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Sample records for 10th world clean

  1. 10th World IHEA and ECHE Joint Congress: health economics in the age of longevity.

    PubMed

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B; Getzen, Thomas E; Torbica, Aleksandra; Anegawa, Tomofumi

    2014-12-01

    The 10th consecutive World Health Economics conference was organized jointly by International Health Economics Association and European Conference on Health Economics Association and took place at The Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland in July 2014. It has attracted broad participation from the global professional community devoted to health economics teaching,research and policy applications. It has provided a forum for lively discussion on hot contemporary issues such as health expenditure projections, reimbursement regulations,health technology assessment, universal insurance coverage, demand and supply of hospital services, prosperity diseases, population aging and many others. The high-profile debate fostered by this meeting is likely to inspire further methodological advances worldwide and spreading of evidence-based policy practice from OECD towards emerging markets.

  2. Creating Cultures of Peace: Pedagogical Thought and Practice. Selected Papers from the 10th Triennial World Conference (September 10-15, 2001, Madrid, Spain)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Jean E., Ed.; Swami, Piyush, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The 10th Triennial World Conference of the World Council for Curriculum and Instruction (WCCI) was held September 10-15, 2001 in Madrid, Spain. The theme of the conference was "Cultures of Peace." Thirty-four papers and presentations are divided into nine sections. Part I, Tributes to the Founders of WCCI, includes: (1) Tribute to Alice Miel…

  3. Cleaning Our World through Reverse Graffiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randazzo, Gabe; LaJevic, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade artists have begun to experiment with "reverse pollution" techniques, such as reverse graffiti, which focuses on cleaning environmental surfaces. Having recently been introduced to the works of Moose, the artist known for inventing the reverse graffiti technique, the authors decided to design a curriculum to increase…

  4. Coalbed methane: Clean energy for the world

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahmed, A.-J.; Johnston, S.; Boyer, C.; Lambert, S.W.; Bustos, O.A.; Pashin, J.C.; Wray, A.

    2009-01-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) has the potential to emerge as a significant clean energy resource. It also has the potential to replace other diminishing hydrocarbon reserves. The latest developments in technologies and methodologies are playing a key role in harnessing this unconventional resource. Some of these developments include adaptations of existing technologies used in conventional oil and gas generations, while others include new applications designed specifically to address coal's unique properties. Completion techniques have been developed that cause less damage to the production mechanisms of coal seams, such as those occurring during cementing operations. Stimulation fluids have also been engineered specifically to enhance CBM production. Deep coal deposits that remain inaccessible by conventional mining operations offer CBM development opportunities.

  5. 10th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 10th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Sixty-eight teams, representing high schools and colleges from all over the United States, and Puerto Rico, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team. In this photograph, racers from C-1 High School in Lafayette County, Missouri, get ready to tackle the course. The team pedaled its way to victory over 29 other teams to take first place honors. It was the second year in a row a team from the school has placed first in the high school division. (NASA/MSFC)

  6. 10th Arnual Great Moonbuggy Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Students from across the United States and as far away as Puerto Rico came to Huntsville, Alabama for the 10th annual Great Moonbuggy Race at the U.S. Space Rocket Center. Sixty-eight teams, representing high schools and colleges from all over the United States, and Puerto Rico, raced human powered vehicles over a lunar-like terrain. Vehicles powered by two team members, one male and one female, raced one at a time over a half-mile obstacle course of simulated moonscape terrain. The competition is inspired by development, some 30 years ago, of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), a program managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. The LRV team had to design a compact, lightweight, all-terrain vehicle that could be transported to the Moon in the small Apollo spacecraft. The Great Moonbuggy Race challenges students to design and build a human powered vehicle so they will learn how to deal with real-world engineering problems similar to those faced by the actual NASA LRV team. In this photograph, Team No. 1 from North Dakota State University in Fargo conquers one of several obstacles on their way to victory. The team captured first place honors in the college level competition.

  7. Columbines 10th Anniversary Finds Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    When school administrators hear that the 10th anniversary of the Columbine High School attack is approaching, most shake their heads in disbelief. They are amazed that 10 years have passed since this watershed event, which changed the landscape of K-12 school safety. In this article, the author reflects on the lessons learned from the Columbine…

  8. PREFACE: 10th Joint Conference on Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-02-01

    The 10th Joint Conference on Chemistry is an international conference organized by 4 chemistry departments of 4 universities in central Java, Indonesia. The universities are Sebelas Maret University, Diponegoro University, Semarang State University and Soedirman University. The venue was at Solo, Indonesia, at September 8-9, 2015. The total conference participants are 133 including the invited speakers. The conference emphasized the multidisciplinary chemical issue and impact of today's sustainable chemistry which covering the following topics: • Material innovation for sustainable goals • Development of renewable and sustainable energy based on chemistry • New drug design, experimental and theoretical methods • Green synthesis and characterization of material (from molecule to functionalized materials) • Catalysis as core technology in industry • Natural product isolation and optimization

  9. EDITORIAL: 10th anniversary of attosecond pulses 10th anniversary of attosecond pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienberger, Reinhard; Chang, Zenghu; Nam, Chang Hee

    2012-04-01

    times in atoms and molecules, such as Auger decay time and autoionization lifetime, have been measured directly as compared to indirect spectroscopic measurements normally done using synchrotron light sources. The reconstruction of molecular orbital wave functions has been demonstrated by developing the molecular tomography method. Ultrafast phenomena in condensed matter and in nanostructures have been tackled also. The successful development of attosecond light sources has thus opened up a variety of new research activities in ultrafast optical science; it will be continued and accelerated further in coming years with intensive research investments by more groups joining the field of attosecond science. In this special issue celebrating the 10th year of attosecond pulse generation 6 review articles and 16 regular articles are included. Although it does not cover all active research areas, we sincerely hope it gives a glimpse of active research activities in attosecond science throughout the world.

  10. meeting summary 10th AMS Symposium on Education.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. R.; Hayes, M. C.; Ramamurthy, M. K.; Zeitler, J. W.; Murphy, K. A.; Croft, P. J.; Nese, J. M.; Friedman, H. A.; Robinson, H. W.; Thormeyer, C. D.; Ruscher, P. A.; Pandya, R. E.

    2001-12-01

    The American Meteorological Society held its 10th Symposium on Education in conjunction with the 82nd Annual Meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The theme of 2001's symposium was enhancing public awareness of the atmospheric and oceanic environments. Thirty-six oral presentations and 38 poster presentations summarized a variety of educational programs or examined educational issues at both the precollege and university levels. There was a special session on increasing awareness of meteorology and oceanography through popular and informal educational activities, as well as a joint session with the 17th International Conference on Interactive Information and Processing Systems (IIPS) for Meteorology, Oceanography, and Hydrology on using the World Wide Web to deliver information pertaining to the atmosphere, oceans, and coastal zone. Over 200 people representing a wide spectrum of the Society attended one or more of the sessions in this 2-day conference. The program for the 10th Symposium on Education can be viewed in the November 2000 issue of the Bulletin.

  11. PREFACE: 10th International LISA Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciani, Giacomo; Conklin, John W.; Mueller, Guido

    2015-05-01

    large mission in Europe, and a potential comprehensive technology development program followed by a number one selection in the 2020 Decadal Survey in the U.S. The selection of L2 was combined with the selection of L3 and the newly formed eLISA consortium submitted an updated NGO concept under the name eLISA, or Evolved LISA, to the competition. It was widely believed that the launch date of 2028 for L2, would be seen by the selection committee as providing sufficient time to retire any remaining technological risks for LISA. However, the committee selected the 'Hot and Energetic Universe', an X-ray mission, as the science theme for L2 and the 'Gravitational Universe', the eLISA science theme, for L3. Although very disappointed, it was not a surprising decision. LPF did experience further delays just prior to and during the selection process, which may have influenced the decision. The strong technology program in the U.S. never materialized because WFIRST, the highest priority large mission in the 2010 Decadal following JWST, not only moved ahead but was also up-scoped significantly. The L3 selection, the WFIRST schedule, and the missing comprehensive technology development in the U.S. will make a launch of a GW mission in the 2020s very difficult. Although many in the LISA community, including ourselves, did not want to accept this harsh reality, this was the situation just prior to the 10th LISA symposium. However, despite all of this, the LISA team is now hopeful! In May of 2014 the LISA community gathered at the University of Florida in Gainesville to discuss progress in both the science and technology of LISA. The most notable plenary and contributed sessions included updates on the progress of LISA Pathfinder, which remains on track for launch in the second half of 2015(!), the science of LISA which ranges from super-massive black hole mergers and cosmology to the study of compact binaries within our own galaxy, and updates from other programs that share some of

  12. PREFACE: 10th International LISA Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciani, Giacomo; Conklin, John W.; Mueller, Guido

    2015-05-01

    large mission in Europe, and a potential comprehensive technology development program followed by a number one selection in the 2020 Decadal Survey in the U.S. The selection of L2 was combined with the selection of L3 and the newly formed eLISA consortium submitted an updated NGO concept under the name eLISA, or Evolved LISA, to the competition. It was widely believed that the launch date of 2028 for L2, would be seen by the selection committee as providing sufficient time to retire any remaining technological risks for LISA. However, the committee selected the 'Hot and Energetic Universe', an X-ray mission, as the science theme for L2 and the 'Gravitational Universe', the eLISA science theme, for L3. Although very disappointed, it was not a surprising decision. LPF did experience further delays just prior to and during the selection process, which may have influenced the decision. The strong technology program in the U.S. never materialized because WFIRST, the highest priority large mission in the 2010 Decadal following JWST, not only moved ahead but was also up-scoped significantly. The L3 selection, the WFIRST schedule, and the missing comprehensive technology development in the U.S. will make a launch of a GW mission in the 2020s very difficult. Although many in the LISA community, including ourselves, did not want to accept this harsh reality, this was the situation just prior to the 10th LISA symposium. However, despite all of this, the LISA team is now hopeful! In May of 2014 the LISA community gathered at the University of Florida in Gainesville to discuss progress in both the science and technology of LISA. The most notable plenary and contributed sessions included updates on the progress of LISA Pathfinder, which remains on track for launch in the second half of 2015(!), the science of LISA which ranges from super-massive black hole mergers and cosmology to the study of compact binaries within our own galaxy, and updates from other programs that share some of

  13. Clean energy for development investment framework: the World Bank Group action plan

    SciTech Connect

    2007-03-06

    In September 2005 the Development Committee requested the World Bank to develop an Investment Framework for Clean Energy and Development - in the context of the Gleneagles Communique on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development which was issued in July 2005. This Action Plan provides an update of work undertaken to date as well as actions planned by the World Bank Group (WBG) in support of the Clean Energy for Development Investment Framework (CEIF). The Action Plan relies on partnerships, including with the International Financial Institutions (IFIs) and the private sector. While it concentrates on maximizing and extending existing instruments, it provides for continued dialogue with governments and the private sector on new approaches to accelerate the transition to a low carbon economy. In addition to increased investments, the private sector has an important role to play in closing the investment gap in many countries. Projects such as Bujagali (Uganda), Nam Theun II (Laos) and China and India Thermal Power Plant Rehabilitation projects are examples of how partnerships with the private sector can work, both on financing but also on enhancing the overall regulatory framework for enhanced partnerships. The report was prepared for the 15 April 2007 Development Committee meeting, a joint committee of the Board of Governors of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund on the transfer of real resources to developing countries. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 5 annexes.

  14. Rethinking Science and Technology Education To Meet the Demands of Future Generations in a Changing World. International Organization for Science and Technology Education (IOSTE) Symposium Proceedings (10th, Foz do Iguacu, Parana, Brazil, July 28-August 2, 2002). Volumes I [and] II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bizzo, Nelio, Ed.; Kawasaki, Clarice Sumi, Ed.; Ferracioli, Laercio, Ed.; Leyser da Rosa, Vivian, Ed.

    This document is the proceedings of the 10th annual meeting of the International Organization for Science and Technology Education (IOSTE). Papers include: (1) "Liberal Education, Information Assessment and Argumentation in Science-LIA" (Andreas Quale, Anders Isnes, Terje Kristensen, and Ketil Mathiassen); (2) "Placing the History and the…

  15. Nineth Rib Syndrome after 10th Rib Resection

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hyun Jeong; Jeong, Yu Sub; Lee, Dong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The 12th rib syndrome is a disease that causes pain between the upper abdomen and the lower chest. It is assumed that the impinging on the nerves between the ribs causes pain in the lower chest, upper abdomen, and flank. A 74-year-old female patient visited a pain clinic complaining of pain in her back, and left chest wall at a 7 on the 0-10 Numeric Rating scale (NRS). She had a lateral fixation at T12-L2, 6 years earlier. After the operation, she had multiple osteoporotic compression fractures. When the spine was bent, the patient complained about a sharp pain in the left mid-axillary line and radiating pain toward the abdomen. On physical examination, the 10th rib was not felt, and an image of the rib-cage confirmed that the left 10th rib was severed. When applying pressure from the legs to the 9th rib of the patient, pain was reproduced. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with 9th rib syndrome, and ultrasound-guided 9th and 10th intercostal nerve blocks were performed around the tips of the severed 10th rib. In addition, local anesthetics with triamcinolone were administered into the muscles beneath the 9th rib at the point of the greatest tenderness. The patient's pain was reduced to NRS 2 point. In this case, it is suspected that the patient had a partial resection of the left 10th rib in the past, and subsequent compression fractures at T8 and T9 led to the deformation of the rib cage, causing the tip of the remaining 10th rib to impinge on the 9th intercostal nerves, causing pain. PMID:27413484

  16. PREFACE: ISEC 2005: The 10th International Superconductive Electronics Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalla, Horst

    2006-05-01

    The 10th International Superconductive Electronics Conference took place in Noordwijkerhout in the Netherlands, 5-9 September 2005, not far from the birthplace of superconductivity in Leiden nearly 100 years ago. There have been many reasons to celebrate the 10th ISEC: not only was it the 20th anniversary, but also the achievements since the first conference in Tokyo in 1987 are tremendous. We have seen whole new groups of superconductive materials come into play, such as oxide superconductors with maximum Tc in excess of 100 K, carbon nanotubes, as well as the realization of new digital concepts from saturation logic to the ultra-fast RSFQ-logic. We have learned that superconductors not only show s-wave symmetries in the spatial arrangement of the order parameter, but also that d-wave dependence in oxide superconductors is now well accepted and can even be successfully applied to digital circuits. We are now used to operating SQUIDs in liquid nitrogen; fT sensitivity of SQUID magnetometers is not surprising anymore and can even be reached with oxide-superconductor based SQUIDs. Even frequency discriminating wide-band single photon detection with superconductive devices, and Josephson voltage standards with tens of thousands of junctions, nowadays belong to the daily life of advanced laboratories. ISEC has played a very important role in this development. The first conferences were held in 1987 and 1989 in Tokyo, and subsequently took place in Glasgow (UK), Boulder (USA), Nagoya (Japan), Berlin (Germany), Berkeley (USA), Osaka (Japan), Sydney (Australia), and in 2005 for the first time in the Netherlands. These conferences have provided platforms for the presentation of the research and development results of this community and for the vivid discussion of achievements and strategies for the further development of superconductive electronics. The 10th conference has played a very important role in this context. The results in laboratories show great potential and

  17. Beyond Discipline: From Compliance to Community. 10th Anniversary Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie

    2006-01-01

    In this 10th anniversary edition of an Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (ASCD) best seller, the author reflects on his revolutionary ideas in the context of today's emphasis on school accountability and high-stakes testing. The author relates how his innovative approach--where teachers learn to work with students, rather than…

  18. [10th case of lobomycosis observed in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Roche, J C; Monod, L

    1976-01-01

    Lobomycosis a disease specific to the South-American continent; it is rare but not exceptional, since 11 cases have already been observed in French Guyana. A propos of the 10th case, the authors recall the circumstances of the discovery and the basic elements of the microscopical diagnosis. The actual progress in the in vivo culture techniques should allow a better knowledge of the pathogen agent in the future.

  19. Byzantine psychosomatic medicine (10th- 15th century).

    PubMed

    Eftychiadis, A C

    1999-01-01

    Original elements of the psychosomatic medicine are examined by the most important byzantine physicians and medico-philosophers during the 10th -15th centuries. These topics concern the psycosomatic unity of the human personality, the psychosomatic disturbances, diseases and interactions, organic diseases, which cause psychical disorders, psychical pathological reactions, which result in somatic diseases, the psychology of the depth of the soul, the psychosomatic pathogenetic reasons of psychiatric and neurological diseases and suicide, the influence of witchcraft on psychosomatic affections, maniac and demoniac patients. The psychosomatic treatment has a holistic preventive and curative character and encloses sanitary and dietary measures, physiotherapy, curative bathing, strong purgation, pharmaceutical preparations proportional to the disease, religious disposition, psychoanalysis and psychotherapy with dialogue and the contribution of the divine factor. The late byzantine medical science contributed mainly to the progress of the psychosomatic medicine and therapeutics. The saint woman physician Hermione (1st -2nd cent.) is considered as the protectress of psychosomatic medicine. PMID:11624574

  20. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database's 10th year anniversary: update 2015

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Allan Peter; Grondin, Cynthia J.; Lennon-Hopkins, Kelley; Saraceni-Richards, Cynthia; Sciaky, Daniela; King, Benjamin L.; Wiegers, Thomas C.; Mattingly, Carolyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Ten years ago, the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org/) was developed out of a need to formalize, harmonize and centralize the information on numerous genes and proteins responding to environmental toxic agents across diverse species. CTD's initial approach was to facilitate comparisons of nucleotide and protein sequences of toxicologically significant genes by curating these sequences and electronically annotating them with chemical terms from their associated references. Since then, however, CTD has vastly expanded its scope to robustly represent a triad of chemical–gene, chemical–disease and gene–disease interactions that are manually curated from the scientific literature by professional biocurators using controlled vocabularies, ontologies and structured notation. Today, CTD includes 24 million toxicogenomic connections relating chemicals/drugs, genes/proteins, diseases, taxa, phenotypes, Gene Ontology annotations, pathways and interaction modules. In this 10th year anniversary update, we outline the evolution of CTD, including our increased data content, new ‘Pathway View’ visualization tool, enhanced curation practices, pilot chemical–phenotype results and impending exposure data set. The prototype database originally described in our first report has transformed into a sophisticated resource used actively today to help scientists develop and test hypotheses about the etiologies of environmentally influenced diseases. PMID:25326323

  1. Building upon Historical Competencies: Next-generation Clean-up Technologies for World-Wide Application - 13368

    SciTech Connect

    Guevara, K.C.; Fellinger, A.P.; Aylward, R.S.; Griffin, J.C.; Hyatt, J.E.; Bush, S.R.

    2013-07-01

    The Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has a 60-year history of successfully operating nuclear facilities and cleaning up the nuclear legacy of the Cold War era through the processing of radioactive and otherwise hazardous wastes, remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater, management of nuclear materials, and deactivation and decommissioning of excess facilities. SRS recently unveiled its Enterprise.SRS (E.SRS) strategic vision to identify and facilitate application of the historical competencies of the site to current and future national and global challenges. E.SRS initiatives such as the initiative to Develop and Demonstrate Next generation Clean-up Technologies seek timely and mutually beneficial engagements with entities around the country and the world. One such ongoing engagement is with government and industry in Japan in the recovery from the devastation of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. (authors)

  2. 10th Anniversary Review: a changing climate for coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Lough, Janice M

    2008-01-01

    Tropical coral reefs are charismatic ecosystems that house a significant proportion of the world's marine biodiversity. Their valuable goods and services are fundamental to the livelihood of large coastal populations in the tropics. The health of many of the world's coral reefs, and the goods and services they provide, have already been severely compromised, largely due to over-exploitation by a range of human activities. These local-scale impacts, with the appropriate government instruments, support and management actions, can potentially be controlled and even ameliorated. Unfortunately, other human actions (largely in countries outside of the tropics), by changing global climate, have added additional global-scale threats to the continued survival of present-day coral reefs. Moderate warming of the tropical oceans has already resulted in an increase in mass coral bleaching events, affecting nearly all of the world's coral reef regions. The frequency of these events will only increase as global temperatures continue to rise. Weakening of coral reef structures will be a more insidious effect of changing ocean chemistry, as the oceans absorb part of the excess atmospheric carbon dioxide. More intense tropical cyclones, changed atmospheric and ocean circulation patterns will all affect coral reef ecosystems and the many associated plants and animals. Coral reefs will not disappear but their appearance, structure and community make-up will radically change. Drastic greenhouse gas mitigation strategies are necessary to prevent the full consequences of human activities causing such alterations to coral reef ecosystems.

  3. HST's 10th anniversary, ESA and Hubble : changing our vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    With the astronauts who took part in the most recent Servicing Mission (SM3A) in attendance, ESA is taking the opportunity to give a - first - complete overview of Europe's major contribution to the HST mission. It will also review the first ten years of operations and the outstanding results that have "changed our vision" of the cosmos. A new fully European outreach initiative - the "European Space Agency Hubble Information Centre" - will be presented and officially launched; it has been set up by ESA to provide information on Hubble from a European perspective. A public conference will take place in the afternoon to celebrate Hubble's achievements midway through its life. Ten years of outstanding performance Launched on 24 April 1990, Hubble is now midway through its operating life and it is considered one of the most successful space science missions ever. So far more than 10,000 scientific papers based on Hubble results have been published and European scientists have contributed to more than 25% of these. Not only has Hubble produced a rich harvest of scientific results, it has impressed the man in the street with its beautiful images of the sky. Thousands of headlines all over the world have given direct proof of the public's great interest in the mission - 'The deepest images ever', 'The sharpest view of the Universe', 'Measurements of the earliest galaxies' and many others, all reflecting Hubble's performance as a top-class observatory. The Servicing Missions that keep the observatory and its instruments in prime condition are one of the innovative ideas behind Hubble. Astronauts have serviced Hubble three times, and ESA astronauts have taken part in two of these missions. Claude Nicollier (CH) worked with American colleagues on the First Servicing Mission, when Hubble's initial optical problems were repaired. On the latest, Servicing Mission 3A, both Claude Nicollier and Jean-François Clervoy (F) were members of the crew. Over the next 10 years European

  4. A comprehensive assessment of PM emissions from paved roads: real-world Emission Factors and intense street cleaning trials.

    PubMed

    Amato, F; Nava, S; Lucarelli, F; Querol, X; Alastuey, A; Baldasano, J M; Pandolfi, M

    2010-09-15

    Compliance with air quality standards requires control of source emissions: fine exhaust particles are already subject to regulation but vehicle fleets increase whilst the non-exhaust emissions are totally uncontrolled. Emission inventories are scarce despite their suitability for researchers and regulating agencies for managing air quality and PM reduction measures. Only few countries in Europe proposed street cleaning as a possible control measure, but its effectiveness is still far to be determined. This study offers first estimates of Real-world Emission Factors for PM(10) and brake-wear elements and the effect on PM(10) concentrations induced by intense street cleaning trials. A straightforward campaign was carried out in the city of Barcelona with hourly elemental composition of fine and coarse PM to detect any short-term effect of street cleaning on specific tracers of non-exhaust emissions. Samples were analyzed by Particle Induced X-Ray Emission. Real-world Emission Factor for PM(10) averaged for the local fleet resulted to be 97 mg veh(-1) km(-1). When compared to other European studies, our EF resulted higher than what found in UK, Germany, Switzerland and Austria but lower than Scandinavian countries. For brake-related elements, total EFs were estimated, accounting for the sum of direct and resuspension emissions, in 7400, 486, 106 and 86 microg veh(-1) km(-1), respectively for Fe, Cu, Sn and Sb. In PM(2.5)Fe and Cu emission factors were respectively 4884 and 306 microg veh(-1) km(-1). Intense street cleaning trials evidenced a PM(10) reduction at kerbside of 3 microg m(-3) (mean daily levels of 54 microg m(-3)), with respect to reference stations. It is important to remark that such benefit could only be detected in small time-integration periods (12:00-18:00) since in daily values this benefit was not noticed. Hourly PM elemental monitoring allowed the identification of mineral and brake-related metallic particles as those responsible of the PM(10

  5. Plasma Gasification of Plastic Debris as a Method of the World Ocean Cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutberg, Philip; Kuznetsov, Vadim; Popov, Victor; Bratsev, Alexander; Ufimtsev, Alexander; Shtengel, Sergey; Kumkova, Irina

    2011-10-01

    The paper deals with treatment of plastic debris, polluting the world ocean, in a plasma downdraft gasifier. The calculated data on syngas composition and its specific yield depending on raw material moisture and energy consumption are presented. The usability estimation of the produced syngas application for electricity generation and liquid fuel production is performed.

  6. Crafting Europe's "Clean Slate" Advantage: World-System Expansion and the Indigenous Mississippians of North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, Shirley A.

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the current understanding of how contact with and incorporation into the modern world-system may affect the trajectory of change among indigenous people. In order to understand deeply the process of incorporation and the current structural transformation, the author examines the following: (1) the nature of…

  7. Report on the 10th International Conference of the Asian Clinical Oncology Society (ACOS 2012).

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeul Hong; Yang, Han-Kwang; Kim, Tae Won; Lee, Jung Shin; Seong, Jinsil; Lee, Woo Yong; Ahn, Yong Chan; Lim, Ho Yeong; Won, Jong-Ho; Park, Kyong Hwa; Cho, Kyung Sam

    2013-04-01

    The 10th International Conference of the Asian Clinical Oncology Society (ACOS 2012) in conjunction with the 38th Annual Meeting of the Korean Cancer Association, was held on June 13 to 15 (3 days) 2012 at COEX Convention and Exhibition Center in Seoul, Korea. ACOS has a 20-year history starting from the first conference in Osaka, Japan, which was chaired by Prof. Tetsuo Taguchi and the ACOS conferences have since been conducted in Asian countries every 2 years. Under the theme of "Work Together to Make a Difference for Cancer Therapy in Asia", the 10th ACOS was prepared to discuss various subjects through a high-quality academic program, exhibition, and social events. The ACOS 2012 Committee was composed of the ACOS Organizing Committee, Honorary Advisors, Local Advisors, and ACOS 2012 Organizing Committee. The comprehensive academic program had a total of 92 sessions (3 Plenary Lectures, 1 Award Lectures, 1 Memorial Lectures, 9 Special Lectures, 15 Symposia, 1 Debate & Summary Sessions, 1 Case Conferences, 19 Educational Lectures, 1 Research & Development Session, 18 Satellite Symposia, 9 Meet the Professors, 14 Oral Presentations) and a total 292 presentations were delivered throughout the entire program. Amongst Free Papers, 462 research papers (110 oral presentations and 352 poster presentations) were selected to be presented. This conference was the largest of all ACOS conferences in its scale with around 1,500 participants from 30 countries. Furthermore, despite strict new financial policies and requirements governing fundraising alongside global economic stagnation, a total of 14 companies participated as sponsors and an additional 35 companies purchased 76 exhibition booths. Lastly, the conference social events provided attendees with a variety of opportunities to experience and enjoy Korea's rich culture and traditions during the Opening Ceremony, Welcome Reception, Invitee Dinner, Banquet, and Closing Ceremony. Overall, ACOS 2012 reinforced and promoted

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 10th, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 10th, 1936 (Copied from small photo taken by survey members) OLD APARTMENT HOUSE - Jansonist Colony, Old Apartment House, Main Street, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  9. 16. NORTHEAST CORNER VIEW OF 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. NORTHEAST CORNER VIEW OF 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. CORNER SHOWS THE DIAGONALLY FLUTED SPIRAL DESIGN OF THE RELIEF COLUMN. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. 100% Clean, Renewable Wind, Water, and Solar Roadmaps for 139 Countries of the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Significant prior research has focused on the health, climate, and other environmental and social impacts of gas and aerosol particle emissions from fossil fuel and biofuel combustion. Given the magnitude and costs of the impacts, large-scale conversions of these fuels to non-emitting sources of energy are warranted. This talk discusses technical and economic roadmaps to convert the energy infrastructures of each of 139 countries of the world to those powered by 100% non-emitting wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) for all purposes, namely electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, industry, and agriculture/forestry/fishing, after energy efficiency measures have been accounted for. These roadmaps are developed with a methodology similar to that recently derived for each of the 50 United States. Reliability of 100% WWS systems is crucial. To that end, results showing the ability of the United States to maintain a 100% reliable grid with a 100% WWS system are discussed as well. Please see http://web.stanford.edu/group/efmh/jacobson/Articles/I/WWS-50-USState-plans.html for more information.

  11. Changes in Math Proficiency between 8th and 10th Grades. Statistics in Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Don; And Others

    Between 8th and 10th grades, many students are asked to make curriculum-related decisions that may ultimately influence their achievement in core academic subjects such as mathematics. While past achievement often limits the level of courses available to a student, aspirations for postsecondary education ultimately determine the level of…

  12. Classroom Achievement Goal Structure, School Engagement, and Substance Use among 10th Grade Students in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diseth, Åge; Samdal, Oddrun

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the relationships between students' perceived classroom achievement goals, school engagement and substance use in terms of smoking and drinking, and at investigating gender differences regarding these issues in a sample of 1,239 Norwegian 10th grade students. A multivariate analysis showed that…

  13. A Chemistry Course for High Ability 8th, 9th, and 10th Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilker, Richard, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a chemistry course designed, in cooperation with local public school districts, to intellectually challenge a group of 8th, 9th, and 10th grade students. Organic chemistry and biochemistry are integrated into the course (titled Chemistry and Everyday Life) to emphasize practical applications of chemistry. The course syllabus is included.…

  14. Changes in Educational Expectations between 10th and 12th Grades across Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sueuk; Wells, Ryan; Bills, David

    2015-01-01

    The mean levels of educational expectations of American high school students have increased over the past generation; individual educational expectations change as students mature. Using the National Education Longitudinal Study and the Education Longitudinal Study, we examined simultaneously the changes in individuals' expectations from 10th to…

  15. Self-Perception and Achievement of Black Urban 10th Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reglin, Gary

    Explores the following five dimensions of self-perception held by black urban male 10th-grade students in North Carolina: (1) scholastic competence; (2) athletic competence; (3) physical appearance; (4) behavioral conduct; and (5) job competence. Investigates differences in these aspects of self-concept for 30 students scoring above and 30 scoring…

  16. Comparing Overexcitabilities of Gifted and Non-Gifted 10th Grade Students in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakmaci-Guzel, Buket; Akarsu, Fusun

    2006-01-01

    The study compares overexcitability scores of Turkish 10th graders who are grouped in terms of their intellectual abilities, motivation, creativity and leadership as well as gender. 711 students who were administered Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices Test (APM) were divided into three intellectual ability categories. From this pool, 105 subjects…

  17. Program To Increase Selected 9th and 10th Graders' Career Decision-Making Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Linda D.

    This study addresses some of the career decision challenges facing 9th- and 10th-grade students. The researcher discovered that many students possessed inadequate decision-making strategies, that counselors did not focus on career planning prior to and during registration, and that the school district lacked a comprehensive career guidance…

  18. State Education & Environment Roundtable (SEER) Seminar (10th, Annapolis, Maryland, December 3-7, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Gerald A.; Hoody, Linda L.

    This document reports on the 10th seminar of the State Education and Environment Roundtable (SEER). It consists of brief overviews of the daily discussions and presentations that were made at the seminar. Topics discussed include measuring success through student assessment, the Bay Schools Project (BSP), and a co-sponsored educational forum with…

  19. Mental Retardation: Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports. 10th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckasson, Ruth; Borthwick-Duffy, Sharon; Buntinx, Wil H. E.; Coulter, David L.; Craig, Ellis M.; Reeve, Alya; Schalock, Robert L.; Snell, Martha E.; Spitalnik, Deborah M.; Spreat, Scott; Tasse, Marc J.

    This manual, the 10th edition of a regularly published definition and classification work on mental retardation, presents five key assumptions upon which the definition of mental retardation is based and a theoretical model of five essential dimensions that explain mental retardation and how to use the companion system. These dimensions include…

  20. County Data Book, 2000: Kentucky Kids Count. 10th Annual Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Danielle; Hall, Douglas; Mellick, Donna; Miller, Debra; Town, Jackie

    This 10th annual Kids Count data book reports on trends in the well-being of Kentucky's children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators in the areas of well being, child risk factors, and demography. The indicators are as follows: (1) healthy births, including birth weights and prenatal care; (2) maternal risk characteristics, including…

  1. Making a difference: education at the 10th International Conference on Zebrafish Development and Genetics.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Lara D; Liang, Jennifer O; Pickart, Michael A; Pierret, Chris; Tomasciewicz, Henry G

    2012-12-01

    Scientists, educators, and students met at the 10th International Conference on Zebrafish Development and Genetics during the 2-day Education Workshop, chaired by Dr. Jennifer Liang and supported in part by the Genetics Society of America. The goal of the workshop was to share expertise, to discuss the challenges faced when using zebrafish in the classroom, and to articulate goals for expanding the impact of zebrafish in education.

  2. Making a Difference: Education at the 10th International Conference on Zebrafish Development and Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Pickart, Michael A.; Pierret, Chris; Tomasciewicz, Henry G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Scientists, educators, and students met at the 10th International Conference on Zebrafish Development and Genetics during the 2-day Education Workshop, chaired by Dr. Jennifer Liang and supported in part by the Genetics Society of America. The goal of the workshop was to share expertise, to discuss the challenges faced when using zebrafish in the classroom, and to articulate goals for expanding the impact of zebrafish in education. PMID:23244686

  3. From the corner of N. 10th St. and W. O'Neill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    From the corner of N. 10th St. and W. O'Neill Ave. Looking west. Housing # 157-162 are on the right, building 156 is straight ahead, and buildings 153, 152, 116, and 115 are to the left. The golf course is directly west of these buildings. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. [Infanticide by throwing the child from the 10th floor of a building].

    PubMed

    Schröder, Ann Sophie; Görndt, Jennifer; Püschel, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Childbirth after denial or concealment of pregnancy has an increased risk of mortality for both mother and child. Interdisciplinary cooperation between professional groups is needed to explore the psychological and criminological aspects of infanticide. The case of a primipara mother, who threw her mature and viable newborn from the 10th floor of a high-rise building shortly after a concealed pregnancy, is reported. Forensic medical issues, as well as the characteristics of the offence and the perpetrator, are described.

  5. 14. CLOSEUP VIEW OF THE 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF THE 10TH AND 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. WINDOWS HAVE WHITE TERRA COTTA SILLS, HEADS AND MULLIONS. ARCHES ARE OF TERRA COTTA INCLUDING ORNAMENTATION ABOVE THE 11TH FLOOR WINDOWS. CIRCULAR ORNAMENTATIONS BETWEEN ARCHES ARE TERRA COTTA PAINTED IN BRONZE COLOR. LOUVERS ON THE WINDOWS ARE NOT PART OF THE ORIGINAL DESIGN. THIS IS THE FRONT ELEVATION. - Pacific Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, 1519 Franklin Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  6. Final Report 10th Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Marshak, Marvin L.

    2013-11-03

    The 10th Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics was held in LaJolla, California on May 26 to May 31, 2009. The Conference Proceedings are published by the American Institute of Physics in Volume 1182 of the AIP Conference Proceedings (ISBN: 978-0-7354-0723-7). The Proceedings include papers from each of the Conference Presenters and a detailed schedule of talks at the Conference. The Table of Contents of the Conference Proceedings is available at http://scitation.aip.org/content/aip/proceeding/aipcp/1182. Support by the U.S. Department of Energy and by DOE Laboratories was essential to the success of the Conference.

  7. Characterisation of decorations on Iranian (10th-13th century) lustreware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borgia, I.; Brunetti, B.; Giulivi, A.; Sgamellotti, A.; Shokouhi, F.; Oliaiy, P.; Rahighi, J.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Mellini, M.; Viti, C.

