Science.gov

Sample records for 11-12 month average

  1. Monthly average polar sea-ice concentration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1995-01-01

    The data contained in this CD-ROM depict monthly averages of sea-ice concentration in the modern polar oceans. These averages were derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instruments aboard satellites of the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program from 1978 through 1992. The data are provided as 8-bit images using the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

  2. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing average monthly compensation. 226... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation...

  3. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computing average monthly compensation. 226... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation...

  4. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Computing average monthly compensation. 226.62... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation is...

  5. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Computing average monthly compensation. 226.62... COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation is...

  6. 20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Computing average monthly compensation. 226... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation...

  7. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the...

  8. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the...

  9. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the...

  10. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the...

  11. 20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the...

  12. 20 CFR 404.220 - Average-monthly-wage method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 404.220 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.220 Average-monthly-wage method. (a) Who is eligible for this method. You...

  13. 42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National average monthly bid amount. 423.279 Section 423.279 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Submission of Bids and Monthly Beneficiary Premiums;...

  14. 42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... each MA-PD plan described in section 1851(a)(2)(A)(i) of the Act. The calculation does not include bids... section 1876(h) of the Act. (b) Calculation of weighted average. (1) The national average monthly bid... defined in § 422.258(c)(1) of this chapter) and the denominator equal to the total number of Part...

  15. 42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bid amounts for each prescription drug plan (not including fallbacks) and for each MA-PD plan...(h) of the Act. (b) Calculation of weighted average. (1) The national average monthly bid amount is a....258(c)(1) of this chapter) and the denominator equal to the total number of Part D...

  16. 42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... each MA-PD plan described in section 1851(a)(2)(A)(i) of the Act. The calculation does not include bids... section 1876(h) of the Act. (b) Calculation of weighted average. (1) The national average monthly bid... defined in § 422.258(c)(1) of this chapter) and the denominator equal to the total number of Part...

  17. 42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bid amounts for each prescription drug plan (not including fallbacks) and for each MA-PD plan...(h) of the Act. (b) Calculation of weighted average. (1) The national average monthly bid amount is a....258(c)(1) of this chapter) and the denominator equal to the total number of Part D...

  18. Daily Weather from Monthly Averages -- Hocus Pocus, or Useful Tool?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Just how much can you legitimately extract from monthly statistics of daily weather parameters? In this paper we present the utility and limitations of a simple weather generator (CLIGEN) which has over 750 registered users, most of whom are international. CLIGEN's 4,000-plus station files of mont...

  19. 20 CFR 404.211 - Computing your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing your average indexed monthly..., SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Indexed-Monthly-Earnings Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.211 Computing your average indexed...

  20. 20 CFR 404.211 - Computing your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computing your average indexed monthly..., SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Indexed-Monthly-Earnings Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.211 Computing your average indexed...

  1. 20 CFR Appendix II to Subpart C of... - Benefit Formulas Used With Average Indexed Monthly Earnings

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Monthly Earnings II Appendix II to Subpart C of Part 404 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts... primary insurance amount from your average indexed monthly earnings (AIME). To select the...

  2. 20 CFR 404.232 - Computing your average monthly wage under the guaranteed alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage under the... OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.232 Computing your average...

  3. 20 CFR 404.232 - Computing your average monthly wage under the guaranteed alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage under the... OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.232 Computing your average...

  4. 20 CFR 404.232 - Computing your average monthly wage under the guaranteed alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage under the... OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.232 Computing your average...

  5. 20 CFR 404.232 - Computing your average monthly wage under the guaranteed alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage under the... OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.232 Computing your average...

  6. 20 CFR 404.232 - Computing your average monthly wage under the guaranteed alternative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage under the... OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Guaranteed Alternative for People Reaching Age 62 After 1978 But Before 1984 § 404.232 Computing your average...

  7. Using of rank distributions in the study of perennial changes for monthly average temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemirovskiy, V. B.; Stoyanov, A. K.; Tartakovsky, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The possibility of comparing the climatic data of various years with using rank distributions is considered in this paper. As a climatic data, the annual variation of temperature on the spatial areas of meteorological observations with high variability in average temperatures is considered. The results of clustering of the monthly average temperatures values by means of a recurrent neural network were used as the basis of comparing. For a given space of weather observations the rank distribution of the clusters cardinality identified for each year of observation, is being constructed. The resulting rank distributions allow you to compare the spatial temperature distributions of various years. An experimental comparison for rank distributions of the annual variation of monthly average temperatures has confirmed the presence of scatter for various years, associated with different spatio-temporal distribution of temperature. An experimental comparison of rank distributions revealed a difference in the integral annual variation of monthly average temperatures of various years for the Northern Hemisphere.

  8. Compensation for use of monthly-averaged winds in numerical modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    Ratios R of the monthly averaged wind speeds to the magnitudes of the monthly averaged wind vectors are presented over a 41 x 41 grid covering the southern Ocean and the Antarctic continent. The ratio is found to vary from 1 to over 1000, with an average value of 1.86. These ratios R are relevant for converting from sensible and latent heats calculated with mean monthly data to those calculated with 12 hourly data. The corresponding ratios alpha for wind stress, along with the angle deviations involved, are also presented over the same 41 x 41 grid. The values of alpha generally exceed those for R and average 2.66. Regions in zones of variable wind directions have larger R and alpha ratios, over the ice-covered portions of the southern Ocean averaging 2.74 and 4.35 for R and alpha respectively. Thus adjustments to compensate for the use of mean monthly wind velocities should be stronger for wind stress than for turbulent heats and stronger over ice covered regions than over regions with more persistent wind directions, e.g., those in the belt of mid-latitude westerlies.

  9. Statistical Modeling of Spatio-Temporal Variability in Monthly Average Daily Solar Radiation over Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Evrendilek, Fatih; Ertekin, Can

    2007-01-01

    Though one of the most significant driving forces behind ecological processes such as biogeochemical cycles and energy flows, solar radiation data are limited or non-existent by conventional ground-based measurements, and thus, often estimated from other meteorological data through (geo)statistical models. In this study, spatial and temporal patterns of monthly average daily solar radiation on a horizontal surface at the ground level were quantified using 130 climate stations for the entire Turkey and its conventionally-accepted seven geographical regions through multiple linear regression (MLR) models as a function of latitude, longitude, altitude, aspect, distance to sea; minimum, maximum and mean air temperature and relative humidity, soil temperature, cloudiness, precipitation, pan evapotranspiration, day length, maximum possible sunshine duration, monthly average daily extraterrestrial solar radiation, and time (month), and universal kriging method. The resulting 20 regional best-fit MLR models (three MLR models for each region) based on parameterization datasets had R2adj values of 91.5% for the Central Anatolia region to 98.0% for the Southeast Anatolia region. Validation of the best-fit MLR models for each region led to R2 values of 87.7% for the Mediterranean region to 98.5% for the Southeast Anatolia region. The best-fit anisotropic semi-variogram models for universal kriging as a result of one-leave-out cross-validation gave rise to R2 values of 10.9% in July to 52.4% in November. Surface maps of monthly average daily solar radiation were generated over Turkey, with a grid resolution of 500 m × 500 m.

  10. Estimation of the diffuse radiation fraction for hourly, daily and monthly-average global radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbs, D. G.; Klein, S. A.; Duffie, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Hourly pyrheliometer and pyranometer data from four U.S. locations are used to establish a relationship between the hourly diffuse fraction and the hourly clearness index. This relationship is compared to the relationship established by Orgill and Hollands (1977) and to a set of data from Highett, Australia, and agreement is within a few percent in both cases. The transient simulation program TRNSYS is used to calculate the annual performance of solar energy systems using several correlations. For the systems investigated, the effect of simulating the random distribution of the hourly diffuse fraction is negligible. A seasonally dependent daily diffuse correlation is developed from the data, and this daily relationship is used to derive a correlation for the monthly-average diffuse fraction.

  11. microclim: Global estimates of hourly microclimate based on long-term monthly climate averages

    PubMed Central

    Kearney, Michael R; Isaac, Andrew P; Porter, Warren P

    2014-01-01

    The mechanistic links between climate and the environmental sensitivities of organisms occur through the microclimatic conditions that organisms experience. Here we present a dataset of gridded hourly estimates of typical microclimatic conditions (air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, solar radiation, sky radiation and substrate temperatures from the surface to 1 m depth) at high resolution (~15 km) for the globe. The estimates are for the middle day of each month, based on long-term average macroclimates, and include six shade levels and three generic substrates (soil, rock and sand) per pixel. These data are suitable for deriving biophysical estimates of the heat, water and activity budgets of terrestrial organisms. PMID:25977764

  12. Microclim: Global estimates of hourly microclimate based on long-term monthly climate averages.

    PubMed

    Kearney, Michael R; Isaac, Andrew P; Porter, Warren P

    2014-01-01

    The mechanistic links between climate and the environmental sensitivities of organisms occur through the microclimatic conditions that organisms experience. Here we present a dataset of gridded hourly estimates of typical microclimatic conditions (air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, solar radiation, sky radiation and substrate temperatures from the surface to 1 m depth) at high resolution (~15 km) for the globe. The estimates are for the middle day of each month, based on long-term average macroclimates, and include six shade levels and three generic substrates (soil, rock and sand) per pixel. These data are suitable for deriving biophysical estimates of the heat, water and activity budgets of terrestrial organisms. PMID:25977764

  13. A Temperature-Based Model for Estimating Monthly Average Daily Global Solar Radiation in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huashan; Cao, Fei; Wang, Xianlong; Ma, Weibin

    2014-01-01

    Since air temperature records are readily available around the world, the models based on air temperature for estimating solar radiation have been widely accepted. In this paper, a new model based on Hargreaves and Samani (HS) method for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation is proposed. With statistical error tests, the performance of the new model is validated by comparing with the HS model and its two modifications (Samani model and Chen model) against the measured data at 65 meteorological stations in China. Results show that the new model is more accurate and robust than the HS, Samani, and Chen models in all climatic regions, especially in the humid regions. Hence, the new model can be recommended for estimating solar radiation in areas where only air temperature data are available in China. PMID:24605046

  14. 20 CFR 404.222 - Use of benefit table in finding your primary insurance amount from your average monthly wage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of benefit table in finding your primary... Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.222 Use of benefit table in... insurance amount under the average-monthly-wage method in the benefit table in appendix III. (b)...

  15. 20 CFR 404.212 - Computing your primary insurance amount from your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... who are required to take a vow of poverty, as explained in 20 CFR 404.1024, and which religious order... total wages (see appendix I). (3) We will publish benefit formulas for years after 1979 in the Federal Register at the same time we publish the average of the total wage figures. We begin to use a new...

  16. 20 CFR 404.212 - Computing your primary insurance amount from your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... who are required to take a vow of poverty, as explained in 20 CFR 404.1024, and which religious order... total wages (see appendix I). (3) We will publish benefit formulas for years after 1979 in the Federal Register at the same time we publish the average of the total wage figures. We begin to use a new...

  17. 20 CFR 404.212 - Computing your primary insurance amount from your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... who are required to take a vow of poverty, as explained in 20 CFR 404.1024, and which religious order... total wages (see appendix I). (3) We will publish benefit formulas for years after 1979 in the Federal Register at the same time we publish the average of the total wage figures. We begin to use a new...

  18. 20 CFR 404.212 - Computing your primary insurance amount from your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... who are required to take a vow of poverty, as explained in 20 CFR 404.1024, and which religious order... total wages (see appendix I). (3) We will publish benefit formulas for years after 1979 in the Federal Register at the same time we publish the average of the total wage figures. We begin to use a new...

  19. 20 CFR 404.212 - Computing your primary insurance amount from your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... who are required to take a vow of poverty, as explained in 20 CFR 404.1024, and which religious order... total wages (see appendix I). (3) We will publish benefit formulas for years after 1979 in the Federal Register at the same time we publish the average of the total wage figures. We begin to use a new...

  20. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=1998-08-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  1. The impact of orbital sampling, monthly averaging and vertical resolution on climate chemistry model evaluation with satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghedo, A. M.; Bowman, K. W.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.

    2011-03-01

    Ensemble climate model simulations used for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments have become important tools for exploring the response of the Earth System to changes in anthropogenic and natural forcings. The systematic evaluation of these models through global satellite observations is a critical step in assessing the uncertainty of climate change projections. This paper presents the technical steps required for using nadir sun-synchronous infrared satellite observations for multi-model evaluation and the uncertainties associated with each step. This is motivated by need to use satellite observations to evaluate climate models. We quantified the implications of the effect of satellite orbit and spatial coverage, the effect of variations in vertical sensitivity as quantified by the observation operator and the impact of averaging the operators for use with monthly-mean model output. We calculated these biases in ozone, carbon monoxide, atmospheric temperature and water vapour by using the output from two global chemistry climate models (ECHAM5-MOZ and GISS-PUCCINI) and the observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite from January 2005 to December 2008. The results show that sampling and monthly averaging of the observation operators produce biases of less than ±3% for ozone and carbon monoxide throughout the entire troposphere in both models. Water vapour sampling biases were also within the insignificant range of ±3% (that is ±0.14 g kg-1) in both models. Sampling led to a temperature bias of ±0.3 K over the tropical and mid-latitudes in both models, and up to -1.4 K over the boundary layer in the higher latitudes. Using the monthly average of temperature and water vapour operators lead to large biases over the boundary layer in the southern-hemispheric higher latitudes and in the upper troposphere, respectively. Up to 8% bias was calculated in the upper troposphere water vapour due to monthly

  2. The impact of orbital sampling, monthly averaging and vertical resolution on climate chemistry model evaluation with satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghedo, A. M.; Bowman, K. W.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.

    2011-07-01

    Ensemble climate model simulations used for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessments have become important tools for exploring the response of the Earth System to changes in anthropogenic and natural forcings. The systematic evaluation of these models through global satellite observations is a critical step in assessing the uncertainty of climate change projections. This paper presents the technical steps required for using nadir sun-synchronous infrared satellite observations for multi-model evaluation and the uncertainties associated with each step. This is motivated by need to use satellite observations to evaluate climate models. We quantified the implications of the effect of satellite orbit and spatial coverage, the effect of variations in vertical sensitivity as quantified by the observation operator and the impact of averaging the operators for use with monthly-mean model output. We calculated these biases in ozone, carbon monoxide, atmospheric temperature and water vapour by using the output from two global chemistry climate models (ECHAM5-MOZ and GISS-PUCCINI) and the observations from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on board the NASA-Aura satellite from January 2005 to December 2008. The results show that sampling and monthly averaging of the observation operators produce zonal-mean biases of less than ±3 % for ozone and carbon monoxide throughout the entire troposphere in both models. Water vapour sampling zonal-mean biases were also within the insignificant range of ±3 % (that is ±0.14 g kg-1) in both models. Sampling led to a temperature zonal-mean bias of ±0.3 K over the tropical and mid-latitudes in both models, and up to -1.4 K over the boundary layer in the higher latitudes. Using the monthly average of temperature and water vapour operators lead to large biases over the boundary layer in the southern-hemispheric higher latitudes and in the upper troposphere, respectively. Up to 8 % bias was

  3. 44 CFR 11.12 - Administrative claim; who may file.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative claim; who may file. 11.12 Section 11.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Administrative Claims Under Federal Tort Claims Act § 11.12 Administrative claim; who may file. (a)...

  4. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section 11.12b Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12b Labeling textile fiber products. (a) Textile fiber products imported into the...

  5. 47 CFR 11.12-11.14 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 11.12-11.14 Section 11.12-11.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General §§ 11.12-11.14...

  6. 47 CFR 11.12-11.14 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 11.12-11.14 Section 11.12-11.14 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General §§ 11.12-11.14...

  7. Computation of averaged monthly zonal albedo utilizing the solar zenith angle, properties of clear and cloudy atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhuria, H.

    1981-01-01

    The zonal temporal averages of albedos at the top of the atmosphere were considered as a function of the length of the day. The length of the day were used to determine the average daily values of mu sub 0(=Cos of the solar zenith angle, theta sub 0). Polynominal fits of the slope and intercept functions of A sub s (cloud-free albedo) and A sub c(cloud albedo) as function of Cos theta sub 0 were obtained by using the sample values of albedo corresponding to solar zenith angles from 0 to 90 deg with interval of 5 deg. The daily zonal values of mu sub 0 and the surface albedos were used to compute the daily zonal values of albedos at the top of the clear and cloudy atmosphere. The monthly zonal cloud fractions were used to compute planetary albedo A at the top of the atmosphere. The global values of monthly albedos A sub s, A sub c and A were computed by using the weighting function defined as the difference of the sins of zonal values of latitudes. The computer program implementation is also described.

  8. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2003-02-28] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  9. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2004-05-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  10. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2004-05-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  11. Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global KT for 248 National Weather Service stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, C. L.; Stoffel, T. L.; Whitaker, S. D.

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 (0) C (65(0)F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis.

  12. Insolation data manual: long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days and global anti K/sub T/ for 248 national weather service stations

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, C L; Stoffel, T L; Whitaker, S D

    1980-10-01

    Monthly averaged data is presented which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service stations. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data. Average daily maximum, minimum, and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3/sup 0/C (65/sup 0/F). For each station, global anti K/sub T/ (cloudiness index) were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. (MHR)

  13. Troposphere-stratosphere (surface-55 km) monthly general circulation statistics for the Northern Hemisphere-four year averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Olson, J. G.; Gelman, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents four year averages of monthly mean Northern Hemisphere general circulation statistics for the period from 1 December 1978 through 30 November 1982. Computations start with daily maps of temperature for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb that were supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential height and geostrophic wind are constructed using the hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, mean zonal wind, and amplitude and phase of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wavenumbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large annual and interannual variations are found in each quantity especially in the stratosphere in accordance with the changes in the planetary wave activity. The results are shown both in graphic and tabular form.

  14. Estimation of the monthly average daily solar radiation using geographic information system and advanced case-based reasoning.

    PubMed

    Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Lee, Minhyun; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-05-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) system is considered an unlimited source of clean energy, whose amount of electricity generation changes according to the monthly average daily solar radiation (MADSR). It is revealed that the MADSR distribution in South Korea has very diverse patterns due to the country's climatic and geographical characteristics. This study aimed to develop a MADSR estimation model for the location without the measured MADSR data, using an advanced case based reasoning (CBR) model, which is a hybrid methodology combining CBR with artificial neural network, multiregression analysis, and genetic algorithm. The average prediction accuracy of the advanced CBR model was very high at 95.69%, and the standard deviation of the prediction accuracy was 3.67%, showing a significant improvement in prediction accuracy and consistency. A case study was conducted to verify the proposed model. The proposed model could be useful for owner or construction manager in charge of determining whether or not to introduce the PV system and where to install it. Also, it would benefit contractors in a competitive bidding process to accurately estimate the electricity generation of the PV system in advance and to conduct an economic and environmental feasibility study from the life cycle perspective. PMID:23548030

  15. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Average Monthly Precipitation, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Michael E.; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average monthly precipitation in millimeters multiplied by 100 for 2002 compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data were the Near-Real-Time Monthly High-Resolution Precipitation Climate Data Set for the Conterminous United States (2002) raster dataset produced by the Spatial Climate Analysis Service at Oregon State University. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper

  16. Predictability of time averages. I - Dynamical predictability of monthly means. II - The influence of the boundary forcings. [for weather forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shukla, J.

    1984-01-01

    The physical basis for the dynamic prediction of monthly means in weather parameters is examined in two papers. In the first paper, an attempt is made to determine the theoretical upper limit of dynamical predictability of monthly means for prescribed nonfluctuating external forcings. In the second paper, the physical mechanisms through which changes in the boundary forcings of SST, soil moisture, albedo, and snow influence atmospheric circulation are discussed. On the basis of both studies, the essential requirements for establishing the physical basis for dynamical prediction of monthly means are to show that: (1) fluctuations of monthly means are larger than can be expected due to sampling of day-to-day weather changes; (2) there are low frequency planetary scale components of circulation which remain predictable beyond the limits of synoptic scale predictability; and (3) the influences of the slowly varying boundary conditions of SST, soil moisture, snow, sea ice are large enough to produce significant and detectable changes in the monthly mean circulations. Observational and numerical evidence which support these requirements are presented.

  17. The influence of weather types on the monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Angulo, D.; Trigo, R. M.; Cortesi, N.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.

    2016-09-01

    The climate of the Iberian Peninsula is highly variable due to geographic and atmospheric factors. To better understand and characterize this variability in this work a stepwise regression procedure is used to model the relationship between the atmospheric circulation patterns (expressed by weather types) and the monthly mean value of maximum and minimum temperatures in the Iberian Peninsula (1950-2010). The study uses a temperature database with high spatial resolution that allows the estimation of the type and strength of the relationship between weather types and temperatures, and also the definition of spatial areas with specific behaviors for each month. The results show that estimations are better for Tmin than Tmax, during winter months than summer ones, and in coastal areas than inland. The analyses of directional weather types and temperature show a generalized adiabatic processes across Iberian Peninsula affecting Tmax, not detected in Tmin.

  18. On the Relationship between Solar Wind Speed, Earthward-Directed Coronal Mass Ejections, Geomagnetic Activity, and the Sunspot Cycle Using 12-Month Moving Averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    For 1996 .2006 (cycle 23), 12-month moving averages of the aa geomagnetic index strongly correlate (r = 0.92) with 12-month moving averages of solar wind speed, and 12-month moving averages of the number of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) (halo and partial halo events) strongly correlate (r = 0.87) with 12-month moving averages of sunspot number. In particular, the minimum (15.8, September/October 1997) and maximum (38.0, August 2003) values of the aa geomagnetic index occur simultaneously with the minimum (376 km/s) and maximum (547 km/s) solar wind speeds, both being strongly correlated with the following recurrent component (due to high-speed streams). The large peak of aa geomagnetic activity in cycle 23, the largest on record, spans the interval late 2002 to mid 2004 and is associated with a decreased number of halo and partial halo CMEs, whereas the smaller secondary peak of early 2005 seems to be associated with a slight rebound in the number of halo and partial halo CMEs. Based on the observed aaM during the declining portion of cycle 23, RM for cycle 24 is predicted to be larger than average, being about 168+/-60 (the 90% prediction interval), whereas based on the expected aam for cycle 24 (greater than or equal to 14.6), RM for cycle 24 should measure greater than or equal to 118+/-30, yielding an overlap of about 128+/-20.

  19. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 303) unless exempt from marking or..., delivery to, or for use by the ultimate consumer. Rule 31 of the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 303.31... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section...

  20. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 303) unless exempt from marking or..., delivery to, or for use by the ultimate consumer. Rule 31 of the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 303.31... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section...

  1. Sexual Coercion of Year 11-12 High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dashlooty, Ashraf; Eklund, Robert C.; Randall, Nick; Heard, N. Paul; Blanksby, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Sexual coercion in peer dating relationships was studied among 341 Year 11-12 high school students via the Adolescent Dating and Relationship Survey. Nearly 50% of females and 70% of males had relationships with similar aged partners. However, more females dated older partners and more males dated younger partners. Females also reported longer…

  2. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 303) unless exempt from marking or..., delivery to, or for use by the ultimate consumer. Rule 31 of the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 303.31... THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.12b Labeling textile fiber products....

  3. 19 CFR 11.12b - Labeling textile fiber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... promulgated thereunder by the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR part 303) unless exempt from marking or..., delivery to, or for use by the ultimate consumer. Rule 31 of the Federal Trade Commission (16 CFR 303.31... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling textile fiber products. 11.12b Section...

  4. Satellite-derived ice data sets no. 2: Arctic monthly average microwave brightness temperatures and sea ice concentrations, 1973-1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, C. L.; Comiso, J. C.; Zwally, H. J.

    1987-01-01

    A summary data set for four years (mid 70's) of Arctic sea ice conditions is available on magnetic tape. The data include monthly and yearly averaged Nimbus 5 electrically scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR) brightness temperatures, an ice concentration parameter derived from the brightness temperatures, monthly climatological surface air temperatures, and monthly climatological sea level pressures. All data matrices are applied to 293 by 293 grids that cover a polar stereographic map enclosing the 50 deg N latitude circle. The grid size varies from about 32 X 32 km at the poles to about 28 X 28 km at 50 deg N. The ice concentration parameter is calculated assuming that the field of view contains only open water and first-year ice with an ice emissivity of 0.92. To account for the presence of multiyear ice, a nomogram is provided relating the ice concentration parameter, the total ice concentration, and the fraction of the ice cover which is multiyear ice.

