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Sample records for 10g ethernet aiming

  1. Ethernet redundancy

    SciTech Connect

    Burak, K.

    2006-07-01

    We describe the Ethernet systems and their evolution: LAN Segmentation, DUAL networks, network loops, network redundancy and redundant network access. Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) is an open standard with no licensing fees and its specifications are freely available. As a result, it is the most popular data link protocol in use. It is important that the network be redundant and standard Ethernet protocols like RSTP (IEEE 802.1w) provide the fast network fault detection and recovery times that is required today. As Ethernet does continue to evolve, network redundancy is and will be a mixture of technology standards. So it is very important that both end-stations and networking devices be Ethernet (IEEE 802.3) compliant. Then when new technologies, such as the IEEE 802.1aq Shortest Path Bridging protocol, come to market they can be easily deployed in the network without worry.

  2. Personal computers on Ethernet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, R.

    1988-01-01

    Many researchers in the Division have projects which require transferring large files between their personal computers (PC) and VAX computers in the Laboratory for Oceans Computing Facility (LOCF). Since Ethernet local area network provides high speed communication channels which make file transfers (among other capabilities) practical, a network plan was assembled to connect IBM and IBM compatible PC's to Ethernet for participating personnel. The design employs ThinWire Ethernet technology. A simplified configuration diagram is shown. A DEC multiport repeater (DEMPR) is used for connection of ThinWire Ethernet segments. One port of DEMPR is connected to a H4000 transceiver and the transceiver is clamped onto the Goddard Ethernet backbonecoaxial cable so that the PC's can be optionally on the SPAN network. All these common elements were successfully installed and tested.

  3. Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm with Fairness in 1G/10G Coexistence EPON System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Masaki; Takemoto, Michiya; Takahashi, Akira; Shimokasa, Kiyoshi

    Gigabit Ethernet Passive Optical Networks (GE-PON) systems have been deployed widely as a broadband access solution for the optical access network, the so-called FTTx networks. 10 Gigabit EPON (10G-EPON) is about to be standardizing by a task force (802.3av). To provide the next FTTx solution with 10G-EPON systems, one of the key technologies is how to migrate from 1G-based to 10G-based. In this paper, we present Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) algorithm which considered a fair policy for 1G/10G coexistence EPON system to achieve a smooth migration.

  4. Gigabit Ethernet: A Technical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axner, David

    1997-01-01

    Describes gigabit ethernet for LAN (local area network) technology that will expand ethernet bandwidth. Technical details are discussed, including protocol stacks, optical fiber, deployment strategy for performance improvement, ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode), real-time protocol, reserve reservation protocol, and standards. (LRW)

  5. Ethernet for Aerospace Applications - Ethernet Heads for the Skies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    One of the goals of aerospace applications is to reduce the cost and complexity of avionic systems. Ethernet is a highly scalable, flexible, and popular protocol. The aerospace market is large, with a forecasted production of over 50,000 turbine-powered aircraft valued at $1.7 trillion between 2012 and 2022. Boeing estimates demand for commercial aircraft by 2033 to total over 36,000 with a value of over $5 trillion. In 2014 US airlines served over 750 million passengers and this is growing over 2% yearly. Electronic fly-by-wire is now used for all airliners and high performance aircraft. Although Ethernet has been widely used for four decades, its use in aerospace applications is just beginning to become common. Ethernet is the universal solution in commercial networks because of its high bandwidths, lower cost, openness, reliability, maintainability, flexibility, and interoperability. However, when Ethernet was designed applications with time-critical, safety relevant and deterministic requirements were not given much consideration. Many aerospace applications use a variety of communication architectures that add cost and complexity. Some of them are SpaceWire, MIL-STD-1553, Avionics Full Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX), and Time-Triggered Ethernet (TTE). Aerospace network designers desire to decrease the number of networks to reduce cost and effort while improving scalability, flexibility, openness, maintainability, and reliability. AFDX and TTE are being considered more for critical aerospace systems because they provide redundancy, failover protection, guaranteed timing, and frame priority and are based on Ethernet IEEE 802.3. This paper explores the use of AFDX and TTE for aerospace applications.

  6. A rapid protection switching method in carrier ethernet ring networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Liang; Ji, Meng

    2008-11-01

    Abstract: Ethernet is the most important Local Area Network (LAN) technology since more than 90% data traffic in access layer is carried on Ethernet. From 10M to 10G, the improving Ethernet technology can be not only used in LAN, but also a good choice for MAN even WAN. MAN are always constructed in ring topology because the ring network could provide resilient path protection by using less resource (fibre or cable) than other network topologies. In layer 2 data networks, spanning tree protocol (STP) is always used to protect transmit link and preventing the formation of logic loop in networks. However, STP cannot guarantee the efficiency of service convergence when link fault happened. In fact, convergent time of networks with STP is about several minutes. Though Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and Multi-Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP) improve the STP technology, they still need a couple of seconds to achieve convergence, and can not provide sub-50ms protection switching. This paper presents a novel rapid ring protection method (RRPM) for carrier Ethernet. Unlike other link-fault detection method, it adopts distributed algorithm to detect link fault rapidly (sub-50ms). When networks restore from link fault, it can revert to the original working state. RRPM can provide single ring protection and interconnected ring protection without the formation of super loop. In normal operation, the master node blocks the secondary port for all non-RRPM Ethernet frames belonging to the given RRPM Ring, thereby avoiding a loop in the ring. When link fault happens, the node on which the failure happens moves from the "ring normal" state to the "ring fault" state. It also sends "link down" frame immediately to other nodes and blocks broken port and flushes its forwarding database. Those who receive "link down" frame will flush forwarding database and master node should unblock its secondary port. When the failure restores, the whole ring will revert to the normal state. That is

  7. Better Bonded Ethernet Load Balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Gabler, Jason

    2006-09-29

    When a High Performance Storage System's mover shuttles large amounts of data to storage over a single Ethernet device that single channel can rapidly become saturated. Using Linux Ethernet channel bonding to address this and similar situations was not, until now, a viable solution. The various modes in which channel bonding could be configured always offered some benefit but only under strict conditions or at a system resource cost that was greater than the benefit gained by using channel bonding. Newer bonding modes designed by various networking hardware companies, helpful in such networking scenarios, were already present in their own switches. However, Linux-based systems were unable to take advantage of those new modes as they had not yet been implemented in the Linux kernel bonding driver. So, except for basic fault tolerance, Linux channel bonding could not positively combine separate Ethernet devices to provide the necessary bandwidth.

  8. Ethernet for Space Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is adapting current data networking technologies to fly on future spaceflight missions. The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability/scalability with developments ongoing in the commercial world. The networking effort is a comprehensive one encompassing missions ranging from small University Explorer (UNEX) class spacecraft to large observatories such as the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). Mission aspects such as flight hardware and software, ground station hardware and software, operations, RF communications, and security (physical and electronic) are all being addressed to ensure a complete end-to-end system solution. One of the current networking development efforts at GSFC is the SpaceLAN (Spacecraft Local Area Network) project, development of a space-qualifiable Ethernet network. To this end we have purchased an IEEE 802.3-compatible 10/100/1000 Media Access Control (MAC) layer Intellectual Property (IP) core and are designing a network node interface (NNI) and associated network components such as a switch. These systems will ultimately allow the replacement of the typical MIL-STD-1553/1773 and custom interfaces that inhabit most spacecraft. In this paper we will describe our current Ethernet NNI development along with a novel new space qualified physical layer that will be used in place of the standard interfaces. We will outline our plans for development of space qualified network components that will allow future spacecraft to operate in significant radiation environments while using a single onboard network for reliable commanding and data transfer. There will be a brief discussion of some issues surrounding system implications of a flight Ethernet. Finally, we will

  9. Modeling and testing of ethernet transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, David

    2011-12-01

    Twisted-pair Ethernet is now the standard home and office last-mile network technology. For decades, the IEEE standard that defines Ethernet has required electrical isolation between the twisted pair cable and the Ethernet device. So, for decades, every Ethernet interface has used magnetic core Ethernet transformers to isolate Ethernet devices and keep users safe in the event of a potentially dangerous fault on the network media. The current state-of-the-art Ethernet transformers are miniature (<5mm diameter) ferrite-core toroids wrapped with approximately 10 to 30 turns of wire. As small as current Ethernet transformers are, they still limit further Ethernet device miniaturization and require a separate bulky package or jack housing. New coupler designs must be explored which are capable of exceptional miniaturization or on-chip fabrication. This dissertation thoroughly explores the performance of the current commercial Ethernet transformers to both increase understanding of the device's behavior and outline performance parameters for replacement devices. Lumped element and distributed circuit models are derived; testing schemes are developed and used to extract model parameters from commercial Ethernet devices. Transfer relation measurements of the commercial Ethernet transformers are compared against the model's behavior and it is found that the tuned, distributed models produce the best transfer relation match to the measured data. Process descriptions and testing results on fabricated thin-film dielectric-core toroid transformers are presented. The best results were found for a 32-turn transformer loaded with 100Ω, the impedance of twisted pair cable. This transformer gave a flat response from about 10MHz to 40MHz with a height of approximately 0.45. For the fabricated transformer structures, theoretical methods to determine resistance, capacitance and inductance are presented. A special analytical and numerical analysis of the fabricated transformer

  10. Loop Redundant of Industrial Ethernet Applied to Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yangfan

    This paper describes the technical characteristics of Loop redundant of industrial ethernet, further details the scheme execution planning of Loop redundant of industrial ethernet and the overall schedule relation between ring network implementation and airport construction period.

  11. Implementing Ethernet Services on the Payload Executive Processor (PEP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, David; Guyette, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The Ethernet interface is more common and easier interface to implement for payload developers already familiar with Ethernet protocol in their labs. The Ethernet interface allows for a more distributed payload architecture. Connections can be placed in locations not serviced by the PEP 1553 bus. The Ethernet interface provides a new access port into the PEP so as to use the already existing services. Initial capability will include a subset of services with a plan to expand services later.

  12. A Local Computer Network Implementation Using Ethernet.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    1 1.2. Levels of Protocol .......................... 41 2. HOST TO CONTROLLER COMMNICATION ...transfer any file to the HP 3000 or receive any file from the HP 3000. 1.1. hSnt Desription L" Ethernet is a registered trademark of the Xerox Corporation

  13. Jet Engine Control Using Ethernet with a BRAIN (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    ARINC - 664 , TTEthernet 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 24 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE...Ethernets F.1.1 ARINC 664 Another broadband technology that has gained significant traction with aerospace and industrial control is Ethernet. In...aerospace applications, ARINC 664 [ARI05] or AFDX™ (a full-duplex, profiled, switched Ethernet) has established itself as the de facto standard on large air

  14. Re-examine the business case for metro optical Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ted D.

    2004-04-01

    Ethernet is the next big thing in the telecom industry. In the metro network, access capacity is always an issue - not enough bandwidth to offer broadband services which will generate new revenue for service providers. Ethernet has been identified as one of the technologies that can break this spell in the next few years. Then why have we not seen large scale metro Ethernet deployment from any carriers? This article examines the issues in optical Ethernet technology, and the strengths and weakness of works in progress trying to solve them.

  15. Gigabit Ethernet Asynchronous Clock Compensation FIFO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duhachek, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Clock compensation for Gigabit Ethernet is necessary because the clock recovered from the 1.25 Gb/s serial data stream has the potential to be 200 ppm slower or faster than the system clock. The serial data is converted to 10-bit parallel data at a 125 MHz rate on a clock recovered from the serial data stream. This recovered data needs to be processed by a system clock that is also running at a nominal rate of 125 MHz, but not synchronous to the recovered clock. To cross clock domains, an asynchronous FIFO (first-in-first-out) is used, with the write pointer (wprt) in the recovered clock domain and the read pointer (rptr) in the system clock domain. Because the clocks are generated from separate sources, there is potential for FIFO overflow or underflow. Clock compensation in Gigabit Ethernet is possible by taking advantage of the protocol data stream features. There are two distinct data streams that occur in Gigabit Ethernet where identical data is transmitted for a period of time. The first is configuration, which happens during auto-negotiation. The second is idle, which occurs at the end of auto-negotiation and between every packet. The identical data in the FIFO can be repeated by decrementing the read pointer, thus compensating for a FIFO that is draining too fast. The identical data in the FIFO can also be skipped by incrementing the read pointer, which compensates for a FIFO draining too slowly. The unique and novel features of this FIFO are that it works in both the idle stream and the configuration streams. The increment or decrement of the read pointer is different in the idle and compensation streams to preserve disparity. Another unique feature is that the read pointer to write pointer difference range changes between compensation and idle to minimize FIFO latency during packet transmission.

  16. Hardware Realization of an Ethernet Packet Analyzer Search Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    specific for the home automation industry. This analyzer will be at the gateway of a network and analyze Ethernet packets as they go by. It will keep... home automation and not the computer network. This system is a stand-alone real-time network analyzer capable of decoding Ethernet protocols. The

  17. Fronthaul evolution: From CPRI to Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Nathan J.; Chanclou, Philippe; Turnbull, Peter; Magee, Anthony; Jungnickel, Volker

    2015-12-01

    It is proposed that using Ethernet in the fronthaul, between base station baseband unit (BBU) pools and remote radio heads (RRHs), can bring a number of advantages, from use of lower-cost equipment, shared use of infrastructure with fixed access networks, to obtaining statistical multiplexing and optimised performance through probe-based monitoring and software-defined networking. However, a number of challenges exist: ultra-high-bit-rate requirements from the transport of increased bandwidth radio streams for multiple antennas in future mobile networks, and low latency and jitter to meet delay requirements and the demands of joint processing. A new fronthaul functional division is proposed which can alleviate the most demanding bit-rate requirements by transport of baseband signals instead of sampled radio waveforms, and enable statistical multiplexing gains. Delay and synchronisation issues remain to be solved.

  18. Ethernet ring protection with managed FDB using APS payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Jinsung; Ryoo, Jeong-dong; Joo, Bheom Soon; Rhee, J.-K. Kevin

    2007-11-01

    Ethernet ring protection (ERP) is a new technology based on OAM (operations, administration, and maintenance) being standardized by the ITU-T G.8032 working group. In this paper, we present the recent development of Ethernet ring protection which is called FDB (filtering database) flush scheme and propose a new Ethernet ring protection technique introducing a managed FDB using APS to deliver information how to fix FDB selectively. We discuss the current development of the ERP technology at ITU-T and performance comparisons between different proposals.

  19. Ethernet-Enabled Power and Communication Module for Embedded Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose; Oostdyk, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    The power and communications module is a printed circuit board (PCB) that has the capability of providing power to an embedded processor and converting Ethernet packets into serial data to transfer to the processor. The purpose of the new design is to address the shortcomings of previous designs, including limited bandwidth and program memory, lack of control over packet processing, and lack of support for timing synchronization. The new design of the module creates a robust serial-to-Ethernet conversion that is powered using the existing Ethernet cable. This innovation has a small form factor that allows it to power processors and transducers with minimal space requirements.

  20. Building a Reliable Onboard Network with Ethernet: A GSFC Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquart, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the architecture of an Ethernet-based communication network for spacecraft. The presentation also contains information on data link reliability, PDU formats, and NIC/OS Measurements.

  1. Modeling the 10-gigabit ethernet ASC WAN.

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, Lawrence F.; Wertz, Jason Scott

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, modeling and simulation has played an increasingly important role in the maintenance of the nuclear stockpile. The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) program continues to support and encourage the development of a modeling and simulation infrastructure to make these goals a reality. The Distance Computing Network has been making make the ASC resources available to users throughout the tri-lab environment for over five years. This network relies on the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocol suite to provide high performance and reliable communications. Understanding TCP/IP operation in this unique environment is critical. Software modeling has been used to analyze current network performance and predict the effect of proposed changes. Recently the network architecture was radically changed and the software model had to be changed as well. Whereas the original network was based on 2.5 gigabit per second ATM links, the redesigned network is comprised of 10-gigabit Ethernet links arranged as a 3-node ring. Therefore, a new software model was needed to continue to predict the performance of proposed changes and allow engineers to experiment with new network applications without the risk of interfering with critical operations.

  2. Ethernet-Based Services for Next Generation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Valencia, Enrique

    Over the last few years, Ethernet technology and services have emerged as an indispensable component of the broadband networking and telecommunications infrastructure, both for network operators and service providers. As an example, Worldwide Enterprise customer demand for Ethernet services by itself is expected to hit the 30B US mark by year 2012. Use of Ethernet technology in the feeder networks that support residential applications, such as "triple play" voice, data, and video services, is equally on the rise. As the synergies between packet-aware transport and service oriented equipment continue to be exploited in the path toward transport convergence. Ethernet technology is expected to play a critical part in the evolution toward converged Optical/Packet Transport networks. Here we discuss the main business motivations, services, and technologies driving the specifications of so-called carrier Ethernet and highlight challenges associated with delivering the expectations for low implementation complexity, easy of use, provisioning and management of networks and network elements embracing this technology.

  3. A computer tool to support in design of industrial Ethernet.

    PubMed

    Lugli, Alexandre Baratella; Santos, Max Mauro Dias; Franco, Lucia Regina Horta Rodrigues

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents a computer tool to support in the project and development of an industrial Ethernet network, verifying the physical layer (cables-resistance and capacitance, scan time, network power supply-POE's concept "Power Over Ethernet" and wireless), and occupation rate (amount of information transmitted to the network versus the controller network scan time). These functions are accomplished without a single physical element installed in the network, using only simulation. The computer tool has a software that presents a detailed vision of the network to the user, besides showing some possible problems in the network, and having an extremely friendly environment.

  4. A new design of 4x10Gb/s transceiver module for ethernet applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Kun-Yi; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Chiu, Chia-Hung; Lee, Chun-Sheng; Huang, Min-Fa; Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Shaw, Cheng-Da; Chen, Ying-Chih; Lee, Shin-Ge; Yu, Yu-Chen; Chu, Mu-Tao

    2005-02-01

    With the drastic data traffic requirements of Internet, the demand of high bandwidth optical communication for local-area-network (LAN) and storage-area-network (SAN) are increasing. A novel design of Z-axis pluggable 4x10Gb/s fiber-optic transceiver module, which owns the advantages of high port density, low cost, thermal stability and compact size is studied in this paper. The Xenpak-like transceiver modules with 4 channels LC type connectors are designed in the Xenpak mechanical dimension specified in Xenpak Multi-Source Agreement (MSA) to accomplish signal transmission. The Xenpak-like 850nm transceiver modules make use of the 70-way two-row electrical connector, which is originally designed for 10Gigabit Extended Attachment Unit Interface (XAUI), to transmit and receive the 4x10G/bs signal. A signal compensated circuit would be not only implemented to solve and overcome the loss and distortion of the connector interface but to improve signal integrity of 10Gb/s data transmitted over 100mm distance with standard FR4 printed circuit board. Moreover, in order to improve the performance of high-density printed circuit, the effects of electromagnetic interference (EMI) will also consider and discuss in this study. The optical performance of each lane of transceiver module is evaluated to pass the requirements of 10Gigabit Ethernet, respectively. The transmit eye diagram of each lane in the Xenpak-like transceiver modules is tested compliant with 10GE eye mask. And the extinction ratio of each transmitter is also evaluated above 3.5dB, averagely. Besides, the receiver sensitivity of each lane is demonstrated below -11dBm. To fulfill the future traffic demand of Ethernet, the authors have provided an alternative and novel design of 4x10Gb/s transceiver module for LAN/SAN applications.

  5. An Audio Stream Redirector for the Ethernet Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandrekar, Ishan; Prevelakis, Vassilis; Turner, David Michael

    2004-01-01

    The authors have developed the "Ethernet Speaker" (ES), a network-enabled single board computer embedded into a conventional audio speaker. Audio streams are transmitted in the local area network using multicast packets, and the ES can select any one of them and play it back. A key requirement for the ES is that it must be capable of playing any…

  6. Using a Commercial Ethernet PHY Device in a Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parks, Jeremy; Arani, Michael; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This work involved placing a commercial Ethernet PHY on its own power boundary, with limited current supply, and providing detection methods to determine when the device is not operating and when it needs either a reset or power-cycle. The device must be radiation-tested and free of destructive latchup errors. The commercial Ethernet PHY's own power boundary must be supplied by a current-limited power regulator that must have an enable (for power cycling), and its maximum power output must not exceed the PHY's input requirements, thus preventing damage to the device. A regulator with configurable output limits and short-circuit protection (such as the RHFL4913, rad hard positive voltage regulator family) is ideal. This will prevent a catastrophic failure due to radiation (such as a short between the commercial device's power and ground) from taking down the board's main power. Logic provided on the board will detect errors in the PHY. An FPGA (field-programmable gate array) with embedded Ethernet MAC (Media Access Control) will work well. The error detection includes monitoring the PHY's interrupt line, and the status of the Ethernet's switched power. When the PHY is determined to be non-functional, the logic device resets the PHY, which will often clear radiation induced errors. If this doesn't work, the logic device power-cycles the FPGA by toggling the regulator's enable input. This should clear almost all radiation induced errors provided the device is not latched up.

  7. An ethernet/IP security review with intrusion detection applications

    SciTech Connect

    Laughter, S. A.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-07-01

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) and automation networks, used throughout utility and manufacturing applications, have their own specific set of operational and security requirements when compared to corporate networks. The modern climate of heightened national security and awareness of terrorist threats has made the security of these systems of prime concern. There is a need to understand the vulnerabilities of these systems and how to monitor and protect them. Ethernet/IP is a member of a family of protocols based on the Control and Information Protocol (CIP). Ethernet/IP allows automation systems to be utilized on and integrated with traditional TCP/IP networks, facilitating integration of these networks with corporate systems and even the Internet. A review of the CIP protocol and the additions Ethernet/IP makes to it has been done to reveal the kind of attacks made possible through the protocol. A set of rules for the SNORT Intrusion Detection software is developed based on the results of the security review. These can be used to monitor, and possibly actively protect, a SCADA or automation network that utilizes Ethernet/IP in its infrastructure. (authors)

  8. Integrated Formal Analysis of Timed-Triggered Ethernet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutertre, Bruno; Shankar, Nstarajan; Owre, Sam

    2012-01-01

    We present new results related to the verification of the Timed-Triggered Ethernet (TTE) clock synchronization protocol. This work extends previous verification of TTE based on model checking. We identify a suboptimal design choice in a compression function used in clock synchronization, and propose an improvement. We compare the original design and the improved definition using the SAL model checker.

  9. Wireless optical communication for FDDI, fast Ethernet, and ATM connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medved, David B.; Azancot, Yossi

    1995-09-01

    The bandwidth limitations of spread spectrum RF technology are easily removed by use of optical carriers. A variety of wireless connectivity system applications have been achieved using IR LED (not laser) at data rates up to 125 Mbps and with low frequency corners below 100 Kbps. By use of the UWINTM principle it is possible to achieve wireless communications which are protocol independent. Thus, an urgent installation which must serve today as an Ethernet or Token Ring wireless connection in the future can be used at FDDI, Fast Ethernet, 100 VG Anylan or ATM without any modification to the original installation. In this paper we describe three separate applications of this principle where there are significant trade-offs between range and angular coverage.

  10. Management Requirements of the 3COM Ethernet Local Area Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Management Information System . With the introduction of new technology comes the requirement to administer the network. This paper describes LAN services available on the network, management philosophies for the LAN services, and areas of LAN administration considered important to the successful operation and maintenance of a LAN. LAN administration problems identified by users are also addressed. Keywords included; Local area network (LAN); Lan management; Lan administration; 3COM ETHERNET LAN.

  11. Safety management of Ethernet broadband access based on VLAN aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li

    2004-04-01

    With broadband access network development, the Ethernet technology is more and more applied access network now. It is different from the private network -LAN. The differences lie in four points: customer management, safety management, service management and count-fee management. This paper mainly discusses the safety management related questions. Safety management means that the access network must secure the customer data safety, isolate the broad message which brings the customer private information, such as ARP, DHCP, and protect key equipment from attack. Virtue LAN (VLAN) technology can restrict network broadcast flow. We can config each customer port with a VLAN, so each customer is isolated with others. The IP address bound with VLAN ID can be routed rightly. But this technology brings another question: IP address shortage. VLAN aggregation technology can solve this problem well. Such a mechanism provides several advantages over traditional IPv4 addressing architectures employed in large switched LANs today. With VLAN aggregation technology, we introduce the notion of sub-VLANs and super-VLANs, a much more optimal approach to IP addressing can be realized. This paper will expatiate the VLAN aggregation model and its implementation in Ethernet access network. It is obvious that the customers in different sub-VLANs can not communication to each other because the ARP packet is isolated. Proxy ARP can enable the communication among them. This paper will also expatiate the proxy ARP model and its implementation in Ethernet access network.

  12. Suitability of 2-Wire Ethernet Solutions for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thain, A.; Le Sergent, F.; Marot, C.; Pasquier, B.

    2016-05-01

    The 100BASE-T1protocol is an Ethernet protocol allowing communications at 100 Mb/s on a single unshielded twisted pair cable. It was defined by the OPEN Alliance[1] working group that mainly comprised automobile manufacturers and suppliers, and therefore is specified for short cable lengths up to 15m. The technology originates from Broadcom who markets it as BroadR-Reach. It is of interest to the aerospace industry as a means of reducing weight, cost and installation time. In this paper we report on EMC tests performed to assess the suitability of the protocol for aerospace applications.

  13. Precision disablement aiming system

    SciTech Connect

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  14. Delay Analysis of Networked Control Systems Based on 100 M Switched Ethernet

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    For the delay may degrade the performance of networked control systems, networked control systems based on 100 M switched Ethernet are proposed in this paper. According to the working principle of Ethernet switch, the formulas of the upper bound delay of the single-level switched Ethernet and the multiple-level switched Ethernet are deduced by the timing diagram method, and the values of the upper bound delay are also given. The key factors that influence the upper bound delay of switched Ethernet are analyzed; then, the characteristics of the upper bound delay are presented, which show that the delay induced by the single-level 100 M switched Ethernet has little effect on the performance of control systems, while the delay induced by the multiple-level 100 M switched Ethernet may meet the time requirements of all classes of control systems if the numbers of levels and the numbers of nodes connecting to switches are set properly. Finally, the performance of networked control systems is simulated by TrueTime, and the results further show the feasibility and superiority of 100 M switched Ethernet based networked control systems without modification of the network protocols. PMID:25003152

  15. Energy efficiency evaluation of tree-topology 10 gigabit ethernet passive optical network and ring-topology time- and wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jingjing; Yang, Chuanchuan; Zhang, Qingxiang; Ma, Zhuang; Huang, Xingang; Geng, Dan; Wang, Ziyu

    2015-09-01

    Higher capacity and larger scales have always been the top targets for the evolution of optical access networks, driven by the ever-increasing demand from the end users. One thing that started to attract wide attention not long ago, but with at least equal importance as capacity and scale, is energy efficiency, a metric essential nowadays as human beings are confronted with severe environmental issues like global warming, air pollution, and so on. Here, different from the conventional energy consumption analysis of tree-topology networks, we propose an effective energy consumption calculation method to compare the energy efficiency of the tree-topology 10 gigabit ethernet passive optical network (10G-EPON) and ring-topology time- and wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON), two experimental networks deployed in China. Numerical results show that the ring-topology TWDM-PON networks with 2, 4, 8, and 16 wavelengths are more energy efficient than the tree-topology 10G-EPON, although 10G-EPON consumes less energy. Also, TWDM-PON with four wavelengths is the most energy-efficient network candidate and saves 58.7% more energy than 10G-EPON when fully loaded.

  16. Precision laser aiming system

    DOEpatents

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  17. Chemical composition analysis of simulated waste glass T10-G-16A

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.

    2015-08-01

    In this report, SRNL provides chemical composition analyses of a simulated LAW glass designated T10-G-16A.The measured chemical composition data are reported and compared with the targeted values for each component. No issues were identified in reviewing the analytical data.

  18. AIM Spacecraft Instruments

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  19. ETHERNET BASED EMBEDDED IOC FOR FEL CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Jianxun Yan; Daniel Sexton; Albert Grippo; Steven Moore; Kevin Jordan

    2008-01-23

    An Ethernet based embedded Input Output Controller (IOC) has been developed to upgrade the control system for the Free Electron Laser Project at Jefferson Lab. The embedded IOC, called the Single Board IOC (SBIOC), was integrated with a ColdFire embedded microprocessor and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) on a circuit board, which can be easily configured to control different kinds of I/O devices. The SBIOC provided features of a complete System-on-Module (SOM) as a stand alone system with abundant high speed I/O ports to couple with suitable devices. The software kits, Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) and Real Time Executive for Multiprocessor System (RTEMS), were chosen to work with our existing control system. The embedded IOC system has the features of a low cost IOC, free open source RTOS, plug-and-play-like ease of installation and flexibility.

  20. Time Triggered Ethernet System Testing Means and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithgall, William Todd (Inventor); Hall, Brendan (Inventor); Varadarajan, Srivatsan (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for evaluating the performance of a Time Triggered Ethernet (TTE) system employing Time Triggered (TT) communication. A real TTE system under test (SUT) having real input elements communicating using TT messages with output elements via one or more first TTE switches during a first time interval schedule established for the SUT. A simulation system is also provided having input simulators that communicate using TT messages via one or more second TTE switches with the same output elements during a second time interval schedule established for the simulation system. The first and second time interval schedules are off-set slightly so that messages from the input simulators, when present, arrive at the output elements prior to messages from the analogous real inputs, thereby having priority over messages from the real inputs and causing the system to operate based on the simulated inputs when present.

  1. Design of a data transmission system based on gigabit ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yongxin; Zhang, Lijun; Xu, Bin; Wang, Jiqiang; Yuan, Yonggang

    2013-09-01

    FPGA(Field-programmable gate array) is programmable device, characterized by high speed and reconfiguration. We could test the circuit programmed by HDL (Hardware Description Language). By observing results of simulations through ModelSim, developers could fix logic errors. Also, they could analyze performance of circuits by the results. In the system, we build the Gigabit Ethernet development platform based on a FPGA. This paper presents the technique of FPGA and Gigabit Ethernet, as well as relevant techniques. On the basis of merits and drawbacks of different design proposals and real demands, we take the EP3C10E144C8N chip belonging to the series of Cyclone III produced by Altera corp. as main controller chip. By the use of an AX88180 MAC chip produced by ASIX Electronics Corporation and a RTL8211E physical chip by Realtek Semiconductor Corporation, we build the development platform. At the receiving end, we capture data frames from the network adapter by winpcap programming and throw video data in the buffer. Considering large amounts of data in the real-time transportation, we design fixed-length queue as the primary structures for buffer. Size of a buffer unit is 32KB, which means that 32 packets can fill the buffer. When the buffer is full, we put the buffer unit to the end of the queue. We get data from buffer and hand it over to application process to display and store video data. When packet loss is detected by the system, log file will record it and thus we can check how many packets lose. The simulations by Quartus II and practical application proves that the system is stable, featuring high speed and low cost. It can be used in various high speed real-time transmission with little modification.

  2. CAGE100: Real-Time Multi-Port Packet Capture System for 100 Gigabit Ethernet Traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Namazi, Ali; Azimi-Sadjadi, Babak; Lin, Chujen

    2012-06-14

    Future large scale sciences are anticipated to use massive amount of data in their experiments. DOE's ESnet (Energy Science Network) is developing a 100 Gbps backbone based on this state-of-the-art 100 Gigabit Ethernet standard. ESnet will serve thousands of DOE and non-DOE scientists with its high bandwidth backbone, and connect several national laboratories. Current Ethernet test and debug solutions, such as network traffic capturer/analyzer tools, support up to 10 Gbps speed, and the very few capable of handling 100 Gbps are extremely costly. Such tools are essential in the development of high speed devices and routers, and ultimately the success of 100 Gigabit Ethernet.

  3. AIM High Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX.

    The AIM High Program was developed for elementary school children in the Austin (Texas) Independent School District who demonstrate unusually high ability, interest, and motivation in language arts, mathematics, science, and art. Students are identified for the program through standardized test scores, teacher recommendation, student interest,…

  4. Genetic recombination and Cryptosporidium hominis virulent subtype IbA10G2.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Xiao, Lihua; Cama, Vitaliano A; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H; Guo, Meijin; Feng, Yaoyu

    2013-10-01

    Little is known about the emergence and spread of virulent subtypes of Cryptosporidium hominis, the predominant species responsible for human cryptosporidiosis. We conducted sequence analyses of 32 genetic loci of 53 C. hominis specimens isolated from a longitudinally followed cohort of children living in a small community. We identified by linkage disequilibrium and recombination analyses only limited genetic recombination, which occurred exclusively within the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene subtype IbA10G2, a predominant subtype for outbreaks in industrialized nations and a virulent subtype in the study community. Intensive transmission of virulent subtype IbA10G2 in the study area might have resulted in genetic recombination with other subtypes. Moreover, we identified selection for IbA10G2 at a 129-kb region around the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene in chromosome 6. These findings improve our understanding of the origin and evolution of C. hominis subtypes and the spread of virulent subtypes.

  5. Characterization of Gigabit Ethernet Over Highly Turbulent Optical Wireless Links

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G W; Cornish, J P; Wilburn, J W; Young, R A; Ruggiero, A J

    2002-07-01

    We report on the performance characterization and issues associated with using Gigabit Ethernet (GigE) over a highly turbulent (C{sub n}{sup 2} > 10{sup -12}) 1.3 km air-optic lasercom links. Commercial GigE hardware is a cost-effective and scalable physical layer standard that can be applied to air-optic communications. We demonstrate a simple GigE hardware interface to a singlemode fiber-coupled, 1550 nm, WDM air-optic transceiver. TCPAP serves as a robust and universal foundation protocol that has some tolerance of data loss due to atmospheric fading. Challenges include establishing and maintaining a connection with acceptable throughput under poor propagation conditions. The most useful link performance diagnostic is shown to be scintillation index, where a value of 0.2 is the maximum permissible for adequate GigE throughput. Maximum GigE throughput observed was 49.7% of that obtained with a fiber jumper when scintillation index is 0.1. Shortcomings in conventional measurements such as bit error rate are apparent. Prospects for forward mor correction and other link enhancements will be discussed.

  6. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    -independent factors, as well as our investigation of ways to improve the clinical evaluation of the disease. Our research was prompted by the multifactorial nature of glaucoma. There is a high degree of variability in the pattern and speed of the progression of visual field defects in individual patients, presenting a major obstacle for successful clinical trials. To overcome this, we classified the eyes of glaucoma patients into 4 types, corresponding to the 4 patterns of glaucomatous optic nerve head morphology described: by Nicolela et al. and then tested the validity of this method by assessing the uniformity of clinical features in each group. We found that in normal tension glaucoma (NTG) eyes, each disc morphology group had a characteristic location in which the loss of circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (cpRNFLT; measured with optical coherence tomography: OCT) was most likely to occur. Furthermore, the incidence of reductions in visual acuity differed between the groups, as did the speed of visual field loss, the distribution of defective visual field test points, and the location of test points that were most susceptible to progressive damage, measured by Humphrey static perimetry. These results indicate that Nicolela's method of classifying eyes with glaucoma was able to overcome the difficulties caused by the diverse nature of the disease, at least to a certain extent. Building on these findings, we then set out to identify sectors of the visual field that correspond to the distribution of retinal nerve fibers, with the aim of detecting glaucoma progression with improved sensitivity. We first mapped the statistical correlation between visual field test points and cpRNFLT in each temporal clock-hour sector (from 6 to 12 o'clock), using OCT data from NTG patients. The resulting series of maps allowed us to identify areas containing visual field test points that were prone to be affected together as a group. We also used a similar method to identify visual

  7. The New Frontier of the DATA Acquisition Using 1 and 10 Gb/s Ethernet links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Filippo; Chapeland, S.; Denes, E.; Soós, C.; Carena, F.; W. Carena; Barroso, V. Chibante; Diviá, R.; Fuchs, U.; Grigore, A.; Rabacal, B.; Simonetti, G.; Telesca, A.; Vyvre, P. Vande; Haller, B. Von; (For Alice Collaboration)

    ALICE [1] (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the detector system at the LHC (Large Hadron Collider) optimized for the study of heavy-ion collisions. Its main aim is to study the behavior of strongly interacting matter and the quark gluon plasma. Currently all the information sent by the 18 sub-detectors composing ALICE are read out by DATE [2] (Data Acquisition and Test Environment), the ALICE data acquisition software, using several optical links called DDL[3] (Detector Data Link), each one with a maximum throughput of 200 MB/s. In the last year a commercial transmission link with a throughput of 10 Gb/s has become a reality, with a low price affordable for everyone. The DATE system has been upgraded to also support this technology in addition to the DDL. This contribution will describe the VHDL firmware of a detector readout board, sending data using the UDP protocol and the changes made to the readout [4] part of DATE software to receive information coming from the 1 or 10 Gb/s Ethernet link. It will also describe the relevant details of the test firmware and software and will conclude with the results of the performance tests done at CERN using the new setup.

  8. Fast BPM data distribution for global orbit feedback using commercial gigabit ethernet technology

    SciTech Connect

    Hulsart, R.; Cerniglia, P.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.

    2011-03-28

    In order to correct beam perturbations in RHIC around 10Hz, a new fast data distribution network was required to deliver BPM position data at rates several orders of magnitude above the capability of the existing system. The urgency of the project limited the amount of custom hardware that could be developed, which dictated the use of as much commercially available equipment as possible. The selected architecture uses a custom hardware interface to the existing RHIC BPM electronics together with commercially available Gigabit Ethernet switches to distribute position data to devices located around the collider ring. Using the minimum Ethernet packet size and a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based state machine logic instead of a software based driver, real-time and deterministic data delivery is possible using Ethernet. The method of adapting this protocol for low latency data delivery, bench testing of Ethernet hardware, and the logic to construct Ethernet packets using FPGA hardware will be discussed. A robust communications system using almost all commercial off-the-shelf equipment was developed in under a year which enabled retrofitting of the existing RHIC BPM system to provide 10 KHz data delivery for a global orbit feedback scheme using 72 BPMs. Total latencies from data acquisition at the BPMs to delivery at the controller modules, including very long transmission distances, were kept under 100 {micro}s, which provide very little phase error in correcting the 10 Hz oscillations. Leveraging off of the speed of Gigabit Ethernet and wide availability of Ethernet products enabled this solution to be fully implemented in a much shorter time and at lower cost than if a similar network was developed using a proprietary method.

  9. Development of a Deterministic Ethernet Building blocks for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidi, C.; Jakovljevic, Mirko

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of using commercially based networking standards and protocols have been widely discussed and are expected to include reduction in overall mission cost, shortened integration and test (I&T) schedules, increased operations flexibility, and hardware and software upgradeability/scalability with developments ongoing in the commercial world. The deterministic Ethernet technology TTEthernet [1] diploid on the NASA Orion spacecraft has demonstrated the use of the TTEthernet technology for a safety critical human space flight application during the Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1). The TTEthernet technology used within the NASA Orion program has been matured for the use within this mission but did not lead to a broader use in space applications or an international space standard. Therefore TTTech has developed a new version which allows to scale the technology for different applications not only the high end missions allowing to decrease the size of the building blocks leading to a reduction of size weight and power enabling the use in smaller applications. TTTech is currently developing a full space products offering for its TTEthernet technology to allow the use in different space applications not restricted to launchers and human spaceflight. A broad space market assessment and the current ESA TRP7594 lead to the development of a space grade TTEthernet controller ASIC based on the ESA qualified Atmel AT1C8RHA95 process [2]. In this paper we will describe our current TTEthernet controller development towards a space qualified network component allowing future spacecrafts to operate in significant radiation environments while using a single onboard network for reliable commanding and data transfer.

  10. An economic analysis on optical Ethernet in the access network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Hwi; Nam, Dohyun; Yoo, Gunil; Kim, WoonHa

    2004-04-01

    Nowadays, Broadband service subscribers have increased exponentially and have almost saturated in Korea. Several types of solutions for broadband service applied to the field. Among several types of broadband services, most of subscribers provided xDSL service like ADSL or VDSL. Usually, they who live in an apartment provided Internet service by Ntopia network as FTTC structure that is a dormant network in economical view at KT. Under competitive telecom environment for new services like video, we faced with needing to expand or rebuild portions of our access networks, are looking for ways to provide any service that competitors might offer presently or in the near future. In order to look for new business model like FTTH service, we consider deploying optical access network. In spite of numerous benefits of PON until now, we cannot believe that PON is the best solution in Korea. Because we already deployed optical access network of ring type feeder cable and have densely population of subscribers that mainly distributed inside 6km from central office. So we try to utilize an existing Ntopia network for FTTH service under optical access environment. Despite of such situations, we try to deploy PON solution in the field as FTTC or FTTH architecture. Therefore we analyze PON structure in comparison with AON structure in order to look for optimized structure in Korea. At first, we describe the existing optical access networks and network architecture briefly. Secondly we investigate the cost of building optical access networks by modeling cost functions on AON and PON structure which based on Ethernet protocol, and analyze two different network architectures according to different deployment scenarios: Urban, small town, rural. Finally we suggest the economic and best solution with PON structure to optimize to optical access environment of KT.

  11. Analysis of 100Mb/s Ethernet for the Whitney Commodity Computing Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fineberg, Samuel A.; Pedretti, Kevin T.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of a Fast Ethernet network configured with a single large switch, a single hub, and a 4x4 2D torus topology in a testbed cluster of "commodity" Pentium Pro PCs. We also evaluated a mixed network composed of ethernet hubs and switches. An MPI collective communication benchmark, and the NAS Parallel Benchmarks version 2.2 (NPB2) show that the torus network performs best for all sizes that we were able to test (up to 16 nodes). For larger networks the ethernet switch outperforms the hub, though its performance is far less than peak. The hub/switch combination tests indicate that the NAS parallel benchmarks are relatively insensitive to hub densities of less than 7 nodes per hub.

  12. Chromosome jumping from D4S10 (G8) toward the Huntington disease gene.

    PubMed Central

    Richards, J E; Gilliam, T C; Cole, J L; Drumm, M L; Wasmuth, J J; Gusella, J F; Collins, F S

    1988-01-01

    The gene for Huntington disease (HD) has been localized to the distal portion of the short arm of human chromosome 4 by linkage analysis. Currently, the two closest DNA markers are D4S10 (G8), located approximately equal to 3 centimorgans centromeric to HD, and D4S43 (C4H), positioned 0-1.5 centimorgans from HD. In an effort to move closer to the HD gene, with the eventual goal of identifying the gene itself, we have applied the technique of chromosome jumping to this region. A 200-kilobase jumping library has been constructed, and a jump from D4S10 has been obtained and its approximate distance verified by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Two restriction fragment length polymorphisms have been identified at the jump locus, which is denoted D4S81. Linkage analysis of previously identified recombinants between D4S10 and HD or D4S10 and D4S43 shows that in two of five events the jump has crossed the recombination points. This unequivocally orients D4S10 and D4S81 on the chromosome, provides additional markers for HD, and suggests that recombination frequency in this region of chromosome 4 may be increased, so that the physical distance from D4S10 to HD may not be as large as originally suspected. Images PMID:2901098

  13. A Realization of Theoretical Maximum Performance in IPSec on Gigabit Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onuki, Atsushi; Takeuchi, Kiyofumi; Inada, Toru; Tokiniwa, Yasuhisa; Ushirozawa, Shinobu

    This paper describes “IPSec(IP Security) VPN system" and how it attains a theoretical maximum performance on Gigabit Ethernet. The Conventional System is implemented by software. However, the system has several bottlenecks which must be overcome to realize a theoretical maximum performance on Gigabit Ethernet. Thus, we newly propose IPSec VPN System with the FPGA(Field Programmable Gate Array) based hardware architecture, which transmits a packet by the pipe-lined flow processing and has 6 parallel structure of encryption and authentication engines. We show that our system attains the theoretical maximum performance in the short packet which is difficult to realize until now.

  14. Optimal multicasting in a multi-line-rate ethernet-over-WDM network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harve, Shruthi; Batayneh, Marwan; Mukherjee, Biswanath

    2009-11-01

    Ethernet is the dominant transport technology for Local Area Networks. Efforts are now under way to use carrier-grade Ethernet in backbone networks of different service providers. With the advent of applications such as IPTV and Videoon- Demand, there is need for techniques to route multicast traffic over the Ethernet backbone networks. Here, we address the problem of Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) of a set of multicast requests in a Multi-Line-Rate Ethernet backbone network with the objective of minimizing the cost of setting up the network, in terms of the Service Provider's Capital Expenditure (CAPEX). We present an Auxiliary Graph based heuristic algorithm that routes each multicast request on a light-tree structure, and assigns minimum cost wavelengths along the route. We compare the properties of the algorithm to the optimal solution given by a mathematical model formulated as an Integer Linear Program (ILP), and show that they compare very well. We also find that the algorithm is most cost-effective when the incoming requests are processed in descending order of their bandwidth requirements.

  15. Efficient Data Transfer Rate and Speed of Secured Ethernet Interface System.

    PubMed

    Ghanti, Shaila; Naik, G M

    2016-01-01

    Embedded systems are extensively used in home automation systems, small office systems, vehicle communication systems, and health service systems. The services provided by these systems are available on the Internet and these services need to be protected. Security features like IP filtering, UDP protection, or TCP protection need to be implemented depending on the specific application used by the device. Every device on the Internet must have network interface. This paper proposes the design of the embedded Secured Ethernet Interface System to protect the service available on the Internet against the SYN flood attack. In this experimental study, Secured Ethernet Interface System is customized to protect the web service against the SYN flood attack. Secured Ethernet Interface System is implemented on ALTERA Stratix IV FPGA as a system on chip and uses the modified SYN flood attack protection method. The experimental results using Secured Ethernet Interface System indicate increase in number of genuine clients getting service from the server, considerable improvement in the data transfer rate, and better response time during the SYN flood attack.

  16. PSynUTC - Evaluation of a High-Precision Time Synchronization Prototype System for Ethernet LANs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    now been taken over by our spin-off company Oregano Systems (http://www.oregano.at). Roland Höller, Nikolaus Kerö Department of Computer Technology... Oregano Systems, will demonstrate the feasibility of GPS time distribution and time synchronization in Ethernet- based LANs with a worst-case

  17. Efficient Data Transfer Rate and Speed of Secured Ethernet Interface System

    PubMed Central

    Ghanti, Shaila

    2016-01-01

    Embedded systems are extensively used in home automation systems, small office systems, vehicle communication systems, and health service systems. The services provided by these systems are available on the Internet and these services need to be protected. Security features like IP filtering, UDP protection, or TCP protection need to be implemented depending on the specific application used by the device. Every device on the Internet must have network interface. This paper proposes the design of the embedded Secured Ethernet Interface System to protect the service available on the Internet against the SYN flood attack. In this experimental study, Secured Ethernet Interface System is customized to protect the web service against the SYN flood attack. Secured Ethernet Interface System is implemented on ALTERA Stratix IV FPGA as a system on chip and uses the modified SYN flood attack protection method. The experimental results using Secured Ethernet Interface System indicate increase in number of genuine clients getting service from the server, considerable improvement in the data transfer rate, and better response time during the SYN flood attack. PMID:28116350

  18. Low cost 112 G direct detection metro transmission system with reduced bandwidth (10 G) components and MLSE compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshtein, Albert; Sadot, Dan; Sheffi, Nir; Sonkin, Eduard; Shachaf, Yuval; Becker, Don; Levy, Omri; Katz, Gilad

    2015-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 100 G ADC-MLSE-based 4-lanes NRZ direct detection transceiver. The DSP engine enables the use of low cost 10 G optoelectronics and supports 40 km metro transmission suitable for both ASE limited and point-to-point applications. The fully implemented mixed signal ASIC is based on standard 65 nm CMOS process.

  19. Integrated Native-Ethernet Optical Ring Networks for Scalable Customer-Owned Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Satoru; Sakamoto, Taiji; Koyama, Osanori; Katsuyama, Yutaka

    We have proposed and examined one-by-one (O-O) and point-to-point (P2P) link integration scheme over native-Ethernet optical ring networks for scalable customer-owned metropolican area network application (CO-MAN). The 2-link integration enables us to construct economical networks, which was clarified by smaller number of optical transceivers required to provide IP services. The experiments clarified that the integration of the O-O and P2P links was successfully made through 35 km long fiber ring. The failure restoraion function was also confirmed to work properly, when the service ring failure occurred. All the packet transmissions were made on the native-Ethernet base, which allows the network administrators of the CO-MAN to manage the network in the same way as in the commonly-used LANs.

  20. An Assessment of Gigabit Ethernet Technology and Its Applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakes, Catherine Murphy; Kim, Chan M.; Ramos, Calvin T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes Gigabit Ethernet and its role in supporting R&D programs at NASA Glenn. These programs require an advanced high-speed network capable of transporting multimedia traffic, including real-time visualization, high- resolution graphics, and scientific data. GigE is a 1 Gbps extension to 10 and 100 Mbps Ethernet. The IEEE 802.3z and 802.3ab standards define the MAC layer and 1000BASE-X and 1000BASE-T physical layer specifications for GigE. GigE switches and buffered distributors support IEEE 802.3x flow control. The paper also compares GigE with ATM in terms of quality of service, data rate, throughput, scalability, interoperability, network management, and cost of ownership.

  1. Low-cost and highly reliable optoelectronic devices for 10-Gb/s ethernet applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Lee, Shin-Ge; Chen, Chen-Kun; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Lee, Chun-Sheng; Shen, Kun-Yi; Cheng, Shou-Chien; Lee, Chun-Hsing; Cheng, Fu-Yi; Huang, Min-Fa; Shaw, Cheng-Da; Yu, Yu-Chen; Chu, Mu-Tao

    2004-10-01

    With the drastic expansion of internet usage, the demand of 10Gbps transmission optoelectronic devices for local-area-network (LAN) and storage-area-network (SAN) are increasing. The key issues of these applications are to improve cost, manufacturability and reliability of optoelectronic devices in high speed transmission. The authors have demonstrated highly manufacturable and reliable optical front end and trasneiver module for 10Gbps Ethernet applications in this paper. TO-Can package is a way to reduce cost of 10Gbps optical assembly. However, the signal integrity of high speed transmitter optical sub-assembly (TOSA) and receiver optical sub-assembly (ROSA) are limited due to the mismatched characteristic impedance, parasitic inductance and spread capacitance of conventional TO-Can package. In this paper, high performance and high sensitivity of 10Gbps TOSA and ROSA with TO-Can package are discussed and demonstrated to overcome the critical issues mentioned, respectively. In order to improve the signal integrity and manufacturability of 10Gbps OSA in 10Gigabit Ethernet small form factor transceiver module assembly. The authors also integrate high speed flex board and OSA package to extend the signal path, and to minimize the effect of crosstalk in module. The high speed transceiver modules with TO-Can package embedded compliant with XFP multi-source agreement (MSA) are also demonstrated in this paper. The performance of temperature-stabilized transceiver module over awide case temperature range is tested. The optical eye diagram of 10Gbps transmitter developed in this study shows an excellent quality passing the 10Gbps Ethernet mask test between 0 degrees Centigrade and to 70 degrees Centigrade. Finally, the reliability tests regulated by Telcordia GR-468-CORE and MIL-STD-883 are also performed and certified to pave the ways of highly manufacturable and reliable XFP transceiver modules for 10Gbps Ethernet applications.

  2. Ein Framework für echtzeitfähige Ethernet-Netzwerke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopatka, Frank

    Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wird die Entwicklung eines formalen Framewoks vorgestellt, mit dessen Hilfe zwischen der Kompatibilität zum verbreiteten baumförmigen Standard-Ethernet und der Einhaltung von Echtzeitanforderungen einer automatisierten Anlage variiert werden kann. Damit kann bereits vor der Auswahl einer bestimmten Technologie eine Schedule der Echtzeit-Übertragungen offline kalkuliert und simuliert werden, sobald die Anforderungen der Geräte im industriellen Echtzeit-Netzwerk bekannt sind.

  3. Design and implementation of digital television over ethernet PON transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xi; Liu, Deming; Mao, Minjing; Wang, Jinjuan

    2005-11-01

    There are two primary methods of transmitting signal of digital television to the home in China. The first one is HFC mode, which is widely used. The other is IPTV mode, which is emerging. In this paper, the scheme of digital television over Ethernet PON is proposed. There are several differences from this system to IPTV and Video over LAN: the real-time transmission of equal-bandwidth based on statistical multiplexing, channel switching based on multicast and IP CA system, etc.. And these are also the key techniques used in this system. The architecture of DTV over EPON system, the function of every component, the framing process and the multiplexing of Ethernet frame are described. The implementation procedure of the system is shown. The mechanism of channel switching using multicast technique is designed and realized. We also present the method of using static VLAN and IGMP snooping mechanism to implement statistical multiplexing on Ethernet layer, and put forward the concept of IP Conditional Access System and define it. An experimental system of DTV over EPON is set up and the experimental result is significant.

  4. A Control System for Tobacco Shred Production Line Based on Industrial Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Zheng, Guang; Zhang, Xinfeng; Liu, Lei; Xi, Lei

    The Industrial Ethernet based on IP realizes interconnection of industrial network and information network, and it is the most potential technology in the new industrial net products. In this paper, the defects of the original control system for tobacco shred production line are analyzed, and the new design plan of control system based on EtherNet/IP is presented. The control net adopts redundant 1000M fiber optic ring network that consists of six managed Industrial Ethernet Switches, and they are distributed to the central control room, leaf processing line, shred processing line, mixed stem shred processing line, online mositure regain processing line and cut tobacco dryer control cabinet. The switch in the central control room works in the pattern of redundancy management, which can switch the link in the event of the failure in link of ring net, the recovery time of link line is less than 500ms, and each main PLC of control section has dual Network Adapters. The plan has been applied for reform of 5000kg/h Tobacco Primary Processing Line in Nanyang Cigarette Factory of China Tobacco Henan Industrial Corporation, and the configurable software and Industry Ethernet network which has been used promots the capability of automatic control system fundamentally, showing much better transmission efficiency and reliability, realizing the goal of high cost performance and making equipment's ability of handling grow fast.

  5. Animation of the AIM Spacecraft

    NASA Video Gallery

    AIM will make simultaneous measurements of the main ingredients needed to form these clouds and will unravel the role of natural factors, such as the solar cycle and meteorology, from the possible ...

  6. Genomic Variation in IbA10G2 and Other Patient-Derived Cryptosporidium hominis Subtypes.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Per; Andersson, Sofia; Winiecka-Krusnell, Jadwiga; Hallström, Björn; Alsmark, Cecilia; Troell, Karin; Beser, Jessica; Arrighi, Romanico B G

    2017-03-01

    In order to improve genotyping and epidemiological analysis of Cryptosporidium spp., genomic data need to be generated directly from a broad range of clinical specimens. Utilizing a robust method that we developed for the purification and generation of amplified target DNA, we present its application for the successful isolation and whole-genome sequencing of 14 different Cryptosporidium hominis patient specimens. Six isolates of subtype IbA10G2 were analyzed together with a single representative each of 8 other subtypes: IaA20R3, IaA23R3, IbA9G3, IbA13G3, IdA14, IeA11G3T3, IfA12G1, and IkA18G1. Parasite burden was measured over a range of more than 2 orders of magnitude for all samples, while the genomes were sequenced to mean depths of between 17× and 490× coverage. Sequence homology-based functional annotation identified several genes of interest, including the gene encoding Cryptosporidium oocyst wall protein 9 (COWP9), which presented a predicted loss-of-function mutation in all the sequence subtypes, except for that seen with IbA10G2, which has a sequence identical to the Cryptosporidium parvum reference Iowa II sequence. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that all the IbA10G2 genomes form a monophyletic clade in the C. hominis tree as expected and yet display some heterogeneity within the IbA10G2 subtype. The current report validates the aforementioned method for isolating and sequencing Cryptosporidium directly from clinical stool samples. In addition, the analysis demonstrates the potential in mining data generated from sequencing multiple whole genomes of Cryptosporidium from human fecal samples, while alluding to the potential for a higher degree of genotyping within Cryptosporidium epidemiology.