    It has been recently shown that lustre decoration of Medieval and Renaissance pottery consists of silver and copper nanoparticles, dispersed within the glassy matrix of the ceramic glaze. Lustre surfaces show peculiar optical effects, such as metallic reflection and iridescence. Here we report the findings of a study on lustred glazes of several shards belonging to Iranian pottery of the 10th and 13th centuries, decorated on both sides. Two different glazes, depending on the side of the sample, have been identified. Different lustre chromatic effects are characterised by the relative presence of silver- and copper-metal nanoparticles dispersed in the glassy matrix.

  8. From the corner of E. Mccloskey Ave. and N. 10th ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    From the corner of E. Mccloskey Ave. and N. 10th St., looking west with building 135 (gas station) on the left. Beyond it is building 119 and to the right of 119 is the gable end of the north side of 120. Beyond and perpendicular to building 120 are 118 and 117. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Bounded by East Colfax to south, Peoria Street to west, Denver City/County & Adams County Line to north, & U.S. Route 255 to east, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  9. EDITORIAL: The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011) The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Woo

    2012-05-01

    Measurement and instrumentation have long played an important role in production engineering, through supporting both the traditional field of manufacturing and the new field of micro/nanotechnology. Papers published in this special feature were selected and updated from those presented at The 10th International Symposium on Measurement Technology and Intelligent Instruments (ISMTII 2011) held at KAIST, Daejeon, South Korea, on 29 June-2 July 2011. ISMTII 2011 was organized by ICMI (The International Committee on Measurements and Instrumentation), Korean Society for Precision Engineering (KSPE), Japan Society for Precision Engineering (JSPE), Chinese Society for Measurement (CSM) and KAIST. The Symposium was also supported by the Korea BK21 Valufacture Institute of Mechanical Engineering at KAIST. A total of 225 papers, including four keynote papers, were presented at ISMTII 2011, covering a wide range of topics, including micro/nanometrology, precision measurement, online & in-process measurement, surface metrology, optical metrology & image processing, biomeasurement, sensor technology, intelligent measurement & instrumentation, uncertainty, traceability & calibration, and signal processing algorithms. The organizing members recommended publication of updated versions of some of the best ISMTII 2011 papers in this special feature of Measurement Science and Technology. As guest editor, I believe that this special feature presents the newest information on advances in measurement technology and intelligent instruments from basic research to applied systems for production engineering. I would like to thank all the authors for their great contributions to this special feature and the referees for their careful reviews of the papers. I would also like to express our thanks and appreciation to the publishing staff of MST for their dedicated efforts that have made this special feature possible.

  10. Maternal Genetic Ancestry and Legacy of 10(th) Century AD Hungarians.

    PubMed

    Csősz, Aranka; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Csákyová, Veronika; Langó, Péter; Bódis, Viktória; Köhler, Kitti; Tömöry, Gyöngyvér; Nagy, Melinda; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv

    2016-01-01

    The ancient Hungarians originated from the Ural region in today's central Russia and migrated across the Eastern European steppe, according to historical sources. The Hungarians conquered the Carpathian Basin 895-907 AD, and admixed with the indigenous communities. Here we present mitochondrial DNA results from three datasets: one from the Avar period (7(th)-9(th) centuries) of the Carpathian Basin (n = 31); one from the Hungarian conquest-period (n = 76); and a completion of the published 10(th)-12(th) century Hungarian-Slavic contact zone dataset by four samples. We compare these mitochondrial DNA hypervariable segment sequences and haplogroup results with published ancient and modern Eurasian data. Whereas the analyzed Avars represents a certain group of the Avar society that shows East and South European genetic characteristics, the Hungarian conquerors' maternal gene pool is a mixture of West Eurasian and Central and North Eurasian elements. Comprehensively analyzing the results, both the linguistically recorded Finno-Ugric roots and historically documented Turkic and Central Asian influxes had possible genetic imprints in the conquerors' genetic composition. Our data allows a complex series of historic and population genetic events before the formation of the medieval population of the Carpathian Basin, and the maternal genetic continuity between 10(th)-12(th) century and modern Hungarians. PMID:27633963

  11. Drug testing at the 10th Asian Games and 24th Seoul Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Park, J; Park, S; Lho, D; Choo, H P; Chung, B; Yoon, C; Min, H; Choi, M J

    1990-01-01

    Drug testing (doping test) procedures in the 1986 10th Asian Olympic Games and 1988 24th Seoul Olympic Games are reported. The International Olympic Committee Medical Commission (IOC-MC) conducted its first doping tests at the 1968 Olympics in Grenoble. With the guidance of the International Olympic Committee (IOC), the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) introduced doping tests at the 1986 10th Asian Olympic Games in Seoul, Korea, September 21st to October 5th, 1986. 585 samples were tested at the Doping Control Center, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (DCC/KAIST), for stimulants, narcotics, anabolic steroids, and beta-blockers by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, high pressure liquid chromatography, and fluorescence polarization immunoassay. These tests covered about 100 different drugs and another 400 as metabolites in addition to pharmacologically related substances. For the Seoul Olympic Games from September 17 to October 2, 1988, the IOC-MC with the DCC/KAIST conducted doping tests on 1601 samples for stimulants, narcotics, beta-blockers, diuretics, and anabolic steroids using GC, HPLC, GC/MSD, GC/MS, LC/MS, and TDx.

  12. Coal prep `93: 10th international coal preparation exhibition and conference

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    The conference proceedings are divided into the following subject areas: Coal preparation directions (3 papers); Developing technologies (4); Operations (4); Instrumentation and automation (3); Fine coal cleaning 1 (4); and Fine coal cleaning 2 (3). Twenty-one papers have been processed for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Space Commerce 1994 Forum: The 10th National Space Symposium. Proceedings report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipskin, Beth Ann (Editor); Patterson, Sara (Editor); Aragon, Larry (Editor); Brescia, David A. (Editor); Flannery, Jack (Editor); Mossey, Roberty (Editor); Regan, Christopher (Editor); Steeby, Kurt (Editor); Suhr, Stacy (Editor); Zimkas, Chuck (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The theme of the 10th National Space Symposium was 'New Windows of Opportunity'. These proceedings cover the following: Business Trends in High Tech Commercialization; How to Succeed in Space Technology Business -- Making Dollars and Sense; Obstacles and Opportunities to Success in Technology Commercialization NASA's Commercial Technology Mission -- a New Way of Doing Business: Policy and Practices; Field Center Practices; Practices in Action -- A New Way: Implementation and Business Opportunities; Space Commerce Review; Windows of Opportunity; the International Space Station; Space Support Forum; Spacelift Update; Competitive Launch Capabilities; Supporting Life on Planet Earth; National Security Space Issues; NASA in the Balance; Earth and Space Observations -- Did We Have Cousins on Mars?; NASA: A New Vision for Science; and Space Technology Hall of Fame.

  14. Tuskegee Bioethics Center 10th anniversary presentation: "Commemorating 10 years: ethical perspectives on origin and destiny".

    PubMed

    Prograis, Lawrence J

    2010-08-01

    More than 70 years have passed since the beginning of the Public Health Service syphilis study in Tuskegee, Alabama, and it has been over a decade since President Bill Clinton formally apologized for it and held a ceremony for the Tuskegee study participants. The official launching of the Tuskegee University National Center for Bioethics in Research and Health Care took place two years after President Clinton's apology. How might we fittingly discuss the Center's 10th Anniversary and the topic 'Commemorating 10 Years: Ethical Perspectives on Origin and Destiny'? Over a decade ago, a series of writers, many of them African Americans, wrote a text entitled 'African-American Perspectives on Biomedical Ethics'; their text was partly responsible for a prolonged reflection by others to produce a subsequent work, 'African American Bioethics: Culture, Race and Identity'. What is the relationship between the discipline of bioethics and African American culture? This and related questions are explored in this commentary.

  15. Collaborating to Move Research Forward: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Ashish M.; Agarwal, Piyush; Bivalacqua, Trinity; Chisolm, Stephanie; Daneshmand, Sia; Doroshow, James H.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Galsky, Matthew; Iyer, Gopa; Kassouf, Wassim; Shah, Jay; Taylor, John; Williams, Stephen B.; Quale, Diane Zipursky; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    The 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank was hosted by the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network and brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, representatives and Industry to advance bladder cancer research efforts. Think Tank expert panels, group discussions, and networking opportunities helped generate ideas and strengthen collaborations between researchers and physicians across disciplines and between institutions. Interactive panel discussions addressed a variety of timely issues: 1) data sharing, privacy and social media; 2) improving patient navigation through therapy; 3) promising developments in immunotherapy; 4) and moving bladder cancer research from bench to bedside. Lastly, early career researchers presented their bladder cancer studies and had opportunities to network with leading experts. PMID:27376139

  16. Tobacco use among 10th grade students in Istanbul and related variables.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge; Bozkurt, Muge

    2014-04-01

    Aim of this study was to determine prevalence of cigarette smoking and hookah use among 10th grade students in Istanbul, Turkey, and to compare sociodemographic, psychological and behavioral variables according to frequency of tobacco use. Cross-sectional online self-report survey conducted in 45 schools from the 15 districts in Istanbul/Turkey. The questionnaire included sections about demographic data, family characteristics, school life, psychological symptoms and use of substances including tobacco, hookah, alcohol, marijuana, volatiles, heroin, cocaine, non-prescribed legal tranquillizers (benzodiazepines, alprazolam etc.) and illegal tranquillizers (flunitrazepam). The analyses were conducted based on the 4957 subjects. Trial at least once in life is observed as 45.4% for hookah use and as 24.4% for cigarette use. Risk of hookah and cigarette use was significantly higher in male students than in female students. Frequency of tobacco use is related with various sociodemographic, psychological and behavioral variables. Our data also shows that using tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of all the other substances use and these effects are interrelated. The data suggest that there is a link between tobacco use and substance use, psychological, behavioral and social factors. There is also a strong association between tobacco use and suicidal behavior as well as self-mutilative, impulsive, hyperactive, delinquent, aggressive and behavioral problems. The illumination of these relationships may be relevant in prevention and management of tobacco use as well as important problems, such as substance use, impulsivity, hyperactivity, delinquent, aggressive self-mutilative and suicidal behavior among 10th grade students in Istanbul.

  17. Clean People in a Clean World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottey, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Bathing is here treated as an exemplar of the widespread profligacy of prosperous people and of the continually expanding expectations for all on this overloaded planet. The author places cleanliness in a wider context, not merely of animals but of all living organisms. With this in mind, it is possible to consider, in a wider than usual manner,…

  18. The Harvard Clean Energy Project. Large-scale computational screening and design of molecular motifs for organic photovoltaics on the World Community Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachmann, Johannes; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Atahan-Evrenk, Sule; Amador-Bedolla, Carlos; Aspuru-Guzik, Alan

    2011-03-01

    Organic solar cells are one of the promising approaches to ubiquitously establishing renewable energy sources; alas the necessary 10% energy conversion efficiency remains elusive. We present the Harvard Clean Energy Project (CEP, http://cleanenergy.harvard.edu) which is concerned with the screening and design of organic photovoltaics (and organic electronics in general) by means of first-principles computational quantum chemistry. We use modern DFT to assess the quality of candidate structures and systematically improve upon these based on the gathered understanding of structure-property relations. The CEP is a high-throughput investigation which utilizes the massive computational resource of the IBM World Community Grid, which allows us to characterize millions molecules of interest in the course of the next year. We address the combinatorial generation of our molecular library, our database, workflow organization and automation, data calibration and cheminformatics analysis, and the closure of the development cycle provided by our experimental collaborators.

  19. Trajectories of Scores on a Screening Instrument for PTSD Among World Trade Center Rescue, Recovery, and Clean-Up Workers.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Carey B; Caramanica, Kimberly; Welch, Alice E; Stellman, Steven D; Brackbill, Robert M; Farfel, Mark R

    2015-06-01

    The longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) over 8-9 years was examined among 16,488 rescue and recovery workers who responded to the events of September 11, 2001 (9/11) at the World Trade Center (WTC; New York, NY), and were enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry. Latent class growth analysis identified 5 groups of rescue and recovery workers with similar score trajectories at 3 administrations of the PTSD Checklist (PCL): low-stable (53.3%), moderate- stable (28.7%), moderate-increasing (6.4%), high-decreasing (7.7%), and high-stable (4.0%). Relative to the low-stable group, membership in higher risk groups was associated with 9/11-related exposures including duration of WTC work, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.3 to 2.0, witnessing of horrific events (range = 1.3 to 2.1), being injured (range = 1.4 to 2.3), perceiving threat to life or safety (range = 2.2 to 5.2), bereavement (range = 1.6 to 4.8), and job loss due to 9/11 (range = 2.4 to 15.8). Within groups, higher PCL scores were associated with adverse social circumstances including lower social support, with B coefficients ranging from 0.2 to 0.6, divorce, separation, or widowhood (range = 0.4-0.7), and unemployment (range = 0.4-0.5). Given baseline, exposure-related, and contextual influences that affect divergent PTSD trajectories, screening for both PTSD and adverse circumstances should occur immediately, and at regular intervals postdisaster.

  20. Trajectories of Scores on a Screening Instrument for PTSD Among World Trade Center Rescue, Recovery, and Clean-Up Workers.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Carey B; Caramanica, Kimberly; Welch, Alice E; Stellman, Steven D; Brackbill, Robert M; Farfel, Mark R

    2015-06-01

    The longitudinal course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) over 8-9 years was examined among 16,488 rescue and recovery workers who responded to the events of September 11, 2001 (9/11) at the World Trade Center (WTC; New York, NY), and were enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry. Latent class growth analysis identified 5 groups of rescue and recovery workers with similar score trajectories at 3 administrations of the PTSD Checklist (PCL): low-stable (53.3%), moderate- stable (28.7%), moderate-increasing (6.4%), high-decreasing (7.7%), and high-stable (4.0%). Relative to the low-stable group, membership in higher risk groups was associated with 9/11-related exposures including duration of WTC work, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.3 to 2.0, witnessing of horrific events (range = 1.3 to 2.1), being injured (range = 1.4 to 2.3), perceiving threat to life or safety (range = 2.2 to 5.2), bereavement (range = 1.6 to 4.8), and job loss due to 9/11 (range = 2.4 to 15.8). Within groups, higher PCL scores were associated with adverse social circumstances including lower social support, with B coefficients ranging from 0.2 to 0.6, divorce, separation, or widowhood (range = 0.4-0.7), and unemployment (range = 0.4-0.5). Given baseline, exposure-related, and contextual influences that affect divergent PTSD trajectories, screening for both PTSD and adverse circumstances should occur immediately, and at regular intervals postdisaster. PMID:25990986

  1. Report: Combustion Byproducts and Their Health Effects: Summary of the 10th International Congress

    PubMed Central

    Dellinger, Barry; D'Alessio, Antonio; D'Anna, Andrea; Ciajolo, Anna; Gullett, Brian; Henry, Heather; Keener, Mel; Lighty, JoAnn; Lomnicki, Slawomir; Lucas, Donald; Oberdörster, Günter; Pitea, Demetrio; Suk, William; Sarofim, Adel; Smith, Kirk R.; Stoeger, Tobias; Tolbert, Paige; Wyzga, Ron; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The 10th International Congress on Combustion Byproducts and their Health Effects was held in Ischia, Italy, from June 17–20, 2007. It is sponsored by the US NIEHS, NSF, Coalition for Responsible Waste Incineration (CRWI), and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The congress focused on: the origin, characterization, and health impacts of combustion-generated fine and ultrafine particles; emissions of mercury and dioxins, and the development/application of novel analytical/diagnostic tools. The consensus of the discussion was that particle-associated organics, metals, and persistent free radicals (PFRs) produced by combustion sources are the likely source of the observed health impacts of airborne PM rather than simple physical irritation of the particles. Ultrafine particle-induced oxidative stress is a likely progenitor of the observed health impacts, but important biological and chemical details and possible catalytic cycles remain unresolved. Other key conclusions were: (1) In urban settings, 70% of airborne fine particles are a result of combustion emissions and 50% are due to primary emissions from combustion sources, (2) In addition to soot, combustion produces one, possibly two, classes of nanoparticles with mean diameters of ~10 nm and ~1 nm. (3) The most common metrics used to describe particle toxicity, viz. surface area, sulfate concentration, total carbon, and organic carbon, cannot fully explain observed health impacts, (4) Metals contained in combustion-generated ultrafine and fine particles mediate formation of toxic air pollutants such as PCDD/F and PFRs. (5) The combination of metal-containing nanoparticles, organic carbon compounds, and PFRs can lead to a cycle generating oxidative stress in exposed organisms. PMID:22476005

  2. 10th annual meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society: an overview.

    PubMed

    Cavero, Icilio

    2011-03-01

    The 10th annual meeting of the Safety Pharmacology (SP) Society covered numerous topics of educational and practical research interest. Biopolymers - the theme of the keynote address - were presented as essential components of medical devices, diagnostic tools, biosensors, human tissue engineering and pharmaceutical formulations for optimized drug delivery. Toxicology and SP investigators - the topic of the Distinguished Service Award Lecture - were encouraged to collaborate in the development of SP technologies and protocols applicable to toxicology studies. Pharmaceutical companies, originally organizations bearing all risks for developing their portfolios, are increasingly moving towards fully integrated networks which outsource core activities (including SP studies) to large contract research organizations. Future nonclinical data are now expected to be of such high quality and predictability power that they may obviate the need for certain expensive and time-consuming clinical investigations. In this context, SP is called upon to extend its risk assessment purview to areas which currently are not systematically covered, such as drug-induced QRS interval prolongation, negative emotions and feelings (e.g., depression), and minor chronic cardiovascular and metabolic changes (e.g., as produced by drugs for type 2 diabetes) which can be responsible for delayed morbidity and mortality. The recently approved ICH S9 guidance relaxes the traditional regulatory SP package in order to accelerate the clinical access to anticancer drugs for patients with advanced malignancies. The novel FDA 'Animal Rule' guidance proposes that for clinical candidates with well-understood toxicities, marketing approval may be granted exclusively on efficacy data generated in animal studies as human clinical investigations for these types of drugs are either unfeasible or unethical. In conclusion, the core messages of this meeting are that SP should consistently operate according to the 'fit

  3. Progression in Complexity: Contextualizing Sustainable Marine Resources Management in a 10th Grade Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo-Torija, Beatriz; Jiménez-Aleixandre, María-Pilar

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable management of marine resources raises great challenges. Working with this socio-scientific issue in the classroom requires students to apply complex models about energy flow and trophic pyramids in order to understand that food chains represent transfer of energy, to construct meanings for sustainable resources management through discourse, and to connect them to actions and decisions in a real-life context. In this paper we examine the process of elaboration of plans for resources management in a marine ecosystem by 10th grade students (15-16 year) in the context of solving an authentic task. A complete class ( N = 14) worked in a sequence about ecosystems. Working in small groups, the students made models of energy flow and trophic pyramids, and used them to solve the problem of feeding a small community for a long time. Data collection included videotaping and audiotaping of all of the sessions, and collecting the students' written productions. The research objective is to examine the process of designing a plan for sustainable resources management in terms of the discursive moves of the students across stages in contextualizing practices, or different degrees of complexity (Jiménez-Aleixandre & Reigosa International Journal of Science Education, 14(1): 51-61 2006), understood as transformations from theoretical statements to decisions about the plan. The analysis of students' discursive moves shows how the groups progressed through stages of connecting different models, between them and with the context, in order to solve the task. The challenges related to taking this sustainability issue to the classroom are discussed.

  4. 10th annual meeting of the Safety Pharmacology Society: an overview.

    PubMed

    Cavero, Icilio

    2011-03-01

    The 10th annual meeting of the Safety Pharmacology (SP) Society covered numerous topics of educational and practical research interest. Biopolymers - the theme of the keynote address - were presented as essential components of medical devices, diagnostic tools, biosensors, human tissue engineering and pharmaceutical formulations for optimized drug delivery. Toxicology and SP investigators - the topic of the Distinguished Service Award Lecture - were encouraged to collaborate in the development of SP technologies and protocols applicable to toxicology studies. Pharmaceutical companies, originally organizations bearing all risks for developing their portfolios, are increasingly moving towards fully integrated networks which outsource core activities (including SP studies) to large contract research organizations. Future nonclinical data are now expected to be of such high quality and predictability power that they may obviate the need for certain expensive and time-consuming clinical investigations. In this context, SP is called upon to extend its risk assessment purview to areas which currently are not systematically covered, such as drug-induced QRS interval prolongation, negative emotions and feelings (e.g., depression), and minor chronic cardiovascular and metabolic changes (e.g., as produced by drugs for type 2 diabetes) which can be responsible for delayed morbidity and mortality. The recently approved ICH S9 guidance relaxes the traditional regulatory SP package in order to accelerate the clinical access to anticancer drugs for patients with advanced malignancies. The novel FDA 'Animal Rule' guidance proposes that for clinical candidates with well-understood toxicities, marketing approval may be granted exclusively on efficacy data generated in animal studies as human clinical investigations for these types of drugs are either unfeasible or unethical. In conclusion, the core messages of this meeting are that SP should consistently operate according to the 'fit

  5. Human papillomavirus vaccine uptake, knowledge and attitude among 10th grade students in Berlin, Germany, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Stöcker, Petra; Dehnert, Manuel; Schuster, Melanie; Wichmann, Ole; Deleré, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Since March 2007, the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) recommends HPV vaccination for all 12–17 y-old females in Germany. In the absence of an immunization register, we aimed at assessing HPV-vaccination coverage and knowledge among students in Berlin, the largest city in Germany, to identify factors influencing HPV-vaccine uptake. Results: Between September and December 2010, 442 students completed the questionnaire (mean age 15.1; range 14–19). In total 281/442 (63.6%) students specified HPV correctly as a sexually transmitted infection. Of 238 participating girls, 161 (67.6%) provided their vaccination records. Among these, 66 (41.0%) had received the recommended three HPV-vaccine doses. Reasons for being HPV-unvaccinated were reported by 65 girls: Dissuasion from parents (40.2%), dissuasion from their physician (18.5%), and concerns about side-effects (30.8%) (multiple choices possible). The odds of being vaccinated increased with age (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.19, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.16, 4.15) and decreased with negative attitude toward vaccinations (OR = 0.33, 95%CI 0.13, 0.84). Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 10th grade school students in 14 participating schools in Berlin to assess socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, and statements on vaccinations. Vaccination records were reviewed. Multivariable statistical methods were applied to identify independent predictors for HPV-vaccine uptake among female participants. Conclusions: HPV-vaccine uptake was low among school girls in Berlin. Both, physicians and parents were influential regarding their HPV-vaccination decision even though personal perceptions played an important role as well. School programs could be beneficial to improve knowledge related to HPV and vaccines, and to offer low-barrier access to HPV vaccination. PMID:22995838

  6. Exposure, probable PTSD and lower respiratory illness among World Trade Center rescue, recovery and clean-up workers

    PubMed Central

    Luft, B. J.; Schechter, C.; Kotov, R.; Broihier, J.; Reissman, D.; Guerrera, K.; Udasin, I.; Moline, J.; Harrison, D.; Friedman-Jimenez, G.; Pietrzak, R. H.; Southwick, S. M.; Bromet, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Thousands of rescue and recovery workers descended on the World Trade Center (WTC) in the wake of the terrorist attack of September 11, 2001 (9/11). Recent studies show that respiratory illness and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are the hallmark health problems, but relationships between them are poorly understood. The current study examined this link and evaluated contributions of WTC exposures. Method Participants were 8508 police and 12 333 non-traditional responders examined at the WTC Medical Monitoring and Treatment Program (WTC-MMTP), a clinic network in the New York area established by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to explore patterns of association among exposures, other risk factors, probable WTC-related PTSD [based on the PTSD Checklist (PCL)], physician-assessed respiratory symptoms arising after 9/11 and present at examination, and abnormal pulmonary functioning defined by low forced vital capacity (FVC). Results Fewer police than non-traditional responders had probable PTSD (5.9% v. 23.0%) and respiratory symptoms (22.5% v. 28.4%), whereas pulmonary function was similar. PTSD and respiratory symptoms were moderately correlated (r=0.28 for police and 0.27 for non-traditional responders). Exposure was more strongly associated with respiratory symptoms than with PTSD or lung function. The SEM model that best fit the data in both groups suggested that PTSD statistically mediated the association of exposure with respiratory symptoms. Conclusions Although longitudinal data are needed to confirm the mediation hypothesis, the link between PTSD and respiratory symptoms is noteworthy and calls for further investigation. The findings also support the value of integrated medical and psychiatric treatment for disaster responders. PMID:22459506

  7. Influence of V-Diagrams on 10th Grade Turkish Students' Achievement in the Subject of Mechanical Waves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekes, Hanife; Gonen, Selahattin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how the use of V-diagrams one of the learning techniques used in laboratory studies in experiments conducted regarding the 10th grade lesson unit of "waves" influenced students' achievements. In the study, a quasi-experimental design with a pretest and posttest control group was used. The study was…

  8. Investigating the Effects of a DNA Fingerprinting Workshop on 10th Grade Students' Self Efficacy and Attitudes toward Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonmez, Duygu; Simcox, Amanda

    The purpose of this study was investigate the effects of a DNA Fingerprinting Workshop on 10th grade students' self efficacy and attitudes toward science. The content of the workshop based on high school science curriculum and includes multimedia instruction, laboratory experiment and participation of undergraduate students as mentors. N=93…

  9. School Climate and the Relationship to Student Learning of Hispanic 10th Grade Students in Arizona Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava Delgado, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    This study provided an analysis of Hispanic 10th grade student academic achievement in the areas of mathematics, reading and writing as measured by the Arizona's Instrument to Measure Standards. The study is based on data of 163 school districts and 25,103 (95%) students in the state of Arizona as published by the Arizona Department of…

  10. The Effect of Case-Based Instruction on 10th Grade Students' Understanding of Gas Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalçinkaya, Eylem; Boz, Yezdan

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of case-based instruction on remedying 10th grade students' alternative conceptions related to gas concepts. 128 tenth grade students from two high schools participated in this study. In each school, one of the classes was randomly assigned as the experimental group and the…

  11. Predicting 3rd Grade and 10th Grade FCAT Success for 2006-07. Research Brief. Volume 0601

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Rubiera, Vilma

    2006-01-01

    For the past few years the Florida School Code has set the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) performance requirements for promotion of 3rd graders and graduation for 10th graders. Grade 3 students who do not score at level 2 or higher on the FCAT SSS Reading must be retained unless exempted for special circumstances. Grade 10 students…

  12. Examining General and Specific Factors in the Dimensionality of Oral Language and Reading in 4th-10th Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore dimensions of oral language and reading and their influence on reading comprehension in a relatively understudied population--adolescent readers in 4th through 10th grades. The current study employed latent variable modeling of decoding fluency, vocabulary, syntax, and reading comprehension so as to…

  13. Risk Communication and Public Education in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada on the 10th Anniversary of the "Black Friday" Tornado

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard-Boehm, R. Denise; Cook, M. Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    In July 1997, on the 10th anniversary of the great "Black Friday" Tornado, city officials of Edmonton, the print and broadcast media, agencies dealing in emergency management, and the national weather organisation recounted stories of the 1987, F5 tornado that struck Edmonton on a holiday weekend. The information campaign also presented…

  14. 3 CFR 8938 - Proclamation 8938 of March 1, 2013. 10th Anniversary of the United States Department of Homeland...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., BARACK OBAMA, President of the United States of America, by virtue of the authority vested in me by the... of the United States Department of Homeland Security 8938 Proclamation 8938 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8938 of March 1, 2013 Proc. 8938 10th Anniversary of the United States......

  15. Proceedings of the International Conference on Mobile Learning 2014. (10th, Madrid, Spain, February 28-March 2, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez, Inmaculada Arnedillo, Ed.; Isaías, Pedro, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings contain the papers of the 10th International Conference on Mobile Learning 2014, which was organised by the International Association for Development of the Information Society, in Madrid, Spain, February 28-March 2, 2014. The Mobile Learning 2014 International Conference seeks to provide a forum for the presentation and…

  16. Factors Related to Alcohol Use among 6th through 10th Graders: The Sarasota County Demonstration Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Danice K.; Forthofer, Melinda S.; Zapata, Lauren B.; Brown, Kelli R. McCormack; Bryant, Carol A.; Reynolds, Sherri T.; McDermott, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Alcohol consumption by youth can produce negative health outcomes. This study identified correlates of lifetime alcohol use, recent alcohol use, and binge drinking among youth in sixth through 10th grade (n = 2,004) in Sarasota County, Fla. Results from a closed-ended, quantitative survey acknowledged a range of personal, social and environmental…

  17. Students' Transition Experience in the 10th Year of Schooling: Perceptions That Contribute to Improving the Quality of Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Ana Cristina; Mouraz, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The study followed students in their 10th year of schooling that entered a new secondary education school in order to examine their perceptions of their previous schools' work and of its relationship with the difficulties they experience when in the transition. The analysis of 155 completed questionnaires of previous students of nine basic…

  18. Antiretrovirals for developing world.

    PubMed

    Adler, M W

    1998-01-24

    The most recent UNAIDS figures indicate that approximately 30 million people are infected with HIV worldwide, 5.8 million of whom were newly infected during 1997. At the 10th International Conference on AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases in Africa, the President and Secretary of Health of France called upon developed countries to establish a Therapeutic Assistance Fund to make antiretrovirals available to people with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. While the annual per capita health budget in most African countries is less than US$10, triple antiretroviral therapy against AIDS in the developed world costs $12,000-14,000 per patient per year. Calculations based upon a lower per patient cost of $7000, and treating all 1.4 million African AIDS cases, would cost US$10 billion per year for drugs alone, more than 30 times the amount currently spent annually by international donors for AIDS programs in the entire developing world. Basic infrastructural requirements would have to be met were antiretrovirals made widely available, ranging from HIV screening and counseling to the provision of clean water with which to consume the required 20-30 tablets per day. High program costs will challenge long-term sustainability. Universal access to care and treatment for HIV infection and AIDS is not a reality in the developed world, let alone feasible in developing countries. Given the competing health care priorities in developing countries, the high costs of antiretroviral agents, poor infrastructure, and inability to sustain such a program, the French initiative is ill-advised and foolish public health practice.

  19. The Royal Book by Haly Abbas from the 10th century: one of the earliest illustrations of the surgical approach to skull fractures.

    PubMed

    Aciduman, Ahmet; Arda, Berna; Kahya, Esin; Belen, Deniz

    2010-12-01

    Haly Abbas was one of the pioneering physicians and surgeons of the Eastern world in the 10th century who influenced the Western world by his monumental work, The Royal Book. The book was first partly translated into Latin by Constantinus Africanus in the 11th century without citing the author's name. Haly Abbas was recognized in Europe after full translation of The Royal Book by Stephen of Antioch in 1127. The Royal Book has been accepted as an early source of jerrah-names (surgical books) in the Eastern world. The chapters regarding cranial fractures in Haly Abbas' work include unique management strategies for his period with essential quotations from Paul of Aegina's work Epitome. Both authors preferred free bone flap craniotomy in cranial fractures. Although Paul of Aegina, a Byzantine physician and surgeon, was a connection between ancient traditions and Islamic interpretation, Haly Abbas seemed to play a bridging role between the Roman-Byzantine and the School of Salerno in Europe.

  20. Plasma Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  1. The Earlier the Better? Taking the AP® in 10th Grade. Research Report No. 2012-10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Awilda; McKillip, Mary E. M.; Niu, Sunny X.

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the authors examine the impact of scoring a 1 or 2 on an AP® Exam in 10th grade on later AP Exam participation and performance. As access to AP courses increases within and across schools, a growing number of students are taking AP courses and exams in the earlier grades of high school. Using a matched sample of AP and no-AP…

  2. Evaluation of the 10th Grade Computerized Mathematics Curriculum from the Perspective of the Teachers and Educational Supervisors in the Southern Region in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Tarawneh, Sabri Hassan; Al-Qadi, Haitham Mamdouh

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the 10th grade computerized mathematics curriculum from the perspective of the teachers and supervisors in the southern region in Jordan. The study population consisted of all the teachers who teach the 10th grade in the southern region, with the total of (309) teachers and (20) supervisors. The sample consisted of…

  3. Is the 10th and 11th intercostal space a safe approach for percutaneous nephrostomy and nephrolithotomy?

    PubMed

    Muzrakchi, Ahmed Al; Szmigielski, W; Omar, Ahmed J S; Younes, Nagy M

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of complications in percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) and nephrolithotomy (PCNL) performed through the 11th and 10th intercostal spaces using our monitoring technique and to discuss the safety of the procedure. Out of 398 PCNs and PCNLs carried out during a 3-year period, 56 patients had 57 such procedures performed using an intercostal approach. The 11th intercostal route was used in 42 and the 10th in 15 cases. One patient had two separate nephrostomies performed through the 10th and 11th intercostal spaces. The technique utilizes bi-planar fluoroscopy with a combination of a conventional angiographic machine to provide anterior-posterior fluoroscopy and a C-arm mobile fluoroscopy machine to give a lateral view, displayed on two separate monitors. None of the patients had clinically significant thoracic or abdominal complications. Two patients had minor chest complications. Only one developed changes (plate atelectasis, elevation of the hemi-diaphragm) directly related to the nephrostomy (2%). The second patient had bilateral plate atelectasis and unilateral congestive lung changes after PCNL. These changes were not necessarily related to the procedure but rather to general anesthesia during nephrolithotomy. The authors consider PCN or PCNL through the intercostal approach a safe procedure with a negligible complication rate, provided that it is performed under bi-planar fluoroscopy, which allows determination of the skin entry point just below the level of pleural reflection and provides three-dimensional monitoring of advancement of the puncturing needle toward the target entry point. PMID:15383855

  4. Is the 10th and 11th Intercostal Space a Safe Approach for Percutaneous Nephrostomy and Nephrolithotomy?

    SciTech Connect

    Muzrakchi, Ahmed Al; Szmigielski, W. Omar, Ahmed J.S.; Younes, Nagy M.

    2004-09-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the rate of complications in percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) and nephrolithotomy (PCNL) performed through the 11th and 10th intercostal spaces using our monitoring technique and to discuss the safety of the procedure. Out of 398 PCNs and PCNLs carried out during a 3-year period, 56 patients had 57 such procedures performed using an intercostal approach. The 11th intercostal route was used in 42 and the 10th in 15 cases. One patient had two separate nephrostomies performed through the 10th and 11th intercostal spaces. The technique utilizes bi-planar fluoroscopy with a combination of a conventional angiographic machine to provide anterior-posterior fluoroscopy and a C-arm mobile fluoroscopy machine to give a lateral view, displayed on two separate monitors. None of the patients had clinically significant thoracic or abdominal complications. Two patients had minor chest complications. Only one developed changes (plate atelectasis, elevation of the hemi-diaphragm) directly related to the nephrostomy (2%). The second patient had bilateral plate atelectasis and unilateral congestive lung changes after PCNL. These changes were not necessarily related to the procedure but rather to general anesthesia during nephrolithotomy. The authors consider PCN or PCNL through the intercostal approach a safe procedure with a negligible complication rate, provided that it is performed under bi-planar fluoroscopy, which allows determination of the skin entry point just below the level of pleural reflection and provides three-dimensional monitoring of advancement of the puncturing needle toward the target entry point.