  5. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  6. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  7. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  8. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2006-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  9. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2003-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  10. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2002-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  11. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  12. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  13. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  14. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) in HDF (CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Geographical Averages (ES-4) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-4 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. For each observed 2.5-degree spatial region, the daily average, the hourly average over the month, and the overall monthly average of shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-9 product are spatially nested up from 2.5-degree regions to 5- and 10-degree regions, to 2.5-, 5-, and 10-degree zonal averages, and to global monthly averages. For each nested area, the albedo and net flux are given. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The following CERES ES4 data sets are currently available: CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES4_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES4_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES4_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES4_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES4_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Longitude_Resolution=2.5 degree; Horizontal

  15. Analysis of Astronomically-Induced Monthly and Zonally Averaged Extra-Atmospheric Irradiance Variations for the Earth Over the Last 500,000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Edward John

    This investigation produces zonally and temporally averaged irradiance and illumination geometry data and their annual and long-term variability in greater detail than previously available. The computational algorithm (the HELIO-DAY algorithm) evaluates zonally averaged irradiance data and supporting information describing the latitudinally dependent illumination geometry (solar zenith angles and daylight duration) on a daily basis, provided an input of mean annual orbital elements applicable to the epoch are inserted; numerical summation of each day's irradiation within an interval generates multiday average irradiance for any zone. The accuracy of this methodology was tested with results consistent with theoretical evaluations. Using Berger's (1978) computational formulae to produce the time sequence of pertinent orbital elements, arrays of monthly and tri-monthly zonal average extra-atmospheric irradiance are produced by the HELIO-DAY algorithm from 500,000 B.P. to 1950.0 A.D. at 1000 yr time steps, for 10(DEGREES)-, 30(DEGREES) - and hemispheric-sized zones. Comparison of these tabulations is made with traditional astronomical and caloric half -year insolation chronologies. For the northern hemisphere 321 separate insolation chronologies are prepared, sorted according to a given multiday and zonal combination, and analyzed in both temporal and spectral domains. These frequency spectra for the 500,000 yr multiday-zonal irradiance time series reveal dominant periodicities: 40,600 yr associated with the obliquity of the ecliptic, the 23,600 and 18,900 yr with the precessional parameter (the longitude of perihelion with respect to the equinox of date, modulated by the eccentricity) and weak 385,000 and 100,000 yr periodicities associated with the eccentricity. This investigation shows that over the last 500,000 yr the monthly and tri-monthly average irradiance for individual 10(DEGREES) zones experience frequency spectra significantly different from those of the

  16. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  17. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF ( CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2006-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  18. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  19. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  20. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-10-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  1. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-03-29] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  2. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  3. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  4. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2003-12-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  5. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF (CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2000-03-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  6. CERES ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) in HDF ( CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The ERBE-like Monthly Regional Averages (ES-9) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The ES-9 is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. All instantaneous shortwave and longwave fluxes at the Top-of-the-Atmosphere (TOA) from the CERES ES-8 product for a month are sorted by 2.5-degree spatial regions, by day number, and by the local hour of observation. The mean of the instantaneous fluxes for a given region-day-hour bin is determined and recorded on the ES-9 along with other flux statistics and scene information. For each region, the daily average flux is estimated from an algorithm that uses the available hourly data, scene identification data, and diurnal models. This algorithm is 'like' the algorithm used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE). The ES-9 also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average for each region. These average fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes. The following CERES ES9 data sets are currently available: CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_PFM+FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_PFM+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition1 CER_ES9_TRMM-PFM_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition2 CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_FM1+FM2+FM3+FM4_Edition1 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM3_Edition2 CER_ES9_FM1+FM4_Edition2 CER_ES9_Aqua-FM3_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Aqua-FM4_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM1_Edition1-CV CER_ES9_Terra-FM2_Edition1-CV. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2006-09-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost

  7. Prospects of using Bayesian model averaging for the calibration of one-month forecasts of surface air temperature over South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chansoo; Suh, Myoung-Seok

    2013-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the prospect of calibrating probabilistic forecasts of surface air temperature (SAT) over South Korea by using Bayesian model averaging (BMA). We used 63 months of simulation results from four regional climate models (RCMs) with two boundary conditions (NCEP-DOE and ERA-interim) over the CORDEX East Asia. Rank histograms and residual quantile-quantile (R-Q-Q) plots showed that the simulation skills of the RCMs differ according to season and geographic location, but the RCMs show a systematic cold bias irrespective of season and geographic location. As a result, the BMA weights are clearly dependent on geographic location, season, and correlations among the models. The one-month equal weighted ensemble (EWE) outputs for the 59 stations over South Korea were calibrated using the BMA method for 48 monthly time periods based on BMA weights obtained from the previous 15 months of training data. The predictive density function was calibrated using BMA and the individual forecasts were weighted according to their performance. The raw ensemble forecasts were assessed using the flatness of the rank histogram and the R-Q-Q plot. The results showed that BMA improves the calibration of the EWE and the other weighted ensemble forecasts irrespective of season, simulation skill of the RCM, and geographic location. In addition, deterministic-style BMA forecasts usually perform better than the deterministic forecast of the single best member.

  8. Same but different: 9-month-old infants at average and high risk for autism look at the same facial features but process them using different brain mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Key, Alexandra P F; Stone, Wendy L

    2012-08-01

    The study examined whether 9-month-old infants at average vs. high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) process facial features (eyes, mouth) differently and whether such differences are related to infants' social and communicative skills. Eye tracking and visual event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in 35 infants (20 average-risk typical infants, 15 high-risk siblings of children with ASD) while they viewed photographs of a smiling unfamiliar female face. On 30% of the trials, the eyes or the mouth of that face was replaced with corresponding features from a different female. There were no group differences in the number, duration, or distribution of fixations, and all infants looked at the eyes and mouth regions equally. However, increased attention to the mouth was associated with weaker receptive communication skills and increased attention to the eyes correlated with better interpersonal skills. ERP results revealed that all infants detected eye and mouth changes but did so using different brain mechanisms. Changes in facial features were associated with changes in activity of the face perception mechanisms (N290) for the average-risk group but not for the high-risk infants. For all infants, correlations between ERP and eye-tracking measures indicated that larger and faster ERPs to feature changes were associated with fewer fixations on the irrelevant regions of stimuli. The size and latency of the ERP responses also correlated with parental reports of receptive and expressive communication skills, suggesting that differences in brain processing of human faces are associated with individual differences in social-communicative behaviors. PMID:22674669

  9. 47 CFR 11.12 - Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder. 11.12 Section 11.12 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT... provide an audio alert....

  10. Framework for the mapping of the monthly average daily solar radiation using an advanced case-based reasoning and a geostatistical technique.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhyun; Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2014-04-15

    For the effective photovoltaic (PV) system, it is necessary to accurately determine the monthly average daily solar radiation (MADSR) and to develop an accurate MADSR map, which can simplify the decision-making process for selecting the suitable location of the PV system installation. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a framework for the mapping of the MADSR using an advanced case-based reasoning (CBR) and a geostatistical technique. The proposed framework consists of the following procedures: (i) the geographic scope for the mapping of the MADSR is set, and the measured MADSR and meteorological data in the geographic scope are collected; (ii) using the collected data, the advanced CBR model is developed; (iii) using the advanced CBR model, the MADSR at unmeasured locations is estimated; and (iv) by applying the measured and estimated MADSR data to the geographic information system, the MADSR map is developed. A practical validation was conducted by applying the proposed framework to South Korea. It was determined that the MADSR map developed through the proposed framework has been improved in terms of accuracy. The developed MADSR map can be used for estimating the MADSR at unmeasured locations and for determining the optimal location for the PV system installation. PMID:24635702

  11. Spatial structure of monthly rainfall measurements average over 25 years and trends of the hourly variability of a current rainy day in Rwanda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nduwayezu, Emmanuel; Kanevski, Mikhail; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2013-04-01

    Climate plays a vital role in a wide range of socio-economic activities of most nations particularly of developing countries. Climate (rainfall) plays a central role in agriculture which is the main stay of the Rwandan economy and community livelihood and activities. The majority of the Rwandan population (81,1% in 2010) relies on rain fed agriculture for their livelihoods, and the impacts of variability in climate patterns are already being felt. Climate-related events like heavy rainfall or too little rainfall are becoming more frequent and are impacting on human wellbeing.The torrential rainfall that occurs every year in Rwanda could disturb the circulation for many days, damages houses, infrastructures and causes heavy economic losses and deaths. Four rainfall seasons have been identified, corresponding to the four thermal Earth ones in the south hemisphere: the normal season (summer), the rainy season (autumn), the dry season (winter) and the normo-rainy season (spring). Globally, the spatial rainfall decreasing from West to East, especially in October (spring) and February (summer) suggests an «Atlantic monsoon influence» while the homogeneous spatial rainfall distribution suggests an «Inter-tropical front» mechanism. What is the hourly variability in this mountainous area? Is there any correlation with the identified zones of the monthly average series (from 1965 to 1990 established by the Rwandan meteorological services)? Where could we have hazards with several consecutive rainy days (using forecasted datas from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute)? Spatio-temporal analysis allows for identifying and explaining large-scale anomalies which are useful for understanding hydrological characteristics and subsequently predicting these hydrological events. The objective of our current research (Rainfall variability) is to proceed to an evaluation of the potential rainfall risk by applying advanced geospatial modelling tools in Rwanda: geostatistical

  12. 16 CFR Figures 11, 12 and 13 to... - Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil 11, Figures 11, 12 and 13 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Figs. 11, 12, 13 Figures...

  13. 16 CFR Figures 11, 12 and 13 to... - Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil 11, Figures 11, 12 and 13 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Figs. 11, 12, 13 Figures...

  14. 16 CFR Figures 11, 12 and 13 to... - Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil 11, Figures 11, 12 and 13 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Figs. 11, 12, 13 Figures...

  15. 16 CFR Figures 11, 12 and 13 to... - Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil 11, Figures 11, 12 and 13 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Figs. 11, 12, 13 Figures...

  16. 16 CFR Figures 11, 12 and 13 to... - Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hemispherical Anvil and Curbstone Anvil 11, Figures 11, 12 and 13 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Figs. 11, 12, 13 Figures...

  17. 18 CFR 11.12 - Determination of section 10(f) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of section 10(f) costs. 11.12 Section 11.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT ANNUAL CHARGES UNDER...

  18. 18 CFR 11.12 - Determination of section 10(f) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of section 10(f) costs. 11.12 Section 11.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT ANNUAL CHARGES UNDER...

  19. 18 CFR 11.12 - Determination of section 10(f) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of section 10(f) costs. 11.12 Section 11.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT ANNUAL CHARGES UNDER...

  20. 18 CFR 11.12 - Determination of section 10(f) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of section 10(f) costs. 11.12 Section 11.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT ANNUAL CHARGES UNDER...

  1. 78 FR 2996 - Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 11-12, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Federal Open Market Committee; Domestic Policy Directive of December 11-12, 2012 In accordance with... below the domestic policy directive issued by the Federal Open Market Committee at its meeting held on... on December 11-12, 2012, which includes the domestic policy directive issued at the meeting,...

  2. Draft Genome of Pseudomonas sp. Strain 11/12A, Isolated from Lake Washington Sediment.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Tami L; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    We announce here the genome sequencing of Pseudomonas sp. strain 11/12A from Lake Washington sediment. From the genome content, a versatile lifestyle is predicted but not one of bona fide methylotrophy. With the availability of its genomic sequence, Pseudomonas sp. 11/12A presents a prospective model for studying microbial communities in lake sediments. PMID:25700412

  3. Draft Genome of Pseudomonas sp. Strain 11/12A, Isolated from Lake Washington Sediment

    PubMed Central

    McTaggart, Tami L.; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    We announce here the genome sequencing of Pseudomonas sp. strain 11/12A from Lake Washington sediment. From the genome content, a versatile lifestyle is predicted but not one of bona fide methylotrophy. With the availability of its genomic sequence, Pseudomonas sp. 11/12A presents a prospective model for studying microbial communities in lake sediments. PMID:25700412

  4. Afferent Arteriolar Dilation to 11,12-EET Analogs Involves PP2A Activity and Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels

    PubMed Central

    Imig, John D.; Dimitropoulou, Christiana; Reddy, D. Sudarshan; White, Richard E.; Falck, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The epoxygenase metabolite, 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12-EET), has renal vascular actions. 11,12-EET analogs have been developed to determine the structure activity relationship for 11,12-EET and as a tool to investigate signaling mechanisms responsible for afferent arteriolar dilation. We hypothesized that 11,12-EET mediated afferent arteriolar dilation involves increased phosphoprotein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and large-conductance calcium activated K+ (KCa) channels. We evaluated the chemically and/or metabolically stable 11,12-EET analogs: 11,12-EET-N-methylsulfonimide (11,12-EET-SI), 11-nonyloxy-undec-8(Z)-enoic acid (11,12-ether-EET-8-ZE), and 11,12-trans-oxidoeicosa-8(Z)-eonoic acid (11,12-tetra-EET-8-ZE). Afferent arteriolar responses were assessed. Activation of KCa channels by 11,12-EET analogs were established by single cell channel recordings in renal myocytes. Assessment of renal vascular responses revealed that 11,12-EET analogs increased afferent arteriolar diameter. Vasodilator responses to 11,12-EET analogs were abolished by K+ channel or PP2A inhibition. 11,12-EET analogs activated renal myocyte large-conductance KCa channels. 11,12-EET analogs increased cAMP by 2-fold and PP2A activity increased 3-8 fold in renal myocytes. PP2A inhibition did not significantly affect the 11,12-EET analog mediated increase in cAMP and PP2A increased renal myocyte KCa channel activity to a much greater extent than PKA. These data support the concept that 11,12-EET utilizes PP2A dependent pathways to activate large-conductance KCa channels and dilate the afferent arteriole. PMID:18260004

  5. Insolation data manual: Long-term monthly averages of solar radiation, temperature, degree-days, and global KT for 248 National Weather Service stations and direct normal solar radiation data manual: Long-term, monthly mean, daily totals for 235 National Weather Service stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-07-01

    The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24 to 25 years of data, generally from 1952 to 1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/sq m per day, Btu/sq ft per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global KT (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global KT is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

  6. 11,12-Epoxyeicosatrienoic acid activates the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Like; Cui, Yuying; Geng, Bing; Zeng, Xiangjun; Tang, Chaoshu

    2008-01-01

    The present study was to test the hypothesis that 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12-EET), a metabolic product of arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 epoxygenase, regulates nitric oxide (NO) generation of the L-arginine/NO synthase (NOS) pathway in human platelets. Human platelets were incubated in the presence or absence of different concentrations of 11,12-EET for 2 h at 37 degrees C, followed by measurements of activities of the L-arginine/NOS pathway. Incubation with 11,12-EET increased the platelet NOS activity, nitrite production, cGMP content, and the platelet uptake of L-[(3)H]arginine in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, 11,12-EET attenuated intracellular free Ca(2+) accumulation stimulated by collagen, which was at least partly mediated by EET-activated L-arginine/NOS pathway. It is suggested that 11,12-EET regulates platelet function through up-regulating the activity of the L-arginine/NOS/NO pathway. PMID:17932624

  7. Mental Health Planning Conference for the Spanish Speaking (Bethesda, Maryland, January 11-12, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Susan G., Ed.

    The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Mental Health Planning Conference for the Spanish Speaking was held on January 11-12, 1972, in Bethesda, Maryland. Thirty Spanish speaking professionals and nonprofessionals from 12 states and the District of Columbia met with NIMH and the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The…

  8. Eurasian Higher Education Leaders Forum Conference Proceedings (Astana, Kazakhstan, Jun 11-12, 2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagintayeva, Aida, Ed.; Kurakbayev, Kairat, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This collection of papers introduces the proceedings of the Third Annual Conference--Eurasian Higher Education Leaders' Forum held 11-12 June, 2014 at Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan. More than 350 speakers, delegates and participants from more 15 countries attended the Forum. The title of this year's Forum is "Successful…

  9. 47 CFR 11.12 - Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder... SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.12 Two-tone Attention Signal encoder and decoder. Existing two-tone Attention... equipment meets the requirements of § 11.32(a)(9) and 11.33(b). Effective January 1, 1998, the...

  10. An Experiment on Impatiens New Guinea for 11-12 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    The following experiment describes an easy experiment for children 11-12 years old, performed during spring in a compulsory school near Karlstad, Sweden. Four different ripe fruits were placed under flowering plants of Impatiens New Guinea (Impatiens hawkeri) for four days on a table and with plastic bags around both plants and fruits. For one of…

  11. 11,12,20-Trihydroxy-eicosa-8(Z)-enoic acid: a selective inhibitor of 11,12-EET-induced relaxations of bovine coronary and rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Ishfaq A; Shah, Abdul Jabbar; Gauthier, Kathryn M; Walsh, Katherine A; Koduru, Sreenivasulu Reddy; Imig, John D; Falck, John R; Campbell, William B

    2012-04-15

    Arachidonic acid is metabolized to four regioisomeric epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) by cytochrome P-450. 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EET are equipotent in relaxing bovine coronary arteries (BCAs). Vasorelaxant effects of EETs are nonselectively antagonized by 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid. The 11,12-EET analogs, 20-hydroxy-11,12-epoxyeicosa-8(Z)-enoic acid (20-H-11,12-EE8ZE) and 11,12,20-trihydroxyeicosa-8(Z)-enoic acid (11,12,20-THE8ZE) were synthesized and tested for antagonist activity against EET-induced relaxations in BCAs. In U-46619-preconstricted arterial rings, 5,6-, 8,9-, 11,12-, and 14,15-EET caused concentration-dependent relaxations with maximal relaxations ranging from 80 to 96%. Preincubation of arteries with 20-H-11,12-EE8ZE (10(-5) M) inhibited relaxations to 14,15- and 11,12-EET, but not 5,6- and 8,9-EET; however, greatest inhibitory effect was against 11,12-EET (maximal relaxation = 80.6 ± 4.6 vs. 26.7 ± 7.4% without and with 20-H-11,12-EE8ZE, respectively). Preincubation with the soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor (tAUCB, 10(-6) M) significantly enhanced the antagonist effect of 20-H-11,12-EE8ZE against 14,15-EET-induced relaxations (maximal relaxation = 86.6 ± 4.4 vs. 27.8 ± 3.3%, without and with 20-H-11,12-EE8ZE and tAUCB) without any change in its effect against 11,12-EET-induced relaxations. In contrast to the parent compound, the metabolite, 11,12,20-THE8ZE (10(-5) M), significantly inhibited relaxations to 11,12-EET and was without effect on other EET regioisomers. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed conversion of 20-H-11,12-EE8ZE to 11,12,20-THE8ZE by incubation with BCA. The conversion was blocked by tAUCB. 14,15-Dihydroxy-eicosa-5Z-enoic acid (a 14,15-EET antagonist), but not 11,12,20-THE8ZE (an 11,12-EET antagonist), inhibited BCA relaxations to arachidonic acid and flow-induced dilation in rat mesenteric arteries. These results indicate that 11,12,20-THE8ZE is a selective antagonist of 11,12-EET relaxations and a

  12. Quaternion Averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.

  13. 41 CFR 301-11.12 - How does the type of lodging I select affect my reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true How does the type of lodging I select affect my reimbursement? 301-11.12 Section 301-11.12 Public Contracts and Property..., water and sewage, bath or shower fees, and dumping fees) which may be considered as a lodging cost....

  14. A comparative statistical study of long-term agroclimatic conditions affecting the growth of US winter wheat: Distributions of regional monthly average precipitation on the Great Plains and the state of Maryland and the effect of agroclimatic conditions on yield in the state of Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, J.

    1981-01-01

    A histogram analysis of average monthly precipitation over 30 and 84 year periods for both Maryland and Kansas was made and the results compared. A second analysis, a statistical assessment of the effect of average monthly precipitation on Kansas winter wheat yield was made. The data sets covered the three periods of 1941-1970, 1887-1970, and 1887-1921. Analyses of the limited data sets used (only the average monthly precipitation and temperature were correlated against yield) indicated that fall precipitation values, especially those of September and October, were more important to winter wheat yield than were spring values, particularly for the period 1941-1970.

  15. MueLu User's Guid for Trilinos Version 11.12.

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jonathan J.; Prokopenko, Andrey; Wiesner, Tobias A.; Siefert, Christopher; Tuminaro, Raymond S.

    2014-10-01

    This is the official user guide for the M UE L U multigrid library in Trilinos version 11.12. This guide provides an overview of M UE L U , its capabilities, and instructions for new users who want to start using M UE L U with a minimum of effort. Detailed information is given on how to drive M UE L U through its XML interface. Links to more advanced use cases are given. This guide gives information on how to achieve good parallel performance, as well as how to introduce new algorithms. Finally, readers will find a comprehensive listing of available M UE L U options. Any options not documented in this manual should be considered strictly experimental.

  16. Autosomal dominant zonular cataract with sutural opacities localized to chromosome 17q11-12

    SciTech Connect

    Padma, T.; Ayyagari, R.; Murty, J.S.

    1995-10-01

    Congenital cataracts constitute a morphologically and genetically heterogeneous group of diseases that are a major cause of childhood blindness. Different loci for hereditary congenital cataracts have been mapped to chromosomes 1, 2, 16, and 17q24. We report linkage of a gene causing a unique form of autosomal dominant zonular cataracts with Y-sutural opacities to chromosome 17q11-12 in a three-generation family exhibiting a maximum lod score of 3.9 at D17S805. Multipoint analysis gave a Mod confidence interval of 17 cM. This interval is bounded by the markers D17S799 and D17S798, a region that would encompass a number of candidate genes including that coding for {Beta}A3/A1-crystallin. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Restoration and Reexamination of Data from the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 Dust, Thermal and Radiation Engineering Measurements Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McBride, Marie J.; Williams, David R.; Kent, H.; Turner, Niescja

    2012-01-01

    As part of an effort by the Lunar Data Node (LDN) we are restoring data returned by the Apollo Dust, Thermal, and Radiation Engineering Measurements (DTREM) packages emplaced on the lunar surface by the crews of Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15. Also commonly known as the Dust Detector experiments, the DTREM packages measured the outputs of exposed solar cells and thermistors over time. They operated on the surface for up to nearly 8 years, returning data every 54 seconds. The Apollo 11 DTREM was part of the Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP), and operated for a few months as planned following emplacement in July 1969. The Apollo 12, 14, and 15 DTREMs were mounted on the central station as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) and operated from deployment until ALSEP shutdown in September 1977. The objective of the DTREM experiments was to determine the effects of lunar and meteoric dust, thermal stresses, and radiation exposure on solar cells. The LDN, part of the Geosciences Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS), operates out of the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center. The goal of the LDN is to extract lunar data stored on older media and/or in obsolete formats, restore the data into a usable digital format, and archive the data with PDS and NSSDC. For the DTREM data we plan to recover the raw telemetry, translate the raw counts into appropriate output units, and then apply calibrations. The final archived data will include the raw, translated, and calibrated data and the associated conversion tables produced from the microfilm, as well as ancillary supporting data (metadata) packaged in PDS format.

  18. Cardiovascular effects of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide and Andrographis paniculata extracts.

    PubMed

    Yoopan, Nattaporn; Thisoda, Piengpen; Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Sahasitiwat, Somjed; Pholphana, Nanthanit; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2007-06-01

    Andrographis paniculata has been widely used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of common cold, diarrhea and hypertension. The three major active diterpenoids are andrographolide (AP1), 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (AP3) and neoandrographolide (AP4). It has been reported that AP3 has hypotensive and vasorelaxation effects. However, there is only limited information on the cardiovascular effects of the other diterpenoids and crude extracts containing different levels of AP3. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of these diterpenoids, AP1, AP3, and AP4, isolated from A. paniculata, and different aqueous plant extracts on blood pressure, vascular and chronotropic responses by using conscious rats and their isolated aortas and right atria as the test models. Among the three major diterpenoids, AP3 was the most potent compound for inducing vasorelaxation and decreasing heart rate. In addition, Extract B (high level of AP3) had greater hypotensive effect in conscious rats than Extract A (low level of AP3). Verapamil, a Ca2+ channel blocker, also had a hypotensive effect less than that of Extract C containing a high level of AP3. At the doses and durations of Extract A and B which produced hypotension, the responses of the Extract A-treated aorta to norepinephrine, and the vascular muscarinic responses to acetylcholine of both extracts were decreased. However, repeated doses of both extracts did not alter cardiac beta-adrenoceptor and muscarinic responses of extract-treated rats to NE and ACh, respectively. The results of this study suggest that vascular smooth muscle is the major site of these hypotensive effects of both AP3 and A. paniculata extracts. Furthermore, the consumption of A. paniculata products containing high levels of AP3 may be responsible for causing hypotension in some patients taking this herbal drug. PMID:17650544

  19. [Protective effects of 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid preconditioning and postconditioning on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Xia; Lu, Ling-Qiao; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Mu, Jing; Zeng, Xiang-Jun; Zhang, Li-Ke; Tang, Chao-Shu; Hao, Gang

    2008-02-25

    To explore the effects of 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (11,12-EET) preconditioning and postconditioning on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury in rats, the IR injury model was built by stopping perfusion for 40 min followed by reperfusion for 30 min, and the changes of mitochondrial functions, myocardial metabolism and function were measured. Langendorff-perfused isolated rat hearts were divided into 4 groups: control group, persistently perfused with Krebs-Henseleit (K-H) fluid for 100 min; IR group, stopped perfusion for 40 min followed by reperfusion for 30 min; Pre-EET group, preconditioned with 6.24×10(-9) mol/L 11,12-EET for 5 min twice before subjected to ischemia; Post-EET group, postconditioned with 6.24×10(-9) mol/L 11,12-EET for 30 s twice before reperfusion. The computer-based electrophysiological recording system was used to measure the changes of maximal rate of the pressure increase in contract phase (+dp/dt(max)), maximal rate of the pressure decrease in diastole phase of heart (-dp/dt(max)), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and difference of left ventricular pressure (DLVP). The activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in effluent, Ca(2+)-ATPase, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in mitochondria were measured with colorimetry method; superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was measured with hydroxylamine method and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in myocardial tissues was measured with TBA method. The results showed that: (1) Compared with that in the control group, the myocardial functions, the values of SOD, SDH and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase were decreased in IR group (P<0.05); the values of LDH, MDA and Ca(2+)-ATPase were increased (P<0.05) in IR group. (2) Compared with that in IR group, the values of SDH and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase were increased (P<0.05) and the value of Ca(2+)-ATPase was decreased (P<0.05) in both Pre-EET and Post-EET groups. But no significant differences were detected between Pre-EET and Post

  20. Concentrations and uncertainties of stratospheric trace species inferred from limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere data. I - Methodology and application to OH and HO2. II - Monthly averaged OH, HO2, H2O2, and HO2NO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, J. A.; Jackman, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Difficulties arise in connection with the verification of multidimensional chemical models of the stratosphere. The present study shows that LIMS data, together with a photochemical equilibrium model, may be used to infer concentrations of a variety of zonally averaged trace Ox, OHx, and NOx species over much of the stratosphere. In the lower stratosphere, where the photochemical equilibrium assumption for HOx species breaks down, inferred concentrations should still be accurate to about a factor of 2 for OH and 2.5 for HO2. The algebraic nature of the considered model makes it possible to see easily to the first order the effect of variation of any model input parameter or its uncertainty on the inferred concontration of the HOx species and their uncertainties.