  7. The diverse aims of science.

    PubMed

    Potochnik, Angela

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing attention to the centrality of idealization in science. One common view is that models and other idealized representations are important to science, but that they fall short in one or more ways. On this view, there must be an intermediary step between idealized representation and the traditional aims of science, including truth, explanation, and prediction. Here I develop an alternative interpretation of the relationship between idealized representation and the aims of science. I suggest that continuing, widespread idealization calls into question the idea that science aims for truth. If instead science aims to produce understanding, this would enable idealizations to directly contribute to science's epistemic success. I also use the fact of widespread idealization to motivate the idea that science's wide variety aims, epistemic and non-epistemic, are best served by different kinds of scientific products. Finally, I show how these diverse aims—most rather distant from truth—result in the expanded influence of social values on science.

  8. AIM: Attracting Women into Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Icial S.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses how to attract more college women into the sciences. Attracting Women into Sciences (AIM) is a comprehensive approach that begins with advising, advertising, and ambiguity. The advising process includes dispelling stereotypes and reviewing the options open to a female basic science major. Interaction, involvement and instruction, finding…

  9. Aims, assessments and workplace needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Paul

    1997-03-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. Calling on evidence mainly from the UK, it reviews analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the senior physics professors in the UK. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  10. Aiming for the ideal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gaich, Tanja; Baran, Phil S

    2010-07-16

    The field of total synthesis has a rich history and a vibrant future. Landmark advances and revolutionary strides in the logic of synthesis have put the practicing chemist in the enviable position of being able to create nearly any molecule with enough time and effort. The stage is now set for organic chemists to aim for "ideality" in the way molecules are synthesized. This perspective presents a simple and informative definition of "ideality" and demonstrates its use during the self-evaluation of several syntheses from our laboratory.

  11. Systematic Studies of Distributed and Hybrid Raman Amplification in 10G-EPON and TWDM-PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashima, N.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied distributed Raman amplification (DRA) and hybrid Raman amplification to apply both 10G-EPON and TWDM-PON systems. Two types of access networks, 50 km and 10 km, are assumed for case studies. Using the calculated optical received signal power Ps and optical signal noise ratio (OSNR), we consider the cases where the hybrid Raman amplification is necessary or not. In the case of coexistence of both systems, co-use of lumped Raman amplification (LRA) located at a central office (CO) may be possible. The co-use of LRA for both systems is discussed using the calculated Ps and OSNR.

  12. Performance evaluation of 10GBASE optical transceivers for Cisco 10-gigabit Ethernet switching architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Cain, Jeff C.

    2002-09-01

    This paper presents the process and methodology employed to perform evaluation and analyses for the optical interface that delivers and receives 10Gb/s Ethernet traffic on Cisco's industrial leading switching architecture. Especially, we examined in detail the optical properties for commercially available 10GBASE-LR transceiver modules, with respect to IEEE 802.3ae specifications. The sampled results under room temperature are listed for comparison. Eye diagrams were recorded as a function of transmission distance, as well as temperature variation. System stability issues are also studied following a brief introduction to Cisco standard ODVT (Optical Design Verification Test) procedure.

  13. Comparison of High Performance Network Options: EDR InfiniBand vs.100Gb RDMA Capable Ethernet

    SciTech Connect

    Kachelmeier, Luke Anthony; Van Wig, Faith Virginia; Erickson, Kari Natania

    2016-08-08

    These are the slides for a presentation at the HPC Mini Showcase. This is a comparison of two different high performance network options: EDR InfiniBand and 100Gb RDMA capable ethernet. The conclusion of this comparison is the following: there is good potential, as shown with the direct results; 100Gb technology is too new and not standardized, thus deployment effort is complex for both options; different companies are not necessarily compatible; if you want 100Gb/s, you must get it all from one place.

  14. Evaluation Study of a Broadband Multicasting Service over a Gigabit Ethernet Delivery Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stergiou, E.; Meletiou, G.; Vasiliadis, D. C.; Rizos, G. E.; Margariti, S. V.

    2008-11-01

    Multicasting networks are usually implemented for delivering audio and video. Consequently, the performance evaluation of a reliable multicasting architecture is useful in active delivery systems. In this paper we analyze and present a broadband multicasting system under an Internet environment using a typical IP multicasting mechanism. The test-bed multicasting scheme was based on both IGMP and MCOP protocols, where a Gigabit Ethernet was used as delivery network at client's segment. The evaluation study provides measurements for the two most significant performance metrics, the required Bandwidth and the Round Trip Time (RTT) of a packet versus the number of multicasting clients over 2.4 Mbps multicasting service rate.

  15. Self-protection scheme against failures of distributed fiber links in an Ethernet passive optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiajia; Chen, Biao; He, Sailing

    2006-09-01

    A novel self-protection scheme for an Ethernet passive optical network is introduced and studied at both the physical and the media access control layers. The scheme is simple and fast and can provide 1:1 protection and automatic traffic restoration against the fiber link failure between a remote node (RN) and any optical network unit (ONU). Simulation results show that fiber failure does not degrade the transmission performance, and the restoration time depends mainly on the switch time of the physical layer. Our protection scheme saves many long fibers, does not influence other normal ONUs, and requires no active device in the RN.

  16. China's educational aim and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guang-Wei, Zou

    1985-12-01

    The aim and theory of Chinese socialist education is to provide scientific and technological knowledge so as to develop the productive forces and to meet the demands of the socialist cause. Since education is the main vehicle towards modernizing science and technology, any investment in education is viewed as being productive as it feeds directly into economics. Faced with the demands of industrial and agricultural production, training a technical as well as a labour force becomes crucial. This is made possible by the provision of two labour systems for workers both from rural as well as urban areas and by two kinds of educational systems for both urban and rural students. Chinese educational theory is seen as a fusion of principles from its own educational legacy with those of Marxist-Leninist principles.

  17. Neuromedin U elicits cytokine release in murine Th2-type T cell clone D10.G4.1.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric N; Appelbaum, Edward R; Carpenter, Donald C; Cox, Richard F; Disa, Jyoti; Foley, James J; Ghosh, Sujoy K; Naselsky, Diane P; Pullen, Mark A; Sarau, Henry M; Scheff, Samuel R; Steplewski, Klaudia M; Zaks-Zilberman, Meirav; Aiyar, Nambi

    2004-12-15

    Neuromedin U (NmU), originally isolated from porcine spinal cord and later from other species, is a novel peptide that potently contracts smooth muscle. NmU interacts with two G protein-coupled receptors designated as NmU-1R and NmU-2R. This study demonstrates a potential proinflammatory role for NmU. In a mouse Th2 cell line (D10.G4.1), a single class of high affinity saturable binding sites for (125)I-labeled NmU (K(D) 364 pM and B(max) 1114 fmol/mg protein) was identified, and mRNA encoding NmU-1R, but not NmU-2R, was present. Competition binding analysis revealed equipotent, high affinity binding of NmU isopeptides to membranes prepared from D10.G4.1 cells. Exposure of these cells to NmU isopeptides resulted in an increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration (EC(50) 4.8 nM for human NmU). In addition, NmU also significantly increased the synthesis and release of cytokines including IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13. Studies using pharmacological inhibitors indicated that maximal NmU-evoked cytokine release required functional phospholipase C, calcineurin, MEK, and PI3K pathways. These data suggest a role for NmU in inflammation by stimulating cytokine production by T cells.

  18. Exploitation of Unintentional Ethernet Cable Emissions Using Constellation Based-Distinct Native Attribute (CB-DNA) Fingerprints to Enhance Network Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-17

    EXPLOITATION OF UNINTENTIONAL ETHERNET CABLE EMISSIONS USING CONSTELLATION BASED-DISTINCT NATIVE ATTRIBUTE (CB-DNA) FINGERPRINTS TO ENHANCE NETWORK... FINGERPRINTS TO ENHANCE NETWORK SECURITY DISSERTATION Presented to the Faculty Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force Institute of Technology...EXPLOITATION OF UNINTENTIONAL ETHERNET CABLE EMISSIONS USING CONSTELLATION BASED-DISTINCT NATIVE ATTRIBUTE (CB-DNA) FINGERPRINTS TO ENHANCE NETWORK

  19. Fast optical channel recovery in field demonstration of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over OTN using real-time DSP.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Etsushi; Yamanaka, Shogo; Kisaka, Yoshiaki; Nakagawa, Tadao; Murata, Koichi; Yoshida, Eiji; Sakano, Toshikazu; Tomizawa, Masahito; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Matsuoka, Shinji; Matsui, Junichiro; Shibayama, Atsufumi; Abe, Jun-ichi; Nakamura, Yuichi; Noguchi, Hidemi; Fukuchi, Kiyoshi; Onaka, Hiroshi; Fukumitsu, Katsumi; Komaki, Kousuke; Takeuchi, Osamu; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Nakashima, Hisao; Mizuochi, Takashi; Kubo, Kazuo; Miyata, Yoshikuni; Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Hirano, Susumu; Onohara, Kiyoshi

    2011-07-04

    A field trial of 100-Gbit/s Ethernet over an optical transport network (OTN) is conducted using a real-time digital coherent signal processor. Error free operation with the Q-margin of 3.2 dB is confirmed at a 100 Gbit/s Ethernet analyzer by concatenating a low-density parity-check code with a OTN framer forward error correction, after 80-ch WDM transmission through 6 spans x 70 km of dispersion shifted fiber without inline-dispersion compensation. Also, the recovery time of 12 msec is observed in an optical route switching experiment, which is achieved through fast chromatic dispersion estimation functionality.

  20. The Design of Passive Optical Networking+Ethernet over Coaxial Cable Access Networking and Video-on-Demand Services Carrying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei

    2013-07-01

    Video on demand is a very attractive service used for entertainment, education, and other purposes. The design of passive optical networking+Ethernet over coaxial cable accessing and a home gateway system is proposed. The network integrates the passive optical networking and Ethernet over coaxial cable to provide high dedicated bandwidth for the metropolitan video-on-demand services. Using digital video broadcasting, IP television protocol, unicasting, and broadcasting mechanisms maximizes the system throughput. The home gateway finishes radio frequency signal receiving and provides three kinds of interfaces for high-definition video, voice, and data, which achieves triple-play and wire/wireless access synchronously.

  1. Design and Performance Evaluation of Optical Ethernet Switching Architecture with Liquid Crystal on Silicon-Based Beam-Steering Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuh-Jiuh; Chou, H.-H.; Shiau, Yhi; Cheng, Shu-Ying

    2016-07-01

    A non-blocking optical Ethernet switching architecture with liquid crystal on a silicon-based beam-steering switch and optical output buffer strategies are proposed. For preserving service packet sequencing and fairness of routing sequence, priority and round-robin algorithms are adopted at the optical output buffer in this research. Four methods were used to implement tunable fiber delay modules for the optical output buffers to handle Ethernet packets with variable bit-rates. The results reported are based on the simulations performed to evaluate the proposed switching architecture with traffic analysis under a traffic model captured from a real-core network.

  2. Ethernet access network based on free-space optic deployment technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebhart, Michael; Leitgeb, Erich; Birnbacher, Ulla; Schrotter, Peter

    2004-06-01

    The satisfaction of all communication needs from single households and business companies over a single access infrastructure is probably the most challenging topic in communications technology today. But even though the so-called "Last Mile Access Bottleneck" is well known since more than ten years and many distribution technologies have been tried out, the optimal solution has not yet been found and paying commercial access networks offering all service classes are still rare today. Conventional services like telephone, radio and TV, as well as new and emerging services like email, web browsing, online-gaming, video conferences, business data transfer or external data storage can all be transmitted over the well known and cost effective Ethernet networking protocol standard. Key requirements for the deployment technology driven by the different services are high data rates to the single customer, security, moderate deployment costs and good scalability to number and density of users, quick and flexible deployment without legal impediments and high availability, referring to the properties of optical and wireless communication. We demonstrate all elements of an Ethernet Access Network based on Free Space Optic distribution technology. Main physical parts are Central Office, Distribution Network and Customer Equipment. Transmission of different services, as well as configuration, service upgrades and remote control of the network are handled by networking features over one FSO connection. All parts of the network are proven, the latest commercially available technology. The set up is flexible and can be adapted to any more specific need if required.

  3. ShareSync: A Solution for Deterministic Data Sharing over Ethernet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Daniel J., II; Koons, William A.; Kennedy, Richard D.; Davis, Philip A.

    2007-01-01

    As part of upgrading the Contact Dynamics Simulation Laboratory (CDSL) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), a simple, cost effective method was needed to communicate data among the networked simulation machines and I/O controllers used to run the facility. To fill this need and similar applicable situations, a generic protocol was developed, called ShareSync. ShareSync is a lightweight, real-time, publish-subscribe Ethernet protocol for simple and deterministic data sharing across diverse machines and operating systems. ShareSync provides a simple Application Programming Interface (API) for simulation programmers to incorporate into their code. The protocol is compatible with virtually all Ethernet-capable machines, is flexible enough to support a variety of applications, is fast enough to provide soft real-time determinism, and is a low-cost resource for distributed simulation development, deployment, and maintenance. The first design cycle iteration of ShareSync has been completed, and the protocol has undergone several testing procedures including endurance and benchmarking tests and approaches the 2001ts data synchronization design goal for the CDSL.

  4. Modeling network infrastructure and performance evaluation for PACS: DICOM over ethernet-based TCP/IP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvanitis, Theodoros N.; Roth, David

    2001-08-01

    Studies of information and process modeling have demonstrated the importance and clinical impact of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems in the efficient operational management of imaging within the clinical setting. The appropriate identification of both clinical and technology requirements for the planning and deployment of such systems is essential to achieve cost-effectiveness in use. The understanding of the complexities of clinically viable network topologies and architectures for PACS can be achieved through realistic simulations and modeling. The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology for modeling the DICOM session and application layer entities over Ethernet-based TCP/IP, by using the OPNET Modeler, and derive performance evaluation metrics for different PACS network topologies.

  5. Design and evaluation of FDDI fiber optics networkfor Ethernets, VAX's and Ingraph work stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernicki, M. Chris

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to design and evaluate the FDDI Fiber Optics Network for Ethernets, VAX's, and Ingraph work stations. From the KSC Headquarters communication requirement, it would be necessary to develop the FDDI network based on IEEE Standards outlined in the ANSI X3T9.5, Standard 802.3 and 802.5 topology - direct link via intermediate concentrator and bridge/router access. This analysis should examine the major factors that influence the operating conditions of the Headquarters Fiber plant. These factors would include, but are not limited to the interconnecting devices such as repeaters, bridges, routers and many other relevant or significant FDDI characteristics. This analysis is needed to gain a better understanding of overall FDDI performance.

  6. Evaluation of Giga-bit Ethernet instrumentation for SalSA electronics readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varner, Gary S.; Murakami, Laine; Ridley, David; Zhu, Chaopin; Gorham, Peter

    2005-12-01

    An instrumentation prototype for acquiring high-speed transient data from an array of high bandwidth antennas is presented. Multi-kilometer cable runs complicate acquisition of such large bandwidth radio signals from an extensive antenna array. Solutions using analog fiber optic links are being explored though are very expensive. We propose an inexpensive solution that allows for individual operation of each antenna element, operating at potentially high local self-trigger rates. Digitized data packets are transmitted to the surface via commercially available Giga-bit Ethernet hardware. Events are then reconstructed on a computer farm by sorting the received packets using standard networking gear, eliminating the need for custom, very high speed trigger hardware. Such a system is completely scalable and leverages the enormous capital investment made by the telecommunications industry. Test results from a demonstration prototype are presented.

  7. A comparative model and techno-economic analysis of next generation AON ethernet and TDM PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kun; Larsen, Claus Popp; Gavler, Anders; Lannoo, Bart; Chiaroni, Dominique; Popov, Mikhail

    2010-12-01

    A global reference model covering next generation active and passive networks has been developed for techno-economic evaluations, and an extensive techno-economic analysis with a focus on CAPEX has been performed for 10G TDM PON and 1G AON - both capable of delivering 1Gbit/s to end-users. Two major cases have been considered: urban and rural at green field deployment. The results show that AON is less expensive than PON solution in urban case while in rural case 10G TDM PON is more competitive.

  8. Demonstration of burst mode bit discrimination circuit for 1.25 Gb/s and 10.3 Gb/s dual-rate reach extender of WDM-TDM-hybrid-PON systems based on 10G-EPON.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Han Hyub; Kim, Kwang Ok; Lee, Jie Hyun; Myong, Seung Il; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo

    2011-12-12

    We proposed a simple and cost-effective burst mode bit discrimination circuit for dual rate reach extender based on 10 gigabit Ethernet passive optical network. To distinguish the dual rate burst mode packets, periodic idle patterns which have specific frequency components in the frequency domain and radio frequency power detection technique were used. The burst mode dual rate upstream transmission was demonstrated to confirm the feasibility of our suggested method in a coexisted gigabit Ethernet passive optical network and 10 gigabit Ethernet passive optical network. We achieved the dual rate burst mode receiver sensitivity of - 32 dBm for 1.25 Gbit/s signal and -27 dBm for 10.3 Gbit/s signal, respectively.

  9. Supporting quality of service by using delta dynamic bandwidth allocations in Ethernet passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yeon-Mo; Ahn, Byung-Ha; Nho, Ji-Myong

    2005-02-01

    In Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs), dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) has to provide efficient and statistical multiplexing between the optical network units for better upstream use. Here a new burst-polling-based delta (DBA) scheme is proposed for quality of service (QoS) using class of service (CoS) in EPONs. The proposed scheme consists of two parts: one is inter-ONU scheduling, which is a delta DBA based on burst polling, and the other is OLT-based intra-ONU scheduling, a differentiated priority queuing method at egress, in which three kinds of traffic classes have been considered, such as expedited forwarding (EF), assured forwarding (AF), and best effort (BE). With the proposed scheme, it has been shown that the network resources are optimally utilized and adaptively allocated to the three traffic classes by guaranteeing the requested QoS. For the verification and validation of the algorithm, experimental simulation results using OPNET have been presented, and these show that the proposed scheme under varying offered loads gives an improvement compared with the other DBA schemes in the content of (criteria) packet delay, queue length, and channel utilization--especially when the offered load is beyond the system's capacity. Specifically, packet-delay variations (PDV) for different classes of traffic are demonstrated.

  10. A synchronous Gigabit Ethernet protocol stack for high-throughput UDP/IP applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Födisch, P.; Lange, B.; Sandmann, J.; Büchner, A.; Enghardt, W.; Kaever, P.

    2016-01-01

    State of the art detector readout electronics require high-throughput data acquisition (DAQ) systems. In many applications, e. g. for medical imaging, the front-end electronics are set up as separate modules in a distributed DAQ. A standardized interface between the modules and a central data unit is essential. The requirements on such an interface are varied, but demand almost always a high throughput of data. Beyond this challenge, a Gigabit Ethernet interface is predestined for the broad requirements of Systems-on-a-Chip (SoC) up to large-scale DAQ systems. We have implemented an embedded protocol stack for a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) capable of high-throughput data transmission and clock synchronization. A versatile stack architecture for the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) and Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) over Internet Protocol (IP) such as Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) as well as Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is presented. With a point-to-point connection to a host in a MicroTCA system we achieved the theoretical maximum data throughput limited by UDP both for 1000BASE-T and 1000BASE-KX links. Furthermore, we show that the random jitter of a synchronous clock over a 1000BASE-T link for a PTP application is below 60 ps.

  11. Optimizing 10-Gigabit Ethernet for Networks of Workstations, Clusters, and Grids: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Wu-chun

    2003-10-13

    This paper presents a case study of the 10-Gigabit Ethernet (10GbE) adapter from Intel(reg sign). Specifically, with appropriate optimizations to the configurations of the 10GbE adapter and TCP, we demonstrate that the 10GbE adapter can perform well in local-area, storage-area, system-area, and wide-area networks. For local-area, storage-area, and system-area networks in support of networks of workstations, network-attached storage, and clusters, respectively, we can achieve over 7-Gb/s end-to-end throughput and 12-{micro}s end-to-end latency between applications running on Linux-based PCs. For the wide-area network in support of grids, we broke the recently-set Internet2 Land Speed Record by 2.5 times by sustaining an end-to-end TCP/IP throughput of 2.38 Gb/s between Sunnyvale, California and Geneva, Switzerland (i.e., 10,037 kilometers) to move over a terabyte of data in less than an hour. Thus, the above results indicate that 10GbE may be a cost-effective solution across a multitude of computing environments.

  12. A programmable, multichannel power supply for SIPMs with temperature compensation loop and Ethernet interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, M.; Rodríguez, J.; Toledo, J.; Esteve, R.; Álvarez, V.; Herrero, V.

    2016-12-01

    Among the different techniques available, the SiPM power supply described in this paper uses output voltage and sensor temperature feedback. A high-resolution ADC digitizes both the output voltage and an analog signal proportional to the SiPM temperature for each of its 16 independent outputs. The appropriate change in the bias voltage is computed in a micro-controller and this correction is applied via a high resolution DAC to the control input of a DC/DC module that produces the output voltage. This method allows a reduction in gain variations from typically 30% to only 0.5% in a 10 °C range. The power supply is housed in a 3U-height aluminum box. A 2.8'' touch screen on the front panel provides local access to the configuration and monitoring functions using a graphical interface. The unit has an Ethernet interface on its rear side to provide remote operation and integration in slow control systems using the encrypted and secure SSH protocol. A LabVIEW application with SSH interface has been designed to operate the power supply from a remote computer. The power supply has good characteristics, such as 85 V output range with 1 mV resolution and stability better than 2 mVP, excellent output load regulation and programmable rise and fall voltage ramps. Commercial power supplies from well-known manufacturers can show far better specifications though can also result in an over featured and over costly solution for typical applications.

  13. Energy-saving scheme based on downstream packet scheduling in ethernet passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lincong; Liu, Yejun; Guo, Lei; Gong, Xiaoxue

    2013-03-01

    With increasing network sizes, the energy consumption of Passive Optical Networks (PONs) has grown significantly. Therefore, it is important to design effective energy-saving schemes in PONs. Generally, energy-saving schemes have focused on sleeping the low-loaded Optical Network Units (ONUs), which tends to bring large packet delays. Further, the traditional ONU sleep modes are not capable of sleeping the transmitter and receiver independently, though they are not required to transmit or receive packets. Clearly, this approach contributes to wasted energy. Thus, in this paper, we propose an Energy-Saving scheme that is based on downstream Packet Scheduling (ESPS) in Ethernet PON (EPON). First, we design both an algorithm and a rule for downstream packet scheduling at the inter- and intra-ONU levels, respectively, to reduce the downstream packet delay. After that, we propose a hybrid sleep mode that contains not only ONU deep sleep mode but also independent sleep modes for the transmitter and the receiver. This ensures that the energy consumed by the ONUs is minimal. To realize the hybrid sleep mode, a modified GATE control message is designed that involves 10 time points for sleep processes. In ESPS, the 10 time points are calculated according to the allocated bandwidths in both the upstream and the downstream. The simulation results show that ESPS outperforms traditional Upstream Centric Scheduling (UCS) scheme in terms of energy consumption and the average delay for both real-time and non-real-time packets downstream. The simulation results also show that the average energy consumption of each ONU in larger-sized networks is less than that in smaller-sized networks; hence, our ESPS is better suited for larger-sized networks.

  14. Using the ACR/NEMA standard with TCP/IP and Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimiak, William J.; Williams, Rodney C.

    1991-07-01

    There is a need for a consolidated picture archival and communications system (PACS) in hospitals. At the Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University (BGSM), the authors are enhancing the ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol using UNIX sockets and TCP/IP to greatly improve connectivity. Initially, nuclear medicine studies using gamma cameras are to be sent to PACS. The ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol provides the functionality of the upper three layers of the open system interconnection (OSI) model in this implementation. The images, imaging equipment information, and patient information are then sent in ACR/NEMA format to a software socket. From there it is handed to the TCP/IP protocol, which provides the transport and network service. TCP/IP, in turn, uses the services of IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) to complete the connectivity. The advantage of this implementation is threefold: (1) Only one I/O port is consumed by numerous nuclear medicine cameras, instead of a physical port for each camera. (2) Standard protocols are used which maximize interoperability with ACR/NEMA compliant PACSs. (3) The use of sockets allows a migration path to the transport and networking services of OSIs TP4 and connectionless network service as well as the high-performance protocol being considered by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standards Organization (ISO) -- the Xpress Transfer Protocol (XTP). The use of sockets also gives access to ANSI's Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) as well as other high-speed network standards.

  15. Dynamic bandwidth allocation by using efficient threshold reporting for quality of service in Ethernet passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yeon-Mo; Nho, Ji-Myong; Perros, Harry G.; Mahalik, N. P.; Kim, Kiseon; Ahn, Byung-Ha

    2006-03-01

    We present a dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme for Ethernet passive optical networks. This scheme, referred to as TDBA, is based on efficient threshold reporting and provides quality of service (QoS) to three different classes of packets. It is shown that network resources are efficiently allocated among the three traffic classes while guaranteeing the requested QoS by avoiding nearly all fragmentation losses. Simulation results using OPNET show that the TDBA scheme provides better packet delay and channel utilization than the other previously published allocation schemes.

  16. Tunable self-seeding Fabry-Pérot laser diode for upstream multiwavelength shared ethernet passive optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Min; Xiao, Shilin; Zhou, Zhao; Bi, Meihua

    2011-03-01

    We present a novel upstream multiwavelength shared ethernet passive optical network architecture, based on a proposed self-seeding Fabry-Pérot laser diode (FP-LD) at the optical network unit. The performances of the wavelength and power stability, side-mode suppression ratio, and tuning range for the proposed tunable self-seeding laser module are experimentally investigated. The bit-error-rate measurement is performed with direct modulation on FP-LD of 1.25 Gbps upstream data. The performance benefits from the upstream wavelengths sharing are showed via simulations.

  17. Marksmanship Aiming and Tracking Analysis System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    1 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. U.S. ARMY HUMAN ENGINEERING LABORATORY Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 91- 10218 ®Disk...2 THEN - ISO .- ’ DEINE X AIM POINT ADJUSTMENTS 8125, 3 ThEN G3E - DEFINE Y AIM POINT ADJUSTMKSTS 18130 *F -. - ,:.NE’S. 780 SEFINE BAiMLESIGT RANGE

  18. Take AIM and Keep Your Students Engaged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines the benefits to distance education teachers of formatting a weekly online newsletter in accordance with motivational learning theory. It reflects on the delivery of weekly AIM newsletters to undergraduate economics students at the Open Polytechnic of New Zealand via Moodle. The acronym, AIM, stands for Academic content,…

  19. Aims in Music Education: A Conceptual Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Constantijn

    1997-01-01

    Explores the concept of aims in music education through investigating the ideas of four philosophers: Wolfgang Brezinka, Richard S. Peters, Bennett Reimer, and David Elliott. Inquires into the empirical and logical aspects of aims and clarifies the relationships between "musical behaviors." Concludes by discussing the relevance of conceptual…

  20. Aims of education in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  1. Radiation-Hard SpaceWire/Gigabit Ethernet-Compatible Transponder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzman, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    A radiation-hard transponder was developed utilizing submicron/nanotechnology from IBM. The device consumes low power and has a low fabrication cost. This device utilizes a Plug-and-Play concept, and can be integrated into intra-satellite networks, supporting SpaceWire and Gigabit Ethernet I/O. A space-qualified, 100-pin package also was developed, allowing space-qualified (class K) transponders to be delivered within a six-month time frame. The novel, optical, radiation-tolerant transponder was implemented as a standalone board, containing the transponder ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) and optical module, with an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) friendly parallel interface. It features improved radiation tolerance; high-data-rate, low-power consumption; and advanced functionality. The transponder utilizes a patented current mode logic library of radiation-hardened-by-architecture cells. The transponder was developed, fabricated, and radhard tested up to 1 MRad. It was fabricated using 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) 9 SF process from IBM, and incorporates full BIT circuitry, allowing a loop back test. The low-speed parallel LVCMOS (lowvoltage complementary metal oxide semiconductor) bus is compatible with Actel FPGA. The output LVDS (low-voltage differential signaling) interface operates up to 1.5 Gb/s. Built-in CDR (clock-data recovery) circuitry provides robust synchronization and incorporates two alarm signals such as synch loss and signal loss. The ultra-linear peak detector scheme allows on-line control of the amplitude of the input signal. Power consumption is less than 300 mW. The developed transponder with a 1.25 Gb/s serial data rate incorporates a 10-to-1 serializer with an internal clock multiplication unit and a 10-1 deserializer with internal clock and data recovery block, which can operate with 8B10B encoded signals. Three loop-back test modes are provided to facilitate the built-in-test functionality. The

  2. Analysis of 2D Torus and Hub Topologies of 100Mb/s Ethernet for the Whitney Commodity Computing Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedretti, Kevin T.; Fineberg, Samuel A.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A variety of different network technologies and topologies are currently being evaluated as part of the Whitney Project. This paper reports on the implementation and performance of a Fast Ethernet network configured in a 4x4 2D torus topology in a testbed cluster of 'commodity' Pentium Pro PCs. Several benchmarks were used for performance evaluation: an MPI point to point message passing benchmark, an MPI collective communication benchmark, and the NAS Parallel Benchmarks version 2.2 (NPB2). Our results show that for point to point communication on an unloaded network, the hub and 1 hop routes on the torus have about the same bandwidth and latency. However, the bandwidth decreases and the latency increases on the torus for each additional route hop. Collective communication benchmarks show that the torus provides roughly four times more aggregate bandwidth and eight times faster MPI barrier synchronizations than a hub based network for 16 processor systems. Finally, the SOAPBOX benchmarks, which simulate real-world CFD applications, generally demonstrated substantially better performance on the torus than on the hub. In the few cases the hub was faster, the difference was negligible. In total, our experimental results lead to the conclusion that for Fast Ethernet networks, the torus topology has better performance and scales better than a hub based network.

  3. Indoor optical wireless communication: a GigaEthernet network prototype at 60 dB link margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, Olivier; Launay, Gilles; Besnard, Pascal

    2009-08-01

    The optical wireless system is a promising solution for increasing the available communication bandwidth within a room. This technology can give a very high-speed communication between devices and becomes a good alternative with respect to radio systems. For both technologies, the architecture is similar: a base station is installed to cover zones and transmit data with a defined quality of service. A device may be connected to the Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) with an adapter that emits and receives on this network. The wireless optical technology has advantageous specific characteristics, such as: secure data transmission, immunity, high data rate, wavelength re-use. Nevertheless, the optical system may have a limit on the network management aspect and link budget. The scope of this paper is to present a prototype developed during a collaborative project. This prototype uses a Giga Ethernet chip and components in the 1550 nm band. Based on OOK modulation, the prototype is fully compatible with the direct conversion of fibre-based Giga-Ethernet to an analogue free space version. Moreover, it also proposes a new class 1 high power emission solution with 30 dBm on 45° HP (Half Power) angle and a new large Field Of View (FOV) module on the reception side. This full duplex system, composed by one Base station and two Modules, transmits data on, at least, one meter. The document will present the prototype characteristics with testbed and experimentation results.

  4. Animated View of the AIM Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) mission will provide the first detailed exploration of Earth's unique and elusive noctilucent or night shining clouds that are found literally on the "ed...

  5. Laser Transmitter Aims At Laser Beacon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Lesh, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Transmitter part of developmental optical communication system. Compact, lightweight, partially-self-aiming laser transmitter built to verify some capabilities of developmental free-space optical communication system. Design capable of providing 0.5 Mbps data return over range equal to Moon-Earth distance. Breadboard of transmitting terminal constructed and tested in laboratory. Prototype transmitter includes receiving circuitry that keeps it aimed at beacon, once brought into initial alignment within about 1.7 degrees of line of sight to beacon.

  6. Pragmatics and the aims of language evolution.

    PubMed

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

    2017-02-01

    Pragmatics has historically played a relatively peripheral role in language evolution research. This is a profound mistake. Here I describe how a pragmatic perspective can inform language evolution in the most fundamental way: by making clear what the natural objects of study are, and hence what the aims of the field should be.

  7. AIM: Ames Imaging Module Spacecraft Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The AIM camera is a small, lightweight, low power, low cost imaging system developed at NASA Ames. Though it has imaging capabilities similar to those of $1M plus spacecraft cameras, it does so on a fraction of the mass, power and cost budget.

  8. CURRICULUM MATTERS: Aims assessments and workplace needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Paul

    1997-09-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. It reviews the results of analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the UK conference of physics professors. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  9. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) fellowship program

    SciTech Connect

    McCleary, D.D.

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program administers a Graduate Fellowship Program focused toward helping students who are currently under represented in the nation`s pool of scientists and engineers, enter and complete advanced degree programs. The objectives of the program are to: (1) establish and maintain cooperative linkages between DOE and professors at universities with graduate programs leading toward degrees or with degree options in Materials Science, Materials Engineering, Metallurgical Engineering, and Ceramic Engineering, the disciplines most closely related to the AIM Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); (2) strengthen the capabilities and increase the level of participation of currently under represented groups in master`s degree programs, and (3) offer graduate students an opportunity for practical research experience related to their thesis topic through the three-month research assignment or practicum at ORNL. The program is administered by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE).

  10. Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) experiment is to resolve why Polar Mesospheric Clouds form and why they vary. By measuring PMCs and the thermal, chemical and dynamical environment in which they form, we will quanti@ the connection between these clouds and the meteorology of the polar mesosphere. In the end, this will provide the basis for study of long-term variability in the mesospheric climate and its relationship to global change. The results of AIM will be a rigorous validation of predictive models that can reliably use past PMC changes and present trends as indicators of global change. The AIM goal will be achieved by measuring PMC extinction, brightness, spatial distribution, particle size distributions, gravity wave activity, dust influx to the atmosphere and precise, vertical profile measurements of temperature, H20, C&, 0 3 , C02, NO. and aerosols. These data can only be obtained by a complement of instruments on an orbiting spacecraft (S/C).

  11. Predominant Virulent IbA10G2 Subtype of Cryptosporidium hominis in Human Isolates in Barcelona: A Five-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Remedios; Prim, Núria; Montemayor, Michel; Valls, María Eugenia; Muñoz, Carme

    2015-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidium infection is a worldwide cause of diarrheal disease. To gain insight into the epidemiology of the infection in a certain geographic area, molecular methods are needed to determine the species/genotypes and subtypes. Methodology/Principal Findings From 2004 to 2009, 161 cryptosporidiosis cases were detected in two hospitals in Barcelona. Diagnosis was performed by microscopic observation of oocysts in stool specimens following modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. Most cases (82%) occurred in children. The number of cases increased in summer and autumn. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium was performed in 69 specimens, and C. hominis and C. parvum were identified in 88.4% and 10.1% of the cases, respectively. C. meleagridis was detected in one specimen. Subtyping based on the gp60 polymorphism showed six subtypes, four C. hominis and two C. parvum. Subtype IbA10G2 was the most prevalent subtype corresponding to 90% of all C. hominis isolates. This is the first report on the distribution of specific Cryptosporidium subtypes from humans in Spain. Conclusions/Significance In our geographic area, the anthroponotic behavior of C. hominis, the lower infective dose, and the higher virulence of certain subtypes may contribute to the high incidence of human cryptosporidiosis caused by the IbA10G2 subtype. Further studies should include populations with asymptomatic shedding of the parasite. PMID:25816024

  12. OFDM and PAM comparison using a high baudrate low resolution IM/DD interface for 400G Ethernet access.

    PubMed

    André, Nuno Sequeira; Louchet, Hadrien; Filsinger, Volker; Hansen, Erik; Richter, André

    2016-05-30

    We compare OFDM and PAM for 400G Ethernet based on a 3-bit high baudrate IM/DD interface at 1550nm. We demonstrate 27Gb/s and 32Gb/s transmission over 10km SSMF using OFDM and PAM respectively. We show that capacity can be improved through adaptation/equalization to achieve 42Gb/s and 64Gb/s for OFDM and PAM respectively. Experimental results are used to create realistic simulations to extrapolate the performance of both modulation formats under varied conditions. For the considered interface we found that PAM has the best performance, OFDM is impaired by quantization noise. When the resolution limitation is relaxed, OFDM shows better performance.

  13. AIMS: Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Daniel R.

    2016-11-01

    AIMS (Asteroseismic Inference on a Massive Scale) estimates stellar parameters and credible intervals/error bars in a Bayesian manner from a set of seismic frequency data and so-called classic constraints. To achieve reliable parameter estimates and computational efficiency it searches through a grid of pre-computed models using an MCMC algorithm; interpolation within the grid of models is performed by first tessellating the grid using a Delaunay triangulation and then doing a linear barycentric interpolation on matching simplexes. Inputs for the modeling consists of individual frequencies from peak-bagging, which can be complemented with classic spectroscopic constraints.

  14. Low-cost high-manufacturability and thermal stability optical front-end for 10-Gb ethernet applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shin-Ge; Lee, Chun-Hsing; Liao, Li-Chun; Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Chih-Li; Huang, Min-Fa; Hsu, Chih-Hao; Cheng, Fu-Yi; Kao, Min-Sheng; Wang, Chiung-Hung

    2004-05-01

    With the drastic expansion of internet usage, the demand of 10Gb/s transmission optoelectronic devices for local-area-network (LAN) and storage-area-network (SAN) are increasing. The key issues of these applications are to improve cost, manufacturability and reliability of optoelectronic devices in high speed transmission. The authors have demonstrated extremely low cost, high manufacturability and thermal stability optical fron-end for 10Gb/s Ethernet applications in this paper. High performance and high sensitivity of 10Gb/s transmitter optical sub-assembly (TOSA) and receiver optical sub-assembly (ROSA) with TO-Can packages are discussed and demonstrated to overcome the critical points in high speed applications, respectively. Moreover, 10km interconnection of 10Gb/s optical front-end without isolated elements inside are also proved to be error free at 10.3125Gb/s. In order to improve the signal integrity and manufacturability of 10Gb/s OSA in small form factor transceiver modules assembly, the authors also integrate high speed flex board and OSA package to extend the signal path, and to minimize the effect of crosstalk in modules. Furthermore, the integration of flex board and OSA package more release the difficulties in conjuunction OSA and electrical sub-assembly (ESA) in module to fulfill the request of 10Gb/s transeivers' Multi-Source Agreement (MSA). The performance of temperature stabilized TOSA over wide case temperature range is also experimented. The optical eye diagram of 10Gb/s TOSA developed in this study showing excellent eye quality passing 10Gb/s Ethernet mask test between 0°C to 85°C.

  15. Work, the Aims of Life and the Aims of Education: A Reply to Clarke and Mearman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winch, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    The main points made by Clarke and Mearman about Winch's article, 'The Economic Aims of Education,' are taken up and discussed. My argument is that work is not necessarily a disutility, although paid employment can be when it is undertaken in conditions that are not fulfilling. Life aims are not the same as educational aims, although educational…

  16. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  17. Insect food aiming at Mars emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Nagasaka, Sanako; Kuwayama, Akemi; Sofue, Megumi

    2012-07-01

    We study insect food aiming at Mars emigration.In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss.It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food.I reported that silkworm is an insect necessary for astroponics in particular last time.We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food.In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture,too.We examined nutrition of silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail and the white ant which are necessary for Mars emigration.We will introduce of good balance space foods.We will report many meal menu for Mars emigration.

  18. The aims and accomplishments of comparative psychology.

    PubMed

    Lickliter, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Greenberg, Partridge, Weiss, and Pisula propose a new perspective of comparative psychology, based in large part on an anagenetic and dynamic systems approach to the development and evolution of behavior. Their view appreciates the probabilistic nature of behavioral development and promotes the value of an integrative levels concept for generating testable hypothesis regarding the complex relationship between biology, context, and developmental history underlying behavioral and psychological functioning. However, the authors fail to represent the full scope of contemporary comparative psychology by overlooking several core aims of the field, including (a) the use of animal models to shed light on human behavior and development and (b) understanding the role of behavior as a leading edge in the evolutionary process.

  19. Experimental study of cross-phase modulation reduction in hybrid systems with co-propagating 100G PM-QPSK and 10G OOK.

    PubMed

    Searcy, Steven; Tibuleac, Sorin

    2013-12-16

    We experimentally investigate various methods for reducing cross-phase modulation in hybrid networks with mixed 100G and 10G traffic. The experimental results over standard single-mode and non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber types demonstrate the effectiveness of several different XPM reduction techniques as well as the interplay between them. Nonlinear transmission performance is quantified using the Nonlinear Threshold metric as a function of key system features, including DCM type, dispersion map, spectral guard bands, and carrier phase estimation window size. Fiber Bragg grating-based DCMs are shown to offer a distinct advantage over fiber-based DCMs under certain conditions, particularly in dispersion-managed systems with very strong XPM. The average walk-off per span is introduced as a simple yet effective metric to compare different methods of XPM mitigation.

  20. DC-coupled burst-mode receiver with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and short settling time for symmetric 10G-GPONs.

    PubMed

    Put, Jasmien; Yin, Xin; Qiu, Xing-Zhi; Gillis, Jan; Verbrugghe, Jochen; Bauwelinck, Johan; Vandewege, Jan; Blache, Fabrice; Lanteri, Delphine; Achouche, Mohand; Krimmel, Heinz-Georg; van Veen, Dora; Vetter, Peter

    2011-12-12

    This paper presents a high performance DC-coupled 10 Gbit/s APD-based optical burst-mode receiver (BM-RX) for symmetric 10G-GPONs. The BM-RX can handle upstream bursts with a loud/soft range wider than 24.0 dB, and the measured sensitivity is -30.0 dBm at BER = 10(-3) after a start of burst settling time no longer than 51 ns. This paper also investigates, for the first time, the inter-burst guard time required for a 10 Gbit/s BM-RX with auto-reset generation, while the PON operates upstream at a high raw BER and is using FEC.

  1. On correlations in IMRT planning aims.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arkajyoti; Das, Indra J; Nohadani, Omid

    2016-11-01

    The purpose was to study correlations amongst IMRT DVH evaluation points and how their relaxation impacts the overall plan. 100 head-and-neck cancer cases, using the Eclipse treatment planning system with the same protocol, are statistically analyzed for PTV, brainstem, and spinal cord. To measure variations amongst the plans, we use (i) interquartile range (IQR) of volume as a function of dose, (ii) interquartile range of dose as a function of volume, and (iii) dose falloff. To determine correlations for institutional and ICRU goals, conditional probabilities and medians are computed. We observe that most plans exceed the median PTV dose (average D50 = 104% prescribed dose). Furthermore, satisfying D50 reduced the probability of also satisfying D98, constituting a negative correlation of these goals. On the other hand, satisfying D50 increased the probability of satisfying D2, suggesting a positive correlation. A positive correlation is also observed between the PTV V105 and V110. Similarly, a positive correlation between the brainstem V45 and V50 is measured by an increase in the conditional median of V45, when V50 is violated. Despite the imposed institutional and international recommendations, significant variations amongst DVH points can occur. Even though DVH aims are evaluated independently, sizable correlations amongst them are possible, indicating that some goals cannot be satisfied concurrently, calling for unbiased plan criteria. PACS number(s): 87.55.dk, 87.53.Bn, 87.55.Qr, 87.55.de.

  2. On correlations in IMRT planning aims.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arkajyoti; Das, Indra J; Nohadani, Omid

    2016-11-08

    The purpose was to study correlations amongst IMRT DVH evaluation points and how their relaxation impacts the overall plan. 100 head-and-neck cancer cases, using the Eclipse treatment planning system with the same protocol, are statisti-cally analyzed for PTV, brainstem, and spinal cord. To measure variations amongst the plans, we use (i) interquartile range (IQR) of volume as a function of dose, (ii) interquartile range of dose as a function of volume, and (iii) dose falloff. To determine correlations for institutional and ICRU goals, conditional probabilities and medians are computed. We observe that most plans exceed the median PTV dose (average D50 = 104% prescribed dose). Furthermore, satisfying D50 reduced the probability of also satisfying D98, constituting a negative correlation of these goals. On the other hand, satisfying D50 increased the probability of satisfying D2, suggesting a positive correlation. A positive correlation is also observed between the PTV V105 and V110. Similarly, a positive correlation between the brainstem V45 and V50 is measured by an increase in the conditional median of V45, when V50 is violated. Despite the imposed institutional and international recommenda-tions, significant variations amongst DVH points can occur. Even though DVH aims are evaluated independently, sizable correlations amongst them are possible, indicating that some goals cannot be satisfied concurrently, calling for unbiased plan criteria.

  3. Taking aim at novel vaccines market.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Sita

    2009-10-01

    The World Vaccine Congress Washington 2009 was held in Chantilly, VA USA April 2O -23rd. The Vaccine congress attracted over 400 participants from across the world, including leading vaccine manufacturers, biotechs, governmental agencies, NGOs, research and academic institutes, venture capital and legal firms, contract service and equipment manufacturers. The speakers covered a wide range of topics, including the role of government and regulatory agencies, funding availability, research and development, manufacturing, packaging and post vaccine evaluations. Past vaccine development efforts have historically focused on infectious diseases. With advancements in the field of immunology, molecular biology and vaccinology, the vaccine field has begun moving in new directions. "Taking aim at novel vaccines market" session chaired by Dr. Una Ryan, Chief Executive Officer of Waltham Technologies, was focused on traditional approaches to novel targets (nosocomial infections), novel approaches to traditional targets (flu and rabies), novel approaches to novel targets (Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and smoking) and vaccines for developing markets (TB, malaria, rabies). The importance of collaborations among academic institutions, industries, and philanthropic foundations for developing markets was also emphasized.

  4. AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder (AIM-9X Blk II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-442 AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder (AIM-9X Blk II) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be... Selective Availability Anti-Spoofing Module sec - seconds STD - Standard TV - Technical View AIM-9X Blk II December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 15:14:10

  5. The final report for CCM.M-K7: key comparison of 5 kg, 100 g, 10 g, 5 g and 500 mg stainless steel mass standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungjun; Borys, Michael; Abbott, Patrick; Becerra, Luis Omar; Eltawil, Alaaeldin A.; Jian, Wang; Malengo, Andrea; Medina, Nieves; Snegov, Victor; Wüthrich, Christian; Scholz, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In order to show equivalence in mass standards calibration among National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of member countries of the "Comité international des poids et mesures" (CIPM), key comparisons (KC) of mass standards have been carried out under the auspices of the "Comité Consultatif pour la Masse et les Grandeurs Apparentées" (CCM). This key comparison of 5 kg, 100 g, 10 g, 5 g and 500 mg stainless steel mass standards was based on the decision of the CCM during the 12th meeting held in 2010 at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM). KRISS (Republic of Korea) and PTB (Germany) acted as pilot laboratory and co-pilot laboratory, respectively. The results were evaluated with the Monte Carlo method using measurement values based on participants' reference standards calculated following the recent BIPM amendments in 2015. Regarding participant results, VNIIM (100 g and 5 g) were not consistent with the key comparison reference values within their expanded uncertainties with the coverage factor, k = 2. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. A 0.18 μm CMOS transmit physical coding sublayer IC for 100G Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihua, Ruan; Qingsheng, Hu

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a transmit physical coding sublayer (PCS) circuit for 100G Ethernet. Based on the 4 × 25 Gb/s architecture according to the IEEE P802.3ba and IEEE P802.3bmTM/D1.1 standards, this PCS circuit is designed using a semi-custom design method and consists of 4 modules including 64B/66B encoder, scrambler, multiple lanes distribution and 66 : 8 gearbox. By using the pipeline structure and several optimization techniques, the working speed of the circuit is increased significantly. The parallel scrambling combined with logic optimization also improve the performance. In addition, a kind of phase-independent structure is employed in the design of the gearbox to ensure it can work stably and reliably at high frequency. This PCS circuit has been fabricated based on 0.18 μm CMOS technology and the total area is 1.7 × 1.7 mm2. Measured results show that the circuit can work properly at 100 Gb/s and the power consumption is about 284 mW with a 1.8 V supply. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 6504000129) and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 6504000052).

  7. AIM-9X Block II Sidewinder (AIM-9X Blk II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Applicable O&S - Operating and Support Oth - Other PAUC - Program Acquisition Unit Cost PB - President’s Budget PE - Program Element Proc - Procurement...IATO - Interim Authorization to Operate IEA - Information Enterprise Architecture in - Inches IP - Internet Protocol IT - Information Technology ...Block II SAR. RDT&E Appn BA PE Navy 1319 07 0207161N Project Name 0457 Tactical Aim Missile (Shared) Air Force 3600 07 0207161F

  8. Characterization of bound parts of the b30u+(53P1), c 31 u(5 3P2) and X10g+ states of Cd 2 revisited: Bound-bound excitation and dispersed emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M.; | M., Strojecki; | P., Krośnicki; | J., Zgoda; Koperski

    2010-04-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence excitation and dispersed emission spectra of Cd 2 recorded using the c31(53P2)←X10g+ and b30u+(53P1)→X10g+ transitions, respectively are reported. In the excitation to the c 31 u state, red-shaded vibrational components of several υ' ← υ″ = 0, 1, 2, 3 progressions and Δ υ = 0,1 sequences were identified. In the emission from the b30u+ state, well resolved υ' = 0,1,2,3,4 → υ″ transitions were recorded using a spectrograph with CCD camera. Analyses of the spectra provided an improved characterization of the b30u+, c 31 u and X10g+ states involved in the transitions. The results were compared with our ab initio calculations and those obtained experimentally in earlier studies.

  9. A proteolytic modification of AIM promotes its renal excretion

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Tomoko; Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Hiramoto, Emiri; Takai, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Senda, Yoshie; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Nelson, Peter S.; Lucas, Jared M.; Morgan, Andrew; Li, Zhenghua; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM, encoded by cd5l) is a multi-functional circulating protein that has a beneficial role in the regulation of a broad range of diseases, some of which are ameliorated by AIM administration in mice. In blood, AIM is stabilized by association with IgM pentamers and maintains its high circulating levels. The mechanism regulating the excessive accumulation of blood AIM remains unknown, although it is important, since a constitutive increase in AIM levels promotes chronic inflammation. Here we found a physiological AIM-cleavage process that induces destabilization of AIM and its excretion in urine. In blood, IgM-free AIM appeared to be cleaved and reduced in size approximately 10 kDa. Cleaved AIM was unable to bind to IgM and was selectively filtered by the glomerulus, thereby excreted in urine. Amino acid substitution at the cleavage site resulted in no renal excretion of AIM. Interestingly, cleaved AIM retained a comparable potency with full-length AIM in facilitating the clearance of dead cell debris in injured kidney, which is a key response in the recovery of acute kidney injury. Identification of AIM-cleavage and resulting functional modification could be the basis for designing safe and efficient AIM therapy for various diseases. PMID:27929116

  10. Stabilization precision control methods of photoelectric aim-stabilized system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoru; Chen, Hua; Xue, Yonggang

    2015-09-01

    To solve the question that photoelectric aim-stabilized system can be controlled with high precision and stability, this paper researches a new photoelectric aim-stabilized control algorithm, analyzes the photoelectric aim-stabilized system architecture, sets up stability control system mathematical model, designs the stability of the photoelectric aim-stabilized LSSVM identification and control system, discusses uncertain factors and calculates the LSSVM parameters by the Chaos theory, gives the predictive controller model by the LSSVM and designs new photoelectric aim-stabilized system. Through the simulation calculation and experimental analysis, new photoelectric aim-stabilized control algorithm was verified; the results show the new photoelectric aim-stabilized control method can meet the demand of high precision control in photoelectric aim-stabilized system.

  11. Prosocial Behavior in Advertising Aimed at Children: A Content Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Daniel A., Jr.; Mouritsen, Russell H.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes network, independent, and cable television advertisements aimed at children in terms of their beneficial or "prosocial" examples. Reveals that several commercials aimed at children are rich in examples of sharing, courtesy, and physical affection. (MM)

  12. Examining Primary Healthcare Performance through a Triple Aim Lens

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Bridget L.; Brown, Judith Belle; Glazier, Richard H.; Hutchison, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to apply a Triple Aim framework to the measurement and evaluation of primary healthcare (PHC) team performance. Methods: Triple Aim components were populated with 10 dimensions derived from survey and health administrative data for 17 Family Health Teams (FHTs) in Ontario, Canada. Bivariate analyses and rankings of sites examined the relationships among dimensions and among Triple Aim components. Results: Readily available measures to fully populate the Triple Aim framework were lacking in FHTs. Within sites, there was little consistency in performance across the Triple Aim components (health, patient experience and cost). Conclusions: More and better measures are needed that can be readily used to examine the Triple Aim performance in PHC teams. FHTs, in this study, are partially achieving Triple Aim goals; however, there was a lack of consistency in performance. It is essential to collect appropriate measures and attend to performance across all components of the Triple Aim. PMID:27027790

  13. Automated Diagnosis Of Faults In Antenna-Aiming Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, Patrick J.; Mellstrom, Jeffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    Report discusses research directed toward automated diagnosis of faults in complicated electromechanical and hydraulic systems aiming 70-m and 34-m antennas of Deep Space Network communication system.

  14. Contact aiming system of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuanghua; Ye, Xiaoyou; Zou, Lingding; Gao, Hongtang; Gan, Xiaochuan; Shen, Xueping

    2013-01-01

    Composition and principle of 2m laser automatic interferometric comparator were introduced. A novel contact aiming system based on high precision inductance sensor was designed. The zero-cross trigger signal of inductance sensor output voltage was treated as the aiming signal. A rotating mechanism was designed and a segmental shifting motion control model was established. Two key problems, avoiding probe crash and aiming repeatability, were solved. The one dimension end standards such as gauge block, step gauge could be measured directly by this means. The data of test revealed that aiming repeatability was less than 0.2μm.

  15. The Core of Religious Education: Finnish Student Teachers' Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuusisto, Elina; Tirri, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    This article investigated the core of religious education (RE) by examining Finnish student teachers' pedagogical aims in the context of Lutheran RE. The data consisted of essays (N=82) analysed in a deductive manner using the main concepts of the didactic triangle together with the aims of the Finnish National Core Curriculum. The student…

  16. Found in Translation: Interdisciplinary Arts Integration in Project AIM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Lara; Ingram, Debra; Weiss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This paper will share the arts-integration methodology used in Project AIM and address the question; "How is translation evident in interdisciplinary arts instruction, and how does it affect students?" Methods: The staff and researchers from Project AIM, (an arts-integration program of the Center for Community Arts Partnerships at…

  17. Soap Films and Bubbles, Grades 4-9. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Ann

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9 on the premise that such integration enriches and makes learning meaningful and holistic. In fact, extensive field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS has confirmed that integration produces the…

  18. Teaching Design Education for Cultural, Pedagogical, and Economic Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vande Zande, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The aims of educating for economic, cultural, and pedagogical purposes have existed since the early inception of art education. Looking at how and why these aims evolved in the early era of art and design education has potential for better understanding how and why design should be incorporated into the art education curricula today. This article…

  19. An Analysis of Aims and the Educational "Event"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Heyer, Kent

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author explores key distinctions relevant to aims talk in education. He argues that present formulations of aims fail to adequately capture or speak to several overlapping domains involved in schooling: qualification, socialization, and the educational in the form of subjectification (Biesta, 2010). Drawing off Egan and Biesta…

  20. Primarily Plants, A Plant Study for K-3. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Evalyn; Mercier, Sheryl

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this interpretation produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  1. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  2. Critters: K-6 Life Science Activities. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Maureen Murphy; And Others

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this integration produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  3. Student Teachers' Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marín, Victoria I.; Tur, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain) in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers' perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims.…

  4. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    PubMed

    Douglas, James R; Ritter, Melody J

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care-related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges.