  5. PREFACE: 10th Summer School on Theoretical Physics 'Symmetry and Structural Properties of Condensed Matter'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lulek, Tadeusz; Wal, Andrzej; Lulek, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    This volume contains the Proceedings of the Tenth Summer School on Theoretical Physics under the banner title 'Symmetry and Structural Properties of Condensed Matter' (SSPCM 2009). The School was organized by Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland, in cooperation with AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland, and took place on 2-9 September 2009 in Myczkowce, Poland. With this meeting we have reached the round number ten of the series of biannual SSPCM schools, which started in 1990 and were focused on some advanced mathematical methods of condensed matter physics. The first five meetings were held in Zajaczkowo near Poznan, under the auspices of The Institute of Physics of Adam Mickiewicz University, and the last five in Myczkowce near Rzeszów, in the south-eastern part of Poland. Within these two decades several young workers who started at kindergarten lectures at SSPCM, have now reached their PhD degrees, professorships and authority. Proceedings of the first seven SSPCM meetings were published as separate volumes by World Scientific, and the last two as volumes 30 and 104 of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The present meeting is also the third of the last schools which put the emphasis on quantum informatics. The main topics of our jubilee SSPCM'09 are the following: Information processing, entanglement, and tensor calculus, Integrable models and unitary symmetry, Finite systems and nanophysics. The Proceedings are divided into three parts accordingly. The school gathered together 55 participants from seven countries and several scientific centers in Poland, accommodating again advanced research with young collaborators and students. Acknowledgements The Organizing Committee would like to express its gratitude to all participants for their many activities during the School and for creating a friendly and inspiring atmosphere within our SSPCM society. Special thanks are due to all lecturers for preparing and presenting their talks and

  6. PREFACE: 10th International Conference on Materials and Mechanisms of Superconductivity (M2S-X)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, L. H.; Zhu, J.-X.; Wang, H.; Meen, J.; Lorenz, B.; Dong, X. L.; dela Cruz, C. R.; Carlson, E.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Bauer, E.; Paglione, J.

    2013-07-01

    The 2012 Materials and Mechanisms of Superconductivity Conference (M2S 2012), which occurs every three years, brought together world experts and young scientists to discuss open questions in the fundamental physics and applications of superconductors, and to disseminate the latest theoretical and experimental research results in superconductors and related novel materials. This conference of 600 participants acted as a valuable training ground in this technologically important area. We focused on key unanswered questions in high-temperature cuprate superconductors, high-temperature iron-based superconductors, topological superconductors, organic superconductors, and heavy-electron superconductors. The discovery of new materials and novel technological applications for electronic devices and for energy transmission and storage was emphasized. There were special sessions on superconductivity and energy, and outreach sessions, and an evening public lecture. There were also junior researcher symposia interspersed within the conference, thus providing an ideal environment for advanced graduate students and postdoctoral researchers to explore the latest theoretical and experimental methods used to investigate challenging questions in the physics of materials as it relates to both fundamental science and technological applications. These proceedings are an archival testament to the excitement in the field and provide a valuable snapshot of the cutting-edge research of 2012. We hope this will be a valuable resource to active researchers in the field as well as an encouraging volume to excite new researchers to the ever-growing, multifaceted field of superconductivity. We thank Bernd Lorenz and his Publications Committee for their tremendously creative and diligent work in putting this volume together. This Conference would not have been possible without the tireless work of our Program Committee, Chaired by Rick Greene and Co-Chaired by Mike Norman. Becky McDuffee, our

  7. Fortified Settlements of the 9th and 10th Centuries ad in Central Europe: Structure, Function and Symbolism

    PubMed Central

    Herold, Hajnalka

    2012-01-01

    THE STRUCTURE, FUNCTION(S) and symbolism of early medieval (9th–10th centuries ad) fortified settlements from central Europe, in particular today’s Austria, Hungary, Czech Republic and Slovakia, are examined in this paper. It offers an overview of the current state of research together with new insights based on analysis of the site of Gars-Thunau in Lower Austria. Special emphasis is given to the position of the fortified sites in the landscape, to the elements of the built environment and their spatial organisation, as well as to graves within the fortified area. The region under study was situated on the SE border of the Carolingian (and later the Ottonian) Empire, with some of the discussed sites lying in the territory of the ‘Great Moravian Empire’ in the 9th and 10th centuries. These sites can therefore provide important comparative data for researchers working in other parts of the Carolingian Empire and neighbouring regions. PMID:23564981

  8. PREFACE: 10th International Conference on Clustering Aspects of Nuclear Structure and Dynamics (CLUSTER'12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovas, R. G.; Dombrádi, Zs; Kiss, G. G.; Kruppa, A. T.; Lévai, G.

    2013-04-01

    As Editors of this Proceedings volume and organizers as well as participants of the Conference, let us sum up a few facts about the Conference and let us add some subjective notes. The conference was held at Köolcsey Centre, a prestigious site of scientific and business meetings and cultural events in the city of Debrecen, Hungary, 24-28 September 2012. The city was chosen as the home of the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, the home institution of the organizers. The Institute was visited by some of the participants. The organizing team was complemented by some belonging to the University of Debrecen, which made it possible to hold the conference dinner in the marvellous covered 'ceremonial court' of the University. The participants were taken for an excursion and wine tasting to a wine cellar at Tokaj, centre of, historically, the most significant wine producing area in Hungary. By coincidence, the closing day coincided with the day of what is called the Researchers' Night in the European Union. That night, (or rather, that evening) every year there is a public lecture in the Institute of Nuclear Research for a general audience, mainly secondary-school pupils. The public lecture scheduled on this occasion was held by one of the participants of the conference who represented the world outside Hungary and yet was able to deliver a talk in Hungarian. He is Professor Kálmán Varga, Vanderbilt University. The title of his talk was Simulation of Nanosystems ( http://kutatokejszakaja.hu/2012/esemenynaptar/esemeny.php?id=112&menu_id=4). There were 115 registered participants, representing 22 countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, Central, South and North America. We had 44 plenary talks and 47 talks presented in parallel sessions. In the Programme list the talks are arranged following the session structure of the Conference. In this list the invited speakers are marked by asterisks. All the talks in the plenary sessions were invited talks

  9. Dirt Alert--The Chemistry of Cleaning. Hands-on Science Activities for Grades 4-12. Science in Our World, Volume Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarquis, Mickey, Ed.

    This monograph focuses on the chemistry of cleaning and enables teachers to introduce their students to the concepts and processes of industrial chemistry and relate these concepts to the consumer products students encounter daily. This teacher resource module is organized into sections that provide information on how to use the resource module,…

  10. World Religions: A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilzer, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    This curriculum guide is for a semester length elective course on the world's major religions designed to be used at the 10th grade level in the Newtown Public Schools, Newton, Connecticut. It reviews each religion's origins, historical developments, sacred literature, beliefs, values, and practices while emphasizing the impact of religion on…

  11. 10th European VLBI Network Symposium and EVN Users Meeting: VLBI and the new generation of radio arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics and the University of Manchester, on behalf of the European VLBI Consortium, will host the 10th European VLBI Network Symposium and the EVN Users Meeting from September 20th - 24th, 2010, entitled "VLBI and the new generation of radio arrays". The Symposium will be held at the University of Manchester, UK. At this conference the latest scientific results and technical developments from VLBI and e-VLBI results will be reported. The timing of this meeting coincides with the development of, and first results from a number of new and upgraded radio facilities around the globe, such as e-MERLIN, LOFAR, EVLA, ALMA, and the SKA pathfinders ASKAP and MeerKAT. This meeting will incorporate some of the first results from these new instruments, in addition to the unique scientific and technical contribution of VLBI in this new era of radio astronomy.

  12. The Interpretations and Applications of Boethius's Introduction to the Arithmetic II,1 at the End of the 10th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otisk, Marek

    This paper deals with comments and glosses to the first chapter of the second book of Boethius's Introduction to Arithmetic from the last quarter of the 10th century. Those texts were written by Gerbert of Aurillac (Scholium ad Boethii Arithmeticam Institutionem l. II, c. 1), Abbo of Fleury (commentary on the Calculus by Victorius of Aquitaine, the so-called De numero, mensura et pondere), Notker of Liège (De superparticularibus) and by the anonymous author (De arithmetica Boetii). The main aim of this paper is to show that Boethius's statements about the converting numerical sequences to equality from this work could be interpreted minimally in two different ways. This paper discussed also the application of this topic in other liberal arts (like astronomy, music, grammar etc.) and in playing game called rithmomachia, the medieval philosophers' game.

  13. Report on the 10th European Fusion Physics Workshop (Vaals, The Netherlands, 9-11 December 2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, D. J.; Borba, D.; Bucalossi, J.; Moreau, D.; Sauter, O.; Stober, J.; Vayakis, G.

    2003-06-01

    The 10th European Fusion Physics Workshop took place in December 2002 at Vaals in The Netherlands, hosted by the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (TEC: Associations EURATOM-ERM/KMS, FZJ and FOM), and sponsored by the European Commission and the Foundation SOFT. Within an overall theme of `Operational limits in toroidal devices, with particular reference to steady-state operation', four topics of importance to the future development of magnetically confined fusion were discussed in detail. In addition, a review of the JET scientific and technical programme under EFDA and an assessment of ITER's measurement requirements and diagnostic development programme were presented. The main issues discussed and the areas identified as requiring further study are summarized here.

  14. Optical and microphysical properties of mineral dust and biomass burning aerosol observed over Warsaw on 10th July 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicka, Lucja; Stachlewska, Iwona; Veselovskii, Igor; Baars, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Biomass burning aerosol originating from Canadian forest fires was widely observed over Europe in July 2013. Favorable weather conditions caused long-term westward flow of smoke from Canada to Western and Central Europe. During this period, PollyXT lidar of the University of Warsaw took wavelength dependent measurements in Warsaw. On July 10th short event of simultaneous advection of Canadian smoke and Saharan dust was observed at different altitudes over Warsaw. Different origination of both air masses was indicated by backward trajectories from HYSPLIT model. Lidar measurements performed with various wavelength (1064, 532, 355 nm), using also Raman and depolarization channels for VIS and UV allowed for distinguishing physical differences of this two types of aerosols. Optical properties acted as input for retrieval of microphysical properties. Comparisons of microphysical and optical properties of biomass burning aerosols and mineral dust observed will be presented.

  15. Supracostal Approach for PCNL: Is 10th and 11th Intercostal Space Safe According to Clavien Classification System?

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Cengiz; Değirmenci, Tansu; Kozacioglu, Zafer; Gunlusoy, Bulent; Koras, Omer; Minareci, Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success and morbidity of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) performed through the 11th and 10th intercostal space. Between March 2005 and February 2012, 612 patients underwent PCNL, 243 of whom had a supracostal access. The interspace between the 11th and 12th rib was used in 204 cases (group 1) and between the 10th and 11th interspaces in 39 cases (group 2). PCNL was performed using standard supracostal technique in all patients. The operative time, success rate, hospital stay, and complications according to the modified Clavien classification were compared between group 1 and group 2. The stone-free rate was 86.8% in group 1 and 84.6% in group 2 after one session of PCNL. Auxiliary procedures consisting of ureterorenoscopy (URS) and shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) were required in 5 and 7 patients, respectively, in group 1; and in 1 patient each in group 2 . After the auxiliary procedures, stone-free rates increased to 92.6% in group 1 and 89.7% in group 2. A total of 74 (30.4%) complications were documented in the 2 groups according to modified Clavien classification. Grade-I complications were recorded in 20 (8.2%), grade-II in 38 (15.6%), grade-IIIa in 13 (5.3%), and grade-IIIb in 2 (0.8%) patients; grade-IVa was recorded in 1 (0.4%) patient. There were no grade-IVb or grade-V complications. Overall complication rate was 30.9% in group 1 and 28.2% in group 2. Supracostal PCNL in selected cases is effective and safe with acceptable complications. The modified Clavien system provides a standardized grading system for complications of PCNL. PMID:25437600

  16. Investigating the intrinsic and extrinsic work values of 10th grade students in science-oriented charter schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozer, Ozgur

    The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent gender, achievement level, and income level predict the intrinsic and extrinsic work values of 10th grade students. The study explored whether group differences were good predictors of scores in work values. The research was a descriptive, cross-sectional study conducted on 131 10th graders who attended science-oriented charter schools. Students took Super's Work Values Instrument, a Likert-type test that links to 15 work values, which can be categorized as intrinsic and extrinsic values (Super, 1970). Multiple regression analysis was employed as the main analysis followed by ANCOVA. Multiple regression analysis results indicated that there is evidence that 8.9% of the variance in intrinsic work values and 10.2% of the variance in extrinsic work values can be explained by the independent variables ( p < .05). Achievement Level and Income Level may help predict intrinsic work value scores; Achievement Level may also help predict extrinsic work values. Achievement Level was the covariate in ANCOVA. Results indicated that males (M = .174) in this sample have a higher mean of extrinsic work values than that of females (M = -.279). However, there was no statistically significant difference between the intrinsic work values by gender. One possible interpretation of this might be school choice; students in these science-oriented charter schools may have higher intrinsic work values regardless of gender. Results indicated that there was no statistically significant difference among the means of extrinsic work values by income level (p < .05). However, free lunch students (M = .268) have a higher mean of intrinsic work values than that of paid lunch students ( M = -.279). A possible interpretation of this might be that lower income students benefit greatly from the intrinsic work values in overcoming obstacles. Further research is needed in each of these areas. The study produced statistically significant results

  17. Energy-drink consumption and its relationship with substance use and sensation seeking among 10th grade students in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge

    2015-06-01

    Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of energy-drink (ED) consumption among 10th grade students in Istanbul/Turkey. Cross-sectional online self-report survey conducted in 45 schools from the 15 districts in Istanbul. The questionnaire included sections about demographic data, self-destructive behavior and use of substances including tobacco, alcohol and drugs. Also Psychological Screening Test for Adolescents (PSTA) was used. The analyses were conducted based on the 4957 subjects. Rate of those reported a ED consumption once within last year was 62.0% (n=3072), whereas rate of those reported ED consumption at least once in a month was 31.1%. There were consistent, statistically significant associations between genders, lifetime substance use (tobacco, alcohol and drug use), measures of sensation seeking, psychological problems (depression, anxiety, anger, impulsivity) and self-destructive behavior (self-harming behavior and suicidal thoughts) with ED consumption. In logistic regression models male gender, sensation seeking, life-time tobacco, alcohol and drug use predicted all frequencies of ED consumption. In addition to these predictors, anger and self-harming behavior also predicted ED consumption at least once in a month. There were no interactions between the associations of lifetime tobacco, alcohol and drug use with ED consumption. The findings suggest that the ED consumption of male students is related with three clusters of substances (tobacco, alcohol and drug) through sensation seeking and these relationships do not interact with each other. PMID:26006774

  18. XAFS study of copper and silver nanoparticles in glazes of medieval middle-east lustreware (10th-13th century)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovani, S.; Puzzovio, D.; Sada, C.; Mazzoldi, P.; Borgia, I.; Sgamellotti, A.; Brunetti, B. G.; Cartechini, L.; D'Acapito, F.; Maurizio, C.; Shokoui, F.; Oliaiy, P.; Rahighi, J.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Pantos, E.

    2006-06-01

    It has recently been shown that lustre decoration of medieval and Renaissance pottery consists of silver and copper nanoparticles dispersed in the glassy matrix of the ceramic glaze. Here the findings of an X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) study on lustred glazes of shards belonging to 10th and 13rd century pottery from the National Museum of Iran are reported. Absorption spectra in the visible range have been also measured in order to investigate the relations between colour and glaze composition. Gold colour is mainly due to Ag nanoparticles, though Ag+, Cu+ and Cu2+ ions can be also dispersed within the glassy matrix, with different ratios. Red colour is mainly due to Cu nanoparticles, although some Ag nanoparticles, Ag+ and Cu+ ions can be present. The achievement of metallic Cu and the absence of Cu2+ indicate a higher reduction of copper in red lustre. These findings are in substantial agreement with previous results on Italian Renaissance pottery. In spite of the large heterogeneity of cases, the presence of copper and silver ions in the glaze confirms that lustre formation is mediated by a copper- and silver-alkali ion exchange, followed by nucleation and growth of metal nanoparticles.

  19. Report on the 10th anniversary of international drug discovery science and technology conference, 8 - 10 november 2012, nanjing, china.

    PubMed

    Everett, Jeremy R

    2013-03-01

    The 10th Anniversary of International Drug Discovery Science and Technology (IDDST) Conference was held in Nanjing, China from 8 to 10 November 2012. The conference ran in parallel with the 2nd Annual Symposium of Drug Delivery Systems. Over 400 delegates from both conferences came together for the Opening Ceremony and Keynote Addresses but otherwise pursued separate paths in the huge facilities of the Nanjing International Expo Centre. The IDDST was arranged into 19 separate Chapters covering drug discovery biology, target validation, chemistry, rational drug design, pharmacology and toxicology, drug screening technology, 'omics' technologies, analytical, automation and enabling technologies, informatics, stem cells and regenerative medicine, bioprocessing, generics, biosimilars and biologicals and seven disease areas: cancer, CNS, respiratory and inflammation, autoimmune, emerging infectious, bone and orphan diseases. There were also two sessions of a 'Bench to Bedside to Business' Program and a Chinese Scientist programme. In each period of the IDDST conference, up to seven sessions were running in parallel. This Meeting Highlight samples just a fraction of the content of this large meeting. The talks included have as a link, the use of new approaches to drug discovery. Many other excellent talks could have been highlighted and the author has necessarily had to be selective.

  20. The 10th anniversary of the Junior Members and Affiliates of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.

    PubMed

    Skevaki, Chrysanthi L; Maggina, Paraskevi; Santos, Alexandra F; Rodrigues-Alves, Rodrigo; Antolin-Amerigo, Dario; Borrego, Luis Miguel; Bretschneider, Isabell; Butiene, Indre; Couto, Mariana; Fassio, Filippo; Gardner, James; Xatzipsalti, Maria; Hovhannisyan, Lilit; Hox, Valerie; Makrinioti, Heidi; O Neil, Serena E; Pala, Gianni; Rudenko, Michael; Santucci, Annalisa; Seys, Sven; Sokolowska, Milena; Whitaker, Paul; Heffler, Enrico

    2011-12-01

    This year is the 10th anniversary of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Junior Members and Affiliates (JMAs). The aim of this review is to highlight the work and activities of EAACI JMAs. To this end, we have summarized all the initiatives taken by JMAs during the last 10 yr. EAACI JMAs are currently a group of over 2380 clinicians and scientists under the age of 35 yr, who support the continuous education of the Academy's younger members. For the past decade, JMAs enjoy a steadily increasing number of benefits such as free online access to the Academy's journals, the possibility to apply for Fellowships and the Mentorship Program, travel grants to attend scientific meetings, and many more. In addition, JMAs have been involved in task forces, cooperation schemes with other scientific bodies, organization of JMA focused sessions during EAACI meetings, and participation in the activities of EAACI communication platforms. EAACI JMA activities represent an ideal example of recruiting, training, and educating young scientists in order for them to thrive as future experts in their field. This model may serve as a prototype for other scientific communities, several of which have already adapted similar policies.

  1. Energy-drink consumption and its relationship with substance use and sensation seeking among 10th grade students in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge

    2015-06-01

    Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of energy-drink (ED) consumption among 10th grade students in Istanbul/Turkey. Cross-sectional online self-report survey conducted in 45 schools from the 15 districts in Istanbul. The questionnaire included sections about demographic data, self-destructive behavior and use of substances including tobacco, alcohol and drugs. Also Psychological Screening Test for Adolescents (PSTA) was used. The analyses were conducted based on the 4957 subjects. Rate of those reported a ED consumption once within last year was 62.0% (n=3072), whereas rate of those reported ED consumption at least once in a month was 31.1%. There were consistent, statistically significant associations between genders, lifetime substance use (tobacco, alcohol and drug use), measures of sensation seeking, psychological problems (depression, anxiety, anger, impulsivity) and self-destructive behavior (self-harming behavior and suicidal thoughts) with ED consumption. In logistic regression models male gender, sensation seeking, life-time tobacco, alcohol and drug use predicted all frequencies of ED consumption. In addition to these predictors, anger and self-harming behavior also predicted ED consumption at least once in a month. There were no interactions between the associations of lifetime tobacco, alcohol and drug use with ED consumption. The findings suggest that the ED consumption of male students is related with three clusters of substances (tobacco, alcohol and drug) through sensation seeking and these relationships do not interact with each other.

  2. 10th of April 1987 seismic swarm: Correlation with geochemical parameters in Campi Flegrei Caldera (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, Dario; Bottiglieri, Luisa; Pece, Raimondo

    1988-07-01

    A close relationship between geophysical activity (seismicity and ground deformation) and chemical changes in volcanic reservoirs has been proposed several times in active volcanic areas. In Campi Flegrei caldera, especially during the bradyseismic crisis which occurred between 1982-1984, this correlation was never clearly demonstrated because of the high rate of occurrence of earthquakes and the small number of gas samples. After at least two years of both geochemically and geophysically quiescent period, a swarm of 50 earthquakes, felt in the area of the Solfatara crater with 2.0 maximum magnitude, occurred on the 10th of April 1987. At about the same time (before and after), several geochemical parameters showed important changes in concentration. These include water vapour, nitrogen, hydrogen, methane and to a lesser extent hydrogen sulfide in fumarolic gases from Bocca Grande fumarole in the Solfatara crater and the radon content in water wells situated far from the swarm epicentral area. In our opinion, the processes causing the geochemical changes are linked to aseismic creeping mechanisms, which leads to an easier rising of fluids in fumaroles (H2O, N2, H2 and CH4) and in the superficial water table (Rn). The subsequent seismicity could be related to consequent local stress accumulation on gas reservoir rocks induced by creeping.

  3. Carpenter, tractors and microbes for the development of logical-mathematical thinking - the way 10th graders and pre-service teachers solve thinking challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazit, Avikam

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this case study was to investigate the ability of 10th graders and pre-service teachers to solve logical-mathematical thinking challenges. The challenges do not require mathematical knowledge beyond that of primary school but rather an informed use of the problem representation. The percentage of correct answers given by the 10th graders was higher than that of the pre-service teachers. Unlike the 10th graders, some of whom used various strategies for representing the problem, most of the pre-service teachers' answers were based on a technical algorithm, without using control processes. The obvious conclusion drawn from the findings supports and recommends expanding and enhancing the development of logical-mathematical thinking, both in specific lessons and as an integral part of other lessons in pre-service frameworks.

  4. Risk factors for bulk milk somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts in smallholder dairy farms in the 10th region of Chile.

    PubMed

    van Schaik, G; Green, L E; Guzmán, D; Esparza, H; Tadich, N

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the principal management factors that influenced bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and total bacterial count (TBC) of smallholder dairy farms in the 10th region of Chile. One hundred and fifty smallholder milk producers were selected randomly from 42 milk collection centres (MCCs). In April and May of 2002, all farms were visited and a detailed interview questionnaire on dairy-cow management related to milk quality was conducted. In addition, the BMSCC and TBC results from the previous 2 months' fortnightly tests were obtained from the MCCs. The mean BMSCC and TBC were used as the dependent variables in the analyses and were normalised by a natural-logarithm transformation (LN). All independent management variables were categorised into binary outcomes and present (=1) was compared with absent (=0). Biserial correlations were calculated between the LNBMSCC or LNTBC and the management factors of the smallholder farms. Management factors with correlations with P0.05) factors. A random MCC effect was included in the models to investigate the importance of clustering of herds within MCC. In the null model for mean LNTBC, the random effect of MCCs was highly significant. It was explained by: milk collected once a day or less compared with collection twice a day, not cleaning the bucket after milking mastitic cows versus cleaning the bucket and cooling milk in a vat of water versus not cooling milk or using ice or a bulk tank to cool milk. Other factors that increased the LNTBC were a waiting yard with a soil or gravel floor versus concrete, use of plastic buckets for milking instead of metal, not feeding California mastitis test (CMT)-positive milk to calves and cows of dual-purpose breed. The final model explained 35% of the variance. The model predicted that a herd that complied with all the management practices had a mean

  5. Examining General and Specific Factors in the Dimensionality of Oral Language and Reading in 4th–10th Grades

    PubMed Central

    Foorman, Barbara R.; Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Mitchell, Alison; Truckenmiller, Adrea

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore dimensions of oral language and reading and their influence on reading comprehension in a relatively understudied population—adolescent readers in 4th through 10th grades. The current study employed latent variable modeling of decoding fluency, vocabulary, syntax, and reading comprehension so as to represent these constructs with minimal error and to examine whether residual variance unaccounted for by oral language can be captured by specific factors of syntax and vocabulary. A 1-, 3-, 4-, and bifactor model were tested with 1,792 students in 18 schools in 2 large urban districts in the Southeast. Students were individually administered measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary, syntax, and decoding fluency in mid-year. At the end of the year students took the state reading test as well as a group-administered, norm-referenced test of reading comprehension. The bifactor model fit the data best in all 7 grades and explained 72% to 99% of the variance in reading comprehension. The specific factors of syntax and vocabulary explained significant unique variance in reading comprehension in 1 grade each. The decoding fluency factor was significantly correlated with the reading comprehension and oral language factors in all grades, but, in the presence of the oral language factor, was not significantly associated with the reading comprehension factor. Results support a bifactor model of lexical knowledge rather than the 3-factor model of the Simple View of Reading, with the vast amount of variance in reading comprehension explained by a general oral language factor. PMID:26346839

  6. The Impact of World Youth Day on Religious Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    World Youth Day, a youth-focused Catholic celebration, is the largest recurring youth event in the world. The 10th International World Youth Day (WYD) was held from 15-20 July 2008, in Sydney, Australia and attenders participated in a week-long series of religious events and activities. Little research in English has been conducted on WYD…

  7. Carpenter, Tractors and Microbes for the Development of Logical-Mathematical Thinking--The Way 10th Graders and Pre-Service Teachers Solve Thinking Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazit, Avikam

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this case study was to investigate the ability of 10th graders and pre-service teachers to solve logical-mathematical thinking challenges. The challenges do not require mathematical knowledge beyond that of primary school but rather an informed use of the problem representation. The percentage of correct answers given by the 10th…

  8. Trends in Substance Use among 6th-to 10th-Grade Students from 1998 to 2010: Findings from a National Probability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Russell, Ashley; Farhat, Tilda; Haynie, Denise; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Of the handful of national studies tracking trends in adolescent substance use in the United States, only the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study collects data from 6th through 10th graders. The purpose of this study was to examine trends from 1998 to 2010 (four time points) in the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use…

  9. Advances in Classification Research. Volume 10. Proceedings of the ASIS SIG/CR Classification Research Workshop (10th, Washington, DC, November 1-5, 1999). ASIST Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrechtsen, Hanne, Ed.; Mai, Jens-Erik, Ed.

    This volume is a compilation of the papers presented at the 10th ASIS (American Society for Information Science) workshop on classification research. Major themes include the social and cultural informatics of classification and coding systems, subject access and indexing theory, genre analysis and the agency of documents in the ordering of…

  10. Perceptions of 9th and 10th Grade Students on How Their Environment, Cognition, and Behavior Motivate Them in Algebra and Geometry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harootunian, Alen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, relationships were examined between students' perception of their cognition, behavior, environment, and motivation. The purpose of the research study was to explore the extent to which 9th and 10th grade students' perception of environment, cognition, and behavior can predict their motivation in Algebra and Geometry…

  11. Gender and Ethnic Differences in Smoking, Drinking and Illicit Drug Use among American 8th, 10th and 12th Grade Students, 1976-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, John M., Jr.; Bachman, Jerald G.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.; Cooper, Shauna M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2003-01-01

    Paper examines ethnic differences in licit and illicit drug use among American 8th, 10th, and 12th grade students, with a particular focus on girls. Across ethnic groups, drug use is highest among Native American girls and lowest among black and Asian American girls. Trend data suggest that girls' and boys' drug use patterns are converging.…

  12. The Basic Program of Vocational Agriculture in Louisiana. Ag I and Ag II (9th and 10th Grades). Volume I. Bulletin 1690-I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is the first volume of a state curriculum guide on vocational agriculture for use in the 9th and 10th grades in Louisiana. Three instructional areas are profiled in this volume: orientation to vocational agriculture, agricultural leadership, and soil science. The three units of the orientation area cover introducing beginning…

  13. Clean catch urine sample

    MedlinePlus

    Urine culture - clean catch; Urinalysis - clean catch; Clean catch urine specimen; Urine collection - clean catch ... lips" (labia). You may be given a special clean-catch kit that contains sterile wipes. Sit on ...

  14. Validity of the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision code for hospitalisation with hyponatraemia in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Sonja; Shariff, Salimah Z; Fleet, Jamie L; Weir, Matthew A; Jain, Arsh K; Garg, Amit X

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the validity of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) diagnosis code for hyponatraemia (E87.1) in two settings: at presentation to the emergency department and at hospital admission. Design Population-based retrospective validation study. Setting Twelve hospitals in Southwestern Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2010. Participants Patients aged 66 years and older with serum sodium laboratory measurements at presentation to the emergency department (n=64 581) and at hospital admission (n=64 499). Main outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value comparing various ICD-10 diagnostic coding algorithms for hyponatraemia to serum sodium laboratory measurements (reference standard). Median serum sodium values comparing patients who were code positive and code negative for hyponatraemia. Results The sensitivity of hyponatraemia (defined by a serum sodium ≤132 mmol/l) for the best-performing ICD-10 coding algorithm was 7.5% at presentation to the emergency department (95% CI 7.0% to 8.2%) and 10.6% at hospital admission (95% CI 9.9% to 11.2%). Both specificities were greater than 99%. In the two settings, the positive predictive values were 96.4% (95% CI 94.6% to 97.6%) and 82.3% (95% CI 80.0% to 84.4%), while the negative predictive values were 89.2% (95% CI 89.0% to 89.5%) and 87.1% (95% CI 86.8% to 87.4%). In patients who were code positive for hyponatraemia, the median (IQR) serum sodium measurements were 123 (119–126) mmol/l and 125 (120–130) mmol/l in the two settings. In code negative patients, the measurements were 138 (136–140) mmol/l and 137 (135–139) mmol/l. Conclusions The ICD-10 diagnostic code for hyponatraemia differentiates between two groups of patients with distinct serum sodium measurements at both presentation to the emergency department and at hospital admission. However, these codes underestimate the true incidence of hyponatraemia

  15. Digital Debates. WebWise Conference on Libraries and Museums in the Digital World Proceedings (10th, Capitol Hill, Washington, D.C, February 25-27, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorich, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Debates typically invoke an image of individuals arguing over the merits of opposing viewpoints. However, the term has a softer, more deliberative sense that connotes reflection, discussion, and consideration. The 2009 WebWise conference, titled "Digital Debates," was conducted in this spirit, with panelists and attendees engaged in complex…

  16. African science contributes to the fight against cancer in the world: reflections after the 10th AORTIC conference, 18–22nd November 2015, Marrakesh, Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Stefan, DC

    2016-01-01

    AORTIC (OAREC), the Pan – African organization aiming to unite African scientists in the fight against cancer on the continent, held its 2015 conference in November, in Marrakesh. It was an opportunity to evaluate the progress made, to strengthen scientific collaborations and to draw the future battle lines against cancer on the continent. PMID:26913074

  17. The Enlightenment Music Contract. 10th Grade Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Freda

    The "philosophes" of the Enlightenment Period were a group of free (different) thinkers who offered commentary on societal issues. Often, they were like one of today's social commentators suggesting reforms for the political system. Since the United States during the era of the Revolutionary War was seeking reform of what they considered English…

  18. Cleaning Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  19. Report of the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand Congress (Organising Chair and Scientific Chair).

    PubMed

    A, Roohi Sharifah; Abdullah, Shalimar

    2016-10-01

    A report on the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for the Surgery of the Hand and 6(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Hand Therapists is submitted detailing the numbers of attendees participating, papers presented and support received as well the some of the challenges faced and how best to overcome them from the local conference chair and scientific chair point of view. PMID:27595972

  20. Report of the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Surgery of the Hand Congress (Organising Chair and Scientific Chair).

    PubMed

    A, Roohi Sharifah; Abdullah, Shalimar

    2016-10-01

    A report on the 10(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for the Surgery of the Hand and 6(th) Asia-Pacific Federation of Societies for Hand Therapists is submitted detailing the numbers of attendees participating, papers presented and support received as well the some of the challenges faced and how best to overcome them from the local conference chair and scientific chair point of view.

  1. The Association of Employment and Physical Activity among Black and White 10th and 12th Grade Students in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Evidence of an association between employment and physical activity (PA) in youth has been mixed, with studies suggesting both positive and negative associations. We examined the association between employment and PA among U.S. high school students as measured by self-reported overall PA, vigorous exercise, and participation in school athletic teams. Methods We employed a secondary analysis using weighted linear regression to a sample of black and white 10th grade (n=12073) and 12th grade students (n=5500) drawn from the nationally representative cross-sectional 2004 Monitoring the Future Study. Results Overall, 36.5% of 10th and 74.6% of 12th grade students were employed. In multivariable analyses, 10th graders working >10 hours a week reported less overall PA and exercise and those working >20 hours a week reported less participation in team sports. Among 12th graders, any level of employment was associated with lower rates of team sports; those working >10 hours a week reported less overall PA; and those working >20 hours reported less exercise. Conclusions Employment at and above 10 hours per week is negatively associated with PA. Increasing work intensity may shed light on the decline of PA as adolescents grow older and merits further attention in research. PMID:20231752

  2. Clean boiler systems chemically

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, J.O. )

    1993-04-01

    Internal surfaces of steam generator systems are cleaned to remove contaminants that impair heat transfer and may ultimately cause tube failure. One method of doing so is chemical cleaning. All new steam generators should be chemically cleaned to remove construction contaminants. The degree of cleaning required depends on the initial condition of the boiler and on its operating requirements. This paper discusses: key considerations; pre-operational cleaning; post-operational cleaning; water flushing and steam blowing; alkaline cleaning; and solvent cleaning.

  3. All Students Can Write Poetry: World War I Poems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a 10th-grade English teacher brings a historical event such as World War I to life with words and visuals of the time. Discusses World War I poems as products of that era, and helps students realize they have the stream of language inside themselves by journaling, making a "word bank," and writing poems. (SR)

  4. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li

    2006-07-15

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  5. Are Breast Surgical Operations Clean or Clean Contaminated?

    PubMed

    Kataria, Kamal; Bagdia, Amit; Srivastava, Anurag

    2015-12-01

    The breast surgeries are classically taught as clean surgical procedures. The infection rates following breast surgery ranges from 3 to 15 %, which is much higher than infection rates after clean surgery (ranging from 1.5 to 3 %). This high infection rate following breast surgery can be explained by opening of the ductal system to outside world through nipple similar to the gastrointestinal and genitourinary system. We conducted a systematic review of infection following breast surgeries. We searched various randomized controlled trials, meta-analysis, and Cochrane Reviews over PubMed and Medline via the Internet. These evidences were found to support the thesis, "Breast surgeries need to be reclassified as clean-contaminated". We recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotics in breast surgery.

  6. Are Breast Surgical Operations Clean or Clean Contaminated?

    PubMed

    Kataria, Kamal; Bagdia, Amit; Srivastava, Anurag

    2015-12-01

    The breast surgeries are classically taught as clean surgical procedures. The infection rates following breast surgery ranges from 3 to 15 %, which is much higher than infection rates after clean surgery (ranging from 1.5 to 3 %). This high infection rate following breast surgery can be explained by opening of the ductal system to outside world through nipple similar to the gastrointestinal and genitourinary system. We conducted a systematic review of infection following breast surgeries. We searched various randomized controlled trials, meta-analysis, and Cochrane Reviews over PubMed and Medline via the Internet. These evidences were found to support the thesis, "Breast surgeries need to be reclassified as clean-contaminated". We recommend the use of prophylactic antibiotics in breast surgery. PMID:27011565

  7. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  8. Clean Coal Diesel Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Wilson

    2006-10-31

    A Clean Coal Diesel project was undertaken to demonstrate a new Clean Coal Technology that offers technical, economic and environmental advantages over conventional power generating methods. This innovative technology (developed to the prototype stage in an earlier DOE project completed in 1992) enables utilization of pre-processed clean coal fuel in large-bore, medium-speed, diesel engines. The diesel engines are conventional modern engines in many respects, except they are specially fitted with hardened parts to be compatible with the traces of abrasive ash in the coal-slurry fuel. Industrial and Municipal power generating applications in the 10 to 100 megawatt size range are the target applications. There are hundreds of such reciprocating engine power-plants operating throughout the world today on natural gas and/or heavy fuel oil.

  9. HLA typing with monoclonal antibodies: evaluation of 356 HLA monoclonal antibodies including 181 studied during the 10th International Histocompatibility Workshop.

