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Sample records for 11-nif dedication dianne

  1. 11-NIF Dedication: Dianne Feinstein

    ScienceCinema

    U.S. Senator Dianne Feinstein

    2016-07-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by U.S. Senator Dianne Feinstein of California.

  2. 11-NIF Dedication: Dianne Feinstein

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Senator Dianne Feinstein

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by U.S. Senator Dianne Feinstein of California.

  3. Obituary: Dianne K. Prinz, 1938-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, John William; Howard, Russell Alfred

    2003-12-01

    Dr. Dianne Kasnic Prinz died 12 October 2002 at the Hospice of Northern Virginia after a long struggle with lymphatic cancer. She worked for over 29 years until retirement at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC on sounding rocket, space shuttle, and satellite experiments to observe the Sun at ultraviolet wavelengths from space. Dianne Prinz was born 29 September 1938. She received her BS degree from the University of Pittsburgh in 1960, and a PhD in Physics from Johns Hopkins University in 1967, where she was a University Fellow 1960--1964 and a Gilman Fellow 1960--1963. She was a Research Associate in the Physics Department of the University of Maryland 1967--1971 and, from 1971 until her retirement in February 2001, she was a Research Physicist at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). At the time of her retirement she was Head of the Solar Radiation Section, Solar Physics Branch, Space Science Division of the Naval Research Laboratory and was supervising the work of a team of scientists that was operating the SUSIM (Solar Ultraviolet Irradiance Monitor) experiment on the UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) spacecraft as well as reducing and analyzing the observations. Dianne was a member of the Washington Academy of Science (elected 1976 and Fellow 1987), served as Vice President of the National Capital Section of the Optical Society of America (1976), and received the Navy Award of Merit for Group Achievement (1985), the NASA Public Service Group Achievement Award (1987), and the Navy Meritorious Civilian Service Award (2001). Her professional memberships included the American Astronomical Society and its Solar Physics Division, the American Geophysical Union, and Sigma Xi. She had over 60 publications in her scientific bibliography. Early in her career at NRL, Dianne developed a Lyman alpha spectroheliograph sounding rocket payload. Launching at White Sands Missile Range in 1972, she obtained high spatial resolution (for that day) full disk

  4. Sense of Place and Displacement: Exploring International Places in the Writing of Dianne Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This article profiles South African author Dianne Case, whose works are herein recommended to American children to gain a sense of what life was and, in some respects, still is like for many people in that country. Themes surrounding apartheid that pervade Case's stories echo many of her own life experiences. Case asserts that although young…

  5. Press Site Auditorium dedicated to John Holliman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin hands Mrs. Dianne Holliman a plaque honoring her late husband, John Holliman, a CNN national correspondent. Standing behind Goldin is Center Director Roy Bridges. At right is Tom Johnson, news group chairman of CNN. A ceremony dedicated the KSC Press Site auditorium as the John Holliman Auditorium to honor the correspondent for his enthusiastic, dedicated coverage of America's space program. The auditorium was built in 1980 and has been the focal point for new coverage of Space Shuttle launches. The ceremony followed the 94th launch of a Space Shuttle, on mission STS-96, earlier this morning.

  6. Press Site Auditorium dedicated to John Holliman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    From left, Center Director Roy Bridges and NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin applaud as Jay Holliman, with the help of his mother, Mrs. Dianne Holliman, unveils a plaque honoring his father, the late John Holliman. At right is Tom Johnson, news group chairman of CNN. The occasion was the dedication of the KSC Press Site auditorium as the John Holliman Auditorium to honor the CNN national correspondent for his enthusiastic, dedicated coverage of America's space program. The auditorium was built in 1980 and has been the focal point for new coverage of Space Shuttle launches. The ceremony followed the 94th launch of a Space Shuttle, on mission STS-96, earlier this morning.

  7. Dedicated Deployable Aerobraking Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giersch, Louis R.; Knarr, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A dedicated deployable aerobraking structure concept was developed that significantly increases the effective area of a spacecraft during aerobraking by up to a factor of 5 or more (depending on spacecraft size) without substantially increasing total spacecraft mass. Increasing the effective aerobraking area of a spacecraft (without significantly increasing spacecraft mass) results in a corresponding reduction in the time required for aerobraking. For example, if the effective area of a spacecraft is doubled, the time required for aerobraking is roughly reduced to half the previous value. The dedicated deployable aerobraking structure thus enables significantly shorter aerobraking phases, which results in reduced mission cost, risk, and allows science operations to begin earlier in the mission.

  8. Saturn V Dedication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A replica of the Saturn V rocket that propelled man from the confines of Earth's gravity to the surface of the Moon was built on the grounds of the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL. in time for the 30th arniversary celebration of that historic occasion. Marshall Space Flight Center and its team of German rocket scientists headed by Dr. Wernher von Braun were responsible for the design and development of the Saturn V rocket. Pictured are MSFC's current Center Director Art Stephenson, Alabama Congressman Bud Cramer, and NASA Administrator Dan Goldin during the dedication ceremony.

  9. Saturn V Dedication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A replica of the Saturn V rocket that propelled man from the confines of Earth's gravity to the surface of the Moon was built on the grounds of the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL. in time for the 30th arniversary celebration of that historic occasion. Marshall Space Flight Center and its team of German rocket scientists headed by Dr. Wernher von Braun were responsible for the design and development of the Saturn V rocket. Pictured are MSFC's current Center Director Art Stephenson, Alabama Congressman Bud Cramer, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin, and director of the U. S. Space and Rocket Center Mike Wing during the dedication ceremony.

  10. Marine Science Building Dedicated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Officials cut the ribbon during dedication ceremonies of the George A. Knauer Marine Science Building on Oct. 17 at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC). The $2.75 million facility, the first building at the test site funded by the state of Mississippi, houses six science labs, classrooms and office space for 40 faculty and staff. Pictured are, from left, Rear Adm. Thomas Donaldson, commander of the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command; SSC Assistant Director David Throckmorton; Dr. George A. Knauer, founder of the Center of Marine Science at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM); Lt. Gov. Amy Tuck; and USM President Dr. Shelby Thames.

  11. Dedication - Susan L Greenblatt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guberman, Steven L.

    2011-07-01

    Photo of Susan L Greenblatt Figure 1. Susan in May, 1994 This volume is dedicated to the memory of Susan L Greenblatt, the wife of Steven L Guberman. Susan attended 6 of the 8 dissociative recombination (DR) meetings. Her advice and wise counsel played a vital role in the organization of several of these meetings. The fifth meeting in Chicago in 2001 was her idea and it would not have occurred without her encouragement. Susan was always amused by the memory of the first group dinner at the second DR meeting at St Jacut in 1992. As we went around the dinner table identifying ourselves, it soon became her turn. Susan was a sociologist and after introducing herself she said: "I am not a chemist". A spontaneous chorus of attendees proclaimed "Neither are we!". Her husband and a few other chemists abstained. In 1983, Susan and I established the Institute for Scientific Research (ISR). The name was chosen so as to span sociology and chemical physics. Four years prior, an ophthalmologist had diagnosed a rare retinal condition of unknown origin and advised her to change her profession to one that did not involve reading. (She was able to read for the rest of her life.) Twenty years later we learned that the cause of the retinal and all her other health problems was a recently discovered rare mitochondrial mutation. Her experience with ophthalmologists and her life-long keen sense of injustice, led her to write a grant proposal to the US Department of Education to survey all ophthalmologists in the US to determine whether they were aware of and whether they told their patients about resources and aids that could help them to continue reading and participating in everyday activities. As part of the grant and based upon the survey results, she proposed to set up low-vision training programs for ophthalmology residents. We knew that the competition for funding was intense and included several well-known and more established organizations. Nevertheless, the proposal was funded

  12. 09-NIF Dedication: Arnold Schwarzenegger

    ScienceCinema

    Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger

    2016-07-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger.

  13. 10-NIF Dedication: Ellen Tauscher

    ScienceCinema

    Congresswoman Ellen Tauscher

    2016-07-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Congresswoman Ellen Tauscher, of California's 10th district, which includes Livermore.

  14. 01-NIF Dedication: George Miller

    ScienceCinema

    George Miller

    2016-07-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Lab Director George Miller.

  15. 08-NIF Dedication: Zoe Lofgren

    ScienceCinema

    Congresswoman Zoe Lofgren

    2016-07-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Congresswoman Zoe Lofgren, of California's 16th district.

  16. 02-NIF Dedication: Edward Moses

    ScienceCinema

    Edward Moses

    2016-07-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by NIF Director Edward Moses.

  17. 02-NIF Dedication: Edward Moses

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Moses

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by NIF Director Edward Moses.

  18. 01-NIF Dedication: George Miller

    SciTech Connect

    George Miller

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Lab Director George Miller.

  19. 10-NIF Dedication: Ellen Tauscher

    SciTech Connect

    Congresswoman Ellen Tauscher

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Congresswoman Ellen Tauscher, of California's 10th district, which includes Livermore.

  20. 08-NIF Dedication: Zoe Lofgren

    SciTech Connect

    Congresswoman Zoe Lofgren

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Congresswoman Zoe Lofgren, of California's 16th district.

  1. 09-NIF Dedication: Arnold Schwarzenegger

    SciTech Connect

    Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger.

  2. 03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz

    ScienceCinema

    Norm Pattiz

    2016-07-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. 06-NIF Dedication: Steven Koonin

    ScienceCinema

    Steven Koonin

    2016-07-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Steven Koonin, the undersecretary for science of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. 06-NIF Dedication: Steven Koonin

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Koonin

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Steven Koonin, the undersecretary for science of the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. 03-NIF Dedication: Norm Pattiz

    SciTech Connect

    Norm Pattiz

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Norm Pattiz, the chairman of Lawrence Livermore National Security, which manages Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  6. Wind profiler dedicated in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, Ken

    A dedication ceremony was recently held in Biak, Indonesia, to commemorate the opening of the Biak VHF wind profiler. The wind profiler, which operates at 50 MHz, was constructed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Aeronomy Laboratory in cooperation with the Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN). The Biak facility completes the NOAA'Colorado University trans-Pacific wind-profiler network. Other stations in the network, which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation, are Piura, Peru; Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia; and Christmas Island in Kirabati. The Christmas Island facility is supported by NOAA's Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Program Project Office.

  7. Press Site Auditorium dedicated to John Holliman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A ceremony dedicated the KSC Press Site auditorium as the John Holliman Auditorium to honor the correspondent for his enthusiastic, dedicated coverage of America's space program. The auditorium was built in 1980 and has been the focal point for new coverage of Space Shuttle launches. The ceremony followed the 94th launch of a Space Shuttle, on mission STS-96, earlier this morning.

  8. 12-NIF Dedication: Concluding remarks and video

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Moses

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the concluding remarks by NIF Director Edward Moses, and a brief video presentation.

  9. 12-NIF Dedication: Concluding remarks and video

    ScienceCinema

    Edward Moses

    2016-07-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the concluding remarks by NIF Director Edward Moses, and a brief video presentation.

  10. Breast-Dedicated Radionuclide Imaging Systems.

    PubMed

    Hsu, David F C; Freese, David L; Levin, Craig S

    2016-02-01

    Breast-dedicated radionuclide imaging systems show promise for increasing clinical sensitivity for breast cancer while minimizing patient dose and cost. We present several breast-dedicated coincidence-photon and single-photon camera designs that have been described in the literature and examine their intrinsic performance, clinical relevance, and impact. Recent tracer development is mentioned, results from recent clinical tests are summarized, and potential areas for improvement are highlighted.

  11. Is there a need for dedicated devices?

    PubMed

    Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; Grundeken, Maik J; Stankovic, Goran; Di Mario, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Although the provisional approach is recommended over a systematic two-stent approach in bifurcation lesions, an a priori two-stent approach may be considered in certain specific anatomies in a minority of cases. Virtual bench test and intravascular imaging studies have provided essential insights into the technical aspects of bifurcation stenting and led to recommendations on how to optimise both the provisional and the two-stent strategies. Dedicated bifurcation stents may further optimise the procedural and clinical outcomes of both strategies. However, randomised data are sparse and more randomised trials are needed to provide evidence as to whether these dedicated devices will indeed improve procedural and clinical outcomes.

  12. Dedicated herbaceous biomass feedstock genetics and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofuels and bio-based products can be produced from a wide variety of plant feedstocks. To supply enough biomass to meet the proposed need for a bio-based economy a suite of dedicated biomass species must be developed to accommodate a range of growing environments throughout the United States. Re...

  13. 07-NIF Dedication: Jerry McNerney

    ScienceCinema

    Congressman Jerry McNerney

    2016-07-12

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Congressman Jerry McNerney, of California's 11th district, which adjoins Livermore.

  14. 07-NIF Dedication: Jerry McNerney

    SciTech Connect

    Congressman Jerry McNerney

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Congressman Jerry McNerney, of California's 11th district, which adjoins Livermore.

  15. 05-NIF Dedication: Tom D'Agostino

    SciTech Connect

    Tom D'Agostino,

    2009-07-02

    The National Ignition Facility, the world's largest laser system, was dedicated at a ceremony on May 29, 2009 at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These are the remarks by Tom D'Agostino, the administrator of the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration.

  16. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards. (a) Cargo tanks that are designated as dedicated clean ballast...

  17. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1439 - Dedicated pile drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated pile drivers. 1926.1439 Section 1926.1439 Labor... Dedicated pile drivers. (a) The provisions of subpart CC apply to dedicated pile drivers, except as...) Section 1926.1416(e)(4) (Load weighing and similar devices) applies only to dedicated pile...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1439 - Dedicated pile drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated pile drivers. 1926.1439 Section 1926.1439 Labor... Dedicated pile drivers. (a) The provisions of subpart CC apply to dedicated pile drivers, except as...) Section 1926.1416(e)(4) (Load weighing and similar devices) applies only to dedicated pile...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1439 - Dedicated pile drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated pile drivers. 1926.1439 Section 1926.1439 Labor... Dedicated pile drivers. (a) The provisions of subpart CC apply to dedicated pile drivers, except as...) Section 1926.1416(e)(4) (Load weighing and similar devices) applies only to dedicated pile...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1439 - Dedicated pile drivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated pile drivers. 1926.1439 Section 1926.1439 Labor... Dedicated pile drivers. (a) The provisions of subpart CC apply to dedicated pile drivers, except as...) Section 1926.1416(e)(4) (Load weighing and similar devices) applies only to dedicated pile...

  2. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  3. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  4. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  5. 33 CFR 157.218 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.218 Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Alterations. The dedicated clean ballast tanks or equipment on a tank vessel that has...

  6. Dedicated 3D photoacoustic breast imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Robert A.; Kuzmiak, Cherie M.; Lam, Richard B.; Reinecke, Daniel R.; Del Rio, Stephen P.; Steed, Doreen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report the design and imaging methodology of a photoacoustic scanner dedicated to imaging hemoglobin distribution throughout a human breast. Methods: The authors developed a dedicated breast photoacoustic mammography (PAM) system using a spherical detector aperture based on our previous photoacoustic tomography scanner. The system uses 512 detectors with rectilinear scanning. The scan shape is a spiral pattern whose radius varies from 24 to 96 mm, thereby allowing a field of view that accommodates a wide range of breast sizes. The authors measured the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) using a target comprised of 1-mm dots printed on clear plastic. Each dot absorption coefficient was approximately the same as a 1-mm thickness of whole blood at 756 nm, the output wavelength of the Alexandrite laser used by this imaging system. The target was immersed in varying depths of an 8% solution of stock Liposyn II-20%, which mimics the attenuation of breast tissue (1.1 cm−1). The spatial resolution was measured using a 6 μm-diameter carbon fiber embedded in agar. The breasts of four healthy female volunteers, spanning a range of breast size from a brassiere C cup to a DD cup, were imaged using a 96-mm spiral protocol. Results: The CNR target was clearly visualized to a depth of 53 mm. Spatial resolution, which was estimated from the full width at half-maximum of a profile across the PAM image of a carbon fiber, was 0.42 mm. In the four human volunteers, the vasculature was well visualized throughout the breast tissue, including to the chest wall. Conclusions: CNR, lateral field-of-view and penetration depth of our dedicated PAM scanning system is sufficient to image breasts as large as 1335 mL, which should accommodate up to 90% of the women in the United States. PMID:24320471

  7. The dedicated orthopedic trauma operating room.

    PubMed

    Min, William; Wolinsky, Philip R

    2011-08-01

    The development and implementation of a dedicated orthopedic trauma operating room (OTOR) that is used for the treatment of orthopedic trauma patients has changed and improved the practice of orthopedic trauma surgery. Advantages noted with OTOR implementation include improvements in morbidity and complication rates, enhancements in the professional and personal lifestyles of the on-call surgeon, and increased physician recruitment and retention in orthopedic traumatology. However, the inappropriate use of the OTOR, which can waste valuable resources and delay the treatment of emergent cases, must be monitored and avoided.

  8. Spacelab dedicated discipline laboratory (DDL) utilization concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wunsch, P.; De Sanctis, C.

    1984-01-01

    The dedicated discipline laboratory (DDL) concept is a new approach for implementing Spacelab missions that involves the grouping of science instruments into mission complements of single or compatible disciplines. These complements are evolved in such a way that the DDL payloads can be left intact between flights. This requires the dedication of flight hardware to specific payloads on a long-term basis and raises the concern that the purchase of additional flight hardware will be required to implement the DDL program. However, the payoff is expected to result in significant savings in mission engineering and assembly effort. A study has been conducted recently to quantify both the requirements for new hardware and the projected mission cost savings. It was found that some incremental additions to the current inventory will be needed to fly the mission model assumed. Cost savings of $2M to 6.5M per mission were projected in areas analyzed in depth, and additional savings may occur in areas for which detailed cost data were not available.

  9. Dedicated breast computed tomography: Basic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Sarno, Antonio; Mettivier, Giovanni Russo, Paolo

    2015-06-15

    X-ray mammography of the compressed breast is well recognized as the “gold standard” for early detection of breast cancer, but its performance is not ideal. One limitation of screening mammography is tissue superposition, particularly for dense breasts. Since 2001, several research groups in the USA and in the European Union have developed computed tomography (CT) systems with digital detector technology dedicated to x-ray imaging of the uncompressed breast (breast CT or BCT) for breast cancer screening and diagnosis. This CT technology—tracing back to initial studies in the 1970s—allows some of the limitations of mammography to be overcome, keeping the levels of radiation dose to the radiosensitive breast glandular tissue similar to that of two-view mammography for the same breast size and composition. This paper presents an evaluation of the research efforts carried out in the invention, development, and improvement of BCT with dedicated scanners with state-of-the-art technology, including initial steps toward commercialization, after more than a decade of R and D in the laboratory and/or in the clinic. The intended focus here is on the technological/engineering aspects of BCT and on outlining advantages and limitations as reported in the related literature. Prospects for future research in this field are discussed.

  10. Partnering to educate: dedicated education units.

    PubMed

    Dapremont, Jill; Lee, Shirleatha

    2013-09-01

    A current focus of the healthcare industry is centered on addressing the nursing shortage. In the midst of a nursing faculty shortage the Institute of Medicine (2010) recently released a report that calls for increasing the number of baccalaureate prepared nurses to 80% of the workforce by 2020. Therefore, nursing schools are faced with graduating more nurses to meet the demand. Yet, admission to schools of nursing are often limited because of clinical placement sites. The Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) model has been recently introduced to address the challenge of increasing the enrollment of nursing students in spite of a nationwide shortage of nursing faculty. Dedicated Education Units are clinical sites in hospitals where staff nurses serve as preceptors for students in all levels of their nursing education. This model is designed to improve practice education to better prepare students for actual practice while decreasing the number of faculty required at clinical sites. The purpose of this article is to discuss the implications of this model for nursing education, our experience with the DEU model, and issues of deliberation.

  11. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated...). (b) Each tank under paragraph (a) of this section must be: (1) A wing tank; or (2) Any other...

  12. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated...). (b) Each tank under paragraph (a) of this section must be: (1) A wing tank; or (2) Any other...

  13. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated...). (b) Each tank under paragraph (a) of this section must be: (1) A wing tank; or (2) Any other...

  14. 33 CFR 157.220 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks: Standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.220 Dedicated...). (b) Each tank under paragraph (a) of this section must be: (1) A wing tank; or (2) Any other...

  15. 18. Photocopy of drawing of bronze dedication plaque, circa 1903 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy of drawing of bronze dedication plaque, circa 1903 (original drawing in possession of City Engineer's Office Grand Rapids, Michigan) DEDICATION PLAQUE. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Grand River, Michigan & Bridge Streets, Grand Rapids, MI

  16. 47 CFR 69.125 - Dedicated signalling transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dedicated signalling transport. 69.125 Section... (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.125 Dedicated signalling transport. (a) Dedicated signalling transport shall consist of two elements, a signalling link charge and a signalling transfer...

  17. 47 CFR 90.371 - Dedicated short range communications service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dedicated short range communications service... Regulations Governing the Licensing and Use of Frequencies in the 5850-5925 Mhz Band for Dedicated Short-Range Communications Service (dsrcs) § 90.371 Dedicated short range communications service. (a) These...

  18. 47 CFR 90.371 - Dedicated short range communications service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dedicated short range communications service... Regulations Governing the Licensing and Use of Frequencies in the 5850-5925 Mhz Band for Dedicated Short-Range Communications Service (dsrcs) § 90.371 Dedicated short range communications service. (a) These...

  19. Dedicated nuclear facilities for electrolytic hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foh, S. E.; Escher, W. J. D.; Donakowski, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    An advanced technology, fully dedicated nuclear-electrolytic hydrogen production facility is presented. This plant will produce hydrogen and oxygen only and no electrical power will be generated for off-plant use. The conceptual design was based on hydrogen production to fill a pipeline at 1000 psi and a 3000 MW nuclear base, and the base-line facility nuclear-to-shaftpower and shaftpower-to-electricity subsystems, the water treatment subsystem, electricity-to-hydrogen subsystem, hydrogen compression, efficiency, and hydrogen production cost are discussed. The final conceptual design integrates a 3000 MWth high-temperature gas-cooled reactor operating at 980 C helium reactor-out temperature, direct dc electricity generation via acyclic generators, and high-current density, high-pressure electrolyzers based on the solid polymer electrolyte approach. All subsystems are close-coupled and optimally interfaced and pipeline hydrogen is produced at 1000 psi. Hydrogen costs were about half of the conventional nuclear electrolysis process.

  20. FINESSE: A Dedicated Transiting Exoplanet Spectroscopy Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, Jacob; FINESSE Science Team

    2017-01-01

    FINESSE (Fast INfrared Exoplanet Spectroscopy Survey Explorer) is a proposed space mission dedicated to performing a statistical census of transiting exoplanet atmospheres. The objectives of FINESSE are to test theories of planetary origins and climate, enable comparative planetology, and open up discovery space on atmospheric chemistry, planetary evolution, and other topics. The baseline design for FINESSE is a 75 cm telescope observing from L2. The FINESSE instrument is a high throughput spectrometer with continuous coverage from 0.5 to 5.0 microns in a single shot. FINESSE will survey on order of 1000 exoplanets with a combination of transmission, dayside emission, and phase-resolved emission spectroscopy during a two year mission. As of this writing FINESSE will be proposed for the NASA Medium-Class Explorers (MIDEX) announcement of opportunity in December 2016. I will present an overview of FINESSE, including the mission concept, science drivers, and expected results from extensive simulations.

  1. Dedicated storage rings for nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    The use of internal targets in circulating beams of electron storage and stretcher rings has been widely discussed recently as a method of achieving high luminosity under conditions of low background, and good energy resolution, with minimal demands for beam from an injecting accelerator. In the two critical areas of the technology, ring design and target development, research is very active, and the prospects for major advances are very bright. Reasonable extrapolations of the current state of the art suggest for many problems in nuclear physics, particularly polarization physics of the nucleon and few body nuclei, internal target measurement may be the optimum experimental technique. This paper, discusses the comparative merit of internal target rings and external beam experiments, reviews briefly current research efforts in the critical areas of the technology, and establishes one goal for the discussions at the workshop. It appears that storage rings dedicated to internal target physics may offer a powerful option for future advances in nuclear physics.

  2. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R.; Eckert, Philip D.; Hommes, Gregg

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  3. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging.

    PubMed

    Freifelder, R; Karp, J S

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla.

  4. Dedicated PET scanners for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freifelder, Richard; Karp, Joel S.

    1997-12-01

    We have used computer simulations to compare two designs for a PET scanner dedicated to breast imaging with a whole-body PET scanner. The new designs combine high spatial resolution, high sensitivity, and good energy resolution to detect small, low-contrast masses. The detectors are position sensitive NaI(Tl) scintillators. The first design is a ring scanner surrounding the breast and the second consists of two planar detectors placed on opposite sides of the breast. We have employed standard performance measures to compare the different designs: contrast, percentage standard deviation of the background, and signal-to-noise ratios of reconstructed images. The results of the simulations show that both of the proposed designs have better lesion detectability than a whole-body scanner. The results also show that contrast is higher in the ring breast system but that the noise is lower in the planar breast system. Overall, the ring system yields images with the best signal-to-noise ratios, although the planar system offers practical advantages for imaging the breast and axilla.

  5. Any Way to Run a Railroad: Implications of Dedicated Trains

    SciTech Connect

    Dilger, F.C.; Halstead, R. J.

    2006-07-01

    The DOE recently issued a policy statement that it would use dedicated trains for most waste shipments to Yucca Mountain. Prior uncertainty about use of dedicated trains for Yucca Mountain rail shipments prevented an assessment of the likely impacts. This paper examines the controversy over the use of dedicated trains and evaluates the national impacts of shipping waste to Yucca Mountain using dedicated trains on the Union Pacific's preferred rail system. The national impacts of the routing are reported as route miles through three land use types: Rural, Urban and Census Places. (authors)

  6. 47 CFR 69.125 - Dedicated signalling transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.125 Dedicated signalling transport. (a) Dedicated signalling transport shall consist of two elements, a signalling link charge and a signalling transfer point (STP) port termination charge. (b)(1) A flat-rated signalling link charge expressed in dollars...

  7. Editorial: A dedication to Professor Jan Evetts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Harald; Dew-Hughes, David; Campbell, Archie; Barber, Zoe; Somekh, Rob; Glowacki, Bartek

    2006-03-01

    A few days before the beginning of the 7th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity we learned that Professor Jan Evetts, a pioneer of superconductor research, a brilliant scientist, a wonderful person and a great personal friend, had passed away. We therefore decided to dedicate the 7th European Conference on Applied Superconductivity to the memory of Jan Evetts. The following citation is based on material provided by his former supervisor (D Dew-Hughes) and his closest co-workers in Cambridge. Professor Jan Edgar Evetts (1939-2005) Professor Jan Edgar Evetts (1939-2005) Jan Evetts passed away after losing his second battle with cancer on 24th August 2005. He made an outstanding series of contributions to the science of superconductivity and to the understanding of superconducting materials and was an indefatigable champion of the development of applications of superconductivity. The loss to the superconductivity community is incalculable, as attested by the many communications received from colleagues throughout the world. Jan was born on 31 March 1939, and attended the Dragon School in Oxford, and later Haileybury. He was awarded an exhibition to read Natural Sciences at Pembroke College, Cambridge. He entered the college in 1958 and took his BA degree in 1961. He then undertook a Certificate of Postgraduate Study in Physics under the supervision of Professor Neville Mott. He was the first student to undertake this newly-instituted course; the title of his thesis was `The Resistance of Transition Metals'. In 1962 he joined David Dew-Hughes' superconducting materials research group, along with Archie Campbell and Anant Narlikar. In fact it was Jan's enthusiasm for the proposed course of research that helped convince David that he should follow Professor Alan Cottrell's suggestion to apply metallurgical methodology to the study of the factors that controlled critical current density in the type II superconductors that were then under development for

  8. Elevation view of dedication plaque on east wall of south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Elevation view of dedication plaque on east wall of south lobby - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Main Mental Health Building, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Dedicated biomass crops can enhance biodiversity in the arable landscape.

    PubMed

    Haughton, Alison J; Bohan, David A; Clark, Suzanne J; Mallott, Mark D; Mallott, Victoria; Sage, Rufus; Karp, Angela

    2016-11-01

    Suggestions that novel, non-food, dedicated biomass crops used to produce bioenergy may provide opportunities to diversify and reinstate biodiversity in intensively managed farmland have not yet been fully tested at the landscape scale. Using two of the largest, currently available landscape-scale biodiversity data sets from arable and biomass bioenergy crops, we take a taxonomic and functional trait approach to quantify and contrast the consequences for biodiversity indicators of adopting dedicated biomass crops on land previously cultivated under annual, rotational arable cropping. The abundance and community compositions of biodiversity indicators in fields of break and cereal crops changed when planted with the dedicated biomass crops, miscanthus and short rotation coppiced (SRC) willow. Weed biomass was consistently greater in the two dedicated biomass crops than in cereals, and invertebrate abundance was similarly consistently higher than in break crops. Using canonical variates analysis, we identified distinct plant and invertebrate taxa and trait-based communities in miscanthus and SRC willows, whereas break and cereal crops tended to form a single, composite community. Seedbanks were shown to reflect the longer term effects of crop management. Our study suggests that miscanthus and SRC willows, and the management associated with perennial cropping, would support significant amounts of biodiversity when compared with annual arable crops. We recommend the strategic planting of these perennial, dedicated biomass crops in arable farmland to increase landscape heterogeneity and enhance ecosystem function, and simultaneously work towards striking a balance between energy and food security.

  10. Outcomes following a dedicated period of research during surgical training.

    PubMed

    Stutchfield, B M; Harrison, E M; Wigmore, S J; Parks, R W; Garden, O J

    2011-11-01

    With recent 'working-time'-related changes to surgical training structure, the value of dedicated research during surgical training has been questioned. Online survey examining career and academic outcomes following a period of surgically related dedicated research at a Scottish University between 1972 and 2007. Of 58 individuals identified, contact details were available for 49 and 43 (88%) responded. Ninety-five percent (n = 41) of respondents continue to pursue a career in surgery and 41% (n = 17) are currently in academic positions. Ninety-one percent (n = 39) had published one or more first-author peer-reviewed articles directly related to their research, with 53% (n = 23) publishing three or more. Respondents with a clinical component to their research published significantly more papers than those with purely laboratory-based research (P = 0.04). Eighty-one percent (n = 35) thought that research was necessary for career progression, but only 42% (n = 18) felt research should be integral to training. In conclusion, the majority of surgical trainees completing a dedicated research period, published papers and continued to pursue a surgical career with a research interest. A period of dedicated research was thought necessary for career progression, but few thought dedicated research should be integral to surgical training.

  11. 47 CFR 90.371 - Dedicated short range communications service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dedicated short range communications service. 90.371 Section 90.371 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Intelligent Transportation Systems Radio...

  12. Dedication: Hugh Daubeny, Berry Breeder and Enthusiast Extraordinaire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript presents a short biography of Dr. Hugh Daubeny, now emeritus geneticist from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. This biography is being published as a dedication chapter for a book on raspberry breeding, an activity that Dr. Daubeny pursued for his 45-year career. Hugh has released 15...

  13. [Advanced online search techniques and dedicated search engines for physicians].

    PubMed

    Nahum, Yoav

    2008-02-01

    In recent years search engines have become an essential tool in the work of physicians. This article will review advanced search techniques from the world of information specialists, as well as some advanced search engine operators that may help physicians improve their online search capabilities, and maximize the yield of their searches. This article also reviews popular dedicated scientific and biomedical literature search engines.

  14. Are You Dedicated to Diversity? Is the Welcome Mat Out?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrabe, Frank

    2006-01-01

    American colleges and universities often refer to their "dedication to diversity". The truth is, some institutions really make an effort, and some only offer lip service. This article discusses ways on how college institutions can provide a more welcoming atmosphere to gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered (glbt) students through use…

  15. 42. From Superintendent's Monthly Report, March 1935. DEDICATION OF HALEAKALA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. From Superintendent's Monthly Report, March 1935. DEDICATION OF HALEAKALA HIGHWAY, FEBRUARY 23, 1935. A ONE-HOUR RADIO BROADCAST BY KGU IN HONOLULU WAS TRANSMITTED FROM THE SUMMIT CEREMONIES TO ISLANDERS THROUGHOUT THE TERRITORY - Haleakala National Park Roads, Pukalani, Maui County, HI

  16. 33 CFR 157.224 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.224 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. Each Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual...

  17. 33 CFR 157.212 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.212 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved. If the Dedicated Clean...

  18. 33 CFR 157.225 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.225 Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General. The master of a tank vessel...

  19. 33 CFR 157.226 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Procedures to be followed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.226 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations...

  20. 33 CFR 157.225 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated clean ballast tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.225 Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General. The master of a tank vessel...

  1. 33 CFR 157.212 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.212 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved. If the Dedicated Clean...

  2. 33 CFR 157.224 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.224 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. Each Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual...

  3. 33 CFR 157.224 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.224 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. Each Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual...

  4. 33 CFR 157.226 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Procedures to be followed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.226 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations...

  5. 33 CFR 157.224 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.224 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. Each Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual...

  6. 33 CFR 157.226 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Procedures to be followed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.226 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations...

  7. 33 CFR 157.226 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Procedures to be followed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.226 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations...

  8. 33 CFR 157.212 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.212 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved. If the Dedicated Clean...

  9. 33 CFR 157.226 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Procedures to be followed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.226 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations...

  10. 33 CFR 157.224 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Design and Equipment § 157.224 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. Each Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual...

  11. 33 CFR 157.212 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.212 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved. If the Dedicated Clean...

  12. 33 CFR 157.212 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.212 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual: Not approved. If the Dedicated Clean...

  13. Engine with pulse-suppressed dedicated exhaust gas recirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, Edward J.; Baker, Rodney E.

    2016-06-07

    An engine assembly includes an intake assembly, a spark-ignited internal combustion engine, and an exhaust assembly. The intake assembly includes a charge air cooler disposed between an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) mixer and a backpressure valve. The charge air cooler has both an inlet and an outlet, and the back pressure valve is configured to maintain a minimum pressure difference between the inlet of the charge air cooler and an outlet of the backpressure valve. A dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is provided in fluid communication with at least one cylinder and with the EGR mixer. The dedicated exhaust gas recirculation system is configured to route all of the exhaust gas from the at least one cylinder to the EGR mixer for recirculation back to the engine.

  14. Dedicated bifurcation stents - Mechanistic, hardware, and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sundeep

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in bifurcation lesions is associated with lower success rate, higher acute complication rates and higher event rates in follow-up. The reason for this higher than usual complication rate relates to the relationship between anatomy, flow, and atheroma distribution in bifurcation lesions. Further, stenting these lesions can be a prolonged procedure and can be technically more demanding. The most common complication is the loss of significant side branch (SB). Main vessel (MV) stenting may enhance the carina displacement and atheroma shift across the SB ostium leading to SB ostium narrowing. Finally, complications, if they occur, are more difficult to manage. Dedicated bifurcation stent has been developed to overcome the number of limitations associated with conventional bifurcation PCI. The main advantage of most dedicated bifurcation stents is to allow the operator to perform the procedure on a bifurcation lesion without the need to rewire the SB.

  15. Profiling optimization for big data transfer over dedicated channels

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, D.; Wu, Qishi; Rao, Nageswara S; Kettimuthu, R.; Jung, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of big data is increasingly supported by dedicated channels in high-performance networks, where transport protocols play an important role in maximizing applicationlevel throughput and link utilization. The performance of transport protocols largely depend on their control parameter settings, but it is prohibitively time consuming to conduct an exhaustive search in a large parameter space to find the best set of parameter values. We propose FastProf, a stochastic approximation-based transport profiler, to quickly determine the optimal operational zone of a given data transfer protocol/method over dedicated channels. We implement and test the proposed method using both emulations based on real-life performance measurements and experiments over physical connections with short (2 ms) and long (380 ms) delays. Both the emulation and experimental results show that FastProf significantly reduces the profiling overhead while achieving a comparable level of end-to-end throughput performance with the exhaustive search-based approach.

  16. Neurolab - A Space Shuttle Mission Dedicated to Neuroscience Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session JA5 includes short reports concerning: (1) NASA/NIH Neurolab Collaborations; (2) Neurolab Mission: An Example of International Cooperation; (3) Neurolab: An Overview of the Planned Scientific Investigations; (4) EDEN: A Payload for NEUROLAB, dedicated to Neuro Vestibular Research; (5) Neurolab Experiments on the Role of Visual Cues in Microgravity Spatial Orientation; and (6) The Role of Space in the Exploration of the Mammalian Vestibular System.

  17. Don’t Forget About Dedicated Sea Mine Countermeasures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-13

    Mine Countermeasures 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Malcolm H. Potts , LCDR, USN 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...DEDICATED SEA MINE COUNTERMEASURES by Malcolm H. Potts LCDR, United States Navy A paper submitted to the Faculty of the Joint Advanced...covertly seeded with a mix of acoustic and contact sea mines, many of which are mal -deployed and became near surface floating explosives. This

  18. Studying solutions at high shear rates: a dedicated microfluidics setup.

    PubMed

    Wieland, D C F; Garamus, V M; Zander, T; Krywka, C; Wang, M; Dedinaite, A; Claesson, P M; Willumeit-Römer, R

    2016-03-01

    The development of a dedicated small-angle X-ray scattering setup for the investigation of complex fluids at different controlled shear conditions is reported. The setup utilizes a microfluidics chip with a narrowing channel. As a consequence, a shear gradient is generated within the channel and the effect of shear rate on structure and interactions is mapped spatially. In a first experiment small-angle X-ray scattering is utilized to investigate highly concentrated protein solutions up to a shear rate of 300000 s(-1). These data demonstrate that equilibrium clusters of lysozyme are destabilized at high shear rates.

  19. UV-PEDD photometry dedicated for bioanalytical uses.

    PubMed

    Tymecki, Łukasz; Brodacka, Luiza; Rozum, Beata; Koncki, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Detection of p-nitrophenol, a product of several enzymatic reactions, is useful and important in many fields of modern bioanalytics. Here, we have developed and applied a complete photometer dedicated for such measurements that is extremely economic and easily customized for specific experimental setups. The instrument consists only of paired emitter-detector diodes (PEDDs) coupled with an extremely simple and low-cost signal transduction system. The experimental data confirmed that this photometric system adapted for cuvette as well as flow measurements can be applied for fast and reproducible determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity.

  20. A Dedicated Genetic Algorithm for Localization of Moving Magnetic Objects

    PubMed Central

    Alimi, Roger; Weiss, Eyal; Ram-Cohen, Tsuriel; Geron, Nir; Yogev, Idan

    2015-01-01

    A dedicated Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been developed to localize the trajectory of ferromagnetic moving objects within a bounded perimeter. Localization of moving ferromagnetic objects is an important tool because it can be employed in situations when the object is obscured. This work is innovative for two main reasons: first, the GA has been tuned to provide an accurate and fast solution to the inverse magnetic field equations problem. Second, the algorithm has been successfully tested using real-life experimental data. Very accurate trajectory localization estimations were obtained over a wide range of scenarios. PMID:26393598

  1. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan E.; Kibbey, Timothy P.; Cobb, C. Brent; Harris, Lawanna L.