  1. Recent dental attendance and levels of untreated caries in a sample of 11-12 year old children in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, A; Kinirons, M

    2000-01-01

    The object of the present study was to determine the relationship between dental attendance and the levels of untreated caries in a sample of 11-12 year old pupils attending first form of second level schools in the South Belfast area of Northern Ireland. A sample of 199 first form pupils attending second level schools in the area was obtained. The diagnosis of caries depended mainly on visual evidence following removal of debris and moisture. Blunted probes were used to confirm or reject doubtful lesions and no radiographs were taken. Details of parental employment status were obtained by a questionnaire to the parents. The data were entered on to an N.C.S.S. data analysis system for stepwise regression and analysis of variance. Overall there was a significant difference in the untreated caries status of those with different attendance patterns, the major difference being that a much higher proportion of those who had not attended within the previous 12 months had active caries. Almost half of the children had attended in the previous six months and only 16 (8 per cent) had not attended in the previous 12 months. Independent analysis indicated that parental employment status was significantly related to the level of untreated caries (p > or = 0.05). Independent variables entered in the stepwise regression were attendance, employment status and DMFT. The strongest predictors of untreated caries were previous caries experience and period since dental attendance, while employment status was a significant but weaker factor in the analysis. These findings may be relevant when planning the frequency of school dental screenings and managing the frequency of dental recalls and examinations. PMID:11326528

  2. Survey of lunar carbon compounds. II - The carbon chemistry of Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadogan, P. H.; Eglinton, G.; Firth, J. N. M.; Maxwell, J. R.; Mays, B. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    1972-01-01

    The methane and carbide concentrations of a number of Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 samples of fines and breccias have been examined by the deuterated acid dissolution method. Location studies indicate that these carbon compounds are concentrated in the outer surfaces of the fines particles of 48-152 micron diameter; for larger particles a volume-related component may contribute. In individual samples the methane and carbide concentrations correlate with parameters indicative of lunar surface exposure. The data provide further evidence that solar wind implantation is the major source of the methane in the fines and that the carbide originates from both solar wind implantation and meteorite impacts.

  3. Averaged Electroencephalic Audiometry in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lentz, William E.; McCandless, Geary A.

    1971-01-01

    Normal, preterm, and high-risk infants were tested at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of age using averaged electroencephalic audiometry (AEA) to determine the usefulness of AEA as a measurement technique for assessing auditory acuity in infants, and to delineate some of the procedural and technical problems often encountered. (KW)

  4. Interannual Variability - obtain multi-year monthly averages

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-19

     On the ASDC web site home page, select " SSE ".  Select "Interannual Variability".  Select "Order Data".  Enter Latitude and Longitude.  Select Start Year and End Year.  Select a parameter.  Select "Submit".  The ...

  5. Electric Power Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Provides monthly statistics at the state, Census division, and U.S. levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold.

  6. Neutron resonance averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1986-10-01

    The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Lattice Green functions: the d-dimensional face-centered cubic lattice, d = 8, 9, 10, 11, 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, S.; Koutschan, Ch; Maillard, J.-M.; Zenine, N.

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported on a recursive method to generate the expansion of the lattice Green function (LGF) of the d-dimensional face-centered cubic lattice (fcc). The method was used to generate many coefficients for d=7 and the corresponding linear differential equation has been obtained. In this paper, we show the strength and the limit of the method by producing the series and the corresponding linear differential equations for d=8,9,10,11,12. The differential Galois groups of these linear differential equations are shown to be symplectic for d=8,10,12 and orthogonal for d=9,11. The recursion relation naturally provides a two-dimensional array {t}d(n,j) where only the coefficients {t}d(n,0) correspond to the coefficients of the LGF of the d-dimensional fcc. The coefficients {t}d(n,j) are associated to D-finite bivariate series annihilated by linear partial differential equations that we analyze. Dedicated to Guttmann, for his 70th birthday.

  8. Primary Productivity Changes in the subtropical western North Atlantic During Marine Isotope Stages 11-12: Inferences from Benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poli, M.; Meyers, P. A.; Thunell, R.

    2004-12-01

    The time interval referred to as Marine Isotope Stage 11 (MIS 11, ~423 to 362 ka) is characterized by a configuration of earth's orbit similar to that of the Holocene, and is therefore a good analog for our current interglacial. MIS 11 was probably the warmest and longest interglacial of the last 500 kyrs, characterized by sea level possibly 20m higher than today and a maximum in NADW production. In contrast, during MIS 12, sea level was about 140m below present, and the production of NADW was severely reduced. We have examined benthic foraminiferal assemblages in sediments from ODP Site 1058 (Blake Outer Ridge, 3000m water depth), and Site 1063 (Bermuda Rise, 4584m water depth) spanning the MIS 11-12 time interval at a time resolution of 500 to 3000 years. At both sites the glacial-interglacial transition is accompanied by changes in faunal composition; however, bottom environmental conditions appear to have undergone the most dramatic change at Site 1058. Here, infaunal taxa indicative of organic carbon-rich sediments dominate during glacial MIS 12, and are replaced during MIS 11 by epifaunal species indicative of oligotrophic environments. The beginning of the MIS 12 and MIS 10 glaciation is characterized by large, rapid increases in the relative and absolute abundances of Epistominella exigua both at Site 1058 and Site 1063. In the modern ocean, this species inhabits seasonally deposited aggregates of phytodetritus produced during spring plankton blooms, thus suggesting an increase in surface ocean primary productivity at these times.

  9. Cardiovascular activity of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide in the anaesthetised rat and isolated right atria.

    PubMed

    Zhang, C; Kuroyangi, M; Tan, B K

    1998-12-01

    The cardiovascular activity of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (DDA) from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) was elucidated in anaesthetised Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and isolated rat right atria. In anaesthetised rats, DDA produced significant falls in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate in a dose-dependent manner with the maximum decrease of 37.6 +/- 2.6% and 18.1 +/- 4.8%, respectively. The ED50 value for MAP was 3.43 mmol kg-1. Pharmacological antagonist studies were done using this dose. The hypotensive action of DDA was not mediated through effects on the alpha-adrenoceptor, muscarinic cholinergic and histaminergic receptors, for it was not affected by phentolamine, atropine as well as pyrilamine and cimetidine. However, it seems to work via adrenoceptors, autonomic ganglia receptor and angiotensin-converting enzyme, since the hypotensive effect of DDA was negated or attenuated in the presence of propranolol, hexamethonium and captopril. In the isolated right atria, DDA caused negative chronotropic action and antagonised isoproterenol-induced positive chronotropic actions in a non-competitive and dose-dependent manner. These results further supported the bradycardia-inducing and beta-adrenoceptor antagonistic properties of DDA in vivo. PMID:9990649

  10. REO Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2010-12-31

    A spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel that evaluates combinations of renewable energy technologies at a site and identifies the combination that minimizes life cycle cost. Constraints on the optimization such as percent of energy from renewable, available land area; available investment capital, etc make the optimization more useful. Inputs to the model include building location, number of square feet and floors; monthly energy use and cost for electric and any other fuels. Outputs include size of each RE technology total investment, utility costs, O&M costs; percent renewable; life cycle cost; rate of return; CO2 savings.

  11. REO Monthly

    2010-12-31

    A spreadsheet written in Microsoft Excel that evaluates combinations of renewable energy technologies at a site and identifies the combination that minimizes life cycle cost. Constraints on the optimization such as percent of energy from renewable, available land area; available investment capital, etc make the optimization more useful. Inputs to the model include building location, number of square feet and floors; monthly energy use and cost for electric and any other fuels. Outputs include sizemore » of each RE technology total investment, utility costs, O&M costs; percent renewable; life cycle cost; rate of return; CO2 savings.« less

  12. Benzophenanthridines. III. Investigation of the rodionov-suvorov scheme. Synthesis of methyl 6-methyl-11,12-dihydrobenzo(c)phenanthridine-11-carboxylate

    SciTech Connect

    Sladkov, V.I.; Maslennikova, L.V.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1986-05-20

    The model compound of the benzo(c)phananthridine alkaloids, i.e., methyl 6-methyl-11,12-dihydrobenzo(c)phenanthridine-11-carboxylate, was synthesized from 1,3-diphenyl-1,2,2-propanetricarboxylic acid by the AD ..-->.. C ..-->.. B scheme. On the basis of the UV, IR, PMR, and /sup 13/C NMR spectra and also of the mass spectra it was demonstrated that the reduction of 3,3-diethoxycarbonyl-2-phenyltetral-1-one oxime by stannous chloride in acetic anhydride followed by Bischler-Napiralski cyclization leads to diethyl 6-methyl-11,12-dihydrobenzo(c)phenanthridine-11,11-dicarboxylate and not to the 4b,10b,11,12-tetrahydro derivatives as suggested earlier.

  13. Cytotoxic data of 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide (14-DDA), double transfection and DDIT3 silencing data in T-47D breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Heng Kean; Tengku Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul; Tan, Mei Lan

    2016-06-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide induces DDIT3-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated autophagy in T-47D breast carcinoma cells", which the mechanistic toxicology properties of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (14-DDA) were investigated (Tan et al., 2016 [1]). This article describes the derivation of cytotoxic parameters of 14-DDA, cell viability data after double transfection and DDIT3 silencing in T-47D cells. PMID:27182548

  14. Cytotoxic data of 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide (14-DDA), double transfection and DDIT3 silencing data in T-47D breast carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Heng Kean; Tengku Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul; Tan, Mei Lan

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide induces DDIT3-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated autophagy in T-47D breast carcinoma cells”, which the mechanistic toxicology properties of 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (14-DDA) were investigated (Tan et al., 2016 [1]). This article describes the derivation of cytotoxic parameters of 14-DDA, cell viability data after double transfection and DDIT3 silencing in T-47D cells. PMID:27182548

  15. Development of HPLC Chiral Stationary Phases Based on (+)-(18-Crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic Acid and Their Applications.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Myung Ho

    2015-09-01

    Crown ether-based chiral stationary phases (CSPs) have been known to be useful for the resolution of racemic primary amino compounds. In particular, CSPs based on (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid have been reported to be useful for the resolution of secondary amino compounds as well as primary amino compounds. In this article, the process of developing various CSPs based on (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid to improve the chiral recognition efficiency and/or the stability of the CSPs and their applications to the resolution of various primary and nonprimary amino compounds are reviewed. PMID:26237013

  16. Self-Esteem in Girls Aged 11-12: Baseline Findings from a Planned Prospective Study of Vulnerability to Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, Eric

    1990-01-01

    Reports on first stage of a planned prospective study of self-esteem and risk for eating disorders in 594 schoolgirls aged 11-12. Results indicated low self-esteem was associated with increased fatness concern, but also with problems in general. Girls will be followed up in detail at age 15-16. (Author/ABL)

  17. Eurasian Higher Education Leaders Forum: Graduate Employability in the 21st Century. Conference Proceedings (4th, Astana, Kazakhstan, June 11-12, 2015)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagintayeva, Aida, Ed.; Kurakbayev, Kairat, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    This collection of papers introduces the proceedings of the Fourth Annual Conference-Eurasian Higher Education Leaders' Forum held on the 11-12 June, 2015 at Nazarbayev University in Astana, Kazakhstan. Our presenters come from different professional backgrounds including higher education institutions, national business companies as well as…

  18. On the Berdichevsky average

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rung-Arunwan, Tawat; Siripunvaraporn, Weerachai; Utada, Hisashi

    2016-04-01

    Through a large number of magnetotelluric (MT) observations conducted in a study area, one can obtain regional one-dimensional (1-D) features of the subsurface electrical conductivity structure simply by taking the geometric average of determinant invariants of observed impedances. This method was proposed by Berdichevsky and coworkers, which is based on the expectation that distortion effects due to near-surface electrical heterogeneities will be statistically smoothed out. A good estimation of a regional mean 1-D model is useful, especially in recent years, to be used as a priori (or a starting) model in 3-D inversion. However, the original theory was derived before the establishment of the present knowledge on galvanic distortion. This paper, therefore, reexamines the meaning of the Berdichevsky average by using the conventional formulation of galvanic distortion. A simple derivation shows that the determinant invariant of distorted impedance and its Berdichevsky average is always downward biased by the distortion parameters of shear and splitting. This means that the regional mean 1-D model obtained from the Berdichevsky average tends to be more conductive. As an alternative rotational invariant, the sum of the squared elements (ssq) invariant is found to be less affected by bias from distortion parameters; thus, we conclude that its geometric average would be more suitable for estimating the regional structure. We find that the combination of determinant and ssq invariants provides parameters useful in dealing with a set of distorted MT impedances.

  19. Averaging the inhomogeneous universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aseem

    2012-03-01

    A basic assumption of modern cosmology is that the universe is homogeneous and isotropic on the largest observable scales. This greatly simplifies Einstein's general relativistic field equations applied at these large scales, and allows a straightforward comparison between theoretical models and observed data. However, Einstein's equations should ideally be imposed at length scales comparable to, say, the solar system, since this is where these equations have been tested. We know that at these scales the universe is highly inhomogeneous. It is therefore essential to perform an explicit averaging of the field equations in order to apply them at large scales. It has long been known that due to the nonlinear nature of Einstein's equations, any explicit averaging scheme will necessarily lead to corrections in the equations applied at large scales. Estimating the magnitude and behavior of these corrections is a challenging task, due to difficulties associated with defining averages in the context of general relativity (GR). It has recently become possible to estimate these effects in a rigorous manner, and we will review some of the averaging schemes that have been proposed in the literature. A tantalizing possibility explored by several authors is that the corrections due to averaging may in fact account for the apparent acceleration of the expansion of the universe. We will explore this idea, reviewing some of the work done in the literature to date. We will argue however, that this rather attractive idea is in fact not viable as a solution of the dark energy problem, when confronted with observational constraints.

  20. Ground Site - Monthly Plot - obtain the ground site measurements

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-12-08

    ... Select "Monthly Average" and "Submit". You will see a plot of the entire data set averaged by month and the values listed below. ... year and month of interest and "Submit". You will see a plot of the daily average for that month and the values listed below. ...

  1. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  2. Electric power monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  3. Covariant approximation averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani, Eigo; Arthur, Rudy; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in Nf=2 +1 lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  4. Average density in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnor, W.B.

    1987-05-01

    The Einstein-Straus (1945) vacuole is here used to represent a bound cluster of galaxies embedded in a standard pressure-free cosmological model, and the average density of the cluster is compared with the density of the surrounding cosmic fluid. The two are nearly but not quite equal, and the more condensed the cluster, the greater the difference. A theoretical consequence of the discrepancy between the two densities is discussed. 25 references.

  5. Parents' Reactions to Finding Out That Their Children Have Average or above Average IQ Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirks, Jean; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Parents of 41 children who had been given an individually-administered intelligence test were contacted 19 months after testing. Parents of average IQ children were less accurate in their memory of test results. Children with above average IQ experienced extremely low frequencies of sibling rivalry, conceit or pressure. (Author/HLM)

  6. Experimental study of the B11,12(n,γ) reactions and their influence on r-process nucleosynthesis of light elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. Y.; Greene, J. P.; Jiang, C. L.; Pardo, R. C.; Rehm, K. E.; Schiffer, J. P.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Goodman, N. J.; Lighthall, J. C.; Marley, S. T.; Otsuki, K.; Patel, N.; Beard, M.; Notani, M.; Tang, X. D.

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the neutron-transfer reactions B11,12(d,p)B12,13 in inverse kinematics to obtain information about the neutron-capture reactions B11,12(n,γ). These capture reactions are suggested to play a role in seeding r-process nucleosynthesis through the production of light, neutron-rich nuclei. The neutron spectroscopic factors of the states in B12,13 were deduced and the branching ratio of the neutron-unbound state at EX=3.389 MeV in B12 was obtained to provide the ratio of partial widths, Γn/Γγ. The reaction rates for B11,12(n,γ) are estimated for direct captures and resonant captures and compared with previous compilations. The astrophysical implications, especially for neutrino-driven wind models in core-collapse supernovae, are discussed in the r-process network framework using our updated reaction rates.

  7. The antigen-specific response to Toxoplasma gondii profilin, a TLR11/12 ligand, depends on its intrinsic adjuvant properties.

    PubMed

    Hedhli, Dorsaf; Moiré, Nathalie; Akbar, Haroon; Laurent, Fabrice; Héraut, Bruno; Dimier-Poisson, Isabelle; Mévélec, Marie Noëlle

    2016-08-01

    Agonists that activate Toll-like receptors (TLR) are potential vaccine adjuvants. In particular, Toxoplasma gondii profilin (TgPRF) is recognized by TLR11/12 to generate an inflammatory response. Unlike most TLR ligands, TgPRF is also a protein and can therefore simultaneously induce innate and adaptive immune responses. We found that variations in the conformation of TgPRF can affect its ability to induce a TLR11/12-dependent inflammatory response. The secreted recombinant T. gondii (S2-profilin), produced by Schneider 2 cells, has lost its ability to generate an IL-12 response. Reduction of the intramolecular disulfide bonds in S2-profilin rescued the TLR11/12-dependent IL-12 response. Immunization of mice with reduced S2-profilin induced strong cellular and humoral responses compared to mice immunized with unreduced S2-profilin. A mixed Th1/Th2 response was induced with both S2-profilins. However, a more polarized Th1-type response, which was consistent with the IgG2a-polarized humoral response, was observed with reduced S2-profilin. In conclusion, the intrinsic adjuvant properties of TgPRF had significant consequences on the immune response against TgPRF. PMID:26935827

  8. Experimental study of the {sup 11,12}B(n,gamma) reactions and their influence on r-process nucleosynthesis of light elements.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H. Y.; Greene, J. P.; Jiang, C. L.; Pardo, R. C.; Rehm , K. E.; Schiffer, J. P.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Goodman, N. J.; Lighthall, J. C.; Marley, S. T.; Otsuki, K.; Patel, N.; Beard, M.; Notani, M.; Tang, X. D.; Physics; Western Michigan Univ.; GSI; Colorado School of Mines; Univ. of Notre Dame

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the neutron-transfer reactions {sup 11,12}B(d,p){sup 12,13}B in inverse kinematics to obtain information about the neutron-capture reactions {sup 11,12}B(n,{gamma}). These capture reactions are suggested to play a role in seeding r-process nucleosynthesis through the production of light, neutron-rich nuclei. The neutron spectroscopic factors of the states in {sup 12,13}B were deduced and the branching ratio of the neutron-unbound state at E{sub X} = 3.389 MeV in {sup 12}B was obtained to provide the ratio of partial widths, {Lambda}{sub n}/{Lambda}{sub {gamma}}. The reaction rates for {sup 11,12}B(n,{gamma}) are estimated for direct captures and resonant captures and compared with previous compilations. The astrophysical implications, especially for neutrino-driven wind models in core-collapse supernovae, are discussed in the r-process network framework using our updated reaction rates.

  9. Americans' Average Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2000-08-11

    We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

  10. 42 CFR 422.304 - Monthly payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... makes advance monthly payments of the amounts determined under paragraphs (a)(1) and (a)(2) of this... month. (1) Payment of bid for plans with bids below benchmark. For MA plans that have average per capita... benchmarks. The rebate amount under paragraph (a)(1)(ii) of this section is the amount of the monthly...

  11. Dissociating Averageness and Attractiveness: Attractive Faces Are Not Always Average

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.; Unger, Layla; Little, Anthony C.; Feinberg, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Although the averageness hypothesis of facial attractiveness proposes that the attractiveness of faces is mostly a consequence of their averageness, 1 study has shown that caricaturing highly attractive faces makes them mathematically less average but more attractive. Here the authors systematically test the averageness hypothesis in 5 experiments…

  12. 27 CFR 19.37 - Average effective tax rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Average effective tax rate... effective tax rate. (a) The proprietor may establish an average effective tax rate for any eligible... recompute the average effective tax rate so as to include only the immediately preceding 6-month period....

  13. Factors influencing the caries experience of a group of children at the ages of 11-12 and 15-16 years: results from an ongoing epidemiological survey.

    PubMed

    Dummer, P M; Oliver, S J; Hicks, R; Kingdon, A; Kingdon, R; Addy, M; Shaw, W C

    1990-02-01

    An analysis of factors influencing the caries experience of adolescents in South Wales is presented. Approximately 1000 children were assessed for caries status and oral cleanliness in 1980 when aged 11-12 years and again in 1984 when aged 15-16 years. In addition, on both occasions, the children completed detailed questionnaires on dental health-related topics. When aged 11-12 years, the observed mean DMFT, DMFS and DFS scores of the children were 4.0, 6.7 and 5.5 respectively. The corresponding scores at age 15-16 years were 6.5, 11.8 and 10.2. A preliminary analysis using conventional multiple regression techniques revealed that a number of factors had a significant influence on the caries experience of the children. The significance of the factors depended on the sex of the population subgroup, the age of the children and the particular caries index studied. However, at both ages the factors of most significance were the number of erupted teeth, total mean plaque score and the reported amount of money spent on sweets per week. A further evaluation using analysis of covariance with the number of erupted teeth and surfaces as the covariates confirmed the significant influence of the total mean plaque score and amount of money spent on sweets. In addition, both analyses indicated that toothbrushing frequency and social class had a significant influence on the caries experience of boys. PMID:2312888

  14. Electric power monthly, May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-25

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  15. Electric power monthly, April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-07

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  16. 2,2,3,3,11,11,12,12-Octamethyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclohexadecane: improved synthesis and crystal structure with NaSCN

    SciTech Connect

    Loustau-Chartez, Ms. Fanny; Robeson, Rachel M; Custelcean, Radu; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of 2,2,3,3,11,11,12,12-octamethyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclohexadecane (1, OM16C5) is described, which affords over an order of magnitude improvement in yield over the previously reported method. The first X-ray crystal structure of 1, as a complex with NaSCN, is also reported. There is much interest in sodium-selective ionophores [1,2] for use in electrodes [1,3] and optodes [4]. One such ionophore is 2,2,3,3,11,11,12,12-octamethyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclohexadecane (1, octamethyl-16-crown-5 or OM16C5), which was first prepared in 1996 by Suzuki and coworkers [1]. The synthetic procedure as reported and shown in Scheme 1 involved three steps starting from pinacol. The first two steps proceeded in excellent (95%) and good (ca. 81%) yields, respectively. However, the cyclization step, involving the addition of diethylene glycol dimesylate to 2,3,3,9,9,10-hexamethyl-4,8-dioxa-2,10-undecanediol (2) using NaH in THF, proceeded poorly with a low (3.7%) isolated yield, making the overall yield for the three steps starting from pinacol approximately 2.8%. We were interested in this crown ether for alkali-metal extraction studies, and sought to improve the yield so that larger (potentially gram) quantities of material could be readily prepared. We report here a modification of the synthetic procedure that boosts the conversion of 1 from 2 over 15-fold, by using three good- to high-yielding steps that allows 1 to be obtained from 2 in a combined yield of 59%. We also report for the first time a crystal structure of 1, as the NaSCN complex

  17. Natural gas monthly, February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents estimates of natural gas supply and consumption through February 1997. Estimates of natural gas prices are through November 1996 except electric utility prices that are through October 1996. Cumulatively for January through February 1997, the daily average rates for several data series remain close to those of 1996. (Comparing daily rates accounts for the fact that February 1996 had 29 days.) Daily total consumption for January through February is estimated to be 83 billion cubic feet per day, 1 percent higher than during the same period in 1996. Similarly, the estimate of average daily production of 53 billion cubic feet is 1.5 percent higher than in 1996, while daily net imports during the first 2 months of 1997 are virtually unchanged from 1996.

  18. Mineral of the month: magnesium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium, often confused with last month’s mineral of the month manganese, is valued primarily because of its light weight and high strength-to-weight ratio. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element and constitutes about 2 percent of the Earth’s crust. It is the third most plentiful element dissolved in seawater, with a concentration averaging 0.13 percent. Magnesium is found in over 60 minerals, and also is recovered from seawater, wells, and lake brines and bitterns.

  19. Electric power monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Statistics by company and plant are published on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  20. Electric power monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-17

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  1. Electric power monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-13

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions.

  2. Electric power monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. This publication provides monthly statistics at the U.S., Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. This April 1994 issue contains 1993 year-end data and data through January 1994.

  3. Electric Power Monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-12

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost in fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 12 refs., 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  4. Virtual Averaging Making Nonframe-Averaged Optical Coherence Tomography Images Comparable to Frame-Averaged Images

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chieh-Li; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A.; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Developing a novel image enhancement method so that nonframe-averaged optical coherence tomography (OCT) images become comparable to active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT images. Methods Twenty-one eyes of 21 healthy volunteers were scanned with noneye-tracking nonframe-averaged OCT device and active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT device. Virtual averaging was applied to nonframe-averaged images with voxel resampling and adding amplitude deviation with 15-time repetitions. Signal-to-noise (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR), and the distance between the end of visible nasal retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and the foveola were assessed to evaluate the image enhancement effect and retinal layer visibility. Retinal thicknesses before and after processing were also measured. Results All virtual-averaged nonframe-averaged images showed notable improvement and clear resemblance to active eye-tracking frame-averaged images. Signal-to-noise and CNR were significantly improved (SNR: 30.5 vs. 47.6 dB, CNR: 4.4 vs. 6.4 dB, original versus processed, P < 0.0001, paired t-test). The distance between the end of visible nasal RNFL and the foveola was significantly different before (681.4 vs. 446.5 μm, Cirrus versus Spectralis, P < 0.0001) but not after processing (442.9 vs. 446.5 μm, P = 0.76). Sectoral macular total retinal and circumpapillary RNFL thicknesses showed systematic differences between Cirrus and Spectralis that became not significant after processing. Conclusion The virtual averaging method successfully improved nontracking nonframe-averaged OCT image quality and made the images comparable to active eye-tracking frame-averaged OCT images. Translational Relevance Virtual averaging may enable detailed retinal structure studies on images acquired using a mixture of nonframe-averaged and frame-averaged OCT devices without concerning about systematic differences in both qualitative and quantitative aspects. PMID:26835180

  5. Averaging Models: Parameters Estimation with the R-Average Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidotto, G.; Massidda, D.; Noventa, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Functional Measurement approach, proposed within the theoretical framework of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981, 1982), can be a useful multi-attribute analysis tool. Compared to the majority of statistical models, the averaging model can account for interaction effects without adding complexity. The R-Average method (Vidotto &…

  6. Modern average global sea-surface temperature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweitzer, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October 1981 through December 1990 in nine regions of the world ocean: North Atlantic, Eastern North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Agulhas, Indian, Southeast Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, and Northwest Pacific. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on the NOAA data and also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole 10-year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together. The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. Averaging the images in this way tends to reduce the number of grid cells that lack valid data and to suppress interannual variability.