    PubMed

    Colombani, J; Lepage, V; Raffoux, C; Colombani, M

    1989-08-01

    During the 10th International Histocompatibility Workshop (10th WS), 181 HLA MoAbs were studied using lymphocytotoxicity micro-technique (LCT) and/or enzyme immuno-assay (EIA), and their capacity to serve as typing reagents was evaluated. 129 MoAbs were tested by both techniques. Results obtained with 92 class I and 86 class II polymorphic MoAbs (10th WS) were compared to published data concerning 180 class I and 176 class II polymorphic MoAbs, listed in an HLA-MoAbs Register maintained in our laboratory. The following conclusions can be proposed: 1/HLA-A, B typing by LCT with MoAbs is possible for about 14 specificities. Some specificities are clearly recognized (HLA-A3, B8, B13, Bw4, Bw6), others are recognized as cross-reacting groups (B7+27+w22+40), others are not currently recognized by any MoAb with restricted specificity (B5, B15). Several MoAbs confirmed the existence of shared epitopes between products from a single locus (A2-A28, A25-A32), or from A and B loci (A2-B17, Bw4-A9-A32). A single HLA-Cw MoAb has been described. 2/HLA class II typing by LCT with MoAbs is more difficult than class I typing. DR2, DR3, DR4, DR5 and DR7 as well as DRw52 and DRw53 are well defined; other DR specificities are poorly or not at all defined. Particular associations (DR1+DR4, DR3+DRw6, all DR except DR7) are recognized by several MoAbs. All DQw specificities are well recognized, including new specificities defined only by MoAbs: WA (DQw4), TA10 (DQw7), 2B3 (DQw6+w8+w9). Only two HLA-DP MoAbs have been described. 3/Satisfactory results, similar to those of LCT, were obtained with EIA using lymphoid cell lines as targets. 4/Human MoAbs (12 in the Register) are satisfactory typing reagents. They could represent in the future a significant contribution to HLA typing with MoAbs. PMID:2609328

  10. Antibiotic prophylaxis is unnecessary in clean surgery.

    PubMed

    Hasan, G Z; Saleh, F M; Hossain, M Z; Amin, M R; Siddiqui, T H; Islam, M D; Chakraborty, S

    2013-04-01

    A significant number of paediatric surgical patients undergone clean surgical procedures. Most of the paediatric surgeon use perioperative prophylactic antibiotic in this clean procedure because of undue fear of infection in their mind. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether the use of perioperative prophylactic antibiotics have an effect to prevent post operative wound infection in clean operation in paediatric surgical patients. This study was conducted in the paediatric surgery department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and some private clinics of Dhaka city from January 2009 to December 2009. Two hundred patients who were undergone clean elective surgical procedure on day case basis were included in this study. They were divided into two equal groups (Group A and Group B). The patients of Group A were given intransverse Cephradine 30 minutes before incision and then oral Cephradine was advised postoperatively for 7 days. The patients of Group B were not given any perioperative antibiotic. All the patients of both groups were advised to come on 3rd, 6th and 10th postoperative day for examination of wound. In Group A (With chemo prophylaxis), five patients (5%) developed postoperative wound infection and in Group B (without chemo prophylaxis), three patients (3%) developed postoperative wound infection. Thus the rate of postoperative wound infection is slightly more in patients with chemo prophylaxis but it was not statistically significant by chi-square test. Based on the result of this study, it may be concluded that the antibiotic prophylaxis is not necessary in clean surgery in paediatric age group.

  11. [Hygienic assessment of lifestyle and health status in 10th-11th-form pupils directed to have a higher medical education].

    PubMed

    Timoshenko, K T

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-seven pupils from the 10th-to-11th classes formed on a competitive basis for intensive education, for forming motivation for future medical profession were examined using a set of psychophysiological tests that could evaluate the central nervous and cardiovascular systems, psychophysiological adaptation, task performance, and personality traits. The vast majority of the examinees were found to follow the hygienic recommendation of the day regimen, which corresponded to the principles of healthy lifestyle. In 99% of the pupils, mental capacity was rated as fair (66%) and high (33%), as evidenced by psychophysiological testing. Fifty-six per cent of the examinees were observed to have mental adaptive disorders that might reflect age-related psychological immaturity in them at the completing stage of schooling.

  12. Perceptions of High Achieving African American/Black 10th Graders from a Low Socioeconomic Community Regarding Health Scientists and Desired Careers

    PubMed Central

    Boekeloo, Bradley; Randolph, Suzanne; Timmons-Brown, Stephanie; Wang, Min Qi

    2014-01-01

    Measures are needed to assess youth perceptions about health science careers to facilitate research aimed at facilitating youth pursuit of health science. Although the Indiana Instrument provides an established measure of perceptions regarding nursing and ideal careers, we were interested in learning how high achieving 10th graders from relatively low socioeconomic areas who identify as Black/African American (Black) perceive health science and ideal careers. The Indiana Instrument was modified, administered to 90 youth of interest, and psychometrically analyzed. Reliable subscales were identified that may facilitate parsimonious, theoretical, and reliable study of youth decision-making regarding health science careers. Such research may help to develop and evaluate strategies for increasing the number of minority health scientists. PMID:25194058

  13. [Hygienic assessment of lifestyle and health status in 10th-11th-form pupils directed to have a higher medical education].

    PubMed

    Timoshenko, K T

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-seven pupils from the 10th-to-11th classes formed on a competitive basis for intensive education, for forming motivation for future medical profession were examined using a set of psychophysiological tests that could evaluate the central nervous and cardiovascular systems, psychophysiological adaptation, task performance, and personality traits. The vast majority of the examinees were found to follow the hygienic recommendation of the day regimen, which corresponded to the principles of healthy lifestyle. In 99% of the pupils, mental capacity was rated as fair (66%) and high (33%), as evidenced by psychophysiological testing. Fifty-six per cent of the examinees were observed to have mental adaptive disorders that might reflect age-related psychological immaturity in them at the completing stage of schooling. PMID:19097437

  14. The association between problematic parental substance use and adolescent substance use in an ethnically diverse sample of 9th and 10th graders.

    PubMed

    Shorey, Ryan C; Fite, Paula J; Elkins, Sara R; Frissell, Kevin C; Tortolero, Susan R; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R

    2013-12-01

    Adolescents of parents who use substances are at an increased risk for substance use themselves. Both parental monitoring and closeness have been shown to mediate the relationship between parents' and their adolescents' substance use. However, we know little about whether these relationships vary across different substances used by adolescents. Using structural equation modeling, we examined these associations within a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 9th and 10th graders (N = 927). Path analyses indicated that maternal closeness partially mediated the association between maternal problematic substance use and adolescent alcohol use. Parental monitoring partially mediated the relationship between paternal problematic substance use and adolescent alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, inhalant, and illicit prescription drug use. These results were consistent across gender and race/ethnicity. These findings suggest that parental interventions designed to increase closeness and monitoring may help to reduce adolescent substance use.

  15. The Association Between Problematic Parental Substance Use and Adolescent Substance Use in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of 9th and 10th Graders

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Fite, Paula J.; Elkins, Sara R.; Frissell, Kevin C.; Tortolero, Susan R.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents of parents who use substances are at an increased risk for substance use themselves. Both parental monitoring and closeness have been shown to mediate the relationship between parents’ and their adolescents’ substance use. However, we know little about whether these relationships vary across different substances used by adolescents. Using structural equation modeling, we examined these associations within a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 9th and 10th graders (N = 927). Path analyses indicated that maternal closeness partially mediated the association between maternal problematic substance use and adolescent alcohol use. Parental monitoring partially mediated the relationship between paternal problematic substance use and adolescent alcohol, cigarette, marijuana, inhalant, and illicit prescription drug use. These results were consistent across gender and race/ethnicity. These findings suggest that parental interventions designed to increase closeness and monitoring may help to reduce adolescent substance use. PMID:24006209

  16. Potential use of biomarkers in acute kidney injury: report and summary of recommendations from the 10th Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative consensus conference.

    PubMed

    Murray, Patrick T; Mehta, Ravindra L; Shaw, Andrew; Ronco, Claudio; Endre, Zoltan; Kellum, John A; Chawla, Lakhmir S; Cruz, Dinna; Ince, Can; Okusa, Mark D

    2014-03-01

    Over the last decade there has been considerable progress in the discovery and development of biomarkers of kidney disease, and several have now been evaluated in different clinical settings. Although there is a growing literature on the performance of various biomarkers in clinical studies, there is limited information on how these biomarkers would be utilized by clinicians to manage patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Recognizing this gap in knowledge, we convened the 10th Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative meeting to review the literature on biomarkers in AKI and their application in clinical practice. We asked an international group of experts to assess four broad areas for biomarker utilization for AKI: risk assessment, diagnosis, and staging; differential diagnosis; prognosis and management; and novel physiological techniques including imaging. This article provides a summary of the key findings and recommendations of the group, to equip clinicians to effectively use biomarkers in AKI.

  17. Battery Technology Stores Clean Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Headquartered in Fremont, California, Deeya Energy Inc. is now bringing its flow batteries to commercial customers around the world after working with former Marshall Space Flight Center scientist, Lawrence Thaller. Deeya's liquid-cell batteries have higher power capability than Thaller's original design, are less expensive than lead-acid batteries, are a clean energy alternative, and are 10 to 20 times less expensive than nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium-ion batteries, and fuel cell options.

  18. Taxes Affecting the Worker: Orientation to the World of Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Lila T.

    The guide is one of a series of 10 units composing an orientation to the world of work course designed especially for disadvantaged and handicapped students in the 9th and 10th grades. It is designed to provide basic and remedial instruction in personal development, math, and language skills while providing information and skills basic or common…

  19. Cleaning equipment for cleaning and degreasing

    SciTech Connect

    Gavaskar, A.R.

    1995-09-01

    Cleaning and degreasing processes are applied in industries to remove dirt, oil, and grease (together referred to as soil) from manufactured parts. In the metal-finishing industry, cleaning usually follows machining and precedes other surface-finishing steps such as rust inhibition or electroplating. During machining, a variety of oil emulsions or synthetic fluids are sprayed on the workpiece (parts being fabricated) for lubrication and cooling. These fluids must be removed before final finishing. The slightest amount of oil or other residue can render the final surface finish ineffective. Solvents have traditionally been used for cleaning and are widely used during processing in the metal-finishing, dry-cleaning, and electronics industries, as well as in a variety of other industries during maintenance. Solvent cleaning leads to air emissions and occupational exposure during use and environmental hazards during disposal of the spent solvent. Pollution prevention efforts focus on reducing or eliminating use of these solvents.

  20. The complexity and challenges of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification to International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification transition in EDs.

    PubMed

    Krive, Jacob; Patel, Mahatkumar; Gehm, Lisa; Mackey, Mark; Kulstad, Erik; Li, Jianrong John; Lussier, Yves A; Boyd, Andrew D

    2015-05-01

    Beginning October 2015, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services will require medical providers to use the vastly expanded International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) system. Despite wide availability of information and mapping tools for the next generation of the ICD classification system, some of the challenges associated with transition from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM are not well understood. To quantify the challenges faced by emergency physicians, we analyzed a subset of a 2010 Illinois Medicaid database of emergency department ICD-9-CM codes, seeking to determine the accuracy of existing mapping tools in order to better prepare emergency physicians for the change to the expanded ICD-10-CM system. We found that 27% of 1830 codes represented convoluted multidirectional mappings. We then analyzed the convoluted transitions and found that 8% of total visit encounters (23% of the convoluted transitions) were clinically incorrect. The ambiguity and inaccuracy of these mappings may impact the workflow associated with the translation process and affect the potential mapping between ICD codes and Current Procedural Codes, which determine physician reimbursement. PMID:25863652

  1. Imaging in the Age of Precision Medicine: Summary of the Proceedings of the 10th Biannual Symposium of the International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology.

    PubMed

    Herold, Christian J; Lewin, Jonathan S; Wibmer, Andreas G; Thrall, James H; Krestin, Gabriel P; Dixon, Adrian K; Schoenberg, Stefan O; Geckle, Rena J; Muellner, Ada; Hricak, Hedvig

    2016-04-01

    During the past decade, with its breakthroughs in systems biology, precision medicine (PM) has emerged as a novel health-care paradigm. Challenging reductionism and broad-based approaches in medicine, PM is an approach for disease treatment and prevention that takes into account individual variability in genes, environment, and lifestyle. It involves integrating information from multiple sources in a holistic manner to achieve a definitive diagnosis, focused treatment, and adequate response assessment. Biomedical imaging and imaging-guided interventions, which provide multiparametric morphologic and functional information and enable focused, minimally invasive treatments, are key elements in the infrastructure needed for PM. The emerging discipline of radiogenomics, which links genotypic information to phenotypic disease manifestations at imaging, should also greatly contribute to patient-tailored care. Because of the growing volume and complexity of imaging data, decision-support algorithms will be required to help physicians apply the most essential patient data for optimal management. These innovations will challenge traditional concepts of health care and business models. Reimbursement policies and quality assurance measures will have to be reconsidered and adapted. In their 10th biannual symposium, which was held in August 2013, the members of the International Society for Strategic Studies in Radiology discussed the opportunities and challenges arising for the imaging community with the transition to PM. This article summarizes the discussions and central messages of the symposium. PMID:26465058

  2. Urban and rural infant-feeding practices and health in early medieval Central Europe (9th-10th Century, Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Kaupová, Sylva; Herrscher, Estelle; Velemínský, Petr; Cabut, Sandrine; Poláček, Lumír; Brůžek, Jaroslav

    2014-12-01

    In the Central European context, the 9th and 10th centuries are well known for rapid cultural and societal changes concerning the development of the economic and political structures of states as well as the adoption of Christianity. A bioarchaeological study based on a subadult skeletal series was conducted to tackle the impact of these changes on infant and young child feeding practices and, consequently, their health in both urban and rural populations. Data on growth and frequency of nonspecific stress indicators of a subadult group aged 0-6 years were analyzed. A subsample of 41 individuals was selected for nitrogen and carbon isotope analyses, applying an intra-individual sampling strategy (bone vs. tooth). The isotopic results attest to a mosaic of food behaviors. In the urban sample, some children may have been weaned during their second year of life, while some others may have still been consuming breast milk substantially up to 4-5 years of age. By contrast, data from the rural sample show more homogeneity, with a gradual cessation of breastfeeding starting after the age of 2 years. Several factors are suggested which may have been responsible for applied weaning strategies. There is no evidence that observed weaning strategies affected the level of biological stress which the urban subadult population had to face compared with the rural subadult population. PMID:25256815

  3. It takes a village: the effects of 10th grade college-going expectations of students, parents, and teachers four years later.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Anne; Huang, Francis

    2013-09-01

    Adolescents are surrounded by people who have expectations about their college-going potential. Yet, few studies have examined the link between these multiple sources of college-going expectations and the actual status of students in postsecondary education years later. The study draws on data collected in the 2002-2006 Educational Longitudinal Study and employs an underutilized statistical technique (cross-classified multilevel modeling) to account for teacher reports on overlapping groups of students (typical of high school research). Results showed that positive expectations of students, parents, English, and mathematics teachers in the 10th grade each uniquely predicted postsecondary status 4 years later. As a group, the four sources of expectations explained greater variance in postsecondary education than student characteristics such as socioeconomic status and academic performance. This suggests positive expectations are additive and promotive for students regardless of their risk status. Teacher expectations were also found to be protective for low income students. Implications for future expectancy research and equity-focused interventions are discussed.

  4. Comparison of Dawn and Dusk Precipitating Electron Energy Populations Shortly After the Initial Shock for the January 10th, 1997 Magnetic Cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, J.; Germany, G.; Swift, W.; Parks, G.; Brittnacher, M.; Elsen, R.

    1997-01-01

    The observed precipitating electron energy between 0130 UT and 0400 UT of January 10 th, 1997, indicates that there is a more energetic precipitating electron population that appears in the auroral oval at 1800-2200 UT at 030) UT. This increase in energy occurs after the initial shock of the magnetic cloud reaches the Earth (0114 UT) and after faint but dynamic polar cap precipitation has been cleared out. The more energetic population is observed to remain rather constant in MLT through the onset of auroral activity (0330 UT) and to the end of the Polar spacecraft apogee pass. Data from the Ultraviolet Imager LBH long and LBH short images are used to quantify the average energy of the precipitating auroral electrons. The Wind spacecraft located about 100 RE upstream monitored the IMF and plasma parameters during the passing of the cloud. The affects of oblique angle viewing are included in the analysis. Suggestions as to the source of this hot electron population will be presented.

  5. An INTEGRAL view of the high-energy sky (the first 10 years) - 9th INTEGRAL Workshop and celebration of the 10th anniversary of the launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The 9th INTEGRAL workshop "An INTEGRAL view of the high-energy sky (the first 10 years)" took place from 15 to 19 October 2012 in Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Bibliothèque François Mitterrand). The workshop was sponsored by ESA, CNES and other French and European Institutions. During this week, and in particular on 17 October 2012, we celebrated the 10th anniversary of the launch of the INTEGRAL mission. The main goal of this workshop was to present and to discuss (via invited and contributed talks and posters) latest results obtained in the field of high-energy astrophysics using the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory INTEGRAL, as well as results from observations from other ground- and space-based high-energy observatories and from associated multi-wavelength campaigns. Contributions to the workshop covered the following scientific topics: - X-ray binaries (IGR sources, black holes, neutron stars, white dwarfs) - Isolated neutron stars (gamma-ray pulsars, magnetars) - Nucleo-synthesis (SNe, Novae, SNRs, ISM) and gamma-ray lines (511 keV) - Galactic diffuse continuum emission (including Galactic Ridge) - Massive black holes in AGNs, elliptical galaxies, nucleus of the Galaxy - Sky surveys, source populations and unidentified gamma-ray sources - Cosmic background radiation - Gamma-ray bursts - Coordinated observations with other ground- and space-based observatories - Science data processing and analysis (posters only) - Future instruments and missions (posters only)

  6. Evaluation of elemental status of ancient human bone samples from Northeastern Hungary dated to the 10th century AD by XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    János, I.; Szathmáry, L.; Nádas, E.; Béni, A.; Dinya, Z.; Máthé, E.

    2011-11-01

    The present study is a multielemental analysis of bone samples belonging to skeletal individuals originating from two contemporaneous (10th century AD) cemeteries (Tiszavasvári Nagy-Gyepáros and Nagycserkesz-Nádasibokor sites) in Northeastern Hungary, using the XRF analytical technique. Emitted X-rays were detected in order to determine the elemental composition of bones and to appreciate the possible influence of the burial environment on the elemental content of the human skeletal remains. Lumbar vertebral bodies were used for analysis. Applying the ED(P)XRF technique concentration of the following elements were determined: P, Ca, K, Na, Mg, Al, Cl, Mn, Fe, Zn, Br and Sr. The results indicated post mortem mineral exchange between the burial environment (soil) and bones (e.g. the enhanced levels of Fe and Mn) and referred to diagenetic alteration processes during burials. However, other elements such as Zn, Sr and Br seemed to be accumulated during the past life. On the basis of statistical analysis, clear separation could not be observed between the two excavation sites in their bone elemental concentrations which denoted similar diagenetic influences, environmental conditions. The enhanced levels of Sr might be connected with the past dietary habits, especially consumption of plant food.

  7. What Is Clean Cities?

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-08-01

    This Clean Cities Program fact sheet describes the purpose and scope of this DOE program. Clean Cities facilitates the use of alternative and advanced fuels and vehicles to displace petroleum in the transportation sector.

  8. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePlus

    ... something means to clean it to destroy germs. Disinfectants are the cleaning solutions that are used to ... each solution. You may need to allow the disinfectant to dry on the equipment for a set ...

  9. Twelve Home Cleaning Recipes

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Safe and Effective Disinfection Twelve Home Cleaning Recipes Safer alternatives to hazardous cleaning products exist for ... 24 hours at room temperature. All Purpose Cleaner recipes for use on counters, floors and other hard ...

  10. Our World Their World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisco, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Build, create, make, blog, develop, organize, structure, perform. These are just a few verbs that illustrate the visual world. These words create images that allow students to respond to their environment. Visual culture studies recognize the predominance of visual forms of media, communication, and information in the postmodern world. This…

  11. 1 in 3 Hospitals in Developing World Lack Running Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... in 3 Hospitals in Developing World Lack Running Water Clean water essential for surgeries, hygiene, infection control, researchers say ... SUNDAY, July 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Clean running water is essential for hospital sanitation, but a new ...

  12. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  13. Clean room wiping liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A water-based liquid containing isopropyl alcohol, ammonium hydroxide, and surfactants was developed to replace 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane for the dampening of clean room wiping cloths used to wipe clean benches, clean room equipment, and latex finger cots and gloves.

  14. Implementation and Evaluation of Web-Based Learning Activities on Bonding and the Structure of Matter for 10-th Grade Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frailich, Marcel

    This study deals with the development, implementation, and evaluation of web-based activities associated with the topic of chemical bonding , as taught in 10th grade chemistry. A website was developed entitled: "Chemistry and the Chemical Industry in the Service of Mankind", its URL is: http://stwww.weizmann.ac.il/g-chem/learnchem (Kesner, Frailich, & Hofstein, 2003). The main goal of this study was to assess the educational effectiveness of website activities dealing with the chemical bonding concept. These activities include visualization tools, as well as topics relevant to daily life and industrial applications. The study investigated the effectiveness of a web-based learning environment regarding the understanding of chemical bonding concepts, students' perceptions of the classroom learning environment, their attitudes regarding the relevance of learning chemistry to everyday life, and their interest in chemistry studies. As mentioned before, in the present study we focused on activities (from the website), all of which deal with chemical bonding concept. The following are the reasons for the decision to focus on this topic: (1) Chemical bonding is a key concept that is taught in 10th grade chemistry in high school. It provides the basis for many other chemistry topics that are taught later, and (2) Chemical bonding is a difficult for students using existing tools (e. g., static models in books, ball-and- stick models), which are insufficient to demonstrate the abstract nature phenomena associated with this topic. The four activities developed for this study are (1) models of the atomic structure, (2) metals -- structure and properties, (3) ionic substances in everyday life and in industry, and (4) molecular substances -- structure, properties, and uses. The study analyzed both quantitative and qualitative research. The quantitative tools of the study included: A Semantic Differential questionnaire and a Chemistry Classroom Web-Based Learning Environment

  15. Fetal Sex Determination using Non-Invasive Method of Cell-free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma of Pregnant Women During 6(th)- 10(th) Weeks of Gestation.

    PubMed

    Zargari, Maryam; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan; Kamali, Koroush; Saliminejad, Kyomars; Esmaeilzadeh, Ali; Khorshid, Hamid Reza Khorram

    2011-10-01

    In previous years, identification of fetal cells in maternal blood circulation has caused a new revolution in non-invasive method of prenatal diagnosis. Low number of fetal cells in maternal blood and long-term survival after pregnancy limited the use of fetal cells in diagnostic and clinical applications. With the discovery of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in plasma of pregnant women, access to genetic material of the fetus had become possible to determine early gender of a fetus in pregnancies at the risk of X-linked genetic conditions instead of applying invasive methods. Therefore in this study, the probability of detecting sequences on the Y chromosome in pregnant women has been evaluated to identify the gender of fetuses. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 80 pregnant women at 6(th) to 10(th) weeks of gestation and then the fetal DNA was extracted from the plasma. Nested PCR was applied to detect the sequences of single copy SRY gene and multi copy DYS14 & DAZ genes on the Y chromosome of the male fetuses. At the end, all the obtained results were compared with the actual gender of the newborns. In 40 out of 42 born baby boys, the relevant gene sequences were identified and 95.2% sensitivity was obtained. Non-invasive early determination of fetal gender using cffDNA could be employed as a pre-test in the shortest possible time and with a high reliability to avoid applying invasive methods in cases where a fetus is at the risk of genetic diseases.

  16. IBC’s 23rd Annual Antibody Engineering, 10th Annual Antibody Therapeutics International Conferences and the 2012 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society

    PubMed Central

    Klöhn, Peter-Christian; Wuellner, Ulrich; Zizlsperger, Nora; Zhou, Yu; Tavares, Daniel; Berger, Sven; Zettlitz, Kirstin A.; Proetzel, Gabriele; Yong, May; Begent, Richard H.J.; Reichert, Janice M

    2013-01-01

    The 23rd Annual Antibody Engineering, 10th Annual Antibody Therapeutics international conferences, and the 2012 Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society, organized by IBC Life Sciences with contributions from The Antibody Society and two Scientific Advisory Boards, were held December 3–6, 2012 in San Diego, CA. The meeting drew over 800 participants who attended sessions on a wide variety of topics relevant to antibody research and development. As a prelude to the main events, a pre-conference workshop held on December 2, 2012 focused on intellectual property issues that impact antibody engineering. The Antibody Engineering Conference was composed of six sessions held December 3–5, 2012: (1) From Receptor Biology to Therapy; (2) Antibodies in a Complex Environment; (3) Antibody Targeted CNS Therapy: Beyond the Blood Brain Barrier; (4) Deep Sequencing in B Cell Biology and Antibody Libraries; (5) Systems Medicine in the Development of Antibody Therapies/Systematic Validation of Novel Antibody Targets; and (6) Antibody Activity and Animal Models. The Antibody Therapeutics conference comprised four sessions held December 4–5, 2012: (1) Clinical and Preclinical Updates of Antibody-Drug Conjugates; (2) Multifunctional Antibodies and Antibody Combinations: Clinical Focus; (3) Development Status of Immunomodulatory Therapeutic Antibodies; and (4) Modulating the Half-Life of Antibody Therapeutics. The Antibody Society’s special session on applications for recording and sharing data based on GIATE was held on December 5, 2012, and the conferences concluded with two combined sessions on December 5–6, 2012: (1) Development Status of Early Stage Therapeutic Antibodies; and (2) Immunomodulatory Antibodies for Cancer Therapy. PMID:23575266

  17. Effect of cooperative learning strategies on student verbal interactions and achievement during conceptual change instruction in 10th grade general science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonning, Robert A.

    This study evaluated the effects of cooperative learning on students' verbal interaction patterns and achievement in a conceptual change instructional model in secondary science. Current conceptual change instructional models recognize the importance of student-student verbal interactions, but lack specific strategies to encourage these interactions. Cooperative learning may provide the necessary strategies. Two sections of low-ability 10th-grade students were designated the experimental and control groups. Students in both sections received identical content instruction on the particle model of matter using conceptual change teaching strategies. Students worked in teacher-assigned small groups on in-class assignments. The experimental section used cooperative learning strategies involving instruction in collaborative skills and group evaluation of assignments. The control section received no collaborative skills training and students were evaluated individually on group work. Gains on achievement were assessed using pre- and posttreatment administrations of an investigator-designed short-answer essay test. The assessment strategies used in this study represent an attempt to measure conceptual change. Achievement was related to students' ability to correctly use appropriate scientific explanations of events and phenomena and to discard use of naive conceptions. Verbal interaction patterns of students working in groups were recorded on videotape and analyzed using an investigator-designed verbal interaction scheme. The targeted verbalizations used in the interaction scheme were derived from the social learning theories of Piaget and Vygotsky. It was found that students using cooperative learning strategies showed greater achievement gains as defined above and made greater use of specific verbal patterns believed to be related to increased learning. The results of the study demonstrated that cooperative learning strategies enhance conceptual change instruction. More

  18. How to clean surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Jean M.

    2004-06-01

    Various cleaning methods are available depending on the sizes of the parts, mounted or unmounted, and purpose of the cleaning. Dust and other particle contamination affect scattering and act as nuclei for defects in optical coatings. In some cases, these defects can initiate laser damage. Noncontact cleaning methods to eliminate particle contamination include blowing large particles from surfaces with an air bulb, "canned air," or a nitrogen gas jet, for a gentle cleaning and CO2 snow for more aggressive particle removal. Laser assisted particle removal is a new high tech method. A strip coating material applied to the surface and subsequently removed will remove large fresh particles and often fingerprints. Contamination films affect the quality and adherence of optical coatings. These are usually removed (from unmounted optics) by cleaning the surface in a detergent and water bath followed by extensive rinsing and non-contact drying. Alternate methods when immersion in water is not possible are drag wiping, or spraying or squirting organic solvents over the surface. Before cleaning, surfaces must be visually inspected to determine the type and location of the contamination, to decide if cleaning is necessary, and what type of cleaning technique to use. Finally, bad cleaning is much worse than no cleaning! Illustrations of the cleaning methods described above will be given.

  19. Knack for reticle cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Masumi; Handa, Hitoshi; Shirai, Hisatsugu

    2000-07-01

    Cleaning is one of the most important processes in mask making, because it decides final quality. In cleaning process, it is necessary for reticle cleanliness to not only remove particles from reticle but also prevent adsorption and re-deposition onto reticle. There is the knack for reticle cleaning, and we introduce three keys in this paper. The first key is the rinse after chemical treatment. By the rinse sequence modification, the cleaner was refined and the particle removal ability was improved. The second key is quality control to grasp the situation of cleaner. By the daily check, cleaner's abnormal condition is found at an early stage, quick action is taken, and then stable cleaning quality is kept every day. And the third key is proper choice of cleaners. We have adopted pre-cleaning process and selected the adequate cleaner for each cleaning level and improved cleaning yield and quality.

  20. Veterans Advancing Clean Energy and Climate

    ScienceCinema

    Kopser, Joseph; Marr, Andrea; Perez-Halperin, Elizabeth; Eckstein, Robin; Moniz, Ernest

    2016-07-12

    The Champions of Change series highlights ordinary Americans who are doing extraordinary things in their communities to out-innovate, out-educate and out-build the rest of the world. On November 5, 2013, the White House honored 12 veterans and leaders who are using the skills they learned in the armed services to advance the clean energy economy.

  1. Veterans Advancing Clean Energy and Climate

    SciTech Connect

    Kopser, Joseph; Marr, Andrea; Perez-Halperin, Elizabeth; Eckstein, Robin; Moniz, Ernest

    2013-11-11

    The Champions of Change series highlights ordinary Americans who are doing extraordinary things in their communities to out-innovate, out-educate and out-build the rest of the world. On November 5, 2013, the White House honored 12 veterans and leaders who are using the skills they learned in the armed services to advance the clean energy economy.

  2. Technology: New Ways for Clean Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Amanda S.

    2012-01-01

    Water purification promotes healthy living. While the developing world is working to provide its citizens with future access to clean water sources, the demand for that water is a pressing need today. It should be understood that drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene are interwoven and are all necessary for the overall improved standard of…

  3. Power Conversion and Transmission Systems: A 9th and/or 10th Grade Industrial Education Curriculum Designed To Fulfill the Kansas State Department of Vocational Education's Level 2 Course Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Harvey R., Ed.

    The document is a guide to a 9th and 10th grade industrial education course investigating the total system of power--how man controls, converts, transmits, and uses energy; the rationale is that if one is to learn of the total system of industry, the subsystem of power must be investigated. The guide provides a "body of knowledge" chart…

  4. Mountain Dew[R] or Mountain Don't?: A Pilot Investigation of Caffeine Use Parameters and Relations to Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in 5th- and 10th-Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luebbe, Aaron M.; Bell, Debora J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Caffeine, the only licit psychoactive drug available to minors, may have a harmful impact on students' health and adjustment, yet little is known about its use or effects on students, especially from a developmental perspective. Caffeine use in 5th- and 10th-grade students was examined in a cross-sectional design, and relations and…

  5. The Internet Time Lag: Anticipating the Long-Term Consequences of the Information Revolution. A Report of the Annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology (10th, Aspen, Colorado, August 2-5, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Evan I.

    This is a report of the 10th annual Aspen Institute Roundtable on Information Technology (Aspen, Colorado, August 2-5, 2001). Participants were also polled after the events of September 11, and these comments have been integrated into the report. The mission of this report is to take a wide-ranging look at the trends that are defining the next new…

  6. NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation: Issue 3 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-11-01

    This quarterly magazine is dedicated to stepping beyond the technical journals to reveal NREL's vital work in a real-world context for our stakeholders. Continuum provides insights into the latest and most impactful clean energy innovations, while spotlighting those talented researchers and unique facilities that make it all happen. This edition focuses on the NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation.

  7. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  8. New archeointensity data from French Early Medieval pottery production (6th-10th century AD). Tracing 1500 years of geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genevey, Agnès; Gallet, Yves; Jesset, Sébastien; Thébault, Erwan; Bouillon, Jérôme; Lefèvre, Annie; Le Goff, Maxime

    2016-08-01

    Nineteen new archeointensity results were obtained from the analysis of groups of French pottery fragments dated to the Early Middle Ages (6th to 10th centuries AD). They are from several medieval ceramic production sites, excavated mainly in Saran (Central France), and their precise dating was established based on typo-chronological characteristics. Intensity measurements were performed using the Triaxe protocol, which takes into account the effects on the intensity determinations of both thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate. Intensity analyses were also carried out on modern pottery produced at Saran during an experimental firing. The results show very good agreement with the geomagnetic field intensity directly measured inside and around the kiln, thus reasserting the reliability of the Triaxe protocol and the relevance of the quality criteria used. They further demonstrate the potential of the Saran pottery production for archeomagnetism. The new archeointensity results allow a precise and coherent description of the geomagnetic field intensity variations in Western Europe during the Early Medieval period, which was until now poorly documented. They show a significant increase in intensity during the 6th century AD, high intensity values from the 7th to the 9th century, with a minimum of small amplitude at the transition between the 7th and the 8th centuries and finally an important decrease until the beginning of the 11th century. Together with published intensity results available within a radius of 700 km around Paris, the new data were used to compute a master curve of the Western European geomagnetic intensity variations over the past 1500 years. This curve clearly exhibits five intensity maxima: at the transition between the 6th and 7th century AD, at the middle of the 9th century, during the 12th century, in the second part of the 14th century and at the very beginning of the 17th century AD. Some of these peaks are smoothed, or

  9. IBC’s 23rd Antibody Engineering and 10th Antibody Therapeutics Conferences and the Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society

    PubMed Central

    Marquardt, John; Begent, Richard H.J.; Chester, Kerry; Huston, James S.; Bradbury, Andrew; Scott, Jamie K.; Thorpe, Philip E.; Veldman, Trudi; Reichert, Janice M.; Weiner, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    Now in its 23rd and 10th years, respectively, the Antibody Engineering and Antibody Therapeutics conferences are the Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society. The scientific program covers the full spectrum of challenges in antibody research and development from basic science through clinical development. In this preview of the conferences, the chairs provide their thoughts on sessions that will allow participants to track emerging trends in (1) the development of next-generation immunomodulatory antibodies; (2) the complexity of the environment in which antibodies must function; (3) antibody-targeted central nervous system (CNS) therapies that cross the blood brain barrier; (4) the extension of antibody half-life for improved efficacy and pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD); and (5) the application of next generation DNA sequencing to accelerate antibody research. A pre-conference workshop on Sunday, December 2, 2012 will update participants on recent intellectual property (IP) law changes that affect antibody research, including biosimilar legislation, the America Invents Act and recent court cases. Keynote presentations will be given by Andreas Plückthun (University of Zürich), who will speak on engineering receptor ligands with powerful cellular responses; Gregory Friberg (Amgen Inc.), who will provide clinical updates of bispecific antibodies; James D. Marks (University of California, San Francisco), who will discuss a systems approach to generating tumor targeting antibodies; Dario Neri (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich), who will speak about delivering immune modulators at the sites of disease; William M. Pardridge (University of California, Los Angeles), who will discuss delivery across the blood-brain barrier; and Peter Senter (Seattle Genetics, Inc.), who will present his vision for the future of antibody-drug conjugates. For more information on these meetings or to register to attend, please visit www

  10. IBC's 23rd Antibody Engineering and 10th Antibody Therapeutics Conferences and the Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society: December 2-6, 2012, San Diego, CA.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, John; Begent, Richard H J; Chester, Kerry; Huston, James S; Bradbury, Andrew; Scott, Jamie K; Thorpe, Philip E; Veldman, Trudi; Reichert, Janice M; Weiner, Louis M

    2012-01-01

    Now in its 23rd and 10th years, respectively, the Antibody Engineering and Antibody Therapeutics conferences are the Annual Meeting of The Antibody Society. The scientific program covers the full spectrum of challenges in antibody research and development from basic science through clinical development. In this preview of the conferences, the chairs provide their thoughts on sessions that will allow participants to track emerging trends in (1) the development of next-generation immunomodulatory antibodies; (2) the complexity of the environment in which antibodies must function; (3) antibody-targeted central nervous system (CNS) therapies that cross the blood brain barrier; (4) the extension of antibody half-life for improved efficacy and pharmacokinetics (PK)/pharmacodynamics (PD); and (5) the application of next generation DNA sequencing to accelerate antibody research. A pre-conference workshop on Sunday, December 2, 2012 will update participants on recent intellectual property (IP) law changes that affect antibody research, including biosimilar legislation, the America Invents Act and recent court cases. Keynote presentations will be given by Andreas Plückthun (University of Zürich), who will speak on engineering receptor ligands with powerful cellular responses; Gregory Friberg (Amgen Inc.), who will provide clinical updates of bispecific antibodies; James D. Marks (University of California, San Francisco), who will discuss a systems approach to generating tumor targeting antibodies; Dario Neri (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich), who will speak about delivering immune modulators at the sites of disease; William M. Pardridge (University of California, Los Angeles), who will discuss delivery across the blood-brain barrier; and Peter Senter (Seattle Genetics, Inc.), who will present his vision for the future of antibody-drug conjugates. For more information on these meetings or to register to attend, please visit www

  11. Validity of the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision code for hyperkalaemia in elderly patients at presentation to an emergency department and at hospital admission

    PubMed Central

    Fleet, Jamie L; Shariff, Salimah Z; Gandhi, Sonja; Weir, Matthew A; Jain, Arsh K; Garg, Amit X

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Evaluate the validity of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) code for hyperkalaemia (E87.5) in two settings: at presentation to an emergency department and at hospital admission. Design Population-based validation study. Setting 12 hospitals in Southwestern Ontario, Canada, from 2003 to 2010. Participants Elderly patients with serum potassium values at presentation to an emergency department (n=64 579) and at hospital admission (n=64 497). Primary outcome Sensitivity, specificity, positive-predictive value and negative-predictive value. Serum potassium values in patients with and without a hyperkalaemia code (code positive and code negative, respectively). Results The sensitivity of the best-performing ICD-10 coding algorithm for hyperkalaemia (defined by serum potassium >5.5 mmol/l) was 14.1% (95% CI 12.5% to 15.9%) at presentation to an emergency department and 14.6% (95% CI 13.3% to 16.1%) at hospital admission. Both specificities were greater than 99%. In the two settings, the positive-predictive values were 83.2% (95% CI 78.4% to 87.1%) and 62.0% (95% CI 57.9% to 66.0%), while the negative-predictive values were 97.8% (95% CI 97.6% to 97.9%) and 96.9% (95% CI 96.8% to 97.1%). In patients who were code positive for hyperkalaemia, median (IQR) serum potassium values were 6.1 (5.7 to 6.8) mmol/l at presentation to an emergency department and 6.0 (5.1 to 6.7) mmol/l at hospital admission. For code-negative patients median (IQR) serum potassium values were 4.0 (3.7 to 4.4) mmol/l and 4.1 (3.8 to 4.5) mmol/l in each of the two settings, respectively. Conclusions Patients with hospital encounters who were ICD-10 E87.5 hyperkalaemia code positive and negative had distinct higher and lower serum potassium values, respectively. However, due to very low sensitivity, the incidence of hyperkalaemia is underestimated. PMID:23274674

  12. Fault modeling of the Mw 7.0 shallow intra-slab strike-slip earthquake occurred on 2011 July 10th using near-field tsunami record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, T.; Hino, R.; Iinuma, T.