    2014-01-01

    A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with high payoff propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial technology "valley of death" that lies between demonstration in laboratory and flight environments. NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low earth orbit for cubesat class payloads.

  2. BTeV - A dedicated B experiment at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    David C. Christian

    2002-12-17

    BTeV is a dedicated b-physics experiment that is expected to begin operation at the Fermilab Tevatron in 2008. BTeV is designed to take full advantage of the large production cross section of b particles (including B{sub S}) in high energy hadron collisions. A quick description of the BTeV spectrometer is given in this paper. Two unique aspects of BTeV, the pixel-based trigger and the high quality lead tungstate electromagnetic calorimeter, are described in slightly greater detail.

  3. Developing a Dedicated GISAXS Beamline at the APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuefa; Narayanan, Suresh; Sprung, Michael; Sandy, Alec; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Wang, Jin

    2007-01-01

    As an increasingly important structural-characterization technique, grazing-incidence small-angle scattering (GISAXS) finds vast applications in nanostructures and nanocomposites at surfaces and interfaces for in situ and real-time studies because of its probing q-range (10-3 - 1 nm-1) and temporal resolution (10-3 - 1 s). At the Advanced Photon Source (APS), GISAXS techniques under thin-film waveguide-based resonance conditions were developed to study the diffusion phenomena in nanoparticle/polymer nanocomposites. Also, the kinematics of nanoparticle crystal formation at air/liquid interfaces has been obtained by the similar method in real time during the liquid droplet evaporation. To meet the strong demand from the nanoscience community, a dedicated GISAXS beamline has been designed and constructed as a part of the 8-ID-E beamline at the APS. This dedicated GISAXS setup was developed based on a 4-circle diffractometer so that precise reflectivity of the sample can be measured to complement the GISAXS analysis under the dynamical refection conditions.

  4. Efficient iterative image reconstruction algorithm for dedicated breast CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antropova, Natalia; Sanchez, Adrian; Reiser, Ingrid S.; Sidky, Emil Y.; Boone, John; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2016-03-01

    Dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT) is currently being studied as a potential screening method for breast cancer. The X-ray exposure is set low to achieve an average glandular dose comparable to that of mammography, yielding projection data that contains high levels of noise. Iterative image reconstruction (IIR) algorithms may be well-suited for the system since they potentially reduce the effects of noise in the reconstructed images. However, IIR outcomes can be difficult to control since the algorithm parameters do not directly correspond to the image properties. Also, IIR algorithms are computationally demanding and have optimal parameter settings that depend on the size and shape of the breast and positioning of the patient. In this work, we design an efficient IIR algorithm with meaningful parameter specifications and that can be used on a large, diverse sample of bCT cases. The flexibility and efficiency of this method comes from having the final image produced by a linear combination of two separately reconstructed images - one containing gray level information and the other with enhanced high frequency components. Both of the images result from few iterations of separate IIR algorithms. The proposed algorithm depends on two parameters both of which have a well-defined impact on image quality. The algorithm is applied to numerous bCT cases from a dedicated bCT prototype system developed at University of California, Davis.

  5. SCOSII OL: A dedicated language for mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldi, Andrea; Elgaard, Dennis; Lynenskjold, Steen; Pecchioli, Mauro

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Control and Operations System 2 (SCOSII) is the new generation of Mission Control Systems (MCS) to be used at ESOC. The system is generic because it offers a collection of standard functions configured through a database upon which a dedicated MCS is established for a given mission. An integral component of SCOSII is the support of a dedicated Operations Language (OL). The spacecraft operation engineers edit, test, validate, and install OL scripts as part of the configuration of the system with, e.g., expressions for computing derived parameters and procedures for performing flight operations, all without involvement of software support engineers. A layered approach has been adopted for the implementation centered around the explicit representation of a data model. The data model is object-oriented defining the structure of the objects in terms of attributes (data) and services (functions) which can be accessed by the OL. SCOSII supports the creation of a mission model. System elements as, e.g., a gyro are explicit, as are the attributes which described them and the services they provide. The data model driven approach makes it possible to take immediate advantage of this higher-level of abstraction, without requiring expansion of the language. This article describes the background and context leading to the OL, concepts, language facilities, implementation, status and conclusions found so far.

  6. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  7. 33 CFR 157.210 - Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.210 Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. If the manuals submitted under § 157.206... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved Dedicated Clean...

  8. 33 CFR 157.210 - Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.210 Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  9. 33 CFR 157.210 - Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.210 Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  10. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  11. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  12. 33 CFR 157.210 - Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.210 Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  13. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  14. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  15. 33 CFR 157.210 - Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast... RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.210 Approved Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual. If the manuals submitted under §...

  16. SLS-1: The first dedicated life sciences shuttle flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    1992-05-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences 1 was the first space laboratory dedicated to life science research. It was launched into orbit in early June 1991 aboard the space shuttle Columbia. The data from this flight have greatly expanded our knowledge of the effects of microgravity on human physiology as data were collected in-flight, not just pre and post. Principal goals of the mission were the measurement of rapid and semichronic (8 days) changes in the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary systems during the flight and then to measure the rate of readaptation following return to Earth. Results from the four teams involved in that research will be presented in this panel. In addition to the cardiovascular-cardiopulmonary research, extensive metabolic studies encompassed fluid, electrolyte and energy balance, renal function, hematology and musculoskeletal changes. Finally, the crew participated in several neurovestibular studies. Overall, the mission was an outstanding success and has provided much new information on the lability of human responses to the space environment.

  17. Dedicated education unit: implementing an innovation in replication sites.

    PubMed

    Moscato, Susan R; Nishioka, Vicki M; Coe, Michael T

    2013-05-01

    An important measure of an innovation is the ease of replication and achievement of the same positive outcomes. The dedicated education unit (DEU) clinical education model uses a collaborative academic-service partnership to develop an optimal learning environment for students. The University of Portland adapted this model from Flinders University, Australia, to increase the teaching capacity and quality of nursing education. This article identifies DEU implementation essentials and reports on the outcomes of two replication sites that received consultation support from the University of Portland. Program operation information, including education requirements for clinician instructors, types of patient care units, and clinical faculty-to-student ratios is presented. Case studies of the three programs suggest the DEU model is adaptable to a range of different clinical settings and continues to show promise as one strategy for addressing the nurse faculty shortage and strengthening academic-clinical collaborations while maintaining quality clinical education for students.

  18. Development of new Hopkinson's device dedicated to rib's bone characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayeur, O.; Haugou, G.; Chaâri, F.; Delille, R.; Drazetic, P.; Markiewicz, E.

    2012-08-01

    This study presents an original approach for the design of adapted Hopkinson device dedicated to the characterisation of human ribs' cortical bone. The quasi-static study carried out on flat samples coming from this anatomical part highlighted the importance of the critical effect of sample shape and location on the accuracy of identify mechanical behaviour. The access to higher rates of strains, Hopkinson bars technique are classically required whatever compression or tension loadings. Classical designs of measurement bars are not suitable for this purpose due to the complexity of specimen's geometry (thickness variation). In this context, a new design of SHTB is studied here on the basis on a Finite Element approach of the set measurement bars/biological coupon. Finite Element simulations have been conducted using Abaqus explicit code by varying the design configuration. The comparison on input and output elastic waves suggests a set of small diameter bars in polyamide 66 for a better signal measurement.

  19. Dedicated contamination experiments in the Orion laser target chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrew, J.; Chevalier, J.-M.; Egan, D.; Geille, A.; Jadaud, J.-P.; Quessada, J.-H.; Raffestin, D.; Rubery, M.; Treadwell, P.; Videau, L.

    2015-11-01

    The use of solid targets irradiated in a vacuum target chamber by focussed high energy, high power laser beams to study the properties of matter at high densities, pressures and temperatures are well known. An undesirable side effect of these interactions is the generation of plumes of solid, liquid and gaseous matter which move away from the target and coat or physically damage surfaces within the target chamber. The largest aperture surfaces in these chambers are usually the large, high specification optical components used to produce the extreme conditions being studied [e.g. large aperture off axis parabolas, aspheric lenses, X ray optics and planar debris shields]. In order to study these plumes and the effects that they produce a set of dedicated experiments were performed to evaluate target by product coating distributions and particle velocities by a combined diagnostic instrument that utilised metal witness plates, polymer witness plates, fibre velocimetry and low density foam particle catchers.

  20. SLS-1: The first dedicated life sciences shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    Spacelab Life Sciences 1 was the first space laboratory dedicated to life science research. It was launched into orbit in early June 1991 aboard the space shuttle Columbia. The data from this flight have greatly expanded our knowledge of the effects of microgravity on human physiology as data were collected in-flight, not just pre and post. Principal goals of the mission were the measurement of rapid and semichronic (8 days) changes in the cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary systems during the flight and then to measure the rate of readaptation following return to Earth. Results from the four teams involved in that research will be presented in this panel. In addition to the cardiovascular-cardiopulmonary research, extensive metabolic studies encompassed fluid, electrolyte and energy balance, renal function, hematology and musculoskeletal changes. Finally, the crew participated in several neurovestibular studies. Overall, the mission was an outstanding success and has provided much new information on the lability of human responses to the space environment.

  1. Commercialization of willow bioenergy - a dedicated feedstock supply system

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Robison, D.J.

    1995-11-01

    Willow hybrids grown as a Dedicated Feedstock Supply System (DFSS) have been analyzed and found to be a feasibile means of augmenting current coal and natural gas resources for power generation. This study focused on the technology and infrastructure required to grow willow DFSS and integrate it with four existing pulverized coal electric generation facilities in central and western New York. The study found that both utilities and growers can forge a long-term business relationship that offers fuel diversity, fuel cost competitiveness and environmental benefits for the utility partners while reinvigorating central and western New York business in the agricultural sector. Growers can bring idle land and land being farmed at a loss back into profitable production while reducing environmental impacts associated with more traditional row crops. The Consortium is gearing up to put in place the growers contracts and the acreage necessary to take the first steps to prove and develop a major new business opportunity for rural New York.

  2. Spacelab mission 4 - The first dedicated life sciences mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, T. W.; Reid, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Plans for the first Spacelab-4 mission dedicated entirely to the life sciences, are reviewed. The thrust of the scientific mission scheduled for late 1985 will be to study the acute effects of weightlessness on living systems, particularly humans. The payload of the Spacelab compartment will contain 24 experiments of which approximately half will involve humans. Among the major areas of interest are cardiovascular and pulmonary function, vestibular function, renal and endocrine physiology, hematology, nitrogen balance, immunological function, the gravitational biology of plants, inflight fertilization of frogs' eggs and the effects of zero gravity on monkeys and rats. In selecting the array of experiments an effort was made to combine investigations with complementary scientific objectives to develop animal models of human biological problems.

  3. A dedicated undergraduate gynaecology teaching clinic: The Keele experience.

    PubMed

    Katali, Hamza Mahamadu; Parry-Smith, William Rhys; Eliot, Rees L; O'Mahony, Fidelma

    2016-01-01

    Much discussion in the literature centres on how best to teach medical students the intricacies of gynaecological assessment and the subsequent formulation of a management plan. At Keele University skills are initially developed in a simulated setting and then transferred to the workplace where students continue to develop their skills. A dedicated undergraduate gynaecology teaching clinic has been developed and comprises of 2-3 students and a tutor. All 38 students rotating through the department between January and June 2013 were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire to evaluate this clinic and 36 (95%) of them responded. Respondents felt significantly more comfortable taking a gynaecology history, ensuring privacy during examination and formulating a management plan post-clinic (all p < 0.001), with female students feeling significantly more comfortable than their male counterparts (p = 0.04). The use of this clinic shows great promise to help students learn an unfamiliar and challenging skill.

  4. Neural-network dedicated processor for solving competitive assignment problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, Silvio P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A neural-network processor for solving first-order competitive assignment problems consists of a matrix of N x M processing units, each of which corresponds to the pairing of a first number of elements of (R sub i) with a second number of elements (C sub j), wherein limits of the first number are programmed in row control superneurons, and limits of the second number are programmed in column superneurons as MIN and MAX values. The cost (weight) W sub ij of the pairings is programmed separately into each PU. For each row and column of PU's, a dedicated constraint superneuron insures that the number of active neurons within the associated row or column fall within a specified range. Annealing is provided by gradually increasing the PU gain for each row and column or increasing positive feedback to each PU, the latter being effective to increase hysteresis of each PU or by combining both of these techniques.

  5. The dedicated education unit: a practice and education partnership.

    PubMed

    Miller, Terry W

    2005-01-01

    Both educational institutions and health care agencies have a propensity to look to the past for solutions to their present and projected problems, such as the nursing shortage. One problem that continually surfaces and has become one of two primary limitations on expanding nursing school enrollments is finding and sustaining quality clinical experiences in acute care settings. The demand for these clinical sites continues to grow and the consequent need for effective clinical partnerships grows with it. The Dedicated Education Unit is a creative strategy for addressing the confluence of highly sophisticated marketing efforts promoting the profession of nursing as a whole, the high demand job market for nurses, and the increase in nursing school enrollments at both undergraduate and graduate levels.

  6. Separate, dedicated care teams for living organ donors.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Brenda; Gordon, Debra

    2003-06-01

    Living donation is an increasingly common option offered to patients in most transplant programs. Staff involved in the education, assessment, and care of this patient group is faced with increasingly complicated assessments both medically and psychologically. Supporting arguments for dedicated care teams for living organ donors include the large number of transplantations performed using living donors, the continued need to promote living organ donation, and the growing complexity of both medical and psychological factors in donor assessments. In addition, there is a need to implement the standards proposed by the 2000 Consensus Group, as well as to develop a body of evidence-based research related both to short- and long-term issues for this patient group. The ethical issues related to simultaneous involvement with both donors and recipients, and a need to ensure confidentiality are additional supporting arguments for the need to provide separate care providers for donors and recipients.

  7. Life Cycle Analysis of Dedicated Nano-Launch Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey; Martin, John; Lepsch, Roger; Hernani, Tosoc

    2014-01-01

    Recent technology advancements have enabled the development of small cheap satellites that can perform useful functions in the space environment. Currently, the only low cost option for getting these payloads into orbit is through ride share programs. As a result, these launch opportunities await primary payload launches and a backlog exists. An alternative option would be dedicated nano-launch systems built and operated to provide more flexible launch services, higher availability, and affordable prices. The potential customer base that would drive requirements or support a business case includes commercial, academia, civil government and defense. Further, NASA technology investments could enable these alternative game changing options.With this context, in 2013 the Game Changing Development (GCD) program funded a NASA team to investigate the feasibility of dedicated nano-satellite launch systems with a recurring cost of less than $2 million per launch for a 5 kg payload to low Earth orbit. The team products would include potential concepts, technologies and factors for enabling the ambitious cost goal, exploring the nature of the goal itself, and informing the GCD program technology investment decision making process. This paper provides an overview of the life cycle analysis effort that was conducted in 2013 by an inter-center NASA team. This effort included the development of reference nano-launch system concepts, developing analysis processes and models, establishing a basis for cost estimates (development, manufacturing and launch) suitable to the scale of the systems, and especially, understanding the relationship of potential game changing technologies to life cycle costs, as well as other factors, such as flights per year.

  8. Life Cycle Analysis of Dedicated Nano-Launch Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapata, Edgar; McCleskey, Carey (Editor); Martin, John; Lepsch, Roger; Ternani, Tosoc

    2014-01-01

    Recent technology advancements have enabled the development of small cheap satellites that can perform useful functions in the space environment. Currently, the only low cost option for getting these payloads into orbit is through ride share programs - small satellites awaiting the launch of a larger satellite, and then riding along on the same launcher. As a result, these small satellite customers await primary payload launches and a backlog exists. An alternative option would be dedicated nano-launch systems built and operated to provide more flexible launch services, higher availability, and affordable prices. The potential customer base that would drive requirements or support a business case includes commercial, academia, civil government and defense. Further, NASA technology investments could enable these alternative game changing options. With this context, in 2013 the Game Changing Development (GCD) program funded a NASA team to investigate the feasibility of dedicated nano-satellite launch systems with a recurring cost of less than $2 million per launch for a 5 kg payload to low Earth orbit. The team products would include potential concepts, technologies and factors for enabling the ambitious cost goal, exploring the nature of the goal itself, and informing the GCD program technology investment decision making process. This paper provides an overview of the life cycle analysis effort that was conducted in 2013 by an inter-center NASA team. This effort included the development of reference nano-launch system concepts, developing analysis processes and models, establishing a basis for cost estimates (development, manufacturing and launch) suitable to the scale of the systems, and especially, understanding the relationship of potential game changing technologies to life cycle costs, as well as other factors, such as flights per year.

  9. Environmental Sciences Laboratory dedication, February 26-27, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Auerbach, S.I.; Millemann, N.T.

    1980-09-01

    The dedication of the new Environmental Sciences Laboratory coincided with the 25th year of the establishment of the science of ecology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. That quarter century witnessed the evolution of ecology from an obscure, backwater discipline of biology to a broadly used, everyday household word. The transition reflected broad and basic changes in our social and cultural view of the world. This was brought about as a result of the awareness developed in our society of the importance of the environment, coupled with efforts of ecologists and other environmental scientists who identified, clarified, and formulated the issues and challenges of environmental protection for both the lay public and the scientific community. In many respects, the activities in ecology at ORNL were a microcosm of the broader social scene; the particular problems of the environment associated with atomic energy needed to be defined in scientific terms and articulated in both the specific and general sense for a larger audience which was unfamiliar with the field and somewhat alien to its concepts and philosophy. The success of this effort is reflected in the existence of the new Environmental Sciences Laboratory. This dedication volume brings together the thoughts and reflections of many of these scientists whose efforts contributed in a unique and individualistic fashion not only to ORNL but also to the national identification of ecology and its importance to the achievement of our national goals. Their remarks and presentations are not only a pleasant and personally gratifying recapitulation of the past and of ORNL's contributions to ecology but also portend some of the challenges to ecology in the future.

  10. Quantification with a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Spencer L.; Ferrero, Andrea; Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Dedicated breast PET/CT is expected to have utility in local staging, surgical planning, monitoring of therapy response, and detection of residual disease for breast cancer. Quantitative metrics will be integral to several such applications. The authors present a validation of fully 3D data correction schemes for a custom built dedicated breast PET/CT (DbPET/CT) scanner via 18F-FDG phantom scans. Methods: A component-based normalization was implemented, live-time was estimated with a multicomponent model, and a variance reduced randoms estimate was computed from delayed coincidences. Attenuation factors were calculated by using a CT based segmentation scheme while scatter was computed using a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation method. As no performance standard currently exists for breast PET systems, custom performance tests were created based on prior patient imaging results. Count-rate linearity for live-time and randoms corrections was measured with a decay experiment for a solid polyethylene cylinder phantom with an offset line source. A MC simulation was used to validate attenuation correction, a multicompartment phantom with asymmetric activity distribution provided an assessment of scatter correction, and image uniformity after geometric and detector normalization was measured from a high count scan of a uniform cylinder phantom. Raw data were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) after Fourier rebinning. To quantify performance absolute activity concentrations, contrast recovery coefficients and image uniformity were calculated through region of interest analysis. Results: The most significant source of error was attributed to mispositioning of events due to pile-up, presenting in count-related axial and transaxial nonuniformities that were not corrected for with the normalization method used here. Within the range of singles counts observed during clinical trials residual error after applying all corrections was comparable to that of a

  11. Dedicated Cone-Beam CT System for Extremity Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Al Muhit, Abdullah; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Thawait, Gaurav K.; Stayman, J. Webster; Packard, Nathan; Senn, Robert; Yang, Dong; Foos, David H.; Yorkston, John; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To provide initial assessment of image quality and dose for a cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) scanner dedicated to extremity imaging. Materials and Methods A prototype cone-beam CT scanner has been developed for imaging the extremities, including the weight-bearing lower extremities. Initial technical assessment included evaluation of radiation dose measured as a function of kilovolt peak and tube output (in milliampere seconds), contrast resolution assessed in terms of the signal difference–to-noise ratio (SDNR), spatial resolution semiquantitatively assessed by using a line-pair module from a phantom, and qualitative evaluation of cadaver images for potential diagnostic value and image artifacts by an expert CT observer (musculoskeletal radiologist). Results The dose for a nominal scan protocol (80 kVp, 108 mAs) was 9 mGy (absolute dose measured at the center of a CT dose index phantom). SDNR was maximized with the 80-kVp scan technique, and contrast resolution was sufficient for visualization of muscle, fat, ligaments and/or tendons, cartilage joint space, and bone. Spatial resolution in the axial plane exceeded 15 line pairs per centimeter. Streaks associated with x-ray scatter (in thicker regions of the patient—eg, the knee), beam hardening (about cortical bone—eg, the femoral shaft), and cone-beam artifacts (at joint space surfaces oriented along the scanning plane—eg, the interphalangeal joints) presented a slight impediment to visualization. Cadaver images (elbow, hand, knee, and foot) demonstrated excellent visibility of bone detail and good soft-tissue visibility suitable to a broad spectrum of musculoskeletal indications. Conclusion A dedicated extremity cone-beam CT scanner capable of imaging upper and lower extremities (including weight-bearing examinations) provides sufficient image quality and favorable dose characteristics to warrant further evaluation for clinical use. © RSNA, 2013 Online supplemental material is available for

  12. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Kibbey, Tim; Lampton, Pat; Brown, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A recent explosion in nano-sat, small-sat, and university class payloads has been driven by low cost electronics and sensors, wide component availability, as well as low cost, miniature computational capability and open source code. Increasing numbers of these very small spacecraft are being launched as secondary payloads, dramatically decreasing costs, and allowing greater access to operations and experimentation using actual space flight systems. While manifesting as a secondary payload provides inexpensive rides to orbit, these arrangements also have certain limitations. Small, secondary payloads are typically included with very limited payload accommodations, supported on a non interference basis (to the prime payload), and are delivered to orbital conditions driven by the primary launch customer. Integration of propulsion systems or other hazardous capabilities will further complicate secondary launch arrangements, and accommodation requirements. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Marshall Space Flight Center has begun work on the development of small, low cost launch system concepts that could provide dedicated, affordable launch alternatives to small, risk tolerant university type payloads and spacecraft. These efforts include development of small propulsion systems and highly optimized structural efficiency, utilizing modern advanced manufacturing techniques. This paper outlines the plans and accomplishments of these efforts and investigates opportunities for truly revolutionary reductions in launch and operations costs. Both evolution of existing sounding rocket systems to orbital delivery, and the development of clean sheet, optimized small launch systems are addressed. A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with new propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial "valley of death" that lies between

  13. Investigation of statistical iterative reconstruction for dedicated breast CT

    SciTech Connect

    Makeev, Andrey; Glick, Stephen J.

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: Dedicated breast CT has great potential for improving the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) in dedicated breast CT is a promising alternative to traditional filtered backprojection (FBP). One of the difficulties in using SIR is the presence of free parameters in the algorithm that control the appearance of the resulting image. These parameters require tuning in order to achieve high quality reconstructions. In this study, the authors investigated the penalized maximum likelihood (PML) method with two commonly used types of roughness penalty functions: hyperbolic potential and anisotropic total variation (TV) norm. Reconstructed images were compared with images obtained using standard FBP. Optimal parameters for PML with the hyperbolic prior are reported for the task of detecting microcalcifications embedded in breast tissue.Methods: Computer simulations were used to acquire projections in a half-cone beam geometry. The modeled setup describes a realistic breast CT benchtop system, with an x-ray spectra produced by a point source and an a-Si, CsI:Tl flat-panel detector. A voxelized anthropomorphic breast phantom with 280 μm microcalcification spheres embedded in it was used to model attenuation properties of the uncompressed woman's breast in a pendant position. The reconstruction of 3D images was performed using the separable paraboloidal surrogates algorithm with ordered subsets. Task performance was assessed with the ideal observer detectability index to determine optimal PML parameters.Results: The authors' findings suggest that there is a preferred range of values of the roughness penalty weight and the edge preservation threshold in the penalized objective function with the hyperbolic potential, which resulted in low noise images with high contrast microcalcifications preserved. In terms of numerical observer detectability index, the PML method with optimal parameters yielded substantially improved

  14. Dedicated breast CT: Fibroglandular volume measurements in a diagnostic population

    SciTech Connect

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi Linxi; Karellas, Andrew; O'Connell, Avice M.

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To determine the mean and range of volumetric glandular fraction (VGF) of the breast in a diagnostic population using a high-resolution flat-panel cone-beam dedicated breast CT system. This information is important for Monte Carlo-based estimation of normalized glandular dose coefficients and for investigating the dependence of VGF on breast dimensions, race, and pathology. Methods: Image data from a clinical trial investigating the role of dedicated breast CT that enrolled 150 women were retrospectively analyzed to determine the VGF. The study was conducted in adherence to a protocol approved by the institutional human subjects review boards and written informed consent was obtained from all study participants. All participants in the study were assigned BI-RADS{sup Registered-Sign} 4 or 5 as per the American College of Radiology assessment categories after standard diagnostic work-up and underwent dedicated breast CT exam prior to biopsy. A Gaussian-kernel based fuzzy c-means algorithm was used to partition the breast CT images into adipose and fibroglandular tissue after segmenting the skin. Upon determination of the accuracy of the algorithm with a phantom, it was applied to 137 breast CT volumes from 136 women. VGF was determined for each breast and the mean and range were determined. Pathology results with classification as benign, malignant, and hyperplasia were available for 132 women, and were used to investigate if the distributions of VGF varied with pathology. Results: The algorithm was accurate to within {+-}1.9% in determining the volume of an irregular shaped phantom. The study mean ({+-} inter-breast SD) for the VGF was 0.172 {+-} 0.142 (range: 0.012-0.719). VGF was found to be negatively correlated with age, breast dimensions (chest-wall to nipple length, pectoralis to nipple length, and effective diameter at chest-wall), and total breast volume, and positively correlated with fibroglandular volume. Based on pathology, pairwise statistical

  15. Investigation of statistical iterative reconstruction for dedicated breast CT

    PubMed Central

    Makeev, Andrey; Glick, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Dedicated breast CT has great potential for improving the detection and diagnosis of breast cancer. Statistical iterative reconstruction (SIR) in dedicated breast CT is a promising alternative to traditional filtered backprojection (FBP). One of the difficulties in using SIR is the presence of free parameters in the algorithm that control the appearance of the resulting image. These parameters require tuning in order to achieve high quality reconstructions. In this study, the authors investigated the penalized maximum likelihood (PML) method with two commonly used types of roughness penalty functions: hyperbolic potential and anisotropic total variation (TV) norm. Reconstructed images were compared with images obtained using standard FBP. Optimal parameters for PML with the hyperbolic prior are reported for the task of detecting microcalcifications embedded in breast tissue. Methods: Computer simulations were used to acquire projections in a half-cone beam geometry. The modeled setup describes a realistic breast CT benchtop system, with an x-ray spectra produced by a point source and an a-Si, CsI:Tl flat-panel detector. A voxelized anthropomorphic breast phantom with 280 μm microcalcification spheres embedded in it was used to model attenuation properties of the uncompressed woman's breast in a pendant position. The reconstruction of 3D images was performed using the separable paraboloidal surrogates algorithm with ordered subsets. Task performance was assessed with the ideal observer detectability index to determine optimal PML parameters. Results: The authors' findings suggest that there is a preferred range of values of the roughness penalty weight and the edge preservation threshold in the penalized objective function with the hyperbolic potential, which resulted in low noise images with high contrast microcalcifications preserved. In terms of numerical observer detectability index, the PML method with optimal parameters yielded substantially improved

  16. Temporal subtraction contrast-enhanced dedicated breast CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazi, Peymon M.; Aminololama-Shakeri, Shadi; Yang, Kai; Boone, John M.

    2016-09-01

    The development of a framework of deformable image registration and segmentation for the purpose of temporal subtraction contrast-enhanced breast CT is described. An iterative histogram-based two-means clustering method was used for the segmentation. Dedicated breast CT images were segmented into background (air), adipose, fibroglandular and skin components. Fibroglandular tissue was classified as either normal or contrast-enhanced then divided into tiers for the purpose of categorizing degrees of contrast enhancement. A variant of the Demons deformable registration algorithm, intensity difference adaptive Demons (IDAD), was developed to correct for the large deformation forces that stemmed from contrast enhancement. In this application, the accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated in both mathematically-simulated and physically-acquired phantom images. Clinical usage and accuracy of the temporal subtraction framework was demonstrated using contrast-enhanced breast CT datasets from five patients. Registration performance was quantified using normalized cross correlation (NCC), symmetric uncertainty coefficient, normalized mutual information (NMI), mean square error (MSE) and target registration error (TRE). The proposed method outperformed conventional affine and other Demons variations in contrast enhanced breast CT image registration. In simulation studies, IDAD exhibited improvement in MSE (0-16%), NCC (0-6%), NMI (0-13%) and TRE (0-34%) compared to the conventional Demons approaches, depending on the size and intensity of the enhancing lesion. As lesion size and contrast enhancement levels increased, so did the improvement. The drop in the correlation between the pre- and post-contrast images for the largest enhancement levels in phantom studies is less than 1.2% (150 Hounsfield units). Registration error, measured by TRE, shows only submillimeter mismatches between the concordant anatomical target points in all patient studies. The algorithm was

  17. Rural model dedicated education unit: partnership between college and hospital.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Lisa M

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the pilot project development of a rural model Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) by a rural college nursing program and a rural hospital to increase student nurses' confidence and proficiency and improve recruitment of prepared rural staff nurses. Traditionally, for economies of scale, most student clinical rotations occurred in urban settings with the number of students per clinical instructor allowed by the state board of nursing. College budget constraints negated the placement of fewer than this mandated maximum number of students in a rural hospital with a clinical instructor; moreover, rural hospitals could not accommodate 10 students at one time. Rural nursing students were anxious in the urban settings, and this anxiety precluded learning in many instances. Rural hospitals face higher registered nurse vacancies than urban centers. Of the nurses applying for open positions, many were not prepared for the demands of rural nursing, resulting in increased turnover and high orientation costs. The rural model DEU addressed issues of both the nursing program and the hospital. The design and development of the rural model DEU and the advantages of the partnership for the college nursing program and the hospital are discussed. Initial outcomes and serendipitous findings from the pilot project are also discussed.

  18. CIRCE: A dedicated storage ring for coherent THz synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, J.M.; Martin, Michael C.; McKinney, W.R.; Munson, D.V.; Nishimura, H.; Robin, D.S.; Sannibale, F.; Schlueter, R.D.; Thur, W.G.; Jung, J.Y.; Wan, W.

    2003-08-12

    We present the concepts for an electron storage ring dedicated to and optimized for the production of stable coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) over the far-infrared terahertz wavelength range from 200 mm to about one cm. CIRCE (Coherent InfraRed CEnter) will be a 66 m circumference ring located on top of the ALS booster synchrotron shielding tunnel and using the existing ALS injector. This location provides enough floor space for both the CIRCE ring, its required shielding, and numerous beamlines. We briefly outline a model for CSR emission in which a static bunch distortion induced by the synchrotron radiation field is used to significantly extend the stable CSR emission towards higher frequencies. This model has been verified with experimental CSR results. We present the calculated CIRCE photon flux where a gain of 6-9 orders of magnitude is shown compared to existing far-IR sources. Additionally, the particular design of the dipole vacuum chamber has been optimized to allow an excellent transmission of these far-infrared wavelengths. We believe that the CIRCE source can be constructed for a modest cost.

  19. Rooftop Unitary Air Conditioner with Integral Dedicated Outdoor Air System

    SciTech Connect

    Tiax Llc

    2006-02-28

    Energy use of rooftop and other unitary air-conditioners in commercial applications accounts for about 1 quad (10{sup 15} Btu) of primary energy use annually in the U.S. [Reference 7]. The realization that this cooling equipment accounts for the majority of commercial building cooled floorspace and the majority also of commercial building energy use has spurred development of improved-efficiency equipment as well as development of stricter standards addressing efficiency levels. Another key market driver affecting design of rooftop air-conditioning equipment has been concern regarding comfort and the control of humidity. Trends for increases in outdoor air ventilation rates in certain applications, and the increasing concern about indoor air quality problems associated with humidity levels and moisture in buildings points to a need for improved dehumidification capability in air-conditioning equipment of all types. In many cases addressing this issue exacerbates energy efficiency, and vice versa. The integrated dedicated outdoor air system configuration developed in this project addresses both energy and comfort/humidity issues.

  20. ACR testing of a dedicated head SPECT unit.

    PubMed

    Sensakovic, William F; Hough, Matthew C; Kimbley, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-08

    Physics testing necessary for program accreditation is rigorously defined by the ACR. This testing is easily applied to most conventional SPECT systems based on gamma camera technology. The inSPira HD is a dedicated head SPECT system based on a rotating dual clamshell design that acquires data in a dual-spiral geometry. The unique geometry and configuration force alterations of the standard ACR physics testing protocol. Various tests, such as intrinsic planar uniformity and/or resolution, do not apply. The Data Spectrum Deluxe Phantom used for conventional SPECT testing cannot fit in the inSPira HD scanner bore, making (currently) unapproved use of the Small Deluxe SPECT Phantom necessary. Matrix size, collimator type, scanning time, reconstruction method, and attenuation correction were all varied from the typically prescribed ACR instructions. Visible spheres, sphere contrast, visible rod groups, uniformity, and root mean square (RMS) noise were measured. The acquired SPECT images surpassed the minimum ACR requirements for both spatial resolution (9.5 mm spheres resolved) and contrast (6.4 mm rod groups resolved). Sphere contrast was generally high. Integral uniformity was 4% and RMS noise was 1.7%. Noise appeared more correlated than in images from a conventional SPECT scanner. Attenuation-corrected images produced from direct CT scanning of the phantom and a manufacturer supplied model of the phantom demonstrated negligible differences.

  1. Technical aspects of extracorporeal ultrafiltration: mechanisms, monitoring and dedicated technology.

    PubMed

    Nalesso, Federico; Garzotto, Francesco; Ronco, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Fluid overload may occur in patients with heart failure. Further complications may arise when cardiorenal syndromes develop and the kidneys are unable to eliminate the accumulated fluid. Diuretics represent the fist line of treatment, although in some case they may be ineffective or even dangerous for the patient. In these conditions, extracorporeal ultrafiltration may be required. Extracorporeal ultrafiltration can be performed continuously or intermittently, using dedicated machines. The goal is to remove the right amount of fluid without causing hemodynamic instability or further ischemia to the kidneys. For this purpose, special technologies are available and they can be utilized in combination to prevent iatrogenic complications. First of all, a complete analysis of heart and kidney function should be carried out. Then, an evaluation of biomarkers of heart failure and a careful analysis of body fluid composition by bioimpedance vector analysis should be carried out to establish the level of hydration and to guide fluid removal strategies. Last but not least, an adequate extracorporeal technique should be employed to remove excess fluid. Preference should be given to continuous forms of ultrafiltration (slow continuous ultrafiltration, continuous venovenous hemofiltration); these techniques guided by a continuous monitoring of circulating blood volume allow for an adequate restoration of body fluid composition minimizing hemodynamic complications and worsening of renal function especially during episodes of acute decompensated heart failure.

  2. Intelligent Advisory Speed Limit Dedication in Highway Using VANET

    PubMed Central

    Md Noor, Rafidah; Yeo, Hwasoo; Jung, Jason J.

    2014-01-01

    Variable speed limits (VSLs) as a mean for enhancing road traffic safety are studied for decades to modify the speed limit based on the prevailing road circumstances. In this study the pros and cons of VSL systems and their effects on traffic controlling efficiency are summarized. Despite the potential effectiveness of utilizing VSLs, we have witnessed that the effectiveness of this system is impacted by factors such as VSL control strategy used and the level of driver compliance. Hence, the proposed approach called Intelligent Advisory Speed Limit Dedication (IASLD) as the novel VSL control strategy which considers the driver compliance aims to improve the traffic flow and occupancy of vehicles in addition to amelioration of vehicle's travel times. The IASLD provides the advisory speed limit for each vehicle exclusively based on the vehicle's characteristics including the vehicle type, size, and safety capabilities as well as traffic and weather conditions. The proposed approach takes advantage of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) to accelerate its performance, in the way that simulation results demonstrate the reduction of incident detection time up to 31.2% in comparison with traditional VSL strategy. The simulation results similarly indicate the improvement of traffic flow efficiency, occupancy, and travel time in different conditions. PMID:24999493

  3. Intelligent advisory speed limit dedication in highway using VANET.

    PubMed

    Jalooli, Ali; Shaghaghi, Erfan; Jabbarpour, Mohammad Reza; Noor, Rafidah Md; Yeo, Hwasoo; Jung, Jason J

    2014-01-01

    Variable speed limits (VSLs) as a mean for enhancing road traffic safety are studied for decades to modify the speed limit based on the prevailing road circumstances. In this study the pros and cons of VSL systems and their effects on traffic controlling efficiency are summarized. Despite the potential effectiveness of utilizing VSLs, we have witnessed that the effectiveness of this system is impacted by factors such as VSL control strategy used and the level of driver compliance. Hence, the proposed approach called Intelligent Advisory Speed Limit Dedication (IASLD) as the novel VSL control strategy which considers the driver compliance aims to improve the traffic flow and occupancy of vehicles in addition to amelioration of vehicle's travel times. The IASLD provides the advisory speed limit for each vehicle exclusively based on the vehicle's characteristics including the vehicle type, size, and safety capabilities as well as traffic and weather conditions. The proposed approach takes advantage of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) to accelerate its performance, in the way that simulation results demonstrate the reduction of incident detection time up to 31.2% in comparison with traditional VSL strategy. The simulation results similarly indicate the improvement of traffic flow efficiency, occupancy, and travel time in different conditions.

  4. First results from the Swarm Dedicated Ionospheric Field Inversion chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chulliat, A.; Vigneron, P.; Hulot, G.

    2016-06-01

    Data-based modeling of the magnetic field originating in the Earth's ionosphere is challenging due to the multiple timescales involved and the small spatial scales of some of the current systems, especially the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) that flows along the magnetic dip equator. The Dedicated Ionospheric Field Inversion (DIFI) algorithm inverts a combination of Swarm satellite and ground observatory data at mid- to low latitudes and provides models of the solar-quiet (Sq) and EEJ magnetic fields on the ground and at satellite altitude. The basis functions of these models are spherical harmonics in quasi-dipole coordinates and Fourier series describing the 24-, 12-, 8- and 6-h periodicities, as well as the annual and semiannual variations. A 1-D conductivity model of the Earth and a 2-D conductivity model of the oceans and continents are used to separate the primary ionospheric field from its induced counterpart. First results from the DIFI algorithm confirm several well-known features of the seasonal variability and westward drift speed of the Sq current systems. They also reveal a peculiar seasonal variability of the Sq field in the Southern hemisphere and a longitudinal variability reminiscent of the EEJ wave-4 structure in the same hemisphere. These observations suggest that the Sq and EEJ currents might be electrically coupled, but only for some seasons and longitudes and more so in the Southern hemisphere than in the Northern hemisphere.