  5. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS)

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, James R.; Ritter, Melody J.

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care–related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges. PMID:21734847

  6. Researchers Take Aim At Insecticide-Resistant Bedbugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aim at Insecticide-Resistant Bedbugs New fungal-based pesticide might knock out insects that survive current chemicals ... use in bedbug management," Jenkins said. The new pesticide worked on all four strains of bedbugs, the ...

  7. 121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Man with temperature probe aimed at armature measuring temperature as armature heats up between the two electrodes. March 27, 1985 - Statue of Liberty, Liberty Island, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  8. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    PubMed Central

    Callender, J S

    1998-01-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy. PMID:9752632

  9. Automated Iodine Monitoring System Development (AIMS). [shuttle prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The operating principle of the automated iodine monitoring/controller system (AIMS) is described along with several design modifications. The iodine addition system is also discussed along with test setups and calibration; a facsimile of the optical/mechanical portion of the iodine monitor was fabricated and tested. The appendices include information on shuttle prototype AIMS, preliminary prime item development specifications, preliminary failure modes and effects analysis, and preliminary operating and maintenance instructions.

  10. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    PubMed

    Callender, J S

    1998-08-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy.

  11. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-01-01

    Context In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously “improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations.” IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. Methods In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and those that did not, we were able to develop an ex post theory of what is needed for an organization or community to successfully pursue the Triple Aim. Findings Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe the 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on the Triple Aim: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. Conclusions The concept of the Triple Aim is now widely used, because of IHI's work with many organizations and also because of the adoption of the Triple Aim as part of the national strategy for US health care, developed during the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even those organizations working on the Triple Aim before IHI coined the term found our concept to be useful because it helped them think about all 3 dimensions at once and organize their

  12. Integration of alternating monocular samples during goal-directed aiming.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steve; Hayes, Spencer J; Bennett, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of interocular delay in a manual aiming task that required accurate end-point placement, but not precise control of a grip aperture. Participants aimed in binocular, monocular, or alternating monocular vision conditions. For the latter, 25ms monocular samples were provided to alternate eyes without delay (0ms), or a delay of 25 or 50ms. The interocular delay resulted in a longer movement time, caused by a longer time-to-peak and time-after-peak velocity, and a reduction in peak velocity. We suggest that the change in kinematics reflect a strategic response to preserve terminal aiming accuracy and variability when faced with an informational perturbation. These findings indicate that the response to the interocular delay between alternating monocular samples depends on the task-specific information used to control that behavior.

  13. The International Particle Physics Outreach Group (ippog):. Aims and Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, David

    2012-08-01

    The International Particle Physics Outreach Group, IPPOG, is a network of particle physics communication and education experts. IPPOG's principle aim is to maximize the impact of education and outreach efforts related to particle physics through information exchange and the sharing of expertise. IPPOG has initiated several major European and Worldwide activities, such as the "International Particle Physics Masterclasses" where each year thousands of high school students in more than 20 countries come to one of about 120 nearby universities or research centres for a day in order to unravel the mysteries of particle physics. IPPOG has also initiated a global database of education and outreach materials, aimed at supporting other particle physicists and education professionals. The aims and activities of IPPOG will be described, as well as plans to include more countries & laboratories in the network.

  14. Goal-Directed Aiming: Two Components but Multiple Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Grierson, Lawrence E. M.; Lyons, James; Bennett, Simon J.; Hayes, Spencer J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the behavioral literature on the control of goal-directed aiming and presents a multiple-process model of limb control. The model builds on recent variants of Woodworth's (1899) two-component model of speed-accuracy relations in voluntary movement and incorporates ideas about dynamic online limb control based on prior…

  15. [Patient's aggression aimed at physicians. Legal interpretation of defense possibilities].

    PubMed

    Patryn, Rafał

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the following study is to acquaint medical practitioners with legal possibilities of defense against patients'aggression. The occurrence of the described and discussed issue, namely the appearance of different forms of aggression aimed at physicians and other medical staff is a more and more frequently appearing phenomenon, which is very problematic, and difficult to interpret. The scope of the analysis has been limited to aggression of patients towards physicians only, as they are most often the aim of this aggression, and what should be emphasized, they lack practical and universal solutions and frequently also necessary knowledge to protect themselves against it. The idea behind this study is to present a rational solution to the afore mentioned situation, within legal limits. First, an outline of a conflict situation with a short specification of sources of aggression will be presented, than an appropriate legal taxonomy (including civil and criminal law) allowing for aid in such a situation will be offered and discussed.The authors will also present practical and legally permissible solutions aiming at defense, abandonment, and not allowing for the appearance of this reprehensible phenomenon.

  16. Why the Aims of Education Cannot Be Settled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardarson, Atli

    2012-01-01

    The dominant model of curriculum design in the last century assumed that school education could be organized around aims, defined primarily in terms of students' behaviour. The credentials of this model were questioned by, among others, Lawrence Stenhouse, who pointed out that education serves purposes that cannot be stated in terms of behavioural…

  17. MayDay Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David J.

    2013-01-01

    On June 20, 2012, Professor John Kratus welcomed the MayDay Group to Michigan State University for "Colloquium 24: The Aims of Music Education". On behalf of all members of the Mayday Group, the author wishes to extend his deepest gratitude to Professor Kratus and his colleagues at Michigan State for their extremely gracious and…

  18. An Examination of OMB Forms Clearance Aims, Policies and Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coan, Donald L.; Bertram, Charles L.

    The purposes of this paper are four-fold: (1) to delineate the principal aims and policy objectives of Office of Management and Budget Forms Clearance (OMB FC), as embodied in Federal legislation and executive directives since 1942; (2) to identify the major current thrusts of OMB FC; (3) to suggest possible future policy directions of OMB FC,…

  19. Goal-directed aiming: two components but multiple processes.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Lyons, James; Bennett, Simon J; Hayes, Spencer J

    2010-11-01

    This article reviews the behavioral literature on the control of goal-directed aiming and presents a multiple-process model of limb control. The model builds on recent variants of Woodworth's (1899) two-component model of speed-accuracy relations in voluntary movement and incorporates ideas about dynamic online limb control based on prior expectations about the efferent and afferent consequences of a planned movement. The model considers the relationship between movement speed and accuracy, and how performers adjust their trial-to-trial aiming behavior to find a safe, but fast, zone for movement execution. The model also outlines how the energy and safety costs associated with different movement outcomes contribute to movement planning processes and the control of aiming trajectories. Our theoretical position highlights the importance of advance knowledge about the sensory information that will be available for online control and the need to develop a robust internal representation of expected sensory consequences. We outline how early practice contributes to optimizing strategic planning to avoid worst-case outcomes associated with inherent neural-motor variability. Our model considers the role of both motor development and motor learning in refining feed-forward and online control. The model reconciles procedural and representational accounts of the specificity-of-learning phenomenon. Finally, we examine the breakdown of perceptual-motor precision in several special populations (i.e., Down syndrome, Williams syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, normal aging) within the framework of a multiple-process approach to goal-directed aiming.

  20. The Aims of Sex Education: Demoting Autonomy and Promoting Mutuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Paula

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Paula McAvoy critiques a commonly held view that teaching young people to be good choice makers should be a central aim of sex education. Specifically, she argues against David Archard's recommendation that sex educators ought to focus on the development of autonomy and teaching young people that "choice should be accorded…

  1. Research Project on Educational Aims. Research Bulletin 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskanen, Erkki A.; And Others

    Summaries of classroom research studies conducted in Finland on the development of educational aims are presented. Papers in this document deal with: (1) an overview of the purposes of the research project; (2) cognitive processes in classroom verbal interaction; (3) taxonomy of physical education; (4) objectives of religious education; (5)…

  2. Autonomy as the Guiding Aim of Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Gelderen, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has three purposes: first, to present a vision of entrepreneurship education that has the student's capacity for autonomous action as its ultimate aim; second, to convince the reader of the timeliness and relevance of such an approach; third, to outline how this can be implemented. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  3. Philosophical Analysis, Research on Teaching, and Aim-Oriented Empiricism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Jerome A.

    1980-01-01

    An attempt is made at providing cohesion and structure for a range of disparate activities and examining their interrelationships. Among concepts considered are: (1) the relationship of philosophic analysis in education; (2) the nature of pedagogical research; (3) the process-product paradigm; (4) aim-oriented empiricism; (5) the reduction thesis;…

  4. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  5. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  6. The General Aims of Educational Development -- A Comparative Prospect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahawy, Bayoumi Mohamed

    The inconsistency between norms prescribed by international agencies and the educational strategies suggested to put these norms into practice has created problems as is evident in the case studies of India and Egypt and the general aims of educational development in these two countries. In Egypt a policy of basic education had the support of…

  7. Student Aims Performance in a Predominately Hispanic District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chebultz, Lance

    2012-01-01

    School districts in the United States have undergone large changes over the last decade to accommodate No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Arizona accommodated NCLB through Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards (AIMS). Expectations were established for all students, varying by group of students based on grade, special education status, free/reduced…

  8. Strategic Clinical Networks: Alberta's Response to Triple Aim.

    PubMed

    Noseworthy, Tom; Wasylak, Tracy; O'Neill, Blair J

    2016-01-01

    Verma and Bhatia make a compelling case for the Triple Aim to promote health system innovation and sustainability. We concur. Moreover, the authors offer a useful categorization of policies and actions to advance the Triple Aim under the "classic functions" of financing, stewardship and resource generation (Verma and Bhatia 2016). The argument is tendered that provincial governments should embrace the Triple Aim in the absence of federal government leadership, noting that, by international standards, we are at best mediocre and, more realistically, fighting for the bottom in comparative, annual cross-country surveys. Ignoring federal government participation in Medicare and resorting solely to provincial leadership seems to make sense for the purposes of this discourse; but, it makes no sense at all if we are attempting to achieve high performance in Canada's non-system (Canada Health Action: Building on the Legacy 1997; Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada 2002; Lewis 2015). As for enlisting provincial governments, we heartily agree. A great deal can be accomplished by the Council of the Federation of Canadian Premiers. But, the entire basis for this philosophy and the reference paper itself assumes a top-down approach to policy and practice. That is what we are trying to change in Alberta and we next discuss. Bottom-up clinically led change, driven by measurement and evidence, has to meet with the top-down approach being presented and widely practiced. While true for each category of financing, stewardship and resource generation, in no place is this truer than what is described and included in "health system stewardship." This commentary draws from Verma and Bhatia (2016) and demonstrates how Alberta, through the use of Strategic Clinical Networks (SCNs), is responding to the Triple Aim. We offer three examples of provincially scaled innovations, each representing one or more arms of the Triple Aim.

  9. A methodology aimed to guarantee technology continuity in health structures.

    PubMed

    Miniati, R; Dori, F; Iadanza, E; Scatizzi, L; Niccolini, F; Sarti, A

    2011-01-01

    In healthcare the importance of clinical continuity is essential for both patients life and health organization activity. Since technology continuity is having more and more importance for the service continuity, a correct management of medical devices must be guided by criteria that ensure its safe, appropriate and economical use through a well planned purchase, appropriate preventive and corrective maintenance Indeed, the aim of health technology managers is to optimize the integration of external interventions assistance and internal technical service to guarantee an efficient and cost-effective maintenance system. This paper proposes an innovative carefully thought methodology which is aimed to provide technological and procedural actions which offer support to decision makers in technology management regarding the implementation of continuity in medical services and response to technology failures and emergency events.

  10. [Mucosal healling: a realistic aim or marketing myth?].

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, Valle; Iglesias-Flores, Eva

    2011-12-01

    The classical aim of the treatment of ulcerative colitis is to induce and maintain remission. However, this aim has not been shown to prevent long-term complications. Current treatment goals attempt to prevent complications. In some studies, healing of the intestinal mucosa has been shown to improve long-term outcomes. In ulcerative colitis, mucosal healing reduces recurrence, the risk of colorectal cancer and the need for surgery, and improves patients' quality of life. The drugs for which there is greatest evidence of their efficacy in inducing and maintaining mucosal healing are salicylates and biological agents. In the near future, endoscopic monitoring may be required to evaluate response to the treatment and decisions may have to be taken according to the persistence or disappearance of these lesions.

  11. [Aiming at the chest, but hitting the back].

    PubMed

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Axmann, Stefan; Siegenthaler, Lea; Kneubühl, Beat; Thali, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gunshot injuries in the back may suggest the unjustified use of firearms. A wound in the back inflicted by a firearm should not automatically imply that the shooter aimed at the back. A previous study demonstrated that it is possible for men to turn their trunk faster than it takes for a shooter to fire or throw a hand-operated weapon. With a high speed motion camera the authors were able to demonstrate that it is also possible for women to turn their trunk fast enough, so that a shot in the back could have been aimed at the front of the body. This conclusion is also likely to apply to hand-operated or thrown weapons, since the velocity of their projectiles is considerably lower than that of firearms.

  12. Flexible logical-link-identifier assignment policy for Ethernet passive optical networks based on extended multipoint-control-protocol du flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajduczenia, Marek; da Silva, Henrique J.; Monteiro, Paulo P.

    2006-09-01

    We present a novel proposal for the extension of the currently approved multipoint control protocol (MPCP), as defined in the IEEE 802.3ah standard, clause 64, in the form of two new MPCP messages (extended GATE and extended REPORT), maintaining full backward compatibility with the already-deployed Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) systems and allowing for coexistence with legacy MPCP flow-control messages within the same network structure. Both currently existing logical-link identifier (LLID) assignment systems [namely, one LLID per optical network unit (ONU) and one LLID per queue] are examined in depth, and a missing scenario (one LLID per multiqueue) is discussed. Simulation results conducted using C++ based implementation of standard EPON networks with support for extended GATE-REPORT MPCP data units (DUs) prove that the design assumptions for both new flow-control messages were met to their fullest extent. The eGATE/eREPORT MPCP DUs allow for per-queue scheduling from the central packet controller in the optical line terminal (OLT) at the cost of ONU-based operation, thereby maintaining the benefits of two standard solutions. The obtained simulation results indicate superiority of the proposed IEEE 802.3ah, clause 64 extension in terms of network resource management, bandwidth efficiency, and system setup flexibility.

  13. Real-time monitoring and fault locating using amplified spontaneous emission noise reflection for tree-structured Ethernet passive optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naim, Nani Fadzlina; Ab-Rahman, Mohammad Syuhaimi; Kamaruddin, Nur Hasiba; Bakar, Ahmad Ashrif A.

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, optical networks are becoming dense while detecting faulty branches in the tree-structured networks has become problematic. Conventional methods are inconvenient as they require an engineer to visit the failure site to check the optical fiber using an optical time-domain reflectometer. An innovative monitoring technique for tree-structured network topology in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) by using the erbium-doped fiber amplifier to amplify the traffic signal is demonstrated, and in the meantime, a residual amplified spontaneous emission spectrum is used as the input signal to monitor the optical cable from the central office. Fiber Bragg gratings with distinct center wavelengths are employed to reflect the monitoring signals. Faulty branches of the tree-structured EPONs can be identified using a simple and low-cost receiver. We will show that this technique is capable of providing monitoring range up to 32 optical network units using a power meter with a sensitivity of -65 dBm while maintaining the bit error rate of 10-13.

  14. Impact of channel-spacing on next 400 Gb/s Ethernet 40-km PMD based on 16×25Gb/s WDM architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Ferrera, P.; Gutiérrez-Castrejón, R.

    2014-06-01

    The impact of fiber dispersion, system non-linearities and their interaction when varying the channel-spacing value, ranging from 200 to 800 GHz, on the performance of a WDM 16×25Gb/s architecture that has been proposed as next 400 Gb/s Ethernet (400 GbE) 40-km physical medium dependent (PMD) sublayer is numerically analyzed. It is shown through calculations of the Quality Factor that the gain modulation nonlinearity of the semiconductor optical pre-amplifier is the main phenomenon that degrades the system performance. Moreover, it is demonstrated that its impact becomes dependent on the channel-spacing of the WDM plan, provided that the chromatic dispersion of the fiber is enough to vary the bit-correlation level among channels at the pre-amplifier input. Despite the considerable channel count, the effect of carrier heating-induced four wave mixing (FWM) is found to be rather modest, while the impact of carrier density pulsation-induced FWM and fiber non-linear response resulted to be negligible. With respect to the analyzed phenomena, a wide channel plan, only limited by the gain bandwidth, should be preferred for the 400 GbE implementation, especially if a nanostructured, broad-bandwidth, SOA can be afforded.

  15. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  16. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Veltri, P. Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2015-04-08

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ∼ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic ”steerer” to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  17. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2015-04-01

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ˜ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic "steerer" to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  18. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry; Hontalas, Philip; Listgarten, Sherry

    1993-01-01

    Whether a researcher is designing the 'next parallel programming paradigm,' another 'scalable multiprocessor' or investigating resource allocation algorithms for multiprocessors, a facility that enables parallel program execution to be captured and displayed is invaluable. Careful analysis of execution traces can help computer designers and software architects to uncover system behavior and to take advantage of specific application characteristics and hardware features. A software tool kit that facilitates performance evaluation of parallel applications on multiprocessors is described. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS) has four major software components: a source code instrumentor which automatically inserts active event recorders into the program's source code before compilation; a run time performance-monitoring library, which collects performance data; a trace file animation and analysis tool kit which reconstructs program execution from the trace file; and a trace post-processor which compensate for data collection overhead. Besides being used as prototype for developing new techniques for instrumenting, monitoring, and visualizing parallel program execution, AIMS is also being incorporated into the run-time environments of various hardware test beds to evaluate their impact on user productivity. Currently, AIMS instrumentors accept FORTRAN and C parallel programs written for Intel's NX operating system on the iPSC family of multi computers. A run-time performance-monitoring library for the iPSC/860 is included in this release. We plan to release monitors for other platforms (such as PVM and TMC's CM-5) in the near future. Performance data collected can be graphically displayed on workstations (e.g. Sun Sparc and SGI) supporting X-Windows (in particular, Xl IR5, Motif 1.1.3).

  19. Telescope aiming point tracking method for bioptic driving surveillance.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xianping; Luo, Gang; Peli, Eli

    2010-12-01

    A bioptic telescope is a visual aid used by people with impaired vision when driving in many U.S. states, though bioptic driving remains controversial. Objective data on how and when bioptic drivers use the telescope and what they look at with it are crucial to understanding the bioptic telescope's effects on driving. A video-based technique to track the telescope's aiming point is presented in this paper. With three infrared retro-reflective markers pasted on the bioptic spectacles frame, its movement is recorded using an infrared camera unit with infrared LED illuminators. The angles formed by the three markers are used to calculate the telescope's aiming points, which are registered with road scene images recorded by another camera. The calculation is based on a novel one-time calibration method, in which the light spot from a head-mounted laser pointer projected on a wall while the scanning is recorded by the scene camera, in synchronization with the infrared camera. Interpolation is performed within small local regions where no samples were taken. Thus, nonlinear interpolation error can be minimized, even for wide-range tracking. Experiments demonstrated that the average error over a 70(°)×48(°) field was only 0.86 (°) , with lateral head movement allowed.

  20. IR technology for enhanced force protection by AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, R.; Ihle, T.; Rode, W.; Wendler, J.; Rühlich, I.; Haiml, M.; Ziegler, J.

    2008-04-01

    In all recent missions our forces are faced with various types of asymmetric threads like snipers, IEDs, RPGs or MANPADS. 2 nd and 3 rd Gen IR technology is a backbone of modern force protection by providing situational awareness and accurate target engagement at day/night. 3 rd Gen sensors are developed for thread warning capabilities by use of spectral or spatial information. The progress on a dual-color IR module is discussed in a separate paper [1]. A 1024x256 SWIR array with flexure bearing compressor and pulse tube cold finger provides > 50,000h lifetime for space or airborne hyperspectral imaging in pushbroom geometry with 256 spectral channels for improved change detection and remote sensing of IEDs or chemical agents. Similar concepts are pursued in the LWIR with either spectroscopic imaging or a system of LWIR FPA combined with a cooled tunable Laser to do spectroscopy with stimulated absorption of specific wavelengths. AIM introduced the RangIR sight to match the requirements of sniper teams, AGLs and weapon stations, extending the outstanding optronic performance of the fielded HuntIR with position data of a target by a laser range finder (LRF), a 3 axis digital magnetic compass (DMC) and a ballistic computer for accurate engagement of remote targets. A version with flexure bearing cooler with >30,000h life time is being developed for continuous operation in e.g. gunfire detection systems. This paper gives an overview of AIM's technologies for enhanced force protection.

  1. Space Insect-Food Aiming at Mars Emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Naomi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Takase, Yoshimi; Kawai, Mika; Space Agriculture Task Force

    We study space insect-food during 10 years. We are aiming at Mars emigration. In space agriculture, insect is the important creature which we cannot miss. It is necessary for the pollination of the plant, and it is rich to protein and lipid as food. We reported that silkworm, bee, grasshopper, snail, fly and termite (white ant) are insects necessary for astroponics in particular last time. We make clothes using silk thread, and the pupa becomes the food. In addition, the clothes can make food as protein when we need not to use it. The bee is a very important insect in the space agriculture, too. We calculated the nourishment ingredient of those insects and thought about ideal space foods which ara necessary for Mars emigration. We will introduce good balance space foods.

  2. Visual regulation of manual aiming: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve

    2010-11-01

    Visual regulation of upper limb movements occurs throughout the trajectory and is not confined to discrete control in the target area. Early control is based on the dynamic relationship between the limb, the target, and the environment. Despite robust outcome differences between protocols involving visual manipulations, it remains difficult to identify the kinematic events that characterize these differences. In this study, participants performed manual aiming movements with and without vision. We compared several traditional approaches to movement analysis with two new methods of quantifying online limb regulation. As expected, participants undershot the target and their movement endpoints were more variable when vision was not available. Although traditional measures such as reaction time, time after peak velocity, and the presence of discontinuities in acceleration were sensitive to the visual manipulation, measures quantifying the trial-to-trial spatial variability throughout the trajectory were the most effective in isolating the time course of online regulation.

  3. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students.

  4. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    PubMed

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  5. Gaussian benchmark for optical communication aiming towards ultimate capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehak; Ji, Se-Wan; Park, Jiyong; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-05-01

    We establish the fundamental limit of communication capacity within Gaussian schemes under phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, which employ multimode Gaussian states for encoding and collective Gaussian operations and measurements for decoding. We prove that this Gaussian capacity is additive, i.e., its upper bound occurs with separable encoding and separable receivers so that a single-mode communication suffices to achieve the largest capacity under Gaussian schemes. This rigorously characterizes the gap between the ultimate Holevo capacity and the capacity within Gaussian communication, showing that Gaussian regime is not sufficient to achieve the Holevo bound particularly in the low-photon regime. Furthermore, the Gaussian benchmark established here can be used to critically assess the performance of non-Gaussian protocols for optical communication. We move on to identify non-Gaussian schemes to beat the Gaussian capacity and show that a non-Gaussian receiver recently implemented by Becerra et al. [F. E. Becerra et al., Nat. Photon. 7, 147 (2013), 10.1038/nphoton.2012.316] can achieve this aim with an appropriately chosen encoding strategy.

  6. People, technology, and process meet the triple aim.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Deborah; Reisetter, Julie A; Zismann, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Banner Health is addressing the Triple Aim (quality care and satisfaction, improved health, and reduced cost) for Medicare beneficiaries by combining the people of one of the largest nonprofit health care systems in the United States (Banner Health) with innovative telehealth technology and leveraging high-reliability, standardized processes. The program, known as Banner iCare, builds on a highly successful tele-ICU program (some of the lowest mortality and length of stay results in the country) and expands the service to progressive care, medical-surgical, and emergency departments. These successes have led to the introduction of a home-based telehealth program with the strengths of the acute care programs. The top 5% high-cost patients with multiple chronic conditions receive coordinated intensive ambulatory care managed by an integrated team of health care professionals using cost-effective telehealth technology. The benefits expected from the proposed project include a reduction in overall costs while improving patient satisfaction through delivery of more personalized and interactive care.

  7. Analgesic strategies aimed at stimulating the endogenous production of allopregnanolone

    PubMed Central

    Poisbeau, Pierrick; Keller, Anne Florence; Aouad, Maya; Kamoun, Nisrine; Groyer, Ghislaine; Schumacher, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies indicate that 3-alpha reduced neurosteroids are remarkable analgesics in various pain states. This is the case for allopregnanolone (AP), one of the most potent endogenous positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptor function. From the pioneering work of Hans Selye, who described the sedative properties of steroids, synthetic compounds resembling the progesterone metabolite AP have been developed. If some of them have been used as anesthetics, it seems difficult to propose them as a therapeutic option for pain since they display several adverse side effects such as sedation, amnesia and functional tolerance. An alternative strategy, chosen by few laboratories around the world, is aimed at stimulating the local production of 3-alpha reduced neurosteroids in order to limit these well-known side effects. This pharmacological approach has the advantage of targeting specific structures, fully equipped with the necessary biosynthetic enzymatic machinery, where neurosteroids already act as endogenous pain modulators. The various pharmacological trials which attempted to treat pain symptoms by stimulating the production of 3-alpha reduced neurosteroids are reviewed here, as well as novel neurotransmitter systems possibly regulating their endogenous production. PMID:24987335

  8. Paleographic Atlas of northern Eurasia: Aims and current progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmin, V.G. )

    1993-09-01

    A project aimed at paleographic reconstruction of northern Eurasia (the former USSR and adjacent territories) commenced in 1993 in Russia under the auspices of two nongovernmental scientific organizations: Scientific Council on Plate Tectonics and Institute of Tectonics of Lithospheric Plates. The project is sponsored by the State Committee on Geology and Exxon and Shell companies. Twenty-six data-base maps and corresponding paleogeographic maps on a set of new paleotectonic reconstructions are to be compiled within two years, covering a period from Devonian to present. The next two-year phase is expected to follow, with a compilation of similar maps for Early Paleozoic and late Riphean. the best experts on regional geology, paleoenvironment, paleomagnetics, and paleotectonic reconstructions participate in the program. A special group, Geocentre Company, is assigned to the computerization of maps. The 1993 compilation of 15 database maps is to be completed and the first reconstructions produced. The database maps (starting from Tithonian upward) contain information on lithology, facies and thickness of sedimentary formations, and magnetic and structural indicators of plate tectonic data; oil and gas deposits are indicated. Emphasis is placed on the paleogeographic evolution of sedimentary basins, potential reservoirs of hydrocarbons. Narrow time intervals between maps (about 10 m.y.) permit detailed reconstructions of the basins' evolution. Examples of database and paleogeographic maps are presented in the poster.

  9. Why scientists perform animal experiments, scientific or personal aim?

    PubMed Central

    Mayir, Burhan; Doğan, Uğur; Bilecik, Tuna; Yardımcı, Erdem Can; Çakır, Tuğrul; Aslaner, Arif; Mayir, Yeliz Akpınar; Oruç, Mehmet Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although all animal studies are conducted in line with a specific purpose, we think that not all animal studies are performed for a scientific purpose but for personal curiosity or to fulfill a requirement. The aim of the present study is to reveal the purposes of experimental studies conducted on animals. Matherial and Methods We searched for experimental studies performed on rats in general surgery clinics via PubMed, and obtained the e-mail addresses of the corresponding authors for each study. Afterwards, we sent a 7-item questionnaire to the authors and awaited their responses. Results Seventy-three (22.2%) of 329 authors responded to the questionnaire. Within these studies, 31 (42.5%) were conducted as part of a dissertation, while the remaining 19 (26.0%) were conducted to meet the academic promotion criteria. Only 23 (31.5%) were conducted for scientific purposes. The cost of 41% of those studies was higher than 2500 $. Conclusion As shown in this study, the main objective of carrying out animal studies in Turkey is usually to prepare a dissertation or to be entitled to academic promotion. Animal experiments must be planned and performed as scientific studies to support related clinical studies. Additionally, animal studies must have well-defined objectives and be carried out in line with scientific purposes that may lead to useful developments in medicine, rather than personal interests. PMID:28149122

  10. ECH experiments aiming at further advanced operations in LHD

    SciTech Connect

    Igami, H.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Miyazawa, J.; Yamada, I.; Narihara, K.; Tamura, N.; Ida, K.; Mutoh, T.; Komori, A.; Inagaki, S.; Nagasaki, K.; Tanaka, H.; Maekawa, T.; Uchida, M.; Notake, T.

    2007-09-28

    In the Large helical device (LHD), super dense core (SDC) regime [1] and high electron temperature regime with formation of the electron internal transport barrier (e-ITB) [2][3] have been studied strenuously. Electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and current drive (ECCD) in such regimes can be powerful tools for heating and control of the plasma confinement. In this paper, recent progress of ECH experiments aiming at further advanced operation in these regimes is reported. Study of fundamental ECH by electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) has been required in the SDC regime. Early experimental results of EBW-ECH by so-called O-X-B and X-B method are introduced. In a newly realized enhanced magnetic field configuration, the highest central electron temperature over 10 keV was obtained in electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharges. ECCD will be very important in both of high density and high temperature regimes. It has been progressed with the optimization of microwave injection and magnetic field configuration. Progress of ECCD experiment is shortly introduced.

  11. Body Weight Gain During a Discrete Nursing Episode in Suckling Rats Reared at 1.5-g or 1.5-g Exceeds that of 1.0-g Controls and is Independent of Material Hypergravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronca, April E.; Baer, Lisa A.; Plaut, Karen; Wade, Charles E.; Sun, Sid (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We recently reported that body weights of suckling rats reared during 1.5-g centrifugation are approximately 10% lower than those of 1.0-g controls. This finding raises the possibility that hypergravity exposed pups ingest less milk than controls due to either impairments in their ability to acquire milk from the nipple, or to decreased availability or palatability of their mother's milk. In the present study, we analyzed body weight gain in suckling rats reared during a discrete nursing episode following rearing at either 1.75-g, 1.5-g or 1.0-g. On Gestational day (G) 10 of the rats' 22-day pregnancy, time-bred SD rat dams were 1:1 matched based on body weight and assigned to either Hypergravity (HG) or Stationary Yoked Control (SYC) conditions and to either 1.75-g or 1.5-g conditions. Beginning on G11, HG dams and litters were exposed to 26 days of continuous centrifugation with brief daily stops for veterinary inspection and animal maintenance. On the day following birth (Postnatal day), litters were pooled within each condition then randomly re-assigned in equivalent proportions to HG and SYC dams. On P15, HG litters were removed from their mother's and placed in an incubator (33 C). Following a 4hr deprivation period, four neonates were tested from each litter, with two pups placed with either their own dam or the SYC dam; two pups from the yoked mother were paired with the HG pups. Pups were individually weighed, permitted to suckle for 75 min, then re-weighed. At the start of the test, the body weights of HG pups were significantly less than those of SYC pups (p less than 0.05). Relative to SYC pups, BG pups showed significantly greater proportional body weight gain (p less than 0.05), possibly due to augmented post-centrifugation feeding. Pup weight gain was independent of maternal hypergravity exposure. Neither impairments in milk acquisition nor milk availability or palatibility of hypergravity-exposed dams cannot account for reduced body mass of hypergravity-reared offspring.

  12. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Stefan; Voigt, Christiane; Jurkat, Tina; Thornberry, Troy; Fahey, David W.; Gao, Ru-Shan; Schlage, Romy; Schäuble, Dominik; Zöger, Martin

    2016-03-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the role of H2O in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present a new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (< 0.2 s) in the inlet line, which allows the instrument to achieve a time resolution of ˜ 4 Hz, limited by the sampling frequency of the mass spectrometer. From the main inlet flow, a smaller flow is extracted into the novel pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where ion-molecule reactions lead to the production of hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n = 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well-defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 parts per million by volume (ppmv) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS

  13. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 1: AIMS-H2O for UTLS water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, S.; Voigt, C.; Jurkat, T.; Thornberry, T.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R.-S.; Schlage, R.; Schäuble, D.; Zöger, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), the accurate quantification of low water vapor concentrations has presented a significant measurement challenge. The instrumental uncertainties are passed on to estimates of H2O transport, cloud formation and the H2O role in the UTLS energy budget and resulting effects on surface temperatures. To address the uncertainty in UTLS H2O determination, the airborne mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O, with in-flight calibration, has been developed for fast and accurate airborne water vapor measurements. We present the new setup to measure water vapor by direct ionization of ambient air. Air is sampled via a backward facing inlet that includes a bypass flow to assure short residence times (< 0.2 s) in the inlet line, which allows the instrument to achieve a time resolution of ∼ 4 Hz. From the main inlet flow, a smaller flow is extracted into the novel pressure-controlled gas discharge ion source of the mass spectrometer. The air is directed through the gas discharge region where water molecules react to form hydronium ion clusters, H3O+(H2O)n (n= 0, 1, 2), in a complex reaction scheme similar to the reactions in the D-region of the ionosphere. These ions are counted to quantify the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. The instrument is calibrated during flight using a new calibration source based on the catalytic reaction of H2 and O2 on a Pt surface to generate a calibration standard with well defined and stable H2O mixing ratios. In order to increase data quality over a range of mixing ratios, two data evaluation methods are presented for lower and higher H2O mixing ratios respectively, using either only the H3O+(H2O) ions or the ratio of all water vapor dependent ions to the total ion current. Altogether, a range of water vapor mixing ratios from 1 to 500 ppmv (mole ratio, 10-6 mol mol-1) can be covered with an accuracy between 7 and 15 %. AIMS-H2O was deployed on two DLR research aircraft, the Falcon during CONCERT

  14. SaudiVeg ecoinformatics: Aims, current status and perspectives.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mohamed A; Thomas, Jacob; Alfarhan, Ahmed H; Alatar, Abdulrahman A; Mayandy, Sivadasan; Hennekens, Stephan M; Schaminėe, Joop H J; Mucina, Ladislav; Alansari, Abdulla M

    2017-02-01

    During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations) agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd) of Saudi Arabia - the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD). The data stored by the database are sample plots (vegetation relevés) collected according to the field techniques of the Braun-Blanquet approach (lists of taxa accompanied by semi-quantitative cover assessment), and are accompanied by general vegetation characteristics such as vegetation layering and cover, information on life-form of the recorded species, geographical coordinates, altitude, soil typology, topography and many more. More than 2900 vegetation-plot records (relevés) have so far been collected in the Najd region; of these more than 2000 have already been stored using the Turboveg database platform. These field records cover many habitats such as depressions, wadis (dry river beds), agricultural lands, sand dunes, sabkhas, and ruderal habitats. The ecological information collected in the database is currently the largest set of vegetation data collated into a database in the Middle East. These data are of great importance for biodiversity studies in Saudi Arabia, since the region is recording a loss of biodiversity at a fast rate due to environmental problems such as global warming and land-use changes. We envisage that this database would catalyze further data collection on vegetation of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and shall serve as one of the most important datasets for classification and mapping of the vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  15. The German National Cohort: aims, study design and organization.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The German National Cohort (GNC) is a joint interdisciplinary endeavour of scientists from the Helmholtz and the Leibniz Association, universities, and other research institutes. Its aim is to investigate the causes for the development of major chronic diseases, i.e. cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative/-psychiatric diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, respiratory and infectious diseases, and their pre-clinical stages or functional health impairments. Across Germany, a random sample of the general population will be drawn by 18 regional study centres, including a total of 100,000 women and 100,000 men aged 20-69 years. The baseline assessments include an extensive interview and self-completion questionnaires, a wide range of medical examinations and the collection of various biomaterials. In a random subgroup of 20 % of the participants (n = 40,000) an intensified examination ("Level 2") programme will be performed. In addition, in five of the 18 study centres a total of 30,000 study participants will take part in a magnetic resonance imaging examination programme, and all of these participants will also be offered the intensified Level 2 examinations. After 4-5 years, all participants will be invited for a re-assessment. Information about chronic disease endpoints will be collected through a combination of active follow-up (including questionnaires every 2-3 years) and record linkages. The GNC is planned for an overall duration of 25-30 years. It will provide a major, central resource for population-based epidemiology in Germany, and will help to identify new and tailored strategies for early detection, prediction, and primary prevention of major diseases.

  16. The Healthy Communities Study: Its Rationale, Aims, and Approach.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, S Sonia; Loria, Catherine M; Crawford, Patricia B; Fawcett, Stephen B; Fishbein, Howard A; Gregoriou, Maria; John, Lisa V; Kelley, Melinda; Pate, Russell R; Ritchie, Lorrene D; Strauss, Warren J

    2015-10-01

    Communities across the U.S. are implementing programs and policies designed to address the epidemic of childhood obesity. These programs vary widely in their approaches, including the intensity level, duration, funding, target population, and implementation techniques. However, no previous studies have examined these variations and determined how such aspects of community programs and policies are related to childhood obesity outcomes. The Healthy Communities Study is an observational study that is assessing the associations between characteristics of community programs and policies and BMI, nutrition, and physical activity in children. The Healthy Communities Study was funded in 2010, field data collection and medical record abstraction will be completed in 2015, and data cleaning and analyses will be completed by mid-year 2016. One-hundred and thirty communities (defined as a high school catchment area) and approximately 5,000 children in kindergarten through eighth grade and their parents have been recruited from public elementary and middle schools across the country. The study is examining quantitative and qualitative information obtained from community-based initiatives; measures of community characteristics (e.g., school environment); and child and parent measures, including children's physical activity levels and dietary practices and children's and parents' BMI. The Healthy Communities Study employs a complex study design that includes a diverse sample of communities across the country and combines current/cross-sectional and retrospective data (abstracted from children's medical records). This paper describes the rationale for the Healthy Communities Study, the study aims and logic model, and a brief overview of the study design.

  17. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 of the NPL, United Kingdom and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Duane, S.; Bass, G. A.; Manning, J. W.; Shipley, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) from 23 September to 7 October 2014. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 for three radiation qualities at the NPL. The results, reported as ratios of the NPL and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 1.0000(62) at 6 MV, 0.9999(70) at 10 MV and 0.9993(80) at 25 MV. This result is the seventh in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K6 of the standards for absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 of the NMIJ, Japan and the BIPM in accelerator photon beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, S.; Burns, D. T.; Roger, P.; Shimizu, M.; Morishita, Y.; Kato, M.; Tanaka, T.; Kurosawa, T.; Saito, N.

    2016-01-01

    A comparison of the dosimetry for accelerator photon beams was carried out between the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) and the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) from 9 to 23 April 2015. The comparison was based on the determination of absorbed dose to water at 10 g cm-2 for three radiation qualities at the NMIJ. The results, reported as ratios of the NMIJ and the BIPM evaluations (and with the combined standard uncertainties given in parentheses), are 0.9966 (47) at 6 MV, 0.9965 (60) at 10 MV and 0.9953 (50) at 15 MV. This result is the eighth in the on-going BIPM.RI(I)-K6 series of comparisons. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  19. Aiming at Targets: The Autobiography of Robert C. Seamans, Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seamans, Robert C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Bob Seamans originally was inspired to write this book for his family and friends. That is a large audience. By his own count his immediate family numbers twenty-four, not counting brothers and cousins and their families. His friends are uncounted but surely run to hundreds. As one of them and as a colleague at NASA, I am pleased and honored that he asked me to write this foreword. While written in Bob's unique and informal style, this autobiography has significance for many readers beyond his large circles of family and friends. Leaders and students of large, complex technological endeavors should be able to learn much from reading how Bob faced the daunting technical and management challenges in his career. As the title of this book implies, Bob has always set high goals for himself and then kept his eyes focused on both the necessary details and the broader picture. His ability to shift smoothly among jobs that required seemingly disparate abilities and skills speaks volumes about his insight, dedication, and enthusiasm for achievement. The book spans a truly remarkable life story. Bob first takes us through his growing up, education, and early professional and family life. Next he focuses on the crucial years when he was the general manager of NASA. Then he moves on to his career in the top jobs at the Air Force, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Energy Research and Development Administration. Finally, he touches on his later leadership activities in the academic and business worlds. Aiming at Targets is a series of fascinating topical vignettes covering his professional life. Taken together, like broad brushstrokes in an impressionist painting, they give a better picture of Bob Seamans and his work than a detailed recitation of facts and dates could hope to do. This is a cheerful account of an interesting and successful career. The book is full of good stories, with many memorable characters. Like the proverbial sundial, it counts the sunny hours

  20. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  1. DFT and AIM studies of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in dicoumarols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafilova, Natasha; Bauer, Günther; Mihaylov, Tzvetan

    2004-07-01

    Density functional calculations with Becke's three parameter hybrid method using the correlation functional of Lee, Yang and Parr (B3LYP) were carried out for 3,3 '-benzylidenebis(4-hydroxycoumarin) (phenyldicoumarol, PhDC), 3,3 '-methylenebis(4-hydroxycoumarin) (dicoumarol, DC) and the parent compound, 4-hydroxycoumarin (4-HC). Different basis sets were tested in the course of the calculations: 6-31G*, 6-31+G** and 6-311G*. In full agreement with available X-ray data, B3LYP/6-31G* calculations of the lowest-energy conformer, PhDC showed two O-H⋯O asymmetrical intramolecular hydrogen bonds with O⋯O distances 2.638 and 2.696 Å. The HB energies in PhDC were estimated of -55.46 and -52.32 kJ/mol, respectively. The values obtained correlated with the calculated and experimental O⋯O distances and predicted difference in the hydrogen bonding strengths in PhDC. The total HB energy in PhDC was calculated of -107.73 kJ/mol. At the same level of theory, both O⋯O intramolecular distances in DC were calculated identical (2.696 Å) and thus two symmetrical hydrogen bondings were obtained. The single HB strength was estimated of -50.89 kJ/mol and the total one of -101.79 kJ/mol. The electron density ( ρb) and Laplacian (∇ 2ρb) properties, estimated by AIM calculations, showed that both O⋯H bonds have low ρb and positive ∇ 2ρb values (consistent with electrostatic character of the HBs), whereas both O-H bonds have covalent character (∇ 2ρb<0). Natural population analysis data for PhDC, DC and 4-HC were used to predict electrostatic interactions in the exocyclic rings. The calculated oxygen natural charges were found to correlate with the O⋯O distances in PhDC and DC. On the basis of the calculated bond ellipticity, the π-delocalization in the exocyclic rings of PhDC and DC was estimated. The results thus obtained helped to describe the nature of the intramolecular O⋯H-O bonds and the forces driving their formation

  2. Aiming Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    positive definite solution of A1Qy+QyAo+I--QyBBTQY=O (5.2) The logarithmic residence time of system (3.1) with the stabilizing control (5.1) in a I...a bounded is E bou,,,,dby, ii I)-2=(6 2 This completes the prooof the necesity. Suffidency: The proof is by conatnction. Select a stabilizing control u...a - . Q.LD. Proof of Theorem 3.3: It follows from the results of [151, [21] that for each y > 0, K? defined by (3.4) is a stabilizing control and

  3. Deterministic Ethernet for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidi, C.; Wolff, B.

    2015-09-01

    Typical spacecraft systems are distributed to be able to achieve the required reliability and availability targets of the mission. However the requirements on these systems are different for launchers, satellites, human space flight and exploration missions. Launchers require typically high reliability with very short mission times whereas satellites or space exploration missions require very high availability at very long mission times. Comparing a distributed system of launchers with satellites it shows very fast reaction times in launchers versus much slower once in satellite applications. Human space flight missions are maybe most challenging concerning reliability and availability since human lives are involved and the mission times can be very long e.g. ISS. Also the reaction times of these vehicles can get challenging during mission scenarios like landing or re-entry leading to very fast control loops. In these different applications more and more autonomous functions are required to fulfil the needs of current and future missions. This autonomously leads to new requirements with respect to increase performance, determinism, reliability and availability. On the other hand side the pressure on reducing costs of electronic components in space applications is increasing, leading to the use of more and more COTS components especially for launchers and LEO satellites. This requires a technology which is able to provide a cost competitive solution for both the high reliable and available deep-space as well as the low cost “new space” markets. Future spacecraft communication standards therefore have to be much more flexible, scalable and modular to be able to deal with these upcoming challenges. The only way to fulfill these requirements is, if they are based on open standards which are used cross industry leading to a reduction of the lifecycle costs and an increase in performance. The use of a communication network that fulfills these requirements will be essential for such spacecraft’s to allow the use in launcher, satellite, human space flight and exploration missions. Using one technology and the related infrastructure for these different applications will lead to a significant reduction of complexity and would moreover lead to significant savings in size weight and power while increasing the performance of the overall system. The paper focuses on the use of the TTEthernet technology for launchers, satellites and human spaceflight and will demonstrate the scalability of the technology for the different applications. The data used is derived from the ESA TRP 7594 on “Reliable High-Speed Data Bus/Network for Safety-Oriented Missions”.

  4. The 10G TTC-PON: challenges, solutions and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, E. B. S.; Baron, S.; Kolotouros, D. M.; Soos, C.; Vasey, F.

    2017-02-01

    The TTC-PON (Timing, Trigger and Control system based in Passive Optical Networks) was first investigated in 2010 in order to replace the current TTC system, responsible for delivering the bunch clock, trigger and control commands to the LHC experiments. A new prototype of the TTC-PON system is now proposed, overcoming the limitations of the formerly presented solutions. A new upstream data transmission scheme relying on longer bursts is described, together with a high-resolution calibration procedure for aligning bursts in a time division multiplexing access. An error correction scheme for downstream data transmission is also discussed.

  5. Assessing AIM: A Study of Grade 8 Students in an Ontario School Board

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie; Lapkin, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This mixed-method study examines the proficiency in and perceptions of French language learning of Grade 8 students who were exposed to an instructional approach called the Accelerative Integrated Method (AIM). Six AIM classes (n = 125) and six non-AIM classes (n = 135) were observed and their students tested using a four-skills French as a second…

  6. 78 FR 69885 - AIM Growth Series (Invesco Growth Series), et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ... COMMISSION AIM Growth Series (Invesco Growth Series), et al.; Notice of Application November 15, 2013. AGENCY... approval and would grant relief from certain disclosure requirements. APPLICANTS: AIM Growth Series (Invesco Growth Series) and AIM Investment Funds (Invesco Investment Funds) (each, a ``Trust''),...

  7. Stabilization and Augmentation of Circulating AIM in Mice by Synthesized IgM-Fc

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Toshihiro; Yamazaki, Tomoko; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Owing to rapid and drastic changes in lifestyle and eating habits in modern society, obesity and obesity-associated diseases are among the most important public health problems. Hence, the development of therapeutic approaches to regulate obesity is strongly desired. In view of previous work showing that apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) blocks lipid storage in adipocytes, thereby preventing obesity caused by a high-fat diet, we here explored a strategy to augment circulating AIM levels. We synthesized the Fc portion of the soluble human immunoglobulin (Ig)M heavy chain and found that it formed a pentamer containing IgJ as natural IgM does, and effectively associated with AIM in vitro. When we injected the synthesized Fc intravenously into mice lacking circulating IgM, it associated with endogenous mouse AIM, protecting AIM from renal excretion and preserving the circulating AIM levels. As the synthesized Fc lacked the antigen-recognizing variable region, it provoked no undesired immune response. In addition, a challenge with the Fc-human AIM complex in wild-type mice, which exhibited normal levels of circulating IgM and AIM, successfully maintained the levels of the human AIM in mouse blood. We also observed that the human AIM was effectively incorporated into adipocytes in visceral fat tissue, suggesting its functionality against obesity. Thus, our findings reveal potent strategies to safely increase AIM levels, which could form the basis for developing novel therapies for obesity. PMID:24804991

  8. Hypersonic research engine project. Phase 2: Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (AIM) test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andersen, W. L.; Kado, L.

    1975-01-01

    The Hypersonic Research Engine-Aerothermodynamic Integration Model (HRE-AIM) was designed, fabricated, and tested in the Hypersonic Tunnel Facility. The HRE-AIM is described along with its installation in the wind tunnel facility. Test conditions to which the HRE-AIM was subjected and observations made during the tests are discussed. The overall engine performance, component interaction, and ignition limits for the design are evaluated.

  9. Impact of feline AIM on the susceptibility of cats to renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Hiramoto, Emiri; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Iwai, Satomi; Takai, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Tomoko; Mori, Nobuko; Okada, Yuki; Takeda, Naoki; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Arai, Toshiro; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Renal failure is one of the most important social problems for its incurability and high costs for patients’ health care. Through clarification of the underlying mechanism for the high susceptibility of cats to renal disease, we here demonstrates that the effective dissociation of serum AIM protein from IgM is necessary for the recovery from acute kidney injury (AKI). In cats, the AIM-IgM binding affinity is 1000-fold higher than that in mice, which is caused by the unique positively-charged amino-acid cluster present in feline AIM. Hence, feline AIM does not dissociate from IgM during AKI, abolishing its translocation into urine. This results in inefficient clearance of lumen-obstructing necrotic cell debris at proximal tubules, thereby impairing AKI recovery. Accordingly, mice whose AIM is replaced by feline AIM exhibit higher mortality by AKI than in wild-type mice. Recombinant AIM administration into the mice improves their renal function and survival. As insufficient recovery from AKI predisposes patients to chronic, end-stage renal disease, feline AIM may be involved crucially in the high mortality of cats due to renal disease. Our findings could be the basis of the development of novel AKI therapies targeting AIM-IgM dissociation, and may support renal function in cats and prolong their lives. PMID:27731392

  10. An automated model-based aim point distribution system for solar towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzbözl, Peter; Rong, Amadeus; Macke, Ansgar; Säck, Jan-Peter; Ulmer, Steffen

    2016-05-01

    Distribution of heliostat aim points is a major task during central receiver operation, as the flux distribution produced by the heliostats varies continuously with time. Known methods for aim point distribution are mostly based on simple aim point patterns and focus on control strategies to meet local temperature and flux limits of the receiver. Lowering the peak flux on the receiver to avoid hot spots and maximizing thermal output are obviously competing targets that call for a comprehensive optimization process. This paper presents a model-based method for online aim point optimization that includes the current heliostat field mirror quality derived through an automated deflectometric measurement process.

  11. Design of orienting and aiming instrument based on fiber optic gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Limin; Sun, Jiyu

    2007-12-01

    In order to improve the ground viability of missile weapon system, a quick orienting and aiming instrument is cried for the missile launching in modern war. The fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) based on Sagnac effect is a new type of all solid state rotation rate sensor that detects angular changes or angular rates relative to inertial space, which has many fine characteristics compared with traditional mechanical electronic gyro, such as low cost, light weight, long life, high reliability, wide dynamic range, etc. For the need of missile photoelectric aiming facility, It is necessary to design and manufacture a set of orienting and aiming instrument based on single axis FOG, to solve the close quarters aiming of missile launching, to measure the azimuth reference. Based on practical project, the principle of FOG orienting system and laser collimation theodolite aiming system is discussed and studied in this paper. Orienting and aiming system are constructed in the same basement. The influence of platform tilt on the precision of orientation is analyzed. An accelerator is used to compensate deviation caused by base tilt. The aiming precision affected by eccentricity of the encoders for laser collimation theodolite and the FOG orientation system are analyzed. The test results show that the aiming accuracy is 6' in three minutes. It is suitable for missile aiming in short range.

  12. Aim-less translation: loss of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial translation initiation factor mIF3/Aim23 leads to unbalanced protein synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmenko, Anton; Derbikova, Ksenia; Salvatori, Roger; Tankov, Stoyan; Atkinson, Gemma C.; Tenson, Tanel; Ott, Martin; Kamenski, Piotr; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome almost exclusively encodes a handful of transmembrane constituents of the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Coordinated expression of these genes ensures the correct stoichiometry of the system’s components. Translation initiation in mitochondria is assisted by two general initiation factors mIF2 and mIF3, orthologues of which in bacteria are indispensible for protein synthesis and viability. mIF3 was thought to be absent in Saccharomyces cerevisiae until we recently identified mitochondrial protein Aim23 as the missing orthologue. Here we show that, surprisingly, loss of mIF3/Aim23 in S. cerevisiae does not indiscriminately abrogate mitochondrial translation but rather causes an imbalance in protein production: the rate of synthesis of the Atp9 subunit of F1F0 ATP synthase (complex V) is increased, while expression of Cox1, Cox2 and Cox3 subunits of cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) is repressed. Our results provide one more example of deviation of mitochondrial translation from its bacterial origins. PMID:26728900

  13. Internet Use with Learning Aim: Views of German Language Pre-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yucel, Mukadder Seyhan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to indicate the views of teacher candidates of German Language Department at Education Faculty, Trakya University about the use of internet with the aim of learning. This study was designed as phenomenology which is one of the qualitative research methods. The study data were obtained via semi-constructed interview…

  14. Parents' Views Regarding the Values Aimed to be Taught in Social Studies Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tay, Bayram; Yildirim, Kasim

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at learning parents' ideas about the values aimed to be taught in Social Studies lessons in the 4th and 5th grades of the primary education and about values education. Study data were collected by administering "the Values Education I" and "Values Education II" questionnaire forms developed by the researchers.…

  15. Primarily Physics, Investigations in Sound, Light and Heat for K-3. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Evalyn; Mercier, Sheryl

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this interpretation produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  16. Lessons from the AIME Approach to the Teaching Relationship: Valuing Biepistemic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Samantha; Harwood, Valerie; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian; O'Shea, Sarah; McKnight, Anthony; Chandler, Paul; Priestly, Amy

    2017-01-01

    The Australian Indigenous Mentoring Experience (AIME) is a national, extra-curricular mentoring programme that is closing the educational gap for young Indigenous Australians. So what is AIME doing that is working so well? This article draws on a large-scale classroom ethnography to describe the pedagogies that facilitate the teacher-student…

  17. Piloting the AIM Project: Measuring Progress for Program Evaluation and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundie, Karen; Thompson, Debbie; Joyce, Michelle

    The AIM (Assessment, Instruction, Mastery) system is a performance-based assessment that was developed in Oregon. The AIM system was piloted by 83 volunteers and staff from 18 volunteer-based programs to assess the system's usefulness as a means of collecting and aggregating data on student progress in adult literacy and similar programs in…

  18. A Study on Estimating the Aiming Angle Error of Millimeter Wave Radar for Automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Okai, Fumihiko; Takano, Kazuaki

    The 76GHz millimeter wave radar has been developed for automotive application such as ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) and CWS (Collision Warning System). The radar is FSK (Frequency Shift Keying) monopulse type. The radar transmits 2 frequencies in time-duplex manner, and measures distance and relative speed of targets. The monopulse feature detects the azimuth angle of targets without a scanning mechanism. Conventionally a radar unit is aimed mechanically, although self-aiming capability, to detect and correct the aiming angle error automatically, has been required. The new algorithm, which estimates the aiming angle error and vehicle speed sensor error simultaneously, has been proposed and tested. The algorithm is based on the relationship of relative speed and azimuth angle of stationary objects, and the least squares method is used for calculation. The algorithm is applied to measured data of the millimeter wave radar, resulting in aiming angle estimation error of less than 0.6 degree.