    2014-12-01

    On 2011 July 10th, an earthquake of Mw 7.0 occurred in the shallow part of the Pacific slab beneath the large coseismic slip area of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake. This event has a strike-slip focal mechanism with steep dipping nodal planes. Near the epicenter, aftershocks determined by OBS deployment formed clear two orthogonal lineaments with identical strikes of the focal mechanism solution, suggesting that the aftershock activity occurred along the two conjugate faults. The strikes of these faults were almost parallel to the direction of the magnetic lineations and the fracture zones of the incoming Pacific plate, suggesting that the earthquake was the re-rupture of congenital fractures under the extensional stress induced by the Tohoku-Oki earthquake. It is of great interest to know the down-dip size of the source fault not only to understand the mechanical nature of the slab but also the post-2011 stress state. Coseismic seafloor deformation and tsunami associated with the earthquake were observed by ocean bottom pressure gauges deployed within ~ 100 km from the epicenter. We estimated the finite fault model of this event to discuss the rupture properties of the earthquake. We sought the source model assuming a rectangular fault with a uniform slip assuming the strike of the fault to be one of those of two nodal planes of the focal mechanism. The two preferable source models corresponding to the two nodal planes explained the observed data equally well. For either model, the depth of the downdip end exceeds 40 km below the plate boundary, meaning the fault widths (down-dip size) were much larger than the depth extent of the aftershock distribution (~ 15 km). We sought another source model assuming the simultaneous rupture of the conjugate faults and found that the width of the fault model was more consistent with the aftershock distribution than the single rupture plane models. The 2011 intraslab strike-slip earthquake might be a compound rupture of the

  13. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  14. Clean Energy Manufacturing Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    2013-04-01

    The initiative will strategically focus and rally EERE’s clean energy technology offices and Advanced Manufacturing Office around the urgent competitive opportunity for the United States to be the leader in the clean energy manufacturing industries and jobs of today and tomorrow.

  15. Cleaning Physical Education Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses techniques to help create clean and inviting school locker rooms. Daily, weekly or monthly, biannual, and annual cleaning strategies for locker room showers are highlighted as are the specialized maintenance needs for aerobic and dance areas, running tracks, and weight training areas. (GR)

  16. REPLACING SOLVENT CLEANING WITH AQUEOUS CLEANING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents actions taken by Robert Bosch Corp., Charleston, SC, in replacing the cleaning solvents 1, 1, 2- trichloro-1, 2, 2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene (TCE) with aqueous solutions. Bosch has succeeded in eliminating all their CFC-113 use and so f...

  17. Association for International Agricultural and Extension Education 1994 Conference Papers. Annual Conference (10th, Arlington, Virginia, March 24-26, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Roger E., Comp.

    Selected papers are as follows: "Member Perceptions of the Association for International Agricultural & Extension Education" (Eaton et al.); "Historical Review of U.S. Involvement in International Agricultural Education between World War II and Enactment of Title XII" (Thuemmel, Meaders); "Educational Needs of International Graduate Students as…

  18. Correlating Cleaning Thoroughness with Effectiveness and Briefly Intervening to Affect Cleaning Outcomes: How Clean Is Cleaned?

    PubMed Central

    Hosford, Eve; Ong, Ana; Richesson, Douglas; Fraser, Susan; Kwak, Yoon; Miller, Sonia; Julius, Michael; McGann, Patrick; Lesho, Emil

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The most efficient approach to monitoring and improving cleaning outcomes remains unresolved. We sought to extend the findings of a previous study by determining whether cleaning thoroughness (dye removal) correlates with cleaning efficacy (absence of molecular or cultivable biomaterial) and whether one brief educational intervention improves cleaning outcomes. Design Before-after trial. Setting Newly built community hospital. Intervention 90 minute training refresher with surface-specific performance results. Methods Dye removal, measured by fluorescence, and biomaterial removal and acquisition, measured with culture and culture-independent PCR-based assays, were clandestinely assessed for eight consecutive months. At this midpoint, results were presented to the cleaning staff (intervention) and assessments continued for another eight consecutive months. Results 1273 surfaces were sampled before and after terminal room cleaning. In the short-term, dye removal increased from 40.3% to 50.0% (not significant). For the entire study period, dye removal also improved but not significantly. After the intervention, the number of rooms testing positive for specific pathogenic species by culturing decreased from 55.6% to 36.6% (not significant), and those testing positive by PCR fell from 80.6% to 53.7% (P = 0.016). For nonspecific biomaterial on surfaces: a) removal of cultivable Gram-negatives (GN) trended toward improvement (P = 0.056); b) removal of any cultivable growth was unchanged but acquisition (detection of biomaterial on post-cleaned surfaces that were contaminant-free before cleaning) worsened (P = 0.017); c) removal of PCR-based detection of bacterial DNA improved (P = 0.046), but acquisition worsened (P = 0.003); d) cleaning thoroughness and efficacy were not correlated. Conclusion At this facility, a minor intervention or minimally more aggressive cleaning may reduce pathogen-specific contamination, but not without unintended consequences. PMID

  19. Risk in cleaning: chemical and physical exposure.

    PubMed

    Wolkoff, P; Schneider, T; Kildesø, J; Degerth, R; Jaroszewski, M; Schunk, H

    1998-04-23

    Cleaning is a large enterprise involving a large fraction of the workforce worldwide. A broad spectrum of cleaning agents has been developed to facilitate dust and dirt removal, for disinfection and surface maintenance. The cleaning agents are used in large quantities throughout the world. Although a complex pattern of exposure to cleaning agents and resulting health problems, such as allergies and asthma, are reported among cleaners, only a few surveys of this type of product have been performed. This paper gives a broad introduction to cleaning agents and the impact of cleaning on cleaners, occupants of indoor environments, and the quality of cleaning. Cleaning agents are usually grouped into different product categories according to their technical functions and the purpose of their use (e.g. disinfectants and surface care products). The paper also indicates the adverse health and comfort effects associated with the use of these agents in connection with the cleaning process. The paper identifies disinfectants as the most hazardous group of cleaning agents. Cleaning agents contain evaporative and non-evaporative substances. The major toxicologically significant constituents of the former are volatile organic compounds (VOCs), defined as substances with boiling points in the range of 0 degree C to about 400 degrees C. Although laboratory emission testing has shown many VOCs with quite different time-concentration profiles, few field studies have been carried out measuring the exposure of cleaners. However, both field studies and emission testing indicate that the use of cleaning agents results in a temporal increase in the overall VOC level. This increase may occur during the cleaning process and thus it can enhance the probability of increased short-term exposure of the cleaners. However, the increased levels can also be present after the cleaning and result in an overall increased VOC level that can possibly affect the indoor air quality (IAQ) perceived by

  20. Mechanical Agitation For Aqueous Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hosking, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    Cleaning basket placed in aqueous cleaning solution mechanically agitated by air spring. Compressed air at oscillating pressure supplied to air spring to produce repeated vertical motion of cleaning basket.

  1. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design Have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  2. Keeping condensers clean

    SciTech Connect

    Wicker, K.

    2006-04-15

    The humble condenser is among the biggest contributors to a steam power plant's efficiency. But although a clean condenser can provide great economic benefit, a dirty one can raise plant heat rate, resulting in large losses of generation revenue and/or unnecessarily high fuel bills. Conventional methods for cleaning fouled tubes range form chemicals to scrapers to brushes and hydro-blasters. This article compares the available options and describes how one power station, Omaha Public Power District's 600 MW North Omaha coal-fired power station, cleaned up its act. The makeup and cooling water of all its five units comes from the Missouri River. 6 figs.

  3. Active cleaning technique device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, R. L.; Gillette, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to develop a laboratory demonstration model of an active cleaning technique (ACT) device. The principle of this device is based primarily on the technique for removing contaminants from optical surfaces. This active cleaning technique involves exposing contaminated surfaces to a plasma containing atomic oxygen or combinations of other reactive gases. The ACT device laboratory demonstration model incorporates, in addition to plasma cleaning, the means to operate the device as an ion source for sputtering experiments. The overall ACT device includes a plasma generation tube, an ion accelerator, a gas supply system, a RF power supply and a high voltage dc power supply.

  4. Cleaning method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, D.D.; Hollen, R.M.

    1981-02-27

    A method of very thoroughly and quikcly cleaning a guaze electrode used in chemical analyses is given, as well as an automobile cleaning apparatus which makes use of the method. The method generates very little waste solution, and this is very important in analyzing radioactive materials, especially in aqueous solutions. The cleaning apparatus can be used in a larger, fully automated controlled potential coulometric apparatus. About 99.98% of a 5 mg plutonium sample was removed in less than 3 minutes, using only about 60 ml of rinse solution and two main rinse steps.

  5. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    Layering in the Earth's atmosphere is most commonly seen where parts of the atmosphere resist the incursion of air parcels from above and below - for example, when there is an increase in temperature with height over a particular altitude range. Pollutants tend to accumulate underneath the resulting stable layers. which is why visibility often increases markedly above certain altitudes. Here we describe the occurrence of an opposite effect, in which stable layers generate a layer of remarkably clean air (we refer to these layers as clean-air 'slots') sandwiched between layers of polluted air. We have observed clean-air slots in various locations around the world, but they are particularly well defined and prevalent in southern Africa during the dry season August-September). This is because at this time in this region, stable layers are common and pollution from biomass burning is widespread.

  6. Clean Fleet Final Report

    DOE Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center

    ... The actions taken were to &23; Replace the diaphragm in the pressure regulator with a fluorosilicone diaphragm &23; Replace the S4-7 seat in the regulator &23; Adjust the idle speed &23; Clean ...

  7. Cleaning up Floor Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Richard; McLean, Doug

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how educational-facility maintenance departments can cut costs in floor cleaning through careful evaluation of floor equipment and products. Tips for choosing carpet detergents are highlighted. (GR)

  8. Effective Cleaning Radius Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Churnetski, B.V.

    2001-10-15

    This report discusses results of testing done in the Savannah River Laboratory half tank and full tank mockup facilities using kaolin clay slurries and the relationship between cleaning radius and pump and slurry characteristics.

  9. Walnut Hulls Clean Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colberg, W. R.; Gordon, G. H.; Jackson, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    Hulls inflict minimal substrate damage. Walnut hulls found to be best abrasive for cleaning aluminum surfaces prior to painting. Samples blasted with walnut hulls showed no compressive stress of surface.

  10. Nuclear air cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters.

  11. Cleaning Up High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses cleaning techniques and equipment for areas in a school that are hard to reach, such as the high spacious ceilings, the tall windows of a school atrium, and high points in gymnasiums and auditoriums. (GR)

  12. Keep It Clean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prickette, Thomas

    1984-01-01

    The printer is identified as the major maintenance problem in computer system and tips for reducing downtime are offered, including keeping the printer clean by using high quality paper and scheduling routine servicing. (MJL)

  13. Gasification: redefining clean energy

    SciTech Connect

    2008-05-15

    This booklet gives a comprehensive overview of how gasification is redefining clean energy, now and in the future. It informs the general public about gasification in a straight-forward, non-technical manner.

  14. #CleanTechNow

    SciTech Connect

    Moniz, Ernest

    2013-09-17

    Over the past four years, America's clean energy future has come into sharper focus. Yesterday's visionary goals are now hard data -- tangible evidence that our energy system is undergoing a transformation. The Energy Department's new paper "Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies" highlights these changes and shows how cost reductions and product improvements have sparked a surge in consumer demand for wind turbines, solar panels, electric cars and super efficient lighting.

  15. #CleanTechNow

    ScienceCinema

    Moniz, Ernest

    2016-07-12

    Over the past four years, America's clean energy future has come into sharper focus. Yesterday's visionary goals are now hard data -- tangible evidence that our energy system is undergoing a transformation. The Energy Department's new paper "Revolution Now: The Future Arrives for Four Clean Energy Technologies" highlights these changes and shows how cost reductions and product improvements have sparked a surge in consumer demand for wind turbines, solar panels, electric cars and super efficient lighting.

  16. Mechanisms of laser cleaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Kenneth G.

    2000-02-01

    Laser cleaning is growing in importance with the introduction of the Montreal protocol which proposes the long term reduction on environmental and public health grounds in the use of organic solvents such as CFCs that are normally used in industrial cleaning. There is also significant interest in laser cleaning in the conservation of sculptures, paintings and museum objects where the process offers advantages in terms of time saving and the enhancement of the ability to conserve certain artefacts. To date there has been insufficient consideration of the mechanisms involved in laser cleaning and how their understanding could lead to improved control and efficiency of the laser cleaning process. This paper considers an overview of the processes involved and their relevance in the different cleaning situations encountered in practice, mainly in terms of the application short pulse length lasers. The mechanisms to be considered include, (1) photon pressure, (2) selective vaporization, (3) shock waves produced by rapid heating and cooling, (4) evaporation pressure, (5) plasma detonation (spallation), (6) ablation.

  17. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  18. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, L. M.; Simandl, R. F.

    1995-01-01

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92 percent. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting, and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes, and swelling of epoxies.

  19. Aqueous alternatives for metal and composite cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quitmeyer, Joann

    1994-01-01

    For many years the metalworking industry has cleaned metal and composite substrates with chlorinated solvents. Recently, however, health and disposal related environmental concerns have increased regarding chlorinated solvents, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, methylene chloride, or Freon'. World leaders have instituted a production ban of certain ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) by 1996. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has instituted worker vapor exposure limitations for virtually all of the solvents used in solvent-based cleaners. In addition, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has defined nearly all solvent-based cleaners as 'hazardous'. Cradle to grave waste responsibility is another reason manufacturers are trying to replace chlorinated solvents in their cleaning processes. Because of these factors, there now is a world wide effort to reduce and/or eliminate the use of chlorinated solvents for industrial cleaning. Waterbased cleaners are among the alternatives being offered to the industry. New technology alkaline cleaners are now available that can be used instead of chlorinated solvents in many cleaning processes. These waterbased cleaners reduce the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC's) by as much as 99 percent. (The definition and method of calculation of VOC's now varies from region to region.) Hazardous waste generation can also be significantly reduced or eliminated with new aqueous technology. This in turn can ease worker exposure restrictions and positively impact the environment. This paper compares the chemical and physical properties of this aqueous cleaners versus chlorinated solvents.

  20. Mock Tribunal in Action: Mock International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. 10th Grade Lesson. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fix, Terrance

    In this lesson, students role-play as members of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia that will bring to trial "Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law." Students represent the following groups: International Criminal Tribunal; Prosecution; Defense; Serbians; Croatians; Bosnian Muslims;…

  1. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits. PMID:26247291

  2. Clean Water for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Aniruddha B; Kumar, Jyoti Kishen

    2015-01-01

    Availability of safe drinking water, a vital natural resource, is still a distant dream to many around the world, especially in developing countries. Increasing human activity and industrialization have led to a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants entering water bodies and affecting human lives. Efforts to develop efficient, economical, and technologically sound methods to produce clean water for developing countries have increased worldwide. We focus on solar disinfection, filtration, hybrid filtration methods, treatment of harvested rainwater, herbal water disinfection, and arsenic removal technologies. Simple, yet innovative water treatment devices ranging from use of plant xylem as filters, terafilters, and hand pumps to tippy taps designed indigenously are methods mentioned here. By describing the technical aspects of major water disinfection methods relevant for developing countries on medium to small scales and emphasizing their merits, demerits, economics, and scalability, we highlight the current scenario and pave the way for further research and development and scaling up of these processes. This review focuses on clean drinking water, especially for rural populations in developing countries. It describes various water disinfection techniques that are not only economically viable and energy efficient but also employ simple methodologies that are effective in reducing the physical, chemical, and biological pollutants found in drinking water to acceptable limits.

  3. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  4. Aqueous cleaning design presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maltby, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    The phase-out of CFC's and other ozone depleting chemicals has prompted industries to re-evaluate their present methods of cleaning. It has become necessary to find effective substitutes for their processes as well as to meet the new cleaning challenges of improved levels of cleanliness and to satisfy concerns about environmental impact of any alternative selected. One of the most popular alternatives being selected is aqueous cleaning. This method offers an alternative for removal of flux, grease/oil, buffing compound, particulates and other soils while minimizing environmental impact. What I will show are methods that can be employed in an aqueous cleaning system that will make it environmentally friendly, relatively simple to maintain and capable of yielding an even higher quality of cleanliness than previously obtained. I will also explore several drying techniques available for these systems and other alternatives along with recent improvements made in this technology. When considering any type of cleaning system, a number of variables should be determined before selecting the basic configuration. Some of these variables are: (1) Soil or contaminants being removed from your parts; (2) The level of cleanliness required; (3) The environmental considerations of your area; (4) Maintenance requirements; and (5) Operating costs.

  5. Aging of clean foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weon, Byung Mook; Stewart, Peter S.

    2014-11-01

    Aging is an inevitable process in living systems. Here we show how clean foams age with time through sequential coalescence events: in particular, foam aging resembles biological aging. We measure population dynamics of bubbles in clean foams through numerical simulations with a bubble network model. We demonstrate that death rates of individual bubbles increase exponentially with time, independent on initial conditions, which is consistent with the Gompertz mortality law as usually found in biological aging. This consistency suggests that clean foams as far-from-equilibrium dissipative systems are useful to explore biological aging. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST.

  6. Neutrino detection with CLEAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinsey, D. N.; Coakley, K. J.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible, thereby allowing detection by conventional photomultipliers. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense, and transparent to its own scintillation light, making it practical for use in a large self-shielding apparatus. The central region of a full-sized detector would be a stainless steel tank holding approximately 135 metric tons of liquid neon. Inside the tank and suspended in the liquid neon would be several thousand photomultipliers. Monte Carlo simulations of gamma ray backgrounds have been performed assuming liquid neon as both shielding and detection medium. Gamma ray events occur with high probability in the outer parts of the detector. In contrast, neutrino scattering events occur uniformly throughout the detector. We discriminate background gamma ray events from events of interest based on a spatial maximum likelihood method estimate of event location. Background estimates for CLEAN are presented, as well as an evaluation of the sensitivity of the detector for p-p neutrinos. Given these simulations, the physics potential of the CLEAN approach is evaluated.

  7. World oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. L.

    1982-06-01

    Results obtained through the application of 10 prominent world oil or world energy models to 12 scenarios are reported. These scenarios were designed to bound the range of likely future world oil market outcomes. Conclusions relate to oil market trends, impacts of policies on oil prices, security of oil supplies, impacts of policies on oil security problems, use of the oil import premium in policymaking, the transition to oil substitutes, and the state of the art of world oil modeling.

  8. [A modified retroperitoneal approach to the kidney in patients with a highly deformed thorax: obtaining a wide operative field through subperiosteal resection of the 10th, 11th and 12th ribs].

    PubMed

    Satoh, Yuji; Kanou, Takehiro; Takagi, Norito; Tokuda, Yuji; Uozumi, Jiro; Masaki, Zenjiro

    2005-07-01

    We herein report a technique which facilitates a retroperitoneal approach to the kidney in cases of highly deformed thorax due to kyphoscoliosis. The operation consists of a lumbar oblique incision with removal of the 11th rib, combined with the additional removal of the 12th and 10th ribs. Resection of the upper two ribs was performed subperiosteally, leaving the periosteum of the deep side untouched. However, the deep side periosteum of the 12th rib was incised caudal from the pleural margin in order to facilitate exposure of the diaphragm. The retroperitoneal space was entered through the tip of the 11th rib bed. The diaphragm was incised dorso-medially at a level 1 cm caudal from the lower margin of the pleura, to an extent necessary to enable the pleura together with the cranial diaphragm to be manoeuvred in an upward direction. Two cases with renal tuberculosis associated with high-grade kyphosis and one case with staghorn calculi accompanied with lordosis were operated on utilizing this technique. In the former two cases, the thoracic cage was in direct contact with the iliac bone and there was practically no space between the rib border and the iliac crest. This was also true of the third case, but the grade of deformity was not as extensive as in the former two cases. Removal of the 10th, 11th and 12th ribs could be achieved without injuring the pleura and a satisfactorily large operating field could thus be developed which enabled a simple nephrectomy to be performed without difficulty. The characteristic feature of the described approach is that resection of the 10th and 11th ribs is simply to facilitate manoevrability of the wound margin, without going through the rib bed. The technique could be advantageous in selected cases where there is a highly deformed thorax. PMID:16083038

  9. EDITORIAL: Selected papers from the 10th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2010) Selected papers from the 10th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaerts, Dominiek; Vullers, Ruud

    2011-10-01

    This special section of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering features papers selected from the 10th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2010). The workshop was organized in Leuven, Belgium from 30 November to 3 December 2010 by Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and the imec/Holst Centre. This was a special PowerMEMS Workshop, for several reasons. First of all, we celebrated the 10th anniversary of the workshop: the first PowerMEMS meeting was organized in Sendai, Japan in 2000. None of the organizers or participants of this first meeting could have predicted the impact of the workshop over the next decade. The second reason was that, for the first time, the conference organization spanned two countries: Belgium and the Netherlands. Thanks to the advances in information technology, teams from Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium) and the imec/Holst Centre in Eindhoven (the Netherlands) have been able to work together seamlessly as one team. The objective of the PowerMEMS Workshop is to stimulate innovation in micro and nanotechnology for power generation and energy conversion applications. Its scope ranges from integrated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for power generation, dissipation, harvesting, and management, to novel nanostructures and materials for energy-related applications. True to the objective of the PowerMEMSWorkshop, the 2010 technical program covered a broad range of energy related research, ranging from the nanometer to the millimeter scale, discussed in 5 invited and 52 oral presentations, and 112 posters. This special section includes 14 papers covering vibration energy harvesters, thermal applications and micro power systems. Finally, we wish to express sincere appreciation to the members of the International Steering Committee, the Technical Program Committee and last but not least the Local Organizing Committee. This special issue was edited in

  10. The clean water handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Arbuckle, J.G.; Randle, R.V. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors offer an explanation of how the clean water laws and regulations affect business operations. This book includes chapters on: Introduction and overview of the Clean Water Act; Enforcement: the power behind the word; toxics water quality standards for industrial and municipal discharges: development and application; Effluent limitations for toxic pollutant discharges from industrial sources: development and application; National pollutant elimination system; Control of stormwater and nonpoint source discharges of water pollution; Reporting and cleanup requirements for releases, spills, or discharges of oil and hazardous substances; Oil spill liability legislation; and Special issues facing publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and their effect on industrial pretreatment obligations and expenses.

  11. Colorado's clean energy choices

    SciTech Connect

    Strawn, N.; Jones, J.

    2000-04-15

    The daily choices made as consumers affect the environment and the economy. Based on the state of today's technology and economics, Colorado consumers can include energy efficiency and renewable energy into many aspects of their lives. These choices include where they obtain electricity, how they use energy at home, and how they transport themselves from one place to another. In addition to outlining how they can use clean energy, Colorado's Clean Energy Choices gives consumers contacts and links to Web sites for where to get more information.

  12. Clean Coal Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

    2006-03-31

    This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

  13. Introduction to the special issue on the joint meeting of the 19th IEEE International Symposium on the Applications of Ferroelectrics and the 10th European Conference on the Applications of Polar Dielectrics.

    PubMed

    Tsurumi, Takaaki

    2011-09-01

    The joint meeting of the 19th IEEE International Symposium on the Applications of Ferroelectrics and the 10th European Conference on the Applications of Polar Dielectrics took place in Edinburgh from August 9-12, 2010. The conference was attended by 390 delegates from more than 40 different countries. There were 4 plenary speakers, 56 invited speakers, and a further 222 contributed oral presentations in 7 parallel session. In addition there were 215 poster presentations. Key topics addressed at the conference included piezoelectric materials, leadfree piezoelectrics, and multiferroics.

  14. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, T.W.; Frye, G.C.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-01-13

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method are disclosed. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece. 11 figs.

  15. Precision cleaning apparatus and method

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Thomas W.; Frye, Gregory C.; Martin, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    A precision cleaning apparatus and method. The precision cleaning apparatus includes a cleaning monitor further comprising an acoustic wave cleaning sensor such as a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), a flexural plate wave (FPW) sensor, a shear horizontal acoustic plate mode (SH--APM) sensor, or a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH--SAW) sensor; and measurement means connectable to the sensor for measuring in-situ one or more electrical response characteristics that vary in response to removal of one or more contaminants from the sensor and a workpiece located adjacent to the sensor during cleaning. Methods are disclosed for precision cleaning of one or more contaminants from a surface of the workpiece by means of the cleaning monitor that determines a state of cleanliness and any residual contamination that may be present after cleaning; and also for determining an effectiveness of a cleaning medium for removing one or more contaminants from a workpiece.

  16. A benchmark investigation on cleaning photomasks using wafer cleaning technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindt, Louis; Burnham, Jay; Marmillion, Pat

    2004-12-01

    As new technologies are developed for smaller linewidths, the specifications for mask cleanliness become much stricter. Not only must the particle removal efficiency increase, but the largest allowable particle size decreases. Specifications for film thickness and surface roughness are becoming tighter and consequently the integrity of these films must be maintained in order to preserve the functionality of the masks. Residual contamination remaining on the surface of the mask after cleaning processes can lead to subpellicle defect growth once the mask is exposed in a stepper environment. Only during the last several years, has an increased focus been put on improving mask cleaning. Over the years, considerably more effort has been put into developing advanced wafer cleaning technologies. However, because of the small market involved with mask cleaning, wafer cleaning equipment vendors have been reluctant to invest time and effort into developing cleaning processes and adapting their toolset to accommodate masks. With the advent of 300 mm processing, wafer cleaning tools are now more easily adapted to processing masks. These wafer cleaning technologies may offer a solution to the difficulties of mask cleaning and need to be investigated to determine whether or not they warrant continued investigation. This paper focuses on benchmarking advanced wafer cleaning technologies applied to mask cleaning. Ozonated water, hydrogenated water, super critical fluids, and cryogenic cleaning have been investigated with regards to stripping resist and cleaning particles from masks. Results that include film thickness changes, surface contamination, and particle removal efficiency will be discussed.

  17. Healy clean coal project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and a heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. Resulting emission levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New Source Performance Standards. (VC)

  18. Systematic conveyor belt cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Rappen, A.

    1984-01-01

    The currently available conveyor belt cleaning devices are enumerated. Recent investigations have confirmed the belt scraping devices based on intermittent linear contact by means of individually adjustable and spring-loaded scraper blades, usually of metallic construction as the most advanced type of belt cleaner. The system also allows application on reversing belts. Criteria are presented for assessing the performance of a belt cleaner.

  19. Clean Cities Tools

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  20. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  1. Healy Clean Coal Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the Healy Clean Coal Project is to demonstrate the integration of an advanced combustor and heat recovery system with both high and low temperature emission control processes. The resulting emission levels of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulates are expected to be significantly better than the federal New Source Performance Standards. 3 figs. (VC)

  2. Acrylic vessel cleaning tests

    SciTech Connect

    Earle, D.; Hahn, R.L.; Boger, J.; Bonvin, E.

    1997-02-26

    The acrylic vessel as constructed is dirty. The dirt includes blue tape, Al tape, grease pencil, gemak, the glue or residue form these tapes, finger prints and dust of an unknown composition but probably mostly acrylic dust. This dirt has to be removed and once removed, the vessel has to be kept clean or at least to be easily cleanable at some future stage when access becomes much more difficult. The authors report on the results of a series of tests designed: (a) to prepare typical dirty samples of acrylic; (b) to remove dirt stuck to the acrylic surface; and (c) to measure the optical quality and Th concentration after cleaning. Specifications of the vessel call for very low levels of Th which could come from tape residues, the grease pencil, or other sources of dirt. This report does not address the concerns of how to keep the vessel clean after an initial cleaning and during the removal of the scaffolding. Alconox is recommended as the cleaner of choice. This acrylic vessel will be used in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory.

  3. Road-Cleaning Device

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Roadways are literally soaked with petrochemical byproducts, oils, gasoline, and other volatile substances that eventually run off into sewers and end up in rivers, waterways, and other undesirable places. Can the roads be cleaned of these wastes, with their proper disposal? Can vehicles, robots, or other devices be designed that could be driven…

  4. Keep It Clean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William R.

    1998-01-01

    Offers ideas for cleaning and maintenance management of school food service areas to avoid possible waste, injuries, unsanitary conditions, and unnecessary risk to those using the facilities. Includes a self-inspection checklist and a list of the 12 essentials for managing toward cleaner facilities. (GR)

  5. Super Clean, Super Safe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Supersonic Gas/Liquid Cleaning System (SS-GLCS) has applications ranging from cleaning circuit boards to scouring building exteriors. The system does not abrade the surface of the hardware being cleaned, and it requires much lower levels of pressure while using very little water. An alternative to CFC-based solvents, the system mixes air and water from separate pressurized tanks, ejecting the gas- liquid mixture at supersonic speeds from a series of nozzles at the end of a hand-held wand. The water droplets have the kinetic energy to forcibly remove the contaminant material. The system leaves very little fluid that must be handled as contaminated waste. It can be applied in the aerospace, automotive, and medical industries, as well as to circuit boards, electronics, machinery, metals, plastics, and optics. With a nozzle that can be oriented in any direction, the system is adjustable to allow all sides of a part to be cleaned without reorientation. It requires minimal training and is easily moved on built-in casters

  6. Dental Cleanings May Help Keep Lungs Clean, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161726.html Dental Cleanings May Help Keep Lungs Clean, Too Twice ... 2016 THURSDAY, Oct. 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Regular dental checkups not only keep your smile bright, they ...

  7. Pipe Cleaning Operating Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.; Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-01-24

    This cleaning procedure outlines the steps involved in cleaning the high purity argon lines associated with the DO calorimeters. The procedure is broken down into 7 cycles: system setup, initial flush, wash, first rinse, second rinse, final rinse and drying. The system setup involves preparing the pump cart, line to be cleaned, distilled water, and interconnecting hoses and fittings. The initial flush is an off-line flush of the pump cart and its plumbing in order to preclude contaminating the line. The wash cycle circulates the detergent solution (Micro) at 180 degrees Fahrenheit through the line to be cleaned. The first rinse is then intended to rid the line of the majority of detergent and only needs to run for 30 minutes and at ambient temperature. The second rinse (if necessary) should eliminate the remaining soap residue. The final rinse is then intended to be a check that there is no remaining soap or other foreign particles in the line, particularly metal 'chips.' The final rinse should be run at 180 degrees Fahrenheit for at least 90 minutes. The filters should be changed after each cycle, paying particular attention to the wash cycle and the final rinse cycle return filters. These filters, which should be bagged and labeled, prove that the pipeline is clean. Only distilled water should be used for all cycles, especially rinsing. The level in the tank need not be excessive, merely enough to cover the heater float switch. The final rinse, however, may require a full 50 gallons. Note that most of the details of the procedure are included in the initial flush description. This section should be referred to if problems arise in the wash or rinse cycles.

  8. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.; Meirans, L.; Wapman, W.; Hwang, Y.; Koenig, L.; Petterson, B.

    1994-07-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene and chlorofluorocarbon solvents in cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates from electronic components. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  9. Mouse Cleaning Apparatus and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The method of using the mouse pad cleaning apparatus is disclosed and claimed. The method comprises the steps of uncovering the mouse cleaning surface, applying the mouse and ball of the mouse to the cleaning surface, moving the mouse in a rotational pattern on the mouse cleaning surface, removing the mouse form the mouse cleaning surface, washing the cleaning surface, and covering the mouse cleaning surface. A mouse pad cleaning apparatus comprising a plurality of substrates, each said substrate having adhesive thereon, said plurality of substrates residing in and affixed to a receptacle. A single substrate having adhesive, which may be washable or non-washable, thereon may be employed. The washable adhesive may be an organopolysiloxane or gelatinous elastomer.

  10. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  11. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  12. Water-based cleaning fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1991-12-01

    A basic description of water-based alkaline cleaning is presented, The nature of soils is described. The compositions of conventional cleaning compounds are given with descriptions of the functions of the ingredients. The mechanisms by which soil is removed are explained. The degrees of cleanliness required, along with the influence of the material being cleaned, are discussed. Tests for cleanliness are described.

  13. Cleaning Processes across NASA Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, John M.

    2010-01-01

    All significant surfaces of the hardware must be pre-cleaned to remove dirt, grit, scale, corrosion, grease, oil and other foreign matter prior to any final precision cleaning process. Metallic parts shall be surface treated (cleaned, passivated, pickled and/or coated) as necessary to prevent latent corrosion and contamination.