  5. Dedicated Beamline Facilities for Catalytic Research. Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jingguang; Frenkel, Anatoly; Rodriguez, Jose; Adzic, Radoslav; Bare, Simon R.; Hulbert, Steve L.; Karim, Ayman; Mullins, David R.; Overbury, Steve

    2015-03-04

    Synchrotron spectroscopies offer unique advantages over conventional techniques, including higher detection sensitivity and molecular specificity, faster detection rate, and more in-depth information regarding the structural, electronic and catalytic properties under in-situ reaction conditions. Despite these advantages, synchrotron techniques are often underutilized or unexplored by the catalysis community due to various perceived and real barriers, which will be addressed in the current proposal. Since its establishment in 2005, the Synchrotron Catalysis Consortium (SCC) has coordinated significant efforts to promote the utilization of cutting-edge catalytic research under in-situ conditions. The purpose of the current renewal proposal is aimed to provide assistance, and to develop new sciences/techniques, for the catalysis community through the following concerted efforts: Coordinating the implementation of a suite of beamlines for catalysis studies at the new NSLS-II synchrotron source; Providing assistance and coordination for catalysis users at an SSRL catalysis beamline during the initial period of NSLS to NSLS II transition; Designing in-situ reactors for a variety of catalytic and electrocatalytic studies; Assisting experimental set-up and data analysis by a dedicated research scientist; Offering training courses and help sessions by the PIs and co-PIs.

  6. Crystal growth methods dedicated to low solubility actinide oxalates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamain, C.; Arab-Chapelet, B.; Rivenet, M.; Grandjean, S.; Abraham, F.

    2016-04-01

    Two novel crystal growth syntheses dedicated to low solubility actinide-oxalate systems and adapted to glove box handling are described. These methods based on the use of precursors of either actinide metal or oxalic acid have been optimized on lanthanide systems (analogue of actinides(III)) and then assessed on real actinide systems. They allow the synthesis of several actinide oxalate single crystals, Am2(C2O4)3(H2O)3·xH2O, Th(C2O4)2·6H2O, M2+x[PuIV2-xPuIIIx(C2O4)5]·nH2O and M1-x[PuIII1-xPuIVx(C2O4)2·H2O]·nH2O. It is the first time that these well-known compounds are formed by crystal growth methods, thus enabling direct structural studies on transuranic element systems and acquisition of basic data beyond deductions from isomorphic (or not) lanthanide compounds. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible solid spectroscopy, demonstrate the potentialities of these two crystal growth methods to obtain oxalate compounds.

  7. First dedicated hydrographic survey of the Comoros Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, C.; Hermes, J. C.; Roman, R. E.; Reason, C. J. C.

    2016-02-01

    The Comoros Basin, a region of eddies that propagate into the Mozambique Channel and subsequently the Agulhas Current, has not been well studied. This paper presents the findings from the first dedicated research cruise in the basin. ADCP data collected during the cruise show that the circulation in the Comoros Basin is dominated by the strong westward flowing North East Madagascar Current, which bifurcates twice: once upon encountering the Davie Ridge and again upon reaching the East African coast. One of the branches flows southward along the African coastline and appears to continue into the Mozambique Channel while the other branch turns northward to become the East African Coastal Current. The ADCP data also show evidence of a cyclonic eddy along the northwest coast of Madagascar. Water mass analysis indicates that all the major Indian Ocean water masses are present in the Comoros Basin. Surprisingly, North Atlantic Deep Water, a water mass previously assumed to only occur south of ˜16°S in the Mozambique Channel, was found to be present in the basin at depths below 2000 m. Antarctic Intermediate Water is found to enter the basin via two routes; from the west within the North East Madagascar Current and from the south within the northward flowing Mozambique Undercurrent.

  8. A dedicated compressor monitoring system employing current signature analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Castleberry, K.N.; Smith, S.F.

    1993-04-15

    The use of motor current signature analysis (CSA) has been established as a useful method for periodic monitoring of electrically driven equipment. CSA is, moreover, especially well suited as the basis for a dedicated continuous monitoring system in an industrial setting. This paper presents just such an application that has been developed and installed in the US government uranium enrichment plant at Portsmouth, Ohio. The system, which is designed to detect specific axial-flow compressor problems in 1700-hp gaseous diffusion compressors, is described in detail along with an explanation of detected fault conditions and the required signal manipulations. Amplitude demodulation and subsequent digital processing of motor signals sensed from area control room ammeter loops are used to accomplish the desired monitoring task. Using modified off-the-shelf multiplexing equipment, a 386-type personal computer, and special digital signal processing hardware, the system is presently configured to monitor ten compressors but is expandable to monitor more than 100. Within its first few days of operation in September 1992, the system detected a compressor problem that, when corrected, resulted in a cost avoidance of about $150,000, which more than paid for the hardware and software development costs. Finally, plans to expand system coverage in the coming year are also discussed.

  9. The first dedicated life sciences mission - Spacelab 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, D. R.; Reid, D. H.; Klein, H. P.

    Spacelab is a large versatile laboratory carried in the bay of the Shuttle Orbiter. The first Spacelab mission dedicated entirely to Life Sciences is known as Spacelab 4. It is scheduled for launch in late 1985 and will remain aloft for seven days. This payload consists of 25 tentatively selected investigations combined into a comprehensive integrated exploration of the effects of acute weightlessness on living systems. An emphasis is placed on studying physiological changes that have been previously observed in manned space flight. This payload has complementary designs in the human and animal investigations in order to validate animal models of human physiology in weightlessness. The experimental subjects include humans, squirrel monkeys, laboratory rats, several species of plants, and frog eggs. The primary scientific objectives include study of the acute cephalic fluid shift, cardiovascular adaptation to weightlessness, including postflight reductions in orthostatic tolerance and exercise capacity, and changes in vestibular function, including space motion sickness, associated with weightlessness. Secondary scientific objectives include the study of red cell mass reduction, negative nitrogen balance, altered calcium metabolism, suppressed in vitro lymphocyte reactivity, gravitropism and photropism in plants, and fertilization and early development in frog eggs. The rationale behind this payload, the selection process, and details of the individual investigations are presented in this paper.

  10. The first dedicated life sciences mission - Spacelab 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, D. R.; Reid, D. H.; Klein, H. P.

    1983-01-01

    The details of the payload and the experiments in Spacelab 4, the first Spacelab mission dedicated entirely to the life sciences, are discussed. The payload of Spacelab 4, carried in the bay of the Shuttle Orbiter, consists of 25 tentatively selected investigations combined into a comprehensive integrated exploration of the effects of acute weightlessness on living systems. The payload contains complementary designs in the human and animal investigations in order to validate animal models of human physiology in weightlessness. Animals used as experimental subjects will include squirrel monkeys, laboratory rats, several species of plants, and frog eggs. The main scientific objectives of the investigations include the study of the acute cephalic fluid shift, cardiovascular adaptation to weightlessness, including postflight reductions in orthostatic tolerance and exercise capacity, and changes in vestibular function, including space motion sickness, associated with weightlessness. Other scientific objective include the study of red cell mass reduction, negative nitrogen balance, altered calcium metabolism, suppressed in vitro lymphocyte reactivity, gravitropism and photropism in plants, and fertilization and early development in frog eggs.

  11. Call for a dedicated European legal framework for bacteriophage therapy.

    PubMed

    Verbeken, Gilbert; Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Lavigne, Rob; Jennes, Serge; De Vos, Daniel; Casteels, Minne; Huys, Isabelle

    2014-04-01

    The worldwide emergence of antibiotic resistances and the drying up of the antibiotic pipeline have spurred a search for alternative or complementary antibacterial therapies. Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that have been used for almost a century to combat bacterial infections, particularly in Poland and the former Soviet Union. The antibiotic crisis has triggered a renewed clinical and agricultural interest in bacteriophages. This, combined with new scientific insights, has pushed bacteriophages to the forefront of the search for new approaches to fighting bacterial infections. But before bacteriophage therapy can be introduced into clinical practice in the European Union, several challenges must be overcome. One of these is the conceptualization and classification of bacteriophage therapy itself and the extent to which it constitutes a human medicinal product regulated under the European Human Code for Medicines (Directive 2001/83/EC). Can therapeutic products containing natural bacteriophages be categorized under the current European regulatory framework, or should this framework be adapted? Various actors in the field have discussed the need for an adapted (or entirely new) regulatory framework for the reintroduction of bacteriophage therapy in Europe. This led to the identification of several characteristics specific to natural bacteriophages that should be taken into consideration by regulators when evaluating bacteriophage therapy. One important consideration is whether bacteriophage therapy development occurs on an industrial scale or a hospital-based, patient-specific scale. More suitable regulatory standards may create opportunities to improve insights into this promising therapeutic approach. In light of this, we argue for the creation of a new, dedicated European regulatory framework for bacteriophage therapy.

  12. Experimentally determined spectral optimization for dedicated breast computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Prionas, Nicolas D.; Huang, Shih-Ying; Boone, John M.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: The current study aimed to experimentally identify the optimal technique factors (x-ray tube potential and added filtration material/thickness) to maximize soft-tissue contrast, microcalcification contrast, and iodine contrast enhancement using cadaveric breast specimens imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (bCT). Secondarily, the study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of phantom materials as tissue surrogates and to characterize the change in accuracy with varying bCT technique factors. Methods: A cadaveric breast specimen was acquired under appropriate approval and scanned using a prototype bCT scanner. Inserted into the specimen were cylindrical inserts of polyethylene, water, iodine contrast medium (iodixanol, 2.5 mg/ml), and calcium hydroxyapatite (100 mg/ml). Six x-ray tube potentials (50, 60, 70, 80, 90, and 100 kVp) and three different filters (0.2 mm Cu, 1.5 mm Al, and 0.2 mm Sn) were tested. For each set of technique factors, the intensity (linear attenuation coefficient) and noise were measured within six regions of interest (ROIs): Glandular tissue, adipose tissue, polyethylene, water, iodine contrast medium, and calcium hydroxyapatite. Dose-normalized contrast to noise ratio (CNRD) was measured for pairwise comparisons among the six ROIs. Regression models were used to estimate the effect of tube potential and added filtration on intensity, noise, and CNRD. Results: Iodine contrast enhancement was maximized using 60 kVp and 0.2 mm Cu. Microcalcification contrast and soft-tissue contrast were maximized at 60 kVp. The 0.2 mm Cu filter achieved significantly higher CNRD for iodine contrast enhancement than the other two filters (p=0.01), but microcalcification contrast and soft-tissue contrast were similar using the copper and aluminum filters. The average percent difference in linear attenuation coefficient, across all tube potentials, for polyethylene versus adipose tissue was 1.8%, 1.7%, and 1.3% for 0.2 mm Cu, 1.5 mm Al, and 0.2 mm

  13. AURORA BOREALIS: a polar-dedicated European Research Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff-Boenisch, Bonnie; Egerton, Paul; Thiede, Joern; Roberto, Azzolini; Lembke-Jene, Lester

    2010-05-01

    global climate change. Chances and challenges rest in securing the construction and operation costs that need a dedicated consortium of interested countries and institutions to help tackling the biggest challenges of the next decades.

  14. Dedicated Linac for Radioneurosurgery at the National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celis-López, Miguel A.; Lárraga-Gutiérrez, José M.

    2003-09-01

    The objective is to present a description and the main clinical applications of this dedicated Linac for benign and malignant tumors in the central nervous system. The Novalis (BrainLab, Germany) is a 6 MV dedicated linac for a single high dose Radiosurgery (RS) and for fractionated doses in Stereotactic Radiotherapy with a high level of precision at the isocenter.

  15. Information Literacy Courses in Engineering and Science--The Design and Implementation of the DEDICATE Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjallbrant, Nancy; Levy, Philippa

    The aim of the DEDICATE (Distance Education Information Courses with Access through Networks) project, funded through the European Union, is to develop distance education courses in training for information literacy. The DEDICATE courses are based on the use of the Internet and World Wide Web; communication between participants and tutors and…

  16. Creating a Dedicated Education Unit in Long-Term Care.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jodie R

    2017-01-17

    adults needing long-term care (LTC) may rise in future aging populations, necessitating an increase in the <1% of nurses currently certified in gerontological nursing. An innovative clinical model, the dedicated education unit (DEU), has been used globally with positive results. The purpose of the current review is to explore the DEU and its possible use in LTC settings, and identify if this clinical model increases nursing students' knowledge of the nursing role. Current literature, including a systematic review, is analyzed and rated for quality. Synthesis of findings show the DEU clinical model may increase student interest and knowledge of LTC nursing through collaboration with the practicing LTC nurse. More longitudinal studies are needed to determine the success of the DEU model as a long-term solution to this clinical problem. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, xx(x), xx-xx.].

  17. Medical Wikis Dedicated to Clinical Practice: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Llorca, Guy; Letrilliart, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Background Wikis may give clinician communities the opportunity to build knowledge relevant to their practice. The only previous study reviewing a set of health-related wikis, without specification of purpose or audience, globally showed a poor reliability. Objective Our aim was to review medical wiki websites dedicated to clinical practices. Methods We used Google in ten languages, PubMed, Embase, Lilacs, and Web of Science to identify websites. The review included wiki sites, accessible and operating, having a topic relevant for clinical medicine, targeting physicians or medical students. Wikis were described according to their purposes, platform, management, information framework, contributions, content, and activity. Purposes were classified as “encyclopedic” or “non-encyclopedic”. The information framework quality was assessed based on the Health On the Net (HONcode) principles for collaborative websites, with additional criteria related to users’ transparency and editorial policy. From a sample of five articles per wikis, we assessed the readability using the Flesch test and compared articles according to the wikis’ main purpose. Annual editorial activities were estimated using the Google engine. Results Among 25 wikis included, 11 aimed at building an encyclopedia, five a textbook, three lessons, two oncology protocols, one a single article, and three at reporting clinical cases. Sixteen wikis were specialized with specific themes or disciplines. Fifteen wikis were using MediaWiki software as-is, three were hosted by online wiki farms, and seven were purpose-built. Except for one MediaWiki-based site, only purpose-built platforms managed detailed user disclosures. The owners were ten organizations, six individuals, four private companies, two universities, two scientific societies, and one unknown. Among 21 open communities, 10 required users’ credentials to give editing rights. The median information framework quality score was 6 out of 16

  18. Dosimetric characterization of a dedicated breast computed tomography clinical prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Feng, Steve Si Jia; D'Orsi, Carl J.

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the glandular dose magnitudes and characteristics resulting from image acquisition using a dedicated breast computed tomography (BCT) clinical prototype imaging system. Methods: The x-ray spectrum and output characteristics of a BCT clinical prototype (Koning Corporation, West Henrietta, NY) were determined using empirical measurements, breast phantoms, and an established spectrum model. The geometry of the BCT system was replicated in a Monte Carlo-based computer simulation using the GEANT4 toolkit and was validated by comparing the simulated results for exposure distribution in a standard 16 cm CT head phantom with those empirically determined using a 10 cm CT pencil ionization chamber and dosimeter. The computer simulation was further validated by replicating the results of a previous BCT dosimetry study. Upon validation, the computer simulation was modified to include breasts of varying sizes and homogeneous compositions spanning those encountered clinically, and the normalized mean glandular dose resulting from BCT was determined. Using the system's measured exposure output determined automatically for breasts of different size and density, the mean glandular dose for these breasts was computed and compared to the glandular dose resulting from mammography. Finally, additional Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study how the glandular dose values vary within the breast tissue during acquisition with both this BCT prototype and a typical craniocaudal (CC) mammographic acquisition. Results: This BCT prototype uses an x-ray spectrum with a first half-value layer of 1.39 mm Al and a mean x-ray energy of 30.3 keV. The normalized mean glandular dose for breasts of varying size and composition during BCT acquisition with this system ranges from 0.278 to 0.582 mGy/mGy air kerma with the reference air kerma measured in air at the center of rotation. Using the measured exposure outputs for the tube currents automatically selected by the

  19. Dedication: phys. stat. sol. (a) 202/15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The papers in this issue are dedicated to Professor Horst Paul Strunk on the occasion of his 65th birthday and his retirement from active teaching. This volume honours a scientist who has made a lasting impact on the field in electron microscopic characterisation of growth and relaxation phenomena in epitaxial growth of semiconductors. Born in The Hague, The Netherlands, on 13 June 1940, he studied physics in Stuttgart where he received his degree in Physics in 1968. He joined the group of Prof. Seeger at the Max-Planck-Institut für Metallforschung and defended his Ph.D. on defects in NaCl at Stuttgart University in 1973. He spent one year at Cornell University as a visiting Professor before joining Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg in 1983. There he created the Zentralbereich Elektronenmikroskopie and was a professor for materials analytics from 1983 till 1989. In 1989 he changed to the University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, where he established the Verbundlabor für hochauflösende Elektronenmikroskopie and directed the Lehrstuhl Mikrocharakterisierung at the Institut für Werkstoffwissenschaften of the same university. He spent two research periods at the Universities of Rennes in France and Campinas in Brazil. Together with his colleague Prof. Jürgen Werner he created the series of conferences on polycrystalline semiconductors POLYSE which he has been supervising together with Jürgen Werner since 1990.The research activities of Horst P. Strunk are focused on microstructure of materials and their relation to macroscopic physical properties. Main topics are dislocations, their formation and interaction mechanisms, strain relaxation as well as fundamental mechanisms of epitaxial growth. The spectrum of materials covers a wide range starting from metals over ionic crystals, e.g. NaCl to elemental and compound semiconductors. From the beginning, the main tool of study has been the transmission electron microscope. However, Horst P. Strunk recognised that a

  20. Aurel Sandulescu—a life dedicated to nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liotta, R. J.

    2013-02-01

    leaders of Romanian physics. It is in recognition of his contribution to physics, especially nuclear physics, as well as his work for Romanian science that this School is organized in his honour, on the occasion of his 80th birthday. I cannot finish this short account without mentioning the person that accompanied Aurel Sandulescu through all his life, his wife of more than fifty years, Violeta. She also was an exceptional person. In her youth she was a very dedicated sporty girl, very athletic, very courageous, very fair and, above all, very generous. These qualities remained with her throughout her life. With deep sorrow I learnt that she passed away three months ago, still youthful and enthusiastic. R J Liotta

  1. Bioethanol production from dedicated energy crops and residues in Arkansas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, one of the major technological goals is cost-effective lignocellulosic ethanol production from biomass feedstocks. Lignocellulosic biomass of five dedicated energy crops and two crops residues were tested for bioethanol production using cellulose solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation...

  2. MINERvA: A Dedicated neutrino scattering experiment at NuMI

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, Kevin S.; /Rochester U.

    2006-05-01

    MINERvA is a dedicated neutrino cross-section experiment planned for the near detector hall of the NuMI neutrino beam at Fermilab. I summarize the detector design and physics capabilities of the experiment.

  3. Secretary Chu and Administrator D'Agostino at the HEUMF Dedication

    ScienceCinema

    Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Administrator D'Agostino

    2016-07-12

    Speeches by Secretary of Energy Chu and NNSA Administrator Tom D'Agostino at the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility dedication ceremony at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee on March 22, 2010.

  4. 76 FR 446 - Supplemental Security Income (SSI) for the Aged, Blind, and Disabled; Dedicated Accounts and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... 221 of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA). These... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY...; Dedicated Accounts and Installment Payments for Certain Past- Due SSI Benefits AGENCY: Social...

  5. Secretary Chu and Administrator D'Agostino at the HEUMF Dedication

    SciTech Connect

    Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu and Administrator D'Agostino

    2010-03-24

    Speeches by Secretary of Energy Chu and NNSA Administrator Tom D'Agostino at the Highly Enriched Uranium Materials Facility dedication ceremony at the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge, Tennessee on March 22, 2010.

  6. 33 CFR 157.206 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.206 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank...

  7. 33 CFR 157.206 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.206 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank...

  8. 33 CFR 157.206 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.206 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank...

  9. 33 CFR 157.206 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.206 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank...

  10. 33 CFR 157.206 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank vessels: Submission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.206 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for U.S. tank...

  11. Evidence for the Usefulness of Task Performance, Job Dedication, and Interpersonal Facilitation as Components of Overall Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    Rev 2-89) Author: James R. Van Scotter, Major, USAF Title: Evidence for the Usefulness of Task Performance, Job Dedication, and Interpersonal ...task performance, job dedication, interpersonal facilitation, and overall performance had acceptable reliability. Another group of supervisors provided...independent ratings of the task performance, job dedication, interpersonal facilitation, and overall performance of 760 Air Force mechanics in a second

  12. Minimizing critical layer systematic alignment errors during non-dedicated processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jekauc, Igor; Roberts, William R.

    2004-05-01

    For the 150 nm and smaller half-pitch geometries, many DRAM manufacturers frequently employ dedicated exposure tool strategy for processing of most critical layers. Individual die tolerances of less than 40 nm are not uncommon for such compact geometries and a method is needed to reduce systematic overlay errors. The dedication strategy relies on the premise that a component of the systematic error induced by the inefficiencies in the exposure tool encountered at a specific layer can be diminished by re-exposing subsequent layer(s) on the same tool thus canceling out a large component of this error. In the past this strategy has, in general, resulted in better overall alignment performance, better exposure tool modeling and in decreased residual modeling errors. Increased alignment performance due to dedication does not come without its price. In such a dedicated strategy wafers are committed to process on the same tool at subsequent lithographic layers thus decreasing manufacturing flexibility and in turn affecting cost through increased processing cycle time. Tool down-events and equipment upgrades requiring significant downtime can also have a significant negative impact on running of a factory. This paper presents volume results for the 140 nm and 110 nm half-pitch geometries using 248 nm and 193 nm respective exposure wavelength state-of-art systems that show that dedicated processing still produces superior overlay and device performance results when compared blindly against non-dedicated processing. Results are also shown that at a given time an acceptable match may be found producing near equivalent results for non-dedicated processing. Changes in alignment capability are also observed after major equipment maintenance and component replacement. A point-in-time predictor strategy utilizing residual modeling errors and a set of modified performance specifications is directly compared against measured overlay data after patterning, against within field AFOV

  13. Hold on to your friends: Dedicated chaperones of ribosomal proteins: Dedicated chaperones mediate the safe transfer of ribosomal proteins to their site of pre-ribosome incorporation.

    PubMed

    Pillet, Benjamin; Mitterer, Valentin; Kressler, Dieter; Pertschy, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Eukaryotic ribosomes are assembled from their components, the ribosomal RNAs and ribosomal proteins, in a tremendously complex, multi-step process, which primarily takes place in the nuclear compartment. Therefore, most ribosomal proteins have to travel from the cytoplasm to their incorporation site on pre-ribosomes within the nucleus. However, due to their particular characteristics, such as a highly basic amino acid composition and the presence of unstructured extensions, ribosomal proteins are especially prone to aggregation and degradation in their unassembled state, hence specific mechanisms must operate to ensure their safe delivery. Recent studies have uncovered a group of proteins, termed dedicated chaperones, specialized in accompanying and guarding individual ribosomal proteins. In this essay, we review how these dedicated chaperones utilize different folds to interact with their ribosomal protein clients and how they ensure their soluble expression and interconnect their intracellular transport with their efficient assembly into pre-ribosomes.

  14. The Application of Dedicated Controllers to Parallel/Serial Exhauster Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhukhan, Debashis; Dever, Therese M.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty new dedicated controllers were interfaced to the Distributed Control System (DCS) at NASA Lewis Research Center. Better surge avoidance, improved energy savings, interface intricacies, and plant complexities are the subjects of this paper. Problems with the existing Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) control logic are described as well as the solutions implemented with the new controllers. The complexity of the new communication network between the dedicated controllers, Multipurpose Micro-Processor (MMPs), and the operator workstations are illustrated. The complicated nature of the plant and methods of controlling the associated processes are also discussed.

  15. Bridge to the Future: Franklin Roosevelt's Speech at the Dedication of the Triborough Bridge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbaum, David L.

    2009-01-01

    When President Franklin D. Roosevelt took office on March 4, 1933, 15 million Americans, or one quarter of the nation's workers, were jobless. Hope faded as despair spread. Three years later, on July 10, 1936, Roosevelt took a special overnight train from Washington, D.C., to New York City for the dedication of the Triborough Bridge. The next day,…

  16. 33 CFR 157.225 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., the pump and piping system for conveying the ballast are flushed with water; (c) Before the pump and... dedicated clean ballast tanks is used for flushing the pump and piping system, the volume of water for... content of the flushing water in the piping system is monitored; and (2) The pump and piping system...

  17. 33 CFR 157.225 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., the pump and piping system for conveying the ballast are flushed with water; (c) Before the pump and... dedicated clean ballast tanks is used for flushing the pump and piping system, the volume of water for... content of the flushing water in the piping system is monitored; and (2) The pump and piping system...

  18. 33 CFR 157.225 - Dedicated clean ballast tanks operations: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., the pump and piping system for conveying the ballast are flushed with water; (c) Before the pump and... dedicated clean ballast tanks is used for flushing the pump and piping system, the volume of water for... content of the flushing water in the piping system is monitored; and (2) The pump and piping system...

  19. Manpower Conference for the Health Related Professions, and Dedication, School of Health Related Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, J. Warren, Ed.

    More than 400 persons including national leaders in government, educational, and professional organizations and agencies attended the dedication and the 3-day conference intended to focus attention on priority needs. Conference papers include: (1) "Serving Is a Privilege, Not a Problem" by M.E. Switzer, (2) "Regional Medical…

  20. Genetic Modification in Dedicated Bioenergy Crops and Strategies for Gene Confinement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic modification of dedicated bioenergy crops is in its infancy; however, there are numerous advantages to the use of these tools to improve crops used for biofuels. Potential improved traits through genetic engineering (GE) include herbicide resistance, pest, drought, cold and salt tolerance, l...

  1. Comparison of programmable legend keyboard and dedicated keyboard for control of the flight management computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, Jean M.; Boucek, George P., Jr.; Smith, Wayne D.

    1986-01-01

    A study is described which compares two types of input devices used to operate a flight management computer: a programmable legend (multifunction) keyboard and a conventional (dedicated) keyboard. Pilot performance measures, subjective responses, and a timeline analysis were used in evaluating the two keyboard concepts. A discussion of the factors to be considered in the implementation of a multifunction keyboard is included.

  2. Mrs. Hugh Dryden unveils the memorial to her late husband at center dedication, with center director

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    On March 26, 1976, the NASA Flight Research Center opened its doors to hundreds of guests for the dedication of the center in honor of Hugh Latimer Dryden. The dedication was very much a local event; following Center Director David Scott's opening remarks, the Antelope Valley High School's symphonic band played the national anthem. Invocation was given followed by recognition of the invited guests. Dr. Hugh Dryden, a man of total humility, received praise from all those present. Dryden, who died in 1965, had been a pioneering aeronautical scientist who became director of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1949 and then deputy administrator of the NACA's successor, NASA, in 1958. Very much interested in flight research, he had been responsible for establishing a permanent facility at the location later named in his honor. As Center Director David Scott looks on, Mrs. Hugh L. Dryden (Mary Libbie Travers) unveils the memorial to her husband at the dedication ceremony.On March 26, 1976, the NASA Flight Research Center opened its doors to hundreds of guests for the dedication of the center in honor of Hugh Latimer Dryden.

  3. The Relationships between a Dedicated Education Unit and Quality of Nursing Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tochterman, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    The Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) is a model of clinical teaching which has gained widespread acceptance and national recognition as an innovative method of clinical education for undergraduate nursing students (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2010; Warner & Burton, 2009). The primary goals and benefits of the DEU for schools of nursing are…

  4. Role, Impacts and Implications of Dedicated Aboriginal Student Space at a Canadian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Natasha L.; Varghese, Jeji

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on a case study of the University of Guelph's Aboriginal Resource Centre (ARC) to identify the role that dedicated spaces have in the lives of Aboriginal students. Three roles that were identified include how these spaces build a sense of community, foster and enhance Aboriginal identity, and provide a safe space for Aboriginal…

  5. A Dedicated Postpartum Intrauterine Device Inserter: Pilot Experience and Proof of Concept

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sharad; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Dewan, Rupali; Mittal, Pratima; Bhamrah, Renita; Lerma, Klaira; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the feasibility, acceptability, and safety of a dedicated postpartum intrauterine device (PPIUD) inserter specifically designed for the post-delivery setting. Primary objectives of fundal placement and expulsion rates were assessed. Secondary objectives were participant satisfaction and IUD retention. Methods: In this pilot proof of concept, we enrolled 80 women who presented for PPIUD insertion at 2 government hospitals in Delhi and Lucknow, India, between March and July 2015. PPIUD insertion was completed with the dedicated inserter in all cases, by trained providers with no prior experience in PPIUD insertion, followed immediately by ultrasound to assess location and fundal placement of the IUD. Follow-up took place at 6 to 8 weeks post-insertion, and ultrasound was used to assess IUD location. Providers and participants also completed satisfaction surveys. Results: High fundal placement (≤10 mm from uterine fundus) was achieved with the dedicated PPIUD inserter in 82% of cases (n = 65). There were no perforations or infections among the participants and no other complications associated with use of the dedicated inserter. The mean distance between the IUD and the endometrial verge immediately post-insertion was 5.8 mm (range, 0–31; N = 80); this distance at follow-up was also 5.8 mm (range, 0–25; n = 50). Complete expulsion was observed in 6 cases (7.5%), and asymptomatic partial expulsion in 8 cases (10%). Providers reported the majority (93%, n = 74) of insertions to be easy. The majority (74%, n = 59) of participants reported the same level of pain before and after insertion. Conclusions: This dedicated PPIUD inserter performed as intended and was found to be safe, with high acceptability among the participants and providers. Further study and use of the dedicated inserter may reveal reduced risk of infection among PPIUD users as well as increased convenience compared with standard PPIUD insertion

  6. A Dedicated Inferior Vena Cava Filter Service Line: How to Optimize Your Practice.

    PubMed

    Karp, Jennifer K; Desai, Kush R; Salem, Riad; Ryu, Robert K; Lewandowski, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Despite the increased placement of retrievable inferior vena cava filters (rIVCFs), efforts to remove these devices are not commensurate. The majority of rIVCFs are left in place beyond their indicated usage, and often are retained permanently. With a growing understanding of the clinical issues associated with these devices, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has prompted clinicians to remove rIVCF when they are no longer indicated. However, major obstacles exist to filter retrieval, chief among them being poor clinical follow-up. The establishment of a dedicated IVC filter service line, or clinic, has been shown to improve filter retrieval rates. Usage of particular devices, specifically permanent versus retrievable filters, is enhanced by prospective physician consultation. In this article, the rationale behind a dedicated IVC filter service line is presented as well as described the structure and activities of the authors' IVC filter clinic; supporting data will also be provided when appropriate.

  7. Earth Viewing Applications Laboratory (EVAL). Dedicated payload, standard test rack payload, sensor modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The preliminary analysis of strawman earth-viewing shuttle sortie payloads begun with the partial spacelab payload was analyzed. The payloads analyzed represent the two extremes of shuttle sortie application payloads: a full shuttle sortie payload dedicated to earth-viewing applications, and a small structure payload which can fly on a space available basis with another primary shuttle payload such as a free flying satellite. The intent of the dedicated mission analysis was to configure an ambitious, but feasible, payload; which, while rich in scientific return, would also stress the system and reveal any deficiences or problem areas in mission planning, support equipment, and operations. Conversely, the intent of the small structure payload was to demonstrate the ease with which a small, simple, flexible payload can be accommodated on shuttle flights.

  8. Distributed computing feasibility in a non-dedicated homogeneous distributed system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leutenegger, Scott T.; Sun, Xian-He

    1993-01-01

    The low cost and availability of clusters of workstations have lead researchers to re-explore distributed computing using independent workstations. This approach may provide better cost/performance than tightly coupled multiprocessors. In practice, this approach often utilizes wasted cycles to run parallel jobs. The feasibility of such a non-dedicated parallel processing environment assuming workstation processes have preemptive priority over parallel tasks is addressed. An analytical model is developed to predict parallel job response times. Our model provides insight into how significantly workstation owner interference degrades parallel program performance. A new term task ratio, which relates the parallel task demand to the mean service demand of nonparallel workstation processes, is introduced. It was proposed that task ratio is a useful metric for determining how large the demand of a parallel applications must be in order to make efficient use of a non-dedicated distributed system.

  9. WARP: Weight Associative Rule Processor. A dedicated VLSI fuzzy logic megacell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagni, A.; Poluzzi, R.; Rizzotto, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    During the last five years Fuzzy Logic has gained enormous popularity in the academic and industrial worlds. The success of this new methodology has led the microelectronics industry to create a new class of machines, called Fuzzy Machines, to overcome the limitations of traditional computing systems when utilized as Fuzzy Systems. This paper gives an overview of the methods by which Fuzzy Logic data structures are represented in the machines (each with its own advantages and inefficiencies). Next, the paper introduces WARP (Weight Associative Rule Processor) which is a dedicated VLSI megacell allowing the realization of a fuzzy controller suitable for a wide range of applications. WARP represents an innovative approach to VLSI Fuzzy controllers by utilizing different types of data structures for characterizing the membership functions during the various stages of the Fuzzy processing. WARP dedicated architecture has been designed in order to achieve high performance by exploiting the computational advantages offered by the different data representations.

  10. Dedicated Pediatricians in Emergency Department: Shorter Waiting Times and Lower Costs

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Manuel Rocha; Ferreira-Magalhães, Manuel; Flor-Lima, Filipa; Rodrigues, Mariana; Severo, Milton; Almeida-Santos, Luis; Caldas-Afonso, Alberto; Barros, Pedro Pita; Ferreira, António

    2016-01-01

    Background Dedicated pediatricians in emergency departments (EDs) may be beneficial, though no previous studies have assessed the related costs and benefits/harms. We aimed to evaluate the net benefits and costs of dedicated emergency pediatricians in a pediatric ED. Methods Cost-consequences analysis of visits to a pediatric ED of a tertiary hospital. Two pediatric ED Medical Teams (MT) were compared: MT-A (May–September 2012), with general pediatrics physicians only; and MT-B (May–September 2013), with emergency dedicated pediatricians. The main outcomes analyzed were relevant clinical outcomes, patient throughput time and costs. Results We included 8,694 children in MT-A and 9,417 in MT-B. Medication use in the ED increased from 42.3% of the children in MT-A to 49.6% in MT-B; diagnostic tests decreased from 24.2% in MT-A to 14.3% in MT-B. Hospitalization increased from 1.3% in MT-A to 3.0% in MT-B; however, there was no significant difference in diagnosis-related group relative weight of hospitalized children in MT-A and MT-B (MT-A, 0.979; MT-B, 1.075). No differences were observed in ED readmissions or in patients leaving without being seen by a physician. The patient throughput time was significantly shorter in MT-B, with faster times to first medical observation. Within the cost domains analyzed, the total expenditures per children observed in the ED were 16% lower in MT-B: 37.87 euros in MT-A; 31.97 euros in MT-B. Conclusion The presence of dedicated emergency pediatricians in a pediatric ED was associated with significantly lower waiting times in the ED, reduced costs, and similar clinical outcomes. PMID:27564093

  11. Additional Development of a Dedicated Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV)

    SciTech Connect

    IMPCO Technologies

    1998-10-28

    This report describes the last in a series of three projects designed to develop a commercially competitive LPG light-duty passenger car that meets California ULEV standards and corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency guidelines for such a vehicle. In this project, IMPCO upgraded the vehicle's LPG vapor fuel injection system and performed emissions testing. The vehicle met the 1998 ULEV standards successfully, demonstrating the feasibility of meeting ULEV standards with a dedicated LPG vehicle.

  12. A minimum spanning forest based classification method for dedicated breast CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, Robert; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Fei, Baowei

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To develop and test an automated algorithm to classify different types of tissue in dedicated breast CT images. Methods: Images of a single breast of five different patients were acquired with a dedicated breast CT clinical prototype. The breast CT images were processed by a multiscale bilateral filter to reduce noise while keeping edge information and were corrected to overcome cupping artifacts. As skin and glandular tissue have similar CT values on breast CT images, morphologic processing is used to identify the skin based on its position information. A support vector machine (SVM) is trained and the resulting model used to create a pixelwise classification map of fat and glandular tissue. By combining the results of the skin mask with the SVM results, the breast tissue is classified as skin, fat, and glandular tissue. This map is then used to identify markers for a minimum spanning forest that is grown to segment the image using spatial and intensity information. To evaluate the authors’ classification method, they use DICE overlap ratios to compare the results of the automated classification to those obtained by manual segmentation on five patient images. Results: Comparison between the automatic and the manual segmentation shows that the minimum spanning forest based classification method was able to successfully classify dedicated breast CT image with average DICE ratios of 96.9%, 89.8%, and 89.5% for fat, glandular, and skin tissue, respectively. Conclusions: A 2D minimum spanning forest based classification method was proposed and evaluated for classifying the fat, skin, and glandular tissue in dedicated breast CT images. The classification method can be used for dense breast tissue quantification, radiation dose assessment, and other applications in breast imaging.

  13. Module comprising IC memory stack dedicated to and structurally combined with an IC microprocessor chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John C. (Inventor); Indin, Ronald J. (Inventor); Shanken, Stuart N. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A computer module is disclosed in which a stack of glued together IC memory chips is structurally integrated with a microprocessor chip. The memory provided by the stack is dedicated to the microprocessor chip. The microprocessor and its memory stack may be connected either by glue and/or by solder bumps. The solder bumps can perform three functions--electrical interconnection, mechanical connection, and heat transfer. The electrical connections in some versions are provided by wire bonding.

  14. A Dedicated Environmental Remote Sensing Facility for the Columbia Earth Institute

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weissel, Jeffrey K.; Small, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a final technical report on a dedicated environmental remote sensing facility for the Columbia Earth Institute. The above-referenced award enabled the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory to establish a state-of-the-art remote sensing image analysis and data visualization facility to serve the research and educational needs of students and staff at Lamont and the Columbia Earth Institute.

