antigenic phenotype as the oval/bile ductule epithelial cells. However, transitional cells are larger and have an overall less dense cytoplasm than the bile ductule epithelial/oval cells, and some show apical microvilli changes and small catalase-positive peroxisomes. These observations indicate that a greater diversity of cell types exist within intrahepatic bile ductules of rats treated with carcinogens. Furthermore, the nonpolarized ductal blast-like cells undergo proliferation and are significantly different in phenotype from other hepatic cells previously reported as candidates for liver progenitor cells. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8623918

  10. The Impact Environment of Ancient Mars: Implications for Habitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, O.; Mojzsis, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The impact bombardment periods that likely affected ancient (Noachian and pre-Noachian) Mars are (i) the post-accretionary elevated impactor flux, commonly known as the "heavy bombardment" and (ii) a putative increase in the number of impact events around 4.0 Ga, commonly known as the "late heavy bombardment" (LHB). These events would have affected the biological potential of Mars by melting and fracturing the crust, depositing large amounts of impact ejecta, generating hydrothermal systems, delivering elements essential for life, and likely increasing the temperature of the Martian atmosphere. We model two types of post-accretionary bombardments: (i) a classical exponential decay and (ii) a sawtooth timeline, characterized by faster-than-exponential decay and reduced total mass. Likewise, two types of LHB are modeled: (i) a classic "spike," centered at 3.9 Ga and lasting ~100 Myr, and (ii) a "sawtooth" LHB, characterized by a sudden increase in the number of impacts at ~4.1 Ga, overall lower delivered mass, and a longer duration. Partial results of these simulations are summarized in Table 1. To estimate habitable volumes in hydrothermal environments, surface temperatures of 1 °C and -63 °C were tested. Even in the latter case, life may have persevered in a global aquifer underneath a layer of permafrost termed the cryosphere. Over 105-106of the impact craters that formed during the LHB and post-accretionary bombardment, respectively, would have accessed this global aquifer via cryospheric melt-through, resulting in a subsurface plumbing network between individual impact-induced hydrothermal systems. Table 1. Summary of impact simulation results. Bombardment type Total mass delivered (kg) Largest impactor (km) Percent of crust melted Percent resurfaced Classic post-accretion 6.5 × 1020 492 8.2% 100% Classic LHB 1.0 × 1020 246 1.6% 36% Sawtooth post-accretion 1.6 × 1020 310 2.6% 46% Sawtooth LHB 2.8 × 1019 196 0.5% 10% Figure 1. A 3-dimensional model

  11. Hydropyrolysis of biomass to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Report on Energy Tree Farm Workshop No. 2, Hilo, Hawaii, June 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Troy, M.

    1982-11-01

    Results of the workshop show that a eucalyptus tree plantation, including a small nursery to produce the seedlings not available from the Waimea State Tree Nursery, could be established on 12,000 acres of Puna Sugar Company land. At approximately six years of age, the trees could be harvested, chipped, and burned in the renovated Puna Sugar Company's bagasse boiler to generate electricity. The cost of a bone dry ton of chips would be $37 if a real money rate of 3% is assumed, and $50 at a real money rate of 8%. Electricity could be produced at 7.7 cents per kWh assuming a 3% real money rate, and at 9.8 cents per kWh at an 8% rate. This workshop included an evaluation of soils at the selected Keeau site. Tree crop requirements were matched with soil and other environmental characteristics such as rainfall, altitude, and temperature. Leucaena Leucocephala, L. diversifolia, Eucalyptus saligna, E. grandis, and E. robusta were among the primary species considered, and based upon known environmental requirements and previous experience, E. grandis was selected. A conservative yield estimate for E. grandis at the specified site is 10 bone dry tons (20 green tons)/acre/year of total biomass. The 12,000 acre area would be planted continuously over period of six years at an annual production rate of 2000 acres per year. Spacing would be 6x6, or 1210 trees per acre, which, including a 10% seedling discard rate, would bring the total number of seedlings required to 2.7 million/year. Harvesting operations would begin in the 7th year, and three coppice crops would be harvested before replanting became necessary again. For the production of 120,000 bone dry tons (240,000 green tons) per year, four separate harvesting systems would be needed. Each would consist of 1 mobile whole tree chipper, 2 tracked feller-bunchers, 3 rubber-tired and tracked grapple skidders, 2 truck trailers, 3 chip vans, and 1 D-4 dozer. 10 figures, 31 tables.