  14. Evaporator Cleaning Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-04-15

    Operation of the 242-16H High Level Waste Evaporator proves crucial to liquid waste management in the H-Area Tank Farm. Recent operational history of the Evaporator showed significant solid formation in secondary lines and in the evaporator pot. Additional samples remain necessary to ensure material identity in the evaporator pot. Analysis of these future samples will provide actinide partitioning information and dissolution characteristics of the solid material from the pot to ensure safe chemical cleaning.

  15. Laser surface cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Crivella, E.C.; Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Decontamination of contaminated metal and material recycle, two of 31 priority needs identified by the D&D focus group, are the most promising applications for laser ablation within the DOE complex. F2 Associates has developed a robotic laser ablation system that is capable of high contamination rates, waste volume reduction, surface pore cleaning, and real-time characterization of materials. It is being demonstrated that this system will be the most cost-effective technology for metal decontamination and material recycle.

  16. Clean room wiping cloths

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, W.B.

    1981-01-01

    The suitability of various fabrics for use as clean room wiping cloths was investigated. These fabrics included knit polyester, knit nylon, urethane foam, woven cotton, nonwoven polyester, nonwoven rayon, nonwoven polyethylene and polypropylene, and woven nylon. These materials were tested for detachable lint and fibers, deterioration, and oil content which could leave contaminating films on wiped surfaces. Well-laundered nylon and polyester cloths knitted from filamentary yarn, with hems, were found to be suitable. (LCL)

  17. RFID Data Cleaning for Shop Floor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziekow, Holger; Ivantysynova, Lenka; Günter, Oliver

    In several case studies we found that shop-floor applications in manufacturing pose special challenges to cleaning RFID data. The underlying problem in many scenarios is the uncertainty about the exact location of observed RFID tags. Simple filter s provided in common middleware solutions do not cope well with these challenges. Therefore we have developed an approach based on maximum-likelihood estimation to infer a tag's location within the reader range. This enables improved RFID data cleaning in a number of application scenarios. We stress the benefits of our approach along exemplary application scenarios that we found in manufacturing. In simulations and experiments with real world data we show that our approach outperforms existing solutions. Our approach can extend RFID middleware or reader firmware, to improve the use of RFID in a range of shop-floor applications.

  18. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    SciTech Connect

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  19. Superhabitable worlds.

    PubMed

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world. PMID:24380533

  20. Superhabitable worlds.

    PubMed

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world.

  1. Make America the World's Leader in Clean Energy Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2011-01-25

    01/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S128) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Coming Clean about Organizational Change: Leadership in the Real World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Jerry

    This book examines change, leadership, and resilience, including levels of change, what constitutes effective leadership, and characteristics of organizational resilience. It describes ways to build organizational resilience and describes 12 harsh realities that people and organizations bring to reform, such as the reality that most people act…

  3. Coal: world energy security. The Clearwater clean coal conference

    SciTech Connect

    Sakkestad, B.

    2009-07-01

    Topics covered include: oxy-fuel (overview, demonstrations, experimental studies, burner developments, emissions, fundamental and advanced concepts); post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture; coal conversion to chemicals and fuels; advanced materials; hydrogen production from opportunity fuels; mercury abatement options for power plants; and carbon capture and storage in volume 1. Subjects covered in volume 2 include: advanced modelling; advanced concepts for emission control; gasification technology; biomass; low NOx technology; computer simulations; multi emissions control; chemical looping; and options for improving efficiency and reducing emissions.

  4. Clean coal: Global opportunities for small businesses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The parallel growth in coal demand and environmental concern has spurred interest in technologies that burn coal with greater efficiency and with lower emissions. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) will ensure that continued use of the world`s most abundant energy resource is compatible with a cleaner, healthier environment. Increasing interest in CCTs opens the door for American small businesses to provide services and equipment for the clean and efficient use of coal. Key players in most coal-related projects are typically large equipment manufacturers, power project developers, utilities, governments, and multinational corporations. At the same time, the complexity and scale of many of these projects creates niche markets for small American businesses with high-value products and services. From information technology, control systems, and specialized components to management practices, financial services, and personnel training methods, small US companies boast some of the highest value products and services in the world. As a result, American companies are in a prime position to take advantage of global niche markets for CCTs. This guide is designed to provide US small businesses with an overview of potential international market opportunities related to CCTs and to provide initial guidance on how to cost-effectively enter that growing global market.

  5. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-08-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

  6. Win That Job! 10th Anniversary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Paul

    This book provides practical information on obtaining a job. Though it is published in Australia, 11 chapters introduce a universal range of job search methods, presenting: the importance of goals and self-knowledge; the resume; preparing job search correspondence; the interview; self-promotion; job search tips and unusual strategies; networking;…

  7. 10th Anniversary P.S.

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    John Adams parle de la préhistoire du P.S. avec présentation des dias. Le DG B.Gregory prend la parole. Les organisateurs présentent sous la direction du "Prof.Ocktette"(?) un sketch très humoristique (p.e.existence de Quark etc.....)

  8. 10th Anniversary P.S.

    SciTech Connect

    2005-10-28

    John Adams parle de la préhistoire du P.S. avec présentation des dias. Le DG B.Gregory prend la parole. Les organisateurs présentent sous la direction du "Prof.Ocktette"(?) un sketch très humoristique (p.e.existence de Quark etc.....)

  9. Highlights of 10th plasma chemistry meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitamura, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Hozumi, K.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical structure is given of a film formed by plasma polymerization from pyridine monomers. The film has a hydrophilic chemical structure, its molecular weight is 900, and the molecular system is C55H50N10O3. The electrical characteristics of a plasma polymerized film are described. The film has good insulating properties and was successfully applied as video disc coating. Etching resistance properties make it possible to use the film as a resist in etching. The characteristics of plasma polymer formed from monomers containing tetramethyltin are discussed. The polymer is in film form, displays good adhesiveness, is similar to UV film UV 35 in light absorption and is highly insulating.

  10. 10th Annual School Construction Report, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul

    2005-01-01

    School construction in the United States dipped below $20 billion in 2003, the first time that had happened in the 21st Century, setting off alarm bells that the school construction boom might be fading. That concern appears to be unfounded. In 2004, school districts in the United States once again completed more than $20 billion worth of…

  11. Tephra fall clean-up in urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Josh L.; Wilson, Thomas M.; Magill, Christina

    2015-10-01

    Tephra falls impact urban communities by disrupting transport systems, contaminating and damaging buildings and infrastructures, and are potentially hazardous to human health. Therefore, prompt and effective tephra clean-up measures are an essential component of an urban community's response to tephra fall. This paper reviews case studies of tephra clean-up operations in urban environments around the world, spanning 50 years. It identifies methods used in tephra clean-up and assesses a range of empirical relationships between level of tephra accumulation and clean-up metrics such as collected tephra volume, costs, and duration of operations. Results indicate the volume of tephra collected from urban areas is proportional to tephra accumulation. Urban areas with small tephra accumulations (1,000 m3/km2 or an average of 1 mm thickness) may collect < 1% of the total deposit, whereas urban areas which experience large accumulations (> 50,000 m3/km2 or an average of 50 mm thickness) remove up to 80%. This relationship can inform impact and risk assessments by providing an estimate of the likely response required for a given tephra fall. No strong relationship was found between tephra fall accumulation and clean-up cost or duration for urban environments which received one-off tephra falls, suggesting that these aspects of tephra fall clean-up operations are context specific. Importantly, this study highlights the advantage of effective planning for tephra clean-up and disposal in potentially exposed areas.

  12. Clean air strategies study

    SciTech Connect

    Quartucy, G.C.; Chrisman, L.J.P. ); Nylander, J.H.; Keller, W.B. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDG and E) is evaluating emissions control technologies suitable for retrofit to their utility boilers. This effort is being driven by actions undertaken by the San Diego Air Pollution Control District (SDAPCD) in response to the California Clean Air Act. These actions include the development of two Tactic Evaluations, and the preparation of proposed regulatory limits. Tactic Evaluations are proposed methods to achieve compliance with California ambient air quality standards. Emissions of concern include NO{sub x}, CO, ROG, PM and SO{sub 2}. Of these species, it appears that NO{sub x} is the emission species of primary concern.

  13. Clean fuels from biomass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Y.-Y.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses the U.S. resources to provide fuels from agricultural products, the present status of conversion technology of clean fuels from biomass, and a system study directed to determine the energy budget, and environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Conversion processes are discussed relative to pyrolysis and anaerobic fermentation. Pyrolysis breaks the cellulose molecules to smaller molecules under high temperature in the absence of oxygen, wheras anaerobic fermentation is used to convert biomass to methane by means of bacteria. Cost optimization and energy utilization are also discussed.

  14. Clean Air Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Mike

    According to the Environmental Protection Agency, American electrical utility companies are ahead of schedule in reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide—a major contributor to acid rain—into the atmosphere. By the end of 1995, the 445 boilers with the highest emission levels had cut emissions from 10.9 million tons of SO2 to 5.3 million tons, 39% less emissions than were mandated by the Clean Air Act. Electric utilities account for more than 70% of sulfur dioxide emissions in the United States.

  15. The world's children.

    PubMed

    Niimi, R

    1997-01-01

    World leaders from 159 countries agreed at the 1990 World Summit for Children to specific goals which would reduce levels of child and maternal mortality, and give every child access to basic education, clean water, and proper sanitation by 2000. Major progress has since been achieved in most countries, with more than 80% of the world's children now immunized against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. Moreover, the deaths of over 1 million children annually are being averted through the increased use of oral rehydration therapy against diarrheal dehydration, poliomyelitis and guinea worm have almost been eradicated, the consumption of iodized salt is protecting approximately 12 million infants annually from iodine deficiency, and access to safe drinking water is on the rise. Scientific developments in pediatrics, the strengthening of national health services, and the use of cost-effective primary health care approaches such as immunization, oral rehydration therapy, the promotion of breast feeding, and growth monitoring have helped reduce the national rate of infant mortality (IMR) in Turkey to 42 per 1000 live births compared to the urban IMR in Turkey during the 1940s of 300-350/1000. Developments in public health, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), education and child development, and child protection and the CRC are discussed.

  16. International Clean Energy Coalition

    SciTech Connect

    Erin Skootsky; Matt Gardner; Bevan Flansburgh

    2010-09-28

    In 2003, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) and National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) collaboratively established the International Clean Energy Coalition (ICEC). The coalition consisting of energy policy-makers, technologists, and financial institutions was designed to assist developing countries in forming and supporting local approaches to greenhouse gas mitigation within the energy sector. ICEC's work focused on capacity building and clean energy deployment in countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation. Under ICEC, the coalition formed a steering committee consisting of NARUC members and held a series of meetings to develop and manage the workplan and define successful outcomes for the projects. ICEC identified India as a target country for their work and completed a country assessment that helped ICEC build a framework for discussion with Indian energy decisionmakers including two follow-on in-country workshops. As of the conclusion of the project in 2010, ICEC had also conducted outreach activities conducted during United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Ninth Conference of Parties (COP 9) and COP 10. The broad goal of this project was to develop a coalition of decision-makers, technologists, and financial institutions to assist developing countries in implementing affordable, effective and resource appropriate technology and policy strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. Project goals were met through international forums, a country assessment, and in-country workshops. This project focused on countries that rely heavily on fossil-based electric generation.

  17. Adsorption air cleaning from ozone.

    PubMed

    Baltrenas, Pranas; Paliulis, Dainius; Vasarevicius, Saulius; Simaitis, Ramutis

    2003-01-01

    Not much has been written about air cleaning from ozone. The aim of this paper was to demonstrate the possibility of adsorption air cleaning from ozone. The second aim was to investigate the dependence of the efficiency of ozone removal from the air on the height of the adsorber layer and on concentrations of ozone, and to obtain empirical formulas for calculating the efficiency of ozone treatment. Equipment for air cleaning from ozone and nitrogen and sulphur dioxides is suggested.

  18. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  19. Back to basics: environmental cleaning.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa; Wood, Amber

    2014-07-01

    The need for a clean perioperative environment is a basic principle for all perioperative team members. Recent evidence suggests that the environment plays a role in the occurrence of health care-associated infections (HAIs), including surgical site infections. Frequently cleaning high-touch surfaces helps prevent the spread of infections, and routinely cleaning and disinfecting the patient's environment can reduce the level and frequency of contamination and the risk of HAIs. Perioperative personnel should use a bundled approach to perform a standardized cleaning routine and implement a successful monitoring program. PMID:24973185

  20. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect

    Drazga, B.

    2007-01-30

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  1. Automated cleaning of electronic components

    SciTech Connect

    Drotning, W.

    1994-03-01

    Environmental and operator safety concerns are leading to the elimination of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvents in electronic component cleaning processes that remove rosin flux, organic and inorganic contamination, and particulates. Present processes depend heavily on these solvents for manual spray cleaning of small components and subassemblies. Use of alternative solvent systems can lead to longer processing times and reduced quality. Automated spray cleaning can improve the quality of the cleaning process, thus enabling the productive use of environmentally conscious materials, while minimizing personnel exposure to hazardous materials. In addition, the use of robotic and automated systems can reduce the manual handling of parts that necessitates additional cleaning. We describe the development of a prototype robotic system for cleaning electronic components in a spray cleaning workcell. An important feature of the prototype system is the capability to generate the robot paths and motions automatically from the CAD models of the part to be cleaned, and to embed cleaning process knowledge into the automatically programmed operations.

  2. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  3. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  4. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  5. Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recently entered into a nonexclusive license agreement with Applied Cryogenic Solutions (ACS), Inc. (Galveston, TX) to commercialize its Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System technology. This technology, developed by KSC, is a critical component of processes being developed and commercialized by ACS to replace current mechanical and chemical cleaning and descaling methods used by numerous industries. Pilot trials on heat exchanger tubing components have shown that the ACS technology provides for: Superior cleaning in a much shorter period of time. Lower energy and labor requirements for cleaning and de-scaling uper.ninih. Significant reductions in waste volumes by not using water, acidic or basic solutions, organic solvents, or nonvolatile solid abrasives as components in the cleaning process. Improved energy efficiency in post-cleaning heat exchanger operations. The ACS process consists of a spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, a source of liquid gas; a novel, proprietary pumping system that permits pumping liquid nitrogen, liquid air, or supercritical carbon dioxide to pressures in the range of 20,000 to 60,000 psi; and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. The size and number of nozzles can be varied so the system can be built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. The system also can be used to verify if a part has been adequately cleaned.

  6. The Clean Water Act

    SciTech Connect

    Piatt, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, commonly called the Clean Water Act (CWA), was adopted on 18 October 1972. Since then it has been amended 18 times, the last amendments were adopted on 4 February 1987. As established, its objective is: to restore and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation`s waters. And has, as an interim goal: water quality which provides for the protection and propagation of fish, shellfish, and wildlife and provides for recreation in and on the water. It should be noted that Congress established as the Act`s ultimate goal: the discharge of pollutants into the navigable waters be eliminated. The Act set out to meet this lofty objective and goal through the development and implementation of controls on the point source discharges and the nonpoint source release of pollutants. The regulation of point and nonpoint sources as well as future requirements are discussed.

  7. Cleaning up underground contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    At hundreds of industrial and government sites across the United States, environmental consulting firms are designing permanent containment systems for underground contaminants such as hydrocarbon fuels, cleaning solvents, and industrial chemicals. In quantities of thousands of liters or more, these chemicals threaten to contaminate drinking water supplies for hundreds of years. Typical containment systems (e.g., deep wells of cement or clay, or hydraulic pumping to control groundwater movement) can keep the chemicals from further contaminating groundwater if they are properly maintained for many years, but they do not remove the contaminants. Clearly, removing the contaminants from the soil is a much preferable solution than containing them and attempting to prevent their spread. A dynamic underground stripping process that combines steam and electrical heating of underground soils with vacuum extraction of vapors and fluids and guiding these processes by real-time monitoring methods is described.

  8. Our World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling, Ed.

    Authored by individuals from five Nordic countries, this book focuses on questions about the child's right to live in and learn about an ecologically sustainable world. The first five chapters are theoretical in character, while the final six chapters are derived from work done by early childhood teachers together with children. The goal of the…

  9. World Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceres, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents a report that deals with several topics from different parts of the world. A system for creating more meaningful maps, the recycling of organic wastes in agriculture in China, and producing pigs and poultry without pollution problems are among the topics presented. (HM)

  10. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference; Sessions 1--8

    SciTech Connect

    First, M.W.

    1991-02-01

    Separate abstracts have been prepared for the papers presented at the meeting on nuclear facility air cleaning technology in the following specific areas of interest: air cleaning technologies for the management and disposal of radioactive wastes; Canadian waste management program; radiological health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis; filter testing; US standard codes on nuclear air and gas treatment; European community nuclear codes and standards; chemical processing off-gas cleaning; incineration and vitrification; adsorbents; nuclear codes and standards; mathematical modeling techniques; filter technology; safety; containment system venting; and nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. (MB)

  11. Automated Facility For Cleaning Large Flex Hoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, Louis E.

    1995-01-01

    Technicians no longer exposed to hazardous cleaning materials. Proposed computer-controlled facility cleans bellow-type expansion joints and large flex hoses. Major portions of automated cleaning facility contained in clean room. One piece of equipment in clean room tower in which hose or expansion joint to be cleaned hoisted by hydraulic machinery and hung vertically. Once hose or expansion joint hung in required position, technician initiates programmed cleaning procedure from console on computer monitoring system. Procedure includes degreasing, cleaning with detergents, rinsing, pickling, and passivating operations. After cleaning completed, technician removes hose or expansion joint from tower and wraps open ends to prevent recontamination of interior.

  12. Programmed Cleaning and Environmental Sanitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John C., Ed.

    Maintenance of sanitation in buildings, plants, offices, and institutions; the selection of cleaning materials for these purposes; and the organization and supervision of the cleaning program are becoming increasingly complex and needful of a higher cost of handling. This book describes these problems and gives helpful information and guidance for…

  13. Collodion technique of mirror cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyndall, J. B.

    1970-01-01

    Cleaning method is modified by addition of a layer of cheesecloth between thin coatings of U.S.P. collodion. After drying, the collodion is peeled off by an even pull on the cheesecloth, leaving the mirror clean and ready for use.

  14. Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... and what you can do if soap and clean, running water are not available. Whether you are at home, at work, traveling, or already sick, find out how good hand hygiene can protect you, your family, and others. More… Featured Video Keeping our hands clean is one of the best things we can ...

  15. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2012-01-01

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  16. Aqueous-Spray Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.; Simpson, Gareth L.

    1996-01-01

    Simple aqueous-spray cleaning system with overall dimensions comparable to large kitchen refrigerator constructed for use in cleaning hardware in shop. Made of commercially available parts and materials. Incorporates economical cleaner-and-rinse-recycling subsystem, as well as programmable logic-controller device for either manual or automatic operation.

  17. Cleaning of boiler heating surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Maidanik, M. N.; Vasil'ev, V. V.

    2006-09-15

    Basic methods and facilities for the external cleaning of the heating surfaces of boilers designed for the combustion of low-grade solid fuels are discussed. Water and steam blastings, which are the basic means of cleaning furnace shields, and semi-radiative and convective heating surfaces have the greatest range of application.

  18. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    ScienceCinema

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2016-07-12

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  20. High Efficiency, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Stanton

    2010-03-31

    Energy use in trucks has been increasing at a faster rate than that of automobiles within the U.S. transportation sector. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Annual Energy Outlook (AEO), a 23% increase in fuel consumption for the U.S. heavy duty truck segment is expected between 2009 to 2020. The heavy duty vehicle oil consumption is projected to grow between 2009 and 2050 while light duty vehicle (LDV) fuel consumption will eventually experience a decrease. By 2050, the oil consumption rate by LDVs is anticipated to decrease below 2009 levels due to CAFE standards and biofuel use. In contrast, the heavy duty oil consumption rate is anticipated to double. The increasing trend in oil consumption for heavy trucks is linked to the vitality, security, and growth of the U.S. economy. An essential part of a stable and vibrant U.S. economy is a productive U.S. trucking industry. Studies have shown that the U.S. gross domestic product (GDP) is strongly correlated to freight transport. Over 90% of all U.S. freight tonnage is transported by diesel power and over 75% is transported by trucks. Given the vital role that the trucking industry plays in the economy, improving the efficiency of the transportation of goods was a central focus of the Cummins High Efficient Clean Combustion (HECC) program. In a commercial vehicle, the diesel engine remains the largest source of fuel efficiency loss, but remains the greatest opportunity for fuel efficiency improvements. In addition to reducing oil consumption and the dependency on foreign oil, this project will mitigate the impact on the environment by meeting US EPA 2010 emissions regulations. Innovation is a key element in sustaining a U.S. trucking industry that is competitive in global markets. Unlike passenger vehicles, the trucking industry cannot simply downsize the vehicle and still transport the freight with improved efficiency. The truck manufacturing and supporting industries are faced with numerous

  1. Air Cleaning Technologies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  2. Coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Kindig, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    Fine particle coal is beneficiated in specially designed dense medium cyclones to improve particle acceleration and enhance separation efficiency. Raw coal feed is first sized to remove fine coal particles. The coarse fraction is then separated into clean coal, middlings, and refuse. Middlings are comminuted for beneficiation with the fine fraction. The fine fraction is deslimed in a countercurrent cyclone circuit and then separated as multiple fractions of different size specifications in dense medium cyclones. The dense medium contains ultra-fine magnetite particles of a narrow size distribution which aid separation and improves magnetite recovery. Magnetite is recovered from each separated fraction independently, with non-magnetic effluent water from one fraction diluting feed to a smaller-size fraction, and improving both overall coal and magnetite recovery. Magnetite recovery is in specially designed recovery units, based on particle size, with final separation in a rougher-cleaner-scavenger circuit of magnetic drum separators incorporating a high strength rare earth magnet. 12 figs.

  3. Clean intermittent catheterization revisited.

    PubMed

    Lamin, Eliza; Newman, Diane K

    2016-06-01

    Catheterization is the insertion of a hollow flexible tube (called a catheter) to drain the urine from the bladder and is probably one of the oldest urologic procedures, dating back 3000 years. Since 1972, when urologist Dr Jack Lapides described a procedure for performing clean intermittent catheterization, this method of bladder management has become lifesaving for an individual who cannot empty their bladder independently. If the bladder is not emptied regularly, elevated storage pressures can develop which may put the upper tracts at risk of subsequent deterioration. Intermittent catheterization (IC) has become the first-line and preferred method of drainage in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, as long as dexterity or available caregiver support and body habitus allow access. However, over the past 20 years, an evolution has occurred in the technology of catheters used for IC. But with these advances, so has controversy arisen. This article is a review of the current application of IC, the current technology in catheter material and systems, differences between reusable and one-time, or single-use catheters, the cost benefit of doing IC, and the infectious benefit.

  4. Nonaqueous coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Starbuck, A.E.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes a method of cyclone cleaning of fine particle coal containing carbonaceous material, ash and pyrites comprising the steps of: a. demoisturizing the coal by immersing the coal in a non-aqueous drying liquid having a vaporization temperature higher than that of water. The drying liquid is maintained at a temperature exceeding the vaporization temperature of water, whereby water in the coal is vaporized from the coal and drying liquid; b. transferring the coal to a non-aqueous, agglomerate inhibiting, carrier liquid miscible with the drying liquid. The carrier liquid is comprised of a liquid mixture of a first liquid having a first specific gravity and a second liquid having a second specific gravity different from the first specific gravity. The carrier liquid's specific gravity is adjusted by using a select amount of each of the first and second liquids to yield a carrier liquid specific gravity intermediate the first and second specific gravities. The carrier liquid specific gravity is greater than 1 less than 1.6 selected for effective separation of carbonaceous material from pyrites and ash for a particular coal and wherein the carrier liquid has the characteristic of extracting non-pyrite forms of sulfur from the coal; and c. cycloning the coal in the carrier liquid with a compound cyclone, wherein a first stream predominantly consisting of carbonaceous material and liquid is separated from a second stream predominantly consisting of ash, pyrites and liquid.

  5. Air-cleaning apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A.G.

    1981-08-18

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces.

  6. Clean Metal Casting

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf M. Makhlouf; Diran Apelian

    2002-02-05

    The objective of this project is to develop a technology for clean metal processing that is capable of consistently providing a metal cleanliness level that is fit for a given application. The program has five tasks: Development of melt cleanliness assessment technology, development of melt contamination avoidance technology, development of high temperature phase separation technology, establishment of a correlation between the level of melt cleanliness and as cast mechanical properties, and transfer of technology to the industrial sector. Within the context of the first task, WPI has developed a standardized Reduced Pressure Test that has been endorsed by AFS as a recommended practice. In addition, within the context of task1, WPI has developed a melt cleanliness sensor based on the principles of electromagnetic separation. An industrial partner is commercializing the sensor. Within the context of the second task, WPI has developed environmentally friendly fluxes that do not contain fluorine. Within the context of the third task, WPI modeled the process of rotary degassing and verified the model predictions with experimental data. This model may be used to optimize the performance of industrial rotary degassers. Within the context of the fourth task, WPI has correlated the level of melt cleanliness at various foundries, including a sand casting foundry, a permanent mold casting foundry, and a die casting foundry, to the casting process and the resultant mechanical properties. This is useful in tailoring the melt cleansing operations at foundries to the particular casting process and the desired properties of cast components.

  7. Degreasing and cleaning superconducting RF Niobium cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Rauchmiller, Michael; Kellett, Ron; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The purpose and scope of this report is to detail the steps necessary for degreasing and cleaning of superconducting RF Niobium cavities in the A0 clean room. It lists the required equipment and the cleaning procedure.

  8. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  9. What are our cleaning options?

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Richards, H.L.; Glover, A.L.

    1992-02-13

    Cleaning has always been an important step in manufacturing operations. Cleaning proceeds functions such as machining, inspection, plating, bonding, welding, heat treatment, and painting. If a surface is not properly cleaned or prepared, the results can be disastrous. The majority of industry has used cleaning methods such as vapor degreasing or solvent cleaning with chlorinated solvents such as chlorofluorocarbons, methyl chloroform, or perchloroethylene. These solvents were non-flammable, were considered to have low toxicity, and worked fairly well. However, recent finding regarding these solvents have caused them to fall from favor. Chlorofluorocarbons and methyl chloroform have been implicated as ozone depleting substances and are being regulated as such. Current plans call for a ban on production of these substances in the year 2000 and 2005, respectively. Perchloroethylene has been classified as a suspect carcinogen and has also come under recent guidelines and regulations in the United States. Personnel at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant have been actively pursuing substitutes for these solvents. Ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent was originally implemented as a substitute for vapor degreasing at Y-12 approximately 7 years ago. This type of cleaning has been proven to be very reliable and effective. Organic solvents to replace chlorinated solvents have also been investigated for ``squirt bottle`` or wiping applications. The Y-12 Plant has implemented Solvent 140 and a solvent blend in these type applications. Results both experimentally and in the field have been favorable using these solvents. A with any cleaning method, there are some drawbacks with these substitutes. The ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent does require a rinse cycle, a drying cycle, and a capital investment. The Solvent 140 and solvent blend are slow evaporators when compared with the chlorinated solvents. However, these substitutes do work.

  10. What are our cleaning options

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Richards, H.L.; Glover, A.L.

    1992-02-13

    Cleaning has always been an important step in manufacturing operations. Cleaning proceeds functions such as machining, inspection, plating, bonding, welding, heat treatment, and painting. If a surface is not properly cleaned or prepared, the results can be disastrous. The majority of industry has used cleaning methods such as vapor degreasing or solvent cleaning with chlorinated solvents such as chlorofluorocarbons, methyl chloroform, or perchloroethylene. These solvents were non-flammable, were considered to have low toxicity, and worked fairly well. However, recent finding regarding these solvents have caused them to fall from favor. Chlorofluorocarbons and methyl chloroform have been implicated as ozone depleting substances and are being regulated as such. Current plans call for a ban on production of these substances in the year 2000 and 2005, respectively. Perchloroethylene has been classified as a suspect carcinogen and has also come under recent guidelines and regulations in the United States. Personnel at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant have been actively pursuing substitutes for these solvents. Ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent was originally implemented as a substitute for vapor degreasing at Y-12 approximately 7 years ago. This type of cleaning has been proven to be very reliable and effective. Organic solvents to replace chlorinated solvents have also been investigated for squirt bottle'' or wiping applications. The Y-12 Plant has implemented Solvent 140 and a solvent blend in these type applications. Results both experimentally and in the field have been favorable using these solvents. A with any cleaning method, there are some drawbacks with these substitutes. The ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent does require a rinse cycle, a drying cycle, and a capital investment. The Solvent 140 and solvent blend are slow evaporators when compared with the chlorinated solvents. However, these substitutes do work.

  11. Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines

    SciTech Connect

    Craig N. Eatough

    2004-11-16

    In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction

  12. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  13. METHOD OF CLEANING METAL SURFACES

    DOEpatents

    Winkler, H.W.; Morfitt, J.W.; Little, T.H.

    1959-05-19

    Cleaning fluids for removing deposits from metal surfaces are described. The cleaning agents of the invention consist of aqueous nitric acid and an amhydrous nitrate salt of a metal which is lower in the electromotive series than the element of the deposit to be removed. In general, the salt content of thc cleaning agents ranged from 10 to 90%, preferably from 10 to 40% by weight; and the balance of the composition comprises nitric acid of any strength from extremely dilute up to concentrated strength.

  14. AVESTAR Center for clean energy plant operators of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Clean energy plants in the modern grid era will increasingly exploit carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS), fuel/product flexibility, and load following. Integrated power/process plants will require next generation of well-trained engineering and operations professionals. High-fidelity dynamic simulators are well suited for training, education, and R&D on clean energy plant operations. Combining Operator Training System (OTS) with 3D virtual Immersive Training System (ITS) enables simultaneous training of control room and plant field operators of the future. Strong collaboration between industry, academia, and government is required to address advanced R&D challenges. AVESTAR Center brings together simulation technology and world-class expertise focused on accelerating development of clean energy plants and operators of the future.

  15. Second annual clean coal technology conference: Proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-09

    The Second Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference was held at Atlanta, Georgia, September 7--9, 1993. The Conference, cosponsored by the US Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB), seeks to examine the status and role of the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) and its projects. The Program is reviewed within the larger context of environmental needs, sustained economic growth, world markets, user performance requirements and supplier commercialization activities. This will be accomplished through in-depth review and discussion of factors affecting domestic and international markets for clean coal technology, the environmental considerations in commercial deployment, the current status of projects, and the timing and effectiveness of transfer of data from these projects to potential users, suppliers, financing entities, regulators, the interested environmental community and the public. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  16. Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world

    PubMed Central

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Laher, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2DM is problematic as well, since T2DM has become the 5th leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10th as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease. PMID:27114755

  17. Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Laher, Ismail

    2016-04-25

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2DM is problematic as well, since T2DM has become the 5(th) leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10(th) as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease. PMID:27114755

  18. Diabetes epidemic sweeping the Arab world.

    PubMed

    Abuyassin, Bisher; Laher, Ismail

    2016-04-25

    The prevalence of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has increased dramatically during the last 2 decades, a fact driven by the increased prevalence of obesity, the primary risk factor for T2DM. The figures for diabetes in the Arab world are particularly startling as the number of people with diabetes is projected to increase by 96.2% by 2035. Genetic risk factors may play a crucial role in this uncontrolled raise in the prevalence of T2DM in the Middle Eastern region. However, factors such as obesity, rapid urbanization and lack of exercise are other key determinants of this rapid increase in the rate of T2DM in the Arab world. The unavailability of an effective program to defeat T2DM has serious consequences on the increasing rise of this disease, where available data indicates an unusually high prevalence of T2DM in Arabian children less than 18 years old. Living with T2DM is problematic as well, since T2DM has become the 5(th) leading cause of disability, which was ranked 10(th) as recently as 1990. Giving the current status of T2DM in the Arab world, a collaborative international effort is needed for fighting further spread of this disease.

  19. Positive predictive values of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision diagnoses of Gram-negative septicemia/sepsis and urosepsis for presence of Gram-negative bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Søgaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Health care databases are a valuable resource for infectious disease epidemiology if diagnoses are accurately coded. We examined the ability of diagnostic coding to accurately identify Gram-negative bacteremia. Methods We randomly selected 100 patients among 1,703 patients recorded in the Danish National Patient Register with a diagnosis of either “septicemia/sepsis due to other Gram-negative organisms” (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision [ICD-10] code A41.5) or “urosepsis” (ICD-10 code A41.9B) who had been admitted at Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark between 1994 and 2012. We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of these diagnoses for presence of Gram-negative bacteremia, using microbiological results from blood cultures as standard reference. Complementary clinical information was obtained from the medical records. Results Of the 100 patients registered with Gram-negative septicemia/sepsis or urosepsis, 72 had blood culture confirmed Gram-negative bacteremia, four patients had monomicrobial Gram-positive bacteremia, 21 patients had a negative blood culture, and three had no blood culture taken. The overall PPV of a blood culture confirmed Gram-negative bacteremia diagnosis was 72% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 62%–81%); for ICD-10 code A41.5 it was 86% (95% CI: 74%–94%) and for ICD-10 code A41.9B it was 55% (95% CI: 39%–70%). The highest PPV was achieved for diagnoses registered in the most recent calendar period (2009–2012) and for secondary discharge diagnoses. Conclusion Our findings indicated good agreement between ICD-10 code A41.5 “septicemia/sepsis due to other Gram-negative organisms” and Gram-negative bacteremia, whereas ICD-10 code A41.9B “urosepsis” was not suited for identification of Gram-negative bacteremia. PMID:25709502

  20. Ultrasonic cleaning of root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhaagen, Bram; Boutsioukis, Christos; Jiang, Lei-Meng; Macedo, Ricardo; van der Sluis, Luc; Versluis, Michel

    2011-11-01

    A crucial step during a dental root canal treatment is irrigation, where an antimicrobial fluid is injected into the root canal system to eradicate all bacteria. Agitation of the fluid using an ultrasonically vibrating miniature file has shown significant improvement in cleaning efficacy over conventional syringe irrigation. However, the physical mechanisms underlying the cleaning process, being acoustic streaming, cavitation or chemical activity, and combinations thereof, are not fully understood. High-speed imaging allows us to visualize the flow pattern and cavitation in a root canal model at microscopic scales, at timescales relevant to the cleaning processes (microseconds). MicroPIV measurements of the induced acoustic streaming are coupled to the oscillation characteristics of the file as simulated numerically and measured with a laser vibrometer. The results give new insight into the role of acoustic streaming and the importance of the confinement for the cleaning of root canals.

  1. Advanced cleaning by mass finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, M. W.

    1983-10-01

    The effectiveness of vibratory finishing for removing a variety of radioactively contaminated soils was investigated by measuring the radiation levels of the test material, the lining of the vibratory finishing tub, and the media. Many soils including corrosion products, scale, oil, grease and paint were removed from steels, aluminum, polyvinyl chloride, plexiglass, glass and flexible materials such as rubber. Zinc, copper, and lead were not cleaned. Results indicate that vibratory finishing should be an effective cleaning process or a variety of manufacturing operations.

  2. Energy 101: Clean Energy Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-09

    Most of us have a basic understanding of manufacturing. It's how we convert raw materials, components, and parts into finished goods that meet our essential needs and make our lives easier. But what about clean energy manufacturing? Clean energy and advanced manufacturing have the potential to rejuvenate the U.S. manufacturing industry and open pathways to increased American competitiveness. Watch this video to learn more about this exciting movement and to see some of these innovations in action.

  3. Clean Energy Solutions Center (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Reategui, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Clean Energy Ministerial launched the Clean Energy Solutions Center in April, 2011 for major economy countries, led by Australia and U.S. with other CEM partners. Partnership with UN-Energy is extending scope to support all developing countries: 1. Enhance resources on policies relating to energy access, small to medium enterprises (SMEs), and financing programs; 2. Offer expert policy assistance to all countries; 3. Expand peer to peer learning, training, and deployment and policy data for developing countries.