  15. The effects on population health status of using dedicated property taxes to fund local public health agencies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the United States, a dedicated property tax describes the legal authority given to a local jurisdiction to levy and collect a tax for a specific purpose. We investigated for an association of locally dedicated property taxes to fund local public health agencies and improved health status in the eight states designated as the Mississippi Delta Region. Methods We analyzed the difference in health outcomes of counties with and without a dedicated public health tax after adjusting for a set of control variables using regression models for county level data from 720 counties of the Mississippi Delta Region. Results Levying a dedicated public health tax for counties with per capita income above $28,000 is associated with improved health outcomes of those counties when compared to counties without a dedicated property tax for public health. Alternatively, levying a dedicated property tax in counties with lower per capita income is associated with poor health outcomes. Conclusions There are both positive and negative consequences of using dedicated property taxes to fund public health. Policymakers should carefully examine both the positive association of improved health outcomes and negative impact of taxation on poor populations before authorizing the use of dedicated local property tax levies to fund public health agencies. PMID:21672231

  16. Addressing the Challenge of Preparing Australian Pre-Service Primary Teachers in Environmental Education: An Evaluation of a Dedicated Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennelly, Julie; Taylor, Neil; Maxwell, T. W.

    2008-01-01

    Concerns have been raised for some time about the preparation of Australian teachers in the area of environmental education. Few tertiary institutions that undertake teacher education in Australia have specific units or modules dedicated to environmental education. This article reports on an evaluation of such a dedicated unit recently introduced…

  17. 33 CFR Appendix D to Part 157 - Example of a Procedure for Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations D Appendix D to Part 157 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Pt. 157, App. D Appendix D to Part 157—Example of a.... (3) Ensure that all valves in the dedicated clean ballast tanks are closed. (d) Before arrival at...

  18. Investigation of a novel image segmentation method dedicated to forest fire applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudz, S.; Chetehouna, K.; Hafiane, A.; Laurent, H.; Séro-Guillaume, O.

    2013-07-01

    To face fire it is crucial to understand its behaviour in order to maximize fighting means. To achieve this task, the development of a metrological tool is necessary for estimating both geometrical and physical parameters involved in forest fire modelling. A key parameter is to estimate fire positions accurately. In this paper an image processing tool especially dedicated to an accurate extraction of fire from an image is presented. In this work, the clustering on several colour spaces is investigated and it appears that the blue chrominance Cb from the YCbCr colour space is the most appropriate. As a consequence, a new segmentation algorithm dedicated to forest fire applications has been built using first an optimized k-means clustering in the Cb-channel and then some properties of fire pixels in the RGB colour space. Next, the performance of the proposed method is evaluated using three supervised evaluation criteria and then compared to other existing segmentation algorithms in the literature. Finally a conclusion is drawn, assessing the good behaviour of the developed algorithm. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr Olivier Séro-Guillaume (1950-2013), CNRS Research Director.

  19. General-purpose and dedicated regimes in the use of telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamy, Jérôme; Davoust, Emmanuel

    2009-11-01

    We propose a socio-historical framework for better understanding the evolution in the use of telescopes. We define two regimes of use: a general-purpose (or survey) one, where the telescope governs research, and a dedicated one, in which the telescope is tailored to a specific project which includes a network of other tools. This conceptual framework is first applied to the history of the 80-cm reflector at the Toulouse Observatory, which was initially anchored in a general-purpose regime linked to astrometry. After a transition in the 1930s, it was integrated into a dedicated regime centered on astrophysics. This evolution is compared to that of a very similar instrument, the 80-cm reflector at the Marseille Observatory, which was converted to a dedicated regime with the Fabry-Perot interferometer around 1910, and, after a period of idleness, was again used in the survey mode after WWII. To further validate our new concept, we apply it to the telescopes at the Washburn Observatory, the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory and the Meudon Observatory. The uses of the different telescopes illustrate various combinations of the two regimes, which can be successive, simultaneous or alternating. This conceptual framework is likely to be applicable to other fields of pure and applied science.

  20. Integrating quality and safety education into clinical nursing education through a dedicated education unit.

    PubMed

    Masters, Kelli

    2016-03-01

    The Institute of Medicine and American Association of Colleges of Nursing are calling for curriculum redesign that prepares nursing students with the requisite knowledge and skills to provide safe, high quality care. The purpose of this project was to improve nursing students' knowledge of quality and safety by integrating Quality and Safety Education for Nurses into clinical nursing education through development of a dedicated education unit. This model, which pairs nursing students with front-line nursing staff for clinical experiences, was implemented on a medical floor in an acute care hospital. Prior to implementation, nurses and students were educated about the dedicated education unit and quality and safety competencies. During each clinical rotation, students collaborated with their nurses on projects related to these competencies. Students' knowledge was assessed using questions related to quality and safety. Students who participated in the dedicated education unit had higher scores than those with traditional clinical rotations. Focus groups were held mid-semester to assess nurses' perceptions of the experience. Five themes emerged from the qualitative data including thirsting for knowledge, building teamwork and collaboration, establishing trust and decreasing anxiety, mirroring organization and time management skills, and evolving confidence in the nursing role.

  1. HERMES: a soft X-ray beamline dedicated to X-ray microscopy.

    PubMed

    Belkhou, Rachid; Stanescu, Stefan; Swaraj, Sufal; Besson, Adrien; Ledoux, Milena; Hajlaoui, Mahdi; Dalle, Didier

    2015-07-01

    The HERMES beamline (High Efficiency and Resolution beamline dedicated to X-ray Microscopy and Electron Spectroscopy), built at Synchrotron SOLEIL (Saint-Auban, France), is dedicated to soft X-ray microscopy. The beamline combines two complementary microscopy methods: XPEEM (X-ray Photo Emitted Electron Microscopy) and STXM (Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy) with an aim to reach spatial resolution below 20 nm and to fully exploit the local spectroscopic capabilities of the two microscopes. The availability of the two methods within the same beamline enables the users to select the appropriate approach to study their specific case in terms of sample environment, spectroscopy methods, probing depth etc. In this paper a general description of the beamline and its design are presented. The performance and specifications of the beamline will be reviewed in detail. Moreover, the article is aiming to demonstrate how the beamline performances have been specifically optimized to fulfill the specific requirements of a soft X-ray microscopy beamline in terms of flux, resolution, beam size etc. Special attention has been dedicated to overcome some limiting and hindering problems that are usually encountered on soft X-ray beamlines such as carbon contamination, thermal stability and spectral purity.

  2. Conceptual design of dedicated road lighting for city park and housing estate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Rengmao; Li, Kan; Liu, Peng; Zheng, Zhenrong; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu

    2013-07-20

    We propose dedicated road lighting, which is significantly superior to the existing lighting technologies for the city park and housing estate. This dedicated lighting employs freeform surfaces to effectively control the optical field of the LED source to produce three kinds of illumination modes for the curved road, straight road, and the small public square, respectively, perfectly matching the road conditions of the city park and housing estate. A mathematical model of freeform illumination design is presented to achieve a conceptual design of this road lighting, and a numerical technology for solving this design problem is introduced for the first time, to our knowledge. An illumination model of this conceptual design is constructed. The experimental results of the conceptual design tally closely with the target. This dedicated road lighting, integrated with energy saving, healthy lighting and artistic beauty, provides a beautiful landscape for the city park and the housing estate at night, and will play an important role in improving quality of life of the urban inhabitants.

  3. Intelligent Urban Public Transportation for Accessibility Dedicated to People with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haiying; Hou, Kun-Mean; Zuo, Decheng; Li, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The traditional urban public transport system generally cannot provide an effective access service for people with disabilities, especially for disabled, wheelchair and blind (DWB) passengers. In this paper, based on advanced information & communication technologies (ICT) and green technologies (GT) concepts, a dedicated public urban transportation service access system named Mobi+ has been introduced, which facilitates the mobility of DWB passengers. The Mobi+ project consists of three subsystems: a wireless communication subsystem, which provides the data exchange and network connection services between buses and stations in the complex urban environments; the bus subsystem, which provides the DWB class detection & bus arrival notification services; and the station subsystem, which implements the urban environmental surveillance & bus auxiliary access services. The Mobi+ card that supports multi-microcontroller multi-transceiver adopts the fault-tolerant component-based hardware architecture, in which the dedicated embedded system software, i.e., operating system micro-kernel and wireless protocol, has been integrated. The dedicated Mobi+ embedded system provides the fault-tolerant resource awareness communication and scheduling mechanism to ensure the reliability in data exchange and service provision. At present, the Mobi+ system has been implemented on the buses and stations of line ‘2’ in the city of Clermont-Ferrand (France). The experiential results show that, on one hand the Mobi+ prototype system reaches the design expectations and provides an effective urban bus access service for people with disabilities; on the other hand the Mobi+ system is easily to deploy in the buses and at bus stations thanks to its low energy consumption and small form factor. PMID:23112622

  4. Intelligent urban public transportation for accessibility dedicated to people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haiying; Hou, Kun-Mean; Zuo, Decheng; Li, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The traditional urban public transport system generally cannot provide an effective access service for people with disabilities, especially for disabled, wheelchair and blind (DWB) passengers. In this paper, based on advanced information & communication technologies (ICT) and green technologies (GT) concepts, a dedicated public urban transportation service access system named Mobi+ has been introduced, which facilitates the mobility of DWB passengers. The Mobi+ project consists of three subsystems: a wireless communication subsystem, which provides the data exchange and network connection services between buses and stations in the complex urban environments; the bus subsystem, which provides the DWB class detection & bus arrival notification services; and the station subsystem, which implements the urban environmental surveillance & bus auxiliary access services. The Mobi+ card that supports multi-microcontroller multi-transceiver adopts the fault-tolerant component-based hardware architecture, in which the dedicated embedded system software, i.e., operating system micro-kernel and wireless protocol, has been integrated. The dedicated Mobi+ embedded system provides the fault-tolerant resource awareness communication and scheduling mechanism to ensure the reliability in data exchange and service provision. At present, the Mobi+ system has been implemented on the buses and stations of line '2' in the city of Clermont-Ferrand (France). The experiential results show that, on one hand the Mobi+ prototype system reaches the design expectations and provides an effective urban bus access service for people with disabilities; on the other hand the Mobi+ system is easily to deploy in the buses and at bus stations thanks to its low energy consumption and small form factor.

  5. GammaPod—A new device dedicated for stereotactic radiotherapy of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Cedric X.; Shao, Xinyu; Zhang, Jin; Regine, William; Zheng, Mike; Yu, Ying S.; Deng, Jianchun; Duan, Zhengcheng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper introduces a new external beam radiotherapy device named GammaPod that is dedicated for stereotactic radiotherapy of breast cancer. Methods: The design goal of the GammaPod as a dedicated system for treating breast cancer is the ability to deliver ablative doses with sharp gradients under stereotactic image guidance. Stereotactic localization of the breast is achieved by a vacuum-assisted breast immobilization cup with built-in stereotactic frame. Highly focused radiation is achieved at the isocenter due to the cross-firing from 36 radiation arcs generated by rotating 36 individual Cobalt-60 beams. The dedicated treatment planning system optimizes an optimal path of the focal spot using an optimization algorithm borrowed from computational geometry such that the target can be covered by 90%–95% of the prescription dose and the doses to surrounding tissues are minimized. The treatment plan is intended to be delivered with continuous motion of the treatment couch. In this paper the authors described in detail the gamma radiation unit, stereotactic localization of the breast, and the treatment planning system of the GammaPod system. Results: A prototype GammaPod system was installed at University of Maryland Medical Center and has gone through a thorough functional, geometric, and dosimetric testing. The mechanical and functional performances of the system all meet the functional specifications. Conclusions: An image-guided breast stereotactic radiotherapy device, named GammaPod, has been developed to deliver highly focused and localized doses to a target in the breast under stereotactic image guidance. It is envisioned that the GammaPod technology has the potential to significantly shorten radiation treatments and even eliminate surgery by ablating the tumor and sterilizing the tumor bed simultaneously. PMID:23635251

  6. Universal precautions and dedicated machines as cheap and effective measures to control HCV spread.

    PubMed

    Cerrai, T; Michelassi, S; Ierpi, C; Toti, G; Zignego, A L; Lombardi, M

    1998-01-01

    Haemodialysis patients are at great risk for HCV infection, and a strict relationship is clear between anti-HCV positivity and dialysis age or hospital dialysis, irrespective of previous blood transfusions. Notwithstanding that, the precise root of its nosocomial nontransfusional diffusion among haemodialysis patients is not clear yet. As isolation is a very expensive policy, we evaluated whether simpler measures such as the observance of the Universal Precautions (UP), and the use of anti-HCV positive patient dedicated monitors can stop the diffusion of HCV infection in a hospital haemodialysis centre. Since January 1990 to December 1991 (1st phase), the patients shared the monitors irrespective of their serological status for HCV, and training of the dialysis care staff was not performed with regard to the UP. Since January 1991 to June 1996 (2nd phase), according to the UP, strictly personal dialysis-tools were used for all patients, anti-HCV positive patients were assigned to dedicated monitors in defined (not separated) areas of the dialysis rooms and the dialysis care staff was trained to the strict observance of the UP. In the first phase of the follow-up 5 seroconversions occurred; none occurred in the second one. Our study shows that isolation is not required for such patients. We believe that measures such as the application of UP, dedicated machines and continuous training of the care staff, instead of the isolation of positive patients, result in the same efficacy and are cheaper than isolation of positive patients. Therefore they are mandatory for all haemodialysis centres.

  7. Development and implementation of a dedicated postoperative evaluation service to improve compliance of postoperative visits

    PubMed Central

    Vacanti, Joshua Charles; Urman, Richard Dennis; Sarin, Pankaj; Liu, Xiaoxia; Kodali, Bhavani Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Postoperative patient evaluation is an integral component of perioperative care. An audit of our anesthesia department's records demonstrated a compliance rate of <50%. We postulated that the development of clinical anesthesia service dedicated to performing such evaluations would improve compliance significantly. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study examined postoperative follow-up completion rate at a large academic center. Data were collected from 58,000 anesthetics during three periods, between each of which an intervention was introduced. The first period examined completion rate when postoperative evaluations were left to the team performing the anesthetic. During the second period, this task was delegated to groups of anesthesiologists based on surgical subspecialty; these smaller groups utilized rotating residents. The third period examined completion rate after implementation of a postoperative evaluation service. All periods utilized the department's electronics database to identify operative patients. The number of adverse anesthesia events reported was also recorded. Results: A significant difference in the proportions of compliance with postoperative evaluations among all three periods was detected. Compliance was 47% during period one and improved to 66% during period two. During period three, which employed a postoperative evaluation service, compliance was 83%. The number of adverse events reported per month increased significantly following the first study period from 95 reported monthly events to 215 and 201 in the second and third periods, respectively. Conclusion: By creating a dedicated postoperative evaluation service using available technology, we improved postoperative evaluation completion rate from 47% to 83%, and demonstrated a significant increase in the number of adverse events reported. Based on this, we support the deployment of a dedicated service as a quality improvement initiative. PMID:25788778

  8. Demonstration of the importance of a dedicated neutron beam monitoring system for BNCT facility.

    PubMed

    Chao, Der-Sheng; Liu, Yuan-Hao; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2016-01-01

    The neutron beam monitoring system is indispensable to BNCT facility in order to achieve an accurate patient dose delivery. The neutron beam monitoring of a reactor-based BNCT (RB-BNCT) facility can be implemented through the instrumentation and control system of a reactor provided that the reactor power level remains constant during reactor operation. However, since the neutron flux in reactor core is highly correlative to complicated reactor kinetics resulting from such as fuel depletion, poison production, and control blade movement, some extent of variation may occur in the spatial distribution of neutron flux in reactor core. Therefore, a dedicated neutron beam monitoring system is needed to be installed in the vicinity of the beam path close to the beam exit of the RB-BNCT facility, where it can measure the BNCT beam intensity as closely as possible and be free from the influence of the objects present around the beam exit. In this study, in order to demonstrate the importance of a dedicated BNCT neutron beam monitoring system, the signals originating from the two in-core neutron detectors installed at THOR were extracted and compared with the three dedicated neutron beam monitors of the THOR BNCT facility. The correlation of the readings between the in-core neutron detectors and the BNCT neutron beam monitors was established to evaluate the improvable quality of the beam intensity measurement inferred by the in-core neutron detectors. In 29 sampled intervals within 16 days of measurement, the fluctuations in the mean value of the normalized ratios between readings of the three BNCT neutron beam monitors lay within 0.2%. However, the normalized ratios of readings of the two in-core neutron detectors to one of the BNCT neutron beam monitors show great fluctuations of 5.9% and 17.5%, respectively.

  9. GammaPod-A new device dedicated for stereotactic radiotherapy of breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Cedric X.; Shao Xinyu; Deng Jianchun; Duan Zhengcheng; Zhang Jin; Zheng, Mike; Yu, Ying S.; Regine, William

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: This paper introduces a new external beam radiotherapy device named GammaPod that is dedicated for stereotactic radiotherapy of breast cancer. Methods: The design goal of the GammaPod as a dedicated system for treating breast cancer is the ability to deliver ablative doses with sharp gradients under stereotactic image guidance. Stereotactic localization of the breast is achieved by a vacuum-assisted breast immobilization cup with built-in stereotactic frame. Highly focused radiation is achieved at the isocenter due to the cross-firing from 36 radiation arcs generated by rotating 36 individual Cobalt-60 beams. The dedicated treatment planning system optimizes an optimal path of the focal spot using an optimization algorithm borrowed from computational geometry such that the target can be covered by 90%-95% of the prescription dose and the doses to surrounding tissues are minimized. The treatment plan is intended to be delivered with continuous motion of the treatment couch. In this paper the authors described in detail the gamma radiation unit, stereotactic localization of the breast, and the treatment planning system of the GammaPod system. Results: A prototype GammaPod system was installed at University of Maryland Medical Center and has gone through a thorough functional, geometric, and dosimetric testing. The mechanical and functional performances of the system all meet the functional specifications. Conclusions: An image-guided breast stereotactic radiotherapy device, named GammaPod, has been developed to deliver highly focused and localized doses to a target in the breast under stereotactic image guidance. It is envisioned that the GammaPod technology has the potential to significantly shorten radiation treatments and even eliminate surgery by ablating the tumor and sterilizing the tumor bed simultaneously.

  10. Strengthening moral reasoning through dedicated ethics training in dietetic preparatory programs.

    PubMed

    Hewko, Sarah J; Cooper, Sarah L; Cummings, Greta G

    2015-01-01

    Moral reasoning skills, associated with the ability to make ethical decisions effectively, must be purposively fostered. Among health professionals, enhanced moral reasoning is linked to superior clinical performance. Research demonstrates that moral reasoning is enhanced through dedicated, discussion-based ethics education offered over a period of 3-12 weeks. Current dietetic students and practicing dietitians seeking to strengthen their moral reasoning skills can undertake elective ethics education. Further research within dietetic preparatory programs is warranted to better inform the development and implementation of ethics courses.

  11. ESF GROUND SUPPORT - MATERIAL DEDICATION ANALYSIS FOR STRUCTURAL STEEL AND ACCESSORIES FROM A COMMERCIAL GRADE SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    M.D. Stine

    1996-01-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to select the critical characteristics to be verified for steel sets and accessories and the verification methods to be implemented through a material dedication process for the procurement and use of commercial grade structural steel sets and accessories (which have a nuclear safety function) to be used in ground support (with the exception of alcove ground support and alcove opening framing, which are not addressed in this analysis) for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) Topopah Spring (TS) Loop. The ESF TS Loop includes the North Ramp, Main Drift, and South Ramp underground openings.

  12. Building a dedicated information barrier system for warhead and sensitive item verification

    SciTech Connect

    ZUHOSKI,P.B.; INDUSI,J.P.; VANIER,P.E.

    1999-07-25

    This paper documents the development of a dedicated information barrier system for warhead and sensitive item verification. The system the authors describe includes software and hardware information barriers used in conjunction with suitable procedures (or protocols) to achieve a high quality verification while minimizing intrusiveness and preventing transfer of sensitive data to inspectors. The system they describe has been referred to as CIVET--Controlled Intrusiveness Verification Technology and has been implemented to verify warheads and warhead components during various exercises and demonstrations under the auspices of the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense (DOD).

  13. Proposal for a Dedicated Collider at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory May, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1983-05-01

    This document describes a proposal for a proton-antiproton/ electron-proton Dedicated Collider facility at Fermilab, to be built between 1985 and 1989. The center-of-mass energy of the pp collider is more than 4 TeV and the (Stage I) ep facility provides collisions of a 10 GeV electron beam on the 2-TeV proton beam (s = 80000 GeV2). An increase of the electron energy to 40 GeV is a natural second-stage project for a later date.

  14. Commissioning and Characterization of a Dedicated High-Resolution Breast PET Camera

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Characterization of a Dedicated High-Resolution Breast PET Camera 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0393 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...characterizing a high resolution breast PET camera . We have received about 25% of the modules needed to construct the camera and about 80% of these passed...high voltage biasing circuitry. Energy resolutions of 11.8 +/- 0.3% FWHM at 511 keV are obtained and a coincidence time resolution of 9.8 +/- 0.7 ns

  15. GEMMA and GEMINI, two dedicated mixed-signal ASICs for Triple-GEM detectors readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzotta, A.; Croci, G.; Costantini, A.; De Matteis, M.; Tagnani, D.; Corradi, G.; Murtas, F.; Gorini, G.; Baschirotto, A.

    2016-03-01

    GEMMA and GEMINI, two integrated-circuit front-ends for the Triple-GEM detector are presented. These two ASICs aim to improve detector readout performance in terms of count rate, adaptability, portability and power consumption. GEMMA target is to embed counting, timing and spectroscopic measurements in a single 8-channel device, managing a detector capacitance up to 15 pF. On the other hand, GEMINI is dedicated to counting measurements, embedding 16 channels with a detector capacitance up to 40 pF. Both prototypes, fabricated in 130 nm and 180 nm CMOS respectively, feature an automatic on-chip calibration circuit, compensating for process/temperature variations.

  16. Improving Cancer Detection and Dose Efficiency in Dedicated Breast Cancer CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    including breast tomosynthesis [2] and dedicated breast computer tomography CT [3,4], which can form three-dimensional (3D) images of the breast, thus...Meeting on Image Formation in X-Ray Computed Tomography , pp 96-100, 2010. 2. D. Xia, J. Bian, X. Han, E. Y. Sidky, J. Lu, O. Zhou, and X. Pan...Ray Computed Tomography , pp 90-95, 2010. 3. X. Xiao, D. Xia, J. Bian, X. Han, E. Y. Sidky, F. D. Carlo, and X. Pan, “Image reconstruction from highly

  17. World War II soldier salutes the US Flag during a Veteran's Day ceremony to dedicate a memorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    World War II soldier salutes the US Flag during a Veteran's Day ceremony to dedicate a memorial to 'Smoky, Yorkie Doodle Dandy and Dogs of All Wars' in the Rocky River Reservation, Lakewood, Ohio. November 11, 2005

  18. Bioethanol production from dedicated energy crops and residues in Arkansas, USA.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xumeng; Burner, David M; Xu, Jianfeng; Phillips, Gregory C; Sivakumar, Ganapathy

    2011-01-01

    Globally, one of the major technologic goals is to achieve cost-effective lignocellulosic ethanol production from biomass feedstocks. Lignocellulosic biomass of four dedicated energy crops [giant reed (Arundo donax L.), elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum (Schumach), Miscanthus × giganteus (Illinois clone), and (clone Q42641) {hybrid of Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. and Miscanthus sacchariflorus (Maxim)}, Hack. called giant miscanthus, and sugarcane clone US 84-1028 (Saccharum L. spp. hybrid)] and residues from two crops [soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) litter and rice (Oryza sativa L.) husk] were tested for bioethanol production using cellulose solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation (CSLF) pretreatment and enzymatic (cellulase) hydrolysis. Giant miscanthus (Illinois), giant reed, giant miscanthus (Q42641), elephantgrass, and sugarcane all yielded higher amount of glucose on a biomass dry weight basis (0.290-0.331 g/g), than did rice husk (0.181 g/g) and soybean litter (0.186 g/g). To reduce the capital investment for energy consumption in fermentation, we used a self-flocculating yeast strain (SPSC01) to ferment the lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates. Bioethanol production was ∼0.1 g/g in dedicated energy crops and less in two crop residues. These methods and data can help to develop a cost-effective downstream process for bioethanol production.

  19. Challenges and models in supporting logistics system design for dedicated-biomass-based bioenergy industry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Li, Xueping; Yao, Qingzhu; Chen, Yuerong

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzed the uniqueness and challenges in designing the logistics system for dedicated biomass-to-bioenergy industry, which differs from the other industries, due to the unique features of dedicated biomass (e.g., switchgrass) including its low bulk density, restrictions on harvesting season and frequency, content variation with time and circumambient conditions, weather effects, scattered distribution over a wide geographical area, and so on. To design it, this paper proposed a mixed integer linear programming model. It covered from planting and harvesting switchgrass to delivering to a biorefinery and included the residue handling, concentrating on integrating strategic decisions on the supply chain design and tactical decisions on the annual operation schedules. The present numerical examples verified the model and demonstrated its use in practice. This paper showed that the operations of the logistics system were significantly different for harvesting and non-harvesting seasons, and that under the well-designed biomass logistics system, the mass production with a steady and sufficient supply of biomass can increase the unit profit of bioenergy. The analytical model and practical methodology proposed in this paper will help realize the commercial production in biomass-to-bioenergy industry.

  20. Efficient Process Migration for Parallel Processing on Non-Dedicated Networks of Workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chanchio, Kasidit; Sun, Xian-He

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the design and preliminary implementation of MpPVM, a software system that supports process migration for PVM application programs in a non-dedicated heterogeneous computing environment. New concepts of migration point as well as migration point analysis and necessary data analysis are introduced. In MpPVM, process migrations occur only at previously inserted migration points. Migration point analysis determines appropriate locations to insert migration points; whereas, necessary data analysis provides a minimum set of variables to be transferred at each migration pint. A new methodology to perform reliable point-to-point data communications in a migration environment is also discussed. Finally, a preliminary implementation of MpPVM and its experimental results are presented, showing the correctness and promising performance of our process migration mechanism in a scalable non-dedicated heterogeneous computing environment. While MpPVM is developed on top of PVM, the process migration methodology introduced in this study is general and can be applied to any distributed software environment.

  1. PromAn: an integrated knowledge-based web server dedicated to promoter analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lardenois, Aurélie; Chalmel, Frédéric; Bianchetti, Laurent; Sahel, José-Alain; Léveillard, Thierry; Poch, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    PromAn is a modular web-based tool dedicated to promoter analysis that integrates distinct complementary databases, methods and programs. PromAn provides automatic analysis of a genomic region with minimal prior knowledge of the genomic sequence. Prediction programs and experimental databases are combined to locate the transcription start site (TSS) and the promoter region within a large genomic input sequence. Transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs) can be predicted using several public databases and user-defined motifs. Also, a phylogenetic footprinting strategy, combining multiple alignment of large genomic sequences and assignment of various scores reflecting the evolutionary selection pressure, allows for evaluation and ranking of TFBS predictions. PromAn results can be displayed in an interactive graphical user interface, PromAnGUI. It integrates all of this information to highlight active promoter regions, to identify among the huge number of TFBS predictions those which are the most likely to be potentially functional and to facilitate user refined analysis. Such an integrative approach is essential in the face of a growing number of tools dedicated to promoter analysis in order to propose hypotheses to direct further experimental validations. PromAn is publicly available at . PMID:16845074

  2. Short-stay daycare laparoscopic cholecystectomy at a dedicated daycare centre: Feasible or futile

    PubMed Central

    Zirpe, Dinesh; Swain, Sudeepta K.; Das, Somak; Gopakumar, CV; Kollu, Sriharsha; Patel, Darshan; Patta, Radhakrishna; Balachandar, Tirupporur G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In the last decade, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has become a regular daycare surgery at many centres across the world. However, only a few centres in India have a dedicated daycare surgery centre, and very few of them have reported their experience. Concerns remain regarding the feasibility, safety and acceptability of the introduction of daycare laparoscopic cholecystectomy (DCLC) in India. There is a need to assess the safety and acceptability of the implementation of short-stay DCLC service at a centre completely dedicated to daycare surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Comprehensive care and operative data were retrospectively collected from a daycare centre of our hospital. Postoperative recovery was monitored by telephone questionnaire on days 0, 1 and 5 postoperatively, including adverse outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 211 patients were admitted for DCLC during the period from November 2011 till November 2014, of whom 211 were discharged on the day of surgery. Two hundred and two patients could be discharged within 6 h of surgery. Mean operation time was 72 min. No patient required admission. No patient needed conversion to open surgery. Only 1 patient was re-admitted due to bilioma formation and was managed with minimal intervention. CONCLUSION: The introduction of short-stay DCLC in India is feasible and acceptable to patients. High body mass index (BMI) in otherwise healthy patients and selective additional procedures are not contraindications for DCLC. PMID:27251816

  3. A dedicated greedy pursuit algorithm for sparse spectral representation of music sound.

    PubMed

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura; Aggarwal, Gagan

    2016-10-01

    A dedicated algorithm for sparse spectral representation of music sound is presented. The goal is to enable the representation of a piece of music signal as a linear superposition of as few spectral components as possible, without affecting the quality of the reproduction. A representation of this nature is said to be sparse. In the present context sparsity is accomplished by greedy selection of the spectral components, from an overcomplete set called a dictionary. The proposed algorithm is tailored to be applied with trigonometric dictionaries. Its distinctive feature being that it avoids the need for the actual construction of the whole dictionary, by implementing the required operations via the fast Fourier transform. The achieved sparsity is theoretically equivalent to that rendered by the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) method. The contribution of the proposed dedicated implementation is to extend the applicability of the standard OMP algorithm, by reducing its storage and computational demands. The suitability of the approach for producing sparse spectral representation is illustrated by comparison with the traditional method, in the line of the short time Fourier transform, involving only the corresponding orthonormal trigonometric basis.

  4. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K Thomas; Mullen, Robert T; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2016-02-26

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds.

  5. Future dedicated Venus-SGG flight mission: Accuracy assessment and performance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Hsu, Houtse; Zhong, Min; Yun, Meijuan

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates principally on the systematic requirements analysis for the future dedicated Venus-SGG (spacecraft gravity gradiometry) flight mission in China in respect of the matching measurement accuracies of the spacecraft-based scientific instruments and the orbital parameters of the spacecraft. Firstly, we created and proved the single and combined analytical error models of the cumulative Venusian geoid height influenced by the gravity gradient error of the spacecraft-borne atom-interferometer gravity gradiometer (AIGG) and the orbital position error and orbital velocity error tracked by the deep space network (DSN) on the Earth station. Secondly, the ultra-high-precision spacecraft-borne AIGG is propitious to making a significant contribution to globally mapping the Venusian gravitational field and modeling the geoid with unprecedented accuracy and spatial resolution through weighing the advantages and disadvantages among the electrostatically suspended gravity gradiometer, the superconducting gravity gradiometer and the AIGG. Finally, the future dedicated Venus-SGG spacecraft had better adopt the optimal matching accuracy indices consisting of 3 × 10-13/s2 in gravity gradient, 10 m in orbital position and 8 × 10-4 m/s in orbital velocity and the preferred orbital parameters comprising an orbital altitude of 300 ± 50 km, an observation time of 60 months and a sampling interval of 1 s.

  6. Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops as Metabolic Engineering Platforms for Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Li-Hua; Krens, Frans; Smith, Mark A.; Li, Xueyuan; Qi, Weicong; van Loo, Eibertus N.; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo; Nazarenus, Tara J.; Huai, Dongxin; Taylor, David C.; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Green, Allan G.; Shockey, Jay; Klasson, K. Thomas; Mullen, Robert T.; Huang, Bangquan; Dyer, John M.; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2016-01-01

    Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds. PMID:26916792

  7. A dedicated greedy pursuit algorithm for sparse spectral representation of music sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura; Aggarwal, Gagan

    2016-10-01

    A dedicated algorithm for sparse spectral representation of music sound is presented. The goal is to enable the representation of a piece of music signal, as a linear superposition of as few spectral components as possible. A representation of this nature is said to be sparse. In the present context sparsity is accomplished by greedy selection of the spectral components, from an overcomplete set called a dictionary. The proposed algorithm is tailored to be applied with trigonometric dictionaries. Its distinctive feature being that it avoids the need for the actual construction of the whole dictionary, by implementing the required operations via the Fast Fourier Transform. The achieved sparsity is theoretically equivalent to that rendered by the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit method. The contribution of the proposed dedicated implementation is to extend the applicability of the standard Orthogonal Matching Pursuit algorithm, by reducing its storage and computational demands. The suitability of the approach for producing sparse spectral models is illustrated by comparison with the traditional method, in the line of the Short Time Fourier Transform, involving only the corresponding orthonormal trigonometric basis.

  8. Microwave tomography of extremities: 1) Dedicated 2D system and physiological signatures

    PubMed Central

    Semenov, Serguei; Kellam, James; Sizov, Yuri; Nazarov, Alexei; Williams, Thomas; Nair, Bindu; Pavlovsky, Andrey; Posukh, Vitaly; Quinn, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Microwave Tomography (MWT) is a novel imaging modality which might be applicable for non-invasive assessment of functional and pathological conditions of biological tissues. The imaging of the soft tissue of extremities is one of its potential applications. The feasibility of this technology for such applications was demonstrated earlier. This is the first of two companion papers focused on an application of MWT for imaging of the extremity’s soft tissues. The goal of this study is to assess the technical performance of the developed 2D MWT system dedicated for imaging of functional and pathological conditions of the extremity’s soft tissues. Specifically, the system’s performance was tested by its ability to detect signals associated with physiological activity and soft tissue interventions (circulatory related changes, blood flow reduction and a simulated compartmental syndrome) – so called “physiological signatures”. The developed 2D MWT system dedicated for an imaging of animal extremities demonstrates good technical performance allowing for stable and predictable data acquisition with reasonable agreement between experimentally measured electromagnetic (EM) field and simulated EM field within a measurement domain. Using the system we were able to obtain physiological signatures associated with systolic vs diastolic phases of circulation in an animal extremity, reperfusion vs occlusion phases of the blood supply to the animal’s extremity and the a compartment syndrome. The imaging results are presented and discussed in the second companion paper. PMID:21364265

  9. SLAPex Freeze/Thaw 2015: The First Dedicated Soil Freeze/Thaw Airborne Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Edward; Wu, Albert; DeMarco, Eugenia; Powers, Jarrett; Berg, Aaron; Rowlandson, Tracy; Freeman, Jacqueline; Gottfried, Kurt; Toose, Peter; Roy, Alexandre; Derksen, Chris; Royer, Alain; Belair, Stephane; Houser, Paul; McDonald, Kyle; Entin, Jared; Lewis, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Soil freezing and thawing is an important process in the terrestrial water, energy, and carbon cycles, marking the change between two very different hydraulic, thermal, and biological regimes. NASA's Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission includes a binary freeze/thaw data product. While there have been ground-based remote sensing field measurements observing soil freeze/thaw at the point scale, and airborne campaigns that observed some frozen soil areas (e.g., BOREAS), the recently-completed SLAPex Freeze/Thaw (F/T) campaign is the first airborne campaign dedicated solely to observing frozen/thawed soil with both passive and active microwave sensors and dedicated ground truth, in order to enable detailed process-level exploration of the remote sensing signatures and in situ soil conditions. SLAPex F/T utilized the Scanning L-band Active/Passive (SLAP) instrument, an airborne simulator of SMAP developed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, and was conducted near Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, in October/November, 2015. Future soil moisture missions are also expected to include soil freeze/thaw products, and the loss of the radar on SMAP means that airborne radar-radiometer observations like those that SLAP provides are unique assets for freeze/thaw algorithm development. This paper will present an overview of SLAPex F/T, including descriptions of the site, airborne and ground-based remote sensing, ground truth, as well as preliminary results.

  10. Measurements of file transfer rates over dedicated long-haul connections

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nageswara S; Settlemyer, Bradley W; Imam, Neena; Hinkel, Gregory Carl

    2016-01-01

    Wide-area file transfers are an integral part of several High-Performance Computing (HPC) scenarios. Dedicated network connections with high capacity, low loss rate and low competing traffic, are increasingly being provisioned over current HPC infrastructures to support such transfers. To gain insights into these file transfers, we collected transfer rate measurements for Lustre and xfs file systems between dedicated multi-core servers over emulated 10 Gbps connections with round trip times (rtt) in 0-366 ms range. Memory transfer throughput over these connections is measured using iperf, and file IO throughput on host systems is measured using xddprof. We consider two file system configurations: Lustre over IB network and xfs over SSD connected to PCI bus. Files are transferred using xdd across these connections, and the transfer rates are measured, which indicate the need to jointly optimize the connection and host file IO parameters to achieve peak transfer rates. In particular, these measurements indicate that (i) peak file transfer rate is lower than peak connection and host IO throughput, in some cases by as much as 50% or lower, (ii) xdd request sizes that achieve peak throughput for host file IO do not necessarily lead to peak file transfer rates, and (iii) parallelism in host IO and TCP transport does not always improve the file transfer rates.