  12. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-04-28

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available

  13. Saturated permeability measurements on pumice and welded-tuffaceous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Reda, D.C.; Hadley, G.R.

    1985-12-31

    . 28 references, 10 figur

  14. Neoantigen of the polymerized ninth component of complement. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody and immunohistochemical localization in renal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Falk, R J; Dalmasso, A P; Kim, Y; Tsai, C H; Scheinman, J I; Gewurz, H; Michael, A F

    1983-01-01

    areas of advanced tissue injury. Poly C9-MA frequently stained loci where C3 was either minimally present or absent. These studies provide strong evidence for complement activation not only in nephritic but also in nonnephritic renal diseases. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 PMID:6348093

  15. Kinetics of acute inflammation induced by Escherichia coli in rabbits. II. The effect of hyperimmunization, complement depletion, and depletion of leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Kopaniak, M. M.; Movat, H. Z.

    1983-01-01

    demonstrable in lesions. Histologically more neutrophils were present in the hyperimmunized than in the normal rabbits, but this difference was striking when normal animals were compared with leukopenic animals, in some of which only very occasional small accumulations of neutrophils were present. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6336905

  16. Expanding the scope of lamellar keratoplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Rich, L F

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate whether applications of current technology, such as cryolathe and excimer laser, might improve outcomes and increase use of lamellar keratoplasty. METHODS: Six studies were performed, beginning with animals and progressing to human subjects. The first study compared cryolathed with hand-dissected rabbit corneas to ascertain which created a smoother donor interface. The second animal pilot study was done to determine whether thickness of donor cornea resection could be accurately predicted with the cryolathe. A prospective animal trial was then undertaken to compare lamellar keratoplasty outcomes using cryolathed versus hand-dissected tissue. The fourth work extrapolated previous animal findings to lamellar keratoplasty in human disease. Finally, two ongoing studies are described. The first explores the possibility of sutureless lamellar keratoplasty. The second utilizes the excimer laser to dissect the recipient stromal bed. RESULTS: The initial animal pilot study demonstrated a clearer stromal surface in cryolathed versus hand-dissected corneal tissue. The second pilot showed that plano-powered donor tissue could be generated to predetermined thickness. The prospective animal trial revealed that clear grafts of intended thickness could be obtained with cryolathing. Human studies suggested that lamellar keratoplasty using cryolathe-prepared donor tissue may offer superior results to free-hand dissection. Finally, one ongoing study indicates that sutureless lamellar keratoplasty is untenable, and the other shows that clear grafts can be obtained by combining cryolathed donor tissue with recipient photoablation. CONCLUSION: This body of work demonstrates that use of new lamellar keratoplasty technology may offer expanded scope and better outcomes than traditional lamellar keratoplasty techniques. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4A FIGURE 4B FIGURE 8A FIGURE 8B FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 10B FIGURE 11A FIGURE 11B FIGURE 12A FIGURE 12B FIGURE 13

  17. Calendar Year 2003 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-30

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2003 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2003 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The CY 2003 monitoring data were obtained under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT) and several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Data contained in this report meet applicable requirements of DOE Order 5400.1 and DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program), and address requirements of the Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 2003a) regarding evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality: (1) in areas which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (DOE Order 5400.1 surveillance monitoring) and (2) in areas where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (DOE Order 5400.1 exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). The following sections of this report provide details regarding the CY 2003 groundwater and surface water monitoring activities in the Bear Creek, East Fork, and Chestnut Ridge Regime. Section 2 briefly describes the hydrogeologic context and generalized extent of groundwater

  18. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2009-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2010 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2010 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2010 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2010 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  19. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2007-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2008 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2008 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2008 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2008 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and

  20. Calendar Year 2005 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2005 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2005 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The CY 2005 monitoring data were obtained under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT) and several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Data contained in this report meet applicable requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program) regarding evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). However, detailed analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of the CY 2005 monitoring data is deferred to the ''Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium'' (BWXT 2006). For each monitoring well, spring, and surface water sampling station included in this report, the GWPP Compendium provides: (1) pertinent well installation and construction information; (2) a complete sampling history, including sampling methods and

  1. Calendar Year 2007 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2008-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2007 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2007 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2007 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT), and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). In December 2007, the BWXT corporate name was changed to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12), which is applied to personnel and organizations throughout CY 2007 for this report. Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2007 monitoring results fulfill requirements of

  2. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2010-12-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2011 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2011 will be in accordance with requirements of DOE Order 540.1A and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2011 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2011 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan

  3. Calendar Year 2004 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2005-09-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2004 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2004 monitoring data were obtained from groundwater and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge south of Y-12. The CY 2004 monitoring data were obtained under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT) and several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Data contained in this report meet applicable requirements of DOE Order 450.1 (Environmental Protection Program) regarding evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality in areas: (1) which are, or could be, affected by operations at Y-12 (surveillance monitoring); and (2) where contaminants from Y-12 are most likely to migrate beyond the boundaries of the ORR (exit pathway/perimeter monitoring). However, detailed analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of the CY 2004 monitoring data is deferred to the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater Monitoring Data Compendium (BWXT 2005). For each monitoring well, spring, and surface water sampling station included in this report, the GWPP Compendium provides: (1) pertinent well installation and construction information; (2) a complete sampling history, including sampling methods and

  4. Calendar Year 2010 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S. Department Of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental LLC

    2011-12-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2010 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2010 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2010 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Y-12, LLC (B&W Y-12) and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., coordinating sample collection and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2010 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the

  5. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2006

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2006-01-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2006 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2006 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: {sm_bullet} to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; {sm_bullet} to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; {sm_bullet} to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and ! to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2006 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2006 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of

  6. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater And Surface Water Sampling And Analysis Plan For Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Elvado Environmental, LLC

    2011-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2012 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2012 is in accordance with the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring will be performed in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation. Modifications to the CY 2012 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. Each modification to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as an addendum to this sampling and analysis plan. The following sections of this report provide details regarding

  7. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121, Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 is currently listed in Appendix III of the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO, 1996) and consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CASs 12-01-01 and 12-01-02 are located to the west of the Area 12 Camp, and CAS 12-22-26 is located near the U-12g Tunnel, also known as G-tunnel, in Area 12 (Figure 1). The aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) present at CASs 12-01-01 and 12-01-02 will be removed and disposed of at an appropriate facility. Soil below the ASTs will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted with chemicals or radioactivity above action levels. If impacted soil above action levels is present, the soil will be excavated and disposed of at an appropriate facility. The CAS 12-22-26 site is composed of two overlapping areas, one where drums had formerly been stored, and the other where an AST was used to dispense diesel for locomotives used at G-tunnel. This area is located above an underground radioactive materials area (URMA), and within an area that may have elevated background radioactivity because of containment breaches during nuclear tests and associated tunnel reentry operations. CAS 12-22-26 does not include the URMA or the elevated background radioactivity. An AST that had previously been used to store liquid magnesium chloride (MgCl) was properly disposed of several years ago, and releases from this tank are not an environmental concern. The diesel AST will be removed and disposed of at an appropriate facility. Soil at the former drum area and the diesel AST area will be sampled to identify whether it has been impacted by releases, from the drums or the

  8. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling and Analysis Plan for Calendar Year 2007

    SciTech Connect

    2006-09-01

    This plan provides a description of the groundwater and surface water quality monitoring activities planned for calendar year (CY) 2007 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that will be managed by the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP). Groundwater and surface water monitoring performed by the GWPP during CY 2007 will be in accordance with DOE Order 540.1 requirements and the following goals: (1) to protect the worker, the public, and the environment; (2) to maintain surveillance of existing and potential groundwater contamination sources; (3) to provide for the early detection of groundwater contamination and determine the quality of groundwater and surface water where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the Oak Ridge Reservation property line; (4) to identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality at Y-12; and (5) to provide data to support decisions concerning the management and protection of groundwater resources. Groundwater and surface water monitoring during CY 2007 will be performed primarily in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12: the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime), the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime), and the Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime). The Bear Creek and East Fork regimes are located in Bear Creek Valley, and the Chestnut Ridge Regime is located south of Y-12 (Figure A.1). Additional surface water monitoring will be performed north of Pine Ridge, along the boundary of the Oak Ridge Reservation (Figure A.1). Modifications to the CY 2007 monitoring program may be necessary during implementation. Changes in programmatic requirements may alter the analytes specified for selected monitoring wells or may add or remove wells from the planned monitoring network. All modifications to the monitoring program will be approved by the Y-12 GWPP manager and documented as addenda to this sampling and

  9. Influence of intraocular lens material and design on postoperative intracapsular cellular reactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Apple, D J