  4. Automated carbon dioxide cleaning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, David T.

    1991-01-01

    Solidified CO2 pellets are an effective blast media for the cleaning of a variety of materials. CO2 is obtained from the waste gas streams generated from other manufacturing processes and therefore does not contribute to the greenhouse effect, depletion of the ozone layer, or the environmental burden of hazardous waste disposal. The system is capable of removing as much as 90 percent of the contamination from a surface in one pass or to a high cleanliness level after multiple passes. Although the system is packaged and designed for manual hand held cleaning processes, the nozzle can easily be attached to the end effector of a robot for automated cleaning of predefined and known geometries. Specific tailoring of cleaning parameters are required to optimize the process for each individual geometry. Using optimum cleaning parameters the CO2 systems were shown to be capable of cleaning to molecular levels below 0.7 mg/sq ft. The systems were effective for removing a variety of contaminants such as lubricating oils, cutting oils, grease, alcohol residue, biological films, and silicone. The system was effective on steel, aluminum, and carbon phenolic substrates.

  5. Shell worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kenneth I.; Kennedy, Robert G., III; Fields, David E.

    2013-02-01

    The traditional concept of terraforming assumes ready availability of candidate planets with acceptable qualities: orbiting a star in its "Goldilocks zone", liquid water, enough mass, years longer than days, magnetic field, etc. But even stipulating affordable interstellar travel, we still might never find a good candidate elsewhere. Whatever we found likely would require centuries of heavy terraforming, just as Mars or Venus would here. Our increasing appreciation of the ubiquity of life suggests that any terra nova would already possess it. We would then face the dilemma of introducing alien life forms (us, our microbes) into another living world. Instead, we propose a novel method to create habitable environments for humanity by enclosing airless, sterile, otherwise useless planets, moons, and even large asteroids within engineered shells, which avoids the conundrum. These shells are subject to two opposing internal stresses: compression due to the primary's gravity, and tension from atmospheric pressure contained inside. By careful design, these two cancel each other resulting in zero net shell stress. Beneath the shell an Earth-like environment could be created similar in almost all respects to that of Home, except for gravity, regardless of the distance to the sun or other star. Englobing a small planet, moon, or even a dwarf planet like Ceres, would require astronomical amounts of material (quadrillions of tons) and energy, plus a great deal of time. It would be a quantum leap in difficulty over building Dyson Dots or industrializing our solar system, perhaps comparable to a mission across interstellar space with a living crew within their lifetime. But when accomplished, these constructs would be complete (albeit small) worlds, not merely large habitats. They could be stable across historic timescales, possibly geologic. Each would contain a full, self-sustaining ecology, which might evolve in curious directions over time. This has interesting implications

  6. Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Freihaut, Jim

    2013-09-30

    The Mid Atlantic Clean Energy Application Center (MACEAC), managed by The Penn State College of Engineering, serves the six states in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia) plus the District of Columbia. The goals of the Mid-Atlantic CEAC are to promote the adoption of Combined Heat and Power (CHP), Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) and District Energy Systems (DES) in the Mid Atlantic area through education and technical support to more than 1,200 regional industry and government representatives in the region. The successful promotion of these technologies by the MACEAC was accomplished through the following efforts; (1)The MACEAC developed a series of technology transfer networks with State energy and environmental offices, Association of Energy Engineers local chapters, local community development organizations, utilities and, Penn State Department of Architectural Engineering alumni and their firms to effectively educate local practitioners about the energy utilization, environmental and economic advantages of CHP, WHR and DES; (2) Completed assessments of the regional technical and market potential for CHP, WHR and DE technologies application in the context of state specific energy prices, state energy and efficiency portfolio development. The studies were completed for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland and included a set of incentive adoption probability models used as a to guide during implementation discussions with State energy policy makers; (3) Using the technical and market assessments and adoption incentive models, the Mid Atlantic CEAC developed regional strategic action plans for the promotion of CHP Application technology for Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland; (4) The CHP market assessment and incentive adoption model information was discussed, on a continuing basis, with relevant state agencies, policy makers and Public Utility Commission organizations resulting in CHP favorable incentive

  7. NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This brochure describes the NREL Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation, which includes analysis and decision support, fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. Through deep technical expertise and an unmatched breadth of capabilities, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) leads an integrated approach across the spectrum of renewable energy innovation. From scientific discovery to accelerating market deployment, NREL works in partnership with private industry to drive the transformation of our nation's energy systems. NREL integrates the entire spectrum of innovation, including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization, and deployment. Our world-class analysis and decision support informs every point on the spectrum. The innovation process at NREL is inter-dependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies may come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  8. Ultrasonic cleaning: Fundamental theory and application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, F. John

    1995-01-01

    This presentation describes: the theory of ultrasonics, cavitation and implosion; the importance and application of ultrasonics in precision cleaning; explanations of ultrasonic cleaning equipment options and their application; process parameters for ultrasonic cleaning; and proper operation of ultrasonic cleaning equipment to achieve maximum results.

  9. PIALA 2000: Libraries and Archives--Where Information and Language Literacy Begin [and] Engaged Readers and Writers in Multicultural Island Communities. Selected Papers from the 10th Pacific Islands Association of Libraries and Archives Conference Joint with the 13th Annual Regional Language Arts Conference (Tumon, Guam, November 9-11, 2000)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arlene, Ed.; Quan, Clarisa G., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This proceedings combines presentations from the jointly held 10th Annual PIALA 2000 Conference and the 13th Annual Regional Language Arts Conference. The volume begins with the welcoming remarks of Mary L. Silk, Christine Ku Scott-Smith, Antonio R. Umpingco, Delia Munoz Rosal, Lawrence Kasperbauer, Rosie Tainatongo, Richard S. Tom, Mary L.…

  10. News Conference: Brecon hosts 10th teacher's conference Summer school: Science summer school heads to Crete Award: The Corti Science Prize Radioactivity: Scottish beach is no beta off Workshop: Heureka project promotes teaching Experiments: Spanish project proves that learning science can be exciting Lecture: IOP schools lecture journeys from x-rays to antimatter Correction to the news item 'Delegates experience universality' Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-01-01

    Conference: Brecon hosts 10th teacher's conference Summer school: Science summer school heads to Crete Award: The Corti Science Prize Radioactivity: Scottish beach is no beta off Workshop: Heureka project promotes teaching Experiments: Spanish project proves that learning science can be exciting Lecture: IOP schools lecture journeys from x-rays to antimatter Correction to the news item 'Delegates experience universality' Forthcoming events

  11. Electromagnetically Clean Solar Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stem, Theodore G.; Kenniston, Anthony E.

    2008-01-01

    The term 'electromagnetically clean solar array' ('EMCSA') refers to a panel that contains a planar array of solar photovoltaic cells and that, in comparison with a functionally equivalent solar-array panel of a type heretofore used on spacecraft, (1) exhibits less electromagnetic interferences to and from other nearby electrical and electronic equipment and (2) can be manufactured at lower cost. The reduction of electromagnetic interferences is effected through a combination of (1) electrically conductive, electrically grounded shielding and (2) reduction of areas of current loops (in order to reduce magnetic moments). The reduction of cost is effected by designing the array to be fabricated as a more nearly unitary structure, using fewer components and fewer process steps. Although EMCSAs were conceived primarily for use on spacecraft they are also potentially advantageous for terrestrial applications in which there are requirements to limit electromagnetic interference. In a conventional solar panel of the type meant to be supplanted by an EMCSA panel, the wiring is normally located on the back side, separated from the cells, thereby giving rise to current loops having significant areas and, consequently, significant magnetic moments. Current-loop geometries are chosen in an effort to balance opposing magnetic moments to limit far-0field magnetic interactions, but the relatively large distances separating current loops makes full cancellation of magnetic fields problematic. The panel is assembled from bare photovoltaic cells by means of multiple sensitive process steps that contribute significantly to cost, especially if electomagnetic cleanliness is desired. The steps include applying a cover glass and electrical-interconnect-cell (CIC) sub-assemble, connecting the CIC subassemblies into strings of series-connected cells, laying down and adhesively bonding the strings onto a panel structure that has been made in a separate multi-step process, and mounting the

  12. Everybody wants clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Alter, H.

    1987-09-01

    The polarization in the press and in legislative debates is rooted in history, wherein lie the debaters on the spectrum of isms. Environmental depictions in the popular press illustrate that public judgment of resources and environmental management is shaped by arguments at the extremes. These arguments, which are not necessarily by experts, often emphasize horror stories or speculation. Stereotypical images are that all environmental proponents are good, that none work for the private sector, and that all large companies are uncaring, if not actually evil. Cartoons still show black, belching smokestacks and the like, which are relics of the past, virtually unknown today in the US. Ignored is the fact that quality environmental management and restoration are costly and can be afforded only by large companies and affluent governments. Economic and industrial development, which require environmental management and controls, generate the wealth needed to afford this same management and controls, if there is to be subsequent quality of life. The recent report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, stated emphatically that the greatest pollution is poverty and that environmental quality can be assured only through sustainable economic development.

  13. RECYCLING A NONIONIC AQUEOUS-BASED METAL-CLEANING SOLUTION WITH A CERAMIC MEMBRANE: PILOT SCALE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of a zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) membrane filter was evaluated for recycling a nonionic aqueous metal cleaning bath under real-world conditions. The pilot-scale study consisted of four 7- to 16-day filtration runs, each processed a portion of the cleaning bath duri...

  14. Hose- and Tube-Cleaning Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rollins, F. P.; Glass, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Self-contained, single-use module enables hose or tube to be cleaned thoroughly in field, in one operation, using water of unknown or questionable quality. Previously, chemicals for flow cleaning had to be mixed, diluted and pumped through tubes and hoses in many successive steps; deionizers, water-treatment facilities, and chemical storage required. With proposed device cleaning performed safely, without special training. Ready to use, device packaged as cleaning kit with tube to be cleaned.

  15. Guideline implementation: surgical instrument cleaning.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-05-01

    Cleaning, decontaminating, and handling instructions for instruments vary widely based on the type of instrument and the manufacturer. Processing instruments in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions can help prevent damage and keep devices in good working order. Most importantly, proper cleaning and disinfection may prevent transmission of pathogenic organisms from a contaminated device to a patient or health care worker. The updated AORN "Guideline for cleaning and care of surgical instruments" provides guidance on cleaning, decontaminating, transporting, inspecting, and storing instruments. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel implement appropriate instrument care protocols in their practice settings. The key points address timely cleaning and decontamination of instruments after use; appropriate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning parameters for the decontamination area; processing of ophthalmic instruments and laryngoscopes; and precautions to take with instruments used in cases of suspected prion disease. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. PMID:25946180

  16. Guideline implementation: surgical instrument cleaning.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-05-01

    Cleaning, decontaminating, and handling instructions for instruments vary widely based on the type of instrument and the manufacturer. Processing instruments in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions can help prevent damage and keep devices in good working order. Most importantly, proper cleaning and disinfection may prevent transmission of pathogenic organisms from a contaminated device to a patient or health care worker. The updated AORN "Guideline for cleaning and care of surgical instruments" provides guidance on cleaning, decontaminating, transporting, inspecting, and storing instruments. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel implement appropriate instrument care protocols in their practice settings. The key points address timely cleaning and decontamination of instruments after use; appropriate heating, ventilation, and air conditioning parameters for the decontamination area; processing of ophthalmic instruments and laryngoscopes; and precautions to take with instruments used in cases of suspected prion disease. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  17. Optimization of Ultrasonic Fabric Cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, T.E.

    1998-05-13

    The fundamental purpose of this project was to research and develop a process that would reduce the cost and improve the environmental efficiency of the present dry-cleaning industry. This second phase of research (see report KCP-94-1006 for information gathered during the first phase) was intended to allow the optimal integration of all factors of ultrasonic fabric cleaning. For this phase, Garment Care performed an extensive literature search and gathered data from other researchers worldwide. The Garment Care-AlliedSignal team developed the requirements for a prototype cleaning tank for studies and acquired that tank and the additional equipment required to use it properly. Garment Care and AlliedSignal acquired the transducers and generators from Surftran Martin-Walter in Sterling Heights, Michigan. Amway's Kelly Haley developed the test protocol, supplied hundreds of test swatches, gathered the data on the swatches before and after the tests, assisted with the cleaning tests, and prepared the final analysis of the results. AlliedSignal personnel, in conjunction with Amway and Garment Care staff, performed all the tests. Additional planning is under way for future testing by outside research facilities. The final results indicated repeatable performance and good results for single layered fabric swatches. Swatches that were cleaned as a ''sandwich,'' that is, three or more layers.

  18. Carbon dioxide cleaning pilot project

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, L.; Blackman, T.E.

    1994-01-21

    In 1989, radioactive-contaminated metal at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) was cleaned using a solvent paint stripper (Methylene chloride). One-third of the radioactive material was able to be recycled; two-thirds went to the scrap pile as low-level mixed waste. In addition, waste solvent solutions also required disposal. Not only was this an inefficient process, it was later prohibited by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 40 CFR 268. A better way of doing business was needed. In the search for a solution to this situation, it was decided to study the advantages of using a new technology - pelletized carbon dioxide cleaning. A proof of principle demonstration occurred in December 1990 to test whether such a system could clean radioactive-contaminated metal. The proof of principle demonstration was expanded in June 1992 with a pilot project. The purpose of the pilot project was three fold: (1) to clean metal so that it can satisfy free release criteria for residual radioactive contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP); (2) to compare two different carbon dioxide cleaning systems; and (3) to determine the cost-effectiveness of decontamination process in a production situation and compare the cost of shipping the metal off site for waste disposal. The pilot project was completed in August 1993. The results of the pilot project were: (1) 90% of those items which were decontaminated, successfully met the free release criteria , (2) the Alpheus Model 250 was selected to be used on plantsite and (3) the break even cost of decontaminating the metal vs shipping the contaminated material offsite for disposal was a cleaning rate of 90 pounds per hour, which was easily achieved.

  19. Green Solvents for Precision Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grandelli, Heather; Maloney, Phillip; DeVor, Robert; Surma, Jan; Hintze, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace machinery used in liquid oxygen (LOX) fuel systems must be precision cleaned to achieve a very low level of non-volatile residue (< 1 mg0.1 m2), especially flammable residue. Traditionally chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been used in the precision cleaning of LOX systems, specifically CFC 113 (C2Cl3F3). CFCs have been known to cause the depletion of ozone and in 1987, were banned by the Montreal Protocol due to health, safety and environmental concerns. This has now led to the development of new processes in the precision cleaning of aerospace components. An ideal solvent-replacement is non-flammable, environmentally benign, non-corrosive, inexpensive, effective and evaporates completely, leaving no residue. Highlighted is a green precision cleaning process, which is contaminant removal using supercritical carbon dioxide as the environmentally benign solvent. In this process, the contaminant is dissolved in carbon dioxide, and the parts are recovered at the end of the cleaning process completely dry and ready for use. Typical contaminants of aerospace components include hydrocarbon greases, hydraulic fluids, silicone fluids and greases, fluorocarbon fluids and greases and fingerprint oil. Metallic aerospace components range from small nuts and bolts to much larger parts, such as butterfly valves 18 in diameter. A fluorinated grease, Krytox, is investigated as a model contaminant in these preliminary studies, and aluminum coupons are employed as a model aerospace component. Preliminary studies are presented in which the experimental parameters are optimized for removal of Krytox from aluminum coupons in a stirred-batch process. The experimental conditions investigated are temperature, pressure, exposure time and impeller speed. Temperatures of 308 - 423 K, pressures in the range of 8.3 - 41.4 MPa, exposure times between 5 - 60 min and impeller speeds of 0 - 1000 rpm were investigated. Preliminary results showed up to 86 cleaning efficiency with the

  20. Enhanced Clean Air Act enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Faletto, J.S.

    1997-09-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 added new enforcement authorities which will change the way the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the States and environmental groups litigate enforcement actions. EPA, the States and ordinary citizens now have at their disposal an extensive array of enforcement options to deter or penalize those who violate requirements of the Clean Air Act or State Implementation Plans (SIPs). These new enforcement authorities take on even greater significance for major sources covered by the Title V Operating Permit Program.

  1. fsclean: Faraday Synthesis CLEAN imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, M. R.; Ensslin, T. A.

    2015-06-01

    Fsclean produces 3D Faraday spectra using the Faraday synthesis method, transforming directly from multi-frequency visibility data to the Faraday depth-sky plane space. Deconvolution is accomplished using the CLEAN algorithm, and the package includes Clark and Högbom style CLEAN algorithms. Fsclean reads in MeasurementSet visibility data and produces HDF5 formatted images; it handles images and data of arbitrary size, using scratch HDF5 files as buffers for data that is not being immediately processed, and is limited only by available disk space.

  2. Chemical cleaning re-invented: clean, lean and green.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Margaret; Vangeel, Michel

    2014-01-01

    A project undertaken in the Central Cleaning Department of Janssen, a Johnson and Johnson pharmaceutical company, demonstrates how ergonomics, environmental and industrial hygiene risks and quality concerns can be tackled simultaneously. The way equipment was cleaned was re-designed by an in-house cross-functional team to ensure a 'clean, lean and green' process. Initiatives included a new layout of the area, and new work processes and equipment to facilitate cleaning and handling items. This resulted in significant improvements: all ergonomics high risk tasks were reduced to moderate or low risk; hearing protection was no longer required; respirator requirement reduced by 67%; solvent use reduced by 73%; productivity improved, with 55% fewer operator hours required; and quality improved 40-fold. The return on investment was estimated at 3.125 years based on an investment of over €1.5 million (2008 prices). This win-win intervention allowed ergonomics, environmental, industrial hygiene, productivity and quality concerns all to be addressed.

  3. Confronting world hunger.

    PubMed

    Huddleston, B

    1983-01-01

    In 1980, per capita food supplies were less than adequate in 53 developing countries. More than half of these were the predominantly rural, low income countries of South Asia, China, and Sub-Saharan Africa. Finding the proper balance between satisfying immediate human needs and building political and economic systems in which individuals can in the future acquire the means to satisfy their own requirements is the central issue facing those in the fight against world hunger. At the international level, developed countries have responded to world hunger by raising the minimum level of food aid provided when supplies are scarce and by creating a financing facility for cereal imports. The food and agriculture sector is receiving a highe priority than before in the allocation of international development assistance, and more attention is being given to the effects of both general food subsidies and targeted nutrition programs on future agricultural output. At the national level, over 40 developing countries have requested assistance from the World Food Council for the preparation of food sector strategies. Although such measures are important, they do not directly address local problems and individual needs. For example, dietary intake tends to be lower in urban than in rural households in Latin America at the same level of income. These urban groups require health and nutrition interventions that simultaneously address their immediate need for food, clean water, and health care and their more longterm need for employment. Longterm economic development that provides adequate income to all segments of the population is the best means to combat hunger, and income security also reduces incentives for large family size. The contribution of the international community should remain the transfer of resources and the provision of technical assistance. At the individual level, the need for targeted food distribution programs continues. Greater benefit can be obtained from

  4. Contact cleaning of polymer film solar reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansom, Christopher; Fernández-García, Aránzazu; Sutter, Florian; Almond, Heather; King, Peter

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the accelerated ageing of polymer film reflecting surfaces under the conditions to be found during contact cleaning of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) collectors in the presence of dust and sand particles. In these situations, contact cleaning using brushes and water is required to clean the reflecting surfaces. Whilst suitable for glass reflectors, this paper discusses the effects of existing cleaning processes on the optical and visual properties of polymer film surfaces, and then describes the development of a more benign but effective contact cleaning process for cleaning polymer reflectors. The effects of a range of cleaning brushes are discussed, with and without the presence of water, in the presence of sand and dust particles from selected representative locations. Reflectance measurements and visual inspection shows that a soft cleaning brush with a small amount of water can clean polymer film reflecting surfaces without inflicting surface damage or reducing specular reflectance.

  5. Alternate cleaning methods for LCCAs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, B.E.

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate DI water followed by isopropyl alcohol (IPA) cleaning and no cleaning of leadless chip carriers (LCCs). Both environmentally safe methods were to be tested against the current chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) material cleaning baseline. Several experiments were run to compare production and electrical yields of LCCs cleaned by all three methods. The critical process steps most affected by cleaning were wire bonding, sealing, particle induced noise detection (PIND), moisture content, and electrical. Yields for the experimental lots cleaned by CFC, DI water plus IPA, and no cleaning were 56%, 72%, and 75%, respectively. The overall results indicated that vapor degreasing/ultrasonic cleaning in CFCs could be replaced by the aqueous method. No cleaning could also be considered if an effective dry method of particle removal could be developed.

  6. Introduction of clean coal technology in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Takashi Kiga

    2008-01-15

    Coal is an abundant resource, found throughout the world, and inexpensive and constant in price. For this reason, coal is expected to play a role as one of the energy supply sources in the world. The most critical issues to promote utilization of coal are to decrease the environmental load. In this report, the history, outline and recent developments of the clean coal technology in Japan, mainly the thermal power generation technology are discussed. As recent topics, here outlined first is the technology against global warming such as the improvement of steam condition for steam turbines, improvement of power generation efficiency by introducing combined generation, carbon neutral combined combustion of biomass, and carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology. Also introduced are outlines of Japanese superiority in application technology against NOx and SO{sub 2} which create acid rain, development status of the technical improvement in the handling method for coal which is a rather difficult solid-state resource, and utilization of coal ash.

  7. A World View Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willard, Timothy; And Others

    1984-01-01

    An overview of topics discussed at the World View '84 conference, sponsored by the World Future Society, is provided. Topics include technology, the economy, the Third World, the environment, world order, and outer space. (RM)

  8. TRACKING CLEAN UP AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    CONNELL, C.W.

    2005-05-27

    The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA), is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), The Washington State Department of Ecology, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for cleaning up the Hanford Site. Established in the 1940s to produce material for nuclear weapons as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford is often referred to as the world's large environmental cleanup project. The Site covers more than 580 square miles in a relatively remote region of southeastern Washington state in the US. The production of nuclear materials at Hanford has left a legacy of tremendous proportions in terms of hazardous and radioactive waste. From a waste-management point of view, the task is enormous: 1700 waste sites; 450 billion gallons of liquid waste; 70 billion gallons of contaminated groundwater; 53 million gallons of tank waste; 9 reactors; 5 million cubic yards of contaminated soil; 22 thousand drums of mixed waste; 2.3 tons of spent nuclear fuel; and 17.8 metric tons of plutonium-bearing material and this is just a partial listing. The agreement requires that DOE provide the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to the lead regulatory agency to help guide then in making decisions. The agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in it, or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The Action Plan that supports the TPA requires that Ecology and EPA have access to all data that is relevant to work performed, or to be performed, under the Agreement. Further, the Action Plan specifies two additional requirements: (1) that EPA, Ecology and their respective contractor staffs have access to all the information electronically, and (2) that the databases are accessible to, and used by, all personnel doing TPA

  9. Dry laser cleaning of mechanically thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloisi, F.; Barone, A. C.; Vicari, L.

    2004-11-01

    Laser-assisted particle removal has acquired a growing importance in last few years, finding applications in several fields ranging from microelectronics to conservation and restoration of materials having cultural or historical interest. Recently new 'indirect' laser cleaning techniques such as 'shock' and 'verso' laser cleaning have been developed. Here we present a simple laser cleaning mechanical model in order to associate cleaning efficiency to surface deformation characteristics during cleaning pulse and apply it to examine the behaviour of 'verso' laser cleaning which has experimentally shown promising results on cellulosic (paper and cotton) materials.

  10. Clean Water Act amendments debated

    SciTech Connect

    Deland, M.R.

    1982-08-01

    A short discussion of the debate taking place between Congress, industry and environmental groups with respect to the amendments to the Clean Water Act is presented. The discussion considers the EPA proposal, the reaction to it, and the prognosis for passage. (KRM)

  11. Clean coal initiatives in Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, B.H.; Irwin, M.W.; Sparrow, F.T.; Mastalerz, Maria; Yu, Z.; Kramer, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose - Indiana is listed among the top ten coal states in the USA and annually mines about 35 million short tons (million tons) of coal from the vast reserves of the US Midwest Illinois Coal Basin. The implementation and commercialization of clean coal technologies is important to the economy of the state and has a significant role in the state's energy plan for increasing the use of the state's natural resources. Coal is a substantial Indiana energy resource and also has stable and relatively low costs, compared with the increasing costs of other major fuels. This indigenous energy source enables the promotion of energy independence. The purpose of this paper is to outline the significance of clean coal projects for achieving this objective. Design/methodology/approach - The paper outlines the clean coal initiatives being taken in Indiana and the research carried out at the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research. Findings - Clean coal power generation and coal for transportation fuels (coal-to-liquids - CTL) are two major topics being investigated in Indiana. Coking coal, data compilation of the bituminous coal qualities within the Indiana coal beds, reducing dependence on coal imports, and provision of an emissions free environment are important topics to state legislators. Originality/value - Lessons learnt from these projects will be of value to other states and countries.

  12. Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8<γ<3.5, bubble collapse induced vortex flows touch down onto the substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γ<1.1, the bubble is in direct contact with the solid. Fast liquid flows at the substrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1<γ<1.8, only the second bubble collapse touches the substrate, but acts with cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by

  13. Mechanisms of single bubble cleaning.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Fabian; Mettin, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of collapsing bubbles close to a flat solid is investigated with respect to its potential for removal of surface attached particles. Individual bubbles are created by nanosecond Nd:YAG laser pulses focused into water close to glass plates contaminated with melamine resin micro-particles. The bubble dynamics is analysed by means of synchronous high-speed recordings. Due to the close solid boundary, the bubble collapses with the well-known liquid jet phenomenon. Subsequent microscopic inspection of the substrates reveals circular areas clean of particles after a single bubble generation and collapse event. The detailed bubble dynamics, as well as the cleaned area size, is characterised by the non-dimensional bubble stand-off γ=d/Rmax, with d: laser focus distance to the solid boundary, and Rmax: maximum bubble radius before collapse. We observe a maximum of clean area at γ≈0.7, a roughly linear decay of the cleaned circle radius for increasing γ, and no cleaning for γ>3.5. As the main mechanism for particle removal, rapid flows at the boundary are identified. Three different cleaning regimes are discussed in relation to γ: (I) For large stand-off, 1.8<γ<3.5, bubble collapse induced vortex flows touch down onto the substrate and remove particles without significant contact of the gas phase. (II) For small distances, γ<1.1, the bubble is in direct contact with the solid. Fast liquid flows at the substrate are driven by the jet impact with its subsequent radial spreading, and by the liquid following the motion of the collapsing and rebounding bubble wall. Both flows remove particles. Their relative timing, which depends sensitively on the exact γ, appears to determine the extension of the area with forces large enough to cause particle detachment. (III) At intermediate stand-off, 1.1<γ<1.8, only the second bubble collapse touches the substrate, but acts with cleaning mechanisms similar to an effective small γ collapse: particles are removed by

  14. Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hallinan, Kevin; Menart, James; Gilbert, Robert

    2012-08-31

    The Clean Energy Infrastructure Educational Initiative represents a collaborative effort by the University of Dayton, Wright State University and Sinclair Community College. This effort above all aimed to establish energy related programs at each of the universities while also providing outreach to the local, state-wide, and national communities. At the University of Dayton, the grant has aimed at: solidfying a newly created Master's program in Renewable and Clean Energy; helping to establish and staff a regional sustainability organization for SW Ohio. As well, as the prime grantee, the University of Dayton was responsible for insuring curricular sharing between WSU and the University of Dayton. Finally, the grant, through its support of graduate students, and through cooperation with the largest utilities in SW Ohio enabled a region-wide evaluation of over 10,000 commercial building buildings in order to identify the priority buildings in the region for energy reduction. In each, the grant has achieved success. The main focus of Wright State was to continue the development of graduate education in renewable and clean energy. Wright State has done this in a number of ways. First and foremost this was done by continuing the development of the new Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree program at Wright State . Development tasks included: continuing development of courses for the Renewable and Clean Energy Master's Degree, increasing the student enrollment, and increasing renewable and clean energy research work. The grant has enabled development and/or improvement of 7 courses. Collectively, the University of Dayton and WSU offer perhaps the most comprehensive list of courses in the renewable and clean energy area in the country. Because of this development, enrollment at WSU has increased from 4 students to 23. Secondly, the grant has helped to support student research aimed in the renewable and clean energy program. The grant helped to solidify new research

  15. Process for cleaning undeslimed coal

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.H.

    1983-09-20

    A process for cleaning undeslimed coal includes the steps of determining the scalar value of cross-correlation function of the measured values of the percent magnetics and the bulk specific gravity of a heavy media and coal slurry being fed to a cyclone, comparing the value to a set-point value determined after start-up when the recirculating suspension in the feed slurry is normally clean, and diverting at least a portion of the heavy media suspension that is separated from the underflow of the cyclone from being mixed with the feed coal slurry, to thereby correspondingly recycle the slime content of the feed slurry, and concurrently increasing the flow of cleaner heavy media suspension to the feed coal slurry until the cross-correlation function is brought up to the set-point value. Also disclosed is an embodiment of the process for cleaning coal, wherein the overflow from the cyclone is screened and screened solution is split between a first recycle loop for cleaning the suspension and the heavy media sump. Similarly, the underflow from the cyclone is screened and then split between a separate recycle loop and the heavy media sump. Suspension is diverted to the heavy media sump from one or both recycle cleaning loops as necessary. The remaining portions of the split suspension flows from the two screening devices are, in turn, respectively split between two further sumps and the heavy media sump, with more suspension coming from the cyclone overflow screen when cleaner suspension is indicated as being necessary by the aforesaid statistical analysis.

  16. Staying sticky: contact self-cleaning of gecko-inspired adhesives.

    PubMed

    Mengüç, Yigit; Röhrig, Michael; Abusomwan, Uyiosa; Hölscher, Hendrik; Sitti, Metin

    2014-05-01

    The exceptionally adhesive foot of the gecko remains clean in dirty environments by shedding contaminants with each step. Synthetic gecko-inspired adhesives have achieved similar attachment strengths to the gecko on smooth surfaces, but the process of contact self-cleaning has yet to be effectively demonstrated. Here, we present the first gecko-inspired adhesive that has matched both the attachment strength and the contact self-cleaning performance of the gecko's foot on a smooth surface. Contact self-cleaning experiments were performed with three different sizes of mushroom-shaped elastomer microfibres and five different sizes of spherical silica contaminants. Using a load-drag-unload dry contact cleaning process similar to the loads acting on the gecko foot during locomotion, our fully contaminated synthetic gecko adhesives could recover lost adhesion at a rate comparable to that of the gecko. We observed that the relative size of contaminants to the characteristic size of the microfibres in the synthetic adhesive strongly determined how and to what degree the adhesive recovered from contamination. Our approximate model and experimental results show that the dominant mechanism of contact self-cleaning is particle rolling during the drag process. Embedding of particles between adjacent fibres was observed for particles with diameter smaller than the fibre tips, and further studied as a temporary cleaning mechanism. By incorporating contact self-cleaning capabilities, real-world applications of synthetic gecko adhesives, such as reusable tapes, clothing closures and medical adhesives, would become feasible.

  17. Clean Cities Program Contacts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides contact information for program staff of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program, as well as contact information for the nearly 100 local Clean Cities coalitions across the country.

  18. 7 CFR 29.1004 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 92) § 29.1004 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles. Leaves grown on the lower position of the stalk normally contain more sand or...

  19. Clean Cities Now Vol. 17, No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2013-05-24

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  20. Clean Cities Now Vol. 16.1

    SciTech Connect

    2012-05-01

    Biannual newsletter for the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities initiative. The newsletter includes feature stories on advanced vehicle deployment, idle reduction, and articles on Clean Cities coalition successes across the country.

  1. World water dynamics: global modeling of water resources.

    PubMed

    Simonovic, Slobodan P

    2002-11-01

    The growing scarcity of fresh and clean water is among the most important issues facing civilization in the 21st century. Despite the growing attention to a chronic, pernicious crisis in world's water resources our ability to correctly assess and predict global water availability, use and balance is still quite limited. An attempt is documented here in modeling global world water resources using system dynamics approach. Water resources sector (quantity and quality) is integrated with five sectors that drive industrial growth: population; agriculture; economy; nonrenewable resources; and persistent pollution. WorldWater model is developed on the basis of the last version of World3 model. Simulations of world water dynamics with WorldWater indicate that there is a strong relationship between the world water resources and future industrial growth of the world. It is also shown that the water pollution is the most important future water issue on the global level. PMID:12448404

  2. The calibration of photographic and spectroscopic films: The response of 2aO film to small dosages of alpha particles from 3/10th's rad to 8 rads at energy levels 153 MeV, 79 MeV and 47 MeV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, E. C., Jr.; Peters, Kevin; Stober, AL

    1984-01-01

    The 2aO film, pre-exposed to a series of neutral density filters which on development under standard conditions will produce the standard H-D curve for that film, were then exposed to Alpha paricles with a dose range of 3/10ths rads to 8 rads while varying the energy of the particles using 153 MeV, 70 MeV, and 47 MeV, respectively. An analysis of the film shows that the 3/10th rad dose produces the lowest optical density changes at 70 MeV and 47 MeV. While the optical density readings for the darker patterns seem to oscillate and decrease when exposed to radiation dosages of 3/10th rads to 8 rads.

  3. Critical Surface Cleaning and Verification Alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, Donald M.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation outlines the goal, scope, and background of the cleaning solvent HCFC 225G. HCFC 225G is compared to other cleaning solvents such as Freon 113 and HFE 7100. Test results of hardware submersion in HCFC 225G and Freon 113 are shown. Project accomplishments, average cleaning efficiency, and hardware qualification are discussed. Results show HCFC 225G is an excellent cleaning and verification solvent for industrial contaminants.

  4. BUY CLEAN MANUAL INTERACTIVE CD-ROM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This interactive CD-ROM contains exercises and opportunities to help users develop a Buy Clean Program for janitorial cleaning products. CD users can learn about Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), complete an inventory list, and compare cleaning products to see which have the le...

  5. Machine Cleans And Degreases Without Toxic Solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurguis, Kamal S.; Higginson, Gregory A.

    1993-01-01

    Appliance uses hot water and biodegradable chemicals to degrease and clean hardware. Spray chamber essentially industrial-scale dishwasher. Front door tilts open, and hardware to be cleaned placed on basket-like tray. During cleaning process, basket-like tray rotates as high-pressure "V" jets deliver steam, hot water, detergent solution, and rust inhibitor as required.

  6. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) provides objective analysis and up-to-date data on global supply chains and manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Policymakers and industry leaders seek CEMAC insights to inform choices to promote economic growth and the transition to a clean energy economy.

  7. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  8. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  9. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that, from the viewpoint of general appearance, the lot is not...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1867 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.1867 Section 51.1867 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1867 Clean. Clean means that the tomato is practically...

  12. 7 CFR 29.6007 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 29.6007 Section 29.6007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6007 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only...

  13. 7 CFR 51.570 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.570 Section 51.570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.570 Clean. Clean means...

  14. 7 CFR 51.606 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.606 Section 51.606 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.606 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1316 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.1316 Section 51.1316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1316 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust,...

  16. 7 CFR 29.6007 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 29.6007 Section 29.6007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6007 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only...

  17. 7 CFR 51.2956 - Practically clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Practically clean. 51.2956 Section 51.2956 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Practically clean. Practically clean means that, from the viewpoint of general appearance, the walnuts...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2654 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.2654 Section 51.2654 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Clean means that the cherries are practically free from dirt, dust, spray residue, or...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2965 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means...

  20. 7 CFR 51.2288 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.2288 Section 51.2288 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2288 Clean. Clean means that...

  1. 7 CFR 51.3061 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.3061 Section 51.3061 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3061 Clean. Clean means that the avocado is practically...

  2. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Clean means that the shell is practically free from dirt and other adhering foreign material....