  11. Development of Small Plasma Wave Receiver with a Dedicated Chip for Scientific Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuhara, H.; Kojima, H.; Ishii, H.; Okada, S.; Yamakawa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Since space is filled with collisionless plasmas, kinetic energy of each particle of the plasmas is exchanged via electric and magnetic fields, so-called plasma waves. The plasma waves have been observed a number of scientific spacecraft. Plasma wave receivers are classified into two kinds of the receiver, spectrum receivers, and waveform receivers. The spectrum receivers provide an overview of the plasma waves. The waveform receivers give not only amplitude but also phase of the plasma waves. Phase information between the plasma waves and plasma particle is essential in wave-particle interactions. It is important for understanding physical processes to combine both kinds of data of spectra and waveforms. Since the plasma waves have various intensities in wide-band frequency range, from DC to tens of MHz, the onboard instruments for the plasma wave observation are required to have low noise, high sensitivity, and wide dynamic range in wide-band. The required performances lead to increase the weight budget of the analog part of the instrument. The dedicated system chip can drastically decrease weight budget of the plasma wave instruments for multi-point observation missions and deep space exploration missions. It is also significant that manufacturing a number of instruments with the same performance becomes easy. In this paper, we demonstrate the miniaturized plasma wave receiver, which is realized in a dedicated chip for the analog part. The spectrum receiver is a double super heterodyne receiver, so-called `Sweep Frequency Analyzer (SFA).' This SFA is improved in the time resolution with keeping good frequency resolution by combining the analog frequency conversion and FFT. The SFA consists of an amplifier, a frequency synthesizer, mixers and band-pass filters. These component circuits are fabricated in chips and their performances are tested. The waveform receiver generally consists of the band-limiting filter, the amplifier, the anti-aliasing filter, and the A

  12. Initial Characterization of a Dedicated Breast PET/CT Scanner During Human Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Spencer L.; Wu, Yibao; Chaudhari, Abhijit J.; Fu, Lin; Packard, Nathan J.; Burkett, George W.; Yang, Kai; Lindfors, Karen K.; Shelton, David K.; Hagge, Rosalie; Borowsky, Alexander D.; Martinez, Steve R.; Qi, Jinyi; Boone, John M.; Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2010-01-01

    We have constructed a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner capable of high-resolution functional and anatomic imaging. Here, we present an initial characterization of scanner performance during patient imaging. Methods The system consisted of a lutetium oxyorthosilicate–based dual–planar head PET camera (crystal size, 3 × 3 × 20 mm) and 768-slice cone-beam CT. The position of the PET heads (separation and height) could be adjusted for varying breast dimensions. For scanning, the patient lay prone on a specialized bed and inserted a single pendent breast through an aperture in the table top. Compression of the breast as used in mammography is not required. PET and CT systems rotate in the coronal plane underneath the patient sequentially to collect fully tomographic datasets. PET images were reconstructed with the fully 3-dimensional maximum a posteriori method, and CT images were reconstructed with the Feldkamp algorithm, then spatially registered and fused for display. Phantom scans were obtained to assess the registration accuracy between PET and CT images and the influence of PET electronics and activity on CT image quality. We imaged 4 women with mammographic findings highly suggestive of breast cancer (breast imaging reporting and data system, category 5) in an ongoing clinical trial. Patients were injected with 18F-FDG and imaged for 12.5 min per breast. From patient data, noise-equivalent counting rates and the singles-to-trues ratio (a surrogate for the randoms fraction) were calculated. Results The average registration error between PET and CT images was 0.18 mm. PET electronics and activity did not significantly affect CT image quality. For the patient trial, biopsy-confirmed cancers were visualized on dedicated breast PET/CT on all patient scans, including the detection of ductal carcinoma in situ in 1 case. The singles-to-trues ratio was found to be inversely correlated with breast volume in the field of view, suggesting that larger breasts trend

  13. Scaling-law for the energy dependence of anatomic power spectrum in dedicated breast CT

    SciTech Connect

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Glick, Stephen J.; Karellas, Andrew

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To determine the x-ray photon energy dependence of the anatomic power spectrum of the breast when imaged with dedicated breast computed tomography (CT). Methods: A theoretical framework for scaling the empirically determined anatomic power spectrum at one x-ray photon energy to that at any given x-ray photon energy when imaged with dedicated breast CT was developed. Theory predicted that when the anatomic power spectrum is fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, where k and {beta} are fit coefficients and f is spatial frequency, the exponent {beta} would be independent of x-ray photon energy (E), and the amplitude k scales with the square of the difference in energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues. Twenty mastectomy specimens based numerical phantoms that were previously imaged with a benchtop flat-panel cone-beam CT system were converted to 3D distribution of glandular weight fraction (f{sub g}) and were used to verify the theoretical findings. The 3D power spectrum was computed in terms of f{sub g} and after converting to linear attenuation coefficients at monoenergetic x-ray photon energies of 20-80 keV in 5 keV intervals. The 1D power spectra along the axes were extracted and fitted with a power curve of the form k f{sup -{beta}}. The energy dependence of k and {beta} were analyzed. Results: For the 20 mastectomy specimen based numerical phantoms used in the study, the exponent {beta} was found to be in the range of 2.34-2.42, depending on the axis of measurement. Numerical simulations agreed with the theoretical predictions that for a power-law anatomic spectrum of the form k f{sup -{beta}}, {beta} was independent of E and k(E) =k{sub 1}[{mu}{sub g}(E) -{mu}{sub a}(E)]{sup 2}, where k{sub 1} is a constant, and {mu}{sub g}(E) and {mu}{sub a}(E) represent the energy-dependent linear attenuation coefficients of fibroglandular and adipose tissues, respectively. Conclusions: Numerical

  14. Parallel-aware, dedicated job co-scheduling within/across symmetric multiprocessing nodes

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Terry R.; Watson, Pythagoras C.; Tuel, William; Brenner, Larry; ,Caffrey, Patrick; Fier, Jeffrey

    2010-10-05

    In a parallel computing environment comprising a network of SMP nodes each having at least one processor, a parallel-aware co-scheduling method and system for improving the performance and scalability of a dedicated parallel job having synchronizing collective operations. The method and system uses a global co-scheduler and an operating system kernel dispatcher adapted to coordinate interfering system and daemon activities on a node and across nodes to promote intra-node and inter-node overlap of said interfering system and daemon activities as well as intra-node and inter-node overlap of said synchronizing collective operations. In this manner, the impact of random short-lived interruptions, such as timer-decrement processing and periodic daemon activity, on synchronizing collective operations is minimized on large processor-count SPMD bulk-synchronous programming styles.

  15. Using a dedicated education unit clinical education model with second-degree accelerated nursing program students.

    PubMed

    Sharpnack, Patricia A; Koppelman, Catherine; Fellows, Bonnie

    2014-12-01

    Rising health care costs have underscored the need for new graduates to effectively transition to professional practice. Effective academic-practice partnerships, such as dedicated education units (DEUs), can be useful in facilitating the transfer of knowledge from the classroom to the clinical setting. This randomized experimental study found the DEU clinical model to be valuable in facilitating the transfer of knowledge in second-degree accelerated program students as evaluated by course, simulation, and standardized assessment scores and self-evaluations. Successful transition to clinical practice is reported by practice partners; time allotted for orientation program requirements was reduced and retention on the unit of hire was improved. Additional research is needed to understand the effectiveness of second-degree accelerated nursing programs and how to revise the clinical education element of the program to meet the unique needs of these students.

  16. VIRUS-W: an integral field unit spectrograph dedicated to the study of spiral galaxy bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabricius, Maximilian H.; Barnes, Stuart; Bender, Ralf; Drory, Niv; Grupp, Frank; Hill, Gary J.; Hopp, Ulrich; MacQueen, Phillip J.

    2008-07-01

    We present the design, layout and performance estimates for a fiber based Integral Field Unit spectrograph. This instrument is built for flexible use at different telescopes, and in particular for the new 2m telescope on Mount Wendelstein in the Bavarian Alps. Based on the VIRUS spectrograph for the HETDEX experiment, the proposed instrument will have a fiber head consisting of 267 optical fibers. The large angular field of view of 150×75 arcseconds will allow full coverage of the bulge regions of most local late type galaxies in one or two pointings. Realized by the usage of VPH gratings, a R ~ 2500 and a R ~ 6800 mode with 850Å and 515Å wavelength coverage will be dedicated to the study of stellar populations and kinematics of late type galaxy bulges.

  17. Dedicated Max-Planck beamline for the in situ investigation of interfaces and thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Stierle, A.; Steinhaeuser, A.; Ruehm, A.; Renner, F.U.; Weigel, R.; Kasper, N.; Dosch, H.

    2004-12-01

    A dedicated beamline for the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung was recently taken into operation at the Angstroemquelle Karlsruhe (ANKA). Here we describe the layout of the beamline optics and the experimental end-station, consisting of a heavy duty multiple circle diffractometer. For both a new design was realized, combining a maximum flexibility in the beam properties [white, pink (focused) monochromatic, energy range 6-20 keV] with a special diffractometer for heavy sample environments up to 500 kg, that can be run in different geometrical modes. In addition the angular-reciprocal space transformations for the diffractometer in use are derived, which allows an operation of the instrument in the convenient six circle mode. As an example, results from surface x-ray diffraction on a Cu{sub 3}Au(111) single crystal are presented.

  18. Drosophila Avoids Parasitoids by Sensing Their Semiochemicals via a Dedicated Olfactory Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Shimaa A. M.; Dweck, Hany K. M.; Stökl, Johannes; Hofferberth, John E.; Trona, Federica; Weniger, Kerstin; Rybak, Jürgen; Seki, Yoichi; Stensmyr, Marcus C.; Sachse, Silke; Hansson, Bill S.; Knaden, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Detecting danger is one of the foremost tasks for a neural system. Larval parasitoids constitute clear danger to Drosophila, as up to 80% of fly larvae become parasitized in nature. We show that Drosophila melanogaster larvae and adults avoid sites smelling of the main parasitoid enemies, Leptopilina wasps. This avoidance is mediated via a highly specific olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) type. While the larval OSN expresses the olfactory receptor Or49a and is tuned to the Leptopilina odor iridomyrmecin, the adult expresses both Or49a and Or85f and in addition detects the wasp odors actinidine and nepetalactol. The information is transferred via projection neurons to a specific part of the lateral horn known to be involved in mediating avoidance. Drosophila has thus developed a dedicated circuit to detect a life-threatening enemy based on the smell of its semiochemicals. Such an enemy-detecting olfactory circuit has earlier only been characterized in mice and nematodes. PMID:26674493

  19. Post-coronagraphic wave-front sensing dedicated to exoplanet detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean-Francois, Sauvage; Laurent, Mugnier; Baptiste, Paul

    2011-09-01

    The final performance of current instruments dedicated to exoplanet search and imaging (such as SPHERE and EPICS) is strongly limited by uncorrected optical aberrations. After correction of the atmospheric turbulence by an extreme AO system, the main contribution comes from the quasi-static aberrations introduced upstream of the coronagraph. In order to measure and precompensate for these, we propose a focal-plane sensor which we call coronagraphic phase diversity (CPD). It is an adaptation of conventional phase diversity to the coronagraphic case and uses an analytical model for coronagraphic imaging. In this communication, we validate two essential aspects of CPD: - we validate by realistic simulations that our analytical imaging model, which assumes a perfect coronagraph, can indeed be used with real-life coronagraphs, and we assess the CPD performance; - we perform the very first validation of CPD on experimental data obtained on an in-house AO bench.

  20. A comparison of analysis procedures for correlated binary data in dedicated multi-rater imaging trials.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, three analysis procedures for repeated correlated binary data with no a priori ordering of the measurements are described and subsequently investigated. Examples for correlated binary data could be the binary assessments of subjects obtained by several raters in the framework of a clinical trial. This topic is especially of relevance when success criteria have to be defined for dedicated imaging trials involving several raters conducted for regulatory purposes. First, an analytical result on the expectation of the 'Majority rater' is presented when only the marginal distributions of the single raters are given. The paper provides a simulation study where all three analysis procedures are compared for a particular setting. It turns out that in many cases, 'Average rater' is associated with a gain in power. Settings were identified where 'Majority significant' has favorable properties. 'Majority rater' is in many cases difficult to interpret.

  1. Commissioning Procedures for Mechanical Precision and Accuracy in a Dedicated LINAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Zebadúa, P.; Lárrga-Gutierrez, J. M.; García-Garduño, O. A.; Juárez, J.; Prieto, I.; Moreno-Jiménez, S.; Celis, M. A.

    2008-08-01

    Mechanical precision measurements are fundamental procedures for the commissioning of a dedicated LINAC. At our Radioneurosurgery Unit, these procedures can be suitable as quality assurance routines that allow the verification of the equipment geometrical accuracy and precision. In this work mechanical tests were performed for gantry and table rotation, obtaining mean associated uncertainties of 0.3 mm and 0.71 mm, respectively. Using an anthropomorphic phantom and a series of localized surface markers, isocenter accuracy showed to be smaller than 0.86 mm for radiosurgery procedures and 0.95 mm for fractionated treatments with mask. All uncertainties were below tolerances. The highest contribution to mechanical variations is due to table rotation, so it is important to correct variations using a localization frame with printed overlays. Mechanical precision knowledge would allow to consider the statistical errors in the treatment planning volume margins.

  2. Performance parameters and numerical model of thermoelectric generator dedicated for energy harvesting from flue gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borcuch, M.; Musiał, M.; Gumuła, S.; Wojciechowski, K. T.

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents results of preliminary studies of thermoelectric generator (TEG) dedicated for waste heat harvesting from flue gases. Investigation includes numerical analysis for estimating power losses due to pressure drop in the installation with the TEG and experimental tests for obtaining electrical parameters and operation conditions, such as casing temperatures and the temperature difference between the inlet and the outlet. Proposed prototype has been equipped with the pin fins for increase the heat transfer. Results indicates that power losses are negligible in comparison with generated electrical power. The heat exchanger's interior demands to be modified to enhance the efficiency by increasing temperatures on the external surfaces of the hot-side heat exchanger (HHX). Further research will focus on numerical analysis of the influence of geometry modifications on the thermal and flow parameters of the TEG resulting in the increase of generated power and efficiency.

  3. Dedicated mobile high resolution prostate PET imager with an insertable transrectal probe

    DOEpatents

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Proffitt, James

    2010-12-28

    A dedicated mobile PET imaging system to image the prostate and surrounding organs. The imaging system includes an outside high resolution PET imager placed close to the patient's torso and an insertable and compact transrectal probe that is placed in close proximity to the prostate and operates in conjunction with the outside imager. The two detector systems are spatially co-registered to each other. The outside imager is mounted on an open rotating gantry to provide torso-wide 3D images of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs. The insertable probe provides closer imaging, high sensitivity, and very high resolution predominately 2D view of the prostate and immediate surroundings. The probe is operated in conjunction with the outside imager and a fast data acquisition system to provide very high resolution reconstruction of the prostate and surrounding tissue and organs.

  4. Sialic acids as link to Japanese scientistsDedicated to Prof. Dr. Tamio Yamakawa.

    PubMed Central

    SCHAUER, Roland

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript is dedicated to Prof. Tamio Yamakawa and describes my cooperations on sialic acid-related topics with Japanese scientists during the last 40 years. We studied sialic acids and their O-acetylated derivatives in the sea urchin Pseudocentrotus depressus, in Halocynthia species, and in human and bovine milk. In seafood we mainly searched for N-glycolylneuraminic acid. With synthetic substrates it was shown that sialic acid O-acetylation at C-4 hinders the activity of sialidases, with the exception of viral enzymes. The biosynthesis of Neu5Gc was discussed and the distribution of this sialic acid in dogs followed in modern literature and reviewed regarding their migration. An excellent source of sialic acids is edible bird nest substance (Collocalia mucin) which was used for the synthesis of sialylation inhibitors. PMID:27063181

  5. Fluorescent nanoprobes dedicated to in vivo imaging: from preclinical validations to clinical translation.

    PubMed

    Mérian, Juliette; Gravier, Julien; Navarro, Fabrice; Texier, Isabelle

    2012-05-10

    With the fast development, in the last ten years, of a large choice of set-ups dedicated to routine in vivo measurements in rodents, fluorescence imaging techniques are becoming essential tools in preclinical studies. Human clinical uses for diagnostic and image-guided surgery are also emerging. In comparison to low-molecular weight organic dyes, the use of fluorescent nanoprobes can improve both the signal sensitivity (better in vivo optical properties) and the fluorescence biodistribution (passive "nano" uptake in tumours for instance). A wide range of fluorescent nanoprobes have been designed and tested in preclinical studies for the last few years. They will be reviewed and discussed considering the obstacles that need to be overcome for their potential everyday use in clinics. The conjugation of fluorescence imaging with the benefits of nanotechnology should open the way to new medical applications in the near future.

  6. Sterile working in ultrasonography: the use of dedicated ultrasound covers and sterile ultrasound gel.

    PubMed

    Marhofer, Peter; Fritsch, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound is currently an important tool for diagnostic and interventional procedures. Ultrasound imaging provides significant advantages as compared to other imaging methods. The widespread use of ultrasound also carries the risk of drawbacks such as cross-infections. A large body of literature reports this possibly life-threatening side effect and specific patient populations are particularly at risk (e.g., neonates). Various methods of ultrasound probe disinfection are described; however, none of the mechanical or chemical probe disinfection procedures is optimal and, in particular, disinfection with high concentration of alcohol might be associated with ultrasound probe damage. The preparation of ultrasound probes with dedicated probe covers is a useful alternative for sterile working conditions. One ultrasound probe cover discussed in this paper is directly glued on to the ultrasound probe without the use of ultrasound coupling gel. By the use of sterile ultrasound coupling gel at the outer surface, additional effects on aseptic working conditions can be obtained.

  7. MINERVA: A Dedicated Observatory for Detection of Nearby Low-Mass Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrady, Nate; Johnson, John; Wright, Jason; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Blake, Cullen; Swift, Jonathan; Eastman, Jason D.; Plavchan, Peter; Riddle, Reed L.; Muirhead, Philip Steven; Bottom, Michael; Zhao, Ming; Beatty, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Detection of low-mass planets around GKM stars requires sub-meter-per-second radial velocity precision. Stellar noise sources (starspots, oscillations, and granulation) necessitate high cadence observations. MINERVA is a dedicated observatory for velocimetric detection of low mass exoplanets orbiting nearby stars. Our array of four robotic 0.7-meter PlaneWave telescopes feeds a purpose-built, temperature-stabilized, iodine cell spectrometer from Callaghan Innovation. We will monitor bright, sun-like stars within 100 pc every clear night from Whipple Observatory on Mt Hopkins, Arizona. Each telescope is also equipped with an Andor CCD for followup photometry and education use. Commissioning is underway on the site and science observations will begin in early 2015.

  8. Commissioning Procedures for Mechanical Precision and Accuracy in a Dedicated LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Ballesteros-Zebadua, P.; Larrga-Gutierrez, J. M.; Garcia-Garduno, O. A.; Juarez, J.; Prieto, I.; Moreno-Jimenez, S.; Celis, M. A.

    2008-08-11

    Mechanical precision measurements are fundamental procedures for the commissioning of a dedicated LINAC. At our Radioneurosurgery Unit, these procedures can be suitable as quality assurance routines that allow the verification of the equipment geometrical accuracy and precision. In this work mechanical tests were performed for gantry and table rotation, obtaining mean associated uncertainties of 0.3 mm and 0.71 mm, respectively. Using an anthropomorphic phantom and a series of localized surface markers, isocenter accuracy showed to be smaller than 0.86 mm for radiosurgery procedures and 0.95 mm for fractionated treatments with mask. All uncertainties were below tolerances. The highest contribution to mechanical variations is due to table rotation, so it is important to correct variations using a localization frame with printed overlays. Mechanical precision knowledge would allow to consider the statistical errors in the treatment planning volume margins.

  9. FAME Process: A Dedicated Development and V&V Process for FDIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiotto, Andrea; De Ferluc, Regis; Bozzano, Marco; Cimatti, Alessandro; Gario, Marco; Yushtein, Yuri

    2014-08-01

    In the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA) studies, Thales Alenia Space Italia has carryed out a research - FAME - in collaboration with Fondazione Bruno Kessler and Thales Alenia Space France. The objective of the FAME project was to define a dedicated FDIR development, verification and validation process that can address the issues and shortcomings of the current industrial FDIR development practices. The ultimate goal was to allow for the consistent and timely FDIR conception, development, and Verification & Validation. A parallel objective of the study was the development of a toolset supporting the Process and enabling a coherent definition, specification, development, and V&V of the FDIR functionalities. It started in September 2013 and ended in May 2014.

  10. Golden Gate Assembly system dedicated to complex pathway manipulation in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Celińska, Ewelina; Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Larroude, Macarena; Rossignol, Tristan; Pauthenier, Cyrille; Nicaud, Jean-Marc

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we have adopted Golden Gate modular cloning strategy to develop a robust and versatile DNA assembly platform for the nonconventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. To this end, a broad set of destination vectors and interchangeable building blocks have been constructed. The DNA modules were assembled on a scaffold of predesigned 4 nt overhangs covering three transcription units (each bearing promoter, gene and terminator), selection marker gene and genomic integration targeting sequences, constituting altogether thirteen elements. Previously validated DNA modules (regulatory elements and selection markers) were adopted as the Golden Gate bricks. The system's operability was demonstrated based on synthetic pathway of carotenoid production. This technology greatly enriches a molecular biology toolbox dedicated to this industrially relevant microorganism enabling fast combinatorial cloning of complex synthetic pathways.

  11. Astronomers Without Borders: An IYA2009 Organizational Node Dedicated to Connecting Groups Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, M.

    2008-11-01

    Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) is a new global organization and IYA2009 Organizational Node dedicated to furthering understanding and goodwill across national and cultural boundaries using the universal appeal of astronomy. The AWB network of Affiliates will bring together up to 1000 astronomy clubs, magazines and other organizations involved in astronomy. IYA2009 projects include The World at Night, a Special IYA2009 Project, and coordination of the 100 Hours of Astronomy Global Cornerstone Project. Sharing Telescopes and Resources (STAR) gathers surplus and new equipment in developed countries and donates them to clubs in undeveloped countries, with follow-up programs meant to ensure the best use of the equipment. The AWB website will serve as the basis for all programs including forums, galleries, video conferences and other relationship-building activities. AWB will continue and grow for many years beyond the end of IYA2009.

  12. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W.; Davies, J.; Zammit, M.; Patterson, P.

    1992-02-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  13. The 1991 natural gas vehicle challenge: Developing dedicated natural gas vehicle technology

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, R.; Rimkus, W. ); Davies, J. ); Zammit, M. ); Patterson, P. )

    1992-01-01

    An engineering research and design competition to develop and demonstrate dedicated natural gas-powered light-duty trucks, the Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) Challenge, was held June 6--11, 1191, in Oklahoma. Sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy, Mines, and Resources -- Canada (EMR), the Society of Automative Engineers (SAE), and General Motors Corporation (GM), the competition consisted of rigorous vehicle testing of exhaust emissions, fuel economy, performance parameters, and vehicle design. Using Sierra 2500 pickup trucks donated by GM, 24 teams of college and university engineers from the US and Canada participated in the event. A gasoline-powered control testing as a reference vehicle. This paper discusses the results of the event, summarizes the technologies employed, and makes observations on the state of natural gas vehicle technology.

  14. On the Integration of a Readout System Dedicated for Neutron Discrimination in Harsh Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Krit, S.; Rahajandraibe, W.; Coulié-Castellani, K.; Micolau, G.; Lyoussi, A.

    2016-02-01

    New insights related to the integration of a readout system dedicated for the detection and discrimination of neutrons are presented here. This study takes place in the framework of the I_SMART European project. This system will have to work later in a harsh environment in terms of temperature and radiations, what makes not only the development of specifications for operation and reliability of the components necessary but also the investigation of margins for the interplay of the system. Implementation of the analog conditioning chain at transistor level (AMS (Analog/Mixed Signal) 0.35μm CMOS technology) is investigated here where electrical performances have been validated at SPICE-level simulations using "Spectre" simulator (SPICE-based) under Cadence DFII.

  15. Dedicated ent-kaurene and ent-atiserene synthases for platensimycin and platencin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Smanski, Michael J; Yu, Zhiguo; Casper, Jeffrey; Lin, Shuangjun; Peterson, Ryan M; Chen, Yihua; Wendt-Pienkowski, Evelyn; Rajski, Scott R; Shen, Ben

    2011-08-16

    Platensimycin (PTM) and platencin (PTN) are potent and selective inhibitors of bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthases and have emerged as promising drug leads for both antibacterial and antidiabetic therapies. Comparative analysis of the PTM and PTN biosynthetic machineries in Streptomyces platensis MA7327 and MA7339 revealed that the divergence of PTM and PTN biosynthesis is controlled by dedicated ent-kaurene and ent-atiserene synthases, the latter of which represents a new pathway for diterpenoid biosynthesis. The PTM and PTN biosynthetic machineries provide a rare glimpse at how secondary metabolic pathway evolution increases natural product structural diversity and support the wisdom of applying combinatorial biosynthesis methods for the generation of novel PTM and/or PTN analogues, thereby facilitating drug development efforts based on these privileged natural product scaffolds.

  16. Dedication to Degradation: The Beauty of Materials Designed to Lay in Ruin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nychka, John A.; Kruzic, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Degradation of materials is typically perceived to be a negative response in service. Many designs, and materials, have been and are ruined due to corrosion, fatigue, weathering, ultraviolet light, fungal attack, bacterial attack, erosion, wear, electromigration… and on the list goes. However, the carefully controlled and purposeful degradation of materials is a prerequisite for success for some designs—and such ability is a beautiful necessity when it comes to many regenerative biomaterials. In other instances, we must seek first to understand the degradation mechanisms before we can achieve degradation prevention—and the resistance of some materials to degradation is also beautiful. Regardless of whether we try to prevent or elicit degradation, our dedication to degradation of materials is ever present in materials design.

  17. Special issue dedicated to the first Q-bio conference on cellular information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Hlavacek, William S; Jiang, Yi; Wall, Michael E; Nemenman, Ilya M

    2008-01-01

    The original idea of this special issue was to document a representative selection of the work presented at the conference in one place and to provide a snapshot of the q-bio field. However, we must acknowledge that this idea was only partially realized. The papers in this special issue are biased toward the theoretical and computational end of the q-bio spectrum, even though they are contributed by researchers dedicated to the q-bio ideal of complete stories and include contributions from research groups that are well known for their experimental work. Like the conference itself, this special issue was something of an experiment, as papers generally do not accompany presentations at biological meetings to the same extent as in other fields, such as computer science. Thus, the contributors of the papers collected here are truly pioneers.

  18. Multi-stream face recognition on dedicated mobile devices for crime-fighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassim, Sabah A.; Sellahewa, Harin

    2006-09-01

    Automatic face recognition is a useful tool in the fight against crime and terrorism. Technological advance in mobile communication systems and multi-application mobile devices enable the creation of hybrid platforms for active and passive surveillance. A dedicated mobile device that incorporates audio-visual sensors would not only complement existing networks of fixed surveillance devices (e.g. CCTV) but could also provide wide geographical coverage in almost any situation and anywhere. Such a device can hold a small portion of a law-enforcing agency biometric database that consist of audio and/or visual data of a number of suspects/wanted or missing persons who are expected to be in a local geographical area. This will assist law-enforcing officers on the ground in identifying persons whose biometric templates are downloaded onto their devices. Biometric data on the device can be regularly updated which will reduce the number of faces an officer has to remember. Such a dedicated device would act as an active/passive mobile surveillance unit that incorporate automatic identification. This paper is concerned with the feasibility of using wavelet-based face recognition schemes on such devices. The proposed schemes extend our recently developed face verification scheme for implementation on a currently available PDA. In particular we will investigate the use of a combination of wavelet frequency channels for multi-stream face recognition. We shall present experimental results on the performance of our proposed schemes for a number of publicly available face databases including a new AV database of videos recorded on a PDA.

  19. Cone photoreceptor types in zebrafish are generated by symmetric terminal divisions of dedicated precursors

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Sachihiro C.; Bleckert, Adam; Williams, Philip R.; Takechi, Masaki; Kawamura, Shoji; Wong, Rachel O. L.

    2013-01-01

    Proper functioning of sensory systems requires the generation of appropriate numbers and proportions of neuronal subtypes that encode distinct information. Perception of color relies on signals from multiple cone photoreceptor types. In cone-dominated retinas, each cone expresses a single opsin type with peak sensitivity to UV, long (L) (red), medium (M) (green), or short (S) (blue) wavelengths. The modes of cell division generating distinct cone types are unknown. We report here a mechanism whereby zebrafish cone photoreceptors of the same type are produced by symmetric division of dedicated precursors. Transgenic fish in which the thyroid hormone receptor β2 (trβ2) promoter drives fluorescent protein expression before L-cone precursors themselves are produced permitted tracking of their division in vivo. Every L cone in a local region resulted from the terminal division of an L-cone precursor, suggesting that such divisions contribute significantly to L-cone production. Analysis of the fate of isolated pairs of cones and time-lapse observations suggest that other cone types can also arise by symmetric terminal divisions. Such divisions of dedicated precursors may help to rapidly attain the final numbers and proportions of cone types (L > M, UV > S) in zebrafish larvae. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments show that L-opsin expression requires trβ2 activity before cone differentiation. Ectopic expression of trβ2 after cone differentiation produces cones with mixed opsins. Temporal differences in the onset of trβ2 expression could explain why some species have mixed, and others have pure, cone types. PMID:23980162

  20. Impact of a dedicated emergency surgical unit on early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Bokhari, S; Walsh, U; Qurashi, K; Liasis, L; Watfah, J; Sen, M; Gould, S

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Emergency general surgery (EGS) accounts for 50% of the surgical workload, and yet outcomes are variable and poorly recorded. The management of acute cholecystitis (AC) at a dedicated emergency surgical unit (ESU) was assessed as a performance target for EGS. Methods The outcomes for AC admissions were compared one year before and after inception of the ESU. The impact on cost and compliance with national guidance recommending early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ELC) within seven days of diagnosis was assessed. Results The overall ELC rate increased from 26% for the 126 patients admitted in the pre-ESU period to 45% for the 152 patients admitted in the post-ESU period (p=0.001). With those unsuitable for ELC excluded, the ELC rate increased from 34% to 82% (p<0.001). The proportion of patients precluded from ELC for avoidable reasons, particularly owing to ‘surgeon preference/skill’, was reduced from 69% to 18% (p<0.001). The mean total length of stay (LOS) and postoperative LOS fell by 1.7 days (from 8.3 to 6.6 days, p=0.040) and 2 days (from 5.6 to 3.6 days, p=0.020) respectively. The higher ELC rate and the reduction in LOS produced additional tariff income (£111,930) and estimated savings in bed day (£90,440) and readmission (£27,252) costs. Conclusions A dedicated ESU incorporating national recommendations for EGS improves alignment of best practice with best evidence and can also result in financial rewards for a busy district general hospital. PMID:26673047

  1. X-ray scatter correction method for dedicated breast computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: To improve image quality and accuracy in dedicated breast computed tomography (BCT) by removing the x-ray scatter signal included in the BCT projections. Methods: The previously characterized magnitude and distribution of x-ray scatter in BCT results in both cupping artifacts and reduction of contrast and accuracy in the reconstructions. In this study, an image processing method is proposed that estimates and subtracts the low-frequency x-ray scatter signal included in each BCT projection postacquisition and prereconstruction. The estimation of this signal is performed using simple additional hardware, one additional BCT projection acquisition with negligible radiation dose, and simple image processing software algorithms. The high frequency quantum noise due to the scatter signal is reduced using a noise filter postreconstruction. The dosimetric consequences and validity of the assumptions of this algorithm were determined using Monte Carlo simulations. The feasibility of this method was determined by imaging a breast phantom on a BCT clinical prototype and comparing the corrected reconstructions to the unprocessed reconstructions and to reconstructions obtained from fan-beam acquisitions as a reference standard. One-dimensional profiles of the reconstructions and objective image quality metrics were used to determine the impact of the algorithm. Results: The proposed additional acquisition results in negligible additional radiation dose to the imaged breast ({approx}0.4% of the standard BCT acquisition). The processed phantom reconstruction showed substantially reduced cupping artifacts, increased contrast between adipose and glandular tissue equivalents, higher voxel value accuracy, and no discernible blurring of high frequency features. Conclusions: The proposed scatter correction method for dedicated breast CT is feasible and can result in highly improved image quality. Further optimization and testing, especially with patient images, is necessary to

  2. A miniature TDCR system dedicated to in-situ activity assay.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Lena; Bakhshandeiar, Eleanor; Pearce, Andy; Collins, Sean; Orlandini, Pascal; Sephton, John

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), the Joint Research Project MetroFission has a dedicated work package for the development of a portable Triple-to-Double-Coincidence-Ratio (TDCR) system dedicated to in-situ activity measurements of low-energy beta emitters arising from the operation of the next generation of nuclear power plants. In the design phase of the NPL version of the mini-TDCR, a wide range of metrological aspects and detector types was considered. This paper summarizes these aspects of design, in the light of previous experience with the primary TDCR system at NPL. For example, in this miniature version of the TDCR, the optical chamber was simplified and cylindrical geometry was deemed sufficient. The reflectivity of the surface was increased by painted layers of Spectraflect(®), a specially formulated barium sulphate coating with high reflectivity across a wide range of wave lengths including UV. This option was chosen rather than the high performing and more expensive Spectralon(®) material used for the primary NPL TDCR. The miniature TDCR system is intended for on-site monitoring and will not require as high a performance as the primary system. Other factors that were considered included sample changing, light tightness, type of photo detector, method for varying the detection efficiency, shielding and the possible addition of an internal gamma-ray source for determination of the quench parameter of the source. In this version, the sample changing is performed using a piston and an automatic shutter. Significant design effort has been applied to ensure minimal ingress of light from the piston. Efficiency variation is accomplished by increasing the vertical displacement of the vial. Provision has been made to automate this at a later stage. Maximum light transmission to the photo-multiplier tubes is obtained at the "zero" reference height. Validation measurements were successfully performed using four different

  3. Test and evaluation of a multifunction keyboard and a dedicated keyboard for control of a flight management computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crane, J. M.; Boucek, G. P., Jr.; Smith, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    A flight management computer (FMC) control display unit (CDU) test was conducted to compare two types of input devices: a fixed legend (dedicated) keyboard and a programmable legend (multifunction) keyboard. The task used for comparison was operation of the flight management computer for the Boeing 737-300. The same tasks were performed by twelve pilots on the FMC control display unit configured with a programmable legend keyboard and with the currently used B737-300 dedicated keyboard. Flight simulator work activity levels and input task complexity were varied during each pilot session. Half of the points tested were previously familiar with the B737-300 dedicated keyboard CDU and half had no prior experience with it. The data collected included simulator flight parameters, keystroke time and sequences, and pilot questionnaire responses. A timeline analysis was also used for evaluation of the two keyboard concepts.

  4. Critical Characteristics of Radiation Detection System Components to be Dedicated for use in Safety Class and Safety Significant System

    SciTech Connect

    DAVIS, S.J.

    2000-12-28

    This document identifies critical characteristics of components to be dedicated for use in Safety Significant (SS) Systems, Structures, or Components (SSCs). This document identifies the requirements for the components of the common, radiation area, monitor alarm in the WESF pool cell. These are procured as Commercial Grade Items (CGI), with the qualification testing and formal dedication to be performed at the Waste Encapsulation Storage Facility (WESF) for use in safety significant systems. System modifications are to be performed in accordance with the approved design. Components for this change are commercially available and interchangeable with the existing alarm configuration This document focuses on the operational requirements for alarm, declaration of the safety classification, identification of critical characteristics, and interpretation of requirements for procurement. Critical characteristics are identified herein and must be verified, followed by formal dedication, prior to the components being used in safety related applications.

  5. Quantitatively accurate activity measurements with a dedicated cardiac SPECT camera: Physical phantom experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pourmoghaddas, Amir Wells, R. Glenn

    2016-01-15

    Purpose: Recently, there has been increased interest in dedicated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners with pinhole collimation and improved detector technology due to their improved count sensitivity and resolution over traditional parallel-hole cameras. With traditional cameras, energy-based approaches are often used in the clinic for scatter compensation because they are fast and easily implemented. Some of the cardiac cameras use cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detectors which can complicate the use of energy-based scatter correction (SC) due to the low-energy tail—an increased number of unscattered photons detected with reduced energy. Modified energy-based scatter correction methods can be implemented, but their level of accuracy is unclear. In this study, the authors validated by physical phantom experiments the quantitative accuracy and reproducibility of easily implemented correction techniques applied to {sup 99m}Tc myocardial imaging with a CZT-detector-based gamma camera with multiple heads, each with a single-pinhole collimator. Methods: Activity in the cardiac compartment of an Anthropomorphic Torso phantom (Data Spectrum Corporation) was measured through 15 {sup 99m}Tc-SPECT acquisitions. The ratio of activity concentrations in organ compartments resembled a clinical {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scan and was kept consistent across all experiments (1.2:1 heart to liver and 1.5:1 heart to lung). Two background activity levels were considered: no activity (cold) and an activity concentration 1/10th of the heart (hot). A plastic “lesion” was placed inside of the septal wall of the myocardial insert to simulate the presence of a region without tracer uptake and contrast in this lesion was calculated for all images. The true net activity in each compartment was measured with a dose calibrator (CRC-25R, Capintec, Inc.). A 10 min SPECT image was acquired using a dedicated cardiac camera with CZT detectors (Discovery NM530c, GE

  6. Simulated scatter performance of an inverse-geometry dedicated breast CT system.

    PubMed

    Bhagtani, Reema; Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to quantify the effects of scatter for inverse-geometry dedicated breast CT compared to cone-beam breast CT through simulations. The inverse geometry was previously proposed as an alternative to cone-beam acquisition for volumetric CT. The inverse geometry consists of a large-area scanned-source opposite a detector array that is smaller in the transverse direction. While the gantry rotates, the x-ray beam is rapidly sequenced through an array of positions, acquiring a truncated projection image at each position. Inverse-geometry CT (IGCT) is expected to detect less scatter than cone-beam methods because only a fraction of the object is irradiated at any time and the fast detector isolates the measurements from sequential x-ray beams. An additional scatter benefit is the increased air gap due to the inverted geometry. In this study, we modeled inverse-geometry and cone-beam dedicated breast CT systems of equivalent resolution, field of view, and photon fluence. Monte Carlo simulations generated scatter and primary projections of three cylindrical phantoms of diameters 10, 14, and 18 cm composed of 50% adipose/50% glandular tissue. The scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) was calculated for each breast diameter. Monte Carlo simulations were combined with analytical simulations to generate inverse-geometry and cone-beam images of breast phantoms embedded with tumors. Noise reprehenting the photon fluence of a realistic breast CT scan was added to the simulated projections. Cone-beam data were reconstructed with and without an ideal scatter correction. The CNR between breast tumor and background was compared for the inverse and cone-beam geometries for the three phantom diameters. Results demonstrated an order of magnitude reduction in SPR for the IGCT system compared to the cone-beam system. For example, the peak IGCT SPRs were 0.05 and 0.09 for the 14 and 18 cm phantoms, respectively, compared to 0.42 and 1 for the cone-beam system. For both

  7. X17C - The Superconducting Wiggler Beamline Dedicated for Diamond Cell Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, J.; Guo, Q.; Hemley, R. J.; Mao, H.