  7. Electric power monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. The EPM is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels. Data on quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels lag data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the US, Census division, and State level tables. However, for purposes of comparison, plant-level data are presented for the earlier month.

  8. Averaging Internal Consistency Reliability Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.; Charter, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Seven approaches to averaging reliability coefficients are presented. Each approach starts with a unique definition of the concept of "average," and no approach is more correct than the others. Six of the approaches are applicable to internal consistency coefficients. The seventh approach is specific to alternate-forms coefficients. Although the…

  9. Natural gas monthly

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    This report presents data on the supply and disposition of natural gas in the USA during July 1982, as well as data on production, storage, imports, exports, and consumption. Selected data are also presented on the activities of the major interstate pipeline companies. Volumes of natural gas in storage continue to run slightly ahead of year-ago levels, especially for interstate operators. Weighted average prices received for gas sold by major interstate pipeline companies during July of 19982 ranged from a low of $2.61 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf) for Kansas-Nebraska to a high of $7.09 per Mcf for Pacific Gas. These variations are attributable to the sources of supply available to the various pipeline companies and the market structures of each. September 1982 applications for determination of a maximum lawful price under the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) increased slightly for new gas (Section 102) and decreased significantly for high-cost gas (Section 107) when compared to August. Natural gas ceiling prices prescribed by the NGPA continued to move upward through the application of prescribed monthly inflation adjustments. In the 3-year period from November 1979 through November 1982, the price ceiling for new gas, for example, increased from $2.314 to $3.249 per million (MM) Btu's. The highest ceiling price permitted under the NGPA is natural gas produced from tight formations set for November 1982 at $5.396 per MMBtu. Market natural gas production during September of 1982 was 1444 billion cubic feet (Bcf) compared to the September 1981 level of 1578 Bcf. Consumption during the same period also declined from 1266 Bcf to 1176 Bcf.

  10. Secondary EWSR1 gene abnormalities in SMARCB1-deficient tumors with 22q11-12 regional deletions: Potential pitfalls in interpreting EWSR1 FISH results.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shih-Chiang; Zhang, Lei; Sung, Yun-Shao; Chen, Chun-Liang; Kao, Yu-Chien; Agaram, Narasimhan P; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2016-10-01

    SMARCB1 inactivation occurs in a variety of tumors, being caused by various genetic mechanisms. Since SMARCB1 and EWSR1 genes are located close to each other on chromosome 22, larger SMARCB1 deletions may encompass the EWSR1 locus. Herein, we report four cases with SMARCB1-deletions showing concurrent EWSR1 gene abnormalities by FISH, which lead initially to misinterpretations as EWSR1-rearranged tumors. Our study group included various morphologies: a poorly differentiated chordoma, an extrarenal rhabdoid tumor, a myoepithelial carcinoma, and a proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. All cases showed loss of SMARCB1 (INI1) by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and displayed characteristic histologic features for the diagnoses. The SMARCB1 FISH revealed homozygous or heterozygous deletions in three and one case, respectively. The co-hybridized EWSR1 probes demonstrated either unbalanced split signals or heterozygous deletion in two cases each. The former suggested bona fide rearrangement, while the latter resembled an unbalanced translocation. However, all the FISH patterns were quite complex and distinct from the simple and uniform split signals seen in typical EWSR1 rearrangements. We conclude that in the context of 22q11-12 regional alterations present in SMARCB1-deleted tumors, simultaneous EWSR1 involvement may be misinterpreted as equivalent to EWSR1 rearrangement. A detailed clinicopathologic correlation and supplementing the EWSR1 FISH assay with complementary methodology is mandatory for correct diagnosis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27218413

  11. Cost-effectiveness of an experimental caries-control regimen in a 3.4-yr randomized clinical trial among 11-12-yr-old Finnish schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Hietasalo, Pauliina; Seppä, Liisa; Lahti, Satu; Niinimaa, Ahti; Kallio, Jouko; Aronen, Pasi; Sintonen, Harri; Hausen, Hannu

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of an experimental caries-control regimen in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) conducted in Pori, Finland, in 2001-2005. Children (n = 497) who were 11-12 yr of age and had at least one active initial caries lesion at baseline were studied. The children in the experimental group (n = 250) were offered an individually designed patient-centered regimen for caries control. The children in the control group (n = 247) received standard dental care. Furthermore, the whole population was exposed to continuous community-level oral health promotion. Individual costs of treatment procedures and outcomes (DMFS increment score) for the follow-up period of 3.4 yr were calculated for each child in both groups. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was euro 34.07 per averted DMF surface. The experimental regimen was more effective, and also more costly. However, the total costs decreased year after year, and for the last 2 yr the experimental regimen was less expensive than the standard dental care. The experimental regimen would probably have been more cost-effective than standard dental care if the follow-up period had been longer, the regimen less comprehensive, and/or if dental nurses had conducted the preventive procedures. PMID:20121937

  12. Structural Polymorphism and Thin Film Transistor Behavior in the Fullerene Framework Molecule 5,6;11,12-di-o-Phenylenetetracene.

    PubMed

    Wombacher, Tobias; Gassmann, Andrea; Foro, Sabine; von Seggern, Heinz; Schneider, Jörg J

    2016-05-10

    The molecular structure of the hydrocarbon 5,6;11,12-di-o-phenylenetetracene (DOPT), its material characterization and evaluation of electronic properties is reported for the first time. A single-crystal X-ray study reveals two different motifs of intramolecular overlap with herringbone-type arrangement displaying either face-to-edge or co-facial face-to-face packing depicting intensive π-π interactions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations underpin that a favorable electronic transport mechanism occurs by a charge hopping process due to a π-bond overlap in the DOPT polymorph with co-facial arene orientation. The performance of polycrystalline DOPT films as active organic semiconducting layer in a state-of-the-art organic field effect transistor (OFET) device was evaluated and proves to be film thickness dependent. For 40 nm layer thickness it displays a saturation hole mobility (μhole ) of up to 0.01 cm(2)  V(-1)  s(-1) and an on/off-ratio (Ion /Ioff ) of 1.5×10(3) . PMID:27061761

  13. 14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide induces DDIT3-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated autophagy in T-47D breast carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Heng Kean; Muhammad, Tengku Sifzizul Tengku; Tan, Mei Lan

    2016-06-01

    14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide (14-DDA), a major diterpenoid isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees, is known to be cytotoxic and elicits a non-apoptotic cell death in T-47D breast carcinoma cells. In this study, the mechanistic toxicology properties of 14-DDA in T-47D cells were further investigated. 14-DDA is found to induce the formation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) vacuoles and autophagosomes, with concurrent upregulation of LC3-II in the breast carcinoma cells. It stimulated an increase in cytosolic calcium concentration and caused a collapse in mitochondrial membrane potential in these cells. In addition, both DDIT3 and GADD45A, molecules implicated in ER stress pathway, were significantly upregulated. DDIT3 knockdown suppressed the formation of both ER vacuoles and autophagosomes, indicating that 14-DDA-induced ER stress and autophagy is dependent on this transcription factor. Collectively, it is possible that GADD45A/p38 MAPK/DDIT3 pathway is involved in the 14-DDA-induced ER-stress-mediated autophagy in T-47D cells. PMID:27049118

  14. Unmasking of a Recessive SCARF2 Mutation by a 22q11.12 de novo Deletion in a Patient with Van den Ende-Gupta Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bedeschi, M.F.; Colombo, L.; Mari, F.; Hofmann, K.; Rauch, A.; Gentilin, B.; Renieri, A.; Clerici, D.

    2011-01-01

    Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome (VDEGS) is a congenital condition characterized by craniofacial and skeletal manifestations, specifically blepharophimosis, malar and maxillary hypoplasia, distinctive nose, arachnocamptodactyly, and long slender bones of the hands and feet. To date, only 24 patients have been described. It is generally thought that the syndrome is transmitted by an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance, although evidence for genetic heterogeneity has recently been presented. We report on a girl followed from birth up to 3 years of life with a set of peculiar minor anomalies, arachnocamptodactyly of hands and feet, characteristic of VDEGS in association with a 22q11.12 deletion. Recently, the VDEGS gene was mapped to the DiGeorge syndrome region on 22q11.2, and homozygous mutations in the SCARF2 gene were identified. We now report the first patient with VDEGS due to compound heterozygosity for the common 22q11.2 microdeletion and a hemizygous SCARF2 splice site mutation. PMID:22140376

  15. The Average of Rates and the Average Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Defines arithmetic, harmonic, and weighted harmonic means, and discusses their properties. Describes the application of these properties in problems involving fuel economy estimates and average rates of motion. Gives example problems and solutions. (CW)

  16. Electric Power Monthly, June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-13

    The EPM is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. Quantity, quality, and cost of fuel data lag the net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour data by 1 month. This difference in reporting appears in the national, Census division, and State level tables. However, at the plant level, all statistics presented are for the earlier month for the purpose of comparison. 40 tabs.

  17. The Averaging Problem in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aseem

    2009-06-01

    This thesis deals with the averaging problem in cosmology, which has gained considerable interest in recent years, and is concerned with correction terms (after averaging inhomogeneities) that appear in the Einstein equations when working on the large scales appropriate for cosmology. It has been claimed in the literature that these terms may account for the phenomenon of dark energy which causes the late time universe to accelerate. We investigate the nature of these terms by using averaging schemes available in the literature and further developed to be applicable to the problem at hand. We show that the effect of these terms when calculated carefully, remains negligible and cannot explain the late time acceleration.

  18. Prediction of Malaysian monthly GDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hin, Pooi Ah; Ching, Soo Huei; Yeing, Pan Wei

    2015-12-01

    The paper attempts to use a method based on multivariate power-normal distribution to predict the Malaysian Gross Domestic Product next month. Letting r(t) be the vector consisting of the month-t values on m selected macroeconomic variables, and GDP, we model the month-(t+1) GDP to be dependent on the present and l-1 past values r(t), r(t-1),…,r(t-l+1) via a conditional distribution which is derived from a [(m+1)l+1]-dimensional power-normal distribution. The 100(α/2)% and 100(1-α/2)% points of the conditional distribution may be used to form an out-of sample prediction interval. This interval together with the mean of the conditional distribution may be used to predict the month-(t+1) GDP. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), estimated coverage probability and average length of the prediction interval are used as the criterions for selecting the suitable lag value l-1 and the subset from a pool of 17 macroeconomic variables. It is found that the relatively better models would be those of which 2 ≤ l ≤ 3, and involving one or two of the macroeconomic variables given by Market Indicative Yield, Oil Prices, Exchange Rate and Import Trade.

  19. High average power pockels cell

    DOEpatents

    Daly, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.

  20. Hispanic Heritage Month

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hispanic-themed music and Salsa dance performances helped kick off the Johnson Space Center celebration of Hispanic Heritage Month, commemorating the histories, cultures and contributions of Hispan...

  1. A numerical study of back-building process in a quasi-stationary rainband with extreme rainfall over northern Taiwan during 11-12 June 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.-C.; Chiou, B.-K.; Chen, G. T.-J.; Kuo, H.-C.

    2015-11-01

    During 11-12 June 2012, quasi-stationary linear mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) developed near northern Taiwan and produced extreme rainfall up to 510 mm and severe flooding in Taipei. Evident back-building (BB) process in these MCSs contributed to the extreme rainfall, and thus is investigated using a cloud-resolving model. Specifically, we seek answers to the question why the location about 15-30 km upstream from the old cell is often more favorable for new cell initiation without the cold pool mechanism in this subtropical event during the mei-yu season. With a horizontal grid size of 1.5 km, the model successfully reproduced the linear MCS and the BB process, which is found to be influenced by both dynamical and thermodynamical effects. During initiation in a background with convective instability, new cells are associated with positive (negative) buoyancy below (above) due to latent heating (adiabatic cooling), which represent a gradual destabilization. At the beginning, the new development is close to the old convection, which provides stronger warming below and additional cooling at mid-levels from evaporation of condensates, thus yielding a more rapid destabilization. This enhanced upward decrease in buoyancy at a lower height eventually creates an upward perturbation pressure gradient force to drive further development along with the buoyancy itself. After the new cell has gain sufficient strength, a descending branch at the old cell's rear flank acts to separate the new cell to about 20 km upstream. Therefore, the advantages of the spot in the BB process can be explained.

  2. Quantitative-Trait Loci on Chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 18 Control Variation in Levels of T and B Lymphocyte Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Hall, M. A.; Norman, P. J.; Thiel, B.; Tiwari, H.; Peiffer, A.; Vaughan, R. W.; Prescott, S.; Leppert, M.; Schork, N. J.; Lanchbury, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    Lymphocyte subpopulation levels are used for prognosis and monitoring of a variety of human diseases, especially those with an infectious etiology. As a primary step to defining the major gene variation underlying these phenotypes, we conducted the first whole-genome screen for quantitative variation in lymphocyte count, CD4 T cell, CD8 T cell, B cell, and natural killer cell numbers, as well as CD4:CD8 ratio. The screen was performed in 15 of the CEPH families that form the main human genome genetic project mapping resource. Quantitative-trait loci (QTLs) that account for significant proportions of the phenotypic variance of lymphocyte subpopulations were detected on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 18. The most significant QTL found was for CD4 levels on chromosome 8 (empirical P=.00005). Two regions of chromosome 4 showed significant linkage to CD4:CD8 ratio (empirical P=.00007 and P=.003). A QTL for the highly correlated measures of CD4 and CD19 levels colocalized at 18q21 (both P=.003). Similarly, a shared region of chromosome 1 was linked to CD8 and CD19 levels (P=.0001 and P=.002, respectively). Several of the identified chromosome regions are likely to harbor polymorphic candidate genes responsible for these important human phenotypes. Their discovery has important implications for understanding the generation of the immune repertoire and understanding immune-system homeostasis. More generally, these data show the power of an integrated human gene–mapping approach for heritable molecular phenotypes, using large pedigrees that have been extensively genotyped. PMID:11951176

  3. Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.

    PubMed

    Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal

    2010-01-26

    Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception. PMID:20129047

  4. Determining GPS average performance metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, G. V.

    1995-01-01

    Analytic and semi-analytic methods are used to show that users of the GPS constellation can expect performance variations based on their location. Specifically, performance is shown to be a function of both altitude and latitude. These results stem from the fact that the GPS constellation is itself non-uniform. For example, GPS satellites are over four times as likely to be directly over Tierra del Fuego than over Hawaii or Singapore. Inevitable performance variations due to user location occur for ground, sea, air and space GPS users. These performance variations can be studied in an average relative sense. A semi-analytic tool which symmetrically allocates GPS satellite latitude belt dwell times among longitude points is used to compute average performance metrics. These metrics include average number of GPS vehicles visible, relative average accuracies in the radial, intrack and crosstrack (or radial, north/south, east/west) directions, and relative average PDOP or GDOP. The tool can be quickly changed to incorporate various user antenna obscuration models and various GPS constellation designs. Among other applications, tool results can be used in studies to: predict locations and geometries of best/worst case performance, design GPS constellations, determine optimal user antenna location and understand performance trends among various users.

  5. Birth Month Affects Longevity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Ernest L.; Kruger, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the association between birth month and longevity for major league baseball players. Players born in the month of November had the greatest longevities whereas those born in June had the shortest life spans. These differences remained after controlling for covariates such as birth year, career length, age at debut, height, and…

  6. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  7. On generalized averaged Gaussian formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalevic, Miodrag M.

    2007-09-01

    We present a simple numerical method for constructing the optimal (generalized) averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas which are the optimal stratified extensions of Gauss quadrature formulas. These extensions exist in many cases in which real positive Kronrod formulas do not exist. For the Jacobi weight functions w(x)equiv w^{(alpha,beta)}(x)D(1-x)^alpha(1+x)^beta ( alpha,beta>-1 ) we give a necessary and sufficient condition on the parameters alpha and beta such that the optimal averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas are internal.

  8. Natural gas monthly, February 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through February 1998 for many data series, and through November 1997 for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the natural gas data contained in this issue are: Preliminary estimates for January and February 1998 show that dry natural gas production, net imports, and consumption are all within 1 percent of their levels in 1997. Warmer-than-normal weather in recent months has resulted in lower consumption of natural gas by the residential sector and lower net withdrawals of gas from under round storage facilities compared with a year ago. This has resulted in an estimate of the amount of working gas in storage at the end of February 1998 that is 18 percent higher than in February 1997. The national average natural gas wellhead price is estimated to be $3.05 per thousand cubic feet in November 1997, 7 percent higher than in October. The cumulative average wellhead price for January through November 1997 is estimated to be $2.42 per thousand cubic feet, 17 percent above that of the same period in 1996. This price increase is far less than 36-percent rise that occurred between 1995 and 1996. 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  9. Polyhedral Painting with Group Averaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farris, Frank A.; Tsao, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The technique of "group-averaging" produces colorings of a sphere that have the symmetries of various polyhedra. The concepts are accessible at the undergraduate level, without being well-known in typical courses on algebra or geometry. The material makes an excellent discovery project, especially for students with some background in…

  10. Averaging inhomogeneous cosmologies - a dialogue.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchert, T.

    The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.

  11. Averaging inhomogenous cosmologies - a dialogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchert, T.

    The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.

  12. Averaging facial expression over time

    PubMed Central

    Haberman, Jason; Harp, Tom; Whitney, David

    2010-01-01

    The visual system groups similar features, objects, and motion (e.g., Gestalt grouping). Recent work suggests that the computation underlying perceptual grouping may be one of summary statistical representation. Summary representation occurs for low-level features, such as size, motion, and position, and even for high level stimuli, including faces; for example, observers accurately perceive the average expression in a group of faces (J. Haberman & D. Whitney, 2007, 2009). The purpose of the present experiments was to characterize the time-course of this facial integration mechanism. In a series of three experiments, we measured observers’ abilities to recognize the average expression of a temporal sequence of distinct faces. Faces were presented in sets of 4, 12, or 20, at temporal frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 21.3 Hz. The results revealed that observers perceived the average expression in a temporal sequence of different faces as precisely as they perceived a single face presented repeatedly. The facial averaging was independent of temporal frequency or set size, but depended on the total duration of exposed faces, with a time constant of ~800 ms. These experiments provide evidence that the visual system is sensitive to the ensemble characteristics of complex objects presented over time. PMID:20053064

  13. Average Cost of Common Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Fred; Tweeten, Luther

    The paper shows costs of elementary and secondary schools applicable to Oklahoma rural areas, including the long-run average cost curve which indicates the minimum per student cost for educating various numbers of students and the application of the cost curves determining the optimum school district size. In a stratified sample, the school…

  14. Exact averaging of laminar dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnakar, Ram R.; Balakotaiah, Vemuri

    2011-02-01

    We use the Liapunov-Schmidt (LS) technique of bifurcation theory to derive a low-dimensional model for laminar dispersion of a nonreactive solute in a tube. The LS formalism leads to an exact averaged model, consisting of the governing equation for the cross-section averaged concentration, along with the initial and inlet conditions, to all orders in the transverse diffusion time. We use the averaged model to analyze the temporal evolution of the spatial moments of the solute and show that they do not have the centroid displacement or variance deficit predicted by the coarse-grained models derived by other methods. We also present a detailed analysis of the first three spatial moments for short and long times as a function of the radial Peclet number and identify three clearly defined time intervals for the evolution of the solute concentration profile. By examining the skewness in some detail, we show that the skewness increases initially, attains a maximum for time scales of the order of transverse diffusion time, and the solute concentration profile never attains the Gaussian shape at any finite time. Finally, we reason that there is a fundamental physical inconsistency in representing laminar (Taylor) dispersion phenomena using truncated averaged models in terms of a single cross-section averaged concentration and its large scale gradient. Our approach evaluates the dispersion flux using a local gradient between the dominant diffusive and convective modes. We present and analyze a truncated regularized hyperbolic model in terms of the cup-mixing concentration for the classical Taylor-Aris dispersion that has a larger domain of validity compared to the traditional parabolic model. By analyzing the temporal moments, we show that the hyperbolic model has no physical inconsistencies that are associated with the parabolic model and can describe the dispersion process to first order accuracy in the transverse diffusion time.

  15. Land-Ocean Correlation of Orbital-Scale Climatic Changes in the Western Mediterranean during MIS 1/2 and 11/12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hambach, B.; Huang, Y.; Rosell Mele, A.

    2010-12-01

    The interval between 405 and 340 thousand years before present has been argued to be the most recent astronomical analogue for the last glacial and current interglacial period. This similarity is mainly a function of orbital scale climatic changes (eccentricity, precession). To gain a better insight into the Iberian peninsular climate and its transitions during these periods, a marine sediment core from the Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean, is used to reconstruct climate relevant variables related to surface ocean, atmospheric circulation and hydrology by applying a set of organic geochemical proxies (biomarkers). The location of the core, between the African continent and the Iberian Peninsula make it especially interesting for investigating regional climate changes and transitions in an area with significant hominid remains. Here we present millennial scale resolution data (2 ky) for the interval from 0 to 130 and 374-484 ky corresponding to MIS 1-6 and 11-12, respectively. The results of this multi-biomarker analysis give new insights into past ocean climate conditions as well as into the processes that occurred onshore during this period. The reconstruction of sea surface temperatures is done by the analysis of alkenones (UK37’-index). Chlorophyllic pigment concentration is used as proxy for paleoproductivity. Terrestrial eolian inputs and vegetation changes are determined by the analysis of n-alkyl compounds (long chain n-alkanes, n-alkenols and n-alkanoic acids) which are major components of leaf waxes from terrestrial higher plants. Like mineral aerosols, these compounds are wind-transported from terrestrial vegetation sources to adjacent oceans where the particles settle and are preserved in ocean sediments with very little diagenetic alteration. To assess hydrology related shifts in Iberian peninsular climate, the compound specific hydrogen isotope ratio in higher plant n-alkanes was used. These biomarkers offer a promising tool for reconstructing

  16. Forum on Alternate Assessment and "Gray Area" Assessment: A Report on the Pre-Conference Session at the National Conference on Large Scale Assessment (Snowbird, Utah, June 11-12, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Outcomes, Minneapolis, MN.

    This report discusses the outcomes of a June 11-12, 1999, forum that addressed alternative assessments and gray areas in large-scale assessments for students with disabilities. The forum included 161 representatives from 42 state departments of education, 3 large school districts, 1 territory, and the Department of Defense Dependent Schools. Five…

  17. Research-Teaching Linkages: Practice and Policy. Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the National Academy for the Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (3rd, Dublin, Ireland, November 11-12, 2009)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jennifer, Ed.; Griffin, Carrie, Ed.; Higgs, Bettie, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The third annual conference of the National Academy for Integration of Research, Teaching and Learning (NAIRTL) was held at Trinity College Dublin on 11-12 November 2009, and was attended by over 300 delegates. The theme--"Research-Teaching Linkages: Practice and Policy"--was timely and generated some fascinating papers, workshops and debates,…

  18. Electric power monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-26

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  19. Electric power monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-16

    The Electric Power Monthly (EMP) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  20. Natural gas monthly, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly contains estimates for March 1999 for many natural gas data series at the national level. Estimates of national natural gas prices are available through December 1998 for most series. Highlights of the data contained in this issue are listed below. Preliminary data indicate that the national average wellhead price for 1998 declined to 16% from the previous year ($1.96 compared to $2.32 per thousand cubic feet). At the end of March, the end of the 1998--1999 heating season, the level of working gas in underground natural gas storage facilities is estimated to be 1,354 billion cubic feet, 169 billion cubic feet higher than at the end of March 1998. Gas consumption during the first 3 months of 1999 is estimated to have been 179 billion cubic feet higher than in the same period in 1998. Most of this increase (133 billion cubic feet) occurred in the residential sector due to the cooler temperatures in January and February compared to the same months last year. According to the National Weather Service, heating degree days in January 1999 were 15% greater than the previous year while February recorded a 5% increase.

  1. Electric power monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-20

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended. This publication provides monthly statistics at the US, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on the capability of new generating units, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fossil fuels.

  2. Natural Gas Monthly

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported.

  3. Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg; Behrend, Juliane

    2009-04-01

    The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the ΛCDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of Ωeff0 approx 4 × 10-6, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10-8 and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state weff < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.

  4. Developmental milestones record - 9 months

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 9 months; Childhood growth milestones - 9 months; Normal childhood growth milestones - 9 months ... provider. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR SKILLS A 9-month-old has usually reached the following milestones: Gains ...

  5. Developmental milestones record - 12 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 12 months; Growth milestones for children - 12 months; Childhood growth milestones - 12 months ... care provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILLS A 12-month-old child is expected to: Be 3 times ...

  6. Developmental milestones record - 18 months

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 18 months; Normal childhood growth milestones - 18 months; Childhood growth milestones - 18 months ... PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILL MARKERS The typical 18-month-old: Has a closed soft spot on the ...

  7. Developmental milestones record - 4 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 4 months; Childhood growth milestones - 4 months; Growth milestones for children - 4 months ... provider. PHYSICAL AND MOTOR SKILLS The typical 4-month-old baby should: Slow in weight gain to ...

  8. Developmental milestones record - 6 months

    MedlinePlus

    Normal childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Childhood growth milestones - 6 months; Growth milestones for children - 6 months ... the weight on hands (often occurs by 4 months) Able to pick up a dropped object Able ...

  9. Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg; Behrend, Juliane E-mail: G.Robbers@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de

    2009-04-15

    The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the {Lambda}CDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of {Omega}{sub eff}{sup 0} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10{sup -8} and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state w{sub eff} < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.