    2000-01-01

    showed that the opacification between them (ILO) may have different forms. CONCLUSIONS: Control of postoperative intracapsular cellular proliferation is important in avoiding 3 significant clinical complications. Postoperative lens epithelial cell proliferation is involved in the pathogenesis of PCO, ACO, and ILO, the latter being a newly described form of opacification within the capsular bag related to piggyback IOL implantation. IOL material and design are important factors influencing the outcome of these complications. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2A FIGURE 2B FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4A FIGURE 4B FIGURE 5A FIGURE 5B FIGURE 5C FIGURE 5D FIGURE 5E FIGURE 5F FIGURE 5G FIGURE 5H FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8A FIGURE 8B FIGURE 9A FIGURE 9B FIGURE 10A FIGURE 10B FIGURE 10C FIGURE 10D FIGURE 10E FIGURE 10F FIGURE 10G FIGURE 10H FIGURE 11A FIGURE 11B FIGURE 12 FIGURE 13A FIGURE 13B FIGURE 14A FIGURE 14B FIGURE 15A FIGURE 15B FIGURE 16A FIGURE 16B FIGURE 17A FIGURE 17B FIGURE 18A FIGURE 18B FIGURE 18C FIGURE 18D FIGURE 18E FIGURE 19 FIGURE 20 PMID:11190028

  10. Ultrafast magnetic resonance imaging improves the staging of pancreatic tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Trede, M; Rumstadt, B; Wendl, K; Gaa, J; Tesdal, K; Lehmann, K J; Meier-Willersen, H J; Pescatore, P; Schmoll, J

    1997-01-01

    findings were collated with those of surgical exploration in 47 patients (81 %) and percutaneous biopsy in 5 (9%); such invasive verification was deemed unnecessary and therefore unethical in 6 clearly inoperable patients (10%). In assessing the four main signs of unresectability (extrapancreatic tumor spread, liver metastases, lymph node involvement, and vascular invasion), the overall accuracy of UMRI was 95.7%, 93.5%, 80.4%, as compared to 85.1%, 87.2%, 76.6% for US and 74.4%, 87.2%, 69.2% for CT. In assessing vascular invasion, the sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of angiography were 42.9%, 100%, and 68.8%, respectively. There were 3 complications (12.5%) after 24 resections, 5 in 17 palliative procedures, and none after 6 explorations only. The hospital stay was 14 days after resection, 13 after palliative bypass, and 6 after exploration alone. There was no operative or hospital mortality in these 58 cases. CONCLUSIONS: Although it is by no means 100% accurate, UMRI is equal or even superior to all other staging methods. It probably will replace most of these, because it provides an "all-in-one" investigation avoiding endoscopy, vascular cannulation, allergic reactions, and x-radiation. But because even UMRI is not perfect, the final verdict on resectability of a tumor still will depend on surgical exploration in some cases. Images Figure 2. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. Figure 8. Figure 9. Figure 10. Figure 11. PMID:9351708

  11. Handbook: Collecting Groundwater Samples from Monitoring Wells in Frenchman Flat, CAU 98

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Jenny; Lyles, Brad; Cooper, Clay; Hershey, Ron; Healey, John

    2015-06-01

    Available Data” section to an “MP diagram” with a photo annotated with the datum information. On the UGTA Field Operations well page, the same information is in the “Wellhead Diagram” link. Well RNM-2s does not have an annotated photo at this time. All of the CAU 98 monitoring wells are located within Area 5 of Frenchman Flat, with the exception of ER-11-2 in Area 11 (Figure 1). The wells are clustered in two areas: the northern area (Figure 2) and the central area (Figure 3). Each well is discussed below in geographic order from north to south as follows: ER-11-2, ER-5-3 shallow piezometer, ER-5-3-2, ER-5-5, RNM-1, RNM-2s, and UE-5n.

  12. Calendar Year 2006 Groundwater Monitoring Report, U.S Department of Energy Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2007-09-01