    2002-12-01

    The symbiotic evolution of diamond-anvil cell (DAC) and synchrotron techniques at the X17C facility of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) has made a great impact on experimental studies of deep Earth and planetary interiors. It has opened new research areas and obtained bountiful results in the study of phase transitions, elasticity, rheology, and micro-nano mineralogy at ambient and high pressure conditions. In 1989 under the leadership of Dr. Dan Weill at the Instrument and Facility Program of NSF-EAR, a Participating Research Teams (PRT) was formed by Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Carnegie Institution of Washington Geophysical Lab. (GL) to establish the X17C facility with in-hutch energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXD) equipment and related systems and on-site supporting laboratory. The facility is dedicated 100%\\ for high-pressure diamond-cell experimentation. With the X17C facility taking care of equipment and technical development, users only need to bring their DAC and focus on their research. This dedicated mode of operation is so successful that it has been followed by all three new third-generation high-energy synchrotron in U.S., Europe, and Japan. The X17C scientific programs include determination of melting, phase diagrams, equations of state, elasticity, and rheology of major constituents of the mantle and core at relevant P-T conditions. High-pressure electronic and magnetic states of transition and rare-earth elements have been probed by x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. Diffraction of amorphous silica has been obtained to 40 GPa. Single-crystal x-ray crystallography has been advanced to 60 GPa. At the low-pressure end, X17C is used for characterizing minerals and clathrate hydrates under hydrothermal to oceanographic conditions, and micro-nano mineral inclusions in-situ in phenocrysts. The results have been applied to a number of disciplines of solid Earth for problems

  8. TU-F-18C-07: Hardware Advances for MTF Improvement in Dedicated Breast CT

    SciTech Connect

    Gazi, P; Burkett, G; Yang, K; Boone, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: In this study, we have designed and implemented a prototype dedicated breast CT system (bCT) to improve the spatial resolution characteristics, in order to improve detection of micro-calcifications. Methods: A 10.8 kW water-cooled, tungsten anode x-ray tube, running up to 240 mA at 60 kV, coupled with an x-ray generator specifically designed for this application, and 0.3 mm of added copper filter was used to generate x-ray pulses. A CsI CMOS flat panel detector with a pixel pitch of 0.075 mm in native binning mode was used. The system geometry was designed in a way to achieve an FOV on par with similar bCT prototypes, resulting in a magnification factor of 1.39. A 0.013 mm tungsten wire was used to generate point spread functions. Multiple scans were performed with different numbers of projections, different reconstruction kernel sizes and different reconstruction filters to study the effects of each parameter on MTF. The resulting MTFs were then evaluated quantitatively using the generated PFSs. Duplicate scans with the same parameters were performed on two other dedicated breast CT systems to compare the performance of the new prototype. Results: The results of the MTF experiments demonstrate a significant improvement in the spatial resolution characteristics. In the new prototype, using the pulsed x-ray source results in a restoration of the azimuthal MTF degradation, due to motion blurring previously seen in other bCT systems. Moreover, employing the higher resolution x-ray detector considerably improves the MTF. The MTF at 10% of the new system is at 3.5 1/mm, a factor of 4.36 greater than an earlier bCT scanner. Conclusion: The MTF analysis of the new prototype bCT shows that using the new hardware and control results in a significant improvement in visualization of finer detail. This suggests that the visualization of micro-calcifications will be significantly improved.

  9. Reducing radiation dose to the female breast during conventional and dedicated breast computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupcich, Franco John

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effectiveness of techniques intended to reduce dose to the breast during CT coronary angiography (CTCA) scans with respect to task-based image quality, and to evaluate the effectiveness of optimal energy weighting in improving contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and thus the potential for reducing breast dose, during energy-resolved dedicated breast CT. A database quantifying organ dose for several radiosensitive organs irradiated during CTCA, including the breast, was generated using Monte Carlo simulations. This database facilitates estimation of organ-specific dose deposited during CTCA protocols using arbitrary x-ray spectra or tube-current modulation schemes without the need to run Monte Carlo simulations. The database was used to estimate breast dose for simulated CT images acquired for a reference protocol and five protocols intended to reduce breast dose. For each protocol, the performance of two tasks (detection of signals with unknown locations) was compared over a range of breast dose levels using a task-based, signal-detectability metric: the estimator of the area under the exponential free-response relative operating characteristic curve, AFE. For large-diameter/medium-contrast signals, when maintaining equivalent AFE, the 80 kV partial, 80 kV, 120 kV partial, and 120 kV tube-current modulated protocols reduced breast dose by 85%, 81%, 18%, and 6%, respectively, while the shielded protocol increased breast dose by 68%. Results for the small-diameter/high-contrast signal followed similar trends, but with smaller magnitude of the percent changes in dose. The 80 kV protocols demonstrated the greatest reduction to breast dose, however, the subsequent increase in noise may be clinically unacceptable. Tube output for these protocols can be adjusted to achieve more desirable noise levels with lesser dose reduction. The improvement in CNR of optimally projection-based and image-based weighted images relative to photon

  10. CHARACTERIZING THE ATMOSPHERES OF TRANSITING PLANETS WITH A DEDICATED SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Tessenyi, M.; Tinetti, G.; Swinyard, B.; Aylward, A.; Tennyson, J.; Ollivier, M.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Coude du Foresto, V.; Encrenaz, T.; Micela, G.; Ribas, I.; Swain, M. R.; Vasisht, G.; Deroo, P.; Sozzetti, A.

    2012-02-10

    Exoplanetary science is one of the fastest evolving fields of today's astronomical research, continuously yielding unexpected and surprising results. Ground-based planet-hunting surveys, together with dedicated space missions such as Kepler and CoRoT, are delivering an ever-increasing number of exoplanets, over 690, and ESA's Gaia mission will escalate the exoplanetary census into the several thousands. The next logical step is the characterization of these new worlds. What is their nature? Why are they as they are? Use of the Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope to probe the atmospheres of transiting hot, gaseous exoplanets has opened perspectives unimaginable even just 10 years ago, demonstrating that it is indeed possible with current technology to address the ambitious goal of characterizing the atmospheres of these alien worlds. However, these successful measurements have also shown the difficulty of understanding the physics and chemistry of these exotic environments when having to rely on a limited number of observations performed on a handful of objects. To progress substantially in this field, a dedicated facility for exoplanet characterization, able to observe a statistically significant number of planets over time and a broad spectral range will be essential. Additionally, the instrument design (e.g., detector performances, photometric stability) will be tailored to optimize the extraction of the astrophysical signal. In this paper, we analyze the performance and tradeoffs of a 1.2/1.4 m space telescope for exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the visible to the mid-IR. We present the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of integration time and stellar magnitude/spectral type for the acquisition of spectra of planetary atmospheres for a variety of scenarios: hot, warm, and temperate planets orbiting stars ranging in spectral type from hot F- to cooler M-dwarfs. Our results include key examples of known planets (e.g., HD 189733b, GJ 436b, GJ

  11. Task-based optimization of dedicated breast CT via Hotelling observer metrics

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Adrian A.; Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop and demonstrate a set of practical metrics for CT systems optimization. These metrics, based on the Hotelling observer (HO) figure of merit, are task-based. The authors therefore take the specific example of optimizing a dedicated breast CT system, including the reconstruction algorithm, for two relevant tasks, signal detection and Rayleigh discrimination. Methods: A dedicated breast CT system is simulated using specifications in the literature from an existing prototype. The authors optimize configuration and image reconstruction algorithm parameters for two tasks: the detection of simulated microcalcifications and the discrimination of two adjacent, high-contrast signals, known as the Rayleigh discrimination task. The effects on task performance of breast diameter, signal location, image grid size, projection view number, and reconstruction filter were all investigated. Two HO metrics were evaluated: the percentage of correct decisions in a two-alternative forced choice experiment (equivalent to area under the ROC curve or AUC), and the HO efficiency, defined as the squared ratio of HO signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the reconstructed image to HO SNR in the projection data. Results: The ease and efficiency of the HO metric computation allows a rapid high-resolution survey of many system parameters. Optimization of a range of system parameters using the HO results in images that subjectively appear optimal for the tasks investigated. Further, the results of assessment through the HO reproduce closely many existing results in the literature regarding the impact of parameter selection on image quality. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the utility of a task-based approach to system design, evaluation, and optimization. The methodology presented is equally applicable to determining the impact of a wide range of factors, including patient parameters, system and acquisition design, and the reconstruction algorithm. The

  12. Characterizing the Atmospheres of Transiting Planets with a Dedicated Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessenyi, M.; Ollivier, M.; Tinetti, G.; Beaulieu, J. P.; Coudé du Foresto, V.; Encrenaz, T.; Micela, G.; Swinyard, B.; Ribas, I.; Aylward, A.; Tennyson, J.; Swain, M. R.; Sozzetti, A.; Vasisht, G.; Deroo, P.

    2012-02-01

    Exoplanetary science is one of the fastest evolving fields of today's astronomical research, continuously yielding unexpected and surprising results. Ground-based planet-hunting surveys, together with dedicated space missions such as Kepler and CoRoT, are delivering an ever-increasing number of exoplanets, over 690, and ESA's Gaia mission will escalate the exoplanetary census into the several thousands. The next logical step is the characterization of these new worlds. What is their nature? Why are they as they are? Use of the Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer Space Telescope to probe the atmospheres of transiting hot, gaseous exoplanets has opened perspectives unimaginable even just 10 years ago, demonstrating that it is indeed possible with current technology to address the ambitious goal of characterizing the atmospheres of these alien worlds. However, these successful measurements have also shown the difficulty of understanding the physics and chemistry of these exotic environments when having to rely on a limited number of observations performed on a handful of objects. To progress substantially in this field, a dedicated facility for exoplanet characterization, able to observe a statistically significant number of planets over time and a broad spectral range will be essential. Additionally, the instrument design (e.g., detector performances, photometric stability) will be tailored to optimize the extraction of the astrophysical signal. In this paper, we analyze the performance and tradeoffs of a 1.2/1.4 m space telescope for exoplanet transit spectroscopy from the visible to the mid-IR. We present the signal-to-noise ratio as a function of integration time and stellar magnitude/spectral type for the acquisition of spectra of planetary atmospheres for a variety of scenarios: hot, warm, and temperate planets orbiting stars ranging in spectral type from hot F- to cooler M-dwarfs. Our results include key examples of known planets (e.g., HD 189733b, GJ 436b, GJ

  13. TU-CD-207-11: Patient-Driven Automatic Exposure Control for Dedicated Breast CT

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, A; Gazi, P; Seibert, J; Boone, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To implement automatic exposure control (AEC) in dedicated breast CT (bCT) on a patient-specific basis using only the pre-scan scout views. Methods: Using a large cohort (N=153) of bCT data sets, the breast effective diameter (D) and width in orthogonal planes (Wa,Wb) were calculated from the reconstructed bCT image and pre-scan scout views, respectively. D, Wa, and Wb were measured at the breast center-of-mass (COM), making use of the known geometry of our bCT system. These data were then fit to a second-order polynomial “D=F(Wa,Wb)” in a least squares sense in order to provide a functional form for determining the breast diameter. The coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}) and mean percent error between the measured breast diameter and fit breast diameter were used to evaluate the overall robustness of the polynomial fit. Lastly, previously-reported bCT technique factors derived from Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the tube current required for each breast diameter in order to match two-view mammographic dose levels. Results: F(Wa,Wb) provided fitted breast diameters in agreement with the measured breast diameters resulting in R{sup 2} values ranging from 0.908 to 0.929 and mean percent errors ranging from 3.2% to 3.7%. For all 153 bCT data sets used in this study, the fitted breast diameters ranged from 7.9 cm to 15.7 cm corresponding to tube current values ranging from 0.6 mA to 4.9 mA in order to deliver the same dose as two-view mammography in a 50% glandular breast with a 80 kV x-ray beam and 16.6 second scan time. Conclusion: The present work provides a robust framework for AEC in dedicated bCT using only the width measurements derived from the two orthogonal pre-scan scout views. Future work will investigate how these automatically chosen exposure levels affect the quality of the reconstructed image.

  14. Life sciences flight experiments program mission science requirements document. The first life sciences dedicated Spacelab mission, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Mission Science Requirements Document (MSRD) for the First Dedicated Life Sciences Mission (LS-1) represents the culmination of thousands of hours of experiment selection, and science requirement definition activities. NASA life sciences has never before attempted to integrate, both scientifically and operationally, a single mission dedicated to life sciences research, and the complexity of the planning required for such an endeavor should be apparent. This set of requirements completes the first phase of a continual process which will attempt to optimize (within available programmatic and mission resources) the science accomplished on this mission.

  15. Technology demonstration of dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles at Ft. Bliss, Texas. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, R.A.; Yost, D.M.

    1995-11-01

    A technology demonstration program of dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) original equipment manufacturer (OEM) vehicles was conducted at FL Bliss, Texas to demonstrate the use of CNG as an alternative fuel. The demonstration program at FL Bliss was the first Army initiative with CNG-fueled vehicles under the legislated Alternative Motor Fuels Act. This Department of Energy (DOE)-supported fleet demonstration consisted of 48 General Services Administration (GSA)-owned, Army-leased 1992 dedicated CNG General Motors (GM) 3/4-ton pickup trucks and four 1993 gasoline-powered Chevrolet 3/4-ton pickup trucks.

  16. Continuous Monitoring of the Jason-l and TOPEX/POSEIDON Ocean Altimetry Missions from Dedicated Calibration Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Bruce; Bonnefond, Pascal; Watson, Christopher; Born, George; Coleman, Richard; Exertier, Pierre; Gill, Stephen; Jan, Gwenaele; Jeansou, Eric; Laurain, Olivier; White, Neil

    2004-01-01

    We present calibration results from Jason-1 and TOPEX/POSEIDON overflights of the three dedicated verification sites: 1) a California offshore oil platform (Harvest); 2) the Mediterranean island of Corsica (Cape Senetosa), and 3) the Bass Strait off the coast of Tasmania. The high-accuracy of the Jason-1 measurement system is evident in the results from the dedicated calibration experiments. These experiments do indicate, however, that the Jason-1 sea-surface-height (SSH) measurements are biased high by approximately 12-15 cm. We discuss the implications of geographically correlated errors on the determination of the SSH bias.

  17. Clinical image benefits after model-based reconstruction for low dose dedicated breast tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haneda, Eri; Tkaczyk, J. Eric; Palma, Giovanni; Iordache, Rǎzvan; Muller, Serge; De Man, Bruno

    2015-03-01

    Model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) is implemented to process full clinical data sets of dedicated breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in a low dose condition and achieves less spreading of anatomical structure between slices. MBIR is a statistical based reconstruction which can control the trade-off between data fitting and image regularization. In this study, regularization is formulated with anisotropic prior weighting that independently controls the image regularization between in-plane and out-of-plane voxel neighbors. Studies at complete and partial convergence show that the appropriate formulation of data-fit and regularization terms along with anisotropic prior weighting leads to a solution with improved localization of objects within a more narrow range of slices. This result is compared with the solutions using simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT), which is one of the state of art reconstruction in DBT. MBIR yields higher contrast-to-noise for medium and large size microcalcifications and diagnostic structures in volumetric breast images and supports opportunity for dose reduction for 3D breast imaging.

  18. Novel approach for talc pleurodesis by dedicated catheter through flexi-rigid thoracoscope under local anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Atsuko; Nakamura, Miho; Miyazawa, Teruomi; Astoul, Philippe

    2011-05-01

    For pleurodesis, talc administered by poudrage is usually insufflated blindly from a single port of entry using the standard method with a small-diameter rigid thoracoscope. In order to visually perform talc poudrage from a single port, we introduced a catheter technique through a flexi-rigid thoracoscope. Patients with uncontrolled and symptomatic pleural effusion requiring pleurodesis underwent flexi-rigid thoracoscopy under local anesthesia for talc poudrage. A dedicated catheter with 2.1-mm inner diameter was connected to a talc atomizer and inserted through the working channel of the flexi-rigid thoracoscope to insufflate talc into the pleural cavity under visualization. Nine patients were included in this study. Three patients were >75 years old, and two were Karnofsky performance status 50. Three patients received propofol for sedation and six were not sedated. Mean operative time was 30.8 min for all patients, and 21.3 min for cases without sedation. All procedures were performed easily under clear visualization with no major complications or catheter obstructions. This novel approach for talc pleurodesis using a catheter was well-tolerated and seems feasible for patients with uncontrolled pleural effusion. We consider this technique useful even for difficult cases, such as elderly patients or those with relatively low performance status.

  19. Overcoming barriers to hepatitis B immunisation by a dedicated hepatitis B immunisation service

    PubMed Central

    Larcher, V; Bourne, J; Aitken, C; Jeffries, D; Hodes, D; SLOAN, D.; RAMSAY, M.; GOLDBERG, D.; BRAMLEY, C.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the effectiveness of a selective hospital based hepatitis B immunisation programme and the barriers to be overcome in obtaining a successful outcome.
METHODS—Retrospective case note review of 265 infants born over a five year period to hepatitis B carrier mothers at a university affiliated hospital in Hackney, London.
RESULTS—A total of 242 infants (91%) were fully vaccinated; 217 (82%) had serology; 31 required booster doses. Percentages failing to reach second, third vaccinations, and serology on schedule rose exponentially (7%, 18%, 33% respectively). Mobility was high (25%) and significantly affected outcome. A total of 95% Hackney resident babies were fully vaccinated compared with 78% non-residents. Uptake of routine immunisations was higher in Hackney residents than non-residents and greater in those who were eligible for hepatitis B vaccine. Name changes occurred in 35%. Translation requirements were high (85% for Turkish, Vietnamese, and Asian families). Requirements for specific postnatal counselling of mothers and hepatology referral fell significantly during the course of the study. Only seven of 22 babies born in 1995 in Tower Hamlets compared with 53 of 58 Hackney babies received a full vaccination course in non-hospital based primary care.
CONCLUSION—In inner city areas with high prevalence of hepatitis B carriage, mobility, and diverse ethnicity, a dedicated centralised immunisation service can be highly effective, provided that adequate support services (translation, counselling, and parental referral) are available.
 PMID:11159283

  20. Assessment of a non-dedicated GPS receiver system for precise airborne attitude determination

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, M.E.; Sun, H.; Owen, T.E.; Meindl, M.A.

    1994-09-01

    The use of a non-dedicated GPS receiver system for attitude determination was assessed in airborne mode through a test conducted at Sandia National Laboratories. Four independent NovAtel GPSCard{trademark} receivers were installed in Sandia`s Twin Engine Otter with two antennas mounted on the fuselage and two on the wing tips at separations of 6 to 18 m. A strapdown INS was also on board the aircraft in order to provide an independent attitude reference at rates between 4 and 10 Hz. During the multi-day test, GPS measurements were recorded between 1 and 10 Hz. Carrier phase measurements were post-processed using a double difference approach developed at The University of Calgary in which integer ambiguities were resolved in seconds using the known antenna separations as constraints. The tracking capability of the system is demonstrated under dynamics consisting of roll and pitch angles up to 45 and 12 degrees, respectively. Comparisons between the GPS and INS attitude angles are presented for two of the test days and show agreement at the several arcminute level. Conclusions are made with respect to system accuracy and performance in an operational airborne environment.

  1. Packet based serial link realized in FPGA dedicated for high resolution infrared image transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieszczad, Grzegorz

    2015-05-01

    In article the external digital interface specially designed for thermographic camera built in Military University of Technology is described. The aim of article is to illustrate challenges encountered during design process of thermal vision camera especially related to infrared data processing and transmission. Article explains main requirements for interface to transfer Infra-Red or Video digital data and describes the solution which we elaborated based on Low Voltage Differential Signaling (LVDS) physical layer and signaling scheme. Elaborated link for image transmission is built using FPGA integrated circuit with built-in high speed serial transceivers achieving up to 2500Gbps throughput. Image transmission is realized using proprietary packet protocol. Transmission protocol engine was described in VHDL language and tested in FPGA hardware. The link is able to transmit 1280x1024@60Hz 24bit video data using one signal pair. Link was tested to transmit thermal-vision camera picture to remote monitor. Construction of dedicated video link allows to reduce power consumption compared to solutions with ASIC based encoders and decoders realizing video links like DVI or packed based Display Port, with simultaneous reduction of wires needed to establish link to one pair. Article describes functions of modules integrated in FPGA design realizing several functions like: synchronization to video source, video stream packeting, interfacing transceiver module and dynamic clock generation for video standard conversion.

  2. A dynamic wall model for Large-Eddy simulations of wind turbine dedicated airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J, Calafell; O, Lehmkuhl; A, Carmona; D, Pérez-Segarra C.; A, Oliva

    2014-06-01

    This work aims at modelling the flow behavior past a wind turbine dedicated airfoil at high Reynolds number and large angle of attack (AoA). The DU-93-W-210 airfoil has been selected. To do this, Large Eddy Simulations (LES) have been performed. Momentum equations have been solved with a parallel unstructured symmetry preserving formulation while the wall-adapting local-eddy viscosity model within a variational multi-scale framework (VMS- WALE) is used as the subgrid-scales model. Since LES calculations are still very expensive at high Reynolds Number, specially at the near-wall region, a dynamic wall model has been implemented in order to overcome this limitation. The model has been validated with a very unresolved Channel Flow case at Reτ = 2000. Afterwards, the model is also tested with the Ahmed Car case, that from the flow physics point of view is more similar to an stalled airfoil than the Channel Flow is, including flow features as boundary layer detachment and recirculations. This case has been selected because experimental results of mean velocity profiles are available. Finally, a flow around a DU-93-W-210 airfoil is computed at Re = 3 x 106 and with an AoA of 15°. Numerical results are presented in comparison with Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or experimental data for all cases.

  3. Diagnosis and management of familial Mediterranean fever: integrating medical genetics in a dedicated interdisciplinary clinic.

    PubMed

    Zadeh, Neda; Getzug, Terri; Grody, Wayne W

    2011-03-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by recurrent febrile polyserositis, especially prevalent in individuals of Mediterranean descent. Familial Mediterranean fever can have nonspecific manifestations that mimic many common acquired disorders such as infections, acute appendicitis, cholecystitis, and arthritis, which can delay diagnosis for many years and subject patients to extensive evaluations and even unnecessary surgery. Untreated familial Mediterranean fever can result in serious complications such as end-stage renal disease and malabsorption secondary to amyloid deposition in the kidneys and digestive tract, male and female infertility, and growth retardation in children. These significant sequelae, along with the episodic acute attacks, are readily preventable by treatment with oral colchicine and underscore the necessity of early detection and treatment from a medical, psychosocial, and economic standpoint. We describe our comprehensive approach to the accurate diagnosis and effective management of this disorder by means of a dedicated familial Mediterranean fever clinic that incorporates medical genetics on equal footing with general medicine. In addition to providing the clinician with the presenting features of familial Mediterranean fever, methods of diagnosis including molecular testing, and current management based on our extensive experience with hundreds of affected individuals, we also advance this approach as a model for the incorporation of medical genetics practice into the more traditional domains of general medicine.

  4. Feasibility study for a realistic training dedicated to radiological protection improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courageot, Estelle; Reinald, Kutschera; Gaillard-Lecanu, Emmanuelle; Sylvie, Jahan; Riedel, Alexandre; Therache, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Any personnel involved in activities within the controlled area of a nuclear facility must be provided with appropriate radiological protection training. An evident purpose of this training is to know the regulation dedicated to workplaces where ionizing radiation may be present, in order to properly carry out the radiation monitoring, to use suitable protective equipments and to behave correctly if unexpected working conditions happen. A major difficulty of this training consist in having the most realistic reading from the monitoring devices for a given exposure situation, but without using real radioactive sources. A new approach is developed at EDF R&D for radiological protection training. This approach combines different technologies, in an environment representative of the workplace but geographically separated from the nuclear power plant: a training area representative of a workplace, a Man Machine Interface used by the trainer to define the source configuration and the training scenario, a geolocalization system, fictive radiation monitoring devices and a particle transport code able to calculate in real time the dose map due to the virtual sources. In a first approach, our real-time particles transport code, called Moderato, used only an attenuation low in straight line. To improve the realism further, we would like to switch a code based on the Monte Carlo transport of particles method like Geant 4 or MCNPX instead of Moderato. The aim of our study is the evaluation of the code in our application, in particular, the possibility to keep a real time response of our architecture.

  5. Performance Comparison of SDN Solutions for Switching Dedicated Long-Haul Connections

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nageswara S

    2016-01-01

    We consider scenarios with two sites connected over a dedicated, long-haul connection that must quickly fail-over in response to degradations in host-to-host application performance. We present two methods for path fail-over using OpenFlowenabled switches: (a) a light-weight method that utilizes host scripts to monitor the application performance and dpctl API for switching, and (b) a generic method that uses two OpenDaylight (ODL) controllers and REST interfaces. The restoration dynamics of the application contain significant statistical variations due to the controllers, north interfaces and switches; in addition, the variety of vendor implementations further complicates the choice between different solutions. We present the impulse-response method to estimate the regressions of performance parameters, which enables a rigorous and objective comparison of different solutions. We describe testing results of the two methods, using TCP throughput and connection rtt as main parameters, over a testbed consisting of HP and Cisco switches connected over longhaul connections emulated in hardware by ANUE devices. The combination of analytical and experimental results demonstrates that dpctl method responds seconds faster than ODL method on average, while both methods restore TCP throughput.

  6. Iterative reconstruction using a Monte Carlo based system transfer matrix for dedicated breast positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Krishnendu; Straus, Kenneth J.; Glick, Stephen J.; Chen, Yu.

    2014-08-28

    To maximize sensitivity, it is desirable that ring Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems dedicated for imaging the breast have a small bore. Unfortunately, due to parallax error this causes substantial degradation in spatial resolution for objects near the periphery of the breast. In this work, a framework for computing and incorporating an accurate system matrix into iterative reconstruction is presented in an effort to reduce spatial resolution degradation towards the periphery of the breast. The GATE Monte Carlo Simulation software was utilized to accurately model the system matrix for a breast PET system. A strategy for increasing the count statistics in the system matrix computation and for reducing the system element storage space was used by calculating only a subset of matrix elements and then estimating the rest of the elements by using the geometric symmetry of the cylindrical scanner. To implement this strategy, polar voxel basis functions were used to represent the object, resulting in a block-circulant system matrix. Simulation studies using a breast PET scanner model with ring geometry demonstrated improved contrast at 45% reduced noise level and 1.5 to 3 times resolution performance improvement when compared to MLEM reconstruction using a simple line-integral model. The GATE based system matrix reconstruction technique promises to improve resolution and noise performance and reduce image distortion at FOV periphery compared to line-integral based system matrix reconstruction.

  7. Coiled tubing drilling: Real time MWD with dedicated powers to the BHA

    SciTech Connect

    Leismer, D.; Williams, B.; Pursell, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes and analyzes the development and ongoing field trials of a Real Time MWD Coiled Tubing Drilling System. The new system holds great promise for advancing the state of coiled tubing drilling for certain applications. The system is designed for through-tubing, short radius re-entry and drilling highly deviated wells as horizontal laterals to a geologic target with minimum wellbore tortuosity. Currently, 4-1/2-in production tubing is the smallest re-entry candidate. Real time MWD and Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) control is achieved by the use of a combination hydraulic and electric umbilical internal to the coiled tubing (CT), allowing continuous data collection and selective surface control of the BHA components. This communication line allows orientation in 10{degree} increments (or less) while drilling, applies weight-on-bit and operates a reusable circulating valve. In addition, the umbilical provides real-time monitoring of weight-on-bit, circulating pressures of the drilling fluid internal and external to the BHA, dedicated hydraulic system bottom hole pressure, downhole temperature and survey data from logging equipment.

  8. YBCO hot-electron bolometers dedicated to THz detection and imaging: Embedding issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurino, M.; Kreisler, A. J.; Türer, I.; Martinez, A.; Gensbittel, A.; Dégardin, A. F.

    2010-06-01

    High-Tc hot-electron bolometers (HEB) are an interesting alternative to other superconducting heterodyne mixers in the terahertz frequency range because of low-cost cooling investment, ultra-wide instantaneous bandwidth and low intrinsic noise level, even at 80 K. A technological process to fabricate stacked yttrium-based (YBCO) / praseodymium-based (PBCO) ultra-thin films (in the 15 to 40 nm thickness range) etched to form 0.5 μm × 0.5 μm constrictions, elaborated on (100) MgO substrates, has been previously described. Ageing effects were also considered, with the consequence of increased electrical resistance, significant degradation of the regular THz response and no HEB mixing action. Electron and UV lithography steps are revisited here to realize HEB mixers based on nano-bridges covered by a log-periodic planar gold antenna, dedicated to the 1 to 7 THz range. Several measures have been attempted to reduce the conversion losses, mainly by considering the embedding issues related to the YBCO nano-bridge impedance matching to the antenna and the design of optimized intermediate frequency circuitry. Antenna simulations were performed and validated through experiments on scaled models at GHz frequencies. Electromagnetic coupling to the incoming radiation was also studied, including crosstalk between neighbour antennas forming a linear imaging array.

  9. Dedicated Laboratory Setup for CO2 TEA Laser Propulsion Experiments at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, Israel I.; Kenoyer, David; Myrabo, Leik N.; Notaro, Samuel

    2010-10-01

    Laser propulsion research progress has traditionally been hindered by the scarcity of photon sources with desirable characteristics, as well as integrated specialized flow facilities in a dedicated laboratory environment. For TEA CO2 lasers, the minimal requirements are time-average powers of >100 W), and pulse energies of >10 J pulses with short duration (e.g., 0.1 to 1 μs); furthermore, for the advanced pulsejet engines of interest here, the laser system must simulate pulse repetition frequencies of 1-10 kilohertz or more, at least for two (carefully sequenced) pulses. A well-equipped laser propulsion laboratory should have an arsenal of sensor and diagnostics tools (such as load cells, thrust stands, moment balances, pressure and heat transfer gages), Tesla-level electromagnet and permanent magnets, flow simulation facilities, and high-speed visualization systems, in addition to other related equipment, such as optics and gas supply systems. In this paper we introduce a cutting-edge Laser Propulsion Laboratory created at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, one of the very few in the world to be uniquely set up for beamed energy propulsion (BEP) experiments. The present BEP research program is described, along with the envisioned research strategy that will exploit current and expanded facilities in the near future.

  10. The impact of a dedicated physiotherapist clinic for children with dysfunctional breathing

    PubMed Central

    Elphick, Heather; Everard, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunctional breathing is a significant cause of morbidity, adversely affecting an individual's quality of life. There is currently no data from paediatric centres on the impact of breathing retraining for dysfunctional breathing. Symptoms and quality of life were measured in 34 subjects referred sequentially for breathing retraining to the first dedicated paediatric dysfunctional breathing clinic in the UK. Data were obtained prior to the first intervention (time point 1), at discharge (time point 2) and by post 6 months later (time point 3). The mean (interquartile range) age of participants was 13.3 (9.1–16.3) years, with 52% female. Data were obtained at time points 2 and 3 in 23 and 13 subjects, respectively. Statistically significant improvements were observed in symptom scores, child quality of life and parental proxy quality of life between time points 1 and 2 (p<0.0001), while there was no significant difference in the data at time point 3 as compared with time point 2. This study suggests that physiotherapist-led breathing retraining offers significant benefit to young people with dysfunctional breathing which is maintained for at least 6 months after treatment is completed. Future studies will provide more information on the long-term effects of interventions for dysfunctional breathing. PMID:27957485

  11. Evaluation of a video-based head motion tracking system for dedicated brain PET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anishchenko, S.; Beylin, D.; Stepanov, P.; Stepanov, A.; Weinberg, I. N.; Schaeffer, S.; Zavarzin, V.; Shaposhnikov, D.; Smith, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    Unintentional head motion during Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data acquisition can degrade PET image quality and lead to artifacts. Poor patient compliance, head tremor, and coughing are examples of movement sources. Head motion due to patient non-compliance can be an issue with the rise of amyloid brain PET in dementia patients. To preserve PET image resolution and quantitative accuracy, head motion can be tracked and corrected in the image reconstruction algorithm. While fiducial markers can be used, a contactless approach is preferable. A video-based head motion tracking system for a dedicated portable brain PET scanner was developed. Four wide-angle cameras organized in two stereo pairs are used for capturing video of the patient's head during the PET data acquisition. Facial points are automatically tracked and used to determine the six degree of freedom head pose as a function of time. The presented work evaluated the newly designed tracking system using a head phantom and a moving American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom. The mean video-tracking error was 0.99±0.90 mm relative to the magnetic tracking device used as ground truth. Qualitative evaluation with the ACR phantom shows the advantage of the motion tracking application. The developed system is able to perform tracking with accuracy close to millimeter and can help to preserve resolution of brain PET images in presence of movements.

  12. A Spartan 6 FPGA-based data acquisition system for dedicated imagers in nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fysikopoulos, E.; Loudos, G.; Georgiou, M.; David, S.; Matsopoulos, G.

    2012-12-01

    We present the development of a four-channel low-cost hardware system for data acquisition, with application in dedicated nuclear medicine imagers. A 12 bit octal channel high-speed analogue to digital converter, with up to 65 Msps sampling rate, was used for the digitization of analogue signals. The digitized data are fed into a field programmable gate array (FPGA), which contains an interface to a bank of double data rate 2 (DDR2)-type memory. The FPGA processes the digitized data and stores the results into the DDR2. An ethernet link was used for data transmission to a personal computer. The embedded system was designed using Xilinx's embedded development kit (EDK) and was based on Xilinx's Microblaze soft-core processor. The system has been evaluated using two different discrete optical detector arrays (a position-sensitive photomultiplier tube and a silicon photomultiplier) with two different pixelated scintillator arrays (BGO, LSO:Ce). The energy resolution for both detectors was approximately 25%. A clear identification of all crystal elements was achieved in all cases. The data rate of the system with this implementation can reach 60 Mbits s-1. The results have shown that this FPGA data acquisition system is a compact and flexible solution for single-photon-detection applications. This paper was originally submitted for inclusion in the special feature on Imaging Systems and Techniques 2011.

  13. Dedicated Laboratory Setup for CO{sub 2} TEA Laser Propulsion Experiments at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Salvador, Israel I.; Kenoyer, David; Myrabo, Leik N.; Notaro, Samuel

    2010-10-08

    Laser propulsion research progress has traditionally been hindered by the scarcity of photon sources with desirable characteristics, as well as integrated specialized flow facilities in a dedicated laboratory environment. For TEA CO{sub 2} lasers, the minimal requirements are time-average powers of >100 W), and pulse energies of >10 J pulses with short duration (e.g., 0.1 to 1 {mu}s); furthermore, for the advanced pulsejet engines of interest here, the laser system must simulate pulse repetition frequencies of 1-10 kilohertz or more, at least for two (carefully sequenced) pulses. A well-equipped laser propulsion laboratory should have an arsenal of sensor and diagnostics tools (such as load cells, thrust stands, moment balances, pressure and heat transfer gages), Tesla-level electromagnet and permanent magnets, flow simulation facilities, and high-speed visualization systems, in addition to other related equipment, such as optics and gas supply systems. In this paper we introduce a cutting-edge Laser Propulsion Laboratory created at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, one of the very few in the world to be uniquely set up for beamed energy propulsion (BEP) experiments. The present BEP research program is described, along with the envisioned research strategy that will exploit current and expanded facilities in the near future.

  14. Towards Effective Non-Invasive Brain-Computer Interfaces Dedicated to Gait Rehabilitation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Castermans, Thierry; Duvinage, Matthieu; Cheron, Guy; Dutoit, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    In the last few years, significant progress has been made in the field of walk rehabilitation. Motor cortex signals in bipedal monkeys have been interpreted to predict walk kinematics. Epidural electrical stimulation in rats and in one young paraplegic has been realized to partially restore motor control after spinal cord injury. However, these experimental trials are far from being applicable to all patients suffering from motor impairments. Therefore, it is thought that more simple rehabilitation systems are desirable in the meanwhile. The goal of this review is to describe and summarize the progress made in the development of non-invasive brain-computer interfaces dedicated to motor rehabilitation systems. In the first part, the main principles of human locomotion control are presented. The paper then focuses on the mechanisms of supra-spinal centers active during gait, including results from electroencephalography, functional brain imaging technologies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron-emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT)] and invasive studies. The first brain-computer interface (BCI) applications to gait rehabilitation are then presented, with a discussion about the different strategies developed in the field. The challenges to raise for future systems are identified and discussed. Finally, we present some proposals to address these challenges, in order to contribute to the improvement of BCI for gait rehabilitation. PMID:24961699

  15. Development of a dedicated ethanol ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, L.; Bourn, G.; Callahan, T.; Grogan, J.; Leone, D.; Naegeli, D.; Shouse, K.; Thring, R.; Whitney, K.

    1998-09-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a commercially competitive vehicle powered by ethanol (or an ethanol blend) that can meet California`s ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) standards and equivalent corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) energy efficiency for a light-duty passenger car application. The definition of commercially competitive is independent of fuel cost, but does include technical requirements for competitive power, performance, refueling times, vehicle range, driveability, fuel handling safety, and overall emissions performance. This report summarizes the fourth and final phase of this project, and also the overall project. The focus of this report is the technology used to develop a dedicated ethanol-fueled ULEV, and the emissions results documenting ULV performance. Some of the details for the control system and hardware changes are presented in two appendices that are SAE papers. The demonstrator vehicle has a number of advanced technological features, but it is currently configured with standard original equipment manufacturer (OEM) under-engine catalysts. Close-coupled catalysts would improve emissions results further, but no close-coupled catalysts were available for this testing. Recently, close-coupled catalysts were obtained, but installation and testing will be performed in the future. This report also briefly summarizes work in several other related areas that supported the demonstrator vehicle work.

  16. Operational-Condition-Independent Criteria Dedicated to Monitoring Wind Turbine Generators: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W.; Sheng, S.; Court, R.

    2012-08-01

    To date the existing wind turbine condition monitoring technologies and commercially available systems have not been fully accepted for improving wind turbine availability and reducing their operation and maintenance costs. One of the main reasons is that wind turbines are subject to constantly varying loads and operate at variable rotational speeds. As a consequence, the influences of turbine faults and the effects of varying load and speed are coupled together in wind turbine condition monitoring signals. So, there is an urgent need to either introduce some operational condition de-coupling procedures into the current wind turbine condition monitoring techniques or develop a new operational condition independent wind turbine condition monitoring technique to maintain high turbine availability and achieve the expected economic benefits from wind. The purpose of this paper is to develop such a technique. In the paper, three operational condition independent criteria are developed dedicated for monitoring the operation and health condition of wind turbine generators. All proposed criteria have been tested through both simulated and practical experiments. The experiments have shown that these criteria provide a solution for detecting both mechanical and electrical faults occurring in wind turbine generators.

  17. Development of a dedicated peptide tandem mass spectral library for conservation science.

    PubMed

    Fremout, Wim; Dhaenens, Maarten; Saverwyns, Steven; Sanyova, Jana; Vandenabeele, Peter; Deforce, Dieter; Moens, Luc

    2012-05-30

    In recent years, the use of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) on tryptic digests of cultural heritage objects has attracted much attention. It allows for unambiguous identification of peptides and proteins, and even in complex mixtures species-specific identification becomes feasible with minimal sample consumption. Determination of the peptides is commonly based on theoretical cleavage of known protein sequences and on comparison of the expected peptide fragments with those found in the MS/MS spectra. In this approach, complex computer programs, such as Mascot, perform well identifying known proteins, but fail when protein sequences are unknown or incomplete. Often, when trying to distinguish evolutionarily well preserved collagens of different species, Mascot lacks the required specificity. Complementary and often more accurate information on the proteins can be obtained using a reference library of MS/MS spectra of species-specific peptides. Therefore, a library dedicated to various sources of proteins in works of art was set up, with an initial focus on collagen rich materials. This paper discusses the construction and the advantages of this spectral library for conservation science, and its application on a number of samples from historical works of art.

  18. Radiation Dose Reduction during Radial Cardiac Catheterization: Evaluation of a Dedicated Radial Angiography Absorption Shielding Drape.