  10. Ensemble averaging of acoustic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanski, P. K.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program called Ensemble Averaging of Acoustic Data is documented. The program samples analog data, analyzes the data, and displays them in the time and frequency domains. Hard copies of the displays are the program's output. The documentation includes a description of the program and detailed user instructions for the program. This software was developed for use on the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel's Dynamic Analysis System consisting of a PDP-11/45 computer, two RK05 disk drives, a tektronix 611 keyboard/display terminal, and FPE-4 Fourier Processing Element, and an analog-to-digital converter.

  11. Global atmospheric circulation statistics: Four year averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Nash, E. R.; Gelman, M. E.

    1987-01-01

    Four year averages of the monthly mean global structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere are presented in the form of latitude-altitude, time-altitude, and time-latitude cross sections. The numerical values are given in tables. Basic parameters utilized include daily global maps of temperature and geopotential height for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb for the period December 1, 1978 through November 30, 1982 supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential heights and geostrophic winds are constructed using hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Meridional and vertical velocities are calculated using thermodynamic and continuity equations. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds, and amplitude of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wave numbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of sensible heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large interhemispheric differences and year-to-year variations are found to originate in the changes in the planetary wave activity.

  12. Monthly Averages of Aerosol Properties: A Global Comparison Among Models, Satellite Data, and AERONET Ground Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kinne, S.; Lohmann, U; Feichter, J; Schulz, M.; Timmreck, C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Easter, Richard C.; Chin, M; Ginoux, P.; Takemura, T.; Tegen, I.; Koch, D; Herzog, M.; Penner, J.; Pitari, G.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T.; Smirnov, A.; Dubovik, O.; Slutsker, I.; Tanre, D.; Torres, O.; Mishchenko, M.; Geogdzhayev, I.; Chu, D. A.; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2003-10-21

    Aerosol introduces the largest uncertainties in model-based estimates of anthropogenic sources on the Earth's climate. A better representation of aerosol in climate models can be expected from an individual processing of aerosol type and new aerosol modules have been developed, that distinguish among at least five aerosol types: sulfate, organic carbon, black carbon, sea-salt and dust. In this study intermediate results of aerosol mass and aerosol optical depth of new aerosol modules from seven global models are evaluated. Among models, differences in predicted mass-fields are expected with differences to initialization and processing. Nonetheless, unusual discrepancies in source strength and in removal rates for particular aerosol types were identified. With simultaneous data for mass and optical depth, type conversion factors were compared. Differences among the tested models cover a factor of 2 for each, even hydrophobic, aerosol type. This is alarming and suggests that efforts of good mass-simulations could be wasted or that conversions are misused to cover for poor mass-simulations. An individual assessment, however, is difficult, as only part of the conversion determining factors (size assumption, permitted humidification and prescribed ambient relative humidity) were revealed. These differences need to be understood and minimized, if conclusions on aerosol processing in models can be drawn from comparisons to aerosol optical depth measurements.

  13. 20 CFR 404.211 - Computing your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... earnings, we use wages, compensation, self-employment income, and deemed military wage credits (see §§ 404... expected to have worked in employment or self-employment covered by social security. (Your earnings before... security and remuneration for covered employment in excess of that which is subject to FICA...

  14. 20 CFR 404.211 - Computing your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... earnings, we use wages, compensation, self-employment income, and deemed military wage credits (see §§ 404... expected to have worked in employment or self-employment covered by social security. (Your earnings before... security and remuneration for covered employment in excess of that which is subject to FICA...

  15. 20 CFR 404.211 - Computing your average indexed monthly earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... earnings, we use wages, compensation, self-employment income, and deemed military wage credits (see §§ 404... expected to have worked in employment or self-employment covered by social security. (Your earnings before... security and remuneration for covered employment in excess of that which is subject to FICA...

  16. Special Awareness Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granstrom, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The article reports on the organization and implementation of a "Special Needs Awareness Month" in Quincy, Massachusetts. Noted are the heavy involvement of parents in the multiagency planning committee, and the resulting citywide displays, publications, programs, and publicity on children with special needs. (DB)

  17. Monthly Energy Review

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) is the U.S. Energy Information Administration's primary report of recent energy statistics. Included are total energy production, consumption, and trade; energy prices; overviews of petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, renewable energy, and international petroleum; carbon dioxide emissions; and data unit conversions.

  18. November 2010 monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Warren E

    2010-12-07

    These viewgraphs are to be provided to NNSA to update the status of the B61 Life Extension Project work and activities. The viewgraphs cover such issues as budget, schedule, scope, and the like. They are part of the monthly reporting process.

  19. Monthly energy review

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  20. Monthly Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-28

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief ``energy plugs`` (reviews of EIA publications) are included, as well.

  1. Black History Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on Black History month. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines; includes professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  2. Averaging underwater noise levels for environmental assessment of shipping.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Blondel, Philippe; Dakin, D Tom; Dorocicz, John

    2012-10-01

    Rising underwater noise levels from shipping have raised concerns regarding chronic impacts to marine fauna. However, there is a lack of consensus over how to average local shipping noise levels for environmental impact assessment. This paper addresses this issue using 110 days of continuous data recorded in the Strait of Georgia, Canada. Probability densities of ~10(7) 1-s samples in selected 1/3 octave bands were approximately stationary across one-month subsamples. Median and mode levels varied with averaging time. Mean sound pressure levels averaged in linear space, though susceptible to strong bias from outliers, are most relevant to cumulative impact assessment metrics. PMID:23039575

  3. Flexible time domain averaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng

    2013-09-01

    Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.

  4. Estimates of monthly mean soil moisture for 1979-1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schemm, J.; Schubert, S.; Terry, J.; Bloom, S.

    1992-01-01

    This technical report presents estimated monthly mean global soil moisture distributions for 1979-1989. The soil moisture datasets were prepared as part of the boundary conditions for an atmospheric general circulation model (GEOS-1). Also included are the 11-year averages of monthly mean soil moisture, surface air temperature, monthly total precipitation, evapotranspiration, and potential evapotranspiration. The standard deviation of the monthly mean soil moisture is provided as a measure of year-to-year variability.

  5. Monthly Rainfall Erosivity Assessment for Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Simon; Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Water erosion is crucially controlled by rainfall erosivity, which is quantified out of the kinetic energy of raindrop impact and associated surface runoff. Rainfall erosivity is often expressed as the R-factor in soil erosion risk models like the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its revised version (RUSLE). Just like precipitation, the rainfall erosivity of Switzerland has a characteristic seasonal dynamic throughout the year. This inter-annual variability is to be assessed by a monthly and seasonal modelling approach. We used a network of 86 precipitation gauging stations with a 10-minute temporal resolution to calculate long-term average monthly R-factors. Stepwise regression and Monte Carlo Cross Validation (MCCV) was used to select spatial covariates to explain the spatial pattern of R-factor for each month across Switzerland. The regionalized monthly R-factor is mapped by its individual regression equation and the ordinary kriging interpolation of its residuals (Regression-Kriging). As covariates, a variety of precipitation indicator data has been included like snow height, a combination of hourly gauging measurements and radar observations (CombiPrecip), mean monthly alpine precipitation (EURO4M-APGD) and monthly precipitation sums (Rhires). Topographic parameters were also significant explanatory variables for single months. The comparison of all 12 monthly rainfall erosivity maps showed seasonality with highest rainfall erosivity in summer (June, July, and August) and lowest rainfall erosivity in winter months. Besides the inter-annual temporal regime, a seasonal spatial variability was detectable. Spatial maps of monthly rainfall erosivity are presented for the first time for Switzerland. The assessment of the spatial and temporal dynamic behaviour of the R-factor is valuable for the identification of more susceptible seasons and regions as well as for the application of selective erosion control measures. A combination with monthly vegetation

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  7. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  9. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COMPETENCE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IS WEAKER IN THE 15-16 YR. ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP THAN IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS (4-5 YR. AND 11-12 YR.).

    PubMed

    Haga, Monika; Gísladóttír, Thórdís; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2015-12-01

    Developing motor competence and physical fitness can affect the maintenance of a sufficient level of physical activity in children and adolescents. This study assesses the relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from childhood through early adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of 194 participants from 4 to 16 years old were divided into three groups; 4-6 yr. (n=42, M age=5.2, SD 0.6), 11-12 yr. (n=58, M age=12.4, SD=0.3), and 15-16 yr. (n=94, M age=15.9, SD=0.4). To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). To measure physical fitness, three tasks (strength, speed, and endurance) were selected from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF). To analyze the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficient in the three age groups (samples) (4-6, 11-12, and 15-16 yr.), Fischer r-to-z transformation was used. The correlation (Pearson's) between motor competence and physical fitness in the age groups was statistically higher for the youngest age groups (4-6 and 11-12 yr.) and the adolescent group (age 15-16). The differences between the two youngest age groups were not statistically significant. The results demonstrate that the correlation between motor competence and physical fitness decreases with age. PMID:26595203

  10. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of January 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are discussed. Marketing and customer service activities in this period are presented as is the progress report of NASTRAN maintenance and support. Tables of disseminations and budget summary conclude the report.

  11. Developmental milestones record - 9 months

    MedlinePlus

    Growth milestones for children - 9 months; Childhood growth milestones - 9 months; Normal childhood growth milestones - 9 months ... pushed to encourage walking. Sing songs together. Avoid television time until age 2. Try using a transition ...

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  13. Economic and energy indicators. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The Economic and Energy Indicator provides up-to-date information on changes since 1977 in economic and energy activities of major countries. It consists of tables only. They depict economic indicators (industrial production, unemployment, consumer price inflation, and exchange rate trends) for the Big Seven developed countries (United States, Japan, West Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, and Canada); foreign trade and foreign trade prices for the Big Seven; and monthly average prices for selected agricultural products and industrial materials. The energy indicators include tables on petroleum consumption, production, and imports for the Big Seven. A table and chart depict the movement of OPEC average crude oil sales prices since 1973.

  14. Economic and energy indicators. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The Economic and Energy Indicator provides up-to-date information on changes since 1977 in economic and energy activities of major countries. It consists of tables only. They depict economic indicators (industrial production, unemployment, consumer price inflation, and exchange rate trends) for the Big Seven developed countries (United States, Japan, West Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, and Canada); foreign trade and foreign trade prices for the Big Seven; and monthly average prices for selected agricultural products and industrial materials. The energy indicators include tables on petroleum consumption, production, and imports for the Big Seven. A table and chart depict the movement of OPEC average crude oil sales prices since 1973.

  15. Prevalence, intensity and extent of Oral Impacts on Daily Performances associated with self-perceived malocclusion in 11-12-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Flores-Mir, Carlos; Sheiham, Aubrey

    2007-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence, intensity and extent of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances associated with self-perceived malocclusion among Peruvian schoolchildren. Methods Eight hundred and five children aged 11 to 12 years attending 4 of 7 randomly selected schools linked to a Health Centre in Lima, Peru, participated in the study. The Spanish (Peru)Child-OIDP was used to assess the prevalence, intensity and extent of oral impacts on 8 daily performances (eating, speaking, teeth cleaning, sleeping, smiling, studying, emotion and social contact). Self-perceived malocclusion included complaints about position of teeth, spacing of teeth and deformity of mouth or face. The prevalence of oral impacts was compared by covariables using the Chi-square test, whereas the intensity and extent of oral impacts were compared by covariables through the Mann-Whitney test. Results Only 15.5% of children reported impacts associated with self-perceived malocclusion during the last 3 months. Of them, 18.4% reported impacts of severe or very severe intensity and 76.0% reported impacts on only one daily performance. Psychosocial activities such as smiling, emotion and social contact were the most frequently and severely impacted everyday activities. Conclusion Impacts of self-perceived malocclusion primarily affected psychological and social everyday activities. These findings provide further evidence to support the importance of psychological and social components of oral health on children's lives. PMID:17506880

  16. Fermi at Six Months

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    An overview of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope's first 6 months in operation is provided. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, formerly called GLAST, is a mission to measure the cosmic gamma-ray flux in the energy rage 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 8 keV to 30 MeV. It contains a Large Area Telescope capable of viewing the entire sky every 3 hours and a Gamma-ray Burst Monitor for viewing the entire unocculted sky. Since its launch on June 11, 2008 Fermi has provided information on pulsars, gamma ray bursts, relativistic jets, the active galactic nucleus, and a globular star cluster. This presentation describes Fermi's development, mission, instruments and recent findings.

  17. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of April 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Five articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: GAP 1.0 - Groove Analysis Program, Version 1.0; SUBTRANS - Subband/Transform MATLAB Functions for Image Processing; CSDM - COLD-SAT Dynamic Model; CASRE - Computer Aided Software Reliability Estimation; and XOPPS - OEL Project Planner/Scheduler Tool. Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and disseminations are also described along with a budget summary.

  18. Zonal average earth radiation budget measurements from satellites for climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. S.; Haar, T. H. V.

    1976-01-01

    Data from 29 months of satellite radiation budget measurements, taken intermittently over the period 1964 through 1971, are composited into mean month, season and annual zonally averaged meridional profiles. Individual months, which comprise the 29 month set, were selected as representing the best available total flux data for compositing into large scale statistics for climate studies. A discussion of spatial resolution of the measurements along with an error analysis, including both the uncertainty and standard error of the mean, are presented.

  19. Natural gas monthly, November 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration. Estimates extend through November for many data series, and through August for most natural gas prices. Highlights of the most recent data estimates are: (1) Preliminary estimates of dry natural gas production and total consumption available through November 1997 indicate that both series are on track to end the year at levels close to those of 1996. Cumulative dry production is one-half percent higher than in 1996 and consumption is one-half percent lower. (2) Natural gas production is estimated to be 52.6 billion cubic feet per day in November 1997, the highest rate since March 1997. (3) After falling 8 percent in July 1997, the national average wellhead price rose 10 percent in August 1997, reaching an estimated $2.21 per thousand cubic feet. (4) Milder weather in November 1997 compared to November 1996 has resulted in significantly lower levels of residential consumption of natural gas and net storage withdrawls than a year ago. The November 1997 estimates of residential consumption and net withdrawls are 9 and 20 percent lower, respectively, than in November 1996.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  1. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  2. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of August, 1993. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are discussed. Ten articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) MOM3D - A Method of Moments Code for Electromagnetic Scattering (UNIX Version); (2) EM-Animate - Computer Program for Displaying and Animating the Steady-State Time-Harmonic Electromagnetic Near Field and Surface-Current Solutions; (3) MOM3D - A Method of Moments Code for Electromagnetic Scattering (IBM PC Version); (4) M414 - MIL-STD-414 Variable Sampling Procedures Computer Program; (5) MEDOF - Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter; (6) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (Macintosh Version); (7) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (IBM PC Version); (8) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version); (9) CLIPS 6.0 - C Language Integrated Production System, Version 6.0 (DEC VAX VMS Version); and (10) TFSSRA - Thick Frequency Selective Surface with Rectangular Apertures. Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  3. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of May 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are summarized. Nine articles were prepared for publication in the NASA Tech Brief Journal. These articles (included in this report) describe the following software items: (1) WFI - Windowing System for Test and Simulation; (2) HZETRN - A Free Space Radiation Transport and Shielding Program; (3) COMGEN-BEM - Composite Model Generation-Boundary Element Method; (4) IDDS - Interactive Data Display System; (5) CET93/PC - Chemical Equilibrium with Transport Properties, 1993; (6) SDVIC - Sub-pixel Digital Video Image Correlation; (7) TRASYS - Thermal Radiation Analyzer System (HP9000 Series 700/800 Version without NASADIG); (8) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (VAX VMS Version); and (9) NASADIG - NASA Device Independent Graphics Library, Version 6.0 (UNIX Version). Activities in the areas of marketing, customer service, benefits identification, maintenance and support, and dissemination are also described along with a budget summary.

  4. Below-Average, Average, and Above-Average Readers Engage Different and Similar Brain Regions while Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molfese, Dennis L.; Key, Alexandra Fonaryova; Kelly, Spencer; Cunningham, Natalie; Terrell, Shona; Ferguson, Melissa; Molfese, Victoria J.; Bonebright, Terri

    2006-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 27 children (14 girls, 13 boys) who varied in their reading skill levels. Both behavior performance measures recorded during the ERP word classification task and the ERP responses themselves discriminated between children with above-average, average, and below-average reading skills. ERP…

  5. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  6. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...

  7. RHIC BPM system average orbit calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Michnoff,R.; Cerniglia, P.; Degen, C.; Hulsart, R.; et al.

    2009-05-04

    RHIC beam position monitor (BPM) system average orbit was originally calculated by averaging positions of 10000 consecutive turns for a single selected bunch. Known perturbations in RHIC particle trajectories, with multiple frequencies around 10 Hz, contribute to observed average orbit fluctuations. In 2006, the number of turns for average orbit calculations was made programmable; this was used to explore averaging over single periods near 10 Hz. Although this has provided an average orbit signal quality improvement, an average over many periods would further improve the accuracy of the measured closed orbit. A new continuous average orbit calculation was developed just prior to the 2009 RHIC run and was made operational in March 2009. This paper discusses the new algorithm and performance with beam.

  8. Monthly energy review, August 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review for the month of August 1997, presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  9. Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Rio, Rafael del; Martinez, Carmen; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann

    2008-02-15

    Spectral averaging techniques for one-dimensional discrete Schroedinger operators are revisited and extended. In particular, simultaneous averaging over several parameters is discussed. Special focus is put on proving lower bounds on the density of the averaged spectral measures. These Wegner-type estimates are used to analyze stability properties for the spectral types of Jacobi matrices under local perturbations.

  10. Averaging and Adding in Children's Worth Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Harman, Rachel M.; Paine, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Under the normative Expected Value (EV) model, multiple outcomes are additive, but in everyday worth judgement intuitive averaging prevails. Young children also use averaging in EV judgements, leading to a disordinal, crossover violation of utility when children average the part worths of simple gambles involving independent events (Schlottmann,…

  11. Month-to-month and year-to-year reproducibility of high frequency QRS ECG signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batdorf, Niles J.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2004-01-01

    High frequency electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. Therefore, we prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones in signal averaged 12-lead high frequency QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of root mean squared voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of root mean squared voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. Reduced amplitude zones were also reproducible up to a rate of 87% and 81%, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead high frequency QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use.

  12. Month-to-Month and Year-to-Year Reproducibility of High Frequency QRS ECG signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batdorf, Niles; Feiveson, Alan H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    High frequency (HF) electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. We therefore prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared (RMS) voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones (RAzs) in signal averaged 12-lead HF QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of RMS voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of RMS voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. RAzs were also reproducible at a rate of up to 87% and 8 1 %, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead HF QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use.

  13. Averaging procedures for flow within vegetation canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raupach, M. R.; Shaw, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Most one-dimensional models of flow within vegetation canopies are based on horizontally averaged flow variables. This paper formalizes the horizontal averaging operation. Two averaging schemes are considered: pure horizontal averaging at a single instant, and time averaging followed by horizontal averaging. These schemes produce different forms for the mean and turbulent kinetic energy balances, and especially for the ‘wake production’ term describing the transfer of energy from large-scale motion to wake turbulence by form drag. The differences are primarily due to the appearance, in the covariances produced by the second scheme, of dispersive components arising from the spatial correlation of time-averaged flow variables. The two schemes are shown to coincide if these dispersive fluxes vanish.

  14. Measurements of developing teeth, and carpals and epiphyses of the ulna and radius for assessing new cut-offs at the age thresholds of 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 years.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; De Luca, S; Cingolani, M; Ferrante, L

    2015-08-01

    The minimum age of criminal responsibility is the youngest age at which children may be held liable for infringements of penal laws. New cut-offs at the age thresholds of 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 years were determined by applying three different methods: measurement of open apices in tooth roots (T); the ratio between the total area of carpal bones and epiphyses of the ulna and radius (HW); and the combined method (THW). The sample consisted of 291 Italian children (152 boys, 139 girls), aged between 5 and 15 years. The sensitivity and specificity were established. As regards THW, specificity reached the maximum of 95% in boys aged 10, and the minimum of 87% in boys aged 11. The best score of the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) was obtained in boys at 10 years with the THW method and the worst in girls of 12 with the HW method. PMID:26165659

  15. Average-cost based robust structural control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagood, Nesbitt W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for the synthesis of robust controllers for linear time invariant structural systems with parameterized uncertainty. The method involves minimizing quantities related to the quadratic cost (H2-norm) averaged over a set of systems described by real parameters such as natural frequencies and modal residues. Bounded average cost is shown to imply stability over the set of systems. Approximations for the exact average are derived and proposed as cost functionals. The properties of these approximate average cost functionals are established. The exact average and approximate average cost functionals are used to derive dynamic controllers which can provide stability robustness. The robustness properties of these controllers are demonstrated in illustrative numerical examples and tested in a simple SISO experiment on the MIT multi-point alignment testbed.

  16. Averaging of Backscatter Intensities in Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, John J.; Pingitore, Nicholas E.; Westphal, Andrew J.

    2002-01-01

    Low uncertainty measurements on pure element stable isotope pairs demonstrate that mass has no influence on the backscattering of electrons at typical electron microprobe energies. The traditional prediction of average backscatter intensities in compounds using elemental mass fractions is improperly grounded in mass and thus has no physical basis. We propose an alternative model to mass fraction averaging, based of the number of electrons or protons, termed “electron fraction,” which predicts backscatter yield better than mass fraction averaging.

  17. Neutron resonance averaging with filtered beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chrien, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron resonance averaging using filtered beams from a reactor source has proven to be an effective nuclear structure tool within certain limitations. These limitations are imposed by the nature of the averaging process, which produces fluctuations in radiative intensities. The fluctuations have been studied quantitatively. Resonance averaging also gives us information about initial or capture state parameters, in particular the photon strength function. Suitable modifications of the filtered beams are suggested for the enhancement of non-resonant processes.

  18. Spatial limitations in averaging social cues.

    PubMed

    Florey, Joseph; Clifford, Colin W G; Dakin, Steven; Mareschal, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The direction of social attention from groups provides stronger cueing than from an individual. It has previously been shown that both basic visual features such as size or orientation and more complex features such as face emotion and identity can be averaged across multiple elements. Here we used an equivalent noise procedure to compare observers' ability to average social cues with their averaging of a non-social cue. Estimates of observers' internal noise (uncertainty associated with processing any individual) and sample-size (the effective number of gaze-directions pooled) were derived by fitting equivalent noise functions to discrimination thresholds. We also used reverse correlation analysis to estimate the spatial distribution of samples used by participants. Averaging of head-rotation and cone-rotation was less noisy and more efficient than averaging of gaze direction, though presenting only the eye region of faces at a larger size improved gaze averaging performance. The reverse correlation analysis revealed greater sampling areas for head rotation compared to gaze. We attribute these differences in averaging between gaze and head cues to poorer visual processing of faces in the periphery. The similarity between head and cone averaging are examined within the framework of a general mechanism for averaging of object rotation. PMID:27573589

  19. Spectral and parametric averaging for integrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tao; Serota, R. A.

    2015-05-01

    We analyze two theoretical approaches to ensemble averaging for integrable systems in quantum chaos, spectral averaging (SA) and parametric averaging (PA). For SA, we introduce a new procedure, namely, rescaled spectral averaging (RSA). Unlike traditional SA, it can describe the correlation function of spectral staircase (CFSS) and produce persistent oscillations of the interval level number variance (IV). PA while not as accurate as RSA for the CFSS and IV, can also produce persistent oscillations of the global level number variance (GV) and better describes saturation level rigidity as a function of the running energy. Overall, it is the most reliable method for a wide range of statistics.

  20. Statistics of time averaged atmospheric scintillation

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, P.

    1994-02-01

    A formulation has been constructed to recover the statistics of the moving average of the scintillation Strehl from a discrete set of measurements. A program of airborne atmospheric propagation measurements was analyzed to find the correlation function of the relative intensity over displaced propagation paths. The variance in continuous moving averages of the relative intensity was then found in terms of the correlation functions. An empirical formulation of the variance of the continuous moving average of the scintillation Strehl has been constructed. The resulting characterization of the variance of the finite time averaged Strehl ratios is being used to assess the performance of an airborne laser system.

  1. Spatial limitations in averaging social cues

    PubMed Central

    Florey, Joseph; Clifford, Colin W. G.; Dakin, Steven; Mareschal, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    The direction of social attention from groups provides stronger cueing than from an individual. It has previously been shown that both basic visual features such as size or orientation and more complex features such as face emotion and identity can be averaged across multiple elements. Here we used an equivalent noise procedure to compare observers’ ability to average social cues with their averaging of a non-social cue. Estimates of observers’ internal noise (uncertainty associated with processing any individual) and sample-size (the effective number of gaze-directions pooled) were derived by fitting equivalent noise functions to discrimination thresholds. We also used reverse correlation analysis to estimate the spatial distribution of samples used by participants. Averaging of head-rotation and cone-rotation was less noisy and more efficient than averaging of gaze direction, though presenting only the eye region of faces at a larger size improved gaze averaging performance. The reverse correlation analysis revealed greater sampling areas for head rotation compared to gaze. We attribute these differences in averaging between gaze and head cues to poorer visual processing of faces in the periphery. The similarity between head and cone averaging are examined within the framework of a general mechanism for averaging of object rotation. PMID:27573589

  2. Building a Culture of Literacy Month-by-Month

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Hilarie

    2008-01-01

    This book will help create a culture of literacy at schools, from the classroom, to the lunchroom, to the hallways-a culture that encompasses students, teachers, administrators, families, and communities. This comprehensive and practical book includes: (1) Month-by-month plans for the entire school year; (2) How to build a faculty vision of…

  3. Natural gas monthly, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article is on US Natural Gas Imports and Exports 1994.

  4. Natural gas monthly, July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is entitled ``Intricate puzzle of oil and gas reserves growth.`` A special report is included on revisions to monthly natural gas data. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly: April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature article focuses on preliminary highlights from the 1995 natural gas industry. 7 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Natural Gas Monthly, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-10

    The (NGM) Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This month`s feature articles are: US Production of Natural Gas from Tight Reservoirs: and Expanding Rule of Underground Storage.

  7. Monthly energy review, January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Major activities covered include production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  8. Electric Power Monthly, September 1991. [CONTAINS GLOSSARY

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-12

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and state levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, statistics at the company and plant level are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 4 figs., 63 tabs.