  19. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation model.

    PubMed

    Mongkolwat, Pattanasak; Kleper, Vladimir; Talbot, Skip; Rubin, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge contained within in vivo imaging annotated by human experts or computer programs is typically stored as unstructured text and separated from other associated information. The National Cancer Informatics Program (NCIP) Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) Foundation information model is an evolution of the National Institute of Health's (NIH) National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Cancer Bioinformatics Grid (caBIG®) AIM model. The model applies to various image types created by various techniques and disciplines. It has evolved in response to the feedback and changing demands from the imaging community at NCI. The foundation model serves as a base for other imaging disciplines that want to extend the type of information the model collects. The model captures physical entities and their characteristics, imaging observation entities and their characteristics, markups (two- and three-dimensional), AIM statements, calculations, image source, inferences, annotation role, task context or workflow, audit trail, AIM creator details, equipment used to create AIM instances, subject demographics, and adjudication observations. An AIM instance can be stored as a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) structured reporting (SR) object or Extensible Markup Language (XML) document for further processing and analysis. An AIM instance consists of one or more annotations and associated markups of a single finding along with other ancillary information in the AIM model. An annotation describes information about the meaning of pixel data in an image. A markup is a graphical drawing placed on the image that depicts a region of interest. This paper describes fundamental AIM concepts and how to use and extend AIM for various imaging disciplines.

  20. A Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of Human Space Missions for the Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Dillon-Merrill, Robin L.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Integration Matrix (AIM) Project u7ill study and solve systems-level integration issues for exploration missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO), through the design and development of a ground-based facility for developing revolutionary integrated systems for joint human-robotic missions. This paper describes a Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) of human space missions that was developed to help define the direction and priorities for AIM. Risk analysis is required for all major NASA programs and has been used for shuttle, station, and Mars lander programs. It is a prescribed part of early planning and is necessary during concept definition, even before mission scenarios and system designs exist. PRA cm begin when little failure data are available, and be continually updated and refined as detail becomes available. PRA provides a basis for examining tradeoffs among safety, reliability, performance, and cost. The objective of AIM's PRA is to indicate how risk can be managed and future human space missions enabled by the AIM Project. Many critical events can cause injuries and fatalities to the crew without causing loss of vehicle or mission. Some critical systems are beyond AIM's scope, such as propulsion and guidance. Many failure-causing events can be mitigated by conducting operational tests in AIM, such as testing equipment and evaluating operational procedures, especially in the areas of communications and computers, autonomous operations, life support, thermal design, EVA and rover activities, physiological factors including habitation, medical equipment, and food, and multifunctional tools and repairable systems. AIM is well suited to test and demonstrate the habitat, life support, crew operations, and human interface. Because these account for significant crew, systems performance, and science risks, AIM will help reduce mission risk, and missions beyond LEO are far enough in the future that AIM can have significant impact.

  1. ACA and the Triple Aim: Musings of a Health Care Actuary.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Mac

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) promulgated the Triple Aim, which advocates simultaneous improvements in patient experiences, improved population health and lower cost per capita. In 2010, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) promised quality, affordable health care for all Americans. It's fair to assume that the framers of ACA were aware of the Triple Aim, and it is likely that much of ACA was heavily influenced by IHI's positions. So it is reasonable, from time to time, to assess ACA's impact on health care against the Triple Aim principles.

  2. The Impact of Strategic Trajectory Optimization on Illusory Target Biases During Goal-Directed Aiming.

    PubMed

    Roberts, James W; Burkitt, James J; Elliott, Digby; Lyons, James L

    2016-01-01

    During rapid aiming, movements are planned and executed to avoid worst-case outcomes that require time and energy to correct. As such, downward movements initially undershoot the target to avoid corrections against gravity. Illusory target context can also impact aiming bias. Here, the authors sought to determine how strategic biases mediate illusory biases. Participants aimed to Müller-Lyer figures in different directions (forward, backward, up, down). Downward biases emerged late in the movement and illusory biases emerged from peak velocity. The illusory effects were greater for downward movements at terminal endpoint. These results indicate that strategic biases interact with the limb-target control processes associated with illusory biases. Thus, multiple control processes during rapid aiming may combine and later affect endpoint accuracy (D. Elliott et al., 2010 ).

  3. Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM) diminishes lipid droplet-coating proteins leading to lipolysis in adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Iwamura, Yoshihiro; Mori, Mayumi; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Mikami, Toshiyuki; Murayama, Katsuhisa; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2012-06-08

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM induces lipolysis in a distinct manner from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM ablates activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in adipocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIM reduces mRNA levels of lipid-droplet coating proteins leading to lipolysis. -- Abstract: Under fasting conditions, triacylglycerol in adipose tissue undergoes lipolysis to supply fatty acids as energy substrates. Such lipolysis is regulated by hormones, which activate lipases via stimulation of specific signalling cascades. We previously showed that macrophage-derived soluble protein, AIM induces obesity-associated lipolysis, triggering chronic inflammation in fat tissue which causes insulin resistance. However, the mechanism of how AIM mediates lipolysis remains unknown. Here we show that AIM induces lipolysis in a manner distinct from that of hormone-dependent lipolysis, without activation or augmentation of lipases. In vivo and in vitro, AIM did not enhance phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in adipocytes, a hallmark of hormone-dependent lipolysis activation. Similarly, adipose tissue from obese AIM-deficient and wild-type mice showed comparable HSL phosphorylation. Consistent with the suppressive effect of AIM on fatty acid synthase activity, the amount of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids was reduced in adipocytes treated with AIM. This response ablated transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR{gamma}), leading to diminished gene expression of lipid-droplet coating proteins including fat-specific protein 27 (FSP27) and Perilipin, which are indispensable for triacylglycerol storage in adipocytes. Accordingly, the lipolytic effect of AIM was overcome by a PPAR{gamma}-agonist or forced expression of FSP27, while it was synergized by a PPAR{gamma}-antagonist. Overall, distinct modes of lipolysis appear to take place in different physiological

  4. A Formative Evaluation Plan for the Automated Instructional Management System (AIMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    examined to identify the hardware and software packages intended for development. Stufflebeam’s CIPP Model (Context, Input, Process, Product) served as...staffing, and reporting requirements. [ 4.-~ - ~ t EVALUATION MODEL The theoretical framework guiding the proposed evalua- tion of AIMS is the CIPP ...Context which led to the AIMS program, and within which its evaluation will take place. The second component of the CIPP evaluation model -INPUT - refers

  5. The Effects of Soviet Army Communications Jamming on the AIM Division Signal Battalion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-06

    computer based technical analyses of the effectiveness of the Soviet radioelectronic combat threat on division level communica- tions is presented...A technical analysis of the communications 4 t~-I Jamming 4 jamming threat versus the AIM division signal battalion is discussed to analyze the... technical analysis of Soviet communications jamming capabilities to interfere with and impede the AIM division signal battalion communications systems

  6. Presence of Motor-Intentional Aiming Deficit Predicts Functional Improvement of Spatial Neglect with Prism Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Goedert, Kelly M.; Chen, Peii; Boston, Raymond C.; Foundas, Anne L.; Barrett, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial neglect is a debilitating disorder for which there is no agreed upon course of rehabilitation. The lack of consensus on treatment may result from systematic differences in the syndromes’ characteristics, with spatial cognitive deficits potentially affecting perceptual-attentional Where or motor-intentional Aiming spatial processing. Heterogeneity of response to treatment might be explained by different treatment impact on these dissociated deficits: prism adaptation, for example, might reduce Aiming deficits without affecting Where spatial deficits. Here, we tested the hypothesis that classifying patients by their profile of Where-vs-Aiming spatial deficit would predict response to prism adaptation, and specifically that patients with Aiming bias would have better recovery than those with isolated Where bias. We classified the spatial errors of 24 sub-acute right-stroke survivors with left spatial neglect as: 1) isolated Where bias, 2) isolated Aiming bias or 3) both. Participants then completed two weeks of prism adaptation treatment. They also completed the Behavioral Inattention Test (BIT) and Catherine Bergego Scale (CBS) tests of neglect recovery weekly for six weeks. As hypothesized, participants with only Aiming deficits improved on the CBS, whereas, those with only Where deficits did not improve. Participants with both deficits demonstrated intermediate improvement. These results support behavioral classification of spatial neglect patients as a potential valuable tool for assigning targeted, effective early rehabilitation. PMID:24376064

  7. AIM2 inhibits autophagy and IFN-β production during M. bovis infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunfa; Yue, Ruichao; Yang, Yang; Cui, Yongyong; Yang, Lifeng; Zhao, Deming; Zhou, Xiangmei

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacteria can trigger the AIM2 inflammasome, autophagy activation and type-I interferon release, which are both activated by cytosolic DNA. We have recently demonstrated that activation of the AIM2 inflammasome during M. bovis infection is the result of mycobacterial translocation into the cytosol. To elucidate the effects of inflammasome activation on autophagy, we investigated the role of the AIM2 inflammasome from macrophages infected with a virulent strain of M. bovis. The results showed that the M. bovis-induced AIM2 inflammasome activation decreases autophagy in immortalized and primary murine macrophages. This relied on the inflammasome sensor AIM2 which conjugates with cytosolic DNA to inhibit the STING-dependent pathway involved in selective autophagy and interferon-β release in Mycobacterium-infected macrophages. These results suggest that the AIM2 cytosolic DNA sensor may conjugate competitively with cytosolic M. bovis DNA to restrict M. bovis induced STING-TBK1-dependent autophagy activation and IFN-β secretion. PMID:27409673

  8. AIM 2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence anxiety and memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Jung; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Huang, Tzyy-Nan; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are the protein assemblies that consist of inflammasome sensors, adaptor apoptosis-associated speck-like proteins containing a CARD (ASC) and inflammasome caspase. Inflammasomes sense multiple danger signals via various inflammasome sensors and consequently use caspase to trigger proteolytic processing and secretion of IL-1β cytokines. Recent studies have suggested that neurons use their own innate immune system to detect danger signals and regulate neuronal morphology. Here, we investigate whether inflammasomes, the critical components of innate immunity, participate in regulation of neuronal morphology and function. Among various sensors, Absent in melanoma 2 (Aim2) expression in neurons is most prominent. Adding synthetic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to cultured neurons induces IL-1β secretion in an AIM2-dependent manner and consequently downregulates dendritic growth but enhances axon extension. The results of Aim2 knockout and knockdown show that AIM2 acts cell-autonomously to regulate neuronal morphology. Behavioral analyses further reveal that Aim2−/− mice exhibit lower locomotor activity, increased anxious behaviors and reduced auditory fear memory. In conclusion, our study suggests that AIM2 inflammasomes regulate neuronal morphology and influence mouse behaviors. PMID:27561456

  9. AIM2 inflammasome in infection, cancer and autoimmunity: role in DNA sensing, inflammation and innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Man, Si Ming; Karki, Rajendra; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-01-01

    Recognition of DNA by the cell is an important immunological signature that marks the initiation of an innate immune response. AIM2 is a cytoplasmic sensor that recognizes dsDNA of microbial or host origin. Upon binding to DNA, AIM2 assembles a multi-protein complex called the inflammasome, which drives pyroptosis and proteolytic cleavage of the pro-inflammatory cytokines pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18. Release of microbial DNA into the cytoplasm during infection by Francisella, Listeria, Mycobacterium, mouse cytomegalovirus, vaccinia virus, Aspergillus and Plasmodium species leads to activation of the AIM2 inflammasome. In contrast, inappropriate recognition of cytoplasmic self-DNA by AIM2 contributes to the development of psoriasis, dermatitis, arthritis and other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inflammasome-independent functions of AIM2 have also been described, including the regulation of the intestinal stem cell proliferation and the gut microbiota ecology in the control of colorectal cancer. In this review we provide an overview of the latest research on AIM2 inflammasome and its role in infection, cancer and autoimmunity. PMID:26626159

  10. AIM2 inflammasome in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity: Role in DNA sensing, inflammation, and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Man, Si Ming; Karki, Rajendra; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-02-01

    Recognition of DNA by the cell is an important immunological signature that marks the initiation of an innate immune response. AIM2 is a cytoplasmic sensor that recognizes dsDNA of microbial or host origin. Upon binding to DNA, AIM2 assembles a multiprotein complex called the inflammasome, which drives pyroptosis and proteolytic cleavage of the proinflammatory cytokines pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18. Release of microbial DNA into the cytoplasm during infection by Francisella, Listeria, Mycobacterium, mouse cytomegalovirus, vaccinia virus, Aspergillus, and Plasmodium species leads to activation of the AIM2 inflammasome. In contrast, inappropriate recognition of cytoplasmic self-DNA by AIM2 contributes to the development of psoriasis, dermatitis, arthritis, and other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Inflammasome-independent functions of AIM2 have also been described, including the regulation of the intestinal stem cell proliferation and the gut microbiota ecology in the control of colorectal cancer. In this review we provide an overview of the latest research on AIM2 inflammasome and its role in infection, cancer, and autoimmunity.

  11. Clinical Application of AIMS65 Scores to Predict Outcomes in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Manik; John, Anil K; Al-Ejji, Khalid Mohsin; Wani, Hamidulla; Sultan, Khaleel; Al-Mohannadi, Muneera; Yakoob, Rafie; Derbala, Moutaz; Al-Dweik, Nazeeh; Butt, Muhammed Tariq; Al-Kaabi, Saad Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the ability of the recently proposed albumin, international normalized ratio (INR), mental status, systolic blood pressure, age >65 years (AIMS65) score to predict mortality in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). Methods AIMS65 scores were calculated in 251 consecutive patients presenting with acute UGIB by allotting 1 point each for albumin level <30 g/L, INR >1.5, alteration in mental status, systolic blood pressure ≤90 mm Hg, and age ≥65 years. Risk stratification was done during the initial 12 hours of hospital admission. Results Intensive care unit (ICU) admission, endoscopic therapy, or surgery were required in 51 patients (20.3%), 64 (25.5%), and 12 (4.8%), respectively. The predictive accuracy of AIMS65 scores ≥2 was high for blood transfusion (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.59), ICU admission (AUROC, 0.61), and mortality (AUROC, 0.74). The overall mortality was 10.3% (n=26), and was 3%, 7.8%, 20%, 36%, and 40% for AIMS65 scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively; these values were significantly higher in those with scores ≥2 (30.9%) than in those with scores <2 (4.5%, p<0.001). Conclusions AIMS65 is a simple, accurate, non-endoscopic risk score that can be applied early (within 12 hours of hospital admission) in patients with acute UGIB. AIMS65 scores ≥2 predict high in-hospital mortality. PMID:26473120

  12. Motor preparation of manual aiming at a visual target manipulated in size, luminance contrast, and location.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Masami; Imanaka, Kuniyasu

    2007-01-01

    We conducted two experiments to investigate whether the motor preparation of manual aiming to a visual target is affected by either the physical characteristics (size or luminance contrast) or spatial characteristics (location) of the target. Reaction time (RT) of both finger lifting (ie stimulus-detection time) and manual aiming (ie movement-triggering time) to the onset of the target was measured. The difference of RT (DRT) between two tasks (ie the difference of task complexity) was examined to clarify the temporal characteristics of manual aiming per se during visuomotor integration. Results show classical characteristics: RT decreased as either the target size or luminance contrast increased. Furthermore, the task-complexity and target-location factors significantly interacted with each other, where the aiming RT was longer than the finger-lifting RT and the effects of target location on RT differed for each task. However, the task factor did not interact with either the size or luminance-contrast factor, implying that the motor preparation of manual aiming is associated with the spatial characteristics rather than the physical characteristics of the target. Inspection of DRT revealed that the time needed for motor preparation for an ipsilateral target was significantly shorter than that for a contralateral target. This was the case both for the left and for the right hand. Foveal targets required longer processing time, implying a disadvantageous function of motor preparation for the gazed target. The left-hand superiority for the target appearing in the left visual field was also observed. Such lateralised effect and left-hand advantage to the left visual field in manual aiming suggest that visuospatial information processing is activated during the preparation of aiming action, with faster processing in the right hemisphere.

  13. ASPECT spectral imaging satellite proposal to AIDA/AIM CubeSat payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, Tomas; Näsilä, Antti; Tikka, Tuomas; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri; Kestilä, Antti; Granvik, Mikael; Kallio, Esa

    2016-10-01

    The Asteroid Spectral Imaging Mission (ASPECT) is a part of the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) project, and aims to study the composition of the Didymos binary asteroid and the efects of space weathering and shock metamorphism in order to gain understanding of the formation and evolution of the Solar System. The joint ESA/NASA Asteroid Impact Detection Assessment (AIDA) mission to binary asteroid Didymos consists of the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) by ESA and the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) by NASA. DART is targeted to impact the Didymos secondary component (Didymoon) while AIM monitors the impact efects. This will demonstrate the use of a kinetic impactor to detect potentially hazardous asteroids. Both spacecraft will be launched in 2020 and will arrive to Didymos in 2022. The AIM mission will also include two or three CubeSats, which will be released in the Didymos system. This arrangement opens up a possibility for secondary scientifc experiments. ASPECT is one of the proposed CubeSat payloads. ASPECT is a 3U CubeSat equipped with a VIS-NIR spectral imager and it will be used to measure the spectral characteristics of the impact site before and after the DART impact, as the impactor should bring fresh material to the surface. This gives a unique opportunity to study space weathering and shock efects on asteroids.

  14. Building a forensic ancestry panel from the ground up: The EUROFORGEN Global AIM-SNP set.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C; Parson, W; Lundsberg, B; Santos, C; Freire-Aradas, A; Torres, M; Eduardoff, M; Børsting, C; Johansen, P; Fondevila, M; Morling, N; Schneider, P; Carracedo, A; Lareu, M V

    2014-07-01

    Emerging next-generation sequencing technologies will enable DNA analyses to add pigmentation predictive and ancestry informative (AIM) SNPs to the range of markers detectable from a single PCR test. This prompted us to re-appraise current forensic and genomics AIM-SNPs and from the best sets, to identify the most divergent markers for a five population group differentiation of Africans, Europeans, East Asians, Native Americans and Oceanians by using our own online genome variation browsers. We prioritized careful balancing of population differentiation across the five group comparisons in order to minimize bias when estimating co-ancestry proportions in individuals with admixed ancestries. The differentiation of European from Middle East or South Asian ancestries was not chosen as a characteristic in order to concentrate on introducing Oceanian differentiation for the first time in a forensic AIM set. We describe a complete set of 128 AIM-SNPs that have near identical population-specific divergence across five continentally defined population groups. The full set can be systematically reduced in size, while preserving the most informative markers and the balance of population-specific divergence in at least four groups. We describe subsets of 88, 55, 28, 20 and 12 AIMs, enabling both new and existing SNP genotyping technologies to exploit the best markers identified for forensic ancestry analysis.

  15. The reliability of manual reporting of clinical events in an anesthesia information management system (AIMS).

    PubMed

    Simpao, Allan F; Pruitt, Eric Y; Cook-Sather, Scott D; Gurnaney, Harshad G; Rehman, Mohamed A

    2012-12-01

    Manual incident reports significantly under-report adverse clinical events when compared with automated recordings of intraoperative data. Our goal was to determine the reliability of AIMS and CQI reports of adverse clinical events that had been witnessed and recorded by research assistants. The AIMS and CQI records of 995 patients aged 2-12 years were analyzed to determine if anesthesia providers had properly documented the emesis events that were observed and recorded by research assistants who were present in the operating room at the time of induction. Research assistants recorded eight cases of emesis during induction that were confirmed with the attending anesthesiologist at the time of induction. AIMS yielded a sensitivity of 38 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 8.5-75.5 %), while the sensitivity of CQI reporting was 13 % (95 % CI 0.3-52.7 %). The low sensitivities of the AIMS and CQI reports suggest that user-reported AIMS and CQI data do not reliably include significant clinical events.

  16. Organizational technologies for transforming care: measures and strategies for pursuit of IOM quality aims.

    PubMed

    Gamm, Larry; Kash, Bita; Bolin, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Progress on the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) 6 aims to bridge the "quality chasm" requires both measurement and the concerting of multiple organizational technologies. The basic thesis of this article is that rapid progress on the IOM's multiple aims calls for transformative change within and among healthcare organizations. The promise of a number of types of transformative approaches is closely linked to their ability to simultaneously build upon several organizational technologies: clinical, social, information, and administrative technologies. To encourage and advance such efforts, this article identifies illustrative measures of attainment of the IOM's 6 aims or targeted areas for improvement that reflect the contributions of the 4 organizational technologies. It discusses examples of relationships between the IOM aims and the organizational technologies considered. Finally, the article offers illustrations of the interplay of these organizational technologies and IOM aims-across an array of organizational innovations with transformative potential. Included among such innovations are information technology in the form of electronic medical records, computer-based physician order entry, and patient health records; organization-wide patient-centered cultural change such as Studer's Hardwiring Excellence; Six Sigma and Toyota Production Management/LEAN; major clinical technology change, for example, minimally invasive cardiac surgery and broader treatment innovations such as disease management.

  17. Manual aiming in healthy aging: does proprioceptive acuity make the difference?

    PubMed

    Helsen, Werner F; Van Halewyck, Florian; Levin, Oron; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Lavrysen, Ann; Elliott, Digby

    2016-04-01

    The present study examines whether non-active older adults are more dependent on visual information when executing aiming movements and whether age-related declines in proprioception play a mediating role herein. Young (N = 40) and older adults (N = 38) were divided into physically active and non-active subgroups based on self-reported sports participation levels. In experiment 1, participants executed wrist-aiming movements with and without visual feedback. In experiment 2, passive proprioceptive acuity was assessed using wrist motion detection and position matching tests. Results showed similar aiming accuracy across age groups both with and without visual feedback, but older adults exhibited longer movement times, prolonged homing-in phase, and made more corrective submovements. Passive proprioceptive acuity was significantly affected by physical activity level and age, with participants in the active group scoring better than their non-active peers. However, these declines did not predict performance changes on the aiming task. Taken together, our observations suggest that decline in proprioceptive acuity did not predict performance changes on the aiming task and older adults were able to compensate for their decreased motion and position sense when allowed sufficient time. In line with these observations, we proposed that older adults are able to compensate for their decline in proprioception by increasing their reliance on predictive models.

  18. Estimation of aim point for endgame based on IR image sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongbo; Zhuang, Zhihong; Zheng, Huali; Zhang, Qingtai

    2003-09-01

    Because of the limit of finite missile time response and the field of view (FOV) of imaging infrared (IR) seeker during the endgame of an intercept, the image of the fighter grows larger gradually and finally will overflow the FOV as the missle approaches the fighter. It then results in losing control of the seeker and affecting the precision of burst control of imaging IR fuze based upon the guidance integrated fuzing (GIF) technology. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to decrease the blind range of imaging IR seeker and improve the precision of aim-point parameters through pose recognition. On the basis of the moving characters of missle and fighter during high-speed encounter and the high correlation of frame to frame in image sequence obtained b imaging IR seeker, a novel method of fighter axis pose recognition and aim-point estimation is proposed. Within this methodology, the spatial pose of fighter axis is recognized before the image overflow the FOV, and then the tracking mode of seeker is transformed from general tracking mode to partial image tracking mode in right time. During partial image tracking, the seeker is controlled to keep the partial image track point in the FOV, then the aim-point parameters can be calculated accurately by utilizing the fighter axis pose, parameters of track point and the relative distance of track point and aim-point.

  19. Listeria monocytogenes that lyse in the macrophage cytosol trigger AIM2-mediated pyroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, John-Demian; Witte, Chelsea E.; Zemansky, Jason; Hanson, Bill; Lauer, Peter; Portnoy, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary To gain insight into the mechanisms by which host cells detect cytosolic invasion by intracellular pathogens, a genetic screen was performed to identify Listeria monocytogenes mutants that induced altered levels of host cell death. A mutation in lmo2473 resulted in hyper-stimulation of host cell death and IL-1β secretion (pyroptosis) following bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol. In addition, strains engineered to lyse in the cytosol by expression of both bacteriophage holin and lysin or induced to lyse by treatment with ampicillin stimulated pyroptosis. Pyroptosis was independent of the Nlrp3 and Nlrc4 receptors, but dependent on ASC and AIM2. Importantly, wild type L. monocytogenes were also found to lyse, albeit at low levels, and trigger AIM2-dependent pyroptosis. Since AIM2 is activated by DNA, these data suggested that pyroptosis is triggered by bacterial DNA released during lysis. PMID:20417169

  20. Implementation Guidance for the Accelerated Improvement Method (AIM). Software Engineering Process Management: Special Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Services), and CMMI-ACQ (CMMI for Acquisition), 12 of those at ML3 . All 12 core PAs are within the scope of AIM, as well as the structure provided by all...has been officially appraised at CMMI ML3 , an he walk. While this is a significant achievement, AIM c ization says “we’re good enough” then, in some...tracked, which for the noted references, CMU/SEI-2010-SR-032 | 22 corresponds to the engineering PAs, especially at ML3 . The largest concentration of

  1. Advanced Integrated Multi-Sensor Surveillance (AIMS. Operator Machine Interface (OMI) Definition Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    particulier la nuit et par mauvais temps, un système intégré perfectionné de surveillance multi- capteurs (AIMS) est en cours de développement. Ce...système est perfectionné par l’intégration de cinq capteurs à capacité de déclenchement actif en un cardan unique. Il pourra ainsi servir à une multitude...mauvais temps, un système intégré perfectionné de surveillance multi- capteurs (AIMS) est en cours de développement. Ce système intègre en un cardan

  2. A Formative Evaluation Plan for the Automated Instructional Management System (AIMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Melissa; And Others

    The plan described was developed to evaluate the training and cost-effectiveness of the Automated Instructional Management System (AIMS), a computer-based training and resource development system being developed by the Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC) for possible installation in its schools and training centers. The Functional Description…

  3. Evaluation of a School-Based Program Aimed at Preventing Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the…

  4. Using the RE-AIM framework to evaluate physical activity public health programs in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) public health programming has been widely used in Mexico; however, few studies have documented individual and organizational factors that might be used to evaluate their public health impact. The RE-AIM framework is an evaluation tool that examines individual and organizationa...

  5. AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-185 AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) As of FY 2017 President’s...Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be

  6. The display of molecular models with the Ames Interactive Modeling System (AIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, J. T.; Hart, J.; Burt, S. K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A visualization of molecular models can lead to a clearer understanding of the models. Sophisticated graphics devices supported by minicomputers make it possible for the chemist to interact with the display of a very large model, altering its structure. In addition to user interaction, the need arises also for other ways of displaying information. These include the production of viewgraphs, film presentation, as well as publication quality prints of various models. To satisfy these needs, the display capability of the Ames Interactive Modeling System (AIMS) has been enhanced to provide a wide range of graphics and plotting capabilities. Attention is given to an overview of the AIMS system, graphics hardware used by the AIMS display subsystem, a comparison of graphics hardware, the representation of molecular models, graphics software used by the AIMS display subsystem, the display of a model obtained from data stored in molecule data base, a graphics feature for obtaining single frame permanent copy displays, and a feature for producing multiple frame displays.

  7. Albuquerque Integration Model (AIM) Outreach Project. Final Performance Report, October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albuquerque Special Preschool, NM.

    This final report documents the accomplishments and activities of the Albuquerque Integration Model (AIM) Outreach Project, designed to stimulate the awareness of parents and health care and education professionals regarding serving young handicapped children in settings which include their nonhandicapped peers. Progress in 14 project objectives…

  8. Interpretive Research Aiming at Theory Building: Adopting and Adapting the Case Study Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz Andrade, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Although the advantages of case study design are widely recognised, its original positivist underlying assumptions may mislead interpretive researchers aiming at theory building. The paper discusses the limitations of the case study design for theory building and explains how grounded theory systemic process adds to the case study design. The…

  9. Guanylate-binding proteins promote activation of the AIM2 inflammasome during infection with Francisella novicida.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Etienne; Wallet, Pierre; Dreier, Roland F; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Anton, Leonie; Rühl, Sebastian; Dussurgey, Sébastien; Dick, Mathias S; Kistner, Anne; Rigard, Mélanie; Degrandi, Daniel; Pfeffer, Klaus; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Henry, Thomas; Broz, Petr

    2015-05-01

    The AIM2 inflammasome detects double-stranded DNA in the cytosol and induces caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis as well as release of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. AIM2 is critical for host defense against DNA viruses and bacteria that replicate in the cytosol, such as Francisella tularensis subspecies novicida (F. novicida). The activation of AIM2 by F. novicida requires bacteriolysis, yet whether this process is accidental or is a host-driven immunological mechanism has remained unclear. By screening nearly 500 interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) through the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA), we identified guanylate-binding proteins GBP2 and GBP5 as key activators of AIM2 during infection with F. novicida. We confirmed their prominent role in vitro and in a mouse model of tularemia. Mechanistically, these two GBPs targeted cytosolic F. novicida and promoted bacteriolysis. Thus, in addition to their role in host defense against vacuolar pathogens, GBPs also facilitate the presentation of ligands by directly attacking cytosolic bacteria.

  10. The AIME Statewide Survey of School Library Media Centers: Expenditures & Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel; Knuth, Rebecca

    1994-01-01

    This report is based on an Indiana statewide survey of school library media center collections, budgets, and services which was sponsored by the Association for Indiana Media Educators (AIME). Completed and usable surveys were received from 823 public and private school library media programs representing 44% of the total possible school library…

  11. The Role of Field Education in a University-Community Partnership Aimed at Curriculum Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Laura A.; Kusmaul, Nancy; Elze, Diane; Butler, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    University-community partnerships can play an important role in curriculum development, but little has been written about the role of community agencies in designing curricula. This article describes the role of field education in an innovative university-community partnership aimed at transforming an MSW curriculum to integrate a trauma-informed…

  12. Core Aims for Three Credits of First-Year Communications: Written Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to establish a statement of core aims for first-year Communications writing courses that will serve to: (1) Facilitate the process of establishing equivalence of existing and future Communications courses for transfer purposes; (2) Address evolving challenges to the existing transfer and articulation process,…

  13. Meat Training Council Aims to Make Willing Workers into Professional Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollitt, David

    2002-01-01

    Details the UK Meat Training Council's management development programme, aimed at increasing the levels of professionalism in the meat and poultry industry and making it more attractive to young people as a long-term career. Describes the course contents and assessment methods, and contains interviews with course participants.

  14. Chemistry Journal Articles: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Move Analysis with Pedagogical Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoller, Fredricka L.; Robinson, Marin S.

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights aspects of an interdisciplinary (chemistry-applied linguistics) English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course- and materials-development project. The project was aimed at raising genre awareness among chemistry students and faculty, in addition to improving students' disciplinary reading and writing. As part of the project,…

  15. "Views of Professionals on Aims and Outcomes of Transition for Young People with Learning Disabilities"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaehne, Axel; Beyer, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The paper reports the findings of a study of professionals in strategic and operational positions who were involved in transition planning for young people with learning disabilities. Respondents were asked to comment on what they regarded as the optimal aim and outcome of transition from school to post-school placements. The results illustrate…

  16. Let's Measure What No One Teaches: PISA, NCLB, and the Shrinking Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labaree, David

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: PISA has come up with an ingenious solution to the problem of how to measure student achievement across national school systems with different curricula. Instead of measuring how well students learn what they are taught in each system, it measures a set of economically useful skills that no one teaches. Purpose: The aim is to…

  17. RE-AIM Checklist for Integrating and Sustaining Tier 2 Social-Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Douglas A.; Yong, Minglee

    2014-01-01

    Even though evidence-based Tier 2 programs are now more commonly available, integrating and sustaining these interventions in schools remain challenging. RE-AIM, which stands for Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance, is a public health framework used to maximize the effectiveness of health promotion programs in…

  18. Evaluating Programs Aimed at Promoting Positive Youth Development: A Relational Development Systems-Based View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Lerner, Jacqueline V.; Urban, Jennifer Brown; Zaff, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Whether discussing the process involved in positive youth development (PYD), articulating an approach (or philosophy) of youth programs associated with PYD, or enacting a program aimed at promoting PYD, ideas derived from relational developmental systems (RDS) metatheory are pertinent. Accordingly, we discuss the RDS metamodel and explain the…

  19. A Contest to Create Media Messages Aimed at Recruiting Adolescents for Stop Smoking Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croghan, Ivana T.; Campbell, Heather M.; Patten, Christi A.; Croghan, Gary A.; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Novotny, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). 0f 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop…

  20. REDUCTION IN ASTHMA MORBIDITY IN CHILDREN AS A RESULT OF HOME REMEDIATION AIMED AT MOISTURE SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: Home dampness, presence of mold and allergens have been associated with asthma morbidity. We examined changes in asthma morbidity in children as a result of home remediation aimed at moisture sources.

    Design: Prospective, randomized controlled trial.

    Part...

  1. Sustainability with an Ethical Aim: Lessons from an American Nun in Amazonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaree, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Research Topic: An exploration into human imagination, ethical aim and action are the progenitors for reconciliation between humans and their environment. This study of two successful projects in Brazil provides an example of working toward a balance between human endeavors and sustainable environments. This inquiry is an exploration that…

  2. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This report contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Subject areas covered are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  3. The Moral and Ethical Aims of the School Viewed through a Cosmopolitan Prism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David T.

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter, the author proposes to imagine the aims of the school in light of a cosmopolitan philosophy of education. The first section that follows provides a summary account of what the author takes cosmopolitanism to mean. The second section frames a philosophy of education that stems from this account. The third and penultimate section…

  4. Effects of an Inconsistency-Detection Training Aimed at Improving Comprehension Monitoring in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wassenburg, Stephanie I.; Bos, Lisanne T.; de Koning, Björn B.; van der Schoot, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Grounded within the situation model framework, this study investigated the effectiveness of a reading comprehension strategy training aimed at improving children's comprehension monitoring strategies. Sixty-four third and fourth graders received a 4-week training targeted at situation model updating, evaluative and self-regulatory strategies, and…

  5. Early Parenting Intervention Aimed at Maternal Sensitivity and Discipline: A Process Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolk, Mirjam N.; Mesman, Judi; van Zeijl, Jantien; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Juffer, Femmie; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the intervention process on the effectiveness of a program aimed at promoting positive parenting. The study involved a homogeneous intervention sample (N = 120) of mothers and their 1-, 2-, or 3-year-old children screened for high levels of externalizing problems. The alliance between mother and intervener,…

  6. Development Principles of the Pedagogical System Aimed at Bachelor Training Based on Modern Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurymbayev, Sayat G.; Samashova, Gulfarida E.; Alshynbayeva, Zhuldyz E.; Mukhametzhanova, Aigul O.; Sharazdin, Adilzada M.; Kalybekova, Kalamkas S.; Kosybaeva, Umitzhan A.

    2016-01-01

    Modern education is aimed at training competent specialists, which requires modernizing the training process by implementing innovative technologies, especially information technologies. Information technologies allow quickly accessing necessary data, which speeds up the training process. This paper deals with issues related to training bachelors…

  7. AIM2 Drives Joint Inflammation in a Self-DNA Triggered Model of Chronic Polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Christopher; Perner, Sven; Hornung, Veit

    2015-01-01

    Mice lacking DNase II display a polyarthritis-like disease phenotype that is driven by translocation of self-DNA into the cytoplasm of phagocytic cells, where it is sensed by pattern recognition receptors. While pro-inflammatory gene expression is non-redundantly linked to the presence of STING in these mice, the contribution of the inflammasome pathway has not been explored. To this end, we studied the role of the DNA-sensing inflammasome receptor AIM2 in this self-DNA driven disease model. Arthritis-prone mice lacking AIM2 displayed strongly decreased signs of joint inflammation and associated histopathological findings. This was paralleled with a reduction of caspase-1 activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in diseased joints. Interestingly, systemic signs of inflammation that are associated with the lack of DNase II were not dependent on AIM2. Taken together, these data suggest a tissue-specific role for the AIM2 inflammasome as a sensor for endogenous DNA species in the course of a ligand-dependent autoinflammatory condition.

  8. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program Aims for High Marks | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    For nearly 30 years, the NCI Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) has provided funding support for post-doctoral Fellows with a goal to train the future generation of researchers and leaders in the field. Infographic Highlight Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program Aims for High Marks |

  9. Aiming for Better Employment: A Holistic Analysis from Admission to Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Sheng-Ju; Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    To address the changing needs of the labour market better, higher education institutions have increasingly aimed to enhance their teaching quality and the learning experiences of their students. Therefore, a key concept of the missions of contemporary educational institutions is to improve students' employability after graduation. Although…

  10. Circle of Strength: Tribal Colleges Aim to Recruit and Retain Native Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pember, Mary Annette

    2011-01-01

    As tribal colleges aim to retain Native male students, they're finding that talking, drumming, construction, and spirituality may keep men in school. Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwe Community College (LCOOCC, Hayward, Wisconsin) is just one of the tribal colleges across the country looking for innovative ways to attract and retain more men.…

  11. Globalization and the Asia Pacific: An Exploration of Efficiency and Equality Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.; Rutkowski, David J.

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims to explore the relationship between globalization and education through an investigation of educational policy development in the specific context of the Asia Pacific. The paper's primary focus is on data collected from the World Bank, OECD, IMF and UNESCO to look primarily at three interrelated trends in education: increasing…

  12. Students' Performance in Investigative Activity and Their Understanding of Activity Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Alessandro Damasio Trani; Borges, A. Tarciso; Justi, Rosaria

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the students' understanding of the aims of an investigative activity and their performance when conducting it. One hundred and eighty-one year nine students from a public middle school in Brazil took part in the study. Students working in pairs were asked to investigate two problems using a…

  13. AIM-Monitoring: a component of the BLM assessment, inventory, and monitoring strategy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The “BLM Assessment, Inventory, and Monitoring Strategy for Integrated Renewable Resources Management” (AIM Strategy) was completed in 2011 in response to a request from the Office of Management and Budget. The strategy describes an approach for integrated, cross-program assessment, inventory, and m...

  14. 76 FR 66663 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and AIM Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and... architectural and industrial maintenance (AIM) coatings and incorporate this new rule into the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the State of Illinois. However, there are four specific paragraphs in this...

  15. The Aim of Philosophy of Religious Education in a Pluralist Society (Nigeria as an Example)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwanaju, Isidore U.

    2016-01-01

    The major aim and leitmotif of this paper is to highlight the Nigerian society and its diverse, multi-cultural and pluralist composition--a society which has experienced in the last fifty years, and is still experiencing fantastic and tremendous signs of growth in democracy, but which is also almost unsure of the right path and the correct…

  16. R. S. Peters and J. H. Newman on the Aims of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolins, Janis T.

    2013-01-01

    R. S. Peters never explicitly talks about wisdom as being an aim of education. He does, however, in numerous places, emphasize that education is of the whole person and that, whatever else it might be about, it involves the development of knowledge and understanding. Being educated, he claims, is incompatible with being narrowly specialized.…

  17. Theory of Knowledge Aims, Objectives and Assessment Criteria: An Analysis of Critical Thinking Descriptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Conrad

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses the construct validity of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme's Theory of Knowledge course in the light of claims that it is a course in critical thinking. After discussion around critical thinking--what it is and why it is valuable educationally--the article analyses the extent to which the course aims,…

  18. Applying Athletic Identify Measurement Scale on Physical Educators: Turkish Version of AIMS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunçkol, H. Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    In sports research, defining athletic identity of individuals is an important study subject. The subject owes its significance to the fact that an individual's athletic identity affects his other identities throughout his life span. The aim of this study is to test the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of Athletic Identity…

  19. A Policy Framework for Health Systems to Promote Triple Aim Innovation.

    PubMed

    Verma, Amol; Bhatia, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    With the expiry of the Health Accords, provincial governments must face the challenge of improving performance in the context of ageing demographics, increasing multi-morbidity, and real concerns about financial stability. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement Triple Aim articulates fundamental goals that can guide health system transformation: improved population health, enhanced patient experience and reduced or stable per capita costs. Advancing fragmented and costly health systems in pursuit of these goals requires transformative, as opposed to iterative, change. Provincial governments are ideally suited to lead this change by acting as "integrators" who link healthcare organizations and align incentives across the spectrum of delivery. Although there is very limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of system-level reforms, we draw on initiatives from around the world to suggest policies that can promote system-level Triple Aim innovation. We categorize these policies within the classic functions ascribed to health systems: financing, stewardship and resource generation. As healthcare financers, governments should orient procurement policy towards the Triple Aim innovation and reform payment to reward value not volume. As health system stewards, governments should define a Triple Aim vision; measure and report outcomes, patient experience, and costs; integrate across sectors; and facilitate learning from failure and spread of successful innovation. As resource generators, governments should invest in health information technology to exploit "big data" and ensure that professional education equips front-line clinicians with skills necessary to improve systems. There are a number of barriers to system-level Triple Aim innovation. There is a lack of evidence for macro-level policy changes, innovation is costly and complicated, and system reform may not be politically appealing. Triple Aim innovation may also be conflated with organization-level quality

  20. A New Coupled Earth's Critical Zone Model: AgroIBIS - MODFLOW (AIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evren Soylu, M.; Zipper, Samuel C.; Loheide, Steven P., II; Kucharik, Christopher J.

    2016-04-01

    Shallow groundwater may influence land surface energy, water, carbon balances and terrestrial ecosystems by altering the root zone soil moisture dynamics in 22 - 32% of the Earth's land area. However, our current understanding of the impacts of shallow groundwater on ecosystem dynamics and land surface processes is hampered by both a lack of observations and current capabilities of the state-of-the-art ecosystem models to simulate shallow groundwater as a working part of the groundwater-soil-vegetation-atmosphere (critical zone) transfer scheme. Existing models are able to simulate water and energy fluxes with highly accurate process-based approaches in a single compartment (e.g., vadose zone - HYDRUS, or groundwater - MODFLOW) or multiple compartments (e.g., groundwater & vadose zone MODFLOW-VSF, vadose zone & vegetation- Agro-IBIS) of the critical zone by oversimplifying or ignoring the other compartments. In this study, we present a newly developed critical zone model, AgroIBIS-MODFLOW (AIM). AIM is capable of simulating ecohydrological processes across the complete critical zone. AIM is a fully coupled agroecosystem/dynamic vegetation model (AgroIBIS), variably saturated flow model (HYDRUS-1D), and groundwater flow model (MODFLOW). We analyze the performance of AIM by comparing the model with saturated and unsaturated flow experiments as well as results from other models. Moreover, to demonstrate AIM's potential for simulating ecohydrological processes and feedbacks, we present a hypothetical watershed scale case where the indirect impacts of land use change on agricultural productivity due to altered groundwater recharge and water table depth.

  1. Listeria monocytogenes triggers AIM2-mediated pyroptosis upon infrequent bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol.

    PubMed

    Sauer, John-Demian; Witte, Chelsea E; Zemansky, Jason; Hanson, Bill; Lauer, Peter; Portnoy, Daniel A

    2010-05-20

    A host defense strategy against pathogens is the induction of cell death, thereby eliminating the pathogen's intracellular niche. Pyroptosis, one such form of cell death, is dependent on inflammasome activation. In a genetic screen to identify Listeria monocytogenes mutants that induced altered levels of host cell death, we identified a mutation in lmo2473 that caused hyperstimulation of IL-1beta secretion and pyroptosis following bacteriolysis in the macrophage cytosol. In addition, strains engineered to lyse in the cytosol by expression of both bacteriophage holin and lysin or induced to lyse by treatment with ampicillin stimulated pyroptosis. Pyroptosis was independent of the Nlrp3 and Nlrc4 inflammasome receptors but dependent on the inflammasome adaptor ASC and the cytosolic DNA sensor AIM2. Importantly, wild-type L. monocytogenes were also found to lyse, albeit at low levels, and trigger AIM2-dependent pyroptosis. These data suggested that pyroptosis is triggered by bacterial DNA released during cytosolic lysis.

  2. The EU Clinical Trials Regulation: key priorities, purposes and aims and the implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Flear, Mark L

    2016-03-01

    The replacement of the European Union (EU) Clinical Trials Directive by the new Clinical Trials Regulation (CTR), which entered into force on 16 June 2014 but will not apply before 28 May 2016, provides an opportunity to review the legal and political context within which this important aspect of research law and policy sits and to reflect on the implications for public health. My aim in this article is to relate the context to the key purposes and aims of EU law and policy on clinical trials in order to explain and clarify its orientation. On that basis, I argue that the CTR and the changes it introduces to the law on clinical trials are part of the EU's continued focus on market optimisation. It is this focus that orients and directs the wider pharmaceutical development pipeline, but that undermines the achievement of key public health objectives.

  3. AIM2 inflammasome is activated by pharmacological disruption of nuclear envelope integrity

    PubMed Central

    Di Micco, Antonia; Frera, Gianluca; Lugrin, Jérôme; Jamilloux, Yvan; Hsu, Erh-Ting; Tardivel, Aubry; De Gassart, Aude; Zaffalon, Léa; Bujisic, Bojan; Siegert, Stefanie; Quadroni, Manfredo; Broz, Petr; Henry, Thomas; Hrycyna, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are critical sensors that convey cellular stress and pathogen presence to the immune system by activating inflammatory caspases and cytokines such as IL-1β. The nature of endogenous stress signals that activate inflammasomes remains unclear. Here we show that an inhibitor of the HIV aspartyl protease, Nelfinavir, triggers inflammasome formation and elicits an IL-1R–dependent inflammation in mice. We found that Nelfinavir impaired the maturation of lamin A, a structural component of the nuclear envelope, thereby promoting the release of DNA in the cytosol. Moreover, deficiency of the cytosolic DNA-sensor AIM2 impaired Nelfinavir-mediated inflammasome activation. These findings identify a pharmacologic activator of inflammasome and demonstrate the role of AIM2 in detecting endogenous DNA release upon perturbation of nuclear envelope integrity. PMID:27462105

  4. A tale of three theories: Feyerabend and Popper on progress and the aim of science.

    PubMed

    Tambolo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, three theories of progress and the aim of science are discussed: (i) the theory of progress as increasing explanatory power, advocated by Popper in The logic of scientific discovery (1935/1959); (ii) the theory of progress as approximation to the truth, introduced by Popper in Conjectures and refutations (1963); (iii) the theory of progress as a steady increase of competing alternatives, which Feyerabend put forward in the essay "Reply to criticism. Comments on Smart, Sellars and Putnam" (1965) and defended as late as the last edition of Against method (1993). It is argued that, contrary to what Feyerabend scholars have predominantly assumed, Feyerabend's changing attitude towards falsificationism-which he often advocated at the beginning of his career, and vociferously attacked in the 1970s and 1980s-must be explained by taking into account not only Feyerabend's very peculiar view of the aim of science, but also Popper's changing account of progress.

  5. On Board Sensor Network: A Proof of Concept Aiming at Telecom I/O Optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunes-Lasnet, S.; Furano, G.; Melicher, M.; Gleeson, D.; O'Connor, W.; Vidaud, O.; Notebaert, O.

    2009-05-01

    On-board sensor networks proof of concept is part of a long haul strategy shared between ESA and the European industry. Because point to point interfaces are numerous in a spacecraft, initiatives to standardise them or replace them by bus solutions have been seeked commonly between ESA and the industry. The sensor networks project presented in this paper aims at defining and prototyping a solution for spacecraft on board sensor networks, and to perform a proof of concept with the resulting demonstrator.

  6. Actinic review of EUV masks: performance data and status of the AIMS EUV System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, Dirk; Perlitz, Sascha; Magnusson, Krister; Capelli, Renzo; Koch, Markus; Malloy, Matt

    2016-03-01

    The EUV mask infrastructure is of key importance for the successful introduction of EUV lithography into volume production. In particular, for the production of defect free masks an actinic review of potential defect sites is required. ZEISS and the SUNY POLY SEMATECH EUVL Mask Infrastructure consortium started a development program for such an EUV aerial image metrology system, the AIMS EUV. In this paper, we provide measurement data on the system's key specifications and discuss its performance and capability status.

  7. The role of NLRP3 and AIM2 in inflammasome activation during Brucella abortus infection.

    PubMed

    Marim, Fernanda M; Franco, Miriam M Costa; Gomes, Marco Tulio R; Miraglia, Maria Cruz; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2017-02-01

    The innate immune system is essential for the detection and elimination of bacterial pathogens. Upon inflammasome activation, caspase-1 cleaves pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 to their mature forms IL-1β and IL-18, respectively, and the cell undergoes inflammatory death termed pyroptosis. Here, we reviewed recent findings demonstrating that Brucella abortus ligands activate NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes which lead to control of infection. This protective effect is due to the inflammatory response caused by IL-1β and IL-18 rather than cell death. Brucella DNA is sensed by AIM2 and bacteria-induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is detected by NLRP3. However, deregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production can lead to immunopathology. Nervous system invasion by bacteria of the genus Brucella results in an inflammatory disorder termed neurobrucellosis. Herein, we discuss the mechanism of caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in glial cells infected with B. abortus. Our results demonstrate that the ASC inflammasome is indispensable for inducing the activation of caspase-1 and secretion of IL-1β upon infection of astrocytes and microglia with Brucella. Moreover, our results demonstrate that secretion of IL-1β by Brucella-infected glial cells depends on NLRP3 and AIM2 and leads to neurobrucellosis. Further, the inhibition of the host cell inflammasome as an immune evasion strategy has been described for bacterial pathogens. We discuss here that the bacterial type IV secretion system VirB is required for inflammasome activation in host cells during infection. Taken together, our results indicate that Brucella is sensed by ASC inflammasomes mainly NLRP3 and AIM2 that collectively orchestrate a robust caspase-1 activation and pro-inflammatory response.

  8. The role of NLRP3 and AIM2 in inflammasome activation during Brucella abortus infection

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Marco Tulio R.; Miraglia, Maria Cruz; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Oliveira, Sergio C.

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is essential for detection and elimination of bacterial pathogens. Upon inflammasome activation, caspase-1 cleaves pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 to their mature forms IL-1β and IL-18, respectively, and the cell undergoes inflammatory death termed pyroptosis. Here we reviewed recent findings demonstrating that Brucella abortus ligands activate NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes which leads to control of infection. This protective effect is due to inflammatory response caused by IL-1β and IL-18 rather than cell death. Brucella DNA is sensed by AIM2 and bacteria induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is detected by NLRP3. However, deregulation of proinflammatory cytokine production can lead to immunopathology. Nervous system invasion by bacteria of the genus Brucella results in an inflammatory disorder termed neurobrucellosis. Herein we discuss the mechanism of caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in glial cells infected with B. abortus. Our results demonstrate that the ASC inflammasome is indispensable for inducing the activation of caspase-1 and secretion of IL-1β upon infection of astrocytes and microglia with Brucella. Moreover, our results demonstrate that secretion of IL-1β by Brucella-infected glial cells depends on NLRP3 and AIM2 and leads to neurobrucellosis. Further, the inhibition of the host cell inflammasome as an immune evasion strategy has been described for bacterial pathogens. We discuss here that the bacterial type IV secretion system VirB is required for inflammasome activation in host cells during infection. Taken together, our results indicate that Brucella is sensed by ASC inflammasomes mainly NLRP3 and AIM2 that collectively orchestrate a robust caspase-1 activation and proinflammatory response. PMID:27405866

  9. Campaign Seeks Buy-In for High School Reforms: "Stand Up" Aims to Rouse Public Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2006-01-01

    Kicked off the week of April 10, 2006 with a big plug on "The Oprah Winfrey Show," a new campaign spearheaded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is aiming to drum up public action to address what its organizers see as a crisis in America's public high schools. The Stand Up campaign comes as high schools have emerged as a focus of public-policy…

  10. A Novel Application of the Point of Aim Trace Feature for the Engagement Skills Trainer 2000

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    acceleration and changes in ambient pressure (e.g., blast) than the vestibulocochlear organs (and their associated central projections) (Lawson & Rupert...more than 10 percent (%) of troops sustaining concussion or brain injury and somewhere between 5 and 15% developing long term sequelae (Zoroya, 24 May... acceleration just before the shot—an apparent jerked trigger or flinch. 13 Figure 8. EST plot shot with poor aim technique.     Selecting

  11. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments, FY 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    The mission of the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. A fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrates on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support. Assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are an on-going effort within the program. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting, followed by support of work to satisfy those needs. All the industries have identified materials as critical, particularly for high-temperature strength, corrosion resistance, and wear resistance. Also important from the energy efficiency viewpoint are membranes, catalytic membranes, and reactors for separations, both for processing and waste reduction. AIM focuses, therefore, on high-temperature materials, corrosion resistant materials, wear resistant materials, strong polymers, coatings, and membrane materials for industrial applications.

  12. Advanced Integrated Multi-Sensor Surveillance (AIMS): Mission, Function, Task Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Each scenario represents a realistic situation. For the AIMS analysis, the knowledge and experience of the CP-140 SMEs was leveraged by having...taxi check. The copilot obtains clearance to taxi and requests airways clearance if the flight is in accordance with Instrument Flight Rules ( IFR ... IFR approach to the landing runway. Approach clearance from ATC is obtained for the planned procedure. The pilot initiates a descent when cleared

  13. Advanced Integrated Multi-sensor Surveillance (AIMS). Mission, Function, Task Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    situation. For the AIMS analysis, the knowledge and experience of the CP-140 SMEs was leveraged by having them participate directly in the development of...taxi and requests airways clearance if the flight is in accordance with Instrument Flight Rules ( IFR ). The pilot begins to taxi the aircraft to the...Approach Depending of the weather conditions, the aircraft may conduct a Visual Flight Rule (VFR) or IFR approach to the landing runway. Approach

  14. High interpopulation homogeneity in Central Argentina as assessed by Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs).

    PubMed

    García, Angelina; Dermarchi, Darío A; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Pauro, Maia; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M; Salzano, Francisco M; Hutz, Mara H

    2015-01-01

    The population of Argentina has already been studied with regard to several genetic markers, but much more data are needed for the appropriate definition of its genetic profile. This study aimed at investigating the admixture patterns and genetic structure in Central Argentina, using biparental markers and comparing the results with those previously obtained by us with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the same samples. A total of 521 healthy unrelated individuals living in 13 villages of the Córdoba and San Luis provinces were tested. The individuals were genotyped for ten autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Allele frequencies were compared with those of African, European and Native American populations, chosen to represent parental contributions. The AIM estimates indicated a greater influence of the Native American ancestry as compared to previous studies in the same or other Argentinean regions, but smaller than that observed with the mtDNA tests. These differences can be explained, respectively, by different genetic contributions between rural and urban areas, and asymmetric gene flow occurred in the past. But a most unexpected finding was the marked interpopulation genetic homogeneity found in villages located in diverse geographic environments across a wide territory, suggesting considerable gene flow.

  15. Extending Energy Optimization in Goal-Directed Aiming from Movement Kinematics to Joint Angles.

    PubMed

    Burkitt, James J; Bongers, Raoul M; Elliott, Digby; Hansen, Steve; Lyons, James L

    2017-01-01

    Energy optimization in goal-directed aiming has been demonstrated as an undershoot bias in primary movement endpoint locations, especially in conditions where corrections to target overshoots must be made against gravity. Two-component models of upper limb movement have not yet considered how joint angles are organized to deal with the energy constraints associated with moving the upper limb in goal-directed aiming tasks. To address this limitation, participants performed aiming movements to targets in the up and down directions with the index finger and two types of rod extensions attached to the index finger. The rod extensions were expected to invoke different energy optimizing strategies in the up and down directions by allowing the distal joints the opportunity to contribute to end effector displacement. Primary movements undershot the farthest target to a greater extent in the downward direction compared to the upward direction, showing that movement kinematics optimize energy expenditure in consideration of the effects of gravity. As rod length increased, shoulder elevation was optimized in movements to the far-up target and elbow flexion was optimally minimized in movements to the far-down target. The results suggest energy optimization in the control of joint angles independent of the force of gravity.

  16. [Effectiveness of training interventions aimed at reducing physical restraints in institutionalised older people: A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Briones-Peralta, María Ángeles; Rodríguez-Martín, Beatriz

    There is some controversy about the use of physical restraints in institutionalised elderly people. The aim of this review is to analyse studies that evaluated the effectiveness of training interventions targeting interdisciplinary teams aimed at preventing, reducing or eliminating the use of physical restraints in nursing homes. A systematic search was performed in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Web of Science to find clinical trials, published in English or in Spanish, that examined training sessions for interdisciplinary teams aimed at preventing, minimising or eliminating the use of physical restrains in institutionalised people over 65 years. Ten papers fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The findings show conflicting results on the effectiveness of training sessions. Furthermore, they lack sufficient empirical evidence to be able to assert that training sessions brought about a reduction in the use of physical restraints. More studies are needed that analyse the effectiveness of these interventions to prevent or eliminate the use of physical restraints in these institutions.

  17. The influence of visual feedback and prior knowledge about feedback on vertical aiming strategies.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Digby; Dutoy, Chris; Andrew, Matthew; Burkitt, James J; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Lyons, James L; Hayes, Spencer J; Bennett, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine time and energy optimization strategies for movements made with and against gravity. In Experiment 1, the authors manipulated concurrent visual feedback, and knowledge about feedback. When vision was eliminated upon movement initiation, participants exhibited greater undershooting, both with their primary submovement and their final endpoint, than when vision was available. When aiming downward, participants were more likely to terminate their aiming following the primary submovement or complete a lower amplitude corrective submovement. This strategy reduced the frequency of energy-consuming corrections against gravity. In Experiment 2, the authors eliminated vision of the hand and the target at the end of the movement. This procedure was expected to have its greatest impact under no-vision conditions where no visual feedback was available for subsequent planning. As anticipated, direction and concurrent visual feedback had a profound impact on endpoint bias. Participants exhibited pronounced undershooting when aiming downward and without vision. Differences in undershooting between vision and no vision were greater under blocked feedback conditions. When performers were uncertain about the impending feedback, they planned their movements for the worst-case scenario. Thus movement planning considers the variability in execution, and avoids outcomes that require time and energy to correct.

  18. High interpopulation homogeneity in Central Argentina as assessed by Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs)

    PubMed Central

    García, Angelina; Dermarchi, Darío A.; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Pauro, Maia; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M.; Salzano, Francisco M.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2015-01-01

    The population of Argentina has already been studied with regard to several genetic markers, but much more data are needed for the appropriate definition of its genetic profile. This study aimed at investigating the admixture patterns and genetic structure in Central Argentina, using biparental markers and comparing the results with those previously obtained by us with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in the same samples. A total of 521 healthy unrelated individuals living in 13 villages of the Córdoba and San Luis provinces were tested. The individuals were genotyped for ten autosomal ancestry informative markers (AIMs). Allele frequencies were compared with those of African, European and Native American populations, chosen to represent parental contributions. The AIM estimates indicated a greater influence of the Native American ancestry as compared to previous studies in the same or other Argentinean regions, but smaller than that observed with the mtDNA tests. These differences can be explained, respectively, by different genetic contributions between rural and urban areas, and asymmetric gene flow occurred in the past. But a most unexpected finding was the marked interpopulation genetic homogeneity found in villages located in diverse geographic environments across a wide territory, suggesting considerable gene flow. PMID:26500436

  19. S. A. L. V.E. (Software Aimed at off Line Verification Eti)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monari, Jader; Montebugnoli, S.; Ravaglia, F.; Cecchi, M.

    The SETI programme has became a reality thanks to the installation of the SERENDIP - IV system at the 32-metre Medicina dish. The S-IV works in the backkground to normal activities and astronomical observations. It's been storing a large quantity of data from a wide spectrum of frequencies between 1.4GHz to 22GHz. Recently we have developed post processing software for raw S-IV data (SALVE. Software Aimed at off Line Verification ETI). SALVE aims to reject interference (RIP - Reject Interference Processing), to detect ETI signals with Doppler effect (DSP - Doppler Signal Processing) and to produce a final list with the most interesting candidate signal detected (CLS Candidate List Signal). To generate the proper algorithms and to verify their efficiency, we have made an ``on site'' test. In order to obtain the highest RFI rejection we have optimized the SFI algorithms considering the behaviour of local interference. Aiming our antenna toward the Mars Global Surveyor we have tested the effectiveness of the DSP algorithm. After the creation of a list by CLS, a targeted search will be made.

  20. A method of utilizing AIMS to quantify lithographic performance of high transmittance mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Chun Seon; Jang, Dong Sik; Oh, Sung Hyun; Shin, Jae Cheon; Nam, Byungho; Ha, Tae Joong; Kim, Sang Pyo; Yim, Dong Gyu

    2014-10-01

    EUV (Extreme Ultraviolet) Lithography has been delayed caused by several technical problems such as EUV mask, source power and etc. So ArF immersion lithography has been continued with adopting new technology. Especially, the wafer lithography tends to increase rapidly NTD(Negative Tone Develop) process for overcoming high resolution such as small hole type patterns. For wafer NTD process, the pattern shape in mask has changed from hole pattern to dot pattern. Also the local CD uniformity of aerial image is getting more important. In this paper, we studied local CD uniformity with analyzing aerial images of high transmittance HT-PSM (attenuated phase-shift mask) and conventional 6% HT-PSM from AIMS (Aerial Image Measurement System) tool. Additionally, several cell sizes were analyzed to find an optimum target cell size which has good wafer performance and AIMS aerial image. And we analyzed NILS(Normalized Image Log Slope) factor which represent wafer photolithographic performance. Furthermore, we analyzed not only AIMS NILS simulation, but also wafer lithographic performance.

  1. Effects of aircraft windscreen on helmet-mounted display/tracker aiming accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, H. Lee

    1996-06-01

    Modern fighter aircraft windscreens are typically made of curved, transparent plastic for improved aero-dynamics and bird-strike protection. Since they are curved these transparencies often refract light in such a way that a pilot looking through the transparency will see a target in a location other than where it really is. This effect has been known for many years and methods to correct the aircraft head-up display (HUD) for these angular deviations have been developed and employed. The same problem will occur for helmet-mounted displays (HMDs) used for target acquisition only worse due to the fact the pilot can look through any part of the transparency instead of being constrained to just the forward section as in the case of the HUD. To determine the potential impact of these windscreen refraction errors two F-15 windscreens were measured; one acrylic and one multilayer acrylic and polycarbonate laminate. The average aiming error measured for the acrylic was 3.6 milliradians with a maximum error of 9.0 milliradians. The laminated windscreen was slightly worse at 4.1 milliradians average error and 10.5 milliradians maximum. These aiming errors were greatly reduced by employing correction algorithms which could be applied to the aiming information on the HMD. Subtleties of coordinate systems and roll correction are also addressed.

  2. ASPECT spectral imaging satellite proposal to AIDA/AIM CubeSat payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohout, Tomas; Näsilä, Antti; Tikka, Tuomas; Penttilä, Antti; Muinonen, Karri; Kestilä, Antti; Granvik, Mikael; Kallio, Esa

    2016-04-01

    ASPECT (Asteroid Spectral Imaging Mission) is a part of AIDA/AIM project and aims to study the composition of the Didymos binary asteroid and the effects of space weathering and shock metamorphism in order to gain understanding of the formation and evolution of the Solar System. The joint ESA/NASA AIDA (Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment) mission to binary asteroid Didymos consists of AIM (Asteroid Impact Mission, ESA) and DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test, NASA). DART is targeted to impact Didymos secondary component (Didymoon) and serve as a kinetic impactor to demonstrate deflection of potentially hazardous asteroids. AIM will serve as an observational spacecraft to evaluate the effects of the impact and resulting changes in the Didymos dynamic parameters. The AIM mission will also carry two CubeSat miniaturized satellites, released in Didymoon proximity. This arrangement opens up a possibility for secondary scientific experiments. ASPECT is one of the proposed CubeSat payloads. Whereas Didymos is a space-weathered binary asteroid, the DART impactor is expected to produce a crater and excavate fresh material from the secondary component (Didymoon). Spectral comparison of the mature surface to the freshly exposed material will allow to directly deter-mine space weathering effects. It will be also possible to study spectral shock effects within the impact crater. ASPECT will also demonstrate for the first time the joint spacecraft - CubeSat operations in asteroid proximity and miniature spectral imager operation in deep-space environment. Science objectives: 1. Study of the surface composition of the Didymos system. 2. Photometric observations (and modeling) under varying phase angle and distance. 3. Study of space weathering effects on asteroids (comparison of mature / freshly exposed material). 4. Study of shock effects (spectral properties of crater interior). 5. Observations during the DART impact. Engineering objectives: 1. Demonstration of Cube

  3. WES Fiber Optics Ethernet Communication System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    the fiber are given below, including distances, number of fibers, and building identifications. From To Footage No. of Fibers BLDG 1000 BLDG 1073 2152...24 BLDG 1073 BLDG 1078 1312 24 BLDG 1073 BLDG 1007 702 24 BLDG 1073 BLDG 1006 1243 24 BLDG 1006 BLDG 3200 2155 24 BLDG 3200 BLDG 6000 3379 24...EL) Annex Geotechnical Laboratory 1073 Current PBX (GL) 1078 EL An. 3396 Casagr~nde Building 2025 Post Exchange 5008 Blast Load Generator (SL) 2053

  4. NARRATIVE AND META-ANALYTIC REVIEW OF INTERVENTIONS AIMING TO IMPROVE MATERNAL-CHILD ATTACHMENT SECURITY.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Nicole; Tryphonopoulos, Panagiota; Giesbrecht, Gerald; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Bhogal, Sanjit; Watson, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Early secure maternal-child attachment relationships lay the foundation for children's healthy social and mental development. Interventions targeting maternal sensitivity and maternal reflective function during the first year of infant life may be the key to promoting secure attachment. We conducted a narrative systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effectiveness of interventions aimed at promoting maternal sensitivity and reflective function on maternal-child attachment security, as measured by the gold standard Strange Situation (M. Ainsworth, M. Blehar, B. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978) and Q-set (E. Waters & K. Deane, 1985). Studies were identified from electronic database searches and included randomized or quasi-randomized controlled parallel-group designs. Participants were mothers and their infants who were followed up to 36 months' postpartum. Ten trials, involving 1,628 mother-infant pairs, were included. Examination of the trials that provided sufficient data for combination in meta-analysis revealed that interventions of both types increased the odds of secure maternal-child attachment, as compared with no intervention or standard intervention (n = 7 trials; odds ratio: 2.77; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 4.53, n = 965). Of the three trials not included in the meta-analyses, two improved the likelihood of secure attachment. We conclude that interventions aimed at improving maternal sensitivity alone or in combination with maternal reflection, implemented in the first year of infants' lives, are effective in promoting secure maternal-child attachments. Intervention aimed at the highest risk families produced the most beneficial effects.

  5. AIM1 PROMOTER HYPERMETHYLATION AS A PREDICTOR OF DECREASED RISK OF RECURRENCE FOLLOWING RADICAL PROSTATECTOMY

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Eli; Begum, Shahnaz; Brait, Mariana; Zahurak, Marianna; Maldonado, Leonel; Eisenberger, Mario A; Epstein, Jonathan I; Partin, Alan W; Sidransky, David; Hoque, Mohammad Obaidul

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prognostic significance of six epigenetic biomarkers (AIM1, CDH1, KIF1A, MT1G, PAK3 and RBM6 promoter hypermethlation) in a homogeneous group of prostate cancer patients, following radical prostatectomy. Patients and Methods Biomarker analyses were performed retrospectively on tumors from 95 prostate cancer patients all with a Gleason score of 3+4=7 and a minimum follow up period of 8 years. Using Quantitative Methylation Specific PCR (QMSP), we analyzed the promoter region of six genes in primary prostate tumor tissues. Time to any progression was the primary endpoint and development of metastatic disease and/or death from prostate cancer was a secondary endpoint. The association of clinicopathological and biomolecular risk factors to recurrence was performed using the Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model for multivariate analysis. To identify independent prognostic factors, a stepwise selection method was used. Results At a median follow-up time of 10 years, 48 patients (50.5%) had evidence of recurrence: biochemical/PSA relapse, metastases, or death from prostate cancer. In the final multivariate analysis for time to progression, the significant factors were: older age, HR=0.95 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.0) (P=0.03), positive lymph nodes HR=2.11 (95%CI: 1.05, 4.26) (P=0.04) and decreased hypermethylation of AIM1 HR=0.45 (95%CI: 0.2, 1.0) (P=0.05). Conclusions Methylation status of AIM1 in the prostate cancer specimen may predict for time to recurrence in Gleason 3+4=7 patients undergoing prostatectomy. These results should be validated in a larger and unselected cohort. PMID:22127895

  6. SU-E-T-531: Large--Scale DVH Quality Study: Correlated Aims Lead Relaxations

    SciTech Connect

    Nohadani, O; Roy, A; Das, I

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy plans are designed to optimally target a tumor while sparing surrounding tissue. Desired dose distributions are iteratively approached via inverse planning. This leads to tradeoffs between clinical objectives for the planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk, and normal tissues. Dose volume histogram (DVHs) related aims are followed that are either institutional or internationally recommended. We analyze common goals and identify potential reasons that often lead to tradeoffs. Methods: 524 IMRT plans for various tumor sites were analyzed based on the main institutional DVH goal for PTV (D95) and the recommendations by ICRU-83 (D2, D50, and D98). Robust statistical tools are developed and applied to ensure that the results are immune to data uncertainties. The probability of violation was measured for each of the DVH goals based on the frequency of not meeting recommended doses. Conditional probabilities for satisfying and/or violating DVH aims were computed to test the hypothesized pair-wise relations between DVH aims. For example, for plans that satisfied D50, the probability of violating D98 was computed via P(D98 < 95% | 98% ≤ D50 ≤ 102%). The equality constraint D50 = 100% was relaxed to encompass the range [98,102]%. Results: A large majority of cases (88%) satisfied the institutional goal for PTV of D95 ≤ 95%. Similar consensus existed for D98. 51% of cases satisfied D2 ≥ 107%. However, only 18% of cases satisfied D50. The conditional probability showed correlations amongst the studied DVH goals. In fact, a negative correlation was revealed between D50 and D95 (and D98), suggesting that these competing goals cannot be satisfied concurrently. Conclusion: The majority of plans followed the institutional guidelines. The reason for their deviation from international recommendations seems to be that the latter goals are competing and cannot be satisfied concurrently in clinical practice.

  7. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring System (AIMS): Design and Architecture. 3.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yan, Jerry C.; Schmidt, Melisa; Schulbach, Cathy; Bailey, David (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Whether a researcher is designing the 'next parallel programming paradigm', another 'scalable multiprocessor' or investigating resource allocation algorithms for multiprocessors, a facility that enables parallel program execution to be captured and displayed is invaluable. Careful analysis of such information can help computer and software architects to capture, and therefore, exploit behavioral variations among/within various parallel programs to take advantage of specific hardware characteristics. A software tool-set that facilitates performance evaluation of parallel applications on multiprocessors has been put together at NASA Ames Research Center under the sponsorship of NASA's High Performance Computing and Communications Program over the past five years. The Automated Instrumentation and Monitoring Systematic has three major software components: a source code instrumentor which automatically inserts active event recorders into program source code before compilation; a run-time performance monitoring library which collects performance data; and a visualization tool-set which reconstructs program execution based on the data collected. Besides being used as a prototype for developing new techniques for instrumenting, monitoring and presenting parallel program execution, AIMS is also being incorporated into the run-time environments of various hardware testbeds to evaluate their impact on user productivity. Currently, the execution of FORTRAN and C programs on the Intel Paragon and PALM workstations can be automatically instrumented and monitored. Performance data thus collected can be displayed graphically on various workstations. The process of performance tuning with AIMS will be illustrated using various NAB Parallel Benchmarks. This report includes a description of the internal architecture of AIMS and a listing of the source code.

  8. Telehealth for chronic disease management: do we need to RE-AIM?

    PubMed

    Varnfield, Marlien; Karunanithi, Mohan; Ding, Hang; Bird, Dominique; Oldenburg, Brian

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of individuals are living with long term health conditions which they manage most of the time by themselves. This paper evaluates the use of information and communications technology platforms to provide evidence-based programs to help people with chronic disease to self-management these. It describes two different self-management strategies for chronic conditions, and the evaluation of their implementation in clinical trials, specifically in terms of reach, implementation fidelity, adoption and user perceptions. It also discusses the challenges in replicating trial findings in the real world, using the RE-AIM framework.

  9. DILEMMA: logic engineering in primary care, shared care and oncology (AIM Project A2005).

    PubMed

    Gordon, C; Jackson-Smale, A; Thomson, R

    1994-10-01

    The aim of DILEMMA is to provide tools for the development of decision support systems for use in general medical practice, hospital-based cancer care, and shared care of cancer and cardiology patients. In primary care, the project intends to provide aids to clinical performance in prescribing, referral and the use of clinical guidelines. The demonstrator applications involve telematics and knowledge-based methodology, using an approach termed logic engineering which combines logic programming and software lifecycle methods. DILEMMA will demonstrate systems to assist shared care and home care which should help reduce pressure on secondary health resources and, by disseminating best practice knowledge, improve patient care and patient quality of life.

  10. Current & Future Prospective Payment System: Aligning Financial Incentives with the Quadruple Aim

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-24

    A1c Sreening Diabetes LDL < 100mg/dL Diabetes A1c > 9 ORYX  AMI ‐ Aspirin at discharge ORYX  AMI ‐ Beta blocker at discharge ORYX  CAC ‐ HMPC Document... ORYX  HF ‐ Discharge ORYX  PN ‐ Antibiotic received ORYX  PN ‐ Vaccination ORYX  SCIP ‐ Inf1a Antibiotic overall ORYX  SCIP ‐ Inf3A Antibiotic dc AIM

  11. A contest to create media messages aimed at recruiting adolescents for stop smoking programs.

    PubMed

    Croghan, Ivana T; Campbell, Heather M; Patten, Christi A; Croghan, Gary A; Schroeder, Darrell R; Novotny, Paul J

    2004-10-01

    This project engaged adolescents in a contest to create advertising messages aimed at recruiting teens for stop smoking programs. Middle school students were invited to design a media message for television, radio, Web, or print (newspaper or billboard). Of 4,289 students in eight middle schools of Rochester, Minn., 265 (6.2%) developed 172 stop smoking messages. The quality of their work confirmed that teens can design media messages to encourage their smoking adolescent peers to enroll in a program to stop smoking.

  12. Beacon communities aim to use health information technology to transform the delivery of care.

    PubMed

    Maxson, Emily R; Jain, Sachin H; McKethan, Aaron N; Brammer, Craig; Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Cronin, Kelly; Mostashari, Farzad; Blumenthal, David

    2010-09-01

    The Beacon Community Program, authorized under the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), aims to demonstrate the potential for health information technology to enable local improvements in health care quality, cost efficiency, and population health. If successful, these communitywide efforts will yield important lessons that will assist other communities seeking to harness technology to achieve and sustain health care improvements. This paper highlights key programmatic details that reflect the meaningful use of technology in the fifteen Beacon communities. It describes the innovations they propose and provides insight into current and future challenges.

  13. Development of a New Calibration Method for an Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, M.; Vandenboer, T.; Murphy, J. G.

    2009-05-01

    Fine atmospheric aerosols play an important role in the atmosphere as they alter the radiative balance of the Earth through direct and indirect climate effects, reduce visibility, participate in acid rain formation and affect human health. The motivation for chemically and temporally resolved measurements of fine aerosol composition has lead to the development of the Ambient Ion Monitor Ion Chromatograph (AIM-IC) system by Dionex/URG. This instrument is capable of simultaneously monitoring fine aerosols (<2.5μm) and associated precursor gases on a nearly continuous basis with a time resolution of 1 hour. The instrument utilizes a parallel-plate wet denuder with a constantly regenerated surface for collection of gases and a particle condensation chamber for the collection of aerosols. AIM-IC is capable of monitoring HCl(g), HONO(g), HNO3(g), SO2(g), NH3(g), Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, SO42-, NH4+ , and some water soluble organic acids and amines. Standard calibration of the AIM-IC is carried out by injecting a series of mixed standards directly onto the ion chromatographs, bypassing the sampling component of the instrument. This results in calculated detection limits on the order of 10-200 pptv for gases and 10-500 of ng/m3 for individual particle constituents when collecting at 3 L/min for 55 minutes. In this work, we present a new method for the calibration of the AIM-IC for both gas and particle collection that enables us to evaluate the entire system from size-selection to detection. This external calibration method is assessed for the gases HNO3(g), SO2(g), and NH3(g), and for particles containing (NH4)2SO4, NH4NO3, and Na2SO4. Quantitative collection of SO2 is found to require careful optimization of the H2O2 concentration of the denuder liquid, while the replacement of a cyclone with an impactor improves the sampling efficiency of NH3 and HNO3.

  14. The History and Aim of LADY CATS —Simple and Beautiful Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanemura, Masako; Okiharu, Fumiko; Yokoe, Mika; Taniguchi, Masa-aki; Maeda, Hiroaki; Kutome, Yuusuke; Kawakatsu, Hiroshi

    LADY CATS (LADY Creators of Activities for Teaching Science) is an organization of science teachers. Our group includes a lot of female teachers. We have demonstrated "Simple and beautiful experiments" since ICPE 2005. We aim to encourage both students and teachers who are not interested in physics. Our concepts of experiments are as follows: the "simple" experiments which the teachers in the world can utilize in their classes easily, the "beautiful" experiments in which children get interested, and the "essential" experiments which can demonstrate the principles of physics. We demonstrate several educational experiments of our group.

  15. Open3DALIGN: an open-source software aimed at unsupervised ligand alignment.

    PubMed

    Tosco, Paolo; Balle, Thomas; Shiri, Fereshteh

    2011-08-01

    An open-source, cross-platform software aimed at conformer generation and unsupervised rigid-body molecular alignment is presented. Different algorithms have been implemented to perform single and multi-conformation superimpositions on one or more templates. Alignments can be accomplished by matching pharmacophores, heavy atoms or a combination of the two. All methods have been successfully validated on eight comprehensive datasets previously gathered by Sutherland and co-workers. High computational performance has been attained through efficient parallelization of the code. The unsupervised nature of the alignment algorithms, together with its scriptable interface, make Open3DALIGN an ideal component of high-throughput, automated cheminformatics workflows.

  16. Low dark current LWIR and VLWIR HgCdTe focal plane arrays at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, S.; Eich, D.; Fick, W.; Figgemeier, H.; Mahlein, M.; Schirmacher, W.; Thöt, R.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper AIM presents an update on its results for both n-on-p and p-on-n low dark current planar MCT photodiode technology LWIR and VLWIR two-dimensional focal plane detector arrays with a cut-off wavelength >11μm at 80K and a 640×512 pixel format. The arrays are stitched from two 512×320 pixel photodiode arrays at a 20μm pixel pitch. Thermal dark currents significantly reduced as compared to `Tennant's Rule 07' at a yet good detection efficiency <60% as well as results from NETD and photo response performance characterization are presented over a wide operating temperature range. The improvements made allow for the same dark current performance at a 20K higher operating temperature than with previous AIM technology. The demonstrated detector performance paces the way for a new generation of higher operating temperature low SWaP LWIR MCT FPAs with a <30mK NETD up to a 110K detector operating temperature and with good operability. Alternatively, lower dark currents at common operating temperatures may be attained, enabling cutting edge next generation LWIR/VLWIR detectors for space instruments.

  17. Simulation of the dusty plasma environment of 65803 Didymos for the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriani, Fabrice; Rodgers, David; Hilgers, Alain; Hess, Sebastien; Carnelli, Ian

    2016-10-01

    The Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission (AIDA) is a joint European-US technology demonstrator mission including the DART asteroid impactor (NASA/JHU/APL) and the AIM asteroid rendezvous platform (ESA/DLR/OCA) set to reach Near Earth binary Object 65803 Didymos in October 2022. Besides technology demonstration in the deep space communications domain and the realization of a kinetic impact on the moonlet to study deflection parameters, this asteroid rendezvous mission is an opportunity to carry out in-situ observations of the close environment of a binary system, addressing some fundamental science questions. The MASCOT-2 lander will be released from the AIM platform and operate at the surface of the moonlet of 65803 Didymos, complemented by the ability of the Cubesat Opportunity Payloads (COPINS) to sample the close environment of the binary.In this context, we have developed an model describing the plasma and charged dust components of the near surface environment of the moonlet (170m in diameter), targeted by the MASCOT-2 lander and of the DART impactor. We performed numerical simulations in order to estimate the electrostatic surface potentials at various locations of the surface, resulting from its interaction with the solar wind plasma and solar photons. In addition, we describe charging levels, density profiles, and velocity distribution of regolith grains lifted out from the surface up to about 70m above the surface.

  18. Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r=0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2 mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

  19. In vitro assessment of aiming bias in the frontal plane during orthopaedic drilling procedures.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, T; Heller, J; Farrell, M

    2015-04-18

    Drilling trials were performed using drilling boards incorporating pairs of 22 mm polyethylene tubes mounted horizontally. The tubes were premarked with 20, 0.5 mm deep notches along the centre of their upper surface representing the starting point for each drilling trial. Volunteers were instructed to drill 20 straight holes across the tube until they penetrated both walls. Kirschner wires were inserted through each of the drill holes until they made indentations into the base board. Deviation of each mark from mid-line was measured using digital callipers. The measured values were used to calculate deviation angles to the left (negative values) or right (positive values). Trials were performed with the drill and guide held in the surgeon's line-of-sight (LOS) and with 300 mm offset (OFF). A systematic error (aiming bias) was identified in all individuals. Overall, left-hander's drilling action was skewed to the left and right-hander's drilling action was skewed to the right. Using LOS technique, mean overall bias was 2.3° (range 0°-7.7°) to the left for left-handers and 1.5(o) (range 0.3°-3.1°) to the right for right-handers. Surprisingly, aiming bias was greater for LOS than for OFF, although the difference for this comparison was not statistically significant.

  20. The StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts program in Pennsylvania: RE-AIM analysis.

    PubMed

    Folta, Sara C; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Seguin, Rebecca A; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Corbin, Marilyn A; Wiker, Nancy; Gauker, Jodi; Chui, Kenneth; Nelson, Miriam E

    2015-03-01

    Dissemination of evidence-based programs is needed to reduce CVD risk among midlife and older women. The aim of this study is to examine the public health impact of StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts in Pennsylvania using the RE-AIM framework. Reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance were assessed using qualitative and quantitative measures; effectiveness was assessed using a pretest-posttest within-participants design. Reach into the target population was 5 in 100,000. Compared to the target population, a greater percentage of participants were white, married, middle-class, and had a graduate degree. Effectiveness was demonstrated (weight loss -2.0 kg, p < 0.001). Adoption among trained leaders was high (83.3 %), as was fidelity in implementation (average score 9.3 of 10). No leaders maintained the program. To increase impact of the StrongWomen-Healthy Hearts Program, it will be important to lower the costs and modify the recruitment and training strategies to better reach low-income and minority women. Such strategies may also improve program maintenance.

  1. [Mental health systems in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua: results of a WHO-AIMS evaluation].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Jorge Jacinto; Barrett, Thomas; Narváez, Silvia; Caldas, José Miguel; Levav, Itzhak; Saxena, Shekhar

    2007-11-01

    The authors evaluated the mental health systems of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Nicaragua, using a group of select indicators. The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO-AIMS) was used to collect data from the nations. The national mental health systems of Nicaragua, Guatemala, and El Salvador have serious limitations, especially in primary care, and a marked lack of qualified human resources. Budget allocations for mental health care are barely 1% of the total health care budgets; and the psychiatric hospitals located in the national capitals consume at least 90% of those funds. The limited human and material resources available are concentrated in the respective country capital cities. National mental health policies and legislation have not been adopted; however, all three countries do have national plans in progress. Furthermore, all three have designed and implemented programs for mental health care in case of disaster. Agreements must be reached with offices for the defense of human rights to raise awareness and protection of rights for the mentally ill. In recent years, new experiences have been gained and these should be distributed more widely. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO/WHO) and the WHO-AIMS project have contributed toward developing community models for mental health services. Lastly, priorities have been identified and action items recommended.

  2. Motor Inhibition Affects the Speed But Not Accuracy of Aimed Limb Movements in an Insect

    PubMed Central

    Calas-List, Delphine; Clare, Anthony J.; Komissarova, Alexandra; Nielsen, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    When reaching toward a target, human subjects use slower movements to achieve higher accuracy, and this can be accompanied by increased limb impedance (stiffness, viscosity) that stabilizes movements against motor noise and external perturbation. In arthropods, the activity of common inhibitory motor neurons influences limb impedance, so we hypothesized that this might provide a mechanism for speed and accuracy control of aimed movements in insects. We recorded simultaneously from excitatory leg motor neurons and from an identified common inhibitory motor neuron (CI1) in locusts that performed natural aimed scratching movements. We related limb movement kinematics to recorded motor activity and demonstrate that imposed alterations in the activity of CI1 influenced these kinematics. We manipulated the activity of CI1 by injecting depolarizing or hyperpolarizing current or killing the cell using laser photoablation. Naturally higher levels of inhibitory activity accompanied faster movements. Experimentally biasing the firing rate downward, or stopping firing completely, led to slower movements mediated by changes at several joints of the limb. Despite this, we found no effect on overall movement accuracy. We conclude that inhibitory modulation of joint stiffness has effects across most of the working range of the insect limb, with a pronounced effect on the overall velocity of natural movements independent of their accuracy. Passive joint forces that are greatest at extreme joint angles may enhance accuracy and are not affected by motor inhibition. PMID:24872556

  3. AIMS: Acousto-optic imaging spectrometer for spectral mapping of solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenar, David A.; Blaney, Diana L.; Hillman, John J.

    2003-01-01

    A compact, two-channel acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) camera is being built at GSFC as a candidate payload instrument for future Mars landers or small-body rendezvous missions. This effort is supported by the NASA Mars Instrument Development Program (MIDP), Office of Space Science Advanced Technologies and Mission Studies. Acousto-optic Imaging Spectrometer (AIMS) is electronically programmable and provides arbitrary spatial and spectral selection from 0.48 to 2.4 μm. The geometric throughput of AOTF's are well matched to the requirements for lander mounted cameras since (I) they can be made very compact, (II) "slow" (f/14-f/18) optics required for large depth-of-field fall well within the angular aperture limit of AOTF's, and (III) they operate at low ambient temperatures. A breadboard of the AIMS short-wavelength channel is now being used for spectral imaging of high-interest Mars analog materials (iron oxides, carbonates, sulfates and sedimentary basalts) as part of the initial instrument validation exercises.

  4. PKM2-dependent glycolysis promotes NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Min; Yu, Yan; Kang, Rui; Zhu, Shan; Yang, Liangchun; Zeng, Ling; Sun, Xiaofang; Yang, Minghua; Billiar, Timothy R.; Wang, Haichao; Cao, Lizhi; Jiang, Jianxin; Tang, Daolin

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock are the main cause of mortality in non-cardiac intensive care units. Immunometabolism has been linked to sepsis; however, the precise mechanism by which metabolic reprogramming regulates the inflammatory response is unclear. Here we show that aerobic glycolysis contributes to sepsis by modulating inflammasome activation in macrophages. PKM2-mediated glycolysis promotes inflammasome activation by modulating EIF2AK2 phosphorylation in macrophages. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of PKM2 or EIF2AK2 attenuates NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasomes activation, and consequently suppresses the release of IL-1β, IL-18 and HMGB1 by macrophages. Pharmacological inhibition of the PKM2–EIF2AK2 pathway protects mice from lethal endotoxemia and polymicrobial sepsis. Moreover, conditional knockout of PKM2 in myeloid cells protects mice from septic death induced by NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation. These findings define an important role of PKM2 in immunometabolism and guide future development of therapeutic strategies to treat sepsis. PMID:27779186

  5. Aims and tasks in parental caregiving for children receiving palliative care at home: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Verberne, Lisa M; Kars, Marijke C; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; Bosman, Diederik K; Colenbrander, Derk A; Grootenhuis, Martha A; van Delden, Johannes J M

    2017-03-01

    In paediatric palliative care (PPC), parents are confronted with increasing caregiving demands. More children are cared for at home, and the need for PPC of children is lengthened due to technical and medical improvements. Therefore, a clear understanding of the content of parental caregiving in PPC becomes increasingly important. The objective is to gain insight into parental caregiving based on the lived experience of parents with a child with a life-limiting disease. An interpretative qualitative study using thematic analysis was performed. Single or repeated interviews were undertaken with 42 parents of 24 children with a malignant or non-malignant disease, receiving PPC. Based on their ambition to be a 'good parent', parents caring for a child with a life-limiting disease strived for three aims: controlled symptoms and controlled disease, a life worth living for their ill child and family balance. These aims resulted in four tasks that parents performed: providing basic and complex care, organising good quality care and treatment, making sound decisions while managing risks and organising a good family life.

  6. Endowing non-cellulolytic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity aiming for consolidated bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Ryosuke; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-11-01

    With the exhaustion of fossil fuels and with the environmental issues they pose, utilization of abundant lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for biofuels and bio-based chemicals has recently become an attractive option. Lignocellulosic biomass is primarily composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin and has a very rigid and complex structure. It is accordingly much more expensive to process than starchy grains because of the need for extensive pretreatment and relatively large amounts of cellulases for efficient hydrolysis. Efficient and cost-effective methods for the production of biofuels and chemicals from lignocellulose are required. A consolidated bioprocess (CBP), which integrates all biological steps consisting of enzyme production, saccharification, and fermentation, is considered a promising strategy for reducing production costs. Establishing an efficient CBP using lignocellulosic biomass requires both lignocellulose degradation into glucose and efficient production of biofuels or chemicals from glucose. With this aim, many researchers are attempting to endow selected microorganisms with lignocellulose-assimilating ability. In this review, we focus on studies aimed at conferring lignocellulose-assimilating ability not only to yeast strains but also to bacterial strains by recombinant technology. Recent developments in improvement of enzyme productivity by microorganisms and in improvement of the specific activity of cellulase are emphasized.

  7. The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program office of industrial technologies fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Sorrell, C.A.

    1997-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in FY95 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven `Vision Industries` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: aluminium; chemical; forest products; glass; metal casting; refineries; and steel. OIT is working with these industries, through appropriate organizations, to develop Visions of the desired condition of each industry some 20 to 25 years in the future and then to prepare Road Maps and Implementation Plans to enable them to reach their goals. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to `Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`

  8. Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-03-01

    Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r = 0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2 mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

  9. Colour-induced relationship between affect and reaching kinematics during a goal-directed aiming task.

    PubMed

    Williams, Camille K; Grierson, Lawrence E M; Carnahan, Heather

    2011-08-01

    A link between affect and action has been supported by the discovery that threat information is prioritized through an action-centred pathway--the dorsal visual stream. Magnocellular afferents, which originate from the retina and project to dorsal stream structures, are suppressed by exposure to diffuse red light, which diminishes humans' perception of threat-based images. In order to explore the role of colour in the relationship between affect and action, participants donned different pairs of coloured glasses (red, yellow, green, blue and clear) and completed Positive and Negative Affect Scale questionnaires as well as a series of target-directed aiming movements. Analyses of affect scores revealed a significant main effect for affect valence and a significant interaction between colour and valence: perceived positive affect was significantly smaller for the red condition. Kinematic analyses of variable error in the primary movement direction and Pearson correlation analyses between the displacements travelled prior to and following peak velocity indicated reduced accuracy and application of online control processes while wearing red glasses. Variable error of aiming was also positively and significantly correlated with negative affect scores under the red condition. These results suggest that only red light modulates the affect-action link by suppressing magnocellular activity, which disrupts visual processing for movement control. Furthermore, previous research examining the effect of the colour red on psychomotor tasks and perceptual acceleration of threat-based imagery suggest that stimulus-driven motor performance tasks requiring online control may be particularly susceptible to this effect.

  10. Quantifying warfighter performance in a target acquisition and aiming task using wireless inertial sensors.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Steven P; Cain, Stephen M; McGinnis, Ryan S; Vitali, Rachel R; Perkins, Noel C; McLean, Scott G

    2016-09-01

    An array of inertial measurement units (IMUS) was experimentally employed to analyze warfighter performance on a target acquisition task pre/post fatigue. Eleven participants (5M/6F) repeated an exercise circuit carrying 20 kg of equipment until fatigued. IMUs secured to the sacrum, sternum, and a rifle quantified peak angular velocity magnitude (PAVM) and turn time (TT) on a target acquisition task (three aiming events with two 180° turns) within the exercise circuit. Turning performance of two turns was evaluated pre/post fatigue. Turning performance decreased with fatigue. PAVMs decreased during both turns for the sternum (p < 0.001), sacrum (p = 0.007) and rifle (p = 0.002). TT increased for the sternum (p = 0.001), sacrum (p = 0.003), and rifle (p = 0.02) during turn 1, and for the rifle (p = 0.04) during turn 2. IMUs detected and quantified changes in warfighter aiming performance after fatigue. Similar methodologies can be applied to many movement tasks, including quantifying movement performance for load, fatigue, and equipment conditions.

  11. Evidence for continuous processing of visual information in a manual video-aiming task.

    PubMed

    Proteau, Luc; Roujoula, Adel; Messier, Julie

    2009-05-01

    Research shows that individuals are able to correct for an experimentally-induced and unexpected aiming error (i.e., a cursor jump), even when they do not detect it consciously. Researchers have interpreted these results to be evidence of continuous processing of visual afferent information for movement control. The authors conducted 2 experiments to determine whether they would gain additional support for this proposition by showing that correction for a cursor jump can be initiated outside the central visual field. In addition, the authors wanted to determine whether the normally occurring modulation of the ongoing movement is affected by detection and correction of the cursor jump. Participants performed video-aiming movements in which a 30-mm cursor jump occurred in a small proportion of the trials. The results indicate that correction for the cursor jump was initiated when the cursor was as far as 15 degrees of visual angle from the target. In addition, the authors observed accurate corrections when vision of the cursor was withdrawn soon after the cursor jump. Last, online control processes reducing initial movement variability were not significantly affected by the detection and correction for the cursor jump. The results suggest near continuous monitoring of visual afferent information but a more discrete movement-correction process.

  12. Motor inhibition affects the speed but not accuracy of aimed limb movements in an insect.

    PubMed

    Calas-List, Delphine; Clare, Anthony J; Komissarova, Alexandra; Nielsen, Thomas A; Matheson, Thomas

    2014-05-28

    When reaching toward a target, human subjects use slower movements to achieve higher accuracy, and this can be accompanied by increased limb impedance (stiffness, viscosity) that stabilizes movements against motor noise and external perturbation. In arthropods, the activity of common inhibitory motor neurons influences limb impedance, so we hypothesized that this might provide a mechanism for speed and accuracy control of aimed movements in insects. We recorded simultaneously from excitatory leg motor neurons and from an identified common inhibitory motor neuron (CI1) in locusts that performed natural aimed scratching movements. We related limb movement kinematics to recorded motor activity and demonstrate that imposed alterations in the activity of CI1 influenced these kinematics. We manipulated the activity of CI1 by injecting depolarizing or hyperpolarizing current or killing the cell using laser photoablation. Naturally higher levels of inhibitory activity accompanied faster movements. Experimentally biasing the firing rate downward, or stopping firing completely, led to slower movements mediated by changes at several joints of the limb. Despite this, we found no effect on overall movement accuracy. We conclude that inhibitory modulation of joint stiffness has effects across most of the working range of the insect limb, with a pronounced effect on the overall velocity of natural movements independent of their accuracy. Passive joint forces that are greatest at extreme joint angles may enhance accuracy and are not affected by motor inhibition.

  13. Evaluating the public health impact of health promotion interventions: the RE-AIM framework.

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, R E; Vogt, T M; Boles, S M

    1999-01-01

    Progress in public health and community-based interventions has been hampered by the lack of a comprehensive evaluation framework appropriate to such programs. Multilevel interventions that incorporate policy, environmental, and individual components should be evaluated with measurements suited to their settings, goals, and purpose. In this commentary, the authors propose a model (termed the RE-AIM model) for evaluating public health interventions that assesses 5 dimensions: reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. These dimensions occur at multiple levels (e.g., individual, clinic or organization, community) and interact to determine the public health or population-based impact of a program or policy. The authors discuss issues in evaluating each of these dimensions and combining them to determine overall public health impact. Failure to adequately evaluate programs on all 5 dimensions can lead to a waste of resources, discontinuities between stages of research, and failure to improve public health to the limits of our capacity. The authors summarize strengths and limitations of the RE-AIM model and recommend areas for future research and application. PMID:10474547

  14. An Economic Aspect of the AVOID Programme: Analysis Using the AIM/CGE Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2010-05-01

    This presentation purposes to show the results of the analysis that the AIM/CGE [Global] model contributed to Work Stream 1 of the AVOID programme. Three economic models participate in this WS to analyze the economic aspects of defined climate policies, and the AIM/CGE [Global] model is one of them. The reference scenario is SRES A1B and five policy scenarios (2016.R2.H, 2016.R4.L, 2016.R5.L, 2030.R2.H, and 2030.R5.L) are considered. The climate policies are expressed as emissions pathways of several gases such as greenhouse gases and aerosols. The AIM/CGE [Global] model is a recursive dynamic global CGE model with 21 industrial sectors and 24 world regions. These definitions are based on the GTAP6 database and it is used as the economic data of the base year. Some important characteristics of this model can be summarized as follows: power generation by various sources (from non-renewables to renewables) are considered; CCS technology is modeled; biomass energy (both traditional and purpose-grown) production and consumption are included; not only CO2 emissions but also other gases are considered; international markets are modeled for international trade of some fossil fuels; relationships between the costs and resource reserves of fossil fuels are modeled. The model is run with 10-year time steps until 2100. For the reference case, there are no constraints and the model is run based on the drivers (assumptions on GDP and population for A1B) and AEEI. The reference case does not have the same emissions pathways as the prescribed emissions for A1B in AVOID. For scenario cases, the model is run under emissions constraints. In particular, for each policy scenario, the constraint on each gas in each 10-year step is derived. The percentage reduction in emissions that occurs between the AVOID A1B scenario and the particular policy scenario, for each gas in each 10-year period is first calculated, and then these percentage reductions are applied to the AIM reference case

  15. Numerical modeling of laser-driven experiments aiming to demonstrate magnetic field amplification via turbulent dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzeferacos, P.; Rigby, A.; Bott, A.; Bell, A. R.; Bingham, R.; Casner, A.; Cattaneo, F.; Churazov, E. M.; Emig, J.; Flocke, N.; Fiuza, F.; Forest, C. B.; Foster, J.; Graziani, C.; Katz, J.; Koenig, M.; Li, C.-K.; Meinecke, J.; Petrasso, R.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A.; Ross, J. S.; Ryu, D.; Ryutov, D.; Weide, K.; White, T. G.; Reville, B.; Miniati, F.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Froula, D. H.; Gregori, G.; Lamb, D. Q.

    2017-04-01

    The universe is permeated by magnetic fields, with strengths ranging from a femtogauss in the voids between the filaments of galaxy clusters to several teragauss in black holes and neutron stars. The standard model behind cosmological magnetic fields is the nonlinear amplification of seed fields via turbulent dynamo to the values observed. We have conceived experiments that aim to demonstrate and study the turbulent dynamo mechanism in the laboratory. Here, we describe the design of these experiments through simulation campaigns using FLASH, a highly capable radiation magnetohydrodynamics code that we have developed, and large-scale three-dimensional simulations on the Mira supercomputer at the Argonne National Laboratory. The simulation results indicate that the experimental platform may be capable of reaching a turbulent plasma state and determining the dynamo amplification. We validate and compare our numerical results with a small subset of experimental data using synthetic diagnostics.

  16. SPOrt: an experiment aimed at measuring the large scale cosmic microwave background polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carretti, Ettore; Cortiglioni, Stefano; Bernardi, Gianni; Cecchini, Stefano; Macculi, Claudio; Sbarra, Carla; Monari, Jader; Orfei, Alessandro; Poloni, Marco; Poppi, Sergio; Boella, Giuliano; Bonometto, Silvio; Gervasi, Massimo; Sironi, Giorgio; Zannoni, Mario; Tucci, Marco; Baralis, Massino; Peverini, Oscar A.; Tascone, Riccardo; Virone, Giuseppe; Fabbri, Roberto; Nicastro, Luciano; Ng, Kin-Wang; Razin, V. A.; Vinyajkin, Evgenij N.; Sazhin, Mikhail V.; Strukov, Igor A.

    2003-02-01

    SPOrt (Sky Polarization Observatory) is a space experiment to be flown on the International Space Station during Early Utilization Phase aimed at measuring the microwave polarized emission with FWHM = 7 deg, in the frequency range 22-90 GHz. The Galactic polarized emission can be observed at the lower frequencies and the polarization of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at 90 GHz, where contaminants are expected to be less important. The extremely low level of the CMB Polarization signal calls for intrinsically stable radiometers. The SPOrt instrument is expressly devoted to CMB polarization measurements and the whole design has been optimized for minimizing instrumental polarization effects. In this contribution we present the receiver architecture based on correlation techniques, the analysis showing its intrinsic stability and the custom hardware development carried out to detect such a low signal.

  17. Method for shaping and aiming narrow beams. [sonar mapping and target identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A sonar method and apparatus is discribed which utilizes a linear frequency chirp in a transmitter/receiver having a correlator to synthesize a narrow beamwidth pattern from otherwise broadbeam transducers when there is relative velocity between the transmitter/receiver and the target. The chirp is so produced in a generator in bandwidth, B, and time, T, as to produce a time bandwidth product, TB, that is increased for a narrower angle. A replica of the chirp produced in a generator is time delayed and Doppler shifted for use as a reference in the receiver for correlation of received chirps from targets. This reference is Doppler shifted to select targets preferentially, thereby to not only synthesize a narrow beam but also aim the beam in azimuth and elevation.

  18. Taking AIM: The management of scientific and technical information at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Masek, M.; DiStravolo, M.; Dominiak, R.

    1994-09-01

    Four years ago, Argonne National Laboratory tracked its publications the old-fashioned way -- typing information on index cards, making photocopies of the cards and sorting them according to title, author, report number and keywords. Now, the Argonne Information Management (AIM) system collects document clearance and publication information in an integrated electronic system that tracks the laboratory`s publications along with associated cost records, and offers a publicly available interface to the data so authors and divisions can create their own publications lists. This presentation will outline the steps taken to develop this system; the benefits to the overall publication review process; how the system meets the needs of a variety of customers, from Argonne authors to DOE and beyond, and the plans for future enhancements.

  19. Spray aiming in bombardier beetles: jet deflection by the coanda effect.

    PubMed

    Eisner, T; Aneshansley, D J

    1982-01-01

    Bombardier beetles of the carabid subfamily Paussinae have a pair of flanges, diagnostic for the group, that project outward from the sides of the body. Behind each flange is a gland opening, from which the beetles discharge a hot, quinone-containing secretion when disturbed. The flanges are curved and grooved and serve as launching guides for anteriorly aimed ejections of secretion. Jets of fluid, on emergence from the gland openings, follow the curvature of the flanges and are thereby bent sharply in their trajectory and directed forward. The phenomenon is illustrative of the Coanda effect, widely applicable in engineering and responsible for the familiar tendency of liquids to curve around spouts and down the front of containers when being poured.

  20. Information system powers innovative research project aimed at managing the care of senior citizens.

    PubMed

    Warfel, D R

    2000-01-01

    HealthAmerica Pennsylvania, Inc., in Pittsburgh, is aiming to increase access to health care for senior citizens in its Advantra health plan in Pittsburgh. Under its Senior Life Management program, Coventry Health Care, parent company of HealthAmerica, hired nine personal service representatives (PSRs) and is asking them to provide outreach to 5,000 senior citizens. The PSRs and other staff members will get to know each senior citizen in the program, evaluate and recognize their health needs, and develop methods to ensure that their needs are met before any patient's condition becomes unnecessarily costly. The goal of this innovative program is to improve access to health care for these 5,000 members and thus improve their satisfaction with care and help to reduce health care costs.

  1. PROPOSAL OF USING WOOD IN CIVIL ENGINEERING FIELD AIMING FOR A SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomimatsu, Yoshiharu; Numata, Atsunori; Hamada, Masanori; Miwa, Shigeru; Motoyama, Hiroshi

    Aiming for a sustainable society is one of the most important missions in the first half of the twenty-first century. In the civil engineering field, which normally focuses on carbon dioxide emissions, other techniques to attain a perfect sustainable ecosystem are considered expectable. For this, technical developments are needed to harmonize natural ecosystems for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions or reduce carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The authors propose using a lot of wood in the civil engineering field. However, civil engineers do not have the chance to learn about wood science and some engineers have misconceptions about the use of wood. For these reasons, this paper explains the significance of using wood for a sustainable society. As a concrete measure, the authors proposed the use of wood as a countermeasure against poor, unstable ground and liquefiable ground.

  2. [Inequality in access to health care services. Policy recommendations aimed at achieving equity].

    PubMed

    Urbanos-Garrido, Rosa

    2016-11-01

    This article reveals the presence of inequalities in access to health care that may be considered unfair and avoidable. These inequalities are related to coverage of clinical needs, to the financial problems faced by families in completing medical treatments, or to disparities in waiting times and the use of services for equal need. A substantial proportion of inequalities appears to have increased as a result of the measures adopted to face the economic crisis. The recommendations aimed at improving equity affect different pillars of the taxpayer-funded health system, including, among others, the definition of the right to public health care coverage, the formulas of cost-sharing, the distribution of powers between primary and specialty care, the reforms of clinical management, and the production and dissemination of information to facilitate the decision-making processes of health authorities, professionals and citizens. Moreover, it is recommended to focus on particularly vulnerable population groups.

  3. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program. Compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments FY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven {open_quotes}Vision Industries{close_quotes} that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: (1) Aluminum; (2) Chemical; (3) Forest Products; (4) Glass; (5) Metal Casting; (6) Refineries; and (7) Steel. This report is a compilation of project summaries and significant accomplishments on materials.

  4. Aim, Load, Fire: The Type VI Secretion System, a Bacterial Nanoweapon.

    PubMed

    Cianfanelli, Francesca R; Monlezun, Laura; Coulthurst, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria utilise specialised protein secretion systems to interact with host organisms, competitor bacteria, and the environment. The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a versatile weapon deployed by many bacterial species to target either host cells or rival bacteria. The widespread occurrence and significance of the T6SS is becoming increasingly appreciated, as is its intriguing mode of action. The T6SS delivers multiple, diverse effector proteins directly into target cells using a dynamic 'firing' mechanism related to the action of contractile bacteriophage tails. Here, we summarise the contribution of recent findings to our developing picture of how the T6SS assembles and fires, how it is loaded with different types of effectors, and how it can be aimed towards an incoming assault.

  5. Grid-based precision aim system and method for disrupting suspect objects

    DOEpatents

    Gladwell, Thomas Scott; Garretson, Justin; Hobart, Clinton G.; Monda, Mark J.

    2014-06-10

    A system and method for disrupting at least one component of a suspect object is provided. The system has a source for passing radiation through the suspect object, a grid board positionable adjacent the suspect object (the grid board having a plurality of grid areas, the radiation from the source passing through the grid board), a screen for receiving the radiation passing through the suspect object and generating at least one image, a weapon for deploying a discharge, and a targeting unit for displaying the image of the suspect object and aiming the weapon according to a disruption point on the displayed image and deploying the discharge into the suspect object to disable the suspect object.

  6. Evaluating the benefits of government funded R & D aimed at the private sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Federal funding of technological research and development is discussed with regard to the procedures for an economic analysis with the goals of (1) determining when the public sector should invest in a research and development program, (2) evaluating the likelihood of private sector participation in terms of public sector participation, and (3) considering the major factors in the formulation of a research and development program in terms of defining initiatives. Public sector investments are evaluated, noting procedures for determining whether benefits exceed costs. The role of the public sector research and development planning is described, considering the procedure for private sector implementation decisions and a methodology for evaluating the possibility of private sector commercialization. The economic value of the public sector research and development program is presented with attention given to a specific case of NASA-sponsored research and development aimed toward the commercialization of new public communications services.

  7. Aiming at the sweet side of cancer: aberrant glycosylation as possible target for personalized-medicine.

    PubMed

    Padler-Karavani, Vered

    2014-09-28

    One of the frontiers in cancer personalized-medicine aims at glycosylation. Cells are covered with a dense sugar coat of glycolipids, glycoproteins and free glycans. In cancer, the characteristic cell surface glycosylation is frequently transformed due to altered expression of glycan-modifying enzymes. This often leads to aberrant expression of sialic acids (Sia) that cap glycan-chains. Additionally, dietary intake of the non-human Sia N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) leads to natural metabolic-glycoengineering of human carcinomas that accumulate and express Neu5Gc. This Sia provokes a polyclonal anti-Neu5Gc xeno-autoantibodies response that can exacerbate cancer. This review highlights cancer-associated changes in Sia expression and their potential for personalized-theranostics.

  8. a Study of 954-2A/IM7 Composite Laminates Containing a Central Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyungwon

    Predicting microcracking properties of the composite laminates in nonuniform stress conditions was the subject in this paper. The uniform stress field meant the stresses were independent of the width direction. The material was the 954-2A/IM7 laminates containing a central hole. Microcracks initiated at the edge of the hole and propagated into the laminate. Because the tensile stress concentration decreased with distance, the microcracks were arrested before the edge of the laminate. Because carbon fiber composites were opaque, a x-ray method was used to detect the length of the propagating microcracks. The microcracking at the near edge of the hole could be reasonably predicted by considering the local laminate stresses and the microcracking toughness measured in unnotched laminates. However, the data away from the hole did not agree with the predictions. The local microcrack density was always much higher than that predicted by the local laminate stress.

  9. Low dark current LWIR HgCdTe focal plane arrays at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haiml, M.; Eich, D.; Fick, W.; Figgemeier, H.; Hanna, S.; Mahlein, M.; Schirmacher, W.; Thöt, R.

    2016-05-01

    Cryogenically cooled HgCdTe (MCT) quantum detectors are unequalled for applications requiring high imaging as well as high radiometric performance in the infrared spectral range. Compared with other technologies, they provide several advantages, such as the highest quantum efficiency, lower power dissipation compared to photoconductive devices, and fast response times, hence outperforming micro-bolometer arrays. AIM will present its latest results on n-on-p as well as p-on-n low dark current planar MCT photodiode focal plane detector arrays at cut-off wavelengths >11 μm at 80 K. Dark current densities below the Rule'07 have been demonstrated for n-on-p devices. Slightly higher dark current densities and excellent cosmetics with very low cluster and point defect densities have been demonstrated for p-on-n devices.