    PubMed

    Ertel, Andrew; Nadelson, Jeffrey; Shroff, Adhir R; Sweis, Ranya; Ferrera, Dean; Vidovich, Mladen I

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Radiation scatter protection shield drapes have been designed with the goal of decreasing radiation dose to the operators during transfemoral catheterization. We sought to investigate the impact on operator radiation exposure of various shielding drapes specifically designed for the radial approach. Background. Radial access for cardiac catheterization has increased due to improved patient comfort and decreased bleeding complications. There are concerns for increased radiation exposure to patients and operators. Methods. Radiation doses to a simulated operator were measured with a RadCal Dosimeter in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The mock patient was a 97.5 kg fission product phantom. Three lead-free drape designs were studied. The drapes were placed just proximal to the right wrist and extended medially to phantom's trunk. Simulated diagnostic coronary angiography included 6 minutes of fluoroscopy time and 32 seconds of cineangiography time at 4 standard angulated views (8 s each), both 15 frames/s. ANOVA with Bonferroni correction was used for statistical analysis. Results. All drape designs led to substantial reductions in operator radiation exposure compared to control (P < 0.0001). The greatest decrease in radiation exposure (72%) was with the L-shaped design. Conclusions. Dedicated radial shielding drapes decrease radiation exposure to the operator by up to 72% during simulated cardiac catheterization.

  19. Emissions results for dedicated propane Chrysler minivans: the 1996 propane vehicle challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Buitrago, C.; Sluder, S.; Larsen, R.

    1997-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (US DOE), through Argonne National Laboratory, and in cooperation with Natural Resources-Canada and Chrysler Canada, sponsored and organized the 1996 Propane Vehicle Challenge (PVC). For this competition , 13 university teams from North America each received a stock Chrysler minivan to be converted to dedicated propane operation while maintaining maximum production feasibility. The converted vehicles were tested for performance (driveability, cold- and hot-start, acceleration, range, and fuel economy) and exhaust emissions. Of the 13 entries for the 1996 PVC, 10 completed all of the events scheduled, including the emissions test. The schools used a variety of fuel-management, fuel-phase and engine-control strategies, but their strategies can be summarized as three main types: liquid fuel-injection, gaseous fuel-injection, and gaseous carburetor. The converted vehicles performed similarly to the gasoline minivan. The University of Windsor`s minivan had the lowest emissions attaining ULEV levels with a gaseous-injected engine. The Texas A&M vehicle, which had a gaseous-fuel injection system, and the GMI Engineering and Management Institute`s vehicle, which had a liquid-injection system both reached LEV levels. Vehicles with an injection fuel system (liquid or gaseous) performed better in terms of emissions than carbureted systems. Liquid injection appeared to be the best option for fuel metering and control for propane, but more research and calibration are necessary to improve the reliability and performance of this design.

  20. Motoneurons dedicated to either forward or backward locomotion in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Haspel, Gal; O'Donovan, Michael J; Hart, Anne C

    2010-08-18

    Multifunctional motoneurons and muscles, which are active during forward and backward locomotion are ubiquitous in animal models. However, studies in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that some locomotor motoneurons are necessary only for forward locomotion (dorsal B-motoneurons, DB), while others (dorsal A-motoneurons, DA) are necessary only for backward locomotion. We tested this hypothesis directly by recording the activity of these motoneurons during semirestrained locomotion. For this purpose, we used epifluorescence imaging of the genetically encoded calcium sensor cameleon, expressed in specific motoneurons, while monitoring locomotor behavior through the microscope condenser using a second camera. We found that ventral and dorsal B-motoneurons (DB and VB) were coactive during forward locomotion while ventral A-motoneurons (VA) were only active during backward locomotion. The signals we recorded correlated with the direction of locomotion but not with the faster undulatory cycles. To our knowledge, these are the first recordings of motoneuron activity in C. elegans and the only direction-dedicated motoneurons described to date.

  1. Motorneurons dedicated to either forward or backward locomotion in the nematode C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Haspel, Gal; O'Donovan, Michael J.; Hart, Anne C.

    2010-01-01

    Multifunctional motorneurons and muscles, which are active during forward and backward locomotion and driven by common central pattern generators, are ubiquitous in animal models. However, studies in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans suggest that some locomotor motorneurons are necessary only for forward locomotion (dorsal B-motorneurons, DB) while others (dorsal A-motorneurons, DA) are necessary only for backward locomotion. We tested this hypothesis directly by recording the activity of these motorneurons during semi-restrained locomotion. For this purpose, we used epifluorescence imaging of the genetically encoded calcium sensor cameleon, expressed in specific motorneurons, while monitoring locomotor behavior through the microscope condenser using a second camera. We found that ventral and dorsal B-motorneurons (DB and VB) were co-active during forward locomotion while ventral A-motorneurons (VA) were only active during backward locomotion. The signals we recorded correlated with the direction of locomotion but not with the faster undulatory cycles. To our knowledge, these are the first recordings of motorneuron activity in C. elegans and the only direction-dedicated motorneurons described to date. PMID:20720122

  2. STS-40 Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1): The first dedicated spacelab life sciences mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Successful exploration of space depends on the health and well-being of people who travel and work there. For this reason, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has dedicated several Space Shuttle missions to examine how living and working in space affects the human body. Spacelab Life Sciences 1 (SLS-1) is the first of these missions. The main purpose of the SLS-1 mission is to study the mechanisms, magnitudes, and time courses of certain physiological changes that occur during space flight and to investigate the consequences of the body's adaptation to microgravity and readjustment to gravity upon return to Earth. How does space flight influence the heart and circulatory system, metabolic processes, the muscles and bones, and the cells? If responses to weightlessness are undesirable, how can they be prevented or controlled? Will the human body maintain its physical and chemical equilibrium during months aboard a space station and years-long missions to Mars? When crews return to Earth, what can they expect to experience as their bodies readjust to Earth's gravity? With the SLS-1 experiments, NASA is addressing some of these questions. Various aspects of the SLS-1 are discussed.

  3. CALIFA, a Dedicated Calorimeter for the R{sup 3}B/FAIR

    SciTech Connect

    Cortina-Gil, D.; Alvarez-Pol, H.; Aumann, T.; Avdeichikov, V.; Bendel, M.; Benlliure, J.; Bertini, D.; Bezbakh, A.; Bloch, T.; Böhmer, M.; Borge, M.J.G.; Briz, J.A.; Cabanelas, P.; Casarejos, E.; Carmona Gallardo, M.; Cederkäll, J.; Chulkov, L.; Dierigl, M.; Di Julio, D.; Durán, I.; and others

    2014-06-15

    The R{sup 3}B experiment (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams) at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) is a versatile setup dedicated to the study of reactions induced by high-energy radioactive beams. It will provide kinematically complete measurements with high efficiency, acceptance and resolution, making possible a broad physics program with rare-isotopes. CALIFA (CALorimeter for In-Flight detection of gamma-rays and high energy charged pArticles), is a complex detector based on scintillation crystals, that will surround the target of the R{sup 3}B experiment. CALIFA will act as a total absorption gamma-calorimeter and spectrometer, as well as identifier of charged particles from target residues. This versatility is its most challenging requirement, demanding a huge dynamic range, to cover from low energy gamma-rays up to 300 MeV protons. This fact, along with the high-energy of the beams determine the conceptual design of the detector, presented in this paper, together with the technical solutions proposed for its construction.

  4. Real Time Signal Processing and Data Handling with dedicated hardware in handheld OCT Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, P.; Valverde, J. J.; Martin, A.; Ledesma, M. J.; Rubio-Guivernau, J. L.; Santos, A.

    2015-11-01

    The manuscript presents the topics on real time signal processing with dedicated hardware presented at the INFIERI Summer School 2014. The focus of this work is on real-time signal processing, filtering and massive parallel computing. In general, medical devices have stringed demands on energy consumption as well as on data processing and handling. In fact, the development of novel medical devices has led to significant advances in fields such as instrumentation, algorithm development and image processing. In this manuscript, two aspects of the design are brought into consideration: the transformation of a conventional signal processing algorithm into an equivalent version that is suitable for hardware implementation and the use of on-chip modules originally developed for mass-electronics applications, for high speed data transmission. The development of a novel state-of-the-art hand-held OCT probe is used to exemplify theses aspects. In particular, the ``design process'' behind the implementation of a multichannel quadrature coherent demodulator is disclosed.

  5. Comparing the dosimetric characteristics of the electron beam from dedicated intraoperative and conventional radiotherapy accelerators.

    PubMed

    Baghani, Hamid Reza; Aghamiri, Seyed Mahmoud Reza; Mahdavi, Seyed Rabi; Akbari, Mohammad Esmail; Mirzaei, Hamid Reza

    2015-03-08

    The specific design of the mobile dedicated intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) accelerators and different electron beam collimation system can change the dosimetric characteristics of electron beam with respect to the conventional accelerators. The aim of this study is to measure and compare the dosimetric characteristics of electron beam produced by intraoperative and conventional radiotherapy accelerators. To this end, percentage depth dose along clinical axis (PDD), transverse dose profile (TDP), and output factor of LIAC IORT and Varian 2100C/D conventional radiotherapy accelerators were measured and compared. TDPs were recorded at depth of maximum dose. The results of this work showed that depths of maximum dose, R90, R50, and RP for LIAC beam are lower than those of Varian beam. Furthermore, for all energies, surface doses related to the LIAC beam are substantially higher than those of Varian beam. The symmetry and flatness of LIAC beam profiles are more desirable compared to the Varian ones. Contrary to Varian accelerator, output factor of LIAC beam substantially increases with a decrease in the size of the applicator. Dosimetric characteristics of beveled IORT applicators along clinical axis were different from those of the flat ones. From these results, it can be concluded that dosimetric characteristics of intraoperative electron beam are substantially different from those of conventional clinical electron beam. The dosimetric characteristics of the LIAC electron beam make it a useful tool for intraoperative radiotherapy purposes.

  6. A solid-state dedicated circularly polarized luminescence spectrophotometer: Development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Takunori; Hayakawa, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masayuki; Takamoto, Makoto

    2016-07-01

    A new solid-state dedicated circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) instrument (CPL-200CD) was successfully developed for measuring true CPL spectra for optically anisotropic samples on the basis of the Stokes-Mueller matrix approach. Electric components newly installed in the CPL-200CD include a pulse motor-driven sample rotation holder and a 100 kHz lock-in amplifier to achieve the linearly polarized luminescence measurement, which is essential for obtaining the true CPL signal for optically anisotropic samples. An acquisition approach devised for solid-state CPL analysis reduces the measurement times for a data set by ca. 98% compared with the time required in our previous method. As a result, the developed approach is very effective for samples susceptible to light-induced degradation. The theory and implementation of the method are described, and examples of its application to a CPL sample with macroscopic anisotropies are provided. An important advantage of the developed instrument is its ability to obtain molecular information for both excited and ground states because circular dichroism measurements can be performed by switching the monochromatic light to white light without rearrangement of the sample.

  7. Generating an optimal target list for a space mission dedicated to transit spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingales, Tiziano

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays several space missions and ground-based surveys discovered more than 3000 exoplanets. The characterization of their atmospheres is necessary to understand how were they formed, how do they evolve, how are they affected by starlight, stellar winds and other fundamental questions. ARIEL and Twinkle are two dedicated space mission for the study of exoplanetary atmospheres. ARIEL is one the three candidates for the next ESA medium class mission expected to be launched in 2026. Twinkle, proposed to be launched in 2019, is a small, low-cost mission. In order to draft the target lists of the two missions, it is important to look for the best targets that can be observed with the instrumentationassembled on the two satellites. The final lists have to take into account both the number of already known exoplanets and the number of existing exoplanets still not discovered (thanks to the Kepler space mission we can estimate the occurrence rate of exoplanets around the stars, Fressin et al, 2013). Future space missions (GAIA, Cheops, PLATO, Kepler II and TESS) and ground-based surveys will deliver many new exoplanets in the next decade. For this reason a trustworthy target list of exoplanets for a space mission planned to be launched in 2026 (or 2019) needs to take intoaccount a more complete list than the currently available.

  8. Performance of dedicated emission mammotomography for various breast shapes and sizes

    PubMed Central

    Brzymialkiewicz, C N; Tornai, M P; McKinley, R L; Cutler, S J; Bowsher, J E

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the effect of breast shape and size and lesion location on a dedicated emission mammotomography system developed in our lab. The hemispherical positioning gantry allows ample flexibility in sampling a pendant, uncompressed breast. Realistic anthropomorphic torso (which includes the upper portion of the arm) and breast phantoms draw attention to the necessity of using unique camera trajectories (orbits) rather than simple circular camera trajectories. We have implemented several novel three-dimensional (3D) orbits with fully contoured radius-of-rotation capability for compensating for the positioning demands that emerge from different breast shapes and sizes. While a general orbit design may remain the same between two different breasts, the absolute polar tilt range and radius-of-rotation range may vary. We have demonstrated that using 3D orbits with increased polar camera tilt, lesions near the chest wall can be visualized for both large and small sized breasts (325 ml to 1060 ml), for a range of intrinsic contrasts (three to ten times higher activity concentration in the lesion than breast background). Overall, nearly complete 3D acquisition schemes yield image data with relatively high lesion SNRs and contrasts and with minimal distortion of the uncompressed breast shape. PMID:16985287

  9. A dedicated compression device for high resolution X-ray tomography of compressed gas diffusion layers

    SciTech Connect

    Tötzke, C.; Manke, I.; Banhart, J.; Gaiselmann, G.; Schmidt, V.; Bohner, J.; Müller, B. R.; Kupsch, A.; Hentschel, M. P.; Lehnert, W.

    2015-04-15

    We present an experimental approach to study the three-dimensional microstructure of gas diffusion layer (GDL) materials under realistic compression conditions. A dedicated compression device was designed that allows for synchrotron-tomographic investigation of circular samples under well-defined compression conditions. The tomographic data provide the experimental basis for stochastic modeling of nonwoven GDL materials. A plain compression tool is used to study the fiber courses in the material at different compression stages. Transport relevant geometrical parameters, such as porosity, pore size, and tortuosity distributions, are exemplarily evaluated for a GDL sample in the uncompressed state and for a compression of 30 vol.%. To mimic the geometry of the flow-field, we employed a compression punch with an integrated channel-rib-profile. It turned out that the GDL material is homogeneously compressed under the ribs, however, much less compressed underneath the channel. GDL fibers extend far into the channel volume where they might interfere with the convective gas transport and the removal of liquid water from the cell.

  10. Numerical study of urban traffic flow with dedicated bus lane and intermittent bus lane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H. B.

    2010-08-01

    Based on the cellular automaton traffic flow model and the concept of public transport priority, a two-lane traffic model with an intermittent bus lane is proposed and the properties of urban traffic flow are studied. The cases of traffic with a dedicated bus lane (DBL), an intermittent bus lane (IBL) and an ordinary two-lane traffic are simulated, and comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams and the velocity-density profiles are made between them. It is shown that the DBL has the advantage of freeing buses from traffic interference and also has the disadvantage of disrupting traffic, the IBL is more efficient in improving the bus flow than ordinary two-lane traffic and maintaining the car flow at a higher level at the same time than the DBL, while the ordinary two-lane traffic suppresses public transportation and is not advantageous in easing urban traffic congestion. Also it is indicated that the DBL is only appropriate for low traffic flow in a two-lane traffic system, and this limitation can be partly overcome by opening the bus lane to general traffic intermittently when the bus lane is not in use by buses.

  11. IXPE: The Imaging X-ray Polarimetry Explorer, Implementing a Dedicated Polarimetry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Only a few experiments have conducted x-ray polarimetry of cosmic sources since Weisskopf et al confirmed the 19% polarization of the Crab Nebula with the Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-8) in the 70's center dot The challenge is to measure a faint polarized component against a background of non-polarized signal (as well as the other, typical background components) center dot Typically, for a few % minimum detectable polarization, 106 photons are required. center dot So, a dedicated mission is vital with instruments that are designed specifically to measure polarization (with minimal systematic effects) Over the proposed mission life (2- 3 years), IXPE will first survey representative samples of several categories of targets: magnetars, isolated pulsars, pulsar wind nebula and supernova remnants, microquasars, active galaxies etc. The survey results will guide detailed follow-up observations. Precise calibration of IXPE is vital to ensuring sensitivity goals are met. The detectors will be characterized in Italy, and then a full calibration of the complete instrument will be performed at MSFC's stray light facility. Polarized flux at different energies Heritage: X-ray Optics at MSFC polarimetry mission.

  12. SPEMT imaging with a dedicated VAoR dual-head camera: preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarda, M.; Belcari, N.; Del Guerra, A.; Vecchio, S.; Bennati, P.; Cinti, M. N.; Pani, R.; Campanini, R.; Iampieri, E.; Lanconelli, N.

    2009-10-01

    We have developed a SPEMT (Single Photon Emission MammoTomography) scanner that is made up of two cameras rotating around the pendulous breast of the prone patient, in Vertical Axis of Rotation (VAoR) geometry. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the device should be able to detect tumours of 8 mm diameter with a tumour/background uptake ratio of 5:1. The scanner field of view is 41.6 mm height and 147 mm in diameter. Each head is composed of one pixilated NaI(Tl) crystal matrix coupled to three Hamamatsu H8500 64-anodes PMT's read out via resistive networks. A dedicated software has been developed to combine data from different PMT's, thus recovering the dead areas between adjacent tubes. A single head has been fully characterized in stationary configuration both in active and dead areas using a point-like source in order to verify the effectiveness of the readout method in recovering the dead regions. The scanner has been installed at the Nuclear Medicine Division of the University of Pisa for its validation using breast phantoms. The very first tomographic images of a breast phantom show a good agreement with Monte Carlo simulation results.

  13. Bacterial Nitric-oxide Synthases Operate without a Dedicated Redox Partner*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Gusarov, Ivan; Starodubtseva, Marina; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; McQuade, Lindsey; Lippard, Stephen J.; Stuehr, Dennis J.; Nudler, Evgeny

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial nitric-oxide (NO) synthases (bNOSs) are smaller than their mammalian counterparts. They lack an essential reductase domain that supplies electrons during NO biosynthesis. This and other structural peculiarities have raised doubts about whether bNOSs were capable of producing NO in vivo. Here we demonstrate that bNOS enzymes from Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus anthracis do indeed produce NO in living cells and accomplish this task by hijacking available cellular redox partners that are not normally committed to NO production. These “promiscuous” bacterial reductases also support NO synthesis by the oxygenase domain of mammalian NOS expressed in Escherichia coli. Our results suggest that bNOS is an early precursor of eukaryotic NOS and that it acquired its dedicated reductase domain later in evolution. This work also suggests that alternatively spliced forms of mammalian NOSs lacking their reductase domains could still be functional in vivo. On a practical side, bNOS-containing probiotic bacteria offer a unique advantage over conventional chemical NO donors in generating continuous, readily controllable physiological levels of NO, suggesting a possibility of utilizing such live NO donors for research and clinical needs. PMID:18316370

  14. The impact of a dedicated physiotherapist clinic for children with dysfunctional breathing.

    PubMed

    Barker, Nicola J; Elphick, Heather; Everard, Mark L

    2016-07-01

    Dysfunctional breathing is a significant cause of morbidity, adversely affecting an individual's quality of life. There is currently no data from paediatric centres on the impact of breathing retraining for dysfunctional breathing. Symptoms and quality of life were measured in 34 subjects referred sequentially for breathing retraining to the first dedicated paediatric dysfunctional breathing clinic in the UK. Data were obtained prior to the first intervention (time point 1), at discharge (time point 2) and by post 6 months later (time point 3). The mean (interquartile range) age of participants was 13.3 (9.1-16.3) years, with 52% female. Data were obtained at time points 2 and 3 in 23 and 13 subjects, respectively. Statistically significant improvements were observed in symptom scores, child quality of life and parental proxy quality of life between time points 1 and 2 (p<0.0001), while there was no significant difference in the data at time point 3 as compared with time point 2. This study suggests that physiotherapist-led breathing retraining offers significant benefit to young people with dysfunctional breathing which is maintained for at least 6 months after treatment is completed. Future studies will provide more information on the long-term effects of interventions for dysfunctional breathing.

  15. A dedicated ion trap at CARIBU for beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Barbara; Scielzo, N. D.; Norman, E. B.; Savard, G.; Clark, J. A.; Levand, A. F.; Aprahamian, A.; Burkey, M.; Caldwell, S.; Czeszumska, A.; Marley, S. T.; Morgan, G. E.; Nystrom, A.; Orford, R.; Padgett, S. W.; Perez Galvan, A.; Sharma, K. S.; Siegl, K.; Strauss, S.

    2015-10-01

    Trapped radioactive ions suspended in vacuum allow for a new way to perform beta-delayed neutron spectroscopy. Decay branching ratios and energy spectra of the emitted neutrons are inferred from a measurement of the nuclear recoil, thereby circumventing the many limitations associated with direct neutron detection. Plans for the development of a dedicated ion trap for experiments using the intense fission fragment beams from the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne National Laboratory are summarized. The trap design has been guided by experience gained from recent ion-trap experiments measuring 137 - 138 , 140I, 134-136Sb, and 144-145Cs. The improved nuclear data that can be collected are needed in many fields of basic and applied science such as nuclear energy, nuclear astrophysics, and stockpile stewardship. Supported by NSF under Grant Number PHY-1419765 and by U.S. DOE under the Nuclear Energy University Program Project Number 13-5485, Contract Numbers DE-AC02-06CH11357 (ANL) and DE-AC52-07NA27344 (LLNL), and Award Number DE-NA0000979 (NNSA).

  16. Glutamine methylation in histone H2A is an RNA-polymerase-I-dedicated modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessarz, Peter; Santos-Rosa, Helena; Robson, Sam C.; Sylvestersen, Kathrine B.; Nelson, Christopher J.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Kouzarides, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Nucleosomes are decorated with numerous post-translational modifications capable of influencing many DNA processes. Here we describe a new class of histone modification, methylation of glutamine, occurring on yeast histone H2A at position 105 (Q105) and human H2A at Q104. We identify Nop1 as the methyltransferase in yeast and demonstrate that fibrillarin is the orthologue enzyme in human cells. Glutamine methylation of H2A is restricted to the nucleolus. Global analysis in yeast, using an H2AQ105me-specific antibody, shows that this modification is exclusively enriched over the 35S ribosomal DNA transcriptional unit. We show that the Q105 residue is part of the binding site for the histone chaperone FACT (facilitator of chromatin transcription) complex. Methylation of Q105 or its substitution to alanine disrupts binding to FACT in vitro. A yeast strain mutated at Q105 shows reduced histone incorporation and increased transcription at the ribosomal DNA locus. These features are phenocopied by mutations in FACT complex components. Together these data identify glutamine methylation of H2A as the first histone epigenetic mark dedicated to a specific RNA polymerase and define its function as a regulator of FACT interaction with nucleosomes.

  17. A dedicated on-line detecting system for auto air dryers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chao-yu; Luo, Zai

    2013-10-01

    According to the correlative automobile industry standard and the requirements of manufacturer, this dedicated on-line detecting system is designed against the shortage of low degree automatic efficiency and detection precision of auto air dryer in the domestic. Fast automatic detection is achieved by combining the technology of computer control, mechatronics and pneumatics. This system can detect the speciality performance of pressure regulating valve and sealability of auto air dryer, in which online analytical processing of test data is available, at the same time, saving and inquiring data is achieved. Through some experimental analysis, it is indicated that efficient and accurate detection of the performance of auto air dryer is realized, and the test errors are less than 3%. Moreover, we carry out the type A evaluation of uncertainty in test data based on Bayesian theory, and the results show that the test uncertainties of all performance parameters are less than 0.5kPa, which can meet the requirements of operating industrial site absolutely.

  18. WE-FG-207A-01: Introduction to Dedicated Breast CT - Early Studies.

    PubMed

    Vedantham, S

    2016-06-01

    Mammography-based screening has been a valuable imaging tool for the early detection of non-palpable lesions and has contributed to significant reduction in breast cancer associated mortality. However, the breast imaging community recognizes that mammography is not ideal, and in particular is inferior for women with dense breasts. Also, the 2-D projection of a 3-D organ results in tissue superposition contributing to false-positives. The sensitivity of mammography is breast-density dependent. Its sensitivity, especially in dense breasts, is low due to overlapping tissue and the fact that normal breast tissue, benign lesions and breast cancers all have similar "densities", making lesion detection more difficult. We ideally need 3-D imaging for imaging the 3-D breast. MRI is 3-D, whole breast ultrasound is 3-D, digital breast tomosynthesis is called 3-D but is really "pseudo 3-D" due to poor resolution along the depth-direction. Also, and importantly, we need to be able to administer intravenous contrast agents for optimal imaging, similar to other organ systems in the body. Dedicated breast CT allows for 3-D imaging of the uncompressed breast. In current designs, the patient is positioned prone on the table and the breast is pendant through an aperture and the scan takes approximately 10 seconds [O'Connell et al., AJR 195: 496-509, 2010]. Almost on the heels of the invention of CT itself, work began on the development of dedicated breast CT. These early breast CT systems were used in clinical trials and the results from comparative performance evaluation of breast CT and mammography for 1625 subjects were reported in 1980 [Chang et al., Cancer 46: 939-46, 1980]. However, the technological limitations at that time stymied clinical translation for decades. Subsequent to the landmark article in 2001 [Boone et al., Radiology 221: 657-67, 2001] that demonstrated the potential feasibility in terms of radiation dose, multiple research groups are actively investigating

  19. WE-FG-207A-00: Advances in Dedicated Breast CT.

    PubMed

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Molloi, Sabee

    2016-06-01

    Mammography-based screening has been a valuable imaging tool for the early detection of non-palpable lesions and has contributed to significant reduction in breast cancer associated mortality. However, the breast imaging community recognizes that mammography is not ideal, and in particular is inferior for women with dense breasts. Also, the 2-D projection of a 3-D organ results in tissue superposition contributing to false-positives. The sensitivity of mammography is breast-density dependent. Its sensitivity, especially in dense breasts, is low due to overlapping tissue and the fact that normal breast tissue, benign lesions and breast cancers all have similar "densities", making lesion detection more difficult. We ideally need 3-D imaging for imaging the 3-D breast. MRI is 3-D, whole breast ultrasound is 3-D, digital breast tomosynthesis is called 3-D but is really "pseudo 3-D" due to poor resolution along the depth-direction. Also, and importantly, we need to be able to administer intravenous contrast agents for optimal imaging, similar to other organ systems in the body. Dedicated breast CT allows for 3-D imaging of the uncompressed breast. In current designs, the patient is positioned prone on the table and the breast is pendant through an aperture and the scan takes approximately 10 seconds [O'Connell et al., AJR 195: 496-509, 2010]. Almost on the heels of the invention of CT itself, work began on the development of dedicated breast CT. These early breast CT systems were used in clinical trials and the results from comparative performance evaluation of breast CT and mammography for 1625 subjects were reported in 1980 [Chang et al., Cancer 46: 939-46, 1980]. However, the technological limitations at that time stymied clinical translation for decades. Subsequent to the landmark article in 2001 [Boone et al., Radiology 221: 657-67, 2001] that demonstrated the potential feasibility in terms of radiation dose, multiple research groups are actively investigating

  20. Quantitative density profiling with pure phase encoding and a dedicated 1D gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, K.; MacMillan, M. B.; Ouriadov, A. V.; Mastikhin, I. V.; Young, J. J.; Glover, P. M.; Ziegler, G. R.; Balcom, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    A new centric scan imaging methodology for density profiling of materials with short transverse relaxation times is presented. This method is shown to be more robust than our previously reported centric scan pure phase encode methodologies. The method is particularly well suited to density imaging of low gyro-magnetic ratio non-proton nuclei through the use of a novel dedicated one-dimensional magnetic field gradient coil. The design and construction of this multi-layer, water cooled, gradient coil is presented. Although of large diameter (7.62 cm) to maximize sample cross section, the gradient coil has an efficiency of several times that offered by conventional designs (6 mT/m/A). The application of these ideas is illustrated with high resolution density-weighted proton ( 1H) images of hazelnut oil penetration into chocolate, and lithium ion ( 7Li) penetration into cement paste. The methods described in this paper provide a straightforward and reliable means for imaging a class of samples that, until now, have been very difficult to image.

  1. New CMOS digital pixel sensor architecture dedicated to a visual cortical implant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trépanier, Annie; Trépanier, Jean-Luc; Sawan, Mohamad; Audet, Yves

    2004-10-01

    A CMOS image sensor with pixel level analog to digital conversion is presented. Each 16μm x 16μm pixel area contains a photodiode, with a fill factor of 22%, a comparator and an 8-bit DRAM, resulting in a total of 44 transistors per pixel. A digital to analog converter is used to deliver a voltage reference to compare with the pixel voltage for the analog to digital conversion. This sensor is required by a visual cortical stimulator, primarily to capture the image which is dedicated to stimulate the visual cortex of a blind patient. An active range finder system will be added to the implant, requiring the difference information between two images, in order to obtain the 3D information useful to the patient. For this purpose, three selectable operation modes are combined in the same pixel circuit. The linear integration, resulting from image capture at multiple exposure times, allows a high intrascene dynamic range. Random accessibility, in space and time, of the array of sensors is possible with the logarithmic mode. And the new differential mode makes the difference between two consecutive images. The circuit of a pixel has been fabricated in CMOS 0.18μm technology and it is under test to validate the full operation of the 3 modes. Also, a matrix of 45 x 90 pixels is currently being implemented for fabrication.

  2. The Mediterranean Decision Support System for Marine Safety dedicated to oil slicks predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, G.; De Dominicis, M.; Perivoliotis, L.; Radhakrishnan, H.; Georgoudis, E.; Sotillo, M.; Lardner, R. W.; Krokos, G.; Bruciaferri, D.; Clementi, E.; Guarnieri, A.; Ribotti, A.; Drago, A.; Bourma, E.; Padorno, E.; Daniel, P.; Gonzalez, G.; Chazot, C.; Gouriou, V.; Kremer, X.; Sofianos, S.; Tintore, J.; Garreau, P.; Pinardi, N.; Coppini, G.; Lecci, R.; Pisano, A.; Sorgente, R.; Fazioli, L.; Soloviev, D.; Stylianou, S.; Nikolaidis, A.; Panayidou, X.; Karaolia, A.; Gauci, A.; Marcati, A.; Caiazzo, L.; Mancini, M.

    2016-11-01

    In the Mediterranean sea the risk from oil spill pollution is high due to the heavy traffic of merchant vessels for transporting oil and gas, especially after the recent enlargement of the Suez canal and to the increasing coastal and offshore installations related to the oil industry in general. The basic response to major oil spills includes different measures and equipment. However, in order to strengthen the maritime safety related to oil spill pollution in the Mediterranean and to assist the response agencies, a multi-model oil spill prediction service has been set up, known as MEDESS-4MS (Mediterranean Decision Support System for Marine Safety). The concept behind the MEDESS-4MS service is the integration of the existing national ocean forecasting systems in the region with the Copernicus Marine Environmental Monitoring Service (CMEMS) and their interconnection, through a dedicated network data repository, facilitating access to all these data and to the data from the oil spill monitoring platforms, including the satellite data ones, with the well established oil spill models in the region. The MEDESS-4MS offer a range of service scenarios, multi-model data access and interactive capabilities to suite the needs of REMPEC (Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Centre for the Mediterranean Sea) and EMSA-CSN (European Maritime Safety Agency-CleanseaNet).

  3. 47 CFR 69.709 - Dedicated transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer... services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises, determined as... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dedicated transport and special access...

  4. 47 CFR 69.709 - Dedicated transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer... services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises, determined as... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dedicated transport and special access...

  5. 47 CFR 69.709 - Dedicated transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer... services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises, determined as... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dedicated transport and special access...

  6. 47 CFR 69.709 - Dedicated transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer... services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises, determined as... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dedicated transport and special access...

  7. 47 CFR 69.709 - Dedicated transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transport and special access services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer... services other than channel terminations between LEC end offices and customer premises, determined as... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dedicated transport and special access...

  8. Potential land competition between open-pond microalgae production and terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Langholtz, Matthew H.; Coleman, Andre M.; Eaton, Laurence M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Hellwinckel, Chad M.; Brandt, Craig C.

    2016-08-01

    Biofuels produced from both terrestrial and algal biomass feedstocks can contribute to energy security while providing economic, environmental, and social benefits. To assess the potential for land competition between these two feedstock types in the United States, we evaluate a scenario in which 41.5 x 109 L yr-1 of second-generation biofuels are produced on pastureland, the most likely land base where both feedstock types may be deployed. This total includes 12.0 x 109 L yr-1 of biofuels from open-pond microalgae production and 29.5 x 109 L yr-1 of biofuels from terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems. Under these scenarios, open-pond microalgae production is projected to use 1.2 million ha of private pastureland, while terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems would use 14.0 million ha of private pastureland. A spatial meta-analysis indicates that potential competition for land under these scenarios would be concentrated in 110 counties, containing 1.0 and 1.7 million hectares of algal and terrestrial dedicated feedstock production, respectively. A land competition index applied to these 110 counties suggests that 38 to 59 counties could experience competition for upwards of 40% of a county’s pastureland. However, this combined 2.7 million ha represents only 2%-5% of total pastureland in the U.S., with the remaining 12.5 million ha of algal or terrestrial dedicated feedstock production on pastureland in non-competing areas.

  9. Dedicated energy crops and crop residues for bioenergy feedstocks in the Central and Eastern U.S.A.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dedicated energy crops and crop residues will meet herbaceous feedstock demands for the new bioeconomy in the Central and Eastern USA. Perennial warm-season grasses and corn stover are well-suited to the eastern half of the USA and provide opportunities for expanding agricultural operations in the r...

  10. The roles of constraint-based and dedication-based influences on user's continued online shopping behavior.

    PubMed

    Chang, Su-Chao; Chou, Chi-Min

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine empirically the role of constraint-based and dedication-based influences as drivers of the intention to continue using online shopping websites. Constraint-based influences consist of two variables: trust and perceived switching costs. Dedication-based influences consist of three variables: satisfaction, perceived usefulness, and trust. The current results indicate that both constraint-based and dedication-based influences are important drivers of the intention to continue using online shopping websites. The data also shows that trust has the strongest total effect on online shoppers' intention to continue using online shopping websites. In addition, the results indicate that the antecedents of constraint-based influences, technical bonds (e.g., perceived operational competence and perceived website interactivity) and social bonds (e.g., perceived relationship investment, community building, and intimacy) have indirect positive effects on the intention to continue using online shopping websites. Based on these findings, this research suggests that online shopping websites should build constraint-based and dedication-based influences to enhance user's continued online shopping behaviors simultaneously.

  11. TU-EF-207-05: Dedicated Cone-beam Breast CT

    SciTech Connect

    Vedantham, S.

    2015-06-15

    mode due to lower photon fluence per projection. This may require fast-frame acquisition and symmetric or asymmetric pixel binning in some systems. Recent studies investigated the performance of increased conversion layer thickness for contrast-enhanced imaging of the breast in dual-energy acquisition mode. In other direct conversion detectors operating in the avalanche mode, sensitivities close to the single photon response are also explored for mammography and breast tomosynthesis. The potential advantages and challenges of this approach are described. Dedicated breast CT brings x-ray imaging of the breast to true tomographic 3D imaging. It can eliminate the tissue superposition problem and does not require physical compression of the breast. Using cone beam geometry and a flat-panel detector, several hundred projections are acquired and reconstructed to near isotropic voxels. Multiplanar reconstruction facilitates viewing the breast volume in any desired orientation. Ongoing clinical studies, the current state-of-the art, and research to advance the technology are described. Learning Objectives: To understand the ongoing developments in x-ray imaging of the breast To understand the approaches and applications of spectral mammography To understand the potential advantages of distributed x-ray source arrays for digital breast tomosynthesis To understand the ongoing developments in detector technology for digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis To understand the current state-of-the-art for dedicated cone-beam breast CT and research to advance the technology. Research collaboration with Koning Corporation.

  12. MULTIMERMAID: A dedicated multichannel seismic/weather/zoological float for monitoring of the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hello, Y. M.; Bonnieux, S.; Joubert, C.; Sukhovich, A.; Argentino, J.; Yegikyan, M.; Nolet, G.

    2013-12-01

    Delays of seismic P waves are used to make scans or 3D images of the variations in seismic wave speed in the Earth's interior using the techniques of seismic tomography. Observations of such delays are ubiquitous on the continents but rare in oceanic regions, mostly because of the large cost associated with deploying ocean-bottom seismometers. At the same time, several thousand free-drifting profiling floats measure the temperature, salinity and current of the upper 2000 m of the ocean in the Argo program, but are incapable to record and transmit seismic signals. Simons et al. (JGR, 2009) developed the idea to use such floats in order to compensate for the lack of seismic delay observations, especially in the southern hemisphere. We built and tested a prototype of such a seismological sensor using an Apex float from Teledyne Webb Research, a Rafos hydrophone, and electronics developed in collaboration with Osean, a small engineering firm in France. This `MERMAID', for `Mobile Earthquake Recorder in Marine Areas by Independent Divers', has concluded its final design stage and a fleet of 20 units is available for experiments. Since 2012, half of these floats have been deployed in the Mediterranean and in the South Indian Ocean. 10 more will be deployed early in 2014 near the Galapagos islands in the Pacific. Analysis of the first data is allowing us to sharpen the wavelet-based algorithm parameters used to discriminate P-waves from the continuous input signal and adapt it to specific noise conditions. A new multidisciplinary version of Mermaid using a dedicated hydrophone is designed to enlarge the band pass for acoustic signals with much higher frequency than seismic. By combining the same algorithm using wavelet transforms, and by adopting a different monitoring strategy with a dedicated processing, Mermaid is able to continuously analyzes acoustic signals to detect major seismic events, while at the same time regularly checking for weather phenomena such rain

  13. Radiation protection measurements around a 12 MeV mobile dedicated IORT accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Soriani, Antonella; Felici, Giuseppe; Fantini, Mario; Paolucci, Massimiliano; Borla, Oscar; Evangelisti, Giovanna; Benassi, Marcello; Strigari, Lidia

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate radioprotection issues that must be addressed when dedicated accelerators for intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) are used in operating rooms. Recently, a new version of a mobile IORT accelerator (LIAC Sordina SpA, Italy) with 12 MeV electron beam has been implemented. This energy is necessary in some specific pathology treatments to allow a better coverage of thick lesions. At an electron energy of 10 MeV, leakage and scattered x-ray radiation (stray radiation) coming from the accelerator device and patient must be considered. If the energy is greater than 10 MeV, the x-ray component will increase; however, the most meaningful change should be the addition of neutron background. Therefore, radiation exposure of personnel during the IORT procedure needs to be carefully evaluated. Methods: In this study, stray x-ray radiation was measured and characterized in a series of spherical projections by means of an ion chamber survey meter. To simulate the patient during all measurements, a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) slab phantom with volume 30x30x15 cm{sup 3} and density 1.19 g/cm{sup 3} was used. The PMMA phantom was placed along the central axis of the beam in order to absorb the electron beams and the tenth value layer (TVL) and half value layer (HVL) of scattered radiation (at 0 deg., 90 deg., and 180 deg. scattering angles) were also measured at 1 m of distance from the phantom center. Neutron measurements were performed using passive bubble dosimeters and a neutron probe, specially designed to evaluate ambient dose equivalent H{sup *}(10). Results: The x-ray equivalent dose measured at 1 m along the beam axis at 12 MeV was 260 {mu}Sv/Gy. The value measured at 1 m at 90 deg. scattering angle was 25 {mu}Sv/Gy. The HVL and TVL values were 1.1 and 3.5 cm of lead at 0 deg., and 0.4 and 1 cm at 90 deg., respectively. The highest equivalent dose of fast neutrons was found to be at the surface of the phantom on the central

  14. Conceptual design of an 8 Tesla superconducting wiggler for a dedicated digital subtraction angiography source

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, E.B.