    This report contains the groundwater and surface water monitoring data that were obtained during calendar year (CY) 2006 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (hereafter referenced as Y-12) on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The CY 2006 monitoring data were obtained from wells, springs, and surface water sampling locations in three hydrogeologic regimes at Y-12 (Figure A.1). The Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) encompasses a section of Bear Creek Valley (BCV) between the west end of Y-12 and the west end of the Bear Creek Watershed (directions are in reference to the Y-12 grid system). The Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (East Fork Regime) encompasses the Y-12 industrial facilities and support structures in BCV. The Chestnut Ridge Hydrogeologic Regime (Chestnut Ridge Regime) encompasses a section of Chestnut Ridge directly south of Y-12. Section 2 of this report provides background information pertinent to groundwater and surface water quality monitoring in each hydrogeologic regime, including the topography and bedrock geology, surface water drainage, groundwater system, and extent of groundwater contamination. The CY 2006 groundwater and surface water monitoring data in this report were obtained from sampling and analysis activities implemented under the Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) managed by BWXT Y-12, L.L.C. (BWXT), and from sampling and analysis activities implemented under several monitoring programs managed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC). Cooperative implementation of the monitoring programs directed by the Y-12 GWPP and BJC (i.e., preparing SAPs, coordinating sample collection, and sharing data) ensures that the CY 2006 monitoring results fulfill requirements of all the applicable monitoring drivers with no duplication of sampling and analysis efforts. Section 3 of this report contains a summary of information regarding the groundwater and

  13. A Data Mining Project to Identify Cardiovascular Related Factors That May Contribute to Changes in Visual Acuity Within the US Astronaut Corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westby, Christian M.; Stein, Sydney P.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    clearly differentiated the two mission types. Statistical analysis confirmed that pulse pressure was significantly higher before [45.6; (42.1 to 49.1)] and after [50.7; (46.9 to 54.6)] time on station compared with their most recent shuttle flight [31.6 (27.8 to 35.4), and 32.2 (28.3 to 36.0) respectively] even after correcting differences in age and cumulative number of mission hours. Without knowing the identity of which long duration crewmembers demonstrated visual changes, we were limited to examining whether certain crew regulate components of pulse pressure, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, differently due to microgravity exposure. To that end, we stratified crew into tertiles based on either their pre-flight measure of systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Those crew in the highest tertile for both systolic (lower tertile (n=8; 103-111), middle tertile (n=7; 113-121), and upper tertile (n=5; 125-136) and diastolic blood pressure (lower tertile (n=8; 58-64), middle tertile (n=7; 67-73), and upper tertile (n=5; 75-81) demonstrated less variability in pulse pressure between R+0 and L-10 (Figure 2). Interestingly, those crewmembers with the highest resting systolic blood pressure demonstrated either no change or in some instances an increase in total peripheral resistance, where those in the lower tertiles had lower values of total peripheral resistance compared to pre-flight levels. In this study, it was found that crewmembers in the highest tertile for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure demonstrated less variability in pulse pressure and that the decrease in variability was due in part to lower levels of compliance as indicated by similar or higher levels of total peripheral resistance after compared with before flight levels. Whether there is a relation between blood pressure regulation and total peripheral resistance in crew presenting with negative changes in visual acuity remains unknown.

  14. Thermoelectric Devices: Solid-State Refrigerators and Electrical Generators in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winder, Edmund J.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Lisensky, George C.

    1996-10-01

    as an acceptor site, trapping a valence band electron and producing a hole. Sb2Te3 is therefore normally p-type. Bi2Te3 contains both bismuth on tellurium site defects and tellurium on bismuth site defects; these are acceptors and donors, respectively, so Bi2Te3 can be either p- or n-type. A good positive thermoelectric material (i.e., Q > 0) is a solid solution of composition 75:25 at. % Bi2Te3:Sb2Te3. A good negative thermoelectric material (i.e., Q < 0) is 75:25 at. % Bi2Te3:Bi2Se3, also a solid solution. The existence of both positive and negative thermoelements is of great utility in terms of device construction. A compact device can be made because individual thermoelements can be easily connected in series electrically, but in parallel thermally. Consider the model Peltier cooler depicted in Figure 9a, which consists of a power source, metallic conductors (wires), and positive and negative thermoelectrics. Figure 9.Schematic of a Peltier cooler. Positive thermoelements (where Pi >0) transfer heat in the same direction as current flow; the opposite is true for negative thermoelements. (a) Using both types of thermoelements simplifies device construction. (b) More complicated electrical connections are required if only one type of thermoelement is used. Current flows clockwise in the circuit as shown. In the positive thermoelement, heat flows in the direction of electric current flow; it is transported "up" in the diagram. In the negative thermoelement, heat is also transported "up" because now the electric current is flowing "down". If only positive thermoelements, for example, were available, it would be more difficult to arrange thermoelements in an array to move heat, as shown in Figure 9b. Commercial Peltier coolers are typically an array of positive and negative thermoelements arranged as shown in Figure 10. Figure 10.Thermoelectic cooling module. An array of positive and negative thermoelements ar arranged between two ceamic plates so that they are