  10. Environmental agency aiming to raise the awareness of people about the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegnar, T.

    2009-09-01

    If properly sensitised, the public can do a great deal for the protection of our environment. The Environmental agency pays particular attention to awareness raising concerning the environment and related issues. In perusing this aim the agency is using several approaches, which are tailored to reach and involve specific target groups. The website is the Environmental agency of the Republic of Slovenia's main tool to communicate with general public and journalists. Special sectors of the website are designed on purpose for the media. Press conferences are organized whenever an issue of general interest emerges. Monthly bulletins are published including environmental data and trends, but also reporting about interesting domestic and international events related to environment, and in particular to climate change. Also flyers and booklets related to environmental issues are published, most of them are available in printed and in electronic version. On request we organize guided visits at the agency or give presentations in the premises of interested schools.

  11. Using and developing role plays in teaching aimed at preparing for social responsibility.

    PubMed

    Doorn, Neelke; Kroesen, J Otto

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we discuss the use of role plays in ethics education for engineering students. After presenting a rough taxonomy of different objectives, we illustrate how role plays can be used to broaden students' perspectives. We do this on the basis of our experiences with a newly developed role play about a Dutch political controversy concerning pig transport. The role play is special in that the discussion is about setting up an institutional framework for responsible action that goes beyond individual action. In that sense, the role play serves a double purpose. It not only aims at teaching students to become aware of the different dimensions in decision making, it also encourages students to think about what such an institutional framework for responsible action might possibly look like.

  12. `Quantum Mechanics' and `Scientific Explanation' An Explanatory Strategy Aiming at Providing `Understanding'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzidaki, Pandora

    2008-01-01

    Empirical studies persistently indicate that the usual explanatory strategies used in quantum mechanics (QM) instruction fail, in general, to yield understanding. In this study, we propose an instructional intervention, which: (a) incorporates into its subject matter a critical comparison of QM scientific content with the fundamental epistemological and ontological commitments of the prominent philosophical theories of explanation, a weak form of which we meet in QM teaching; (b) illuminates the reasons of their failure in the quantum domain; and (c) implements an explanatory strategy highly inspired by the epistemological pathways through which, during the birth-process of QM, science has gradually reached understanding. This strategy, an inherent element of which is the meta-cognitive and meta-scientific thinking, aims at leading learners not only to an essential understanding of QM worldview, but to a deep insight into the ‘Nature of Science’ as well.

  13. Geographic health information systems: a platform to support the 'triple aim'.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Ferranti, Jeffrey; Strauss, Benjamin; Neelon, Brian; Califf, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Despite the rapid growth of electronic health data, most data systems do not connect individual patient records to data sets from outside the health care delivery system. These isolated data systems cannot support efforts to recognize or address how the physical and environmental context of each patient influences health choices and health outcomes. In this article we describe how a geographic health information system in Durham, North Carolina, links health system and social and environmental data via shared geography to provide a multidimensional understanding of individual and community health status and vulnerabilities. Geographic health information systems can be useful in supporting the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Triple Aim Initiative to improve the experience of care, improve the health of populations, and reduce per capita costs of health care. A geographic health information system can also provide a comprehensive information base for community health assessment and intervention for accountable care that includes the entire population of a geographic area.

  14. Sequencing biological acidification of waste-activated sludge aiming to optimize phosphorus dissolution and recovery.

    PubMed

    Guilayn, Felipe; Braak, Etienne; Piveteau, Simon; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2016-09-20

    Phosphorus (P) recovery in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as pure crystals such as struvite (MgNH4PO4.6H2O), potassium struvite (KMgPO4.6H2O) and calcium phosphates (e.g. Ca3(PO4)2) is an already feasible technique that permits the production of green and marketable fertilizers and the reduction of operational costs. Commercial crystallizers can recovery more than 90% of soluble P. However, most of the P in WWTP sludge is unavailable for the processes (not dissolved). P solubilization and separation are thus the limiting steps in P-crystallization. With an innovative two-step sequencing acidification strategy, the current study has aimed to improve biological P solubilization on waste-activated sludge (WAS) from a full-scale plant. In the first step (P-release), low charges of organic waste were used as co-substrates of WAS pre-fermentation, seeking to produce volatile fatty acids to feed the P-release by Polyphosphate-accumulating organisms, while keeping its optimal metabolic pH (6-7). In this phase, milk serum, WWTP grease, urban organic waste and collective restaurant waste were individually applied as co-substrates. In the second step (P-dissolution), pH 4 was aimed at as it allows the dissolution of the most common precipitated species of P. Biological acidification was performed by white sugar addition, as a carbohydrate-rich organic waste model, which was compared to chemical acidification by HCl (12M) addition. With short retention times (48-96 h) and without inoculum application, all experiences succeeded on P solubilization (37-55% of soluble P), principally when carbohydrate-rich co-substrates were applied. Concentrations from 270 to 450 mg [Formula: see text] were achieved.

  15. Effects of aircraft windscreens and canopies on HMT/D aiming accuracy: III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Task, H. Lee; Goodyear, Chuck

    1999-07-01

    Modern fighter aircraft windscreens and canopies are typically made of curved, transparent plastic for improved aero-dynamics and bird-strike protection. Since they are curved these transparencies often refract light in such a way that a pilot looking through the transparency will see a target in a location other than where it really is. This effect has been known for many years and methods to correct the aircraft head- up display (HUD) for these angular deviations have been developed and employed. The same problem occurs for helmet- mounted display/trackers (HMD/Ts) used for target acquisition. However, in this case, the pilot can look through any part of the transparency instead of being constrained to just the forward section as in the case of the HUD and his/her head position can be anywhere in a rather large motion box. To explore the magnitude of these aiming errors several F-15, F- 16, F-18, and F-22 transparency systems were measured from a total of 12 different eye positions centered around the HMD Eye (the HMD Eye was defined to be a point 1.25 inches to the right of the aircraft Design Eye). The collection of eye points for assessing HMT/D aiming accuracy were: HMD Eye, 3 inches left and right of HMD Eye, 2 inches above HMD Eye, and 2 inches forward of HMD Eye plus all combinations of these. Results from these measurements along with recommendations regarding means of assessing 'goodness' of correction algorithms are presented.

  16. Mobile Phone App Aimed at Improving Iron Intake and Bioavailability in Premenopausal Women: A Qualitative Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, Lynn; Lim, Karen; Byrne, Linda K; Nowson, Caryl; Rigo, Manuela; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Booth, Alison O

    2015-01-01

    Background Low iron intake can lead to iron deficiency, which can result in impaired health and iron-deficiency anemia. A mobile phone app, combining successful dietary strategies to increase bioavailable iron with strategies for behavior change, such as goal setting, monitoring, feedback, and resources for knowledge acquisition, was developed with the aim to increase bioavailable iron intake in premenopausal women. Objective To evaluate the content, usability, and acceptability of a mobile phone app designed to improve intake of bioavailable dietary iron. Methods Women aged 18-50 years with an Android mobile phone were invited to participate. Over a 2-week period women were asked to interact with the app. Following this period, semistructured focus groups with participants were conducted. Focus groups were audio recorded and analyzed via an inductive open-coding method using the qualitative analysis software NVivo 10. Themes were identified and frequency of code occurrence was calculated. Results Four focus groups (n=26) were conducted (age range 19-36 years, mean 24.7, SD 5.2). Two themes about the app’s functionality were identified (frequency of occurrence in brackets): interface and design (134) and usability (86). Four themes about the app’s components were identified: goal tracker (121), facts (78), photo diary (40), and games (46). A number of suggestions to improve the interface and design of the app were provided and will inform the ongoing development of the app. Conclusions This research indicates that participants are interested in iron and their health and are willing to use an app utilizing behavior change strategies to increase intake of bioavailable iron. The inclusion of information about the link between diet and health, monitoring and tracking of the achievement of dietary goals, and weekly reviews of goals were also seen as valuable components of the app and should be considered in mobile health apps aimed at adult women. PMID:26416479

  17. Management Strategies Aiming to Improve Horse Welfare Reduce Embryonic Death Rates in Mares.

    PubMed

    Malschitzky, E; Pimentel, A M; Garbade, P; Jobim, Mim; Gregory, R M; Mattos, R C

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of management strategies aiming to improve animal well-being on pregnancy and embryonic death (ED) rates. Breeding records of a cohort of 1206 Thoroughbred mares brought to a stallion station facility, to be bred with the stallions housed there, were evaluated during ten breeding seasons. Mares were blocked according to management strategies in two groups: Stress and Relax. Strategies used to improve animal well-being (Relax group) were as follows: stopping the teasing routine, reducing or eliminating stall confinement, reducing the number of mares per group and maintaining herd stability during the breeding season. In barren mares, the pregnancy rate was higher in the Relax group (91.8%) when compared to the observed in Stress group (84.7%). However, no difference in pregnancy rates were observed (Stress = 85.2% vs. Relax = 86.2) in foaling mares. ED rate was higher in barren and foaling mares of the Stress group mares (25.5% and 26.8%, respectively) compared with the Relax group (16.1% and 14.7%, respectively). No significant differences were observed on foal heat pregnancy rate between groups; yet, the embryo loss on foal heat was significant reduced in Relax mares (Relax = 8.7% vs Stress = 24.5%). In conclusion, management strategies aimed to reduce social stress can reduce early pregnancy losses and the average cycles per pregnancy, improving reproductive performance in mares.

  18. Synchronised and complementary coordination mechanisms in an asymmetric joint aiming task.

    PubMed

    Skewes, Joshua C; Skewes, Lea; Michael, John; Konvalinka, Ivana

    2015-02-01

    Many forms of social interaction require that behaviour be coordinated in the here and now. Much research has been conducted on how people coordinate their actions in real time to achieve a joint goal, showing that people use both synchronised (i.e., symmetric) and complementary (i.e., asymmetric) strategies. These two mechanisms have been mostly studied independently, the former in the context of rhythmic tasks, and the latter in non-rhythmic tasks. However, people often balance these two strategies in real-life social interactions, in order to achieve a joint goal more effectively. Here, our aim was to investigate how people may implicitly balance synchronisation and complementarity in a continuous joint aiming task. We asked dyads to synchronise the timing of their clicks between targets, while changing task constraints for one member of the dyad (i.e., different task difficulties) to asymmetrically perturb the continuous interaction. This allowed us to investigate how individuals implicitly negotiate complementary leader-follower dynamics to achieve synchronisation. We found that dyads flexibly switch from mutual to asymmetric adaptation given variations in task constraints. Specifically, our results show that both members adapt equally up to a certain level of difficulty; after this point, the partner with the difficult task becomes less adaptive, and hence more of a leader, while the adaptability of the member with the easier task remains unchanged. This proves to be an effective strategy in this asymmetric task, as people synchronise better with an irregular, but adaptive partner, than with a completely predictable, but non-responsive metronome. These results show that given asymmetric task constraints, adaptability, rather than predictability, facilitates coordination.

  19. Viticulture microzoning: a functional approach aiming to grape and wine qualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, A.; Agrillo, A.; Albrizio, R.; Basile, A.; Buonomo, R.; De Mascellis, R.; Gambuti, A.; Giorio, P.; Guida, G.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Minieri, L.; Moio, L.; Siani, T.; Terribile, F.

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to test a new physically oriented approach to viticulture zoning at the farm scale, strongly rooted on hydropedology and aiming to achieve a better use of environmental features with respect to plant requirement and wine production. The physics of our approach is defined by the use of soil-plant-atmosphere simulation models which applies physically-based equations to describe the soil hydrological processes and solves soil-plant water status. This study (ZOVISA project) was conducted in a farm devoted to high quality wines production (Aglianico DOC), located in South Italy (Campania region, Mirabella Eclano-AV). The soil spatial distribution was obtained after standard soil survey informed by geophysical survey. Two Homogenous Zones (HZs) were identified; in each one of those a physically based model was applied to solve the soil water balance and estimate the soil functional behaviour (crop water stress index, CWSI) defining the functional Homogeneous Zones (fHzs). In these last, experimental plots were established and monitored for investigating soil-plant water status, crop development (biometric and physiological parameters) and daily climate variables (temperature, solar radiation, rainfall, wind). The effects of crop water status on crop response over must and wine quality were then evaluated in the fHZs. This was performed by comparing crop water stress with (i) crop physiological measurement (leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf water potential, chlorophyll content, LAI measurement), (ii) grape bunches measurements (berry weight, sugar content, titratable acidity, etc.) and (iii) wine quality (aromatic response). Eventually this experiment has proved the usefulness of the physical based approach also in the case of mapping viticulture microzoning.

  20. Immune-Complexed Adenovirus Induce AIM2-Mediated Pyroptosis in Human Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eichholz, Karsten; Bru, Thierry; Tran, Thi Thu Phuong; Fernandes, Paulo; Mennechet, Franck J. D.; Manel, Nicolas; Alves, Paula; Perreau, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are nonenveloped proteinaceous particles containing a linear double-stranded DNA genome. HAdVs cause a spectrum of pathologies in all populations regardless of health standards. Following repeat exposure to multiple HAdV types, we develop robust and long-lived humoral and cellular immune responses that provide life-long protection from de novo infections and persistent HAdV. How HAdVs, anti-HAdV antibodies and antigen presenting cells (APCs) interact to influence infection is still incompletely understood. In our study, we used physical, pharmacological, biochemical, fluorescence and electron microscopy, molecular and cell biology approaches to dissect the impact of immune-complexed HAdV (IC-HAdV) on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs). We show that IC-HAdV generate stabilized complexes of ~200 nm that are efficiently internalized by, and aggregate in, MoDCs. By comparing IC-HAdV, IC-empty capsid, IC-Ad2ts1 (a HAdV-C2 impaired in endosomal escape due to a mutation that impacts protease encapsidation) and IC-AdL40Q (a HAdV-C5 impaired in endosomal escape due to a mutation in protein VI), we demonstrate that protein VI-dependent endosomal escape is required for the HAdV genome to engage the DNA pattern recognition receptor AIM2 (absent in melanoma 2). AIM2 engagement induces pyroptotic MoDC death via ASC (apoptosis-associated speck protein containing a caspase activation/recruitment domain) aggregation, inflammasome formation, caspase 1 activation, and IL-1β and gasdermin D (GSDMD) cleavage. Our study provides mechanistic insight into how humoral immunity initiates an innate immune response to HAdV-C5 in human professional APCs. PMID:27636895

  1. [Postoperative pain management. Aims and organization of a strategy for postoperative acute pain therapy].

    PubMed

    Nolli, M; Nicosia, F

    2000-09-01

    The Health Services, not only the Italian one, is under pressure because of request for improving treatment quality and the financial need for reorganization and cost-saving. It's required a rationalization of intervention, together with a careful choice of the best and cheapest techniques and the demonstration of their efficacy. The anaesthesia service activity, in a period of cost rationalization and funds restriction should be aimed to appropriate outcome measures corrected by both patient's risk factors and surgical-anaesthesiological case-mix. The development of a complete strategy for surgical pain management might run into two phases. The first phase, internal and mono-specialistic, should develop like the creation of an Acute Pain Team. The main processes are: focusing the problem (charge of the care), training, information, teaching methodology (timing, methods, drugs, techniques, etc.) and the audit (before and after changes). The main aims are the evaluation of the level of analgesia and pain relief or patient's satisfaction which are partial endpoints useful to demonstrate the improvement and the efficacy of the new pain management strategies. The second phase, multidisciplinary, is directed toward the creation of a Postoperative Evaluation Team. The main objective is to set up a collaborative clinical group able to identify the criteria for quality, efficacy and safety. The major purpose is the evaluation of major outcome measures: surgical outcome, morbidity, mortality and length of hospitalization. The improvement in the quality of postoperative pain treatment goes through a better organization and a progressive increase of the already available therapy. The achievement of the result and the quality projects depend on the interaction among staff members with different behaviours and settings. Internal teaching and training, continuous education for doctors and nurses, and external information, marketing and improvement of attractive capability of

  2. Disseminating hypnosis to health care settings: Applying the RE-AIM framework

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Vivian M.; Schnur, Julie B.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2014-01-01

    Hypnosis is a brief intervention ready for wider dissemination in medical contexts. Overall, hypnosis remains underused despite evidence supporting its beneficial clinical impact. This review will evaluate the evidence supporting hypnosis for dissemination using guidelines formulated by Glasgow and colleagues (1999). Five dissemination dimensions will be considered: Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM). Reach In medical settings, hypnosis is capable of helping a diverse range of individuals with a wide variety of problems. Efficacy There is evidence supporting the use of hypnosis for chronic pain, acute pain and emotional distress arising from medical procedures and conditions, cancer treatment-related side-effects and irritable bowel syndrome. Adoption Although hypnosis is currently not a part of mainstream clinical practices, evidence suggests that patients and healthcare providers are open to trying hypnosis, and may become more so when educated about what hypnosis can do. Implementation Hypnosis is a brief intervention capable of being administered effectively by healthcare providers. Maintenance Given the low resource needs of hypnosis, opportunities for reimbursement, and the ability of the intervention to potentially help medical settings reduce costs, the intervention has the qualities necessary to be integrated into routine care in a self-sustaining way in medical settings. In sum, hypnosis is a promising candidate for further dissemination. PMID:25267941

  3. THE AIMS AND ACTIVITIES OF THE INTERNATIONAL NETWORK OF NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND DECAY DATA EVALUATORS.

    SciTech Connect

    NICHOLS,A.L.; TULI, J.K.

    2007-04-22

    International Network of Nuclear Structure and Decay Data (NSDD) Evaluators consists of a number of evaluation groups and data service centers in several countries that appreciate the merits of working together to maintain and ensure the quality and comprehensive content of the ENSDF database (Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File). Biennial meetings of the network are held under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to assign evaluation responsibilities, monitor progress, discuss improvements and emerging difficulties, and agree on actions to be undertaken by individual members. The evaluated data and bibliographic details are made available to users via various media, such as the journals ''Nuclear Physics A'' and ''Nuclear Data Sheets'', the World Wide Web, on CD-ROM, wall charts of the nuclides and ''Nuclear Wallet Cards''. While the ENSDF master database is maintained by the US National Nuclear Data Center at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, these data are also available from other nuclear data centers including the IAEA Nuclear Data Section. The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, in cooperation with the IAEA, organizes workshops on NSDD at regular intervals. The primary aims of these particular workshops are to provide hands-on training in the data evaluation processes, and to encourage new evaluators to participate in NSDD activities. The technical contents of these NSDD workshops are described, along with the rationale for the inclusion of various topics.

  4. Geriatrics and the triple aim: defining preventable hospitalizations in the long-term care population.

    PubMed

    Ouslander, Joseph G; Maslow, Katie

    2012-12-01

    Reducing preventable hospitalizations is fundamental to the "triple aim" of improving care, improving health, and reducing costs. New federal government initiatives that create strong pressure to reduce such hospitalizations are being or will soon be implemented. These initiatives use quality measures to define which hospitalizations are preventable. Reducing hospitalizations could greatly benefit frail and chronically ill adults and older people who receive long-term care (LTC) because they often experience negative effects of hospitalization, including hospital-acquired conditions, morbidity, and loss of functional abilities. Conversely, reducing hospitalizations could mean that some people will not receive hospital care they need, especially if the selected measures do not adequately define hospitalizations that can be prevented without jeopardizing the person's health and safety. An extensive literature search identified 250 measures of preventable hospitalizations, but the measures have not been validated in the LTC population and generally do not account for comorbidity or the capacity of various LTC settings to provide the required care without hospitalization. Additional efforts are needed to develop measures that accurately differentiate preventable from necessary hospitalizations for the LTC population, are transparent and fair to providers, and minimize the potential for gaming and unintended consequences. As the new initiatives take effect, it is critical to monitor their effect and to develop and disseminate training and resources to support the many community- and institution-based healthcare professionals and emergency department staff involved in decisions about hospitalization for this population.

  5. Screening of thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi aiming β-xylosidase and arabinanase production

    PubMed Central

    Benassi, Vivian Machado; de Lucas, Rosymar Coutinho; Jorge, João Atílio; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes

    2014-01-01

    Plant cell wall is mainly composed by cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. The heterogeneous structure and composition of the hemicellulose are key impediments to its depolymerization and subsequent use in fermentation processes. Thus, this study aimed to perform a screening of thermophilic and thermotolerant filamentous fungi collected from different regions of the São Paulo state, and analyze the production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase at different temperatures. These enzymes are important to cell wall degradation and synthesis of end products as xylose and arabinose, respectively, which are significant sugars to fermentation and ethanol production. A total of 12 fungal species were analyzed and 9 of them grew at 45 °C, suggesting a thermophilic or thermotolerant character. Additionally Aspergillus thermomutatus anamorph of Neosartorya and A. parasiticus grew at 50 °C. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus thermomutatus were the filamentous fungi with the most expressive production of β-xylosidase and arabinanase, respectively. In general for most of the tested microorganisms, β-xylosidase and arabinanase activities from mycelial extract (intracellular form) were higher in cultures grown at high temperatures (35–40 °C), while the correspondent extracellular activities were favorably secreted from cultures at 30 °C. This study contributes to catalogue isolated fungi of the state of São Paulo, and these findings could be promising sources for thermophilic and thermotolerant microorganisms, which are industrially important due to their enzymes. PMID:25763055

  6. A methodological framework for hydromorphological assessment, analysis and monitoring (IDRAIM) aimed at promoting integrated river management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, M.; Surian, N.; Comiti, F.; Bussettini, M.

    2015-12-01

    A methodological framework for hydromorphological assessment, analysis and monitoring (named IDRAIM) has been developed with the specific aim of supporting the management of river processes by integrating the objectives of ecological quality and flood risk mitigation. The framework builds on existing and up-to-date geomorphological concepts and approaches and has been tested on several Italian streams. The framework includes the following four phases: (1) catchment-wide characterization of the fluvial system; (2) evolutionary trajectory reconstruction and assessment of current river conditions; (3) description of future trends of channel evolution; and (4) identification of management options. The framework provides specific consideration of the temporal context, in terms of reconstructing the trajectory of past channel evolution as a basis for interpreting present river conditions and future trends. A series of specific tools has been developed for the assessment of river conditions, in terms of morphological quality and channel dynamics. These include: the Morphological Quality Index (MQI), the Morphological Dynamics Index (MDI), the Event Dynamics Classification (EDC), and the river morphodynamic corridors (MC and EMC). The monitoring of morphological parameters and indicators, alongside the assessment of future scenarios of channel evolution provides knowledge for the identification, planning and prioritization of actions for enhancing morphological quality and risk mitigation.

  7. Pesticide residue free fruits: the aim of Trentino apple production system.

    PubMed

    Baldessari, M; Giuliani, G; Chiesa, S; Larcher, R; Ioriatti, C; Angeli, G

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses performed in 2011 on the 575 samples of apples in Trentino (Italy), there are in average 3.24 active ingredient per sample. Moreover, in 98% of the samples with detectable residues, the level did not exceed 30% of the official MRL This result is achieved thanks to the implementation of the guide lines for integrated production by the 8000 fruit growers, to an extension service which justifies the need of the treatment and gives advice on which pesticide fit better for the time-pest combination, to the systematic check up of the sprayers, to the correct sizing of mix volumes to spray according to the size of the canopy, to the selection of active ingredients based on their residual activity in field tests, and to the systematic monitoring of the level of residues found on representative samples of the product at harvest. With these assumptions, the next goal is to eliminate all traces of insecticides and acaricides now present only in 30% of the samples. This aim could be achieved by extending the use of pheromone mating disruption to control fruit feeding Lepidoptera, as well as by promoting the use of short persistent residue products during the final part of the season. Results of some of the experimental field trials are presented and discussed.

  8. An opto-electronic joint detection system based on DSP aiming at early cervical cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiya; Jia, Mengyu; Gao, Feng; Yang, Lihong; Qu, Pengpeng; Zou, Changping; Liu, Pengxi; Zhao, Huijuan

    2015-02-01

    The cervical cancer screening at a pre-cancer stage is beneficial to reduce the mortality of women. An opto-electronic joint detection system based on DSP aiming at early cervical cancer screening is introduced in this paper. In this system, three electrodes alternately discharge to the cervical tissue and three light emitting diodes in different wavelengths alternately irradiate the cervical tissue. Then the relative optical reflectance and electrical voltage attenuation curve are obtained by optical and electrical detection, respectively. The system is based on DSP to attain the portable and cheap instrument. By adopting the relative reflectance and the voltage attenuation constant, the classification algorithm based on Support Vector Machine (SVM) discriminates abnormal cervical tissue from normal. We use particle swarm optimization to optimize the two key parameters of SVM, i.e. nuclear factor and cost factor. The clinical data were collected on 313 patients to build a clinical database of tissue responses under optical and electrical stimulations with the histopathologic examination as the gold standard. The classification result shows that the opto-electronic joint detection has higher total coincidence rate than separate optical detection or separate electrical detection. The sensitivity, specificity, and total coincidence rate increase with the increasing of sample numbers in the training set. The average total coincidence rate of the system can reach 85.1% compared with the histopathologic examination.

  9. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    2015-01-01

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured. PMID:26491707

  10. A Program Aimed toward Inclusive Excellence for Underrepresented Undergraduate Women in the Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Laura A.; Aloisio, Kathryn M.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Ly, Minh; Pruss, Sara; Queeney, Kate; Rowen, Cate; DiBartolo, Patricia Marten

    2017-01-01

    Created to foster inclusive excellence, Smith College’s Achieving Excellence in Mathematics, Engineering, and Science (AEMES) Scholars program provides early faculty-mentored research opportunities and other programming as a way to foster success in academic outcomes for underrepresented women in science. Using academic record data, we compared Scholars’ outcomes over time with those of underrepresented students before program launch and to relevant peer comparison groups. Since its launch, AEMES Scholars have achieved significantly higher gateway life sciences course grade point averages (GPAs), rates of persistence in life and natural sciences, and participation in natural sciences advanced research relative to baseline. Gains for Scholars in gateway course GPA eliminated the significant gap that previously existed between science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)-underrepresented and other students, whereas gains in natural sciences persistence now has Scholars continuing in STEM at significantly higher rates than all other students. Many of the gains for AEMES Scholars were echoed in findings of improved outcomes for our STEM students overall since AEMES’ launch. Underrepresented students who were not part of the Scholars program also evidenced increased gateway course GPA over this same period. We discuss potential explanations for these outcomes and ongoing work aimed at achieving further inclusive excellence for women in the sciences. PMID:28213581

  11. A molecular-modeling toolbox aimed at bridging the gap between medicinal chemistry and computational sciences.

    PubMed

    Eid, Sameh; Zalewski, Adam; Smieško, Martin; Ernst, Beat; Vedani, Angelo

    2013-01-04

    In the current era of high-throughput drug discovery and development, molecular modeling has become an indispensable tool for identifying, optimizing and prioritizing small-molecule drug candidates. The required background in computational chemistry and the knowledge of how to handle the complex underlying protocols, however, might keep medicinal chemists from routinely using in silico technologies. Our objective is to encourage those researchers to exploit existing modeling technologies more frequently through easy-to-use graphical user interfaces. In this account, we present two innovative tools (which we are prepared to share with academic institutions) facilitating computational tasks commonly utilized in drug discovery and development: (1) the VirtualDesignLab estimates the binding affinity of small molecules by simulating and quantifying their binding to the three-dimensional structure of a target protein; and (2) the MD Client launches molecular dynamics simulations aimed at exploring the time-dependent stability of ligand-protein complexes and provides residue-based interaction energies. This allows medicinal chemists to identify sites of potential improvement in their candidate molecule. As a case study, we present the application of our tools towards the design of novel antagonists for the FimH adhesin.

  12. Mathematical literacy in Plant Physiology undergraduates: results of interventions aimed at improving students' performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Francisca; Sanz, Amparo

    2013-09-01

    The importance of mathematical literacy in any scientific career is widely recognized. However, various studies report lack of numeracy and mathematical literacy in students from various countries. In the present work, we present a detailed study of the mathematical literacy of Spanish undergraduate students of Biology enrolled in a Plant Physiology course. We have performed individual analyses of results obtained during the period 2000-2011, for questions in the examinations requiring and not requiring mathematical skills. Additionally, we present the outcome of two interventions introduced with the aim of helping students improve their prospects for success in the course. Our results confirm previous research showing students' deficiencies in mathematical skills. However, the scores obtained for mathematical questions in the examinations are good predictors of the final grades attained in Plant Physiology, as there are strong correlations at the individual level between results for questions requiring and not requiring mathematical skills. The introduction of a laboratory session devoted to strengthening the application of students' previously acquired mathematical knowledge did not change significantly the results obtained for mathematical questions. Since mathematical abilities of students entering university have declined in recent years, this intervention may have helped to maintain students' performance to a level comparable to that of previous years. The outcome of self-assessment online tests indicates that although Mathematics anxiety is lower than during examinations, the poor results obtained for questions requiring mathematical skills are, at least in part, due to a lack of self-efficacy.

  13. Intramolecular hydrogen bond in 3-imino-propenylamine isomers: AIM and NBO studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raissi, H.; Jalbout, Abraham F.; Abbasi, B.; Fazli, F.; Farzad, F.; Nadim, E.; Leon, Aned De

    The molecular structure and intramolecular hydrogen bond energy of 18 conformers of 3-imino-propenyl-amine were investigated at MP2 and B3LYP levels of theory using the standard 6-311++G** basis set. The atom in molecules or AIM theory of Bader, which is based on the topological properties of the electron density (rho), was used additionally and the natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis was also carried out. Furthermore calculations for all possible conformations of 3-imino-propenyl-amin in water solution were also carried out at B3LYP/6-311++G** and MP2/6-311++G** levels of theory. The calculated geometrical parameters and conformational analyses in gas phase and water solution show that the imine-amine conformers of this compound are more stable than the other conformers. B3LYP method predicts the IMA-1 as global minimum. This stability is mainly due to the formation of a strong N bond H···N intramolecular hydrogen bond, which is assisted by pi-electrons resonance, and this pi-electrons are established by NH2 functional group. Hydrogen bond energies for all conformers of 3-imino-propenyl-amine were obtained from the related rotamers methods.

  14. Proof-to-Print Match: Effectiveness of Substrate-Corrected Colorimetric Aims in Soft Proofing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peng

    Soft proofing is an effective solution for clients and printers that decreases production cost and cycle time. However, print buyers are increasingly specifying brighter papers, which contain optical brightening agents (OBAs). One potential concern facing adopters of soft proofing systems is that they fail to consider the influence of OBA when rendering color images. Proofing systems are largely based on existing published specifications and their ICC profiles. These specifications and ICC profiles --- such as SWOP 3 and GRACoL 2006--- do not account for the influence of OBA-loaded printing papers, and therefore could cause a mismatch between the soft proof and the final print. To improve the soft proofing performance, it is important to account for the influence of OBA in printed color and in soft proofing. This research project investigated the use of the substrate-corrected colorimetric aims (SCCA) as the source ICC profile to improve proofing color accuracy. By conducting psychometric experiments and analyzing with Chi-Square statistic, the research concludes that (a) OBA causes the mismatch between the default soft proof and the OBA-loaded print; (b) source ICC profiles, built from both a fully characterized dataset and an SCCA solution, can improve color match between the soft proof and the OBA-loaded print; and (c) color match between the soft proof and the print is image-dependent.

  15. [Development, aims and status quo of the EU animal disease law].

    PubMed

    Bätza, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The development of EC legislation is outlined using swine fever and foot and mouth disease as an example, starting with the possibility of vaccinating against both animal diseases in the 1980s without substantially restricting trade with vaccinated animals or products of these animals, right up to a policy of non-vaccination with the realisation of the single market with significant restrictions on intra-Community trade if the option of an emergency vaccination were to be used.The restrictions associated with emergency vaccination are basically tantamount to a vaccination ban. To that extent, vaccination needs to be taken into consideration as an instrument of animal disease control under the EU animal health legislation currently being discussed, the aim being for vaccinated animals that have tested as virus-free to be able to be marketed without any restrictions. This will, however, only be possible if all stakeholders (EU, member states, World Organisation for Animal Health, industry, consumers) achieve a broad consensus.

  16. Spectroscopic analysis, AIM, NLO and VCD investigations of acetaldehyde thiosemicarbazone using quantum mechanical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, N.; Prabakar, P. C. Jobe; Ramalingam, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Gnanamuthu, S. Joshua; Pandian, G. V.

    2016-08-01

    The prepared Acetaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (ATSC) have been investigated by both the experimental and theoretical methods; through this work, the essentiality of elucidation of molecular fragments source linear and non-linear optical properties was explored. The stability of the structure and entire calculations have been performed on HF and B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) level of basis set. The Mulliken charge profile, electronic, optical and hyper polarizability analyses have been carried out in order to evaluate nonlinear optical (NLO) performance of the present compound. The exact optical location of the ATSC was determined by executing UV-Visible calculations on TDSCF method. The existence of the molecular group for the inducement and tuning of NLO properties were thoroughly investigated by performing fundamental vibrational investigation. The optical energy transformation among frontier molecular levels has been described in UV-Visible region. The Gibbs energy coefficient of thermodynamic functions was monitored in different temperature and it was found constant irrespective of temperatures. The appearance of different chemical environment of H and C was monitored from the 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The vibrational optical polarization characteristics with respect to molecular composition in the compound have been studied by VCD spectrum. The bond critical point, Laplacian of electron density, electron kinetic energy density and total electron energy density have calculated and analysed using AIM study.

  17. Establishing an Anaesthesia and Intensive Care partnership and aiming for national impact in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ulisubisya, Mpoki; Jörnvall, Henrik; Irestedt, Lars; Baker, Tim

    2016-03-18

    Anaesthesia and Intensive Care is a neglected specialty in low-income countries. There is an acute shortage of health workers - several low-income countries have less than 1 anaesthesia provider per 100,000 population. Only 1.5% of hospitals in Africa have the intensive care resources needed for managing patients with sepsis. Health partnerships between institutions in high and low-income countries have been proposed as an effective way to strengthen health systems. The aim of this article is to describe the origin and conduct of a health partnership in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care between institutions in Tanzania and Sweden and how the partnership has expanded to have an impact at regional and national levels.The Muhimbili-Karolinska Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Collaboration was initiated in 2008 on the request of the Executive Director of Muhimbili National Hospital in Dar es Salaam. The partnership has conducted training courses, exchanges, research projects and introduced new equipment, routines and guidelines. The partnership has expanded to include all hospitals in Dar es Salaam. Through the newly formed Life Support Foundation, the partnership has had a national impact assisting the reanimation of the Society of Anaesthesiologists of Tanzania and has seen a marked increase of the number of young doctors choosing a residency in Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.

  18. CD5L/AIM regulates lipid biosythesis and restrains Th17 cell pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Yosef, Nir; Gaublomme, Jellert; Wu, Chuan; Lee, Youjin; Clish, Clary B.; Kaminski, Jim; Xiao, Sheng; Horste, Gerd Meyer Zu; Pawlak, Mathias; Kishi, Yasuhiro; Joller, Nicole; Karwacz, Katarzyna; Zhu, Chen; Ordovas-Montanes, Maria; Madi, Asaf; Wortman, Ivo; Miyazaki, Toru; Sobel, Raymond A.; Park, Hongkun; Regev, Aviv; Kuchroo, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Th17 cells play a critical role in host defense against extracellular pathogens and tissue homeostasis, but can induce autoimmunity. The mechanisms implicated in balancing ‘pathogenic’ and ‘non-pathogenic’ Th17 cell states remain largely unknown. We used single-cell RNA-seq to identify CD5L/AIM as a regulator expressed in ‘non-pathogenic’ but not in ‘pathogenic’ Th17 cells. Although CD5L does not affect Th17 differentiation, it is a functional switch that regulates the pathogenicity of Th17 cells. Loss of CD5L converts ‘non-pathogenic’ Th17 cells into ‘pathogenic’ cells that induce autoimmunity. CD5L mediates this effect by modulating the intracellular lipidome, altering fatty acid composition, and restricting cholesterol biosynthesis, and thus ligand availability for Rorγt, the master transcription factor of Th17 cells. Our study identifies CD5L as a critical regulator of the Th17 cell functional state and highlights the importance of lipid metabolism in balancing immune protection and disease induced by T cells. PMID:26607793

  19. Recycling of Organic Waste Sludge by Hydrothermal Dry Steam Aiming for Adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshikawa, Hisahiro; Hayakawa, Tomoki; Yamasaki, Nakamichi

    2006-05-01

    Global warming becomes more serious problem today. We have to develop new technology for new energy or fixation of carbon dioxide. Biomass is considered to be one of new energies. Methane fermentation is a method to make methane from biomass, such as garbage and fecal of farm animals, by methane fermentation bacteria. It has a problem, however, that bacteria are deactivated due to ammonia, which is made by itself. And much methane fermentation residue is incinerated. Therefore recycling methane fermentation residue is important for effective use of biomass. We research hydrothermal process. Dry steam means unsaturated vapor, we call. It demands a temperature less than 400 °C. And it is expected to accelerate dehydration effect, decompose and extract the organic matter, and make porous material. Thus, we try to apply the dry steam to recycling of organic waste sludge aiming for absorbent. Experiments were conducted at 250-350 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. The carbon products are analyzed by CHNS elemental analysis, and Thermogravimetry. The extractives are analyzed by gas chromatograph.

  20. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured.

  1. Shikonin Suppresses NLRP3 and AIM2 Inflammasomes by Direct Inhibition of Caspase-1

    PubMed Central

    Zorman, Jernej; Sušjan, Petra; Hafner-Bratkovič, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Shikonin is a highly lipophilic naphtoquinone found in the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon used for its pleiotropic effects in traditional Chinese medicine. Based on its reported antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties, we investigated whether shikonin suppresses the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Inflammasomes are cytosolic protein complexes that serve as scaffolds for recruitment and activation of caspase-1, which, in turn, results in cleavage and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. NLRP3 inflammasome activation involves two steps: priming, i.e. the activation of NF-κB pathway, and inflammasome assembly. While shikonin has previously been reported to suppress the priming step, we demonstrated that shikonin also inhibits the second step of inflammasome activation induced by soluble and particulate NLRP3 instigators in primed immortalized murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Shikonin decreased NLRP3 inflammasome activation in response to nigericin more potently than acetylshikonin. Our results showed that shikonin also inhibits AIM2 inflammasome activation by double stranded DNA. Shikonin inhibited ASC speck formation and caspase-1 activation in murine macrophages and suppressed the activity of isolated caspase-1, demonstrating that it directly targets caspase-1. Complexing shikonin with β-lactoglobulin reduced its toxicity while preserving the inhibitory effect on NLRP3 inflammasome activation, suggesting that shikonin with improved bioavailability might be interesting for therapeutic applications in inflammasome-mediated conditions. PMID:27467658

  2. Characterizing the dependence of thick-mask edge effects on illumination angle using AIMS images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanker, Aamod; Sczyrba, Martin; Lange, Falk; Connolly, Brid; Neureuther, Andy; Waller, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Mask topography contributes diffraction-induced phase near edges, affecting the through-focus intensity variation and hence the process window at the wafer. We analyze the impact of edge diffraction on projection printing directly with experiments on an aerial image measurement system (AIMS). We show here that topographic effects change with illumination angle and can be quantified using through-focus intensity measurements. Off- axis incidence influences not just defocus image behavior (as for normal incidence), but also the at-focus intensity at wafer. Moreover, with oblique illumination, mask diffraction varies for left-facing and right-facing sidewalls, the nature of the asymmetry being polarization dependent. The image degradation due the polarization parallel to the sidewall (TE) is seen to be stronger, owing to the interplay of mask topography and pupil filtering in the imaging system. This translates to a CD variation of 2% between the two polarizations, even at focus. A simple thin-mask boundary layer model that treats each sidewall independently is shown to be able to approximate mask topography induced diffraction for both polarizations with 5-10nm wide boundary layers.

  3. Educational strategies aimed at improving student nurse's medication calculation skills: a review of the research literature.

    PubMed

    Stolic, Snezana

    2014-09-01

    Medication administration is an important and essential nursing function with the potential for dangerous consequences if errors occur. Not only must nurses understand the use and outcomes of administering medications they must be able to calculate correct dosages. Medication administration and dosage calculation education occurs across the undergraduate program for student nurses. Research highlights inconsistencies in the approaches used by academics to enhance the student nurse's medication calculation abilities. The aim of this integrative review was to examine the literature available on effective education strategies for undergraduate student nurses on medication dosage calculations. A literature search of five health care databases: Sciencedirect, Cinahl, Pubmed, Proquest, Medline to identify journal articles between 1990 and 2012 was conducted. Research articles on medication calculation educational strategies were considered for inclusion in this review. The search yielded 266 papers of which 20 meet the inclusion criteria. A total of 5206 student nurse were included in the final review. The review revealed educational strategies fell into four types of strategies; traditional pedagogy, technology, psychomotor skills and blended learning. The results suggested student nurses showed some benefit from the different strategies; however more improvements could be made. More rigorous research into this area is needed.

  4. Assessment of hand after brain damage with the aim of functional surgery.

    PubMed

    Romain, M; Benaim, C; Allieu, Y; Pelissier, J; Chammas, M

    1999-01-01

    The semiology of the hand after brain damage is really rich. Its clinical evaluation remains quite difficult and must be integrated in the neuro-orthopedic and cognitive context. Deficiency, neuropsychological, analytic and functional status, must be assessed before any surgical decision aiming the improvement of prehension. Neuropsychological evaluation precise the hemispheric specialization: right hemisphere lesions conduct to unilateral spatial neglect while left hemispherical lesions determine language troubles and gesture impairment (apraxia). The analytical evaluation describes motor and sensitive function and assesses spasticity and pain. Concerning the functional assessment, the Enjalbert's score seems to be the most adapted to the upper limb. The assessment of hand deficiency and its origin is necessary to orientate the surgical decision and includes the Zancolli classification for the fingers and wrist and the House classification for the thumb. These classification used for cerebral palsy seems to be insufficient for all the different situations occurring after brain damage. A new classification is proposed based on 3 parameters: fingers extension, thumb abduction and supination. Surgical decision should be examined only after an adapted rehabilitation program.

  5. Regulating migrant maternity: nursing and midwifery's emancipatory aims and assimilatory practices.

    PubMed

    DeSouza, Ruth

    2013-12-01

    In contemporary Western societies, birthing is framed as transformative for mothers; however, it is also a site for the regulation of women and the exercise of power relations by health professionals. Nursing scholarship often frames migrant mothers as a problem, yet nurses are imbricated within systems of scrutiny and regulation that are unevenly imposed on 'other' mothers. Discourses deployed by New Zealand Plunket nurses (who provide a universal 'well child' health service) to frame their understandings of migrant mothers were analysed using discourse analysis and concepts of power drawn from the work of French philosopher Michel Foucault, read through a postcolonial feminist perspective. This research shows how Plunket nurses draw on liberal feminist discourses, which have emancipatory aims but reflect assimilatory practices, paradoxically disempowering women who do not subscribe to ideals of individual autonomy. Consequently, the migrant mother, her family and new baby are brought into a neoliberal project of maternal improvement through surveillance. This project--enacted differentially but consistently among nurses--attempts to alter maternal and familial relationships by 'improving' mothering. Feminist critiques of patriarchy in maternity must be supplemented by a critique of the implicitly western subject of maternity to make empowerment a possibility for all mothers.

  6. Removal of recalcitrant organic matter content in wastewater by means of AOPs aiming industrial water reuse.

    PubMed

    Souza, Bianca M; Souza, Bruno S; Guimarães, Tarsila M; Ribeiro, Thiago F S; Cerqueira, Ana C; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L; Dezotti, Márcia

    2016-11-01

    This paper comes out from the need to provide an improvement in the current oil refinery wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) aiming to generate water for reuse. The wastewater was pretreated and collected in the WWTP after the biological treatment unit (bio-disks) followed by sand filtration. Ozonation (ozone concentration from 3.0-60 mgO3 L(-1)), UV (power lamp from 15 to 95 W), H2O2 (carbon:H2O2 molar ratio of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:4), and two advanced oxidation processes (UV/O3 and UV/H2O2) were investigated aiming to reduce the wastewater organic matter and generate water with suitable characteristics for the reverse osmosis operation and subsequent industrial reuse. Even after the biological and filtration treatments, the oil refinery wastewater still presented an appreciable amount of recalcitrant organic matter (TOC of 12-19 mgC L(-1)) and silt density index (SDI) higher than 4, which is considered high for subsequent reverse osmosis due to membrane fouling risks. Experiments using non combined processes (O3, H2O2, and UV only) showed a low degree of mineralization after 60 min of reaction, although the pretreatment with ozone had promoted the oxidation of aromatic compounds originally found in the real matrix, which suggests the formation of recalcitrant compounds. When the combined processes were applied, a considerable increase in the TOC removal was observed (max of 95 % for UV/O3 process, 55 W, 60 mgO3 L(-1)), likely due the presence of higher amounts of reactive species, specially hydroxyl radicals, confirming the important role of these species on the photochemical degradation of the wastewater compounds. A zero-order kinetic model was fitted to the experimental data and the rate constant values (k, mgC L(-1) h(-1)) ranged from 4.8 < k UV/O3 < 11 ([O3]0 = 30-60 mg L(-1)), and 8.6 < k UV/H2O2 < 11 (C:H2O2 from 1:1 to 1:4). The minimum and maximum electrical energy per order (E EO) required for 60 min of treatment were calculated as 5

  7. Aiming at One-Stage Corrective Surgery for Extended Thoracic Aortic Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Niinimaki, Eetu; Kajander, Henri; Paavonen, Timo; Sioris, Thanos; Mennander, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Definitive treatment of extended thoracic aortic dilatation is a major surgical challenge. Histopathology of resected thoracic aortic wall may reveal undiagnosed aortitis affecting outcome. We sought to investigate the benefit of thorough histopathology after one-stage corrective surgery for the treatment of extended thoracic aortic dilatation. Five patients underwent one-stage corrective surgery using the hybrid open arch repair by the frozen elephant trunk together with endovascular aortic grafting. A representative sample of the resected aortic arch was procured for histology. T- and B-lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, and immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) positivity were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The mean preoperative maximum aortic diameter was 54 mm (range, 41–79 mm). The mean follow-up was 18 months (range, 1–24 months). As confirmed by computed tomography (CT) upon follow-up, complete thrombosis of the false lumen at the level of the frozen elephant trunk was achieved in all patients with dissection. One patient was operated due to atherosclerotic dilatation of the thoracic aorta, and postoperative CT showed successful exclusion of the atherosclerotic dilatation; this 75-year-old man was diagnosed with IgG4-positive aortitis and experienced unexpected blindness after surgery without evidence of emboli or long-term neurological impairment upon repeated brain CT. The hybrid open arch repair by the frozen elephant trunk and simultaneous endovascular repair is a feasible choice for one-stage surgery through sternotomy aiming at definitive treatment of extended thoracic aortic pathology. However, systematic evaluation of inflammation may reveal concealed aortitis affecting postoperative outcome and need for long-term surveillance. PMID:25075162

  8. DIZZYNET--a European network initiative for vertigo and balance research: visions and aims.

    PubMed

    Zwergal, Andreas; Brandt, Thomas; Magnusson, Mans; Kennard, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Vertigo is one of the most common complaints in medicine. Despite its high prevalence, patients with vertigo often receive either inappropriate or inadequate treatment. The most important reasons for this deplorable situation are insufficient interdisciplinary cooperation, nonexistent standards in diagnostics and therapy, the relatively rare translations of basic science findings to clinical applications, and the scarcity of prospective controlled multicenter clinical trials. To overcome these problems, the German Center for Vertigo and Balance Disorders (DSGZ) started an initiative to establish a European Network for Vertigo and Balance Research called DIZZYNET. The central aim is to create a platform for collaboration and exchange among scientists, physicians, technicians, and physiotherapists in the fields of basic and translational research, clinical management, clinical trials, rehabilitation, and epidemiology. The network will also promote public awareness and help establish educational standards in the field. The DIZZYNET has the following objectives as regards structure and content: to focus on multidisciplinary translational research in vertigo and balance disorders, to develop interdisciplinary longitudinal and transversal networks for patient care by standardizing and personalizing the management of patients, to increase methodological competence by implementing common standards of practice and quality management, to internationalize the infrastructure for prospective multicenter clinical trials, to increase recruitment capacity for clinical trials, to create a common data base for patients with vertigo and balance disorders, to offer and promote attractive educational and career paths in a network of cooperating institutions. In the long term, the DIZZYNET should serve as an internationally visible network for interdisciplinary and multiprofessional research on vertigo and balance disorders. It ideally should equally attract the afflicted patients and

  9. Version 1.3 AIM SOFIE measured methane (CH4): Validation and seasonal climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, P. P.; Russell, J. M.; Marshall, B. T.; Siskind, D. E.; Hervig, M. E.; Gordley, L. L.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.

    2016-11-01

    The V1.3 methane (CH4) measured by the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE) instrument is validated in the vertical range of 25-70 km. The random error for SOFIE CH4 is 0.1-1% up to 50 km and degrades to 9% at ˜ 70 km. The systematic error remains at 4% throughout the stratosphere and lower mesosphere. Comparisons with CH4 data taken by the SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Envisat Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) show an agreement within 15% in the altitude range 30-60 km. Below 25 km SOFIE CH4 is systematically higher (≥20%), while above 65 km it is lower by a similar percentage. The sign change from the positive to negative bias occurs between 55 km and 60 km (or 40 km and 45 km) in the Northern (or Southern) Hemisphere. Methane, H2O, and 2CH4 + H2O yearly differences from their values in 2009 are examined using SOFIE and MIPAS CH4 and the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measured H2O. It is concluded that 2CH4 + H2O is conserved with altitude up to an upper limit between 35 km and 50 km depending on the season. In summer this altitude is higher. In the Northern Hemisphere the difference relative to 2009 is the largest in late spring and the established difference prevails throughout summer and fall, suggesting that summer and fall are dynamically quiet. In both hemispheres during winter there are disturbances (with a period of 1 month) that travel downward throughout the stratosphere with a speed similar to the winter descent.

  10. A compact theory of magnetic nerve stimulation: predicting how to aim

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A compact theory that predicts quantitatively when and where magnetic neurostimulation will occur is needed as a guide to therapy, ideally providing a single equation that defines the target volume of tissue excited by single or dual coils. Methods A first-principles analysis of magnetic stimulation incorporating a simplified description of electromagnetic fields and a simplified cable theory of the axon yields a mathematical synthesis predicting how to aim. Results Nerve stimulation produced by a single circular coil having one or more closely packed turns occurs in donut shaped volume of tissue beneath the coil. Axons spanning several millimeters are the sites of magnetic stimulation. The sites of maximal transmembrane depolarization in nerve fibers correspond to points where the axons enter or exit this volume of magnetically induced voltage and current. The axonal membrane at one end is depolarized locally during the rising phase of current in the coil. The axonal membrane at the opposite end is depolarized locally during the falling phase of current in the coil. Penetration depths of several centimeters from the skin surface or approximately one to two coil radii are practical. With two coils placed in a figure-of-eight configuration the separate clockwise and counterclockwise currents generate magnetic fields that add, producing maximal stimulation of a spindle shaped volume, centered at a depth of one-third to one-half coil radius from the body surface. Conclusions This condensed synthesis of electromagnetic theory and cable theories of axon physiology provides a partial solution to the targeting problem in peripheral and in transcranial magnetic stimulation. PMID:24885299

  11. College Bound American Indian Math and Science Enrichment Program (AIMS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI), was founded in 1971 and is located on 164 acres in northwest Albuquerque, New Mexico in the center of New Mexico`s agricultural and high-tech corridors. SIPI became accredited as a community college in 1993, serves Native Americans nationwide, and is governed by a nationally-tribally appointed Board of Regents (Jicarilla Apache, Joint Oklahoma Tribes, Mescalero Apache, Navajo Nation-Arizona, Navajo Nation-New Mexico, Ten Southern Pueblos, and Eight Northern Pueblos, Southern Ute, Inter-tribal Council of Arizona, and Oglala Sioux). In 1993, The US Department of Education, TRIO Programs no longer funded the Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute (SIPI) Summer Math and Science Enrichment Program. However, with US Department of Energy funding SIPI was able to continue service to the Native American community under the new title of College Bound American Indian Math and Science (AIMS) Enrichment Program. This new program continued the goals and objectives of the TRIO program with an expanded focus that included students from more Native American communities nationwide. The program also interfaced with a teacher enrichment program (Rural American Indian Science Education-RAISE) sponsored by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Sandia National Labs (SNL). SIPI in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratories and Lawrence Livermore National (LLNL) Laboratory established a mathematics and science enrichment program at SIPI for students attending rural high schools serving predominantly Native American populations. The primary goal of the program was to provide 9th--12th grade students, mostly Native American, the skills and knowledge, interest and motivation, and strategies to remain in high school and pursue a college education in a math, science, or technology based field. Each year, the program included a six-week intensive residential summer program located at SIPI as well as academic year support activities at the

  12. Goal-Directed Resuscitation Aiming Cardiac Index Masks Residual Hypovolemia: An Animal Experiment.

    PubMed

    Tánczos, Krisztián; Németh, Márton; Trásy, Domonkos; László, Ildikó; Palágyi, Péter; Szabó, Zsolt; Varga, Gabriella; Kaszaki, József

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare stroke volume (SVI) to cardiac index (CI) guided resuscitation in a bleeding-resuscitation experiment. Twenty six pigs were randomized and bled in both groups till baseline SVI (T bsl) dropped by 50% (T 0), followed by resuscitation with crystalloid solution until initial SVI or CI was reached (T 4). Similar amount of blood was shed but animals received significantly less fluid in the CI-group as in the SVI-group: median = 900 (interquartile range: 850-1780) versus 1965 (1584-2165) mL, p = 0.02, respectively. In the SVI-group all variables returned to their baseline values, but in the CI-group animals remained underresuscitated as indicated by SVI, heart rate (HR) and stroke volume variation (SVV), and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) at T 4 as compared to T bsl: SVI = 23.8 ± 5.9 versus 31.4 ± 4.7 mL, HR: 117 ± 35 versus 89 ± 11/min SVV: 17.4 ± 7.6 versus 11.5 ± 5.3%, and ScvO2: 64.1 ± 11.6 versus 79.2 ± 8.1%, p < 0.05, respectively. Our results indicate that CI-based goal-directed resuscitation may result in residual hypovolaemia, as bleeding caused stress induced tachycardia "normalizes" CI, without restoring adequate SVI. As the SVI-guided approach normalized most hemodynamic variables, we recommend using SVI instead of CI as the primary goal of resuscitation during acute bleeding.