    1993-09-01

    One of the most important techniques used to diagnose heart disease is coronary angiography. Coronary angiography is only used when it is absolutely essential because of the risk of fatalities and other serious complications arising from the insertion of the catheter. The technique also exposes the patients to large amounts of x-rays. Research, begun at SSRL and continued on the X17 beam line at NSLS, demonstrated the feasibility of imaging human coronary arteries following venous injection of the contrast agent. The technique, caged digital subtraction angiography (DSA), uses two monochromatic beams of x-rays, one slightly above and one slightly below the iodine K absorption edge (33.169 KeV) to collect simultaneous images. When the two images are subtracted, the contrast agent, contained primarily in the blood vessels, is revealed and the background that is common to both images is suppressed. The images must be collected during a single heartbeat to avoid blurring from motion of the blood vessels. Conventional x-ray sources are too weak to provide the intense flux that is required in the narrow energy bandwidth of the beams. Only the most powerful synchrotron radiation beams from wiggler magnet sources can provide the intensity required in the short exposure time. Although DSA experiments have shown promise, they have been conducted at large, research synchrotron radiation facilities. A small, dedicated source will be needed before DSA can be used as a standard medical procedure. Such x-ray sources as laser backscattering, Cherenkov radiation, parametric x-radiation, and channeling radiation have been suggested for hospital based DSA sources but none of them appear to produce enough flux to be useful. Barring the discovery of a new source of intense x-rays, only synchrotron radiation seems to meet the requirements for DSA. This report briefly describes the preliminary design of a high field, superconducting wiggler magnet that can be used as a DSA source.

  15. Advances in 4D Treatment Planning for Scanned Particle Beam Therapy — Report of Dedicated Workshops

    PubMed Central

    Bert, Christoph; Graeff, Christian; Riboldi, Marco; Nill, Simeon; Baroni, Guido; Knopf, Antje-Christin

    2014-01-01

    We report on recent progress in the field of mobile tumor treatment with scanned particle beams, as discussed in the latest editions of the 4D treatment planning workshop. The workshop series started in 2009, with about 20 people from 4 research institutes involved, all actively working on particle therapy delivery and development. The first workshop resulted in a summary of recommendations for the treatment of mobile targets, along with a list of requirements to apply these guidelines clinically. The increased interest in the treatment of mobile tumors led to a continuously growing number of attendees: the 2012 edition counted more than 60 participants from 20 institutions and commercial vendors. The focus of research discussions among workshop participants progressively moved from 4D treatment planning to complete 4D treatments, aiming at effective and safe treatment delivery. Current research perspectives on 4D treatments include all critical aspects of time resolved delivery, such as in-room imaging, motion detection, beam application, and quality assurance techniques. This was motivated by the start of first clinical treatments of hepato cellular tumors with a scanned particle beam, relying on gating or abdominal compression for motion mitigation. Up to date research activities emphasize significant efforts in investigating advanced motion mitigation techniques, with a specific interest in the development of dedicated tools for experimental validation. Potential improvements will be made possible in the near future through 4D optimized treatment plans that require upgrades of the currently established therapy control systems for time resolved delivery. But since also these novel optimization techniques rely on the validity of the 4DCT, research focusing on alternative 4D imaging technique, such as MRI based 4DCT generation will continue. PMID:24354749

  16. A dedicated database system for handling multi-level data in systems biology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advances in high-throughput technologies have enabled extensive generation of multi-level omics data. These data are crucial for systems biology research, though they are complex, heterogeneous, highly dynamic, incomplete and distributed among public databases. This leads to difficulties in data accessibility and often results in errors when data are merged and integrated from varied resources. Therefore, integration and management of systems biological data remain very challenging. Methods To overcome this, we designed and developed a dedicated database system that can serve and solve the vital issues in data management and hereby facilitate data integration, modeling and analysis in systems biology within a sole database. In addition, a yeast data repository was implemented as an integrated database environment which is operated by the database system. Two applications were implemented to demonstrate extensibility and utilization of the system. Both illustrate how the user can access the database via the web query function and implemented scripts. These scripts are specific for two sample cases: 1) Detecting the pheromone pathway in protein interaction networks; and 2) Finding metabolic reactions regulated by Snf1 kinase. Results and conclusion In this study we present the design of database system which offers an extensible environment to efficiently capture the majority of biological entities and relations encountered in systems biology. Critical functions and control processes were designed and implemented to ensure consistent, efficient, secure and reliable transactions. The two sample cases on the yeast integrated data clearly demonstrate the value of a sole database environment for systems biology research. PMID:25053973

  17. Development of Agave as a dedicated biomass source: production of biofuels from whole plants

    DOE PAGES

    Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Rodriguez, Jr, Miguel; Thompson, Olivia A; ...

    2015-01-01

    Background: Agave species can grow well in semi-arid marginal agricultural lands around the world. Selected Agave species are used largely for alcoholic beverage production in Mexico. There are expanding research efforts to use the plentiful residues (bagasse) for ethanol production as the beverage manufacturing process only uses the juice from the central core of mature plants. Here we investigate the potential of over a dozen Agave species, including three from cold semi-arid regions of the United States, to produce biofuels using the whole plant. Results: Ethanol was readily produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from hydrolysate of ten whole Agaves with themore » use of a proper blend of biomass degrading enzymes that overcomes toxicity of most of the species tested. Unlike yeast fermentations, Clostridium beijerinckii produced butanol plus acetone from nine species tested. Butyric acid, a precursor of butanol, was also present due to incomplete conversion during the screening process. Since Agave contains high levels of free and poly-fructose which are readily destroyed by acidic pretreatment, a two step process was used developed to depolymerized poly-fructose while maintaining its fermentability. The hydrolysate from before and after dilute acid processing was used in C. beijerinckii acetone and butanol fermentations with selected Agave species. Conclusions: Results have shown Agave s potential to be a source of fermentable sugars beyond the existing beverage species to now include species previously unfermentable by yeast, including cold tolerant lines. This development may stimulate development of Agave as a dedicated feedstock for biofuels in semi-arid regions throughout the globe.« less

  18. Design considerations for a limited angle, dedicated breast, TOF PET scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surti, S.; Karp, J. S.

    2008-06-01

    Development of partial ring, dedicated breast positron emission tomography (PET) scanners is an active area of research. Due to the limited angular coverage, generation of distortion and artifact-free, fully 3D tomographic images is not possible without rotation of the detectors. With time-of-flight (TOF) information, it is possible to achieve the 3D tomographic images with limited angular coverage and without detector rotation. We performed simulations for a breast scanner design with a ring diameter and an axial length of 15 cm and comprising a full (180° in-plane angular coverage), 2/3 (120° in-plane angular coverage) or 1/2 (90° in-plane angular coverage) ring detector. Our results show that as the angular coverage decreases, improved timing resolution is needed to achieve distortion-free and artifact-free images with TOF. The contrast recovery coefficient (CRC) value for small hot lesions in a partial ring scanner is similar to a full ring non-TOF scanner. Our results indicate that a timing resolution of 600 ps is needed for a 2/3 ring scanner, while a timing resolution of 300 ps is needed for a 1/2 ring scanner. We also analyzed the ratio of lesion CRC to the background pixel noise (SNR) and concluded that TOF improves the SNR values of the partial ring scanner, and helps to compensate for the loss in sensitivity due to reduced geometric sensitivity in a limited angle coverage PET scanner. In particular, it is possible to maintain similar SNR characteristic in a 2/3 ring scanner with a timing resolution of 300 ps as in a full ring non-TOF scanner.

  19. Experimental in vivo measurements of light emission in plants: a perspective dedicated to David Walker.

    PubMed

    Kalaji, Hazem M; Goltsev, Vasilij; Bosa, Karolina; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Strasser, Reto J; Govindjee

    2012-12-01

    This review is dedicated to David Walker (1928-2012), a pioneer in the field of photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence. We begin this review by presenting the history of light emission studies, from the ancient times. Light emission from plants is of several kinds: prompt fluorescence (PF), delayed fluorescence (DF), thermoluminescence, and phosphorescence. In this article, we focus on PF and DF. Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements have been used for more than 80 years to study photosynthesis, particularly photosystem II (PSII) since 1961. This technique has become a regular trusted probe in agricultural and biological research. Many measured and calculated parameters are good biomarkers or indicators of plant tolerance to different abiotic and biotic stressors. This would never have been possible without the rapid development of new fluorometers. To date, most of these instruments are based mainly on two different operational principles for measuring variable chlorophyll a fluorescence: (1) a PF signal produced following a pulse-amplitude-modulated excitation and (2) a PF signal emitted during a strong continuous actinic excitation. In addition to fluorometers, other instruments have been developed to measure additional signals, such as DF, originating from PSII, and light-induced absorbance changes due to the photooxidation of P700, from PSI, measured as the absorption decrease (photobleaching) at about 705 nm, or increase at 820 nm. In this review, the technical and theoretical basis of newly developed instruments, allowing for simultaneous measurement of the PF and the DF as well as other parameters is discussed. Special emphasis has been given to a description of comparative measurements on PF and DF. However, DF has been discussed in greater details, since it is much less used and less known than PF, but has a great potential to provide useful qualitative new information on the back reactions of PSII electron transfer. A review concerning the history

  20. Dedicated vertical wind tunnel for the study of sedimentation of non-spherical particles.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, G H; Bonadonna, C; Manzella, I; Pontelandolfo, P; Haas, P

    2013-05-01

    A dedicated 4-m-high vertical wind tunnel has been designed and constructed at the University of Geneva in collaboration with the Groupe de compétence en mécanique des fluides et procédés énergétiques. With its diverging test section, the tunnel is designed to study the aero-dynamical behavior of non-spherical particles with terminal velocities between 5 and 27 ms(-1). A particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) code is developed to calculate drag coefficient of particles in standard conditions based on the real projected area of the particles. Results of our wind tunnel and PTV code are validated by comparing drag coefficient of smooth spherical particles and cylindrical particles to existing literature. Experiments are repeatable with average relative standard deviation of 1.7%. Our preliminary experiments on the effect of particle to fluid density ratio on drag coefficient of cylindrical particles show that the drag coefficient of freely suspended particles in air is lower than those measured in water or in horizontal wind tunnels. It is found that increasing aspect ratio of cylindrical particles reduces their secondary motions and they tend to be suspended with their maximum area normal to the airflow. The use of the vertical wind tunnel in combination with the PTV code provides a reliable and precise instrument for measuring drag coefficient of freely moving particles of various shapes. Our ultimate goal is the study of sedimentation and aggregation of volcanic particles (density between 500 and 2700 kgm(-3)) but the wind tunnel can be used in a wide range of applications.

  1. PET characteristics of a dedicated breast PET/CT scanner prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yibao; Bowen, Spencer L.; Yang, Kai; Packard, Nathan; Fu, Lin; Burkett, George Jr; Qi, Jinyi; Boone, John M.; Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2009-07-01

    A dedicated breast PET/CT system has been constructed at our institution, with the goal of having increased spatial resolution and sensitivity compared to whole-body systems. The purpose of this work is to describe the design and the performance characteristics of the PET component of this device. Average spatial resolution of a line source in warm background using maximum a posteriori (MAP) reconstruction was 2.5 mm, while the average spatial resolution of a phantom containing point sources using filtered back projection (FBP) was 3.27 mm. A sensitivity profile was computed with a point source translated across the axial field of view (FOV) and a peak sensitivity of 1.64% was measured at the center of the FOV. The average energy resolution determined on a per-crystal basis was 25%. The characteristic dead time for the front-end electronics and data acquisition (DAQ) was determined to be 145 ns and 3.6 µs, respectively. With no activity outside the FOV, a peak noise-equivalent count rate of 18.6 kcps was achieved at 318 µCi (11.766 MBq) in a cylindrical phantom of diameter 75 mm. After the effects of exposing PET detectors to x-ray flux were evaluated and ameliorated, a combined PET/CT scan was performed. The percentage standard deviations of uniformity along axial and transaxial directions were 3.7% and 2.8%, respectively. The impact of the increased reconstructed spatial resolution compared to typical whole-body PET scanners is currently being assessed in a clinical trial.

  2. Characteristics of a dedicated linear accelerator-based stereotactic radiosurgery-radiotherapy unit.

    PubMed

    Das, I J; Downes, M B; Corn, B W; Curran, W J; Werner-Wasik, M; Andrews, D W

    1996-01-01

    A stereotactic radiosurgery and radiotherapy (SRS/SRT) system on a dedicated Varian Clinac-600SR linear accelerator with Brown-Roberts-Wells and Gill-Thomas-Cosman relocatable frames along with the Radionics (RSA) planning system is evaluated. The Clinac-600SR has a single 6-MV beam with the same beam characteristics as that of the mother unit, the Clinac-600C. The primary collimator is a fixed cone projecting to a 10-cm diameter at isocenter. The secondary collimator is a heavily shielded cylindrical collimator attached to the face plate of the primary collimator. The tertiary collimation consists of the actual treatment cones. The cone sizes vary from 12.5 to 40.0 mm diameter. The mechanical stability of the entire system was verified. The variations in isocenter position with table, gantry, and collimator rotation were found to be < 0.5 mm with a compounded accuracy of < or = 1.0 mm. The radiation leakage under the cones was < 1% measured at a depth of 5 cm in a phantom. The beam profiles of all cones in the x and y directions were within +/- 0.5 mm and match with the physical size of the cone. The dosimetric data such as tissue maximum ratio, off-axis ratio, and cone factor were taken using film, diamond detector, and ion chambers. The mechanical and dosimetric characteristics including dose linearity of this unit are presented and found to be suitable for SRS/SRT. The difficulty in absolute dose measurement for small cone is discussed.

  3. Motion detection and amelioration in a dedicated cardiac solid-state CZT SPECT device.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, John A; William Strauss, H

    2017-04-01

    A solid-state cadmium zinc tellurium (CZT) dedicated multipinhole cardiac camera which acquires all views simultaneously has been introduced for myocardial SPECT acquisition. We report a method to detect and ameliorate patient motion artifacts in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) studies recorded with this device. To detect motion, a myocardial phantom study was recorded, and at mid-scan, the phantom was moved stepwise along each of 6 orthogonal directions, causing MPI artifacts. Using QPS software (Cedars-Sinai) and an in-house normal database, displacements giving artifactual perfusion defects (total perfusion deficit score, TPD, >5 %) were all 1.5 cm or greater (11.2 ± 1.3 % for 1.5 cm). List mode data were reframed into 10-s steps, and the norm of the changes in center of mass among the 19 projections (32 × 32 matrix, pixel size 2.46 mm) was used as a motion index. Rejection of misregistered data gave artifact-free reconstructions (TPD = 1.0 ± 0.8 %) in phantom scans and reduced blur in a rest/stress clinical study. Blur on the patient's stress scan was consistent with increased motion compared to rest (motion index of 4.4 vs. 3.0 pixels, respectively). For CZT cameras that acquire data from multiple views simultaneously, motion during MPI can cause clinically significant artifacts. Reframing acquisitions into discrete time intervals enables the detection of motion and its amelioration, improving diagnostic accuracy.

  4. Design and optimization of a dedicated cone-beam CT system for musculoskeletal extremities imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zbijewski, W.; De Jean, P.; Prakash, P.; Ding, Y.; Stayman, J. W.; Packard, N.; Senn, R.; Yang, D.; Yorkston, J.; Machado, A.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2011-03-01

    The design, initial imaging performance, and model-based optimization of a dedicated cone-beam CT (CBCT) scanner for musculoskeletal extremities is presented. The system offers a compact scanner that complements conventional CT and MR by providing sub-mm isotropic spatial resolution, the ability to image weight-bearing extremities, and the capability for integrated real-time fluoroscopy and digital radiography. The scanner employs a flat-panel detector and a fixed anode x-ray source and has a field of view of ~ (20x20x20) cm3. The gantry allows a "standing" configuration for imaging of weight-bearing lower extremities and a "sitting" configuration for imaging of upper extremities and unloaded lower extremities. Cascaded systems analysis guided the selection of x-ray technique (e.g., kVp, filtration, and dose) and system design (e.g., magnification factor), yielding input-quantum-limited performance at detector signal of 100 times the electronic noise, while maintaining patient dose below 5 mGy (a factor of ~2-3 less than conventional CT). A magnification of 1.3 optimized tradeoffs between source and detector blur for a 0.5 mm focal spot. A custom antiscatter grid demonstrated significant reduction of artifacts without loss of contrast-to-noise ratio or increase in dose. Image quality in cadaveric specimens was assessed on a CBCT bench, demonstrating exquisite bone detail, visualization of intra-articular morphology, and soft-tissue visibility approaching that of diagnostic CT. The capability to image loaded extremities and conduct multi-modality CBCT/fluoroscopy with improved workflow compared to whole-body CT could be of value in a broad spectrum of applications, including orthopaedics, rheumatology, surgical planning, and treatment assessment. A clinical prototype has been constructed for deployment in pilot study trials.

  5. Clinical utility of scintimammography: From the Anger-camera to new dedicated devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillaci, Orazio; Danieli, Roberta; Romano, Pasquale; Cossu, Elsa; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2006-12-01

    Scintimammography is a functional imaging technique which uses a radiation detection camera to detect radionuclide tracers in the patient's breasts. Tracers are designed to accumulate in tumours more than in healthy tissue: the most used are Tc-99 m sestamibi and Tc-99 m tetrofosmin. Scintimammography is useful in some clinical indications as an adjunct to mammography: it is recommended for those lesions where additional information is required to reach a definitive diagnosis. Patients with dubious mammograms may benefit from this test, as well as women with dense breasts or with implants. Scintimammography is a valuable diagnostic tool also in patients with locally advanced breast cancer for monitoring and predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nevertheless, using an Anger-camera this technique shows a high sensitivity only for cancers >1 cm. Since other modalities are increasingly employed for the early identification of small abnormalities, the issue of detecting small cancers is critical for the future development and clinical utility of breast imaging with radiopharmaceuticals. The use of high-resolution cameras dedicated for breast imaging is the best option to improve the detection of small cancers: they allow higher flexibility in patient positioning, and the availability of mammography-like projections. Moreover, the detector can be placed directly in contact with the breast allowing a mild compression with reduction of the breast's thickness, thus increasing the target-to-background ratio and the sensitivity. These new devices have the potential of increasing the total number of breast scintigraphies performed thereby enhancing the role of nuclear medicine in breast cancer imaging.

  6. The PICARD Mission: an investigation based on measurements dedicated to solar and climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuillier, Gerard; Schmutz, Werner; Dewitte, Steven

    PICARD mission is dedicated to the study of the solar activity origin using several key solar measurements. The project also includes development of the solar convective zone and climate models to evaluate the consequences for the Earth'climate of the solar activity. The measure-ments are the total and spectral solar irradiance, solar diameter, limb shape, solar asphericity, and helioseismic waves, which are key inputs for solar physics modeling. The measurements will be carried out by two absolute radiometers, sunphotometers, and a metrological imag-ing telescope onboard a microsatellite built by the French Space Agency CNES, with launch scheduled for March 2010. The radiometers are similar to the ones flown on board SOHO. The imaging telescope contains an angular reference allowing a permanent control of the instrument geometric scale, which is referred to angular stars distances. Optical distortion and flatfield of the imaging telescope are foreseen to be regularly measured. The measurements in space will have correlative measurements from ground using an identical imaging telescope, associated to the measurement of the local turbulence and aerosols localization and concentration. The op-portunity of diameter measurements by solar eclipse method will be used and finally the Solar Disk Sextant instrument will be regularly flown as an external measurement validation. An after launch activities is scheduled for three months, which consists in several instrument checks and recording of some scientific data. Given the launch date, these preliminary measurements will be shown. Images in UV, CaII line and solar photospheric continuum will be presented with some analysis of their contains. Furthermore, preliminary information concerning the radiometric and spectrometric measurements will be given.

  7. Supermassive black holes and their host galaxies. I. Bulge luminosities from dedicated near-infrared data

    SciTech Connect

    Läsker, Ronald; Van de Ven, Glenn; Ferrarese, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to secure, refine, and supplement the relation between central supermassive black hole masses, M {sub •}, and the bulge luminosities of their host galaxies, L {sub bul}, we obtained deep, high spatial resolution K-band images of 35 nearby galaxies with securely measured M {sub •}, using the wide-field WIRCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope. A dedicated data reduction and sky subtraction strategy was adopted to estimate the brightness and structure of the sky, a critical step when tracing the light distribution of extended objects in the near-infrared. From the final image product, bulge and total magnitudes were extracted via two-dimensional profile fitting. As a first order approximation, all galaxies were modeled using a simple Sérsic-bulge+exponential-disk decomposition. However, we found that such models did not adequately describe the structure that we observed in a large fraction of our sample galaxies which often include cores, bars, nuclei, inner disks, spiral arms, rings, and envelopes. In such cases, we adopted profile modifications and/or more complex models with additional components. The derived bulge magnitudes are very sensitive to the details and number of components used in the models, although total magnitudes remain almost unaffected. Usually, but not always, the luminosities and sizes of the bulges are overestimated when a simple bulge+disk decomposition is adopted in lieu of a more complex model. Furthermore, we found that some spheroids are not well fit when the ellipticity of the Sérsic model is held fixed. This paper presents the details of the image processing and analysis, while we discuss how model-induced biases and systematics in bulge magnitudes impact the M {sub •}-L {sub bul} relation in a companion paper.

  8. Development of a dedicated readout ASIC for TPC based X-ray polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Deng, Zhi; Li, Hong; Liu, Yinong; Feng, Hua

    2016-07-01

    X-ray polarimetry with time projection chambers was firstly proposed by JK Black in 2007 and has been greatly developed since then. It measured two dimensional photoelectron tracks with one dimensional strip and the other dimension was estimated by the drift time from the signal waveforms. A readout ASIC, APV25, originally developed for CMS silicon trackers was used and has shown some limitations such as waveform sampling depth. A dedicated ASIC was developed for TPC based X-ray polarimeters in this paper. It integrated 32 channel circuits and each channel consisted of an analog front-end and a waveform sampler based on switched capacitor array. The analog front-end has a charge sensitive preamplifier with a gain of 25 mV/fC, a CR-RC shaper with a peaking time of 25 ns, a baseline holder and a discriminator for self-triggering. The SCA has a buffer latency of 3.2 μs with 64 cells operating at 20 MSPS. The ASIC was fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The equivalent noise charge (ENC) of the analog front-end was measured to be 274.8 e+34.6 e/pF. The effective resolution of the SCA was 8.8 bits at sampling rate up to 50 MSPS. The total power consumption was 2.8 mW per channel. The ASIC was also tested with real TPC detectors and two dimensional photoelectron tracks have been successfully acquired. More tests and analysis on the sensitivity to the polarimetry are undergoing and will be presented in this paper.

  9. Multidisciplinary Team Contributions Within a Dedicated Outpatient Palliative Radiotherapy Clinic: A Prospective Descriptive Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pituskin, Edith; Fairchild, Alysa; Dutka, Jennifer; Gagnon, Lori; Driga, Amy; Tachynski, Patty; Borschneck, Jo-Ann; Ghosh, Sunita

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Patients with bone metastases may experience pain, fatigue, and decreased mobility. Multiple medications for analgesia are often required, each with attendant side effects. Although palliative-intent radiotherapy (RT) is effective in decreasing pain, additional supportive care interventions may be overlooked. Our objective was to describe the feasibility of multidisciplinary assessment of patients with symptomatic bone metastases attending a dedicated outpatient palliative RT clinic. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients referred for RT for painful bone metastases were screened for symptoms and needs relevant to their medications, nutritional intake, activities of daily living, and psychosocial and spiritual concerns from January 1 to December 31, 2007. Consultations by appropriate team members and resulting recommendations were collected prospectively. Patients who received RT were contacted by telephone 4 weeks later to assess symptom outcomes. Results: A total of 106 clinic visits by 82 individual patients occurred. As determined by screening form responses, the clinical Pharmacist, Occupational Therapist, Registered Dietician and Social Worker were consulted to provide assessments and recommendations within the time constraints presented by 1-day palliative RT delivery. In addition to pain relief, significant improvements in tiredness, depression, anxiety, drowsiness and overall well-being were reported at 4 weeks. Conclusions: Systematic screening of this population revealed previously unmet needs, addressed in the form of custom verbal and written recommendations. Multidisciplinary assessment is associated with a high number of recommendations and decreased symptom distress. Our findings lend strong support to the routine assessment by multiple supportive care professionals for patients with advanced cancer being considered for palliative RT.

  10. THE POTENTIAL FOR NEUTRINO PHYSICS AT MUON COLLIDERS AND DEDICATED HIGH CURRENT MUON STORAGE RINGS

    SciTech Connect

    BIGI,I.; BOLTON,T.; FORMAGGIO,J.; HARRIS,D.; MORFIN,J.; SPENTZOURIS,P.; YU,J.; KAYSER,B.; KING,B.J.; MCFARLAND,K.; PETROV,A.; SCHELLMAN,H.; VELASCO,M.; SHROCK,R.

    2000-05-11

    Conceptual design studies are underway for both muon colliders and high-current non-colliding muon storage rings that have the potential to become the first true neutrino factories. Muon decays in long straight sections of the storage rings would produce uniquely intense and precisely characterized two-component neutrino beams--muon neutrinos plus electron antineutrinos from negative muon decays and electron neutrinos plus muon antineutrinos from positive muons. This article presents a long-term overview of the prospects for these facilities to greatly extend the capabilities for accelerator-based neutrino physics studies for both high rate and long baseline neutrino experiments. As the first major physics topic, recent experimental results involving neutrino oscillations have motivated a vigorous design effort towards dedicated neutrino factories that would store muon beams of energies 50 GeV or below. These facilities hold the promise of neutrino oscillation experiments with baselines up to intercontinental distances and utilizing well understood beams that contain, for the first time, a substantial component of multi-GeV electron-flavored neutrinos. In deference to the active and fast-moving nature of neutrino oscillation studies, the discussion of long baseline physics at neutrino factories has been limited to a concise general overview of the relevant theory, detector technologies, beam properties, experimental goals and potential physics capabilities. The remainder of the article is devoted to the complementary high rate neutrino experiments that would study neutrino-nucleon and neutrino-electron scattering and would be performed at high performance detectors placed as close as is practical to the neutrino production straight section of muon storage rings in order to exploit beams with transverse dimensions as small as a few tens of centimeters.

  11. Astronomers Without Borders: An IYA2009 Organization Node Dedicated to Connecting Groups Worldwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Astronomers Without Borders (AWB) is a new global organizational and IYA2009 Organizational Node dedicated to furthering understanding and goodwill across national and cultural boundaries using the universal appeal of astronomy, a common language spoken by all those who share an interest in the sky. It is a universal interest that connects us. The AWB network of Affiliates will bring together up to 1000 astronomy clubs, magazines and other organizations involved in astronomy. Regional Coordinators work within their own regions - based on common language and culture rather than political or geographic boundaries - to best implement AWB's goals, involve the region's participants and bring in new ideas based on local culture and tradition. Participation is free for all Affiliates. The AWB web site is the center for the network of Affiliates. This Community Center is the global meeting place where Affiliates interact. Forums, galleries and more interactive technologies will be used. Sharing Telescopes and Resources (STAR) gathers both surplus and new telescopes and other equipment in developed countries and donates them to clubs in undeveloped countries. Follow-up programs are meant to ensure the best and widest use of the telescope in the destination country, and to maintain a relationship between donors and recipients. The World at Night (TWAN) has been designated as a Special IYA2009 Project. TWAN's specialty photographers create wide-angle images of the night sky in important natural and historic settings around the world that dramatically demonstrate the universal nature and appeal of the night sky. A web site, major exhibitions and more are planned for IYA2009. Astro-tourism has been proposed by several Affiliates. This program will draw on existing facilities and experiences, primarily from the long-established solar eclipse tour industry. AWB is meant to continue and grow for many years beyond the end of IYA2009.

  12. MERLIN : a Franco-German active space mission dedicated to atmospheric methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, P.; Marshall, J.; Pierangelo, C.; Ehret, G.; Bacour, C.; Chevallier, F.; Gibert, F.; Crevoisier, C. D.; Edouart, D.; Esteve, F.; Chinaud, J.; Armante, R.; Berthier, S.; Alpers, M.; Millet, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Methane Remote Sensing Lidar Mission (MERLIN), currently in phase B, is a joint cooperation between France and Germany on the development, launch and operation of a space LIDAR dedicated to the retrieval of total methane (CH4) atmospheric columns. Atmospheric methane is the second most anthropogenic gas, contributing 20% to climate radiative forcing but also plying an important role in atmospheric chemistry as a precursor of tropospheric ozone and low-stratosphere water vapour. For the first time, measurements of atmospheric composition will be performed from space thanks to an IPDA (Integrated Path Differential Absorption) LIDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging), with a precision (target 20 ppb for a 50km aggregation along the trace) and accuracy (target 3 ppb) sufficient to improve the constraints on methane fluxes compared to current observation networks. The very low systematic error target is ambitious compared to current methane space mission, but achievable because of the differential active measurements of MERLIN, which guarantees almost no contamination by aerosols or water vapour cross-sensitivity. As an active mission, MERLIN will deliver data for all seasons and all altitudes, day and night. Here, we present the MERLIN mission and its objectives in terms of reduction of uncertainties on methane surface emissions. To do so, we propose an OSSE analysis (observing system simulation experiment) to estimate the uncertainty reduction brought by MERLIN. The originality of our system is to transfer both random and systematic errors from the observation space to the flux space, thus providing more realistic error reductions than currently provided in OSSE only using the random part of errors. To do so, a precise analysis of causes of errors has been done for the MERLIN mission and is also presented.

  13. MERLIN : a Franco-German active space mission dedicated to atmospheric methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, Philippe; Gibert, Fabien; Marshall, Julia; Pierangelo, Clémence; Ehret, Gerhard; Bacour, Cédric; Chevallier, Frédéric; Crevoisier, Cyril; Edouart, Dimitri; Esteve, Frédéric; Chinaud, Jordi; Armante, Raymond; Kiemle, Christoph; Alpers, Matthias; Tinto, Fransesc; Millet, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The Methane Remote Sensing Lidar Mission (MERLIN), currently in phase B, is a joint cooperation between France and Germany on the development, launch and operation of a space LIDAR dedicated to the retrieval of total methane (CH4) atmospheric columns. Atmospheric methane is the second most anthropogenic gas, contributing 20% to climate radiative forcing but also plying an important role in atmospheric chemistry as a precursor of tropospheric ozone and low-stratosphere water vapour. For the first time, measurements of atmospheric composition will be performed from space thanks to an IPDA (Integrated Path Differential Absorption) LIDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging), with a precision (target 20 ppb for a 50km aggregation along the trace) and accuracy (target 3 ppb) sufficient to improve the constraints on methane fluxes compared to current observation networks. The very low systematic error target is ambitious compared to current methane space mission, but achievable because of the differential active measurements of MERLIN, which guarantees almost no contamination by aerosols or water vapour cross-sensitivity. As an active mission, MERLIN will deliver data for all seasons and all altitudes, day and night. Here, we present the MERLIN mission and its objectives in terms of reduction of uncertainties on methane surface emissions. To do so, we propose an OSSE analysis (observing system simulation experiment) to estimate the uncertainty reduction brought by MERLIN. An analysis of causes of errors has been done for the MERLIN mission and is presented. The originality of our system is to transfer both random and systematic errors from the observation space to the flux space, thus providing more realistic error reductions than currently provided in OSSE only using the random part of errors. Error reductions are presented using two different atmospheric transport models, TM3 and LMDZ, and compared with error reductions achieved with the GOSAT passive mission.

  14. Development of Agave as a dedicated biomass source: production of biofuels from whole plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Rodriguez, Jr, Miguel; Thompson, Olivia A; Yang, Xiaohan; Yin, Hengfu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Agave species can grow well in semi-arid marginal agricultural lands around the world. Selected Agave species are used largely for alcoholic beverage production in Mexico. There are expanding research efforts to use the plentiful residues (bagasse) for ethanol production as the beverage manufacturing process only uses the juice from the central core of mature plants. Here we investigate the potential of over a dozen Agave species, including three from cold semi-arid regions of the United States, to produce biofuels using the whole plant. Results: Ethanol was readily produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae from hydrolysate of ten whole Agaves with the use of a proper blend of biomass degrading enzymes that overcomes toxicity of most of the species tested. Unlike yeast fermentations, Clostridium beijerinckii produced butanol plus acetone from nine species tested. Butyric acid, a precursor of butanol, was also present due to incomplete conversion during the screening process. Since Agave contains high levels of free and poly-fructose which are readily destroyed by acidic pretreatment, a two step process was used developed to depolymerized poly-fructose while maintaining its fermentability. The hydrolysate from before and after dilute acid processing was used in C. beijerinckii acetone and butanol fermentations with selected Agave species. Conclusions: Results have shown Agave s potential to be a source of fermentable sugars beyond the existing beverage species to now include species previously unfermentable by yeast, including cold tolerant lines. This development may stimulate development of Agave as a dedicated feedstock for biofuels in semi-arid regions throughout the globe.

  15. Anatomical-based Partial Volume Correction for Low-dose Dedicated Cardiac SPECT/CT

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chan, Chung; Grobshtein, Yariv; Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi; Stacy, Mitchel R.; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi

    2016-01-01

    Due to the limited spatial resolution, partial volume effect (PVE) has been a major degrading factor on quantitative accuracy in emission tomography systems. This study aims to investigate the performance of several anatomical-based partial volume correction (PVC) methods for a dedicated cardiac SPECT/CT system (GE Discovery NM/CT 570c) with focused field-of-view (FOV) over a clinically relevant range of high and low count levels for two different radiotracer distributions. These PVC methods include perturbation Geometry Transfer Matrix (pGTM), pGTM followed by multi-target correction (MTC), pGTM with known concentration in blood pool, the former followed by MTC and our newly proposed methods, which perform the MTC method iteratively, where the mean values in all regions are estimated and updated by the MTC-corrected images each time in the iterative process. The NCAT phantom was simulated for cardiovascular imaging with 99mTc-tetrofosmin, a myocardial perfusion agent, and 99mTc-red blood cell (RBC), a pure intravascular imaging agent. Images were acquired at six different count levels to investigate the performance of PVC methods in both high and low count levels for low-dose applications. We performed two large animal in vivo cardiac imaging experiments following injection of 99mTc-RBC for evaluation of intramyocardial blood volume (IMBV). The simulation results showed our proposed iterative methods provide superior performance than other existing PVC methods in terms of image quality, quantitative accuracy, and reproducibility (standard deviation), particularly for low-count data. The iterative approaches are robust for both 99mTc-tetrofosmin perfusion imaging and 99mTc-RBC imaging of IMBV and blood pool activity even at low count levels. The animal study results indicated the effectiveness of PVC to correct the overestimation of IMBV due to blood pool contamination. In conclusion, the iterative PVC methods can achieve more accurate quantification, particularly

  16. Carbon and Water Vapor Fluxes of Dedicated Bioenergy Feedstocks: Switchgrass and High Biomass Sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagle, P.; Kakani, V. G.; Huhnke, R.

    2015-12-01

    We compared eddy covariance measurements of carbon and water vapor fluxes from co-located two major dedicated lignocellulosic feedstocks, Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and high biomass sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), in Oklahoma during the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Monthly ensemble averaged net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) reached seasonal peak values of 36-37 μmol m-2 s-1 in both ecosystems. Similar magnitudes (weekly average of daily integrated values) of NEE (10-11 g C m-2 d-1), gross primary production (GPP, 19-20 g C m-2 d-1), ecosystem respiration (ER, 10-12 g C m-2 d-1), and evapotranspiration (ET, 6.2-6.7 mm d-1) were observed in both ecosystems. Carbon and water vapor fluxes of both ecosystems had similar response to air temperature (Ta) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). An optimum Ta was slightly over 30 °C for NEE and approximately 35 °C for ET, and an optimum VPD was approximately 3 kPa for NEE and ET in both ecosystems. The switchgrass field was a larger carbon sink, with a cumulative seasonal carbon uptake of 406-490 g C m-2 compared to 261-330 g C m-2 by the sorghum field. Despite similar water use patterns during the active growing period, seasonal cumulative ET was higher in switchgrass than in sorghum. The ratio of seasonal sums of GPP to ET yielded ecosystem water use efficiency (EWUE) of 9.41-11.32 and 8.98-9.17 g CO2 mm-1 ET in switchgrass and sorghum, respectively. The ratio of seasonal sums of net ecosystem production (NEP) to ET was 2.75-2.81 and 2.06-2.18 g CO2 mm-1 ET in switchgrass and sorghum, respectively. The switchgrass stand was a net carbon sink for four to five months (April/May-August), while sorghum was a net carbon sink only for three months (June-August). Our results imply that the difference in carbon sink strength and water use between two ecosystems was driven mainly by the length of the growing season.

  17. Design considerations for a dedicated gravity recovery satellite mission consisting of two pairs of satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiese, D. N.; Nerem, R. S.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2012-02-01

    Future satellite missions dedicated to measuring time-variable gravity will need to address the concern of temporal aliasing errors; i.e., errors due to high-frequency mass variations. These errors have been shown to be a limiting error source for future missions with improved sensors. One method of reducing them is to fly multiple satellite pairs, thus increasing the sampling frequency of the mission. While one could imagine a system architecture consisting of dozens of satellite pairs, this paper explores the more economically feasible option of optimizing the orbits of two pairs of satellites. While the search space for this problem is infinite by nature, steps have been made to reduce it via proper assumptions regarding some parameters and a large number of numerical simulations exploring appropriate ranges for other parameters. A search space originally consisting of 15 variables is reduced to two variables with the utmost impact on mission performance: the repeat period of both pairs of satellites (shown to be near-optimal when they are equal to each other), as well as the inclination of one of the satellite pairs (the other pair is assumed to be in a polar orbit). To arrive at this conclusion, we assume circular orbits, repeat groundtracks for both pairs of satellites, a 100-km inter-satellite separation distance, and a minimum allowable operational satellite altitude of 290 km based on a projected 10-