  9. Electric power monthly, October 1991. [CONTAINS GLOSSARY

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-11

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, statistics at the company and plant level are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 4 figs., 63 tabs.

  10. Electric power monthly, January 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-17

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and state levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation are also displayed at the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region level. Additionally, company and plant level information are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel. 4 figs., 48 tabs.

  11. Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Richard W. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical

  12. Whatever Happened to the Average Student?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Mandated state testing, college entrance exams and their perceived need for higher and higher grade point averages have raised the anxiety levels felt by many of the average students. Too much focus is placed on state test scores and college entrance standards with not enough focus on the true level of the students. The author contends that…

  13. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... averaging. (a) General. The owner or operator of an existing potline or anode bake furnace in a State that... by total aluminum production. (c) Anode bake furnaces. The owner or operator may average TF emissions from anode bake furnaces and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 3 of this subpart...

  14. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... averaging. (a) General. The owner or operator of an existing potline or anode bake furnace in a State that... by total aluminum production. (c) Anode bake furnaces. The owner or operator may average TF emissions from anode bake furnaces and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 3 of this subpart...

  15. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions averaging. 76.11 Section 76.11 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General provisions. In lieu of complying with the...

  16. A note on generalized averaged Gaussian formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalevic, Miodrag

    2007-11-01

    We have recently proposed a very simple numerical method for constructing the averaged Gaussian quadrature formulas. These formulas exist in many more cases than the real positive Gauss?Kronrod formulas. In this note we try to answer whether the averaged Gaussian formulas are an adequate alternative to the corresponding Gauss?Kronrod quadrature formulas, to estimate the remainder term of a Gaussian rule.

  17. Determinants of College Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Paul Dean

    2012-01-01

    Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by…

  18. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...

  19. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...

  20. 40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...

  1. Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg

    2010-01-01

    The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…

  2. New results on averaging theory and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cândido, Murilo R.; Llibre, Jaume

    2016-08-01

    The usual averaging theory reduces the computation of some periodic solutions of a system of ordinary differential equations, to find the simple zeros of an associated averaged function. When one of these zeros is not simple, i.e., the Jacobian of the averaged function in it is zero, the classical averaging theory does not provide information about the periodic solution associated to a non-simple zero. Here we provide sufficient conditions in order that the averaging theory can be applied also to non-simple zeros for studying their associated periodic solutions. Additionally, we do two applications of this new result for studying the zero-Hopf bifurcation in the Lorenz system and in the Fitzhugh-Nagumo system.

  3. The Hubble rate in averaged cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Umeh, Obinna; Larena, Julien; Clarkson, Chris E-mail: julien.larena@gmail.com

    2011-03-01

    The calculation of the averaged Hubble expansion rate in an averaged perturbed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology leads to small corrections to the background value of the expansion rate, which could be important for measuring the Hubble constant from local observations. It also predicts an intrinsic variance associated with the finite scale of any measurement of H{sub 0}, the Hubble rate today. Both the mean Hubble rate and its variance depend on both the definition of the Hubble rate and the spatial surface on which the average is performed. We quantitatively study different definitions of the averaged Hubble rate encountered in the literature by consistently calculating the backreaction effect at second order in perturbation theory, and compare the results. We employ for the first time a recently developed gauge-invariant definition of an averaged scalar. We also discuss the variance of the Hubble rate for the different definitions.

  4. Monthly energy review: April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This monthly report presents an overview of energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. A section is also included on international energy. The feature paper which is included each month is entitled ``Energy equipment choices: Fuel costs and other determinants.`` 37 figs., 59 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, December 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  6. Monthly energy review, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  7. Monthly energy review, May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  8. Monthly energy review, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs. 73 tabs.

  9. Monthly Energy Review, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-26

    This monthly publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics, covering the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Two brief descriptions (`energy plugs`) on two EIA publications are presented at the start.

  10. Monthly energy review, November 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 91 tabs.

  11. Monthly energy review, October 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  12. Monthly energy review, March 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 74 tabs.

  13. Monthly energy review, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 75 tabs.

  14. Haida Months of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogo, Robert

    Students are introduced to Haida vocabulary in this booklet which briefly describes the seasons and traditional seasonal activities of Southeastern Alaska Natives. The first section lists the months in English and Haida; e.g., January is "Taan Kungaay," or "Bear Hunting Month." The second section contains seasonal names in Haida and English as…

  15. Monthly energy review, June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 36 figs., 61 tabs.

  16. Monthly energy review, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  17. Monthly energy review, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, February 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  19. Natural gas monthly, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  20. Natural gas monthly, November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. Short-Term Auditory Memory of Above-Average and Below-Average Grade Three Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruk, Joan Marie

    To determine if performance on short term auditory memory tasks is influenced by reading ability or sex differences, 62 third grade reading students (16 above average boys, 16 above average girls, 16 below average boys, and 14 below average girls) were administered four memory tests--memory for consonant names, memory for words, memory for…

  2. Clarifying the Relationship between Average Excesses and Average Effects of Allele Substitutions.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Castro, José M; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2012-01-01

    Fisher's concepts of average effects and average excesses are at the core of the quantitative genetics theory. Their meaning and relationship have regularly been discussed and clarified. Here we develop a generalized set of one locus two-allele orthogonal contrasts for average excesses and average effects, based on the concept of the effective gene content of alleles. Our developments help understand the average excesses of alleles for the biallelic case. We dissect how average excesses relate to the average effects and to the decomposition of the genetic variance. PMID:22509178

  3. Estimates of Random Error in Satellite Rainfall Averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.

    2003-01-01

    Satellite rain estimates are most accurate when obtained with microwave instruments on low earth-orbiting satellites. Estimation of daily or monthly total areal rainfall, typically of interest to hydrologists and climate researchers, is made difficult, however, by the relatively poor coverage generally available from such satellites. Intermittent coverage by the satellites leads to random "sampling error" in the satellite products. The inexact information about hydrometeors inferred from microwave data also leads to random "retrieval errors" in the rain estimates. In this talk we will review approaches to quantitative estimation of the sampling error in area/time averages of satellite rain retrievals using ground-based observations, and methods of estimating rms random error, both sampling and retrieval, in averages using satellite measurements themselves.

  4. Light propagation in the averaged universe

    SciTech Connect

    Bagheri, Samae; Schwarz, Dominik J. E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de

    2014-10-01

    Cosmic structures determine how light propagates through the Universe and consequently must be taken into account in the interpretation of observations. In the standard cosmological model at the largest scales, such structures are either ignored or treated as small perturbations to an isotropic and homogeneous Universe. This isotropic and homogeneous model is commonly assumed to emerge from some averaging process at the largest scales. We assume that there exists an averaging procedure that preserves the causal structure of space-time. Based on that assumption, we study the effects of averaging the geometry of space-time and derive an averaged version of the null geodesic equation of motion. For the averaged geometry we then assume a flat Friedmann-Lemaître (FL) model and find that light propagation in this averaged FL model is not given by null geodesics of that model, but rather by a modified light propagation equation that contains an effective Hubble expansion rate, which differs from the Hubble rate of the averaged space-time.

  5. Physics of the spatially averaged snowmelt process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, Federico E.; Kavvas, M. Levent

    1997-04-01

    It has been recognized that the snowmelt models developed in the past do not fully meet current prediction requirements. Part of the reason is that they do not account for the spatial variation in the dynamics of the spatially heterogeneous snowmelt process. Most of the current physics-based distributed snowmelt models utilize point-location-scale conservation equations which do not represent the spatially varying snowmelt dynamics over a grid area that surrounds a computational node. In this study, to account for the spatial heterogeneity of the snowmelt dynamics, areally averaged mass and energy conservation equations for the snowmelt process are developed. As a first step, energy and mass conservation equations that govern the snowmelt dynamics at a point location are averaged over the snowpack depth, resulting in depth averaged equations (DAE). In this averaging, it is assumed that the snowpack has two layers. Then, the point location DAE are averaged over the snowcover area. To develop the areally averaged equations of the snowmelt physics, we make the fundamental assumption that snowmelt process is spatially ergodic. The snow temperature and the snow density are considered as the stochastic variables. The areally averaged snowmelt equations are obtained in terms of their corresponding ensemble averages. Only the first two moments are considered. A numerical solution scheme (Runge-Kutta) is then applied to solve the resulting system of ordinary differential equations. This equation system is solved for the areal mean and areal variance of snow temperature and of snow density, for the areal mean of snowmelt, and for the areal covariance of snow temperature and snow density. The developed model is tested using Scott Valley (Siskiyou County, California) snowmelt and meteorological data. The performance of the model in simulating the observed areally averaged snowmelt is satisfactory.

  6. Cosmic Inhomogeneities and Averaged Cosmological Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T. P.

    2008-10-01

    If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a “dark energy.” However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be “no.” Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics.

  7. Average shape of transport-limited aggregates.

    PubMed

    Davidovitch, Benny; Choi, Jaehyuk; Bazant, Martin Z

    2005-08-12

    We study the relation between stochastic and continuous transport-limited growth models. We derive a nonlinear integro-differential equation for the average shape of stochastic aggregates, whose mean-field approximation is the corresponding continuous equation. Focusing on the advection-diffusion-limited aggregation (ADLA) model, we show that the average shape of the stochastic growth is similar, but not identical, to the corresponding continuous dynamics. Similar results should apply to DLA, thus explaining the known discrepancies between average DLA shapes and viscous fingers in a channel geometry. PMID:16196793

  8. Average Shape of Transport-Limited Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidovitch, Benny; Choi, Jaehyuk; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2005-08-01

    We study the relation between stochastic and continuous transport-limited growth models. We derive a nonlinear integro-differential equation for the average shape of stochastic aggregates, whose mean-field approximation is the corresponding continuous equation. Focusing on the advection-diffusion-limited aggregation (ADLA) model, we show that the average shape of the stochastic growth is similar, but not identical, to the corresponding continuous dynamics. Similar results should apply to DLA, thus explaining the known discrepancies between average DLA shapes and viscous fingers in a channel geometry.

  9. Basque meteorology monthly meteorological bulletins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, R.; Gaztelumendi, S.; Otxoa de Alda, K.; Egaña, J.; Gelpi, I. R.

    2009-09-01

    In this work we present the monthly meteorological bulletins of the Basque Meteorology Agency (EUSKALMET). This bulletin includes a monthly meteorological summary for Basque Country Area, including some statistical data, graphs and maps for relevant variables, and descriptive test of meteorological situation, including monthly summary and a description for some relevant severe weather cases. An intensive use of Basque Country Automatic Weather Station (AWS) mesonet data is made in its elaboration. The Basque Meteorology Agency has among theirs functions to serve different requests that often include some type of statistical data, the elaboration of monthly bulletins and the meteorological annual bulletin, published by the Direction of Meteorology and Climatology - Department of Transports and Civil Works - Basque Government. For the monthly meteorological summary elaboration, use of data coming from the ten-minutes AWS network available in our territory is made. In this context, ten-minutes data are used for daily and monthly data statistics. Information is presented, for an easy interpretation, using different tabular format and graphics focused on air temperature and precipitation. The monitoring of this last meteorological element is completed with maps of monthly actual precipitation and its anomalies, expressed as the departure from normal precipitation and percent of normal precipitation.

  10. Electric power monthly, March 1998 with data for December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. 63 tabs.

  11. Natural gas monthly, June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-24

    The natural gas monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article for this month is Natural Gas Industry Restructuring and EIA Data Collection.

  12. Natural gas monthly, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``US natural gas imports and exports-1995``. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is the executive summary from Natural Gas 1994: Issues and Trends. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Natural gas monthly, May 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article this month is ``Restructuring energy industries: Lessons from natural gas.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. Natural gas monthly, December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The article this month is entitled ``Recent Trends in Natural Gas Spot Prices.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  16. Natural gas monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The featured article for this month is on US coalbed methane production.

  17. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...

  18. 40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...

  19. 40 CFR 91.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... offset by positive credits from engine families below the applicable emission standard, as allowed under the provisions of this subpart. Averaging of credits in this manner is used to determine...

  20. Orbit-averaged implicit particle codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, B. I.; Freis, R. P.; Thomas, V.

    1982-03-01

    The merging of orbit-averaged particle code techniques with recently developed implicit methods to perform numerically stable and accurate particle simulations are reported. Implicitness and orbit averaging can extend the applicability of particle codes to the simulation of long time-scale plasma physics phenomena by relaxing time-step and statistical constraints. Difference equations for an electrostatic model are presented, and analyses of the numerical stability of each scheme are given. Simulation examples are presented for a one-dimensional electrostatic model. Schemes are constructed that are stable at large-time step, require fewer particles, and, hence, reduce input-output and memory requirements. Orbit averaging, however, in the unmagnetized electrostatic models tested so far is not as successful as in cases where there is a magnetic field. Methods are suggested in which orbit averaging should achieve more significant improvements in code efficiency.

  1. 40 CFR 89.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... may use averaging to offset an emission exceedance of a nonroad engine family caused by a NOX FEL... exceedance of a nonroad engine family caused by an NMHC+;NOX FEL or a PM FEL above the applicable...

  2. 40 CFR 89.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... may use averaging to offset an emission exceedance of a nonroad engine family caused by a NOX FEL... exceedance of a nonroad engine family caused by an NMHC+;NOX FEL or a PM FEL above the applicable...

  3. 40 CFR 89.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... may use averaging to offset an emission exceedance of a nonroad engine family caused by a NOX FEL... exceedance of a nonroad engine family caused by an NMHC+;NOX FEL or a PM FEL above the applicable...

  4. 40 CFR 89.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... may use averaging to offset an emission exceedance of a nonroad engine family caused by a NOX FEL... exceedance of a nonroad engine family caused by an NMHC+;NOX FEL or a PM FEL above the applicable...

  5. 40 CFR 89.204 - Averaging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... may use averaging to offset an emission exceedance of a nonroad engine family caused by a NOX FEL... exceedance of a nonroad engine family caused by an NMHC+;NOX FEL or a PM FEL above the applicable...

  6. Total-pressure averaging in pulsating flows.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. N.; Dudzinski, T. J.; Johnson, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    A number of total-pressure tubes were tested in a nonsteady flow generator in which the fraction of period that pressure is a maximum is approximately 0.8, thereby simulating turbomachine-type flow conditions. Most of the tubes indicated a pressure which was higher than the true average. Organ-pipe resonance which further increased the indicated pressure was encountered with the tubes at discrete frequencies. There was no obvious combination of tube diameter, length, and/or geometry variation used in the tests which resulted in negligible averaging error. A pneumatic-type probe was found to measure true average pressure and is suggested as a comparison instrument to determine whether nonlinear averaging effects are serious in unknown pulsation profiles.

  7. Stochastic Averaging of Duhem Hysteretic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YING, Z. G.; ZHU, W. Q.; NI, Y. Q.; KO, J. M.

    2002-06-01

    The response of Duhem hysteretic system to externally and/or parametrically non-white random excitations is investigated by using the stochastic averaging method. A class of integrable Duhem hysteresis models covering many existing hysteresis models is identified and the potential energy and dissipated energy of Duhem hysteretic component are determined. The Duhem hysteretic system under random excitations is replaced equivalently by a non-hysteretic non-linear random system. The averaged Ito's stochastic differential equation for the total energy is derived and the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equation associated with the averaged Ito's equation is solved to yield stationary probability density of total energy, from which the statistics of system response can be evaluated. It is observed that the numerical results by using the stochastic averaging method is in good agreement with that from digital simulation.

  8. Geologic analysis of averaged magnetic satellite anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, H. K.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Ridgway, J. R.; Hinze, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    To investigate relative advantages and limitations for quantitative geologic analysis of magnetic satellite scalar anomalies derived from arithmetic averaging of orbital profiles within equal-angle or equal-area parallelograms, the anomaly averaging process was simulated by orbital profiles computed from spherical-earth crustal magnetic anomaly modeling experiments using Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration. The results indicate that averaging can provide reasonable values at satellite elevations, where contributing error factors within a given parallelogram include the elevation distribution of the data, and orbital noise and geomagnetic field attributes. Various inversion schemes including the use of equivalent point dipoles are also investigated as an alternative to arithmetic averaging. Although inversion can provide improved spherical grid anomaly estimates, these procedures are problematic in practice where computer scaling difficulties frequently arise due to a combination of factors including large source-to-observation distances ( 400 km), high geographic latitudes, and low geomagnetic field inclinations.

  9. Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Don N.

    2014-11-01

    The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.

  10. Total pressure averaging in pulsating flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. N.; Dudzinski, T. J.; Johnson, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    A number of total-pressure tubes were tested in a non-steady flow generator in which the fraction of period that pressure is a maximum is approximately 0.8, thereby simulating turbomachine-type flow conditions. Most of the tubes indicated a pressure which was higher than the true average. Organ-pipe resonance which further increased the indicated pressure was encountered within the tubes at discrete frequencies. There was no obvious combination of tube diameter, length, and/or geometry variation used in the tests which resulted in negligible averaging error. A pneumatic-type probe was found to measure true average pressure, and is suggested as a comparison instrument to determine whether nonlinear averaging effects are serious in unknown pulsation profiles. The experiments were performed at a pressure level of 1 bar, for Mach number up to near 1, and frequencies up to 3 kHz.

  11. Heuristic approach to capillary pressures averaging

    SciTech Connect

    Coca, B.P.

    1980-10-01

    Several methods are available to average capillary pressure curves. Among these are the J-curve and regression equations of the wetting-fluid saturation in porosity and permeability (capillary pressure held constant). While the regression equation seem completely empiric, the J-curve method seems to be theoretically sound due to its expression based on a relation between the average capillary radius and the permeability-porosity ratio. An analysis is given of each of these methods.

  12. Instrument to average 100 data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, G. B.; Birchenough, A. G.; Rice, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    An instrumentation system is currently under development which will measure many of the important parameters associated with the operation of an internal combustion engine. Some of these parameters include mass-fraction burn rate, ignition energy, and the indicated mean effective pressure. One of the characteristics of an internal combustion engine is the cycle-to-cycle variation of these parameters. A curve-averaging instrument has been produced which will generate the average curve, over 100 cycles, of any engine parameter. the average curve is described by 2048 discrete points which are displayed on an oscilloscope screen to facilitate recording and is available in real time. Input can be any parameter which is expressed as a + or - 10-volt signal. Operation of the curve-averaging instrument is defined between 100 and 6000 rpm. Provisions have also been made for averaging as many as four parameters simultaneously, with a subsequent decrease in resolution. This provides the means to correlate and perhaps interrelate the phenomena occurring in an internal combustion engine. This instrument has been used successfully on a 1975 Chevrolet V8 engine, and on a Continental 6-cylinder aircraft engine. While this instrument was designed for use on an internal combustion engine, with some modification it can be used to average any cyclically varying waveform.

  13. Monthly Energy Review, July 1992

    SciTech Connect

    1992-07-27

    The Monthly Energy Review is prepared by the Energy Information Administration. Topics discussed include: Energy Overview, Energy Consumption, Petroleum, Natural Gas, Oil and Gas Resource Development, Coal, Electricity, Nuclear Energy, Energy Prices, International Energy. (VC)

  14. Seven Months of the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    This multi-wavelength movie of the Sun covers seven months of activity (April 25 - Nov. 30, 2011), the majority of the SDO mission to date. The frames combine images taken at the same time in three...

  15. Monthly energy review, July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This document presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. Activities covered include: U.S. production, consumption, trade, stock, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  16. Monthly energy review, August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report presents an overview of recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, coal, natural gas, electricity, and nuclear energy.

  17. Monthly energy review, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-26

    This publication presents information for the month of August, 1993 on the following: Energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices, and international energy.

  18. Natural gas monthly, April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 31 tabs.

  19. Natural Gas Monthly, March 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  20. Natural gas monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. Articles are included which are designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  1. Natural gas monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-22

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  2. Natural gas monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-29

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground state data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  3. Natural gas monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  4. Natural gas monthly, June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  6. Natural gas monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-26

    The National Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  7. Natural gas monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  8. Monthly energy review, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  9. Monthly energy review, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This report presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy data. A brief summary of the monthly and historical comparison data is provided in Section 1 of the report. A highlight section of the report provides an assessment of summer 1997 motor gasoline price increases.

  10. Natural gas monthly, June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 25 tabs.

  11. Monthly energy review, August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  12. Natural gas monthly, October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-23

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary of the terms used in this report is provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication. 6 figs., 30 tabs.

  13. Natural gas monthly, May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. 75 FR 2551 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ...: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is publishing an updated monetary amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy...- Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) data available as the baseline for the average monthly cost of a...

  15. 77 FR 801 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ...: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is publishing an updated monetary amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy... available as the baseline for the average monthly cost of a health insurance policy. This baseline...

  16. 78 FR 956 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is publishing an updated monetary amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy... available as the baseline for the average monthly cost of a health insurance policy. This baseline...

  17. 76 FR 5180 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...: Revised Amount of the Average Cost of a Health Insurance Policy The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) is publishing an updated monetary amount of the average cost of a health insurance policy...-- Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) data available as the baseline for the average monthly cost of a...

  18. Rainfall Estimation Over Tropical Oceans. 1; Area Average Rain Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddapah, Prabhakara; Cadeddu, Maria; Meneghini, R.; Short, David A.; Yoo, Jung-Moon; Dalu, G.; Schols, J. L.; Weinman, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    Multichannel dual polarization microwave radiometer SSM/I observations over oceans do not contain sufficient information to differentiate quantitatively the rain from other hydrometeors on a scale comparable to the radiometer field of view (approx. 30 km). For this reason we have developed a method to retrieve average rain rate over a mesoscale grid box of approx. 300 x 300 sq km area over the TOGA COARE region where simultaneous radiometer and radar observations are available for four months (Nov. 92 to Feb. 93). The rain area in the grid box, inferred from the scattering depression due to hydrometeors in the 85 Ghz brightness temperature, constitutes a key parameter in this method. Then the spectral and polarization information contained in all the channels of the SSM/I is utilized to deduce a second parameter. This is the ratio S/E of scattering index S, and emission index E calculated from the SSM/I data. The rain rate retrieved from this method over the mesoscale area can reproduce the radar observed rain rate with a correlation coefficient of about 0.85. Furthermore monthly total rainfall estimated from this method over that area has an average error of about 15%.

  19. Average luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes

    SciTech Connect

    Kostov, Valentin

    2010-04-01

    Using numerical ray tracing, the paper studies how the average distance modulus in an inhomogeneous universe differs from its homogeneous counterpart. The averaging is over all directions from a fixed observer not over all possible observers (cosmic), thus is more directly applicable to our observations. In contrast to previous studies, the averaging is exact, non-perturbative, and includes all non-linear effects. The inhomogeneous universes are represented by Swiss-cheese models containing random and simple cubic lattices of mass-compensated voids. The Earth observer is in the homogeneous cheese which has an Einstein-de Sitter metric. For the first time, the averaging is widened to include the supernovas inside the voids by assuming the probability for supernova emission from any comoving volume is proportional to the rest mass in it. Voids aligned along a certain direction give rise to a distance modulus correction which increases with redshift and is caused by cumulative gravitational lensing. That correction is present even for small voids and depends on their density contrast, not on their radius. Averaging over all directions destroys the cumulative lensing correction even in a non-randomized simple cubic lattice of voids. At low redshifts, the average distance modulus correction does not vanish due to the peculiar velocities, despite the photon flux conservation argument. A formula for the maximal possible average correction as a function of redshift is derived and shown to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The formula applies to voids of any size that: (a)have approximately constant densities in their interior and walls; and (b)are not in a deep nonlinear regime. The average correction calculated in random and simple cubic void lattices is severely damped below the predicted maximal one after a single void diameter. That is traced to cancellations between the corrections from the fronts and backs of different voids. The results obtained

  20. Novel NUP98-HOXC11 fusion gene resulted from a chromosomal break within exon 1 of HOXC11 in acute myeloid leukemia with t(11;12)(p15;q13).

    PubMed

    Taketani, Takeshi; Taki, Tomohiko; Shibuya, Noriko; Kikuchi, Akira; Hanada, Ryoji; Hayashi, Yasuhide

    2002-08-15

    The NUP98 gene has been reported to be fused to 11 partner genes in hematological malignancies with 11p15 translocations. Among NUP98 fusion partner genes, HOXA and HOXD clusters have been reported thus far; however, no HOXC or HOXB clusters have been reported. We identified a novel NUP98-HOXC11 fusion gene in a pediatric patient with de novo acute myeloid leukemia having t(11;12)(p15;q13). The breakpoint of NUP98 was located within a LINE repetitive sequence (HAL1) in intron 12, and the breakpoint of HOXC11 was located within exon 1, resulting in a NUP98-HOXC11 in-frame fusion transcript containing exon 12 of NUP98 fused to a part of exon 1 of HOXC11 with an 8-bp insertion derived from the intron sequence just 5' of the breakpoint of NUP98. The NUP98-HOXC11 fusion protein consists of the NH2-terminal phenylalanine-glycine repeat motif of NUP98 and the COOH-terminal homeodomain of HOXC11. Although the frequency of HOXC11 expression was not high in leukemia cell lines, its expression was significantly more frequent in myeloid than lymphoid leukemia cell lines. These data suggest that the NUP98-HOXC11 fusion protein plays a role in the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies. PMID:12183408

  1. Explicit cosmological coarse graining via spatial averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    The present matter density of the Universe, while highly inhomogeneous on small scales, displays approximate homogeneity on large scales. We propose that whereas it is justified to use the Friedmann Lemaître Robertson Walker (FLRW) line element (which describes an exactly homogeneous and isotropic universe) as a template to construct luminosity distances in order to compare observations with theory, the evolution of the scale factor in such a construction must be governed not by the standard Einstein equations for the FLRW metric, but by the modified Friedmann equations derived by Buchert (Gen Relat Gravit 32:105, 2000; 33:1381, 2001) in the context of spatial averaging in Cosmology. Furthermore, we argue that this scale factor, defined in the spatially averaged cosmology, will correspond to the effective FLRW metric provided the size of the averaging domain coincides with the scale at which cosmological homogeneity arises. This allows us, in principle, to compare predictions of a spatially averaged cosmology with observations, in the standard manner, for instance by computing the luminosity distance versus red-shift relation. The predictions of the spatially averaged cosmology would in general differ from standard FLRW cosmology, because the scale-factor now obeys the modified FLRW equations. This could help determine, by comparing with observations, whether or not cosmological inhomogeneities are an alternative explanation for the observed cosmic acceleration.