  13. Systematic Review of the Methodological Quality of Studies Aimed at Creating Gestational Weight Gain Charts12

    PubMed Central

    Ohadike, Corah O; Cheikh-Ismail, Leila; Ohuma, Eric O; Giuliani, Francesca; Bishop, Deborah; Kac, Gilberto; Puglia, Fabien; Maia-Schlüssel, Michael; Kennedy, Stephen H; Villar, José; Hirst, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    A range of adverse outcomes is associated with insufficient and excessive maternal weight gain in pregnancy, but there is no consensus regarding what constitutes optimal gestational weight gain (GWG). Differences in the methodological quality of GWG studies may explain the varying chart recommendations. The goal of this systematic review was to evaluate the methodological quality of studies that aimed to create GWG charts by scoring them against a set of predefined, independently agreed-upon criteria. These criteria were divided into 3 domains: study design (12 criteria), statistical methods (7 criteria), and reporting methods (4 criteria). The criteria were broken down further into items, and studies were assigned a quality score (QS) based on these criteria. For each item, studies were scored as either high (score = 0) or low (score = 1) risk of bias; a high QS correlated with a low risk of bias. The maximum possible QS was 34. The systematic search identified 12 eligible studies involving 2,268,556 women from 9 countries; their QSs ranged from 9 (26%) to 29 (85%) (median, 18; 53%). The most common sources for bias were found in study designs (i.e., not prospective); assessments of prepregnancy weight and gestational age; descriptions of weighing protocols; sample size calculations; and the multiple measurements taken at each visit. There is wide variation in the methodological quality of GWG studies constructing charts. High-quality studies are needed to guide future clinical recommendations. We recommend the following main requirements for future studies: prospective design, reliable evaluation of prepregnancy weight and gestational age, detailed description of measurement procedures and protocols, description of sample-size calculation, and the creation of smooth centile charts or z scores. PMID:26980814

  14. [Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland--the aim and current experiences].

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Dorota; Kozieł, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    Poland is one of the countries, where smoking is widely spread and smoking-induced diseases have become a significant health and socio-economic issue. Since 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in cooperation with partner organizations have been working on the implementation of the global control system known as the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS). This system expands the opportunities of individual countries in the area of designing, implementing and evaluating comprehensive anti-tobacco programs. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) has been incorporated into the GTSS system in 2007. The aim of the work is to explain and promote the objectives of GATS and the process of its implementation in Poland based on current experiences of the WHO Country Office for Poland. GATS concentrates on monitoring of tobacco use by adults (aged over 15 years). It is a representative, national survey of households, standardized on a global scale. GATS is supported by Bloomberg Philanthropies as a part of the Bloomberg Global Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Use. Two executive agencies, the M. Skłodowska-Curie Institute of Oncology, Warsaw and the Warsaw Medical University, have been assigned to implement the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Poland. The prepatory works for pre-testing and further stages of the survey implementation are currently under the final phase. Data gathered by GATS will enable us to learn more about the use of tobacco by the adult population in Poland. They will also indicate the most effective methods of the tobacco control in our country.

  15. Persistent longitudinal variations in 8 years of CIPS/AIM polar mesospheric clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao; Yue, Jia; Xu, Jiyao; Yuan, Wei; Russell, James M.; Hervig, M. E.; Nakamura, Takuji

    2016-07-01

    The Cloud Imaging and Particle Size (CIPS) instrument on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite provides an opportunity to study the longitudinal variation in polar mesospheric cloud (PMC). We examined the longitudinal variation in PMC albedo using 8 years (2007-2014) of observations from the CIPS instrument. The results show that the PMC albedo in the Southern Hemisphere (SH), especially in the latitude band of 80°S-85°S, is persistently low ( 65% relative to the rest of the hemisphere) within 60°W to 150°W longitude. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH), however, PMC albedo is found to be relatively zonally asymmetry. Harmonic analyses show that the persistent longitudinal variation in the SH PMC albedo is due to zonal wave numbers 1 through 4 (WN1-WN4) processes with minima in the longitude range of 60°W-150°W. The influence of temperature and H2O on the longitudinal variation of the PMC albedo is discussed based on results obtained using a simple 0-D PMC model and temperature from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and the Sounding of the Atmosphere with Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) and H2O from MLS. The modeled region of low ice mass in the SH is generally consistent with that of low PMC albedo seen in CIPS. Tidal analyses using the SABER temperatures indicate that the nonmigrating semidiurnal tides with modes of S0, W1, and E1 might be the main drivers of the persistent longitudinal variations of PMC albedo in the SH. Nonmigrating tides are much weaker in the NH and consistent with the observed lack of longitudinal variability in PMC albedo.

  16. Subsidence monitoring network: an Italian example aimed at a sustainable hydrocarbon E&P activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dacome, M. C.; Miandro, R.; Vettorel, M.; Roncari, G.

    2015-11-01

    According to the Italian law in order to start-up any new hydrocarbon exploitation activity, an Environmental Impact Assessment study has to be presented, including a monitoring plan, addressed to foresee, measure and analyze in real time any possible impact of the project on the coastal areas and on those ones in the close inland located. The occurrence of subsidence, that could partly be related to hydrocarbon production, both on-shore and off-shore, can generate great concern in those areas where its occurrence may have impacts on the local environment. ENI, following the international scientific community recommendations on the matter, since the beginning of 90's years, implemented a cutting-edge monitoring network, with the aim to prevent, mitigate and control geodynamics phenomena generated in the activity areas, with a particular attention to conservation and protection of environmental and territorial equilibrium, taking care of what is known as "sustainable development". The current ENI implemented monitoring surveys can be divided as: - Shallow monitoring: spirit levelling surveys, continuous GPS surveys in permanent stations, SAR surveys, assestimeter subsurface compaction monitoring, ground water level monitoring, LiDAR surveys, bathymetrical surveys. - Deep monitoring: reservoir deep compaction trough radioactive markers, reservoir static (bottom hole) pressure monitoring. All the information, gathered through the monitoring network, allow: 1. to verify if the produced subsidence is evolving accordingly with the simulated forecast. 2. to provide data to revise and adjust the prediction compaction models 3. to put in place the remedial actions if the impact exceeds the threshold magnitude originally agreed among the involved parties. ENI monitoring plan to measure and monitor the subsidence process, during field production and also after the field closure, is therefore intended to support a sustainable field development and an acceptable exploitation

  17. High-resolution focal plane array IR detection modules and digital signal processing technologies at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabanski, Wolfgang A.; Breiter, Rainer; Koch, R.; Mauk, Karl-Heinz; Rode, Werner; Ziegler, Johann; Eberhardt, Kurt; Oelmaier, Reinhard; Schneider, Harald; Walther, Martin

    2000-07-01

    fixed pattern noise. The main features of these modules are summarized together with measured performance data for long range detection systems with moderately fast to slow F-numbers like F/2.0 - F/3.5. An outlook shows most recent activities at AIM, heading for multicolor and faster frame rate detector modules based on MCT devices.

  18. A systematic review of economic evaluations of CHW interventions aimed at improving child health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nkonki, L; Tugendhaft, A; Hofman, K

    2017-02-28

    Evidence of the cost-effectiveness of community health worker interventions is pertinent for decision-makers and programme planners who are turning to community services in order to strengthen health systems in the context of the momentum generated by strategies to support universal health care, the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goal agenda.We conducted a systematic review of published economic evaluation studies of community health worker interventions aimed at improving child health outcomes. Four public health and economic evaluation databases were searched for studies that met the inclusion criteria: National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED), Cochrane, Paediatric Economic Evaluation Database (PEED), and PubMed. The search strategy was tailored to each database.The 19 studies that met the inclusion criteria were conducted in either high income countries (HIC), low- income countries (LIC) and/or middle-income countries (MIC). The economic evaluations covered a wide range of interventions. Studies were grouped together by intended outcome or objective of each study. The data varied in quality. We found evidence of cost-effectiveness of community health worker (CHW) interventions in reducing malaria and asthma, decreasing mortality of neonates and children, improving maternal health, increasing exclusive breastfeeding and improving malnutrition, and positively impacting physical health and psychomotor development amongst children.Studies measured varied outcomes, due to the heterogeneous nature of studies included; a meta-analysis was not conducted. Outcomes included disease- or condition -specific outcomes, morbidity, mortality, and generic measures (e.g. disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)). Nonetheless, all 19 interventions were found to be either cost-effective or highly cost-effective at a threshold specific to their respective countries.There is a growing body of economic evaluation literature on cost-effectiveness of CHW

  19. Evaluation of a workplace intervention to promote commuter cycling: A RE-AIM analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Originating from the interdisciplinary collaboration between public health and the transportation field a workplace intervention to promote commuter cycling, ‘Bike to Work: cyclists are rewarded’, was implemented. The intervention consisted of two cycling contests, an online loyalty program based on earning ‘cycling points’ and the dissemination of information through folders, newsletters, posters and a website. The study purpose was to evaluate the dissemination efforts of the program and to gain insights in whether free participation could persuade small and middle-sized companies to sign up. Methods The RE-AIM framework was used to guide the evaluation. Two months after the start of the intervention a questionnaire was send to 4880 employees. At the end of the intervention each company contact person (n = 12) was interviewed to obtain information on adoption, implementation and maintenance. Comparison analyses between employees aware and unaware of the program were conducted using independent-samples t-tests for quantitative data and chi-square tests for qualitative data. Difference in commuter cycling frequency was assessed using an ANOVA test. Non-parametric tests were used for the comparison analyses between the adopting and non-adopting companies. Results In total seven of the twelve participating companies adopted the program and all adopting companies implemented all intervention components. No significant differences were found in the mean number of employees (p = 0.15) or in the type of business sector (p = 0.92) between adopting and non-adopting companies. Five out of seven companies had the intention to continue the program. At the individual level, a project awareness of 65% was found. Employees aware of the program had a significantly more positive attitude towards cycling and reported significantly more commuter cycling than those unaware of the program (both p < 0.001). Participation was mainly because of health

  20. Assessing the quality of rainfall data when aiming to achieve flood resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, C. T.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2012-04-01

    A new EU Floods Directive entered into force five years ago. This Directive requires Member States to coordinate adequate measures to reduce flood risk. European flood management systems require reliable rainfall statistics, e.g. the Intensity-duration-Frequency curves for shorter and shorter durations and for a larger and larger range of return periods. Preliminary studies showed that the number of floods was lower when using low time resolution data of high intensity rainfall events, compared to estimates obtained with the help of higher time resolution data. These facts suggest that a particular attention should be paid to the rainfall data quality in order to adequately investigate flood risk aiming to achieve flood resilience. The potential consequences of changes in measuring and recording techniques have been somewhat discussed in the literature with respect to a possible introduction of artificial inhomogeneities in time series. In this paper, we discuss how to detect another artificiality: most of the rainfall time series have a lower recording frequency than that is assumed, furthermore the effective high-frequency limit often depends on the recording year due to algorithm changes. This question is particularly important for operational hydrology, because an error on the effective recording high frequency introduces biases in the corresponding statistics. In this direction, we developed a first version of a SERQUAL procedure to automatically detect the effective time resolution of highly mixed data. Being applied to the 166 rainfall time series in France, the SERQUAL procedure has detected that most of them have an effective hourly resolution, rather than a 5 minutes resolution. Furthermore, series having an overall 5 minute resolution do not have it for all years. These results raise serious concerns on how to benchmark stochastic rainfall models at a sub-hourly resolution, which are particularly desirable for operational hydrology. Therefore, database

  1. Online decision support based on modeling with the aim of increased irrigation efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dövényi-Nagy, Tamás; Bakó, Károly; Molnár, Krisztina; Rácz, Csaba; Vasvári, Gyula; Nagy, János; Dobos, Attila

    2015-04-01

    The significant changes in the structure of ownership and control of irrigation infrastructure in the past decades resultted in the decrease of total irrigable and irrigated area (Szilárd, 1999). In this paper, the development of a model-based online service is described whose aim is to aid reasonable irrigation practice and increase water use efficiency. In order to establish a scientific background for irrigation, an agrometeorological station network has been built up by the Agrometeorological and Agroecological Monitoring Centre. A website has been launched in order to provide direct access for local agricultural producers to both the measured weather parameters and results of model based calculations. The public site provides information for general use, registered partners get a handy model based toolkit for decision support at the plot level concerning irrigation, plant protection or frost forecast. The agrometeorological reference station network was established in the recent years by the Agrometeorological and Agroecological Monitoring Centre and is distributed to cover most of the irrigated cropland areas of Hungary. From the spatial aspect, the stations have been deployed mainly in Eastern Hungary with concentrated irrigation infrastructure. The meteorological stations' locations have been carefully chosen to represent their environment in terms of soil, climatic and topographic factors, thereby assuring relevant and up-to-date input data for the models. The measured parameters range from classic meteorological data (air temperature, relative humidity, solar irradiation, wind speed etc.) to specific data which are not available from other services in the region, such as soil temperature, soil water content in multiple depths and leaf wetness. In addition to the basic grid of reference stations, specific stations under irrigated conditions have been deployed to calibrate and validate the models. A specific modeling framework (MetAgro) has been developed

  2. Molecular characterization of woodchuck IFI16 and AIM2 and their expression in woodchucks infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qi; Li, Mengmeng; Liu, Qin; Li, Fanghui; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Junzhong; Lu, Yinping; Liu, Jia; Wu, Jun; Zheng, Xin; Lu, Mengji; Wang, Baoju; Yang, Dongliang

    2016-01-01

    IFI16 and AIM2 are important DNA sensors in antiviral immunity. To characterize these two molecules in a woodchuck model, which is widely used to study hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, we cloned and analyzed the complete coding sequences (CDSs) of woodchuck IFI16 and AIM2, and found that AIM2 was highly conserved in mammals, whereas the degree of sequence identity between woodchuck IFI16 and its mammalian orthologues was low. IFI16 and IFN-β were upregulated following VACV ds 70 mer transfection, while AIM2 and IL-1β were upregulated following poly (dA:dT) transfection, both in vitro and in vivo; IFI16-targeted siRNA decreased the transcription of IFI16 and IFN-β stimulated by VACV ds 70 mer, and AIM2 siRNA interference downregulated AIM2 and IL-1β transcripts stimulated by poly (dA:dT), in vitro, suggesting that woodchuck IFI16 and AIM2 may play pivotal roles in the DNA-mediated induction of IFN-β and IL-1β, respectively. IFI16 and AIM2 transcripts were upregulated in the liver and spleen following acute WHV infection, while IFI16 was downregulated in the liver following chronic infection, implying that IFI16 and AIM2 may be involved in WHV infection. These data provide the basis for the study of IFI16- and AIM2-mediated innate immunity using the woodchuck model. PMID:27354260

  3. AIM2 regulates viability and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells via the PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jianjun; Wang, Zhenjun; Yu, Sanshui

    2017-01-01

    Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) plays an important role in innate immunity as a DNA sensor in the cytoplasm by triggering the assembly of an AIM2 inflammasome that results in caspase-1-mediated inflammatory responses and cell death. In recent years, studies have indicated that AIM2 can suppress cancer cell proliferation, and mutations in the gene encoding AIM2 are frequently identified in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism by which AIM2 restricts tumor growth remains unclear. We reconstructed AIM2 expression in HCT116 CRC cells by lentivirus transfection. Using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry, we demonstrated that expression of AIM2 inhibited the viability and increased the apoptosis rate of CRC cells, and cell cycle analysis suggested that AIM2 blocked cell cycle transition from G1 to S phase. Western blot analysis showed that AIM2 promoted apoptosis in CRC cells by suppressing the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway. Our data suggest that AIM2 plays a critical role as a tumor suppressor and might serve as a potential therapeutic target in CRC. PMID:28243117

  4. President's Education Aims Aired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele; Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    By explicitly naming education as one of three top priority areas in his first joint congressional address and in his first federal budget proposal, President Barack Obama is putting considerable political weight--and even more money--behind the agenda he laid out during his campaign. Certain themes he struck in the February 24…

  5. President's Education Aims Aired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele; Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    By explicitly naming education as one of three top priority areas in his first joint congressional address and in his first federal budget proposal, President Barack Obama is putting considerable political weight--and even more money--behind the agenda he laid out during his campaign. Certain themes he struck in the Feb. 24…

  6. Aiming for the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Times change, and pollution continues to plague cities, energy prices escalate and average temperatures creep higher, the argument that society cannot afford to squander its limited resources has been embraced by more than just environmental activists. More and more education administrators and architects are among those pushing schools and…

  7. AIM for Digital Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowser, Gayl; Zabala, Joy Smiley

    2012-01-01

    In a 2011 segment on CNN "Headline News," Doug Levin, CEO of the State Educational Technology Director's Association, asserted that the shift to Common Core State Standards, the prevalence of open content, and the rapid increase in the availability of mobile technology will soon make paper textbooks a thing of the past in U.S. schools. He predicts…

  8. "Universe" event at AIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-06-01

    Report of event of 11 May 2008 held at the African Institute of Mathematical Sciences (Muizenberg, Cape), with speakers Michael Griffin (Administrator of NASA), Stephen Hawking (Cambridge), David Gross (Kavli Institute, Santa Barbara) and George Smoot (Berkeley).

  9. Optical microscopy aims deep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigan, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    A new set of imaging techniques that take advantage of scattered light may soon lead to key advances in biomedical optics, providing access to depths well beyond what is currently possible with ballistic light.

  10. Aiming for excellence.

    PubMed

    Snell, Janet

    Staff at Chase Farm mental health unit in north London have improved the service they provide by focusing on essential elements of care, particularly communication with patients. Director of nursing Mary Sexton put staff development at the heart of her transformation plan, ensuring they know what is expected from them and celebrating their achievements.

  11. Plasticity in PYD assembly revealed by cryo-EM structure of the PYD filament of AIM2.

    PubMed

    Lu, Alvin; Li, Yang; Yin, Qian; Ruan, Jianbin; Yu, Xiong; Egelman, Edward; Wu, Hao

    Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is an essential cytosolic double-stranded DNA receptor that assembles with the adaptor, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), and caspase-1 to form the AIM2 inflammasome, which leads to proteolytic maturation of cytokines and pyroptotic cell death. AIM2 contains an N-terminal Pyrin domain (PYD) that interacts with ASC through PYD/PYD interactions and nucleates ASC(PYD) filament formation. To elucidate the molecular basis of AIM2-induced ASC(PYD) polymerization, we generated AIM2(PYD) filaments fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and determined its cryo-electron microscopic (cryo-EM) structure. The map showed distinct definition of helices, allowing fitting of the crystal structure. Surprisingly, the GFP-AIM2(PYD) filament is a 1-start helix with helical parameters distinct from those of the 3-start ASC(PYD) filament. However, despite the apparent symmetry difference, helical net and detailed interface analyses reveal minimal changes in subunit packing. GFP-AIM2(PYD) nucleated ASC(PYD) filament formation in comparable efficiency as untagged AIM2(PYD), suggesting assembly plasticity in both AIM2(PYD) and ASC(PYD). The DNA-binding domain of AIM2 is able to form AIM2/DNA filaments, within which the AIM2(PYD) is brought into proximity to template ASC(PYD) filament assembly. Because ASC is able to interact with many PYD-containing receptors for the formation of inflammasomes, the observed structural plasticity may be critically important for this versatility in the PYD/PYD interactions.

  12. Plasticity in PYD assembly revealed by cryo-EM structure of the PYD filament of AIM2

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Alvin; Li, Yang; Yin, Qian; Ruan, Jianbin; Yu, Xiong; Egelman, Edward; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is an essential cytosolic double-stranded DNA receptor that assembles with the adaptor, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC), and caspase-1 to form the AIM2 inflammasome, which leads to proteolytic maturation of cytokines and pyroptotic cell death. AIM2 contains an N-terminal Pyrin domain (PYD) that interacts with ASC through PYD/PYD interactions and nucleates ASCPYD filament formation. To elucidate the molecular basis of AIM2-induced ASCPYD polymerization, we generated AIM2PYD filaments fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) and determined its cryo-electron microscopic (cryo-EM) structure. The map showed distinct definition of helices, allowing fitting of the crystal structure. Surprisingly, the GFP-AIM2PYD filament is a 1-start helix with helical parameters distinct from those of the 3-start ASCPYD filament. However, despite the apparent symmetry difference, helical net and detailed interface analyses reveal minimal changes in subunit packing. GFP-AIM2PYD nucleated ASCPYD filament formation in comparable efficiency as untagged AIM2PYD, suggesting assembly plasticity in both AIM2PYD and ASCPYD. The DNA-binding domain of AIM2 is able to form AIM2/DNA filaments, within which the AIM2PYD is brought into proximity to template ASCPYD filament assembly. Because ASC is able to interact with many PYD-containing receptors for the formation of inflammasomes, the observed structural plasticity may be critically important for this versatility in the PYD/PYD interactions. PMID:26583071

  13. The Effect of the Muller-Lyer Illusion on the Planning and Control of Manual Aiming Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Jocelyn E.; Elliott, Digby; Meegan, Daniel V.; Lyons, James L.; Welsh, Timothy N.

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments used Muller-Lyer stimuli to test the predictions of the planning-control model (S. Glover, 2002) for aiming movements. In Experiment 1, participants aimed to stimuli that either remained the same or changed upon movement initiation. Experiment 2 was identical except that the duration of visual feedback for online control was…

  14. Fundamental Assumptions and Aims Underlying the Principles and Policies of Federal Financial Aid to Students. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, D. Bruce

    As background to the National Dialogue on Student Financial Aid, this essay discusses the fundamental assumptions and aims that underlie the principles and policies of federal financial aid to students. These eight assumptions and aims are explored: (1) higher education is the province of states, and not of the federal government; (2) the costs of…

  15. The Effects of Spatial Movement Components Precues on the Execution of Rapid Aiming in Children Aged 7, 9, and 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, Isabelle; Bard, Chantal

    2000-01-01

    Examined effects of spatial precues on rapid execution of aim in 7-, 9-, and 11-year-olds, providing kinematic support to the role of precues in aiming tasks performed under temporal constraints. Found that precuing spatial dimensions of movement shortened reaction times as a function of the number of precued parameters. Spatial precues modified…

  16. 78 FR 9687 - Verso Sartell LLC, AIM Development (USA) LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Verso Sartell LLC, AIM Development (USA) LLC; Notice of Application for Transfer of License, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On January 31, 2013, Verso Sartell LLC (transferor) and the AIM Development...

  17. A Comparative Study of Attitudes to the Aims of Practical Work in Science Education in Egypt, Korea and the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Julian; Monk, Martin; Johnson, Sally

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a comparative study of attitudes toward the aims of practical work given by science teachers from Egypt, Korea, and the United Kingdom. Finds that all three groups express a common attitude towards the aims of practical work that reflect an acknowledgement of the methods by which scientists make new knowledge. Contains 42 references.…

  18. Expression of a gp33/27,000 MW activation inducer molecule (AIM) on human lymphoid tissues. Induction of cell proliferation on thymocytes and B lymphocytes by anti-AIM antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Mateos, P; Cebrián, M; Acevedo, A; López-Botet, M; De Landázuri, M O; Sánchez-Madrid, F

    1989-01-01

    We have recently described several monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that recognize a heterodimeric structure (gp33/27,000 MW) expressed on the surface of human peripheral blood T lymphocytes upon activation with different mitogenic stimuli. Such mAb, when used in combination with submitogenic doses of phorbol ester, were capable of triggering T-cell proliferation. The antigen has been designated as activation inducer molecule (AIM). In the present study we have investigated the expression of the AIM in different lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. In addition, we have analysed the ability of lymphocyte subsets derived from thymus and tonsil to proliferate in response to anti-AIM mAb. The presence of AIM on subpopulations of lymphoid cells from thymus, tonsil, lymph node and spleen has been demonstrated by immunoprecipitation, flow cytometry and immunoperoxidase staining of tissue sections. By contrast, non-lymphoid cells from tissue such as brain, kidney, liver, lung or skin did not react with anti-AIM mAb. In thymus, the AIM expression was restricted to a subset of CD3+ medullary thymocytes, whereas CD1+ CD3- cortical thymocytes did not express this antigen. Nevertheless, the majority of both purified CD1- and CD3- thymocytes expressed AIM antigen after treatment with PMA. In tonsil and lymph node, a strong staining of a subset of CD3+ T lymphocytes located in the germinal centre was observed by immunohistochemical labelling with anti-AIM mAb. Certain T cells from the paracortical zone and CD19+ B lymphocytes from mantle region were also reactive. Both purified tonsillar T and B lymphocytes strongly expressed AIM after activation with PMA. The anti-AIM mAb was able to induce a strong proliferative response on purified CD1- thymocytes as well as on both purified tonsillar T and B lymphocytes in the presence of submitogenic doses of PMA. By contrast, no proliferative response was induced through the AIM in the CD3- immature thymocyte subset. Images Figure 1 Figure 3

  19. The transcription factor IRF1 and guanylate-binding proteins target activation of the AIM2 inflammasome by Francisella infection.

    PubMed

    Man, Si Ming; Karki, Rajendra; Malireddi, R K Subbarao; Neale, Geoffrey; Vogel, Peter; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Lamkanfi, Mohamed; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-05-01

    Inflammasomes are critical for mounting host defense against pathogens. The molecular mechanisms that control activation of the AIM2 inflammasome in response to different cytosolic pathogens remain unclear. Here we found that the transcription factor IRF1 was required for activation of the AIM2 inflammasome during infection with the Francisella tularensis subspecies novicida (F. novicida), whereas engagement of the AIM2 inflammasome by mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) or transfected double-stranded DNA did not require IRF1. Infection of F. novicida detected by the DNA sensor cGAS and its adaptor STING induced type I interferon-dependent expression of IRF1, which drove the expression of guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs); this led to intracellular killing of bacteria and DNA release. Our results reveal a specific requirement for IRF1 and GBPs in the liberation of DNA for sensing by AIM2 depending on the pathogen encountered by the cell.

  20. Guanylate-binding proteins promote AIM2 inflammasome activation during Francisella novicida infection by inducing cytosolic bacteriolysis and DNA release

    PubMed Central

    Dreier, Roland F.; Costanzo, Stéphanie; Anton, Leonie; Rühl, Sebastian; Dussurgey, Sébastien; Dick, Mathias S.; Kistner, Anne; Rigard, Mélanie; Degrandi, Daniel; Pfeffer, Klaus; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Henry, Thomas; Broz, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The AIM2 inflammasome detects double-stranded DNA in the cytosol and induces caspase-1-dependent pyroptosis as well as release of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. AIM2 is critical for host defense against DNA viruses and bacteria that replicate in the cytosol, such as Francisella novicida. AIM2 activation by F. novicida requires bacteriolysis, yet whether this process is accidental or a host-driven immune mechanism remained unclear. Using siRNA screening for nearly 500 interferon-stimulated genes, we identified guanylate-binding proteins GBP2 and GBP5 as key AIM2 activators during F. novicida infection. Their prominent role was validated in vitro and in a mouse model of tularemia. Mechanistically, these two GBPs target cytosolic F. novicida and promote bacteriolysis. Thus, besides their role in host defense against vacuolar pathogens, GBPs also facilitate the presentation of ligands by directly attacking cytosolic bacteria. PMID:25774716

  1. The AIM2 inflammasome is a central regulator of intestinal homeostasis through the IL-18/IL-22/STAT3 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ratsimandresy, Rojo A; Indramohan, Mohanalaxmi; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Stehlik, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Inflammasomes are important for maintaining intestinal homeostasis, and dysbiosis contributes to the pathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and increases the risk for colorectal cancer. Inflammasome defects contribute to chronic intestinal inflammation and increase the susceptibility to colitis in mice. However, the inflammasome sensor absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) protects against colorectal cancer in an inflammasome-independent manner through DNA-dependent protein kinase and Akt pathways. Yet, the roles of the AIM2 inflammasome in IBD and the early phases of colorectal cancer remain ill-defined. Here we show that the AIM2 inflammasome has a protective role in the intestine. During steady state, Aim2 deletion results in the loss of IL-18 secretion, suppression of the IL-22 binding protein (IL-22BP) in intestinal epithelial cells and consequent loss of the STAT3-dependent antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) Reg3β and Reg3γ, which promotes dysbiosis-linked colitis. During dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, a dysfunctional IL-18/IL-22BP pathway in Aim2−/− mice promotes excessive IL-22 production and elevated STAT3 activation. Aim2−/− mice further exhibit sustained STAT3 and Akt activation during the resolution of colitis fueled by enhanced Reg3b and Reg3g expression. This self-perpetuating mechanism promotes proliferation of intestinal crypt cells and likely contributes to the recently described increase in susceptibility of Aim2−/− mice to colorectal cancer. Collectively, our results demonstrate a central role for the AIM2 inflammasome in preventing dysbiosis and intestinal inflammation through regulation of the IL-18/IL-22BP/IL-22 and STAT3 pathway and expression of select AMPs. PMID:27524110

  2. Hypoxia primes human normal prostate epithelial cells and cancer cell lines for the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Panchanathan, Ravichandran; Liu, Hongzhu; Choubey, Divaker

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia contributes to prostatic chronic inflammation (PCI) remain largely unknown. Because hypoxia stimulates the transcriptional activity of NF-κB, which “primes” cells for inflammasome activation by inducing the expression of NLRP3 or AIM2 receptor and pro-IL-1β, we investigated whether hypoxia could activate the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome in human normal prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) and cancer cell lines. Here we report that hypoxia (1% O2) treatment of PrECs, prostate cell lines, and a macrophage cell line (THP-1) increased the levels of NLRP3, AIM2, and pro-IL-1β. Further, hypoxia in cells potentiated activation of the NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activity. Notably, hypoxia “primed” cells for NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation through stimulation of the NF-κB activity. Our observations support the idea that hypoxia in human prostatic tumors contributes to PCI, in part, by priming cells for the activation of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome. PMID:27058421

  3. Task difficulty and inertial properties of hand-held tools: An assessment of their concurrent effects on precision aiming.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paula L; Bootsma, Reinoud J; Figueiredo, Priscilla Rezende Pereira; Avelar, Bruna Silva; de Andrade, André Gustavo Pereira; Fonseca, Sérgio T; Mancini, Marisa Cotta

    2016-08-01

    Aiming hand-held tools at targets in space entails adjustments in the dynamical organization of aiming patterns according to the required precision. We asked whether and how these adjustments are modified by the tool's mass distribution. Twelve participants performed reciprocal aiming movements with a 50-cm long wooden probe. Kinematic patterns of probe movements were used as a window into the behavioral dynamic underlying performance of a reciprocal aiming task. We crossed three levels of task difficulty (IDs 2.8, 4.5 and 6.1) with two types of probe varying in their mass distribution (proximal vs distal loading). Movement duration was affected by task difficulty and probe loading (shorter for larger targets and proximal probe loading). Progressive deviations from a sinusoidal movement pattern were observed as task difficulty increased. Such deviations were more pronounced with proximal probe loading. Results point to a higher degree of non-linearity in aiming dynamics when the probe was loaded proximally, which might reflect employment of additional perceptual-motor processes to control the position of its less stable tip at the vicinity of the targets. More generally, the effects of probe loading on aiming pattern and dynamics suggest that perceptual-motor processes responding to task level constraints are sensitive to, and not independent from, biomechanical, end-effector constraints.

  4. AIM satellite-based research bridges the unique scientific aspects of the mission to informal education programs globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D.; Maggi, B.

    2003-04-01

    The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) component of the satellite-based research mission "Aeronomy of Ice In the Mesosphere" (AIM) will bridge the unique scientific aspects of the mission to informal education organizations. The informal education materials developed by the EPO will utilize AIM data and educate the public about the environmental implications associated with the data. This will assist with creating a scientifically literate workforce and in developing a citizenry capable of making educated decisions related to environmental policies and laws. The objective of the AIM mission is to understand the mechanisms that cause Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) to form, how their presence affects the atmosphere, and how change in the atmosphere affects them. PMCs are sometimes known as Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs) because of their visibility during the night from appropriate locations. The phenomenon of PMCs is an observable indicator of global change, a concern to all citizens. Recent sightings of these clouds over populated regions have compelled AIM educators to expand informal education opportunities to communities worldwide. Collaborations with informal organizations include: Museums/Science Centers; NASA Sun-Earth Connection Forum; Alaska Native Ways of Knowing Project; Amateur Noctilucent Cloud Observers Organization; National Parks Education Programs; After School Science Clubs; Public Broadcasting Associations; and National Public Radio. The Native Ways of Knowing Project is an excellent example of informal collaboration with the AIM EPO. This Alaska based project will assist native peoples of the state with photographing NLCs for the EPO website. It will also aid the EPO with developing materials for informal organizations that incorporate traditional native knowledge and science, related to the sky. Another AIM collaboration that will offer citizens lasting informal education opportunities is the one established with the United States National Parks

  5. Perceptions about community applications of RE-AIM in the promotion of evidence-based programs for older adults.

    PubMed

    Ory, Marcia G; Altpeter, Mary; Belza, Basia; Helduser, Janet; Zhang, Chen; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2015-03-01

    Despite the growing literature about the RE-AIM framework as a planning, implementation, and evaluation tool, little is known about practitioners' adoption of the framework, confidence to utilize framework elements, or perceptions of its usefulness. To assess how RE-AIM was implemented by state aging service providers and public health partners, data were collected using an Internet-delivered, cross-sectional survey from 40 stakeholders in 27 funded states in an evidence-based disease prevention initiative for older adults. Most participants agreed the framework was useful for planning, implementation, and evaluation and relevant for evaluators, providers, community leaders, and policy makers. Yet nearly half felt monitoring RE-AIM requirements requires special expertise, and one third felt the different RE-AIM elements were difficult to measure. Findings indicate the RE-AIM's appropriateness and utility for planning and evaluating the dissemination of evidence-based programs to older adults; however, additional trainings, resources, and technical assistance are warranted to enhance uptake in community-wide intervention efforts.

  6. State anxiety and visual attention: the role of the quiet eye period in aiming to a far target.

    PubMed

    Behan, Michael; Wilson, Mark

    2008-01-15

    In this study, we examined how individuals controlled their gaze behaviour during execution of a far aiming task and whether the functional relationship between perception and action was disrupted by increased anxiety. Twenty participants were trained on a simulated archery task, using a joystick to aim and shoot arrows at the target, and then competed in two counterbalanced experimental conditions designed to manipulate the anxiety they experienced. The specific gaze behaviour measured was the duration of the quiet eye period. As predicted, accuracy was affected by the duration of the quiet eye period, with longer quiet eye periods being associated with better performance. The manipulation of anxiety resulted in reductions in the duration of quiet eye. Our results show that the quiet eye period is sensitive to increases in anxiety and may be a useful index of the efficiency of visual orientation in aiming tasks.

  7. System concept and analysis of an Artificial Ionospheric Mirror (AIM) radar. Rept. for 31 Aug 89-31 Aug 90

    SciTech Connect

    Short, R.; Stewart, C.; Wallace, T.; Lallement, P.; Koert, P.

    1990-08-31

    Recognition of performance limitations associated with traditional skywave over-the-horizon (OTH) high frequency (HF) radars has led a number of investigators to propose the creation of an Artificial Ionospheric Mirror (AIM) in the upper atmosphere, in order to reflect ground-based radar signals for OTH surveillance. The AIM is produced by beaming sufficient electromagnetic power to the lower ionosphere (around 70 km) to enhance the in situ ionization level to 10 to the 7th power - 10 to the 8th power electrons/cu cm, thereby providing an ionized layer capable of reflecting radar frequencies of 30 - 90 MHz. This paper presents a baseline AIM system concept and an associated performance evaluation, based upon the relevant ionization and propagation physics and in the context of air surveillance for the cruise missile threat. Results of the subject study indicate that a system using this concept would both complement and enhance the performance of the existing skywave OTH radars.

  8. Inflammasome components ASC and AIM2 modulate the acute phase of biomaterial implant-induced foreign body responses

    PubMed Central

    Christo, Susan N.; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Manavis, Jim; Grimbaldeston, Michele A.; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir; Hayball, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Detailing the inflammatory mechanisms of biomaterial-implant induced foreign body responses (FBR) has implications for revealing targetable pathways that may reduce leukocyte activation and fibrotic encapsulation of the implant. We have adapted a model of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) bead injection to perform an assessment of the mechanistic role of the ASC-dependent inflammasome in this process. We first demonstrate that ASC−/− mice subjected to PMMA bead injections had reduced cell infiltration and altered collagen deposition, suggesting a role for the inflammasome in the FBR. We next investigated the NLRP3 and AIM2 sensors because of their known contributions in recognising damaged and apoptotic cells. We found that NLRP3 was dispensable for the fibrotic encapsulation; however AIM2 expression influenced leukocyte infiltration and controlled collagen deposition, suggesting a previously unexplored link between AIM2 and biomaterial-induced FBR. PMID:26860464

  9. Inflammasome components ASC and AIM2 modulate the acute phase of biomaterial implant-induced foreign body responses.

    PubMed

    Christo, Susan N; Diener, Kerrilyn R; Manavis, Jim; Grimbaldeston, Michele A; Bachhuka, Akash; Vasilev, Krasimir; Hayball, John D

    2016-02-10

    Detailing the inflammatory mechanisms of biomaterial-implant induced foreign body responses (FBR) has implications for revealing targetable pathways that may reduce leukocyte activation and fibrotic encapsulation of the implant. We have adapted a model of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) bead injection to perform an assessment of the mechanistic role of the ASC-dependent inflammasome in this process. We first demonstrate that ASC(-/-) mice subjected to PMMA bead injections had reduced cell infiltration and altered collagen deposition, suggesting a role for the inflammasome in the FBR. We next investigated the NLRP3 and AIM2 sensors because of their known contributions in recognising damaged and apoptotic cells. We found that NLRP3 was dispensable for the fibrotic encapsulation; however AIM2 expression influenced leukocyte infiltration and controlled collagen deposition, suggesting a previously unexplored link between AIM2 and biomaterial-induced FBR.

  10. The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM): Studying the geophysics of small binaries, measuring asteroid deflection and studying impact physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, Michael; Michel, Patrick; AIM Team

    2016-10-01

    Binary asteroids and their formation mechanisms are of particular interest for understanding the evolution of the small bodies in the solar system. Also, hazards to Earth from impact of near-Earth asteroids and their mitigation have drawn considerable interest over the last decades.Those subjects are both addressed by ESA's Asteroid Impact mission, which is part of the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) currently under study in collaboration between NASA and ESA. NASA's DART mission will impact a projectile into the minor component of the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos in 2022. The basic idea is to demonstrate the effect of the impact on the orbital period of the secondary around the primary. ESA's AIM will monitor the Didymos system for several months around the DART impact time.AIM will be launched in aurumn 2020. It is foreseen to arrive at Didymos in April 2022. The mission takes advantage of a close approach of Didymos to Earth. The next opportunity would arise in 2040 only.AIM will stay near Didymos for approximately 6 months. Most of the time it will be placed on the illuminated side of the system, at distances of approximately 35 km and 10 km. AIM is expected to move away from Didymos for some time around the DART impact.The reference payload for AIM includes two visual imagers, a hyperspectral camera, a lidar, a thermal infrared imager, a monostatic high frequency radar, and a bistatic low frequency radar. In addition, AIM will deploy a small lander on the secondary asteroid, and two cubesats that will be used for additional, more risky investigations close to or on the surface of the asteroid.Major contributions from AIM are expected in the study of the geophysics of small asteroids (including for the first time, radar measurements of an interior structure), the formation of binary asteroids, the momentum enhancement factor from the DART impact (through measuring the mass and the change of orbit of the seondary), and impact physics

  11. Time to RE-AIM: Why Community Weight Loss Programs Should Be Included in Academic Obesity Research

    PubMed Central

    Prochazka, Allan V.; Glasgow, Russell E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of efficacy-based research on weight loss interventions, the obesity epidemic in the United States persists, especially in underserved populations. We used the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework to describe the limitations of the current paradigm of efficacy-based research for weight loss interventions. We also used RE-AIM to propose that existing weight loss interventions (community-based programs) such as Jenny Craig, Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS), and Weight Watchers be studied to supplement the efficacy-based research approaches to achieve population-level impact on obesity. PMID:26986540

  12. Time to RE-AIM: Why Community Weight Loss Programs Should Be Included in Academic Obesity Research.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Nia S; Prochazka, Allan V; Glasgow, Russell E

    2016-03-17

    Despite decades of efficacy-based research on weight loss interventions, the obesity epidemic in the United States persists, especially in underserved populations. We used the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework to describe the limitations of the current paradigm of efficacy-based research for weight loss interventions. We also used RE-AIM to propose that existing weight loss interventions (community-based programs) such as Jenny Craig, Take Off Pounds Sensibly (TOPS), and Weight Watchers be studied to supplement the efficacy-based research approaches to achieve population-level impact on obesity.

  13. Benchmarking Investments in Advancement: Results of the Inaugural CASE Advancement Investment Metrics Study (AIMS). CASE White Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Juidith A.

    2012-01-01

    The inaugural Advancement Investment Metrics Study, or AIMS, benchmarked investments and staffing in each of the advancement disciplines (advancement services, alumni relations, communications and marketing, fundraising and advancement management) as well as the return on the investment in fundraising specifically. This white paper reports on the…

  14. The National United States Center Data Repository: Core essential interprofessional practice & education data enabling triple aim analytics

    PubMed Central

    Pechacek, Judith; Shanedling, Janet; Lutfiyya, May Nawal; Brandt, Barbara F.; Cerra, Frank B.; Delaney, Connie White

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the impact that interprofessional education and collaborative practice (IPECP) might have on triple aim patient outcomes is of high interest to health care providers, educators, administrators, and policy makers. Before the work undertaken by the National Center for Interprofessional Practice and Education at the University of Minnesota, no standard mechanism to acquire and report outcome data related to interprofessional education and collaborative practice and its effect on triple aim outcomes existed. This article describes the development and adoption of the National Center Data Repository (NCDR) designed to capture data related to IPECP processes and outcomes to support analyses of the relationship of IPECP on the Triple Aim. The data collection methods, web-based survey design and implementation process are discussed. The implications of this informatics work to the field of IPECP and health care quality and safety include creating standardized capacity to describe interprofessional practice and measure outcomes connecting interprofessional education and collaborative practice to the triple aim within and across sites/settings, leveraging an accessible data collection process using user friendly web-based survey design to support large data scholarship and instrument testing, and establishing standardized data elements and variables that can potentially lead to enhancements to national/international information system and academic accreditation standards to further team-based, interprofessional, collaborative research in the field. PMID:26652631

  15. Guiding the Design of Lessons by Using the MAPLET Framework: Matching Aims, Processes, Learner Expertise and Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifenthaler, Dirk; Gosper, Maree

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the MAPLET framework that was developed to map and link teaching aims, learning processes, learner expertise and technologies. An experimental study with 65 participants is reported to test the effectiveness of the framework as a guide to the design of lessons embedded within larger units of study. The findings indicate the…

  16. In Defence of Personal Autonomy as a Fundamental Educational Aim in Liberal Democracies: A Response to Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviram, Aharon; Assor, Avi

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to Michael Hand's argument in "Against autonomy as an educational aim" ("Oxford Review of Education", 32, 535-550), refutes it and identifies two faults at its foundation. Through this criticism, the paper makes a substantiated case, both theoretical and empirical, for endorsing the value of education for…

  17. What Are We Aiming For?--A Delphi Study on the Development of Civic Scientific Literacy in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang Rundgren, Shu-Nu; Rundgren, Carl-Johan

    2017-01-01

    Based on the EU FP 7 project, PROFILES, this article presents our findings from a three-round Delphi study conducted in Sweden that aimed at establishing a consensus on how science education should be developed for citizens to enhance civic scientific literacy. A total of 100 stakeholders (9th graders, school teachers, scientists, and science…

  18. "Does RE Work?" An Analysis of the Aims, Practices and Models of Effectiveness of Religious Education in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundie, David

    2010-01-01

    Possibly the largest qualitative study in RE policy and practice in many years, the AHRC/ESRC Religion and Society project "Does RE work? An analysis of the aims, practices and models of effectiveness in religious education in the UK", headed by the University of Glasgow, seeks to map the complex processes of curriculum formation as…

  19. EVALUATION OF THE CMAQ - AIM MODEL AGAINST SIZE AND CHEMICALLY-RESOLVED IMPACTOR DATA AT A COASTAL URBAN SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    CMAQ-UCD (formerly known as CMAQ-AIM), is a fully dynamic, sectional aerosol model which has been coupled to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) host air quality model. Aerosol sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, sodium, and chloride model outputs are compared against MOUDI data...

  20. An Evaluation of Case-Based Teaching: Evidence for Continuing Benefit and Realization of Aims. Teaching with Problems and Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, J. N.; Buckley, P.

    2004-01-01

    A cross-sectional evaluation of case-based teaching (CBT), a novel physiology learning environment for medical undergraduates, revealed that second, third, and fourth year students, together with their tutors, valued CBT as an experience that met its three major aims. The initiative not only integrated physiology with related basic sciences and…

  1. Formal Criteria for the Concept of Human Flourishing: The First Step in Defending Flourishing as an Ideal Aim of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolbert, Lynne S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.; Schinkel, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Human flourishing is the topic of an increasing number of books and articles in educational philosophy. Flourishing should be regarded as an ideal aim of education. If this is defended, the first step should be to elucidate what is meant by flourishing, and what exactly the concept entails. Listing formal criteria can facilitate reflection on the…

  2. The Desegregation Aims and Demographic Contexts of Magnet Schools: How Parents Choose and Why Siting Policies Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smrekar, Claire; Honey, Ngaire

    2015-01-01

    This paper is designed to specify a set of new opportunities for educators, school administrators, and scholars to realize the practical aims and strategic advantages envisioned in magnet schools. The paper is divided into three distinct sections. In Section I, we examine the extensive research literature on parents' choice patterns and…

  3. An Occupational Survey of Refrigeration Technicians Aiming at Determining Psychomotor Competencies in Turkish Vocational Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik, Nurettin; Onat, Ayhan

    2004-01-01

    In this study of "Occupational Survey of Refrigeration Technicians" in which the "Task Inventory Questionnaires" have been developed, we aim at determining the vocational psychomotor competencies (skills) of refrigeration technicians for effectively carrying out the occupational duties in labor-life. In the first phase of the…

  4. The effects of spatial movement components precues on the execution of rapid aiming in children aged 7, 9, and 11.

    PubMed

    Olivier, I; Bard, C

    2000-10-01

    The aim of the present study was twofold: first, to investigate the effects of spatial precues on the execution of rapid aiming in children aged 7, 9, and 11 and second, to provide a kinematic support to the investigation of the role of precues in aiming tasks performed under temporal constraints. Four precuing conditions were used, where participants received: (a) no precue of any type, (b) advance information on direction, (c) advance information on amplitude, and (d) complete information on the forthcoming movement. Our results showed that precuing the spatial dimensions of movement shortens reaction times, that such shortening is a function of the number of precued parameters, and that spatial precues modify the kinematics of the children's rapid aiming movements. Peak velocity increased with direction and/or amplitude, suggesting that precues play a significant role in motor preparation. Moreover, the accuracy results indicate that direction precuing induces a proactive directional regulation. Finally, direction and amplitude appear to be independently specified in children.

  5. Toward One of the Leading Education-Based Economies? Investigating Aims, Strategies, and Practices of Finland's Education Export Landscape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schatz, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Since the first publication of the Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) results in 2000, the Finnish education system has received much praise both in Finland and abroad. In recent years, Finland started to build up its own education export sector with the aim of…

  6. In Search of Cosmic Rays: A Student Physics Project Aimed at Finding the Origin of Cosmic Rays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antonelli, Jamie; Mahoney, Sean; Streich, Derek; Liebl, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Describes an ongoing project, the Cosmic Ray Observatory Project (CROP), being conducted by the University of Nebraska in partnership with several high schools. Each school group has installed cosmic ray detectors, and initial activities have included calibrating equipment, gathering preliminary data, and learning about cosmic ray showers. Aims to…

  7. New Mexico Look for the STARS--AIM HIGH: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of New Mexico's Look for the STARS--AIM HIGH prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  8. A Review of Chemical Bonding Studies: Needs, Aims, Methods of Exploring Students' Conceptions, General Knowledge Claims and Students' Alternative Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unal, Suat; Calik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipasa; Coll, Richard K.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper presents a detailed thematic review of chemical bonding studies. To achieve this, a matrix is developed to summarize and present the findings by focusing on insights derived from the related studies. The matrix incorporates the following themes: needs, aims, methods of exploring students' conceptions, general knowledge claims,…

  9. The Effectiveness of an Innovative Intervention Aimed at Reducing Binge Drinking among Young People: Results from a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Ramm, Josephine; Cooke, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effectiveness of a digital-story intervention (short videos made by young people) seeking to reduce the prevalence of young people's binge drinking in Caerphilly. Method: A quasi-experimental design was adopted with three intervention sites and one control site providing the sample (mainly aged 14-15 years). Three rounds of…

  10. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 2: Measurements of trace gases with stratospheric or tropospheric origin in the UTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkat, T.; Kaufmann, S.; Voigt, C.; Schäuble, D.; Jeßberger, P.; Ziereis, H.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the role of climate-sensitive trace gas variabilities in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region (UTLS) and their impact on its radiative budget requires accurate measurements. The composition of the UTLS is governed by transport and chemistry of stratospheric and tropospheric constituents, such as chlorine, nitrogen oxide and sulphur components. The Airborne chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer AIMS has been developed to accurately measure a set of these constituents on aircraft by means of chemical ionization. Here we present a setup using chemical ionization with SF5- reagent ions for the simultaneous measurement of trace gas concentrations in the pptv to ppmv (10-12 to 10-6 mol mol-1) range of HCl, HNO3 and SO2 with in-flight and online calibration called AIMS-TG. Part 1 of this paper (Kaufmann et al., 2015) reports on the UTLS water vapour measurements with the AIMS-H2O configuration. The instrument can be flexibly switched between two configurations depending on the scientific objective of the mission. For AIMS-TG, a custom-made gas discharge ion source has been developed generating a characteristic ionization scheme. HNO3 and HCl are routinely calibrated in-flight using permeation devices, SO2 is permanently calibrated during flight adding an isotopically labelled 34SO2 standard. In addition, we report on trace gas measurements of HONO which is sensitive to the reaction with SF5-. The detection limit for the various trace gases is in the low ten pptv range at a 1 s time resolution with an overall uncertainty of the measurement in the order of 20 %. AIMS has been integrated and successfully operated on the DLR research aircraft Falcon and HALO. Exemplarily, measurements conducted during the TACTS/ESMVal mission with HALO in 2012 are presented, focusing on a classification of tropospheric and stratospheric influences in the UTLS region. Comparison of AIMS measurements with other measurement techniques allow to draw a comprehensive

  11. The airborne mass spectrometer AIMS - Part 2: Measurements of trace gases with stratospheric or tropospheric origin in the UTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkat, Tina; Kaufmann, Stefan; Voigt, Christiane; Schäuble, Dominik; Jeßberger, Philipp; Ziereis, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the role of climate-sensitive trace gas variabilities in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region (UTLS) and their impact on its radiative budget requires accurate measurements. The composition of the UTLS is governed by transport and chemistry of stratospheric and tropospheric constituents, such as chlorine, nitrogen oxide and sulfur compounds. The Atmospheric chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer AIMS has been developed to accurately measure a set of these constituents on aircraft by means of chemical ionization. Here we present a setup using SF5- reagent ions for the simultaneous measurement of trace gas concentrations of HCl, HNO3 and SO2 in the pptv to ppmv (10-12 to 10-6 mol mol-1) range with in-flight and online calibration called AIMS-TG (Atmospheric chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer for measurements of trace gases). Part 1 of this paper (Kaufmann et al., 2016) reports on the UTLS water vapor measurements with the AIMS-H2O configuration. The instrument can be flexibly switched between two configurations depending on the scientific objective of the mission. For AIMS-TG, a custom-made gas discharge ion source has been developed for generation of reagent ions that selectively react with HCl, HNO3, SO2 and HONO. HNO3 and HCl are routinely calibrated in-flight using permeation devices; SO2 is continuously calibrated during flight adding an isotopically labeled 34SO2 standard. In addition, we report on trace gas measurements of HONO, which is sensitive to the reaction with SF5-. The detection limit for the various trace gases is in the low 10 pptv range at a 1 s time resolution with an overall uncertainty of the measurement of the order of 20 %. AIMS has been integrated and successfully operated on the DLR research aircraft Falcon and HALO (High Altitude LOng range research aircraft). As an example, measurements conducted during the TACTS/ESMVal (Transport and Composition of the LMS/UT and Earth System Model Validation) mission with

  12. An Opening Chapter of the First Generation of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: The First Rutgers AIM Workshop, June 1975.

    PubMed

    Kulikowski, C A

    2015-08-13

    The first generation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Medicine methods were developed in the early 1970's drawing on insights about problem solving in AI. They developed new ways of representing structured expert knowledge about clinical and biomedical problems using causal, taxonomic, associational, rule, and frame-based models. By 1975, several prototype systems had been developed and clinically tested, and the Rutgers Research Resource on Computers in Biomedicine hosted the first in a series of workshops on AI in Medicine that helped researchers and clinicians share their ideas, demonstrate their models, and comment on the prospects for the field. These developments and the workshops themselves benefited considerably from Stanford's SUMEX-AIM pioneering experiment in biomedical computer networking. This paper focuses on discussions about issues at the intersection of medicine and artificial intelligence that took place during the presentations and panels at the First Rutgers AIM Workshop in New Brunswick, New Jersey from June 14 to 17, 1975.

  13. The Akhonya Dental Project: a new charity aiming to provide oral health education and preventative care in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Barber, S

    2010-01-09

    Kenya is a country plagued by HIV and lacking in adequate healthcare resources, and despite dental caries remaining the most common disease in the world, there is estimated to be only one dentist per 100,000 population in Kenya. Evidence suggests that many Kenyans are unaware of the causes of dental disease and half of the population are unaware of measures that can be taken to prevent dental disease. Oral health education is a clearly vital for improving the health of the Kenyan population. The Akhonya Dental Project is a new charity which aims to provide oral health education, prevention and treatment for AIDS orphans in rural Kenya. This article describes the ethos of the charity and long-term aim to increase oral health awareness in the region.

  14. Housing and health inequalities: A synthesis of systematic reviews of interventions aimed at different pathways linking housing and health

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Marcia; Petticrew, Mark; Bambra, Clare; Sowden, Amanda J.; Wright, Kath E.; Whitehead, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Housing and neighbourhood conditions are widely acknowledged to be important social determinants of health, through three main pathways: (1) internal housing conditions, (2) area characteristics and (3) housing tenure. We conducted a systematic overview of systematic reviews of intervention studies to provide an overview of the evidence on the impact of housing and neighbourhood interventions on health and health inequalities. There is relatively strong evidence for interventions aimed at improving area characteristics and compelling evidence for warmth and energy efficiency interventions targeted at vulnerable individuals. However, the health impacts of area-level internal housing improvement interventions are as yet unclear. We found no reviews of interventions aimed at altering housing tenure. This remains an important area for further research and potentially new evidence syntheses. PMID:21159542

  15. Behavior, preferences, and willingness to pay for measures aimed at preventing pollution by pharmaceuticals and personal care products in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowen; Howley, Peter; Boxall, Alistair Ba; Rudd, Murray A

    2016-10-01

    The release of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) into the environment has been held up as a potential threat to ecosystem and human health. Using a custom-designed survey of residents living in Xiamen, China, this paper examines individuals' disposal practices, awareness of the environmental impact of PPCPs, and willingness to pay for measures aimed at reducing the likelihood of PPCPs being released into the environment. The vast majority of respondents report that they dispose of PPCPs through the thrash. The results of a contingent valuation experiment suggest a substantial willingness to pay (WTP) for policy measures aimed at reducing PPCP pollution. Income as well as subjective perceptions relating to overall financial health, expenditure on PPCPs, and overall concern with environmental issues emerged as significant predictors of respondents' WTP. Our results should be of interest to policymakers looking for ways to mitigate the introduction of PPCPs in the environment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:793-800. © 2015 SETAC.