  4. 7 CFR 51.2654 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.2654 Section 51.2654 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Clean means that the cherries are practically free from dirt, dust, spray residue, or...

  5. 7 CFR 51.3061 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.3061 Section 51.3061 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3061 Clean. Clean means that the avocado is practically...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1867 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.1867 Section 51.1867 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1867 Clean. Clean means that the tomato is practically...

  7. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of the potatoes in any lot are practically free from dirt...

  8. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 29.3507 Section 29.3507 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  9. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  10. 7 CFR 29.1004 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 29.1004 Section 29.1004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1004 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  11. 7 CFR 29.2256 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 29.2256 Section 29.2256 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2256 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles....

  12. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel is practically free from dirt and other foreign substance....

  13. 7 CFR 29.3009 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 29.3009 Section 29.3009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2083 Clean. Clean means that the shell...

  15. 7 CFR 51.2654 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.2654 Section 51.2654 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2654 Clean. Clean means that the cherries...

  16. 7 CFR 51.2956 - Practically clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Practically clean. 51.2956 Section 51.2956 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Practically clean. Practically clean means that, from the viewpoint of general appearance, the walnuts...

  17. 7 CFR 51.570 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.570 Section 51.570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.570 Clean. Clean means...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 29.3507 Section 29.3507 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of the potatoes in any lot are practically free from dirt...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1316 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.1316 Section 51.1316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1316 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust,...

  1. 7 CFR 29.2256 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 29.2256 Section 29.2256 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2256 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles....

  2. 7 CFR 29.3009 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 29.3009 Section 29.3009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil...

  3. 7 CFR 29.6007 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 29.6007 Section 29.6007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6007 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1275 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.1275 Section 51.1275 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust, spray residue or other foreign material....

  5. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from the viewpoint of general appearance, the potatoes in the container...

  6. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from the viewpoint of general appearance, the potatoes in the container...

  7. 7 CFR 51.2288 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.2288 Section 51.2288 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.2288 Clean. Clean means that the appearance of the individual portion of kernel, or of the lot...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that, from the viewpoint of general appearance, the lot is not...

  9. 7 CFR 51.570 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.570 Section 51.570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.570 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is practically free from dirt...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2083 Clean. Clean means that the shell...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  12. 7 CFR 29.1004 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 29.1004 Section 29.1004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1004 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2256 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 29.2256 Section 29.2256 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2256 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles....

  14. 7 CFR 51.606 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.606 Section 51.606 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.606 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of...

  16. 7 CFR 51.606 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.606 Section 51.606 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.606 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is practically free from dirt or other foreign materials. Stalks shall...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 29.3507 Section 29.3507 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... clean. Fairly clean means that at least 90 percent of the potatoes in any lot are reasonably free...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2256 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 29.2256 Section 29.2256 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2256 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles....

  20. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 29.3507 Section 29.3507 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3009 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 29.3009 Section 29.3009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil...

  2. 7 CFR 51.570 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.570 Section 51.570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.570 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is practically free from dirt...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2288 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.2288 Section 51.2288 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... § 51.2288 Clean. Clean means that the appearance of the individual portion of kernel, or of the lot...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... clean. Fairly clean means that at least 90 percent of the potatoes in any lot are reasonably free...

  5. 7 CFR 51.606 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.606 Section 51.606 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.606 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is practically free from dirt or other foreign materials. Stalks shall...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2654 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.2654 Section 51.2654 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2654 Clean. Clean means that the cherries...

  7. 7 CFR 29.6007 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 29.6007 Section 29.6007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6007 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Clean means that the shell is practically free from dirt and other adhering foreign material....

  9. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel is practically free from dirt and other foreign substance....

  10. 7 CFR 51.2288 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.2288 Section 51.2288 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2288 Clean. Clean means that...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2965 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1004 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Clean. 29.1004 Section 29.1004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1004 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1275 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 51.1275 Section 51.1275 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust, spray residue or other foreign material....

  17. 7 CFR 29.3009 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Clean. 29.3009 Section 29.3009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil...

  18. 7 CFR 51.1275 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Clean. 51.1275 Section 51.1275 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive...

  19. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1275 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Clean. 51.1275 Section 51.1275 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive...

  1. RUNNING A CONFERENCE AS A CLEAN PRODUCT

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than 1000 attended the International Conference on Pollution Prevention: Clean Technologies and Clean Products, held in Washington, DC, June 10-13, 1990. With support from the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, and the International Association for Clean Techn...

  2. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  3. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center (Solutions Center) helps governments, advisors and analysts create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. The Solutions Center partners with international organizations to provide online training, expert assistance, and technical resources on clean energy policy.

  4. Clean Cities Now, Vol. 18, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-19

    This is version 18.2 of Clean Cities Now, the official biannual newsletter of the Clean Cities program. Clean Cities is an initiative designed to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector by advancing the use of alternative and renewable fuels, fuel economy improvements, idle-reduction measures, and new technologies, as they emerge.

  5. 7 CFR 29.6007 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.6007 Section 29.6007 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6007 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only...

  6. 7 CFR 51.570 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.570 Section 51.570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.570 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is practically free from dirt...

  7. 7 CFR 29.3507 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.3507 Section 29.3507 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3507 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2083 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2083 Section 51.2083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Almonds in the Shell Definitions § 51.2083 Clean. Clean means that the shell...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2965 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.2965 Section 51.2965 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2965 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means...

  10. 7 CFR 51.1581 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1581 Section 51.1581 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1581 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that from...

  11. 7 CFR 51.1867 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1867 Section 51.1867 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1867 Clean. Clean means that the tomato is practically...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1553 - Fairly clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly clean. 51.1553 Section 51.1553 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1553 Fairly clean. Fairly clean means that at least...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2256 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.2256 Section 29.2256 Agriculture Regulations... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2256 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil particles....

  14. 7 CFR 51.1275 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1275 Section 51.1275 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Summer and Fall Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1275 Clean. Clean means free from excessive...

  15. 7 CFR 51.3061 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.3061 Section 51.3061 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3061 Clean. Clean means that the avocado is practically...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1316 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1316 Section 51.1316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Winter Pears 1 Definitions § 51.1316 Clean. Clean means free from excessive dirt, dust,...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3009 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.3009 Section 29.3009 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of sand or soil...

  18. 7 CFR 51.2288 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2288 Section 51.2288 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Shelled English Walnuts (Juglans Regia) Definitions § 51.2288 Clean. Clean means that...

  19. 7 CFR 51.2118 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2118 Section 51.2118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Shelled Almonds Definitions § 51.2118 Clean. Clean means that the kernel...

  20. 7 CFR 51.606 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.606 Section 51.606 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.606 Clean. Clean means that the stalk is...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1552 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.1552 Section 51.1552 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1552 Clean. Clean means that at least 90 percent of...

  2. 7 CFR 29.1004 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 29.1004 Section 29.1004 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1004 Clean. Tobacco is described as clean when it contains only a normal amount of...

  3. 7 CFR 51.2654 - Clean.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean. 51.2654 Section 51.2654 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades for Sweet Cherries 1 Definitions § 51.2654 Clean. Clean means that the cherries...

  4. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless the car...

  5. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  6. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  7. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  8. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  9. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  10. The Academic Life: Small Worlds, Different Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, William

    2010-01-01

    "The Academic Life: Small Worlds, Different Worlds" represented an impressive investigation of the largest and most complex national academic community in the world, which seriously attempted a detailed representation of the variations in its form. Its ethnographic orientation to understanding the internal academic life through exploratory…

  11. Magnetic pulse cleaning of products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolentsev, V. P.; Safonov, S. V.; Smolentsev, E. V.; Fedonin, O. N.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the application of a magnetic impact for inventing new equipment and methods of cleaning cast precision blanks from fragile or granular thickened surface coatings, which are difficult to remove and highly resistant to further mechanical processing. The issues relating to a rational use of the new method for typical products and auxiliary operations have been studied. The calculation and design methods have been elaborated for load-carrying elements of the equipment created. It has been shown, that the application of the magnetic pulse method, combined with a low-frequency vibration process is perspective at enterprises of general and special machine construction, for cleaning lightweight blanks and containers, used for transporting bulk goods.

  12. Clean and Cold Sample Curation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Agee, C. B.; Beer, R.; Cooper, B. L.

    2000-01-01

    Curation of Mars samples includes both samples that are returned to Earth, and samples that are collected, examined, and archived on Mars. Both kinds of curation operations will require careful planning to ensure that the samples are not contaminated by the instruments that are used to collect and contain them. In both cases, sample examination and subdivision must take place in an environment that is organically, inorganically, and biologically clean. Some samples will need to be prepared for analysis under ultra-clean or cryogenic conditions. Inorganic and biological cleanliness are achievable separately by cleanroom and biosafety lab techniques. Organic cleanliness to the <50 ng/sq cm level requires material control and sorbent removal - techniques being applied in our Class 10 cleanrooms and sample processing gloveboxes.

  13. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1996-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning method for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The method uses an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  14. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Odell, D. MacKenzie C.

    1994-01-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface.

  15. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    DREES,A.; AHRENS,L.; III FLILLER,R.; GASSNER,D.; MCINTYRE,G.T.; MICHNOFF,R.; TRBOJEVIC,D.

    2002-06-03

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance.

  16. Ultrasonic cleaning of interior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    MacKenzie, D.; Odell, C.

    1994-03-01

    An ultrasonic cleaning apparatus is described for cleaning the interior surfaces of tubes. The apparatus includes an ultrasonic generator and reflector each coupled to opposing ends of the open-ended, fluid-filled tube. Fluid-tight couplings seal the reflector and generator to the tube, preventing leakage of fluid from the interior of the tube. The reflector and generator are operatively connected to actuators, whereby the distance between them can be varied. When the distance is changed, the frequency of the sound waves is simultaneously adjusted to maintain the resonant frequency of the tube so that a standing wave is formed in the tube, the nodes of which are moved axially to cause cavitation along the length of the tube. Cavitation maximizes mechanical disruption and agitation of the fluid, dislodging foreign material from the interior surface. 3 figures.

  17. The new Clean Air Act

    SciTech Connect

    Padmanabha, A.P. ); Olem, H. )

    1991-05-01

    This article is a title by title review of the new Clean Air Act and how it affects water quality and wastewater treatment. The bill provides for restoring and protecting lakes and rivers by reducing acid-rain-causing emissions and toxics from nonpoint-source runoff. Topics covered include urban smog, mobile sources, air toxics, acid rain, permits, ozone-depleting chemicals, enforcement, and the law's socio-economic impacts.

  18. Waterless Clothes-Cleaning Machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Glenn; Ganske, Shane

    2013-01-01

    A waterless clothes-cleaning machine has been developed that removes loose particulates and deodorizes dirty laundry with regenerative chemical processes to make the clothes more comfortable to wear and have a fresher smell. This system was initially developed for use in zero-g, but could be altered for 1-g environments where water or other re sources are scarce. Some of these processes include, but are not limited to, airflow, filtration, ozone generation, heat, ultraviolet light, and photocatalytic titanium oxide.

  19. Coal Cleaning by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect

    Meiyu Shen; Royce Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1998-03-01

    The gas agglomeration method of coal cleaning was demonstrated with laboratory scale mixing equipment which made it possible to generate microscopic gas bubbles in aqueous suspensions of coal particles. A small amount of i-octane was introduced to enhance the hydrophobicity of the coal. Between 1.0 and 2.5 v/w% i-octane was sufficient based on coal weight. Coal agglomerates or aggregates were produced which were bound together by small gas bubbles.

  20. Cleaning pipelines: a pigging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Kipin, P.

    1985-02-04

    The ''pig'', a cleaning device currently used to clear out pipes, is discussed here. Types of pigs are described and include styrofoam, rubber, and soft foam. The limitations to the use of pigs are discussed. Unless all valves are fully open, a pig can get stuck. Ball-type tees may cause a short pig to drop and bypass. Generally, no pig is able to traverse a one-cut miter.

  1. The Clean Air Interstate Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Debra Jezouit; Frank Rambo

    2005-07-01

    On May 12, 2005, EPA promulgated the Clean Air Interstate Rule, which overhauls and expands the scope of air emissions trading programs in the eastern United States. The rule imposes statewide caps on emissions of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide to be introduced in two phases, beginning in 2009. This article briefly explains the background leading up to the rule and summarizes its key findings and requirements. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  3. Clean salt process final report

    SciTech Connect

    Herting, D.L.

    1996-09-30

    A process has been demonstrated in the laboratory for separating clean, virtually non-radioactive sodium nitrate from Hanford tank waste using fractional crystallization. The name of the process is the Clean Salt Process. Flowsheet modeling has shown that the process is capable of reducing the volume of vitrified low activity waste (LAW) by 80 to 90 %. Construction of the Clean Salt processing plant would cost less than $1 10 million, and would eliminate the need for building a $2.2 billion large scale vitrification plant planned for Privatization Phase 11. Disposal costs for the vitrified LAW would also be reduced by an estimated $240 million. This report provides a summary of five years of laboratory and engineering development activities, beginning in fiscal year 1992. Topics covered include laboratory testing of a variety of processing options; proof-of-principle demonstrations with actual waste samples from Hanford tanks 241-U-110 (U-110), 241-SY-101 (101-SY), and 241-AN-102 (102-AN); descriptions of the primary solubility phase diagrams that govem the process; a review of environmental regulations governing disposition of the reclaimed salt and an assessment of the potential beneficial uses of the reclaimed salt; preliminary plant design and construction cost estimates. A detailed description is given for the large scale laboratory demonstration of the process using waste from tank 241-AW-101 (101-AW), a candidate waste for 0044vitrification during Phase I Privatization.

  4. 'How To' Clean Room Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarty, Kaley Corinne

    2013-01-01

    One of the projects that I am completing this summer is a Launch Services Program intern 'How to' set up a clean room informational video. The purpose of this video is to go along with a clean room kit that can be checked out by employees at the Kennedy Space Center and to be taken to classrooms to help educate students and intrigue them about NASA. The video will include 'how to' set up and operate a clean room at NASA. This is a group project so we will be acting as a team and contributing our own input and ideas. We will include various activities for children in classrooms to complete, while learning and having fun. Activities that we will explain and film include: helping children understand the proper way to wear a bunny suit, a brief background on cleanrooms, and the importance of maintaining the cleanliness of a space craft. This project will be shown to LSP management and co-workers; we will be presenting the video once it is completed.

  5. Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Frank

    1996-01-01

    The Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System Research Project consisted mainly of a feasibility study, including theoretical and engineering analysis, of a proof-of-concept prototype of this particular cleaning system developed by NASA-KSC. The cleaning system utilizes gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the device to be cleaned. The cleaning fluid being accelerated to these high velocities may consist of any solvent or liquid, including water. Compressed air or any inert gas is used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid, as well as substantially reduce the total amount of liquid needed to perform adequate surface cleaning and cleanliness verification. This type of aqueous cleaning system is considered to be an excellent way of conducting cleaning and cleanliness verification operations as replacements for the use of CFC 113 which must be discontinued by 1995. To utilize this particular cleaning system in various cleaning applications for both the Space Program and the commercial market, it is essential that the cleaning system, especially the supersonic nozzle, be characterized for such applications. This characterization consisted of performing theoretical and engineering analysis, identifying desirable modifications/extensions to the basic concept, evaluating effects of variations in operating parameters, and optimizing hardware design for specific applications.

  6. Ultrasonic frequency selection for aqueous fine cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Joann F.

    1995-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate ultrasonic cleaning systems for precision cleaning effectiveness for oxygen service hardware. This evaluation was specific for Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell Aerospace alloys and machining soils. Machining lubricants and hydraulic fluid were applied as soils to standardized complex test specimens designed to simulate typical hardware. The study consisted of tests which included 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, and 65 kHz ultrasonic cleaning systems. Two size categories of cleaning systems were evaluated, 3- to 10-gal laboratory size tanks and 35- to 320-gal industrial size tanks. The system properties of cavitation, frequency vs. cleaning effectiveness, the two types of transducers, and the power level of the system vs. size of the cleaning tank were investigated. The data obtained from this study was used to select the ultrasonic tanks for the aqueous fine clean facility installed at Rocketdyne.

  7. True Cost of Amateur Clean rooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, W. Lawrence

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the cost factors for clean rooms that are not professionally built, monitored or maintained. These amateur clean rooms are built because scientist and engineers desire to create a clean room to build a part of an experiment that requires a clean room, and the program manager is looking to save money. However, in the long run these clean rooms may not save money, as the cost of maintenance may be higher due to the cost of transporting the crews, and if the materials were of lesser quality, the cost of modifications may diminish any savings, and the product may not be of the same quality. Several examples are shown of the clean rooms that show some of the problems that can arise from amateur clean rooms.

  8. IDEA Clean Energy Application Center

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Robert

    2013-09-30

    The DOE Clean Energy Application Centers were launched with a goal of focusing on important aspects of our nation’s energy supply including Efficiency, Reliability and Resiliency. Clean Energy solutions based on Combined Heat & Power (CHP), District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery are at the core of ensuring a reliable and efficient energy infrastructure for campuses, communities, and industry and public enterprises across the country. IDEA members which include colleges and universities, hospitals, airports, downtown utilities as well as manufacturers, suppliers and service providers have long-standing expertise in the planning, design, construction and operations of Clean Energy systems. They represent an established base of successful projects and systems at scale and serve important and critical energy loads. They also offer experience, lessons learned and best practices which are of immense value to the sustained growth of the Clean Energy sector. IDEA has been able to leverage the funds from the project award to raise the visibility, improve the understanding and increase deployment CHP, District Energy and Waste Heat Recovery solutions across the regions of our nation, in collaboration with the regional CEAC’s. On August 30, 2012, President Obama signed an Executive Order to accelerate investments in industrial energy efficiency (EE), including CHP and set a national goal of 40 GW of new CHP installation over the next decade IDEA is pleased to have been able to support this Executive Order in a variety of ways including raising awareness of the goal through educational workshops and Conferences and recognizing the installation of large scale CHP and district energy systems A supporting key area of collaboration has involved IDEA providing technical assistance on District Energy/CHP project screenings and feasibility to the CEAC’s for multi building, multi-use projects. The award was instrumental in the development of a first-order screening

  9. AVESTAR Center for Operational Excellence of Clean Energy Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    To address challenges in attaining operational excellence for clean energy plants, the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTAR{trademark}). The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real time,high-fidelity dynamic simulators with operator training systems and 3D virtual immersive training systems into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. This presentation will highlight the AVESTAR Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of high-efficiency, near-zero-emission energy plants.

  10. AVESTAR Center for Operational Excellence of Clean Energy Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S.E.

    2012-05-01

    To address challenges in attaining operational excellence for clean energy plants, the U.S.Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory has launched a world-class facility for Advanced Virtual Energy Simulation Training and Research (AVESTAR™). The AVESTAR Center brings together state-of-the-art, real time,high-fidelity dynamic simulators with operator training systems and 3D virtual immersive training systems into an integrated energy plant and control room environment. This presentation will highlight the AVESTAR Center simulators, facilities, and comprehensive training, education, and research programs focused on the operation and control of high-efficiency, near-zero-emission energy plants.

  11. Leading the Nation in Clean Energy Deployment (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This document summarizes key efforts and projects that are part of the DOE/NREL Integrated Deployment effort to integrated energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies in cities, states, island locations, and communities around the world. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is pursuing an aggressive, scalable, and replicable strategy to accelerate market adoption of clean energy solutions to power homes, businesses, and vehicles. Using the comprehensive Integrated Deployment approach developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), DOE partners with communities, cities, states, federal agencies, and territories to identify and implement a variety of efficiency and renewable energy technology solutions.

  12. Realizing a Clean Energy Future: Highlights of NREL Analysis (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    Profound energy system transformation is underway. In Hawaiian mythology, Maui set out to lasso the sun in order to capture its energy. He succeeded. That may have been the most dramatic leap forward in clean energy systems that the world has known. Until now. Today, another profound transformation is underway. A combination of forces is taking us from a carbon-centric, inefficient energy system to one that draws from diverse energy sources - including the sun. NREL analysis is helping guide energy systems policy and investment decisions through this transformation. This brochure highlights NREL analysis accomplishments in the context of four thematic storylines.

  13. Case study of a floor-cleaning robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branch, Allan C.

    1998-01-01

    Developing the technologies suitable of ra high level robotic application such as cleaning a floor has proved extremely difficult. Developing the robot mobility technology has been a stumbling block and developing and integrating the applications technology to the machine and the mobility technology has also been a difficult stage in this quest, but doing so in a cost effective and realistic manner suitable for the market place and to compete with humans and manually operated machines has been the most difficult of all. This paper describes one of these quests spanning a 14 year period and resulting in what is hoped will be the world's first commercially manufactured household robot vacuum cleaner.

  14. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  15. Advanced cleaning by mass finishing

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, M.W.

    1983-10-01

    This paper describes a testing program that examined the effectiveness of vibratory finishing for removing a variety of radioactively contaminated soils. The vibratory finishing process was studied by measuring the radiation levels of the test material, the lining of the vibratory finishing tub, and the media. Many soils including corrosion products, scale, oil, grease and paint were removed by the vibratory finishing process. The results of this program indicate that vibratory finishing should be an effective cleaning process for a variety of manufacturing operations.

  16. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stanton, Donald W.

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of our objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded.

  17. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    SciTech Connect

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2013-11-21

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  18. Cleaning Contaminated Water at Fukushima

    ScienceCinema

    Rende, Dean; Nenoff, Tina

    2016-07-12

    Crystalline Silico-Titanates (CSTs) are synthetic zeolites designed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists to selectively capture radioactive cesium and other group I metals. They are being used for cleanup of radiation-contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in Japan. Quick action by Sandia and its corporate partner UOP, A Honeywell Company, led to rapid licensing and deployment of the technology in Japan, where it continues to be used to clean up cesium contaminated water at the Fukushima power plant.

  19. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  20. Bio-Inspired Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kesong; Jiang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Self-cleaning surfaces have drawn a lot of interest for both fundamental research and practical applications. This review focuses on the recent progress in mechanism, preparation, and application of self-cleaning surfaces. To date, self-cleaning has been demonstrated by the following four conceptual approaches: (a) TiO2-based superhydrophilic self-cleaning, (b) lotus effect self-cleaning (superhydrophobicity with a small sliding angle), (c) gecko setae-inspired self-cleaning, and (d) underwater organisms-inspired antifouling self-cleaning. Although a number of self-cleaning products have been commercialized, the remaining challenges and future outlook of self-cleaning surfaces are also briefly addressed. Through evolution, nature, which has long been a source of inspiration for scientists and engineers, has arrived at what is optimal. We hope this review will stimulate interdisciplinary collaboration among material science, chemistry, biology, physics, nanoscience, engineering, etc., which is essential for the rational design and reproducible construction of bio-inspired multifunctional self-cleaning surfaces in practical applications.

  1. Deliberate Science, Continuum Magazine: Clean Energy Innovation at NREL, Winter 2012 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-02-01

    This quarterly magazine is dedicated to stepping beyond the technical journals to reveal NREL's vital work in a real-world context for our stakeholders. Continuum provides insights into the latest and most impactful clean energy innovations, while spotlighting those talented researchers and unique facilities that make it all happen. This edition focuses on deliberate science.

  2. Case Study: Using Microbe Molecular Biology for Gulf Oil Spill Clean Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This case has the student actively investigate the regulation of expression of a novel bacterial gene in the context of attempts to solve a real world problem, clean up of the April 2010 Deep Water Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Although the case is fictitious, it is based on factual gene regulatory characteristics of oil-degrading…

  3. Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Q.; Das, S.K.

    2008-02-15

    The project entitled 'Scaleable Clean Aluminum Melting Systems' was a Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Secat Inc. The three-year project was initially funded for the first year and was then canceled due to funding cuts at the DOE headquarters. The limited funds allowed the research team to visit industrial sites and investigate the status of using immersion heaters for aluminum melting applications. Primary concepts were proposed on the design of furnaces using immersion heaters for melting. The proposed project can continue if the funding agency resumes the funds to this research. The objective of this project was to develop and demonstrate integrated, retrofitable technologies for clean melting systems for aluminum in both the Metal Casting and integrated aluminum processing industries. The scope focused on immersion heating coupled with metal circulation systems that provide significant opportunity for energy savings as well as reduction of melt loss in the form of dross. The project aimed at the development and integration of technologies that would enable significant reduction in the energy consumption and environmental impacts of melting aluminum through substitution of immersion heating for the conventional radiant burner methods used in reverberatory furnaces. Specifically, the program would couple heater improvements with furnace modeling that would enable cost-effective retrofits to a range of existing furnace sizes, reducing the economic barrier to application.

  4. How flies clean their eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador, Guillermo; Durand, Fabien; Mao, Wenbin; Alexeev, Alexander; Hu, David

    2013-11-01

    Flying insects face a barrage of foreign particles such as dust and pollen, which threaten to coat the insect's eyes and antennae, limiting their sensing abilities. In this study, we elucidate novel aerodynamic and elastic mechanisms by which insects keep these organs clean. The compound eye of many species of insects is covered by an array of short bristles, or setae, evenly spaced between each photoreceptor unit. Among these insect species, setae length is triple their spacing. We conduct numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments using an insect eye mimic to show this critical setae length reduces shear rate at the eye surface by 80%. Thus, the setae create a stagnant zone in front of the eye, which diverts airflow to reduce deposition of particles. Setae can also act as springboards to catapult accumulated particles. In high speed videography of insects using their legs to clean themselves, we observe deflected setae hurling micron scale particles at accelerations over 100 times earth's gravity. The dual abilities of setae to divert airflow and catapult particles may motivate bio-inspired designs for dust-controlling lenses, sensors, and solar panels.

  5. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  6. MODELING WORLD BIOENERGY CROP POTENTIAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagiwara, Kensuke; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    Bioenergy is regarded as clean energy due to its characteristics and expected to be a new support of world energy de¬mand, but there are few integrated assessments of the potential of bioenergy considering sustainable land use. We esti¬mated the global bioenergy potential with an integrated global water resources model, the H08. It can simulate the crop yields on global-scale at a spatial resolution of 0.50.5. Seven major crops in the world were considered; namely, maize, sugar beet, sugar cane, soybean, rapeseed, rice, and wheat, of which the first 5 are commonly used to produce biofuel now. Three different land-cover types were chosen as potential area for cultivation of biofuel-producing crop: fallow land, grassland, and portion of forests (excluding areas sensitive for biodiversity such as frontier forest). We attempted to estimate the maximum global bioenergy potential and it was estimated to be 1120EJ. Bioenergy potential depends on land-use limitations for the protection of bio-diversity and security of food. In another condition which assumed more land-use limitations, bioenergy potential was estimated to be 70-233EJ.

  7. The Cleaning of Aluminum Frame Assembly Units

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, T H

    2001-05-16

    The Brulin immersion and the precision cleaning experiments have shown that neither the Brulin solution nor the precision cleaning in AstroPak causes the smut formation on aluminum surfaces. The acid-bath cleaning in GTC is the primary source of the smut formation. The current GTC acid formulation etches the aluminum matrix quite aggressively, but does not appear to appreciably attack the Si particles. Therefore, this acid-bath cleaning will leave the cast-aluminum part surfaces with many protruded Si particles, which could potentially cause smut problems in the cleaning process down-stream. To ensure the removal of all loose Si particles from the cast-aluminum parts, it is necessary to physically hand-wipe and vigorously wash the acid-bath cleaned surfaces. Furthermore, the casting porosity in alloy A356 could be another source in causing high swipe readings in the FAU parts.

  8. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-01-01

    Provides an overview of Clean Cities National Clean Fleets Partnership (NCFP). The NCFP is open to large private-sector companies that have fleet operations in multiple states. Companies that join the partnership receive customized assistance to reduce petroleum use through increased efficiency and use of alternative fuels. This initiative provides fleets with specialized resources, expertise, and support to successfully incorporate alternative fuels and fuel-saving measures into their operations. The National Clean Fleets Partnership builds on the established success of DOE's Clean Cities program, which reduces petroleum consumption at the community level through a nationwide network of coalitions that work with local stakeholders. Developed with input from fleet managers, industry representatives, and Clean Cities coordinators, the National Clean Fleets Partnership goes one step further by working with large private-sector fleets.

  9. Environmentally compatible hand wipe cleaning solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Catherine P.; Kovach, Michael P.

    1995-01-01

    Several solvents of environmental concern have previously been used for hand wipe cleaning of SRB surfaces, including 1,1,1-trichloroethane, perchloroethylene, toluene, xylene, and MEK. USBI determined the major types of surfaces involved, and qualification requirements of replacement cleaning agents. Nineteen environmentally compatible candidates were tested on 33 material substrates with 26 types of potential surface contaminants, involving over 7,000 individual evaluations. In addition to the cleaning performance evaluation, bonding, compatibility, and corrosion tests were conducted. Results showed that one cleaner was not optimum for all surfaces. In most instances, some of the candidates cleaned better than the 1,1,1-trichloroethane baseline control. Aqueous cleaners generally cleaned better, and were more compatible with nonmetallic materials, such as paints, plastics, and elastomers. Organic base cleaners were better on metal surfaces. Five cleaners have been qualified and are now being implemented in SRB hand wipe cleaning operations.

  10. World Foods. Can the World Feed Us?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindman, Wanda; And Others

    This teacher's guide contains resources to facilitate the study of the world food situation in home economics classes. It provides terms, historical elements of famine, and the effects of hunger and dietary deficiency on humans. Brief overviews of the basic factors influencing the world food situation and some of the proposed measures to solve the…

  11. Teaching World Religions without Teaching "World Religions"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locklin, Reid B.; Tiemeier, Tracy; Vento, Johann M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomoko Masuzawa and a number of other contemporary scholars have recently problematized the categories of "religion" and "world religions" and, in some cases, called for its abandonment altogether as a discipline of scholarly study. In this collaborative essay, we respond to this critique by highlighting three attempts to teach world religions…

  12. National Clean Fleets Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    Clean Cities' National Clean Fleets Partnership establishes strategic alliances with large fleets to help them explore and adopt alternative fuels and fuel economy measures to cut petroleum use. The initiative leverages the strength of nearly 100 Clean Cities coalitions, nearly 18,000 stakeholders, and more than 20 years of experience. It provides fleets with top-level support, technical assistance, robust tools and resources, and public acknowledgement to help meet and celebrate fleets' petroleum-use reductions.

  13. Cleaning Animals' Cages With Little Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Benjamin J.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed freeze/thaw method for cleaning animals' cages requires little extra weight and consumes little power and water. Cleaning concept developed for maintaining experimental rat cages on extended space missions. Adaptable as well to similar use on Earth. Reduces cleaning time. Makes use of already available facilities such as refrigerator, glove box, and autoclave. Rat waste adheres to steel-wire-mesh floor of cage. Feces removed by loosening action of freezing-and-thawing process, followed by blast of air.

  14. Aging of D-Limonene-cleaned assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somer, T. A.

    1995-08-01

    The performance of 1600 electronic circuit variables was monitored throughout an 8000-hour exposure to +160 F. The variables involve 36 electronic assemblies, cleaned with various solvents, including d-Limonene, as a replacement for trichloroethylene (TCE). The assemblies were divided into four groups, including a TCE-cleaned control group at room temperature. Of the three groups exposed at +160 F, one was cleaned in TCE, one was cleaned in d-Limonene, and one was kept in a saturated d-Limonene atmosphere. No performance degradation was observed with any of the groups, including the worst-case exposure in a saturated d-Limonene atmosphere.

  15. Cleaning process for EUV optical substrates

    DOEpatents

    Weber, Frank J.; Spiller, Eberhard A.

    1999-01-01

    A cleaning process for surfaces with very demanding cleanliness requirements, such as extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) optical substrates. Proper cleaning of optical substrates prior to applying reflective coatings thereon is very critical in the fabrication of the reflective optics used in EUV lithographic systems, for example. The cleaning process involves ultrasonic cleaning in acetone, methanol, and a pH neutral soap, such as FL-70, followed by rinsing in de-ionized water and drying with dry filtered nitrogen in conjunction with a spin-rinse.

  16. Emissions of perchloroethylene from dry cleaned fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichenor, Bruce A.; Sparks, Leslie E.; Jackson, Merrill D.; Guo, Zhishi; Mason, Mark A.; Michelle Plunket, C.; Rasor, Susan A.

    A study was conducted to evaluate the emissions of perchloroethylene (tetrachloroethylene) from dry cleaned fabrics to determine: (a) how the introduction of fresh dry cleaning into a home affects the indoor concentration of perchloroethylene, and (b) the effectiveness of 'airing out' dry cleaned clothes in reducing perchloroethylene emissions. Small chamber tests were conducted to determine perchloroethylene emission characteristics for three fabrics at several air exchange rates. Test house studies were conducted to determine the indoor concentration of perchloroethylene due to the placement of dry cleaned clothing in the house. Based on the study results, and assuming that test conditions were representative of normal dry cleaning and consumer practices, the following conclusions were reached. Emissions from freshly dry cleaned clothing cause elevated levels of perchloroethylene in residences. For the three fabrics tested, 'airing out' of dry cleaned clothing by consumers for short time periods (4-8 h) will not be effective in reducing perchloroethylene emissions. Adsorptive surfaces (i.e. sinks) in residences may have a major impact on consumer exposure to perchloroethylene. It is emphasized that these conclusions are based on the results of the study reported. Significant variations in dry cleaning practices and/or in the mix of fabrics and clothing being cleaned could provide different results and conclusions.

  17. Aging of D-limonene-cleaned assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Somer, T.A.

    1994-04-01

    The performance of 2000 electronic circuit variables was monitored throughout a 5000-hour exposure to + 160{degrees}F. the 2000 variables involve 36 electronic assemblies, cleaned with various solvents, including d-limonene, as a replacement for TCE. The assemblies were divided into four groups, including a TCE-cleaned control group at room temperature. Of the three groups exposed at + 160{degrees}F, one was cleaned in TCE, one was cleaned in d-limonene, and one was kept in a saturated d-limonene atmosphere. No performance degradation was observed with any of the groups, including the worst case exposure in a saturated d-limonene atmosphere.

  18. Cleaning process for contaminated superalloy powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    A cleaning process for removing interstitial contaminants from superalloy powders after wet grinding is described. Typical analyses of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen in ball-milled WAZ-20 superalloy samples after hydrogen plus vacuum cleaning are presented. The hydrogen cleaning step involves heating retorts containing superalloy powder twice under flowing hydrogen with a 24-hour hold at each temperature. The vacuum step involves heating cold-pressed billets two hours at an elevated temperature at a pressure of 10 microPa. It is suggested that the hydrogen plus vacuum cleaning procedure can be applied to superalloys contaminated by other substances in other industrial processes.

  19. Cleaning process for EUV optical substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, F.J.; Spiller, E.A.

    1999-09-28

    A cleaning process is disclosed for surfaces with very demanding cleanliness requirements, such as extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) optical substrates. Proper cleaning of optical substrates prior to applying reflective coatings thereon is very critical in the fabrication of the reflective optics used in EUV lithographic systems, for example. The cleaning process involves ultrasonic cleaning in acetone, methanol, and a pH neutral soap, such as FL-70, followed by rinsing in de-ionized water and drying with dry filtered nitrogen in conjunction with a spin-rinse.

  20. Replacing solvent cleaning with aqueous cleaning. Final report, March 1993-January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, K.R.

    1994-08-01

    The report documents actions taken by Robert Bosch Corp., Charleston, SC, in replacing the cleaning solvents, 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) and trichloroethylene (TCE) with aqueous solutions. An early key decision was to replace their aging, large central degreasing stations with several small cleaning units, each designed and dedicated for cleaning just one part at one step in the product assembly process. The strategy demanded reassessment of each cleaning step and identification of apparatus and chemistry for optimizing each aqueous replacement. The report summarizes the actions taken to achieve aqueous cleaning for four typical components, previously cleaned with chlorinated solvents. The report provides quantitative comparisons of cleaning performance and costs of the old chlorinated (1988) and the new aqueous (1992) cleaning methods.