  2. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  3. High Average Power Yb:YAG Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, L E; Beach, R J; Payne, S A

    2001-05-23

    We are working on a composite thin-disk laser design that can be scaled as a source of high brightness laser power for tactical engagement and other high average power applications. The key component is a diffusion-bonded composite comprising a thin gain-medium and thicker cladding that is strikingly robust and resolves prior difficulties with high average power pumping/cooling and the rejection of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). In contrast to high power rods or slabs, the one-dimensional nature of the cooling geometry and the edge-pump geometry scale gracefully to very high average power. The crucial design ideas have been verified experimentally. Progress this last year included: extraction with high beam quality using a telescopic resonator, a heterogeneous thin film coating prescription that meets the unusual requirements demanded by this laser architecture, thermal management with our first generation cooler. Progress was also made in design of a second-generation laser.

  4. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  5. Attractors and Time Averages for Random Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo, Vitor

    2006-07-01

    Considering random noise in finite dimensional parameterized families of diffeomorphisms of a compact finite dimensional boundaryless manifold M, we show the existence of time averages for almost every orbit of each point of M, imposing mild conditions on the families. Moreover these averages are given by a finite number of physical absolutely continuous stationary probability measures. We use this result to deduce that situations with infinitely many sinks and Henon-like attractors are not stable under random perturbations, e.g., Newhouse's and Colli's phenomena in the generic unfolding of a quadratic homoclinic tangency by a one-parameter family of diffeomorphisms.

  6. An improved moving average technical trading rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papailias, Fotis; Thomakos, Dimitrios D.

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes a modified version of the widely used price and moving average cross-over trading strategies. The suggested approach (presented in its 'long only' version) is a combination of cross-over 'buy' signals and a dynamic threshold value which acts as a dynamic trailing stop. The trading behaviour and performance from this modified strategy are different from the standard approach with results showing that, on average, the proposed modification increases the cumulative return and the Sharpe ratio of the investor while exhibiting smaller maximum drawdown and smaller drawdown duration than the standard strategy.

  7. The modulated average structure of mullite.

    PubMed

    Birkenstock, Johannes; Petříček, Václav; Pedersen, Bjoern; Schneider, Hartmut; Fischer, Reinhard X

    2015-06-01

    Homogeneous and inclusion-free single crystals of 2:1 mullite (Al(4.8)Si(1.2)O(9.6)) grown by the Czochralski technique were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The observed diffuse scattering together with the pattern of satellite reflections confirm previously published data and are thus inherent features of the mullite structure. The ideal composition was closely met as confirmed by microprobe analysis (Al(4.82 (3))Si(1.18 (1))O(9.59 (5))) and by average structure refinements. 8 (5) to 20 (13)% of the available Si was found in the T* position of the tetrahedra triclusters. The strong tendencey for disorder in mullite may be understood from considerations of hypothetical superstructures which would have to be n-fivefold with respect to the three-dimensional average unit cell of 2:1 mullite and n-fourfold in case of 3:2 mullite. In any of these the possible arrangements of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral units would inevitably be unfavorable. Three directions of incommensurate modulations were determined: q1 = [0.3137 (2) 0 ½], q2 = [0 0.4021 (5) 0.1834 (2)] and q3 = [0 0.4009 (5) -0.1834 (2)]. The one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystal structure associated with q1 was refined for the first time using the superspace approach. The modulation is dominated by harmonic occupational modulations of the atoms in the di- and the triclusters of the tetrahedral units in mullite. The modulation amplitudes are small and the harmonic character implies that the modulated structure still represents an average structure in the overall disordered arrangement of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral structural units. In other words, when projecting the local assemblies at the scale of a few tens of average mullite cells into cells determined by either one of the modulation vectors q1, q2 or q3 a weak average modulation results with slightly varying average occupation factors for the tetrahedral units. As a result, the real

  8. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect

    Poelker, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  9. Average: the juxtaposition of procedure and context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jane; Chick, Helen; Callingham, Rosemary

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents recent data on the performance of 247 middle school students on questions concerning average in three contexts. Analysis includes considering levels of understanding linking definition and context, performance across contexts, the relative difficulty of tasks, and difference in performance for male and female students. The outcomes lead to a discussion of the expectations of the curriculum and its implementation, as well as assessment, in relation to students' skills in carrying out procedures and their understanding about the meaning of average in context.

  10. Mean Element Propagations Using Numerical Averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.

    2009-01-01

    The long-term evolution characteristics (and stability) of an orbit are best characterized using a mean element propagation of the perturbed two body variational equations of motion. The averaging process eliminates short period terms leaving only secular and long period effects. In this study, a non-traditional approach is taken that averages the variational equations using adaptive numerical techniques and then numerically integrating the resulting EOMs. Doing this avoids the Fourier series expansions and truncations required by the traditional analytic methods. The resultant numerical techniques can be easily adapted to propagations at most solar system bodies.

  11. Teen Programs with Punch: A Month-by-Month Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Valerie A.

    2006-01-01

    This book provides a stimulating selection of year-round program ideas that appeal to teens between the ages of 12 and 18. Organized by month, the programs represent a broad range of interests, from arts and crafts workshops to educational programs to purely recreational activities--from serious to serious fun. A few representative ideas: "Goth…

  12. Natural gas monthly, April 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This issue of the Natural Gas Monthly presents the most recent estimates of natural gas data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Estimates extend through April 1998 for many data series. The report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, feature articles are presented designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. This issue contains the special report, ``Natural Gas 1997: A Preliminary Summary.`` This report provides information on natural gas supply and disposition for the year 1997, based on monthly data through December from EIA surveys. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  13. Electric power monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  15. Natural gas monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-25

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highhghts activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  16. Natural gas monthly, October 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  17. Natural gas monthly, April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are present3ed each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article is entitled ``Natural gas pipeline and system expansions.`` 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Natural gas monthly, October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. The feature article in this issue is a special report, ``Comparison of Natural Gas Storage Estimates from the EIA and AGA.`` 6 figs., 26 tabs.

  19. Monthly energy review, July 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-07-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 75 tabs.

  20. Electric power monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-29

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  1. Natural gas monthly, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-06

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. There are two feature articles in this issue: Natural gas 1998: Issues and trends, Executive summary; and Special report: Natural gas 1998: A preliminary summary. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  2. Natural gas monthly, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-27

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  3. Electric power monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-24

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) presents monthly electricity statistics. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Data in this report are presented for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  4. Monthly energy review, June 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-06-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. The MER is intended for use by Members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public. EIA welcomes suggestions from readers regarding data series in the MER and in other EIA publications. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  5. Natural gas monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  6. Prediction of Nine Month Performance from Neonatal and Developmental Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, John F., Jr.; And Others

    This study investigated the ability of the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS), in combination with neonatal histories and developmental assessments, to predict mental and motor performance of 9-month-old infants on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). Fourteen normal, full-term infants and 10 average-for-gestational-age,…

  7. 40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the new FEL. Manufacturers must test the motorcycles according to 40 CFR part 1051, subpart D...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.449 Averaging provisions. (a) This section describes...

  8. A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…

  9. Cryo-Electron Tomography and Subtomogram Averaging.

    PubMed

    Wan, W; Briggs, J A G

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) allows 3D volumes to be reconstructed from a set of 2D projection images of a tilted biological sample. It allows densities to be resolved in 3D that would otherwise overlap in 2D projection images. Cryo-ET can be applied to resolve structural features in complex native environments, such as within the cell. Analogous to single-particle reconstruction in cryo-electron microscopy, structures present in multiple copies within tomograms can be extracted, aligned, and averaged, thus increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and resolution. This reconstruction approach, termed subtomogram averaging, can be used to determine protein structures in situ. It can also be applied to facilitate more conventional 2D image analysis approaches. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to cryo-ET and subtomogram averaging. We describe the overall workflow, including tomographic data collection, preprocessing, tomogram reconstruction, subtomogram alignment and averaging, classification, and postprocessing. We consider theoretical issues and practical considerations for each step in the workflow, along with descriptions of recent methodological advances and remaining limitations. PMID:27572733

  10. Initial Conditions in the Averaging Cognitive Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noventa, S.; Massidda, D.; Vidotto, G.

    2010-01-01

    The initial state parameters s[subscript 0] and w[subscript 0] are intricate issues of the averaging cognitive models in Information Integration Theory. Usually they are defined as a measure of prior information (Anderson, 1981; 1982) but there are no general rules to deal with them. In fact, there is no agreement as to their treatment except in…

  11. Averaging on Earth-Crossing Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronchi, G. F.; Milani, A.

    The orbits of planet-crossing asteroids (and comets) can undergo close approaches and collisions with some major planet. This introduces a singularity in the N-body Hamiltonian, and the averaging of the equations of motion, traditionally used to compute secular perturbations, is undefined. We show that it is possible to define in a rigorous way some generalised averaged equations of motion, in such a way that the generalised solutions are unique and piecewise smooth. This is obtained, both in the planar and in the three-dimensional case, by means of the method of extraction of the singularities by Kantorovich. The modified distance used to approximate the singularity is the one used by Wetherill in his method to compute probability of collision. Some examples of averaged dynamics have been computed; a systematic exploration of the averaged phase space to locate the secular resonances should be the next step. `Alice sighed wearily. ``I think you might do something better with the time'' she said, ``than waste it asking riddles with no answers'' (Alice in Wonderland, L. Carroll)

  12. Averaging models for linear piezostructural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Kurdila, A. J.; Stepanyan, V.; Inman, D. J.; Vignola, J.

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we consider a linear piezoelectric structure which employs a fast-switched, capacitively shunted subsystem to yield a tunable vibration absorber or energy harvester. The dynamics of the system is modeled as a hybrid system, where the switching law is considered as a control input and the ambient vibration is regarded as an external disturbance. It is shown that under mild assumptions of existence and uniqueness of the solution of this hybrid system, averaging theory can be applied, provided that the original system dynamics is periodic. The resulting averaged system is controlled by the duty cycle of a driven pulse-width modulated signal. The response of the averaged system approximates the performance of the original fast-switched linear piezoelectric system. It is analytically shown that the averaging approximation can be used to predict the electromechanically coupled system modal response as a function of the duty cycle of the input switching signal. This prediction is experimentally validated for the system consisting of a piezoelectric bimorph connected to an electromagnetic exciter. Experimental results show that the analytical predictions are observed in practice over a fixed "effective range" of switching frequencies. The same experiments show that the response of the switched system is insensitive to an increase in switching frequency above the effective frequency range.

  13. A Measure of the Average Intercorrelation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Edward P.

    1975-01-01

    Bounds are obtained for a coefficient proposed by Kaiser as a measure of average correlation and the coefficient is given an interpretation in the context of reliability theory. It is suggested that the root-mean-square intercorrelation may be a more appropriate measure of degree of relationships among a group of variables. (Author)

  14. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  15. Measuring Time-Averaged Blood Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothman, Neil S.

    1988-01-01

    Device measures time-averaged component of absolute blood pressure in artery. Includes compliant cuff around artery and external monitoring unit. Ceramic construction in monitoring unit suppresses ebb and flow of pressure-transmitting fluid in sensor chamber. Transducer measures only static component of blood pressure.

  16. Reformulation of Ensemble Averages via Coordinate Mapping.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Andrew J; Moustafa, Sabry G; Lin, Weisong; Weinstein, Steven J; Kofke, David A

    2016-04-12

    A general framework is established for reformulation of the ensemble averages commonly encountered in statistical mechanics. This "mapped-averaging" scheme allows approximate theoretical results that have been derived from statistical mechanics to be reintroduced into the underlying formalism, yielding new ensemble averages that represent exactly the error in the theory. The result represents a distinct alternative to perturbation theory for methodically employing tractable systems as a starting point for describing complex systems. Molecular simulation is shown to provide one appealing route to exploit this advance. Calculation of the reformulated averages by molecular simulation can proceed without contamination by noise produced by behavior that has already been captured by the approximate theory. Consequently, accurate and precise values of properties can be obtained while using less computational effort, in favorable cases, many orders of magnitude less. The treatment is demonstrated using three examples: (1) calculation of the heat capacity of an embedded-atom model of iron, (2) calculation of the dielectric constant of the Stockmayer model of dipolar molecules, and (3) calculation of the pressure of a Lennard-Jones fluid. It is observed that improvement in computational efficiency is related to the appropriateness of the underlying theory for the condition being simulated; the accuracy of the result is however not impacted by this. The framework opens many avenues for further development, both as a means to improve simulation methodology and as a new basis to develop theories for thermophysical properties. PMID:26950263

  17. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…

  18. 40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the new FEL. Manufacturers must test the motorcycles according to 40 CFR part 1051, subpart D...) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.449 Averaging provisions. (a) This section describes...

  19. Average configuration of the induced venus magnetotail

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D.J.; Spence, H.E.; Russell, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the interaction of the solar wind flow with Venus and describe the morphology of magnetic field line draping in the Venus magnetotail. In particular, we describe the importance of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) X-component in controlling the configuration of field draping in this induced magnetotail, and using the results of a recently developed technique, we examine the average magnetic configuration of this magnetotail. The derived J x B forces must balance the average, steady state acceleration of, and pressure gradients in, the tail plasma. From this relation the average tail plasma velocity, lobe and current sheet densities, and average ion temperature have been derived. In this study we extend these results by making a connection between the derived consistent plasma flow speed and density, and the observational energy/charge range and sensitivity of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) plasma analyzer, and demonstrate that if the tail is principally composed of O/sup +/, the bulk of the plasma should not be observable much of the time that the PVO is within the tail. Finally, we examine the importance of solar wind slowing upstream of the obstacle and its implications for the temperature of pick-up planetary ions, compare the derived ion temperatures with their theoretical maximum values, and discuss the implications of this process for comets and AMPTE-type releases.

  20. World average top-quark mass

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes a talk given at the Top2008 Workshop at La Biodola, Isola d Elba, Italy. The status of the world average top-quark mass is discussed. Some comments about the challanges facing the experiments in order to further improve the precision are offered.

  1. Why Johnny Can Be Average Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturrock, Alan

    1997-01-01

    During a (hypothetical) phone interview with a university researcher, an elementary principal reminisced about a lifetime of reading groups with unmemorable names, medium-paced math problems, patchworked social studies/science lessons, and totally "average" IQ and batting scores. The researcher hung up at the mention of bell-curved assembly lines…

  2. Orbit Averaging in Perturbed Planetary Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Glen R.

    2015-11-01

    The orbital period is typically much shorter than the time scale for dynamical evolution of large-scale structures in planetary rings. This large separation in time scales motivates the derivation of reduced models by averaging the equations of motion over the local orbit period (Borderies et al. 1985, Shu et al. 1985). A more systematic procedure for carrying out the orbit averaging is to use Lie transform perturbation theory to remove the dependence on the fast angle variable from the problem order-by-order in epsilon, where the small parameter epsilon is proportional to the fractional radial distance from exact resonance. This powerful technique has been developed and refined over the past thirty years in the context of gyrokinetic theory in plasma physics (Brizard and Hahm, Rev. Mod. Phys. 79, 2007). When the Lie transform method is applied to resonantly forced rings near a mean motion resonance with a satellite, the resulting orbit-averaged equations contain the nonlinear terms found previously, but also contain additional nonlinear self-gravity terms of the same order that were missed by Borderies et al. and by Shu et al. The additional terms result from the fact that the self-consistent gravitational potential of the perturbed rings modifies the orbit-averaging transformation at nonlinear order. These additional terms are the gravitational analog of electrostatic ponderomotive forces caused by large amplitude waves in plasma physics. The revised orbit-averaged equations are shown to modify the behavior of nonlinear density waves in planetary rings compared to the previously published theory. This reserach was supported by NASA's Outer Planets Reserach program.

  3. Effects of Three Months Fingolimod Therapy on Heart Rate.

    PubMed

    Simula, Sakari; Laitinen, Tomi; Laitinen, Tiina M; Tarkiainen, Tuula; Hartikainen, Juha E K; Hartikainen, Päivi

    2015-12-01

    Fingolimod is a novel disease-modifying drug for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Fingolimod initiation associates with a decrease in heart rate (HR). However, the long-term effects of fingolimod on HR are not known. The aim of this study was prospectively investigate the effect of 3-month fingolimod therapy on HR. Twenty-seven RRMS patients underwent 24-h ambulatory electrocardiogram recording 20 ± 16 days before (baseline) and at the day of fingolimod initiation (1 day). Twenty-four patients completed 3 months follow-up (3 months). The average HR over 24-h and the average HR for daytime and nighttime were assessed at baseline, 1 day and 3 months. Fingolimod initiation resulted in slowing of HR from 82 ± 11 1/min at baseline to 63 ± 9.5 1/min at 5 h after the initiation of the therapy. The average HR during 24-h was lower at 1d (66 ± 7.8 1/min;p < 0.001) and also at 3 months (69 ± 8.3 1/min;p < 0.001) as compared to baseline (74 ± 10 1/min). The average daytime HR at 1 day (68 ± 8.4 1/min) was lower as compared to baseline (78 ± 11 1/min, p < 0.001), whereas no difference was found between the average daytime HR at baseline and at 3 months (79 ± 10 1/min). The average nighttime HR at 1 day (59 ± 8.8 1/min;p < 0.001) and at 3 months (60 ± 9.2 1/min;p < 0.05) both were lower than at baseline (64 ± 9.9 1/min). In conclusion, fingolimod resulted in HR decrease reaching the nadir at 5 h after the first dose. HR remained lower after 3 months fingolimod treatment as compared to baseline. Particularly, HR at daytime recovered whereas the nighttime HR showed not recovery as compared to the day of fingolimod initiation. PMID:26092537

  4. Monthly energy review, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The Monthly Energy Review contains statistical data on the following: energy consumption, petroleum, natural gas, oil and gas resource development, coal, electricity, nuclear energy, energy prices, and international energy. In addition, an energy overview is provided, and, for the April issue, Energy use and carbon emissions; Some international comparisons.

  5. Natural gas monthly, July 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-03

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. A glossary is included. 7 figs., 33 tabs.

  6. Monthly energy review, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  7. "The Most Important Nine Months."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhine, Samuel A.

    1983-01-01

    "The Most Important Nine Months of Your Life" is a program that zeroes in on causes and prevention of birth defects. Program content and instructional strategies are discussed. Topics covered include: birth defects, genetic causes of birth defects, errors during development, environmental influences, and development. Includes list of preventive…

  8. Monthly energy review, June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-26

    The Monthly Energy Review presents current data on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities.

  9. Celebrating White Cane Awareness Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Judy; McGraw, Jane M.

    1995-01-01

    White Cane Awareness Month was created to teach the public that the long cane is a tool for maintaining independence and dignity and a symbol of freedom, not of pity or helplessness. Public relations materials were developed, including a demonstration for television stations on use of the long cane and a quiz to distribute at information booths.…

  10. Natural gas monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-05

    This report highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector oganizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. 33 tabs.

  11. Monthly energy review, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-25

    The Monthly Energy Review provides an overview of the production, distribution, and consumption of energy derived from petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. It also discusses oil and gas resource development, energy prices, and issues relevant to international energy markets.

  12. Monthly energy review, May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The Monthly Energy Review provides an overview of the production, distribution, and consumption of energy derived from petroleum natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. It also discusses oil and gas resource development, energy prices, and issues relevant to international energy markets.

  13. Monthly energy review, November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal and metric conversion factors are included.

  14. Monthly energy review, January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum,natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal metric conversion factors.

  15. Electric power monthly, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-20

    This report for March 1995, presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  16. Monthly energy review, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-24

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  17. Monthly energy review, December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-22

    This document provides data on monthly energy use and fossil fuels. The following sections are included: Highlights: Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1985--1990; Highlights: assessment of energy use in multibuilding facilities; energy overview; energy consumption; petroleum; natural gas; oil and gas resource development; coal; electricity; nuclear energy; energy prices; and international energy.

  18. Monthly energy review, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-29

    The Monthly Energy Review provides information on production, distribution, consumption, prices, imports, and exports for the following US energy sources: petroleum; petroleum products; natural gas; coal; electricity; and nuclear energy. The section on international energy contains data for world crude oil production and consumption, petroleum stocks in OECD countries, and nuclear electricity gross generation.

  19. Monthly energy review, July 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This document presents an overview of the recent monthly energy statistics from the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Statistical data covers activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for fossil fuels , nuclear energy, and electricity. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors.

  20. Monthly energy review, April 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This report presents an overview of monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. International energy and thermal metric conversion factors are included.

  1. Monthly energy review, October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-26

    The Monthly Energy Review gives information on production, distribution, and consumption for various energy sources, e.g. petroleum, natural gas, oil, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Some data is also included on international energy sources and supplies, the import of petroleum products into the US and pricing and reserves data (as applicable) for the various sources of energy listed above.

  2. Natural gas monthly, December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This document highlights activities, events, and analysis of interest to the public and private sector associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also included.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-28

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures ih the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas - - the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided firom other sources.

  5. Lidar uncertainty and beam averaging correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giyanani, A.; Bierbooms, W.; van Bussel, G.

    2015-05-01

    Remote sensing of the atmospheric variables with the use of Lidar is a relatively new technology field for wind resource assessment in wind energy. A review of the draft version of an international guideline (CD IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2) used for wind energy purposes is performed and some extra atmospheric variables are taken into account for proper representation of the site. A measurement campaign with two Leosphere vertical scanning WindCube Lidars and metmast measurements is used for comparison of the uncertainty in wind speed measurements using the CD IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2. The comparison revealed higher but realistic uncertainties. A simple model for Lidar beam averaging correction is demonstrated for understanding deviation in the measurements. It can be further applied for beam averaging uncertainty calculations in flat and complex terrain.

  6. Rigid shape matching by segmentation averaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhi; Oliensis, John

    2010-04-01

    We use segmentations to match images by shape. The new matching technique does not require point-to-point edge correspondence and is robust to small shape variations and spatial shifts. To address the unreliability of segmentations computed bottom-up, we give a closed form approximation to an average over all segmentations. Our method has many extensions, yielding new algorithms for tracking, object detection, segmentation, and edge-preserving smoothing. For segmentation, instead of a maximum a posteriori approach, we compute the "central" segmentation minimizing the average distance to all segmentations of an image. For smoothing, instead of smoothing images based on local structures, we smooth based on the global optimal image structures. Our methods for segmentation, smoothing, and object detection perform competitively, and we also show promising results in shape-based tracking. PMID:20224119

  7. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect

    Poelker, M.

    2013-11-07

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today’s CEBAF polarized source operating at ∼ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  8. Apparent and average accelerations of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Andersson, Lars E-mail: larsa@math.miami.edu

    2008-10-15

    In this paper we consider the relation between the volume deceleration parameter obtained within the Buchert averaging scheme and the deceleration parameter derived from supernova observation. This work was motivated by recent findings that showed that there are models which despite having {Lambda} = 0 have volume deceleration parameter q{sup vol}<0. This opens the possibility that back-reaction and averaging effects may be used as an interesting alternative explanation to the dark energy phenomenon. We have calculated q{sup vol} in some Lemaitre-Tolman models. For those models which are chosen to be realistic and which fit the supernova data, we find that q{sup vol}>0, while those models which we have been able to find which exhibit q{sup vol}<0 turn out to be unrealistic. This indicates that care must be exercised in relating the deceleration parameter to observations.

  9. Emissions averaging top option for HON compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, S. )

    1993-05-01

    In one of its first major rule-setting directives under the CAA Amendments, EPA recently proposed tough new emissions controls for nearly two-thirds of the commercial chemical substances produced by the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI). However, the Hazardous Organic National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (HON) also affects several non-SOCMI processes. The author discusses proposed compliance deadlines, emissions averaging, and basic operating and administrative requirements.

  10. The Average Velocity in a Queue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frette, Vidar

    2009-01-01

    A number of cars drive along a narrow road that does not allow overtaking. Each driver has a certain maximum speed at which he or she will drive if alone on the road. As a result of slower cars ahead, many cars are forced to drive at speeds lower than their maximum ones. The average velocity in the queue offers a non-trivial example of a mean…

  11. Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, M. K.; Bagchi, A.

    1998-11-15

    We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.

  12. Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrawal, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…

  13. Representation of average drop sizes in sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodge, Lee G.

    1987-06-01

    Procedures are presented for processing drop-size measurements to obtain average drop sizes that represent overall spray characteristics. These procedures are not currently in general use, but they would represent an improvement over current practice. Clear distinctions are made between processing data for spatial- and temporal-type measurements. The conversion between spatial and temporal measurements is discussed. The application of these procedures is demonstrated by processing measurements of the same spray by two different types of instruments.

  14. Digital Averaging Phasemeter for Heterodyne Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Donald; Spero, Robert; Shaklan, Stuart; Halverson, Peter; Kuhnert, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    A digital averaging phasemeter has been built for measuring the difference between the phases of the unknown and reference heterodyne signals in a heterodyne laser interferometer. This phasemeter performs well enough to enable interferometric measurements of distance with accuracy of the order of 100 pm and with the ability to track distance as it changes at a speed of as much as 50 cm/s. This phasemeter is unique in that it is a single, integral system capable of performing three major functions that, heretofore, have been performed by separate systems: (1) measurement of the fractional-cycle phase difference, (2) counting of multiple cycles of phase change, and (3) averaging of phase measurements over multiple cycles for improved resolution. This phasemeter also offers the advantage of making repeated measurements at a high rate: the phase is measured on every heterodyne cycle. Thus, for example, in measuring the relative phase of two signals having a heterodyne frequency of 10 kHz, the phasemeter would accumulate 10,000 measurements per second. At this high measurement rate, an accurate average phase determination can be made more quickly than is possible at a lower rate.