  16. Implementing an aim-based outcome measure in a psychoanalytic child psychotherapy service: insights, experiences and evidence.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Ricky; Catty, Jocelyn; Anscombe, Elizabeth; Cantle, Alison; Muller, Helen

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we describe the use of an aim-based outcome measure used in routine outcome monitoring of child and adolescent psychotherapy within a child and adolescent mental health service. We aim to explore the clinical feasibility and implications of the routine use of this measure. We argue that use of the measure provides a simple and useful way of clarifying the focus of the clinical work and reflecting its progress, while also having the potential to illuminate the clinical picture by contributing an additional source of clinical information from a collaborative process with the patient, parents or both. We argue that while there are some cases where use of the measure may be impossible, or even perverse, in general it enhances rather than detracts from clinical work.

  17. Activity-induced manganese-dependent MRI (AIM-MRI) and functional MRI in awake rabbits during somatosensory stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Matthew P.; Weiss, Craig; Procissi, Daniel; Wang, Lei; Disterhoft, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Activity-induced manganese-dependent MRI (AIM-MRI) is a powerful tool to track system-wide neural activity using high resolution, quantitative T1-weighted MRI in animal models and has significant advantages for investigating neural activity over other modalities including BOLD fMRI. With AIM-MRI, Mn2+ ions enter neurons via voltage-gated calcium channels preferentially active during the time of experimental exposure. A broad range of AIM-MRI studies using different species studying different phenomena have been performed, but few of these studies provide a systematic evaluation of the factors influencing the detection of Mn2+ such as dosage and the temporal characteristics of Mn2+ uptake. We identified an optimal dose of Mn2+ (25 mg/kg, s.c.) in order to characterize the time-course of Mn2+ accumulation in active neural regions in the rabbit. T1-weighted MRI and functional MRI were collected 0–3, 6–9, and 24–27 h post-Mn2+ injection while the vibrissae on the right side were vibrated. Significant BOLD activation in the left somatosensory (SS) cortex and left ventral posteromedial (VPM) thalamic nucleus was detected during whisker vibration. T1-weighted signal intensities were extracted from these regions, their corresponding contralateral regions and the visual cortex (to serve as controls). A significant elevation in T1-weighted signal intensity in the left SS cortex (relative to right)was evident 6–9 and 24–27 h post-Mn2+ injection while the left VPM thalamus showed a significant enhancement (relative to the right) only during the 24–27 h session. Visual cortex showed no hemispheric difference at any timepoint. Our results suggest that studies employing AIM-MRI would benefit by conducting experimental manipulations 6–24 h after subcutaneous MnCl2 injections to optimize the concentration of contrast agent in the regions active during the exposure. PMID:26589332

  18. A Classroom Exercise Aimed at the Development of an Intuitive Understanding of P V T Phase Behavior of Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Markus M.

    2004-03-01

    A classroom exercise for upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry instruction is presented that aims at the development of an intuitive understanding of P V T phase behavior of fluids. The classroom activity involves a group exercise over several classroom periods where students are required to construct 2D phase representations from a provided P V T block model. The broader implications of the classroom exercise are discussed.

  19. Lasers Aimed at Aircraft Cockpits: Background and Possible Options to Address the Threat to Aviation Safety and Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-26

    1 Van B. Nakagawara and Ronald W. Montgomery. Laser Pointers : Their Potential Affects on Vision and Aviation Safety. Federal Aviation...powerful at extended viewing distances. Because lasers remain powerful over large distances, a laser pointer can expose pilots to radiation levels above...airliner by aiming a handheld laser pointer into the cockpit is highly unlikely, there is concern that a military laser , such as the Chinese-made ZM-87 laser

  20. Simultaneous Antarctic Gravity Wave Observations in PMCs from the AIM Satellite and PMSE Observations from PANSY Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzanowicz, M. E.; Yue, J.; Russell, J. M., III; Sato, K.; Kohma, M.; Nakamura, T.

    2015-12-01

    Polar mesospheric clouds (PMCs) are high-altitude ice clouds that form in the cold summer mesopause region due to adiabatic cooling caused by an upwelling induced by the global meridional circulation, which is driven by gravity wave dissipation and forcing. Polar mesospheric summer echoes (PMSEs) are strong coherent echoes also observed in the polar summer mesosphere and are considered to be related to ionization and the small-scale structure associated with PMCs, with their origins thought to be strongly related. The peak PMSE height can be located slightly below the summer mesopause temperature minimum but above the PMC altitude. Upward propagating atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) are usually considered to be the cause of the wave patterns seen in PMCs. Monitoring PMCs and PMSEs will provide important tools in detecting climate change in the upper atmosphere and a better understanding of the earth-climate system. The science goal I plan to accomplish is to investigate the possibility of a connection between gravity wave perturbation characteristics in PMCs from the AIM (Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere) satellite and PMSE structures observed by PANSY (program of the Antarctic Syowa MST/IS radar). Data from the CIPS instrument onboard AIM, PANSY, and AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) will be used. AIM provides a two-dimensional horizontal view of the atmosphere dynamics embedded in PMCs, while PANSY provides a vertical view of PMSEs and gravity waves with high temporal resolution. The combination of AIM and PANSY will provide a three-dimensional view of the atmosphere, AGWs, PMCs and PMSEs. AIRS provides information about AGWs in the stratosphere. Wave analysis of the Fast Fourier Transform or a wavelet analysis will be used to complete the science goal. AIRS will be used to examine how lower atmosphere meteorology may impact the PMC and PMSE structures.

  1. AIM for Allostery: Using the Ising Model to Understand Information Processing and Transmission in Allosteric Biomolecular Systems.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Michael V; Weinstein, Harel

    2015-05-01

    In performing their biological functions, molecular machines must process and transmit information with high fidelity. Information transmission requires dynamic coupling between the conformations of discrete structural components within the protein positioned far from one another on the molecular scale. This type of biomolecular "action at a distance" is termed allostery. Although allostery is ubiquitous in biological regulation and signal transduction, its treatment in theoretical models has mostly eschewed quantitative descriptions involving the system's underlying structural components and their interactions. Here, we show how Ising models can be used to formulate an approach to allostery in a structural context of interactions between the constitutive components by building simple allosteric constructs we termed Allosteric Ising Models (AIMs). We introduce the use of AIMs in analytical and numerical calculations that relate thermodynamic descriptions of allostery to the structural context, and then show that many fundamental properties of allostery, such as the multiplicative property of parallel allosteric channels, are revealed from the analysis of such models. The power of exploring mechanistic structural models of allosteric function in more complex systems by using AIMs is demonstrated by building a model of allosteric signaling for an experimentally well-characterized asymmetric homodimer of the dopamine D2 receptor.

  2. Organ and tissue donation in clinical settings: a systematic review of the impact of interventions aimed at health professionals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In countries where presumed consent for organ donation does not apply, health professionals (HP) are key players for identifying donors and obtaining their consent. This systematic review was designed to verify the efficacy of interventions aimed at HPs to promote organ and tissue donation in clinical settings. CINAHL (1982 to 2012), COCHRANE LIBRARY, EMBASE (1974 to 2012), MEDLINE (1966 to 2012), PsycINFO (1960 to 2012), and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses were searched for papers published in French or English until September 2012. Studies were considered if they met the following criteria: aimed at improving HPs’ practices regarding the donation process or at increasing donation rates; HPs working in clinical settings; and interventions with a control group or pre-post assessments. Intervention behavioral change techniques were analyzed using a validated taxonomy. A risk ratio was computed for each study having a control group. A total of 15 studies were identified, of which only 5 had a control group. Interventions were either educational, organizational or a combination of both, and had a weak theoretical basis. The most common behavior change technique was providing instruction. Two sets of interventions showed a significant risk ratio. However, most studies did not report the information needed to compute their efficacy. Therefore, interventions aimed at improving the donation process or at increasing donation rates should be based on sound theoretical frameworks. They would benefit from more rigorous evaluation methods to ensure good knowledge translation and appropriate organizational decisions to improve professional practices. PMID:24628967

  3. Low dark current MCT-based focal plane detector arrays for the LWIR and VLWIR developed at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, Kai Uwe; Eich, Detlef; Fick, Wolfgang; Figgemeier, Heinrich; Hanna, Stefan; Thöt, Richard

    2015-10-01

    For nearly 40 years AIM develops, manufactures and delivers photo-voltaic and photo-conductive infrared sensors and associated cryogenic coolers which are mainly used for military applications like pilotage, weapon sights, UAVs or vehicle platforms. In 2005 AIM started to provide the competences also for space applications like IR detector units for the SLSTR instrument on board of the Sentinel 3 satellite, the hyperspectral SWIR Imager for EnMAP or pushbroom detectors for high resolution Earth observation satellites. Meanwhile AIM delivered more than 25 Flight Models for several customers. The first European pulse-tube cooler ever operating on-board of a satellite is made by AIM. AIM homes the required infrared core capabilities such as design and manufacturing of focal plane assemblies, detector housing technologies, development and manufacturing of cryocoolers and also data processing for thermal IR cameras under one roof which enables high flexibility to react to customer needs and assures economical solutions. Cryogenically cooled Hg(1-x)CdxTe (MCT) quantum detectors are unequalled for applications requiring high imaging as well as high radiometric performance in the infrared spectral range. Compared with other technologies, they provide several advantages, such as the highest quantum efficiency, lower power dissipation compared to photoconductive devices and fast response times, hence outperforming micro-bolometer arrays. However, achieving an excellent MCT detector performance at long (LWIR) and very long (VLWIR) infrared wavelengths is challenging due to the exponential increase in the thermally generated photodiode dark current with increasing cut-off wavelength and / or operating temperature. Dark current is a critical design driver, especially for LWIR / VLWIR multi-spectral imagers with moderate signal levels or hyper-spectral Fourier spectrometers operating deep into the VLWIR spectral region. Consequently, low dark current (LDC) technologies are the

  4. International Socio-Technical Challenges for Geological Disposal (InSOTEC): Project Aims and Preliminary Results - 12236

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmans, Anne; Schroeder, Jantine; Simmons, Peter; Barthe, Yannick; Meyer, Morgan; Sundqvist, Goeran; Martell, Merixell; Kallenbach-Herbert, Beate

    2012-07-01

    InSOTEC is a social sciences research project which aims to generate a better understanding of the complex interplay between the technical and the social in radioactive waste management and, in particular, in the design and implementation of geological disposal. It currently investigates and analyses the most striking socio-technical challenges to implementing geological disposal of radioactive waste in 14 national programs. A focus is put on situations and issues where the relationship between the technical and social components is still unstable, ambiguous and controversial, and where negotiations are taking place in terms of problem definitions and preferred solutions. Such negotiations can vary from relatively minor contestation, over mild commotion, to strong and open conflicts. Concrete examples of socio-technical challenges are: the question of siting, introducing the notion of reversibility / retrievability into the concept of geological disposal, or monitoring for confidence building. In a second stage the InSOTEC partners aim to develop a fine-grained understanding of how the technical and the social influence, shape, build upon each other in the case of radioactive waste management and the design and implementation of geological disposal. How are socio-technical combinations in this field translated and materialized into the solutions finally adopted? With what kinds of tools and instruments are they being integrated? Complementary to providing better theoretical insight into these socio-technical challenges/combinations, InSOTEC aims to provide concrete suggestions on how to address these within national and international contexts. To this end, InSOTEC will deliver insights into how mechanisms for interaction between the technical community and a broad range of socio-political actors could be developed. (authors)

  5. An integrated information system for the acquisition, management and sharing of environmental data aimed to decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Loggia, Goffredo; Arnone, Elisa; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Maltese, Antonino; Noto, Leonardo; Pernice, Umberto

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports the first results of the Project SESAMO - SistEma informativo integrato per l'acquisizione, geStione e condivisione di dati AMbientali per il supportO alle decisioni (Integrated Information System for the acquisition, management and sharing of environmental data aimed to decision making). The main aim of the project is to design and develop an integrated environmental information platform able to provide monitoring services for decision support, integrating data from different environmental monitoring systems (including WSN). This ICT platform, based on a service-oriented architecture (SOA), will be developed to coordinate a wide variety of data acquisition systems, based on heterogeneous technologies and communication protocols, providing different sort of environmental monitoring services. The implementation and validation of the SESAMO platform and its services will involve three specific environmental domains: 1) Urban water losses; 2) Early warning system for rainfall-induced landslides; 3) Precision irrigation planning. Services in the first domain are enabled by a low cost sensors network collecting and transmitting data, in order to allow the pipeline network managers to analyze pressure, velocity and discharge data for reducing water losses in an urban contest. This paper outlines the SESAMO functional and technological structure and then gives a concise description of the service design and development process for the second and third domain. Services in the second domain are enabled by a prototypal early warning system able to identify in near-real time high-risk zones of rainfall-induced landslides. Services in the third domain are aimed to optimize irrigation planning of vineyards depending on plant water stress.

  6. Flow processes in overexpanded chemical rocket nozzles. Part 3: Methods for the aimed flow separation and side load reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmucker, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    Methods aimed at reduction of overexpansion and side load resulting from asymmetric flow separation for rocket nozzles with a high opening ratio are described. The methods employ additional measures for nozzles with a fixed opening ratio. The flow separation can be controlled by several types of nozzle inserts, the properties of which are discussed. Side loads and overexpansion can be reduced by adapting the shape of the nozzle and taking other additional measures for controlled separation of the boundary layer, such as trip wires.

  7. Science case for the Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM): A component of the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Patrick; Cheng, A.; Küppers, M.; Pravec, P.; Blum, J.; Delbo, M.; Green, S. F.; Rosenblatt, P.; Tsiganis, K.; Vincent, J. B.; Biele, J.; Ciarletti, V.; Hérique, A.; Ulamec, S.; Carnelli, I.; Galvez, A.; Benner, L.; Naidu, S. P.; Barnouin, O. S.; Richardson, D. C.; Rivkin, A.; Scheirich, P.; Moskovitz, N.; Thirouin, A.; Schwartz, S. R.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Yu, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to test the kinetic impactor technique to deflect an asteroid. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is set to rendezvous with the asteroid system to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near-Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Having direct information on the surface and internal properties of small asteroids will allow us to understand how the various processes they undergo work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. Making these measurements from up close and comparing them with ground-based data from telescopes will also allow us to calibrate remote observations and improve our data interpretation of other systems. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the target by AIM, the mission will be the first fully documented impact experiment at asteroid scale, which will include the characterization of the target's properties and the outcome of the impact. AIDA will thus offer a great opportunity to test and refine our understanding and models at the actual scale of an asteroid, and to check whether the current extrapolations of material strength from laboratory-scale targets to the scale of AIDA's target are valid. Moreover, it will offer a first check of the

  8. Determination of gas-phase nucleophilicities and electrophilicities using B⋯HX bond critical point properties of AIM analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Roohi, Hosein; Habibi, Mostafa; Hasannejad, Mehdi

    2006-09-01

    The values of nucleophilicity and electrophilicity have been established in gas phase for some nucleophiles (B = CH 3CN, CO, H 2O, H 2S, HCN, N 2, NH 3, PH 3) and electrophiles (HX = HF, HCl, HBr, HCN HCF 3) from properties of bond critical points of atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis. On the basis of the meaningful relationship, the recent method has been applied to electron density ( ρ), Laplacian of electron density (∇ρ2), and electronic kinetic energy density ( G), of B⋯HX bond critical point. AIM analysis has been performed on the obtained wave functions at MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. The correlation between averaged calculated values of nucleophilicity (or electrophilicity), using different properties of B⋯HX bond critical points, and complexation energies (Δ Ecomp) is satisfactory. The best correlation coefficient between nucleophilicity and Δ Ecomp is related to ρ values of bond critical points. But, the best correlation coefficient between electrophilicity and Δ Ecomp is allied to ∇ρ2 and G values of bond critical points.

  9. Effects of a Randomized Reading Intervention Study Aimed at 9-Year-Olds: A 5-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2016-05-01

    The present paper reports on a 5-year follow-up of a randomized reading intervention in grade 3 in Sweden. An intervention group (n = 57) received daily training for 12 weeks in phoneme/grapheme mapping, reading comprehension and reading speed, whereas a control group (n = 55) participated in ordinary classroom activities. The main aim was to investigate if there were remaining effects of the intervention on reading-related skills. Previous analyses showed that the intervention group performed significantly better than the control group on spelling, reading speed, reading comprehension and phoneme awareness at the immediate post-test with sustained effects 1 year later. Results from the 5-year follow-up show that the only significant difference between the intervention (n = 47) and the control group (n = 37) was on word decoding. There was also a significant interaction effect of group assignment and initial word decoding, in the way that the lowest-performing students benefitted the most from the intervention. Another aim was to examine if the children identified in a screening (n = 2212) as poor readers in grade 2 still performed worse than typical readers. The analyses showed that the typically developing students (n = 66) outperformed the students identified as poor readers in grade 2 on working memory, spelling, reading comprehension and word decoding. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Association between the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met Polymorphism and Manual Aiming Control in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lage, Guilherme M.; Miranda, Débora M.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Campos, Simone B.; Albuquerque, Maicon R.; Corrêa, Humberto; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prefrontal dopamine is catabolized by the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme. Current evidence suggests that the val/met single nucleotide polymorphism in the COMT gene can predict the efficiency of executive cognition in humans. Individuals carrying the val allele perform more poorly because less synaptic dopamine is available. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the influence of the COMT polymorphism on motor performance in a task that requires different executive functions. We administered a manual aiming motor task that was performed under four different conditions of execution by 111 healthy participants. Participants were grouped according to genotype (met/met, met/val, val/val), and the motor performance among groups was compared. Overall, the results indicate that met/met carriers presented lower levels of peak velocity during the movement trajectory than the val carriers, but met/met carriers displayed higher accuracy than the val carriers. Conclusions/Significance This study found a significant association between the COMT polymorphism and manual aiming control. Few studies have investigated the genetics of motor control, and these findings indicate that individual differences in motor control require further investigation using genetic studies. PMID:24956262

  11. The aim and participation of scientific tourism in evaluation, recognition and widening of the country's historical and cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tashchyan, Davit

    2015-07-01

    Though the phenomenon of scientific tourism is widely spread in the USA and Europe, it is a new branch in Armenian tourism. The aim of the scientific tourism is to establish relationship between the tourist and the scientist, without the tourist having any material interest. The main aim is to involve the tourist in the scientific works, giving him a chance to be a part of the expedition. One of the main goals is also to involve the local tourist in the exploration of the historical and cultural heritage. It is important to mention that besides having the chance to take part in the scientific exploration, they also enjoy the time. It gives an opportunity to make the relation between the tourist and the scientist more strengthen, and let them partnering for future. The scientific tourism gives the scientist an opportunity to get new volunteers to make it wide known for the society. What refers to a tourist it is a good chance for him to be a part of a scientific exploration, to satisfy his own interest, to get new knowledge, and take part in the development of his own country.

  12. Water vapor measurements in- and outside cirrus with the novel water vapor mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, Stefan; Schlage, Romy; Voigt, Christiane; Jurkat, Tina; Krämer, Martina; Rolf, Christian; Zöger, Martin; Schäfler, Andreas; Dörnbrack, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Water vapor plays a crucial role for the earth's climate both directly via its radiative properties and indirectly due to its ability to form clouds. However, accurate measurements of especially low water vapor concentrations prevalent in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are difficult and exhibit large discrepancies between different instruments and methods. In order to address this issue and to provide a comprehensive water vapor data set necessary to gather a complete picture of cloud formation processes, four state-of-the-art hygrometers including the novel water vapor mass spectrometer AIMS-H2O were deployed on the DLR research aircraft HALO during the ML-Cirrus campaign in March/April 2014 over Europe. Here, we present first water vapor measurements of AIMS-H2O on HALO. The instrument performance is validated by intercomparison with the fluorescence hygrometer FISH and the laser hygrometer SHARC, both also mounted in the aircraft. This intercomparison shows good agreement between the instruments from low stratospheric mixing ratios up to higher H2O concentrations at upper tropospheric conditions. Gathering data from over 24 flight hours, no significant offsets between the instruments were found (mean of relative deviation

  13. Sensory-motor equivalence: manual aiming in C6 tetraplegics following musculotendinous transfer surgery at the elbow.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Mark A; Hayes, Spencer J; Bennett, Simon J; Barton, Gabor J; Elliott, Digby

    2010-09-01

    Cervical spinal lesions at C6 result in paralysis of the triceps brachii while leaving deltoid and elbow flexor function intact. We examined the spatial-temporal characteristics of goal-directed aiming movements performed by C6 tetraplegics who had undergone musculotendinous transfer surgery in which the posterior deltoid replaces the triceps as the elbow extensor. On some trials, liquid crystal goggles were used to eliminate vision of the limb and target upon movement initiation. Although tetraplegic participants achieved the same degree of movement accuracy/consistency as control participants, their movement times were longer regardless of whether the movements were made away from (elbow extension) or towards the body (elbow flexion). Longer movement times were related to lower peak velocities, and not the symmetry of the aiming profiles. The tetraplegic participants were no more dependent on visual feedback for limb regulation than control participants. Although the characteristics of the movement trajectories were surprisingly similar, in both vision conditions, tetraplegics required more real and proportional time to reduce spatial variability in the limb's trajectory for elbow extensions. Our results indicate that the sensorimotor system is adaptable and that the representations governing limb control are not muscle specific.

  14. Bio-AIMS Collection of Chemoinformatics Web Tools based on Molecular Graph Information and Artificial Intelligence Models.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Cristian R; Gonzalez-Diaz, Humberto; Garcia, Rafael; Loza, Mabel; Pazos, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The molecular information encoding into molecular descriptors is the first step into in silico Chemoinformatics methods in Drug Design. The Machine Learning methods are a complex solution to find prediction models for specific biological properties of molecules. These models connect the molecular structure information such as atom connectivity (molecular graphs) or physical-chemical properties of an atom/group of atoms to the molecular activity (Quantitative Structure - Activity Relationship, QSAR). Due to the complexity of the proteins, the prediction of their activity is a complicated task and the interpretation of the models is more difficult. The current review presents a series of 11 prediction models for proteins, implemented as free Web tools on an Artificial Intelligence Model Server in Biosciences, Bio-AIMS (http://bio-aims.udc.es/TargetPred.php). Six tools predict protein activity, two models evaluate drug - protein target interactions and the other three calculate protein - protein interactions. The input information is based on the protein 3D structure for nine models, 1D peptide amino acid sequence for three tools and drug SMILES formulas for two servers. The molecular graph descriptor-based Machine Learning models could be useful tools for in silico screening of new peptides/proteins as future drug targets for specific treatments.

  15. MCT-Based LWIR and VLWIR 2D Focal Plane Detector Arrays for Low Dark Current Applications at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, S.; Eich, D.; Mahlein, K.-M.; Fick, W.; Schirmacher, W.; Thöt, R.; Wendler, J.; Figgemeier, H.

    2016-09-01

    We present our latest results on n-on- p as well as on p-on- n low dark current planar mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) photodiode technology long wavelength infrared (LWIR) and very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) two-dimensional focal plane arrays (FPAs) with quantum efficiency (QE) cut-off wavelength >11 μm at 80 K and a 512 × 640 pixel format FPA at 20 μm pitch stitched from two 512 × 320 pixel photodiode arrays. Significantly reduced dark currents as compared with Tennant's "Rule 07" are demonstrated in both polarities while retaining good detection efficiency ≥60% for operating temperatures between 30 K and 100 K. This allows for the same dark current performance at 20 K higher operating temperature than with previous AIM INFRAROT-MODULE GmbH (AIM) technology. For p-on- n LWIR MCT FPAs, broadband photoresponse nonuniformity of only about 1.2% is achieved at 55 K with low defective pixel numbers. For an n-on- p VLWIR MCT FPA with 13.6 μm cut-off at 55 K, excellent photoresponse nonuniformity of about 3.1% is achieved at moderate defective pixel numbers. This advancement in detector technology paves the way for outstanding signal-to-noise ratio performance infrared detection, enabling cutting-edge next-generation LWIR/VLWIR detectors for space instruments and devices with higher operating temperature and low size, weight, and power for field applications.

  16. An Opening Chapter of the First Generation of Artificial Intelligence in Medicine: The First Rutgers AIM Workshop, June 1975

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary The first generation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Medicine methods were developed in the early 1970’s drawing on insights about problem solving in AI. They developed new ways of representing structured expert knowledge about clinical and biomedical problems using causal, taxonomic, associational, rule, and frame-based models. By 1975, several prototype systems had been developed and clinically tested, and the Rutgers Research Resource on Computers in Biomedicine hosted the first in a series of workshops on AI in Medicine that helped researchers and clinicians share their ideas, demonstrate their models, and comment on the prospects for the field. These developments and the workshops themselves benefited considerably from Stanford’s SUMEX-AIM pioneering experiment in biomedical computer networking. This paper focuses on discussions about issues at the intersection of medicine and artificial intelligence that took place during the presentations and panels at the First Rutgers AIM Workshop in New Brunswick, New Jersey from June 14 to 17, 1975. PMID:26123911

  17. An Evaluation Model for a Multidisciplinary Chronic Pelvic Pain Clinic: Application of the RE-AIM Framework.

    PubMed

    Chen, Innie; Money, Deborah; Yong, Paul; Williams, Christina; Allaire, Catherine

    2015-09-01

    Objectif : La douleur pelvienne chronique (DPC) est un trouble prévalent, débilitant et coûteux. Bien que des lignes directrices nationales et des données empiriques soutiennent l’utilisation d’un modèle de soins multidisciplinaires pour les patientes qui présentent des DPC, les cliniques canadiennes offrant un tel modèle sont peu nombreuses. Le BC Women’s Centre for Pelvic Pain and Endometriosis a été créé pour répondre à ce besoin et un intérêt a été manifesté à l’endroit des effets de ce modèle de soins sur le fardeau de la maladie en Colombie-Britannique. Nous avons cherché à créer une approche envers son évaluation en utilisant le cadre de référence RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) pour déterminer les effets de ce modèle de soins et pour orienter le processus décisionnel clinique et la formulation de politiques en la matière. Méthodes : Le cadre d’évaluation RE-AIM a été appliqué pour nous permettre d’envisager les diverses dimensions des effets du BC Centre. Les mesures proposées, les sources de données et les stratégies de gestion des données pour cette approche à méthodes mixtes ont été identifiées. Résultats : Les cinq dimensions des effets ont été prises en considération aux niveaux personnel et organisationnel, et des indicateurs correspondants ont été proposés pour en permettre l’intégration dans l’infrastructure de données existante, en vue de faciliter la collecte des données et l’évaluation précoce du programme. Conclusion : Le cadre RE-AIM peut être appliqué à l’évaluation d’une clinique multidisciplinaire visant la douleur pelvienne chronique. Cela permettra la tenue d’une meilleure évaluation des effets de modèles novateurs de soins chez les femmes qui connaissent des douleurs pelviennes chroniques.

  18. The systematic development of a nursing intervention aimed at increasing enrollment in cardiac rehabilitation for acute coronary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Cossette, Sylvie; D'Aoust, Louis-Xavier; Morin, Magali; Heppell, Sonia; Frasure-Smith, Nancy

    2009-09-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of morbidity worldwide. Although cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs can decrease recurrence of coronary events by as much as 25%, few patients engage in CR after a cardiac event. Current therapeutic procedures for ACS are provided quickly after the onset of symptoms, resulting in briefer hospital stays. Therefore, within this shorter time frame, the education of patients about ACS risk factors and their reduction presents a new nursing challenge. The purpose of this paper is to describe the systematic pathway in the development of a nursing intervention which addresses these new challenges in ACS risk factor reduction. The intervention aims to increase enrollment in CR, and enhance illness perceptions and medication adherence, while decreasing anxiety, risk factors, and emergency revisits.

  19. Neural and Hybrid Modeling: An Alternative Route to Efficiently Predict the Behavior of Biotechnological Processes Aimed at Biofuels Obtainment

    PubMed Central

    Saraceno, Alessandra; Calabrò, Vincenza; Iorio, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The present paper was aimed at showing that advanced modeling techniques, based either on artificial neural networks or on hybrid systems, might efficiently predict the behavior of two biotechnological processes designed for the obtainment of second-generation biofuels from waste biomasses. In particular, the enzymatic transesterification of waste-oil glycerides, the key step for the obtainment of biodiesel, and the anaerobic digestion of agroindustry wastes to produce biogas were modeled. It was proved that the proposed modeling approaches provided very accurate predictions of systems behavior. Both neural network and hybrid modeling definitely represented a valid alternative to traditional theoretical models, especially when comprehensive knowledge of the metabolic pathways, of the true kinetic mechanisms, and of the transport phenomena involved in biotechnological processes was difficult to be achieved. PMID:24516363

  20. State of the art of AIM LWIR and VLWIR MCT 2D focal plane detector arrays for higher operating temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figgemeier, H.; Hanna, S.; Eich, D.; Mahlein, K.-M.; Fick, W.; Schirmacher, W.; Thöt, R.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper AIM presents its latest results on both n-on-p and p-on-n low dark current planar MCT photodiode technology LWIR and VLWIR two-dimensional focal plane detector arrays with a cut-off wavelength >11μm at 80K and a 640x512 pixel format at a 20μm pitch. Thermal dark currents significantly reduced as compared to `Tennant's Rule 07' at a yet good detection efficiency >60% as well as results from NETD and photo response performance characterization are presented. The demonstrated detector performance paces the way for a new generation of higher operating temperature LWIR MCT FPAs with a <30mK NETD up to a 110K detector operating temperature and with good operability.

  1. Reconceptualising public acceptability: A study of the ways people respond to policies aimed to reduce alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The issue of public acceptability of health policies is key if they are to have significant and lasting impact. This study, based on focus groups conducted in England, examines the ways people responded to, and made sense of, policy ideas aimed at reducing alcohol consumption. Although effective policies were supported in the abstract, specific proposals were consistently rejected because they were not thought to map onto the fundamental causes of excessive drinking, which was not attributed to alcohol itself but instead its cultural context. Rather than being influenced by the credibility of evidence, or assessed according to likely gains set against possible losses, such responses were established dynamically as people interacted with others to make sense of the topic. This has significant implications for policy-makers, suggesting that existing beliefs and knowledge need to be taken into account as potentially productive rather than obstructive resources. PMID:25769693

  2. Comparing different methods for fast screening of microbiological quality of beach sand aimed at rapid-response remediation.

    PubMed

    Testolin, Renan C; Almeida, Tito C M; Polette, Marcus; Branco, Joaquim O; Fischer, Larissa L; Niero, Guilherme; Poyer-Radetski, Gabriel; Silva, Valéria C; Somensi, Cleder A; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Corrêa, Rogério; Rörig, Leonardo R; Itokazu, Ana Gabriela; Férard, Jean-François; Cotelle, Sylvie; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2017-03-02

    There is scientific evidence that beach sands are a significant contributor to the pathogen load to which visitors are exposed. To develop beach quality guidelines all beach zones must be included in microbiological evaluations, but monitoring methods for beach sand quality are relatively longstanding, expensive, laborious and require moderate laboratory infrastructure. This paper aimed to evaluate the microorganism activity in different beach zones applying and comparing a classical method of membrane filtration (MF) with two colorimetric screening methods based on fluorescein (FDA) and tetrazolium (TTC) salt biotransformation to evaluate a new rapid and low-cost method for beach sand microbiological contamination assessments. The colorimetric results can help beach managers to evaluate rapidly and at low cost the microbiological quality of different beach zones in order to decide whether remedial actions need to be adopted to prevent exposure of the public to microbes due to beach sand and/or water contamination.

  3. A 3-Month Jump-Landing Training Program: A Feasibility Study Using the RE-AIM Framework

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Inne; Cumps, Elke; Verhagen, Evert; Mathieu, Niels; Van Schuerbeeck, Sander; Meeusen, Romain

    2013-01-01

    Context: Evaluating the translatability and feasibility of an intervention program has become as important as determining the effectiveness of the intervention. Objective: To evaluate the applicability of a 3-month jump-landing training program in basketball players, using the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: National and regional basketball teams. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-four teams of the second highest national division and regional basketball divisions in Flanders, Belgium, were randomly assigned (1:1) to a control group and intervention group. A total of 243 athletes (control group = 129, intervention group = 114), ages 15 to 41 years, volunteered. Intervention(s): All exercises in the intervention program followed a progressive development, emphasizing lower extremity alignment during jump-landing activities. Main Outcome Measure(s): The results of the process evaluation of the intervention program were based on the 5 dimensions of the RE-AIM framework. The injury incidence density, hazard ratios, and 95% confidence intervals were determined. Results: The participation rate of the total sample was 100% (reach). The hazard ratio was different between the intervention group and the control group (0.40 [95% confidence interval = 0.16, 0.99]; effectiveness). Of the 12 teams in the intervention group, 8 teams (66.7%) agreed to participate in the study (adoption). Eight of the participating coaches (66.7%) felt positively about the intervention program and stated that they had implemented the training sessions of the program as intended (implementation). All coaches except 1 (87.5%) intended to continue the intervention program the next season (maintenance). Conclusions: Compliance of the coaches in this coach-supervised jump-landing training program was high. In addition, the program was effective in preventing lower extremity injuries. PMID:23675788

  4. Value of Information Analysis Applied to the Economic Evaluation of Interventions Aimed at Reducing Juvenile Delinquency: An Illustration

    PubMed Central

    Eeren, Hester V.; Schawo, Saskia J.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Busschbach, Jan J. V.; Hakkaart, Leona

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether a value of information analysis, commonly applied in health care evaluations, is feasible and meaningful in the field of crime prevention. Methods Interventions aimed at reducing juvenile delinquency are increasingly being evaluated according to their cost-effectiveness. Results of cost-effectiveness models are subject to uncertainty in their cost and effect estimates. Further research can reduce that parameter uncertainty. The value of such further research can be estimated using a value of information analysis, as illustrated in the current study. We built upon an earlier published cost-effectiveness model that demonstrated the comparison of two interventions aimed at reducing juvenile delinquency. Outcomes were presented as costs per criminal activity free year. Results At a societal willingness-to-pay of €71,700 per criminal activity free year, further research to eliminate parameter uncertainty was valued at €176 million. Therefore, in this illustrative analysis, the value of information analysis determined that society should be willing to spend a maximum of €176 million in reducing decision uncertainty in the cost-effectiveness of the two interventions. Moreover, the results suggest that reducing uncertainty in some specific model parameters might be more valuable than in others. Conclusions Using a value of information framework to assess the value of conducting further research in the field of crime prevention proved to be feasible. The results were meaningful and can be interpreted according to health care evaluation studies. This analysis can be helpful in justifying additional research funds to further inform the reimbursement decision in regard to interventions for juvenile delinquents. PMID:26146831

  5. Topical combinations aimed at treating microvascular dysfunction reduce allodynia in rat models of CRPS-I and neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Ragavendran, J. Vaigunda; Laferrière, André; Xiao, Wen Hua; Bennett, Gary J.; Padi, Satyanarayana S.V.; Zhang, Ji; Coderre, Terence J.

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence indicates that various chronic pain syndromes exhibit tissue abnormalities caused by microvasculature dysfunction in the blood vessels of skin, muscle or nerve. We tested whether topical combinations aimed at improving microvascular function would relieve allodynia in animal models of complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS-I) and neuropathic pain. We hypothesized that topical administration of either α2-adrenergic (α2A) receptor agonists or nitric oxide (NO) donors combined with either phosphodiesterase (PDE) or phosphatidic acid (PA) inhibitors would effectively reduce allodynia in these animal models of chronic pain. Single topical agents produced significant dose-dependent anti-allodynic effects in rats with chronic post-ischemia pain, and the anti-allodynic dose-response curves of PDE and PA inhibitors were shifted 2.5–10 fold leftward when combined with non-analgesic doses of α2A receptor agonists or NO donors. Topical combinations also produced significant anti-allodynic effects in rats with sciatic nerve injury, painful diabetic neuropathy and chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy. These effects were shown to be produced by a local action, lasted up to 6 h after acute treatment, and did not produce tolerance over 15 days of chronic daily dosing. The present results support the hypothesis that allodynia in animal models of CRPS-I and neuropathic pain is effectively relieved by topical combinations of α2A or NO donors with PDE or PA inhibitors. This suggests that topical treatments aimed at improving microvascular function may reduce allodynia in patients with CRPS-I and neuropathic pain. Perspective This article presents the synergistic anti-allodynic effects of combinations of α2A or NO donors with PDE or PA inhibitors in animal models of CRPS-I and neuropathic pain. The data suggest effective clinical treatment of chronic neuropathic pain may be achieved by therapies that alleviate microvascular dysfunction in affected areas

  6. Prediflood: A French research project aiming at developing a road submersion warning system for flash flood prone areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naulin, J. P.; Payrastre, O.; Gaume, E.; Delrieu, G.; Arnaud, P.; Lutoff, C.; Vincendon, B.

    2010-09-01

    Accurate flood forecasts are crucial for an efficient flood event management. Until now, hydro-meteorological forecasts have been mainly used for early-warnings in France (Meteorological and flood vigilance maps) or over the world (Flash-flood guidances). Forecasts are also often limited to the main streams or to specific watersheds with particular assets like hydropower dams, leaving aside large parts of the territory. Distributed hydro-meteorological forecasting models, able to take advantage of the now available high spatial and temporal resolution rainfall measurements, are promising tools for anticipating and quantifying the short term consequences of storm events all over a region. They would be very useful, especially in regions frequently affected by severe storms with complex spatio-temporal patterns. They would provide the necessary information for flood event management services to identify the areas at risk and to take the appropriate safety and rescue measures: prepositioning of rescue means, stopping of the traffic on exposed roads, determination of safe accesses or evacuation routes. Some preliminary tests conducted by the LCPC within the European project FLOODsite have shown encouraging results of a distributed hydro-meteorological forecasting model. It seems possible, despite the limits of the available rainfall measurements and the shortcomings of the rainfall-runoff models, to deliver distributed forecasts of possible local flood consequences - road submersion risk rating at about 5000 different locations over the Gard department in the tested case - with an acceptable level of accuracy. The PreDiFlood project (http://heberge.lcpc.fr/prediflood/) aims at consolidating and extending these first results with the objective to conduct pre-operational tests with possible end-users at the end of the project. Such a tool will not replace, but complement existing flood forecasting approaches in time and space domains that have not been covered until now

  7. FP7 GLOWASIS - A new collaborative project aimed at pre-validation of a GMES Global Water Scarcity Information Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhoff, R.; Levizzani, V.; Pappenberger, F.; de Roo, A.; Lange, R. D.; Wagner, W.; Bierkens, M. F.; Ceran, M.; Weerts, A.; Sinclair, S.; Miguez-Macho, G.; Langius, E.; Glowasis Team

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of the project GLOWASIS is to pre-validate a GMES Global Service for Water Scarcity Information. It will be set up as a one-stop-shop portal for water scarcity information, in which focus is put on: - monitoring data from satellites and in-situ sensors; - improving forecasting models with improved monitoring data; - linking statistical water data in forecasting; - promotion of GMES Services and European satellites. In European and global pilots on the scale of river catchments it combines hydrological models with in-situ and satellite derived water cycle information, as well as government ruled statistical water demand data. By linking water demand and supply in three pilot studies with existing platforms (European Drought Observatory and PCR-GLOBWB) for medium- and long-term forecasting in Europe, Africa and worldwide, GLOWASIS' information contributes both in near-real time reporting for emerging drought events as well as in provision of climate change time series. By combining complex water cycle variables, governmental issues and economic relations with respect to water demand, GLOWASIS will aim for the needed streamlining of the wide variety of important water scarcity information. More awareness for the complexity of the water scarcity problem will be created and additional capabilities of satellite-measured water cycle parameters can be promoted. The service uses data from GMES Core Services LMCS Geoland2 and Marine Core Service MyOcean (land use, soil moisture, soil sealing, sea level), in-situ data from GEWEX' initiatives (i.e. International Soil Moisture network), agricultural and industrial water use and demand (statistical - AQUASTAT, SEEAW and modelled) and additional water-cycle information from existing global satellite services. In-depth interviews with a.o. EEA and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology are taking place. GLOWASIS will aim for an open source and open-standard information portal on water scarcity and use of modern

  8. A Survey Aimed at General Citizens of the US and Japan about Their Attitudes toward Electronic Medical Data Handling

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Michio; Nakaya, Jun; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toshiro; Nakayasu, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To clarify the views of the general population of two countries (US and Japan), concerning the handling of their medical records electronically. Methods: We contacted people nationwide in the United States at random via Random Digit Dialing (RDD) to obtain 200 eligible responders. The questionnaire was for obtaining the information on their attitudes towards handling of their medical records, disclosure of the name of disease, secondary usage of information, compiling their records into a lifelong medical record, and access to their medical records on the Internet. We had also surveyed people of Shizuoka prefecture in Japan using same questionnaires sent by mail, for which we obtained 457 valid answers. Results: Even in an unidentifiable manner, US people feel profit-oriented usage of medical data without specific consent is not acceptable. There is a significant difference between usage of unidentifiable medical data for profit (about 50% feel negatively) and for official/research purposes (about 30% feel negatively). About 60% of the US responders have a negative view on the proposal that unidentifiable medical information be utilized for profit by private companies to attain healthcare cost savings. As regards compiling a lifelong medical record, positive answers and negative answers are almost equally divided in the US (46% vs. 38%) while more positive attitudes are seen in Japan (74% vs. 12%). However, any incentive measures aimed at changing attitudes to such a compiling including the discount of healthcare costs or insurance fees are unwelcomed by people regardless of their age or health condition in both surveys. Regarding the access to their own medical record via the Internet, 38% of the US responders feel this is unacceptable while 50.5% were willing to accept it. Conclusions: Participants from the US think that the extent of the sharing their identifiable medical records should be limited to the doctors-in-charge and specified doctors

  9. Extensigraph Dough Preparation Based on Protein Content and 10-g Mixograph for Limited Sample Size

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Brabender extensigraph is one of several empirical rheological instruments used to determine dough extension characteristics to predict end-product qualities of wheat flour. The extensigraph method (AACCI 54-10) utilizes 450 g flour and a 50-g farinograph to estimate optimal mix time and water a...

  10. Evolutionary-based Design and Control of Geometry Aims for AMD-manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Mauritz; Baramsky, Nicolaj; Ewald, Ake; Emmelmann, Claus; Schlattmann, Josef

    Additive Metal Deposition (AMD) is an additive manufacturing process building parts based on a nozzle-fed powder by laser assisted solidification. The AMD technology offers unique advantages for the production of near net-shape parts. In contrast to the powder bed-based technologies it provides a high productivity grade. Today AMD lacks reproducible process strategies manufacturing large parts in narrow tolerances. The building height of a single layer and the geometrical shape of a whole part alter progressively with increasing part dimensions - consecutively leading to a higher effort in the manufacturing-process development for such parts. To reduce this effort, in this paper first an iterative identification of optimal process parameters is performed by following an evolutionary algorithm under varied BC. Based on the geometry-related parameter sets, tolerances are defined. The process strategies and tolerances are validated for a prototype application considering the defined quality aims. Finally the results are discussed and summarized in an a-priori process design guideline for AMD Ti6Al4V-parts.

  11. Study of vibrational spectra and hydrogen bonding network in dimeric and tetrameric model of ampicillin using DFT and AIM approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Anuradha; Khan, Eram; Tandon, Poonam; Sinha, Kirti

    2017-03-01

    Ampicillin is a β-lactam antibiotic that is active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and is widely used for the treatment of infections. In this work, molecular properties of ampicillin are calculated on the basis of calculations on its dimeric and tetrameric models using DFT/B3LYP/6-311G(d,p). HOMO-LUMO energy gap shows that chemical reactivity of tetrameric model of ampicillin is higher than the dimeric and monomeric model of ampicillin. To get a better understanding of intra and intermolecular bonding and interactions among bonds, NBO analysis is carried out with tetrameric model of ampicillin, and is further finalized with an 'quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules' (QTAIM) analysis. The binding energy of dimeric model of ampicillin is calculated as -26.84 kcal/mol and -29.34 kcal/mol using AIM and DFT calculations respectively. The global electrophilicity index (ω = 2.8118 eV) of tetrameric model of ampicillin shows that this behaves as a strong electrophile in comparison to dimeric and monomeric model of ampicillin. The FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra were recorded in the solid phase, and interpreted in terms of potential energy distribution analysis. A collective theoretical and experimental vibrational analysis approves the presence of hydrogen bonds in the ampicillin molecule.

  12. [Jun TOSAKA's attempt in "Science Aiming to Product": thoroughness of the view of science founded on production].

    PubMed

    Kitabayashi, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the author will make it clear that the main object of "Science Aiming to Product" published in 1941 by Jun TOSAKA (1900-45), based on historical investigation focusing on the role of 'technology' in his theory of ideology. Objects of this investigation will include some papers unrecorded in The Complete Works of Jun TOSAKA. In 1929, he put 'practice' as an important position in his theory of science and ideology, and didn't use 'experiment' or 'technology'. At first, his 'practice' meant 'politics' mainly, then that included meaning of 'experiment' and 'production' too in 1932. Since 1933, he became to put 'technology' as an important position in place of 'practice'. But he had been grasped experiment' as 'practice' until 1941. On the other hand, to grasp 'science' and 'technology' as 'practice' became the mainstream of the press in 1941. In that situation, he reviewed the relationship between 'science' and 'technology'. And he became to grasp 'experiment' as 'material production'. Then he could make the view of science founded on production thorough.

  13. A P300-based brain-computer interface aimed at operating electronic devices at home for severely disabled people.

    PubMed

    Corralejo, Rebeca; Nicolás-Alonso, Luis F; Alvarez, Daniel; Hornero, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The present study aims at developing and assessing an assistive tool for operating electronic devices at home by means of a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI). Fifteen severely impaired subjects participated in the study. The developed tool allows users to interact with their usual environment fulfilling their main needs. It allows for navigation through ten menus and to manage up to 113 control commands from eight electronic devices. Ten out of the fifteen subjects were able to operate the proposed tool with accuracy above 77 %. Eight out of them reached accuracies higher than 95 %. Moreover, bitrates up to 20.1 bit/min were achieved. The novelty of this study lies in the use of an environment control application in a real scenario: real devices managed by potential BCI end-users. Although impaired users might not be able to set up this system without aid of others, this study takes a significant step to evaluate the degree to which such populations could eventually operate a stand-alone system. Our results suggest that neither the type nor the degree of disability is a relevant issue to suitably operate a P300-based BCI. Hence, it could be useful to assist disabled people at home improving their personal autonomy.

  14. Nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is required for NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changcheng; Gillette, Devyn D; Li, Xinghui; Zhang, Zhibin; Wen, Haitao

    2014-06-13

    Despite the number of extensive studies on the immune function and signaling of inflammasomes in various diseases, the activating mechanism of inflammasome, especially the NLRP3 inflammasome, is not fully understood. Nuclear factor E2-related Factor-2 (Nrf2), a key transcription factor that regulates cellular redox homeostasis, has been reported to play both protective and pathogenic roles depending on the disease conditions through undefined mechanism. This study reveals an essential role of Nrf2 in inflammasome activation. LPS stimulation increased Nrf2 protein levels in a Myd88-dependent manner. When compared with wild-type controls, Nrf2-deficient (Nrf2(-/-)) macrophages showed decreased maturation and secretion of caspase-1 and IL-1β and reduced apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) speck formation in response to various NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome stimuli. In contrast, NLRC4 inflammasome activation was not controlled by Nrf2. Biochemical analysis revealed that Nrf2 appeared in the ASC-enriched cytosolic compartment after NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Furthermore, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-induced NLRP3 activation also required Nrf2. Nrf2(-/-) mice showed a dramatic decrease in immune cell recruitment and IL-1β generation in alum-induced peritonitis, which is a typical IL-1 signaling-dependent inflammation animal model. This work discovered a critical proinflammatory effect of Nrf2 by mediating inflammasome activation.

  15. Gravity Waves in the Polar Stratosphere and Mesosphere and Their Relations with Ice Cloud Observed Sofie/AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Yue, J.; Xu, J.; Wang, L.; Yuan, W.; Russell, J. M., III; Hervig, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    A six-years (2007-2013) temperature dataset from the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE) onboard the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM) satellite is used to extract gravity waves (GWs) in the polar stratosphere and mesosphere of both hemispheres. These data are continuous in the polar regions. The monthly mean GW potential energy (PE) increases exponentially with a scale height of ~13 km in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. GWs are stronger in the winter than in the summer and exhibit strong annual variation. GWs are stronger in the southern polar region (SPR) than in the northern polar region (NPR) except in the summer months. This is likely because there are stronger and longer-lasting zonal wind jets in the SPR stratosphere, as revealed from Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) wind data. The longitudinal variations of PE in the winter polar stratosphere are consistent with the elevated regions. In the mesosphere, the longitudinal variations of PE do not vary with height significantly. The correlations between GW PE and the column ice water content (IWC, an indicator of the polar mesosphere cloud) exhibit longitudinal and annual variations.

  16. Integrating Compassionate, Collaborative Care (the "Triple C") Into Health Professional Education to Advance the Triple Aim of Health Care.

    PubMed

    Lown, Beth A; McIntosh, Sharrie; Gaines, Martha E; McGuinn, Kathy; Hatem, David S

    2016-03-01

    Empathy and compassion provide an important foundation for effective collaboration in health care. Compassion (the recognition of and response to the distress and suffering of others) should be consistently offered by health care professionals to patients, families, staff, and one another. However, compassion without collaboration may result in uncoordinated care, while collaboration without compassion may result in technically correct but depersonalized care that fails to meet the unique emotional and psychosocial needs of all involved. Providing compassionate, collaborative care (CCC) is critical to achieving the "triple aim" of improving patients' health and experiences of care while reducing costs. Yet, values and skills related to CCC (or the "Triple C") are not routinely taught, modeled, and assessed across the continuum of learning and practice. To change this paradigm, an interprofessional group of experts recently recommended approaches and a framework for integrating CCC into health professional education and postgraduate training as well as clinical care. In this Perspective, the authors describe how the Triple C framework can be integrated and enhance existing competency standards to advance CCC across the learning and practice continuum. They also discuss strategies for partnering with patients and families to improve health professional education and health care design and delivery through quality improvement projects. They emphasize that compassion and collaboration are important sources of professional, patient, and family satisfaction as well as critical aspects of professionalism and person-centered, relationship-based high-quality care.

  17. Predatory violence aiming at relief in a case of mass murder: Meloy's criteria for applied forensic practice.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Frédéric; Audenaert, Kurt

    2011-01-01

    Mass murder is the result of the complex interaction of several factors. What seems ubiquitous within mass murder are extreme feelings of anger and revenge. Yet despite these intense affective states, mass murders are, as a rule, not behaviorally impulsive, but rather prepared. The presence of extreme hate and anger evokes an impulsive outburst of rage, whereas planning and premeditation point in the direction of a cognitive, rather unemotional deed. This inconsistency is also reflected in reports of offenders' emotional states during the execution of their crimes: while some mass murderers have been described as calm, focused and emotionless during the events, others have shown signs of hostility, confusion, and distress. Considering mass murder from the perspective of its violence mode might shed some light on its nature and dynamics. With respect to the differentiation between affective and predatory violence, Meloy (1988) developed a model for applied forensic practice. The fully documented case of mass murder discussed in this study contains nine indices of predatory violence and one of affective violence. Furious affects of hate and anger were present but appeared to precede the cold-blooded killings. As a matter of fact, it is argued that the offender carried out the predatory murder in order to alleviate the psychological tension and symptoms generated by these severe ego-dystonic affects. The offender thus didn't seem to strive for narcissistic gratification of omnipotence, but rather seemed to aim to solve a problem.

  18. IRGB10 Liberates Bacterial Ligands for Sensing by the AIM2 and Caspase-11-NLRP3 Inflammasomes.

    PubMed

    Man, Si Ming; Karki, Rajendra; Sasai, Miwa; Place, David E; Kesavardhana, Sannula; Temirov, Jamshid; Frase, Sharon; Zhu, Qifan; Malireddi, R K Subbarao; Kuriakose, Teneema; Peters, Jennifer L; Neale, Geoffrey; Brown, Scott A; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-10-06

    The inflammasome is an intracellular signaling complex, which on recognition of pathogens and physiological aberration, drives activation of caspase-1, pyroptosis, and the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Bacterial ligands must secure entry into the cytoplasm to activate inflammasomes; however, the mechanisms by which concealed ligands are liberated in the cytoplasm have remained unclear. Here, we showed that the interferon-inducible protein IRGB10 is essential for activation of the DNA-sensing AIM2 inflammasome by Francisella novicida and contributed to the activation of the LPS-sensing caspase-11 and NLRP3 inflammasome by Gram-negative bacteria. IRGB10 directly targeted cytoplasmic bacteria through a mechanism requiring guanylate-binding proteins. Localization of IRGB10 to the bacterial cell membrane compromised bacterial structural integrity and mediated cytosolic release of ligands for recognition by inflammasome sensors. Overall, our results reveal IRGB10 as part of a conserved signaling hub at the interface between cell-autonomous immunity and innate immune sensing pathways.

  19. Mechanisms of change in psychotherapy for depression: An empirical update and evaluation of research aimed at identifying psychological mediators.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Lotte H J M; Müller, Viola N L S; Arntz, Arnoud; Huibers, Marcus J H

    2016-12-01

    We present a systematic empirical update and critical evaluation of the current status of research aimed at identifying a variety of psychological mediators in various forms of psychotherapy for depression. We summarize study characteristics and results of 35 relevant studies, and discuss the extent to which these studies meet several important requirements for mechanism research. Our review indicates that in spite of increased attention for the topic, advances in theoretical consensus about necessities for mechanism research, and sophistication of study designs, research in this field is still heterogeneous and unsatisfactory in methodological respect. Probably the biggest challenge in the field is demonstrating the causal relation between change in the mediator and change in depressive symptoms. The field would benefit from a further refinement of research methods to identify processes of therapeutic change. Recommendations for future research are discussed. However, even in the most optimal research designs, explaining psychotherapeutic change remains a challenge. Psychotherapy is a multi-dimensional phenomenon that might work through interplay of multiple mechanisms at several levels. As a result, it might be too complex to be explained in relatively simple causal models of psychological change.

  20. Plant-based strategies aimed at expressing HIV antigens and neutralizing antibodies at high levels. Nef as a case study.

    PubMed

    Marusic, Carla; Vitale, Alessandro; Pedrazzini, Emanuela; Donini, Marcello; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Bock, Ralph; Dix, Philip J; McCabe, Matthew S; Bellucci, Michele; Benvenuto, Eugenio

    2009-08-01

    The first evidence that plants represent a valid, safe and cost-effective alternative to traditional expression systems for large-scale production of antigens and antibodies was described more than 10 years ago. Since then, considerable improvements have been made to increase the yield of plant-produced proteins. These include the use of signal sequences to target proteins to different cellular compartments, plastid transformation to achieve high transgene dosage, codon usage optimization to boost gene expression, and protein fusions to improve recombinant protein stability and accumulation. Thus, several HIV/SIV antigens and neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies have recently been successfully expressed in plants by stable nuclear or plastid transformation, and by transient expression systems based on plant virus vectors or Agrobacterium-mediated infection. The current article gives an overview of plant expressed HIV antigens and antibodies and provides an account of the use of different strategies aimed at increasing the expression of the accessory multifunctional HIV-1 Nef protein in transgenic plants.