  15. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  16. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-08-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin. PMID:16078866

  17. Viewpoint: observations on scaled average bioequivalence.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Scott D; Jones, Byron

    2012-01-01

    The two one-sided test procedure (TOST) has been used for average bioequivalence testing since 1992 and is required when marketing new formulations of an approved drug. TOST is known to require comparatively large numbers of subjects to demonstrate bioequivalence for highly variable drugs, defined as those drugs having intra-subject coefficients of variation greater than 30%. However, TOST has been shown to protect public health when multiple generic formulations enter the marketplace following patent expiration. Recently, scaled average bioequivalence (SABE) has been proposed as an alternative statistical analysis procedure for such products by multiple regulatory agencies. SABE testing requires that a three-period partial replicate cross-over or full replicate cross-over design be used. Following a brief summary of SABE analysis methods applied to existing data, we will consider three statistical ramifications of the proposed additional decision rules and the potential impact of implementation of scaled average bioequivalence in the marketplace using simulation. It is found that a constraint being applied is biased, that bias may also result from the common problem of missing data and that the SABE methods allow for much greater changes in exposure when generic-generic switching occurs in the marketplace. PMID:22162308

  18. Towards combined global monthly gravity field solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeggi, Adrian; Meyer, Ulrich; Beutler, Gerhard; Weigelt, Matthias; van Dam, Tonie; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten; Flury, Jakob; Flechtner, Frank; Dahle, Christoph; Lemoine, Jean-Michel; Bruinsma, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Currently, official GRACE Science Data System (SDS) monthly gravity field solutions are generated independently by the Centre for Space Research (CSR) and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Additional GRACE SDS monthly fields are provided by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for validation and outside the SDS by a number of other institutions worldwide. Although the adopted background models and processing standards have been harmonized more and more by the various processing centers during the past years, notable differences still exist and the users are more or less left alone with a decision which model to choose for their individual applications. This procedure seriously limits the accessibility of these valuable data. Combinations are well established in the area of other space geodetic techniques, such as the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). Regularly comparing and combining space-geodetic products has tremendously increased the usefulness of the products in a wide range of disciplines and scientific applications. Therefore, we propose in a first step to mutually compare the large variety of available monthly GRACE gravity field solutions, e.g., by assessing the signal content over selected regions, by estimating the noise over the oceans, and by performing significance tests. We make the attempt to assign different solution characteristics to different processing strategies in order to identify subsets of solutions, which are based on similar processing strategies. Using these subsets we will in a second step explore ways to generate combined solutions, e.g., based on a weighted average of the individual solutions using empirical weights derived from pair-wise comparisons. We will also assess the quality of such a combined solution and discuss the potential benefits for the GRACE and GRACE-FO user community, but also address minimum processing

  19. Moving toward climate-informed agricultural decision support - can we use PRISM data for more than just monthly averages?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decision support systems/models for agriculture are varied in target application and complexity, ranging from simple worksheets to near real-time forecast systems requiring significant computational and manpower resources. Until recently, most such decision support systems have been constructed with...

  20. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  1. Monthly energy review, March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The Monthly Energy Review (MER) presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. Energy production during December 1997 totaled 5.9 quadrillion Btu, a 2.8 percent increase from the level of production during December 1996. Coal production increased 9.5 percent, natural gas production increased 3.9 percent, and production of crude oil and natural gas plant liquids decreased 1.1 percent. All other forms of energy production combined were down 6.9 percent from the level of production during December 1996.

  2. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  3. Petroleum marketing monthly, September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum product sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  4. Natural gas monthly, October 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-05

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) is prepared in the Data Operations Branch of the Reserves and Natural Gas Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration (EIA), US Department of Energy (DOE). The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The data in this publication are collected on surveys conducted by the EIA to fulfill its responsibilities for gathering and reporting energy data. Some of the data are collected under the authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), an independent commission within the DOE, which has jurisdiction primarily in the regulation of electric utilities and the interstate natural gas industry. Geographic coverage is the 50 States and the District of Columbia. 16 figs., 33 tabs.

  5. Natural Gas Monthly August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Natural Gas Monthly (NGM) highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information. Explanatory notes supplement the information found in tables of the report. A description of the data collection surveys that support the NGM is provided. A glossary of the terms used in this report is also provided to assist readers in understanding the data presented in this publication.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product Sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  7. Natural gas monthly, May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-24

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  8. Natural gas monthly, February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the NGM features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  9. Laser fusion monthly -- August 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-08-01

    This report documents the monthly progress for the laser fusion research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. First it gives facilities report for both the Shiva and Argus projects. Topics discussed include; laser system for the Nova Project; the fusion experiments analysis facility; optical/x-ray streak camera; Shiva Dante System temporal response; 2{omega}{sub 0} experiment; and planning for an ICF engineering test facility.

  10. Electric power monthly, May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and Stage agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities in Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  11. Natural gas monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The NGM highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. The NGM also features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

  12. Natural gas monthly, March 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The March 1998 edition of the Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. This report also features an article on the correction of errors in the drilling activity estimates series, and in-depth drilling activity data. 6 figs., 28 tabs.

  13. Introducing 'Image of the Month'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brian, Jones

    2016-04-01

    The Editors of Sedimentary Geology are pleased to announce the establishment of an 'Image of the Month', to appear in each issue of the journal. The idea is to publish outstanding examples of sedimentary features, at all scales, as a means of increasing their visibility and so promoting further discussion and exchange of ideas within the community. The image could be at the scale of satellite image, aerial photograph, outcrop, specimen or thin section.

  14. Monthly energy review, October 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This document presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided for oil and gas resource development. International energy statistics are given for petroleum production, consumption, and stocks, and for nuclear electricity gross generation. 37 figs., 61 tabs.

  15. Electric Power monthly, November 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This publication presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and state agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. Purpose is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. EIA collected the information in this report to fulfill its data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275) as amended.

  16. Monthly energy review, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-21

    This publication presents an overview of EIA`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of US production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Also included are international energy and thermal and metric conversion factors. An energy preview of alternative fuel providers vehicle fleet surveys is included. The publication is intended for use by members of Congress, Federal and State agencies, energy analysts, and the general public.

  17. Modeling monthly mean variation of the solar global irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vindel, J. M.; Polo, J.; Zarzalejo, L. F.

    2015-01-01

    The monthly mean variation of the solar global reaching the Earth's surface has been characterized at a global level by a regression model. This model considers the monthly variation itself (to different horizons and even the maximum annual variation) as the study variable, and it is applied without using data corresponding to measured meteorological variable. Two explicative variables have been used, the variation of the extraterrestrial irradiation and the variation of the clear sky global horizontal irradiation. The work has been carried out from datasets including average global daily solar irradiation for each month of the year measured on the ground. The model quality has been proven to be very dependent of the temporal variation considered, in such a way that higher variations, that is to say, higher distances between months, lead to an improvement in the model outcomes.

  18. Improving Reading Abilities of Average and Below Average Readers through Peer Tutoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galezio, Marne; And Others

    A program was designed to improve the progress of average and below average readers in a first-grade, a second-grade, and a sixth-grade classroom in a multicultural, multi-social economic district located in a three-county area northwest of Chicago, Illinois. Classroom teachers noted that students were having difficulty making adequate progress in…

  19. A Green's function quantum average atom model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Starrett, Charles Edward

    2015-05-21

    A quantum average atom model is reformulated using Green's functions. This allows integrals along the real energy axis to be deformed into the complex plane. The advantage being that sharp features such as resonances and bound states are broadened by a Lorentzian with a half-width chosen for numerical convenience. An implementation of this method therefore avoids numerically challenging resonance tracking and the search for weakly bound states, without changing the physical content or results of the model. A straightforward implementation results in up to a factor of 5 speed-up relative to an optimized orbital based code.

  20. Average shape of fluctuations for subdiffusive walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuste, S. B.; Acedo, L.

    2004-03-01

    We study the average shape of fluctuations for subdiffusive processes, i.e., processes with uncorrelated increments but where the waiting time distribution has a broad power-law tail. This shape is obtained analytically by means of a fractional diffusion approach. We find that, in contrast with processes where the waiting time between increments has finite variance, the fluctuation shape is no longer a semicircle: it tends to adopt a tablelike form as the subdiffusive character of the process increases. The theoretical predictions are compared with numerical simulation results.

  1. The averaging method in applied problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenikov, E. A.

    1986-04-01

    The totality of methods, allowing to research complicated non-linear oscillating systems, named in the literature "averaging method" has been given. THe author is describing the constructive part of this method, or a concrete form and corresponding algorithms, on mathematical models, sufficiently general , but built on concrete problems. The style of the book is that the reader interested in the Technics and algorithms of the asymptotic theory of the ordinary differential equations, could solve individually such problems. For specialists in the area of applied mathematics and mechanics.

  2. Auto-exploratory average reward reinforcement learning

    SciTech Connect

    Ok, DoKyeong; Tadepalli, P.

    1996-12-31

    We introduce a model-based average reward Reinforcement Learning method called H-learning and compare it with its discounted counterpart, Adaptive Real-Time Dynamic Programming, in a simulated robot scheduling task. We also introduce an extension to H-learning, which automatically explores the unexplored parts of the state space, while always choosing greedy actions with respect to the current value function. We show that this {open_quotes}Auto-exploratory H-learning{close_quotes} performs better than the original H-learning under previously studied exploration methods such as random, recency-based, or counter-based exploration.

  3. Mineral of the month: gypsum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Founie, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The earliest known use of gypsum as a building material was in Anatolia (in what is now Turkey) around 6000 B.C. It has been found on the interiors of the great pyramids in Egypt, which were erected in about 3700 B.C. Now an average new American home contains more than 7 metric tons of gypsum in the form of more than 6,000 square feet of wallboard.

  4. 14-Deoxy-11,12-dehydroandrographolide exerts anti-influenza A virus activity and inhibits replication of H5N1 virus by restraining nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein complexes.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wentao; Li, Yongtao; Chen, Sunrui; Wang, Mengli; Zhang, Anding; Zhou, Hongbo; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2015-06-01

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus has become a worldwide public health threat, and current antiviral therapies have limited activity against the emerging, resistant influenza viruses. Therefore, effective drugs with novel targets against influenza A viruses, H5N1 strains in particular, should be developed. In the present study, 14-deoxy-11,12-dehydroandrographolide (DAP), a major component of the traditional Chinese medicine Andrographis paniculata, exerted potent anti-influenza A virus activity against A/chicken/Hubei/327/2004 (H5N1), A/duck/Hubei/XN/2007 (H5N1), A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/NanChang/08/2010 (H1N1) and A/HuNan/01/2014 (H3N2) in vitro. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, a series of experiments was conducted using A/chicken/Hubei/327/2004 (H5N1) as an example. Our results demonstrated that DAP strongly inhibited H5N1 replication by reducing the production of viral nucleoprotein (NP) mRNA, NP and NS1proteins, whereas DAP had no effect on the absorption and release of H5N1 towards/from A549 cells. DAP also effectively restrained the nuclear export of viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complexes. This inhibitory effect ought to be an important anti-H5N1 mechanism of DAP. Meanwhile, DAP significantly reduced the upregulated expression of all the tested proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-α, IL-1β and IFN-β) and chemokines (CXCL-10 and CCL-2) stimulated by H5N1. Overall results suggest that DAP impairs H5N1 replication at least in part by restraining nuclear export of vRNP complexes, and the inhibition of viral replication leads to a subsequent decrease of the intense proinflammatory cytokine/chemokine expression. In turn, the effect of modification of the host excessive immune response may contribute to overcoming H5N1. To our knowledge, this study is the first to reveal the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of DAP in vitro against H5N1 influenza A virus infection. PMID:25800824

  5. Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltshire, David L.

    2009-12-15

    We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.

  6. MACHINE PROTECTION FOR HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LINACS

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Kevin; Allison, Trent; Evans, Richard; Coleman, James; Grippo, Albert

    2003-05-01

    A fully integrated Machine Protection System (MPS) is critical to efficient commissioning and safe operation of all high current accelerators. The Jefferson Lab FEL [1,2] has multiple electron beam paths and many different types of diagnostic insertion devices. The MPS [3] needs to monitor both the status of these devices and the magnet settings which define the beam path. The matrix of these devices and beam paths are programmed into gate arrays, the output of the matrix is an allowable maximum average power limit. This power limit is enforced by the drive laser for the photocathode gun. The Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs), RF status, and laser safety system status are also inputs to the control matrix. There are 8 Machine Modes (electron path) and 8 Beam Modes (average power limits) that define the safe operating limits for the FEL. Combinations outside of this matrix are unsafe and the beam is inhibited. The power limits range from no beam to 2 megawatts of electron beam power.

  7. Climatology of globally averaged thermospheric mass density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmert, J. T.; Picone, J. M.

    2010-09-01

    We present a climatological analysis of daily globally averaged density data, derived from orbit data and covering the years 1967-2007, along with an empirical Global Average Mass Density Model (GAMDM) that encapsulates the 1986-2007 data. The model represents density as a function of the F10.7 solar radio flux index, the day of year, and the Kp geomagnetic activity index. We discuss in detail the dependence of the data on each of the input variables, and demonstrate that all of the terms in the model represent consistent variations in both the 1986-2007 data (on which the model is based) and the independent 1967-1985 data. We also analyze the uncertainty in the results, and quantify how the variance in the data is apportioned among the model terms. We investigate the annual and semiannual variations of the data and quantify the amplitude, height dependence, solar cycle dependence, and interannual variability of these oscillatory modes. The auxiliary material includes Fortran 90 code for evaluating GAMDM.

  8. Petroleum marketing monthly, November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed costs of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  9. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-22

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, education institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  10. Petroleum marketing monthly, January 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiner`s acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-10

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-12

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  14. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-15

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented.

  15. Petroleum marketing monthly, August 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-07

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) is designed to give information and statistical data about a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 12 figs., 49 tabs.

  16. Monthly energy review, September 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This publication presents an overview of the Energy Information Administration`s recent monthly energy statistics. The statistics cover the major activities of U.S. production, consumption, trade, stocks, and prices for petroleum, natural gas, coal, electricity, and nuclear energy. Information is also provided on international energy, including petroleum production, consumption, and stocks and nuclear electricity gross generation. This issues provides a brief industry overview and a detailed analysis of the spring 1996 gasoline price runup, crude oil supply issues, U.S. crude oil imports, petroleum stocks, futures markets, refining cash margin trends, and the financial performance of U.S. refining and marketing firms. 37 figs., 73 tabs.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly: December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Data are presented which describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. Data are presented in two sections: Summary Statistics, presenting a time series of selected petroleum data on a U.S. level, and Detailed Statistics, presenting statistics for the most current month available as well as year to date.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly presents data describing the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders; operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. Data are divided into two sections: Summary statistics and Detailed statistics.

  20. Electric Power Monthly with data for July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This publication provides monthly statistics at the state, census division, and U.S. levels for net generation; fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity, and quality of fossil fuels; cost of fossil fuels; electricity retail sales; associated revenue; and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council regions. Statistics on net generation are published by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The monthly update is summarized, and industry developments are briefly described. 57 tabs.

  1. Electric power monthly, February 1999 with data for November 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    The Electric Power Monthly presents monthly electricity statistics for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead. Statistics are provided for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatt-hour of electricity sold.

  2. Electric power monthly, February 1998 with data for November 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Electric Power Monthly (EPM) provides monthly statistics at the State, Census division, and US levels for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity retail sales, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. In addition, data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source; consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. 63 tabs.

  3. Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng

    2014-01-01

    The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition. PMID:24895648

  4. Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Caponi, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine. PMID:23970171

  5. Average power laser experiment (APLE) design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazzoli, C. G.; Rodenburg, R. E.; Dowell, D. H.; Greegor, R. B.; Kennedy, R. C.; Romero, J. B.; Siciliano, J. A.; Tong, K.-O.; Vetter, A. M.; Adamski, J. L.; Pistoresi, D. J.; Shoffstall, D. R.; Quimby, D. C.

    1992-07-01

    We describe the details and the design requirements for the 100 kW CW radio frequency free electron laser at 10 μm to be built at Boeing Aerospace and Electronics Division in Seattle with the collaboration of Los Alamos National Laboratory. APLE is a single-accelerator master-oscillator and power-amplifier (SAMOPA) device. The goal of this experiment is to demonstrate a fully operational RF-FEL at 10 μm with an average power of 100 kW. The approach and wavelength were chosen on the basis of maximum cost effectiveness, including utilization of existing hardware and reasonable risk, and potential for future applications. Current plans call for an initial oscillator power demonstration in the fall of 1994 and full SAMOPA operation by December 1995.

  6. Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-02-01

    We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.

  7. Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing. The calculations discussed here test more detailed aspects of the interaction. They indicate that SBIs can efficiently remove about 50% of the RVs from a heavy missile attack. The next 30% can removed with two-fold less effectiveness. The next 10% could double constellation sizes. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  8. Average prime-pair counting formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korevaar, Jaap; Riele, Herman Te

    2010-04-01

    Taking r>0 , let π_{2r}(x) denote the number of prime pairs (p, p+2r) with p≤ x . The prime-pair conjecture of Hardy and Littlewood (1923) asserts that π_{2r}(x)˜ 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) with an explicit constant C_{2r}>0 . There seems to be no good conjecture for the remainders ω_{2r}(x)=π_{2r}(x)- 2C_{2r} {li}_2(x) that corresponds to Riemann's formula for π(x)-{li}(x) . However, there is a heuristic approximate formula for averages of the remainders ω_{2r}(x) which is supported by numerical results.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  10. The balanced survivor average causal effect.

    PubMed

    Greene, Tom; Joffe, Marshall; Hu, Bo; Li, Liang; Boucher, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis of longitudinal outcomes is often complicated by the absence of observable values in patients who die prior to their scheduled measurement. In such cases, the longitudinal data are said to be "truncated by death" to emphasize that the longitudinal measurements are not simply missing, but are undefined after death. Recently, the truncation by death problem has been investigated using the framework of principal stratification to define the target estimand as the survivor average causal effect (SACE), which in the context of a two-group randomized clinical trial is the mean difference in the longitudinal outcome between the treatment and control groups for the principal stratum of always-survivors. The SACE is not identified without untestable assumptions. These assumptions have often been formulated in terms of a monotonicity constraint requiring that the treatment does not reduce survival in any patient, in conjunction with assumed values for mean differences in the longitudinal outcome between certain principal strata. In this paper, we introduce an alternative estimand, the balanced-SACE, which is defined as the average causal effect on the longitudinal outcome in a particular subset of the always-survivors that is balanced with respect to the potential survival times under the treatment and control. We propose a simple estimator of the balanced-SACE that compares the longitudinal outcomes between equivalent fractions of the longest surviving patients between the treatment and control groups and does not require a monotonicity assumption. We provide expressions for the large sample bias of the estimator, along with sensitivity analyses and strategies to minimize this bias. We consider statistical inference under a bootstrap resampling procedure. PMID:23658214

  11. Averaged implicit hydrodynamic model of semiflexible filaments.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Preethi L; Mofrad, Mohammad R K

    2010-03-01

    We introduce a method to incorporate hydrodynamic interaction in a model of semiflexible filament dynamics. Hydrodynamic screening and other hydrodynamic interaction effects lead to nonuniform drag along even a rigid filament, and cause bending fluctuations in semiflexible filaments, in addition to the nonuniform Brownian forces. We develop our hydrodynamics model from a string-of-beads idealization of filaments, and capture hydrodynamic interaction by Stokes superposition of the solvent flow around beads. However, instead of the commonly used first-order Stokes superposition, we do an equivalent of infinite-order superposition by solving for the true relative velocity or hydrodynamic velocity of the beads implicitly. We also avoid the computational cost of the string-of-beads idealization by assuming a single normal, parallel and angular hydrodynamic velocity over sections of beads, excluding the beads at the filament ends. We do not include the end beads in the averaging and solve for them separately instead, in order to better resolve the drag profiles along the filament. A large part of the hydrodynamic drag is typically concentrated at the filament ends. The averaged implicit hydrodynamics methods can be easily incorporated into a string-of-rods idealization of semiflexible filaments that was developed earlier by the authors. The earlier model was used to solve the Brownian dynamics of semiflexible filaments, but without hydrodynamic interactions incorporated. We validate our current model at each stage of development, and reproduce experimental observations on the mean-squared displacement of fluctuating actin filaments . We also show how hydrodynamic interaction confines a fluctuating actin filament between two stationary lateral filaments. Finally, preliminary examinations suggest that a large part of the observed velocity in the interior segments of a fluctuating filament can be attributed to induced solvent flow or hydrodynamic screening. PMID:20365783

  12. The entropy in finite N-unit nonextensive systems: The normal average and q-average

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hideo

    2010-09-01

    We discuss the Tsallis entropy in finite N-unit nonextensive systems by using the multivariate q-Gaussian probability distribution functions (PDFs) derived by the maximum entropy methods with the normal average and the q-average (q: the entropic index). The Tsallis entropy obtained by the q-average has an exponential N dependence: Sq(N)/N≃e(1-q)NS1(1) for large N (≫1/(1-q)>0). In contrast, the Tsallis entropy obtained by the normal average is given by Sq(N)/N≃[1/(q-1)N] for large N (≫1/(q -1)>0). N dependences of the Tsallis entropy obtained by the q- and normal averages are generally quite different, although both results are in fairly good agreement for |q -1|≪1.0. The validity of the factorization approximation (FA) to PDFs, which has been commonly adopted in the literature, has been examined. We have calculated correlations defined by Cm=⟨(δxiδxj)m⟩-⟨(δxi)m⟩⟨(δxj)m⟩ for i ≠j where δxi=xi-⟨xi⟩, and the bracket ⟨ṡ⟩ stands for the normal and q-averages. The first-order correlation (m =1) expresses the intrinsic correlation and higher-order correlations with m ≥2 include nonextensivity-induced correlation, whose physical origin is elucidated in the superstatistics.

  13. DEVELOMENT AND EVALUATION OF A MODEL FOR ESTIMATING LONG-TERM AVERAGE OZONE EXPOSURES TO CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Long-term average exposures of school-age children can be modelled using longitudinal measurements collected during the Harvard Southern California Chronic Ozone Exposure Study over a 12-month period: June, 1995-May, 1996. The data base contains over 200 young children with perso...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1574a - When and how we will average your earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When and how we will average your earnings... secretary in a banking firm. Mrs. H. worked 20 hours a week, without any subsidy or impairment-related work..., and the following 2 months (April 1997 and May 1997) because disability benefits terminate the...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1574a - When and how we will average your earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When and how we will average your earnings... secretary in a banking firm. Mrs. H. worked 20 hours a week, without any subsidy or impairment-related work..., and the following 2 months (April 1997 and May 1997) because disability benefits terminate the...

  16. 40 CFR 63.7522 - Can I use emission averaging to comply with this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of pounds per million Btu of heat input. Hm = Maximum rated heat input capacity of boiler, i, in... to calculate the monthly average weighted emission rate using the actual heat capacity for each... particulate matter or TSM, HCl, or mercury, in units of pounds per million Btu of heat input. Er =...

  17. Gridded monthly temperatures over Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fioravanti, G.; Toreti, A.; Fraschetti, P.; Perconti, W.; Desiato, F.

    2010-09-01

    Temperature data represent a relevant source of information for environmental modelling, which usually relies on the availability of regularly distributed datasets. The CRU and the E-OBS archives are two examples of large-scale gridded products available for temperature. In order to fill the gap of having such a dataset freely available at national level, a high resolution (1 km) dataset for the whole Italian territory has been realized, made up of gridded monthly mean temperatures over Italy from 1961 to 2008. Available temperature data are provided by several national and regional networks and are consequently rather discontinuous in time and inhomogeneous in space. For this reason, our approach is based on the use of all data available for each month; this choice limits the consistency of gridded temperatures as time series but guarantees the best possible spatial estimate for each time period. The space interpolation was implemented by means of regression-kriging, a well-known geostatistical approach. Regression kriging is a variant of kriging interpolation which allows to exploit the auxiliary information provided by external variables. In this work, altitude and latitude of the input weather stations were found to be strongly correlated with temperature data and used as independent variables in the regression model. Ordinary kriging was then applied to describe the spatial correlation structure of the regression residuals. For each map, the most appropriate variogram function was estimated by means of an objective algorithm. In order to evaluate the quality of each interpolated surface, a cross validation analysis was performed, whose results were evaluated in terms of root mean square error, mean absolute error and mean squared deviation ratio. RMSE ranges between 1.0 and 1.5 °C, and improves, as expected, over the last years when a greater number of stations are available. The RMSE as function of the season was investigated as well. The monthly maps were

  18. Conditional Generation of Monthly Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, U.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    2006-12-01

    Monthly precipitation models can be used in basin-wide modeling to develop long-term strategies for water resources planning and management and to estimate the change of water yield due to climate change. Such precipitation models are especially important for effective management of river basins in developing countries such as the upper Blue Nile River basin of Ethiopia where the water resource utilization is limited. Many studies have been previously performed to preserve historical temporal and spatial structures when generating precipitation series. The main focus of those studies was to preserve the historical statistics. Other important factors to be considered are transition and spatial correlations. A few recent studies attempted to preserve transition as well as the statistics of historical record. These studies provided satisfactory results while showing the difficulty and complexity of computations in their methods. The conditional generation method (CGM) that can preserve both historical temporal and spatial structures is presented in this study. Because the CGM is driven from the historical conditional probabilities occurring given amounts of precipitation between two successive months or two stations, it is computationally simple and reliable, i.e., parameterization, inverse matrix, or optimum band width is not required. The CGM was applied to reproducing the precipitation pattern of the upper Blue Nile River basin in Ethiopia using monthly precipitation data of 10 stations to demonstrate its applicability. Comparing to the method of inverse transformation of cumulative distribution functions of the gamma distribution and nonparametric kernel estimator with variable band width selected from the goodness-of-fit tests, the CGM showed improved performance, especially in representing the transition characteristics. The CGM also generated the historical spatial correlations between the stations with acceptable accuracy. The results suggested that the CGM

  19. Petroleum marketing monthly, March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-10

    This report for March 1995, provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly. A glossary is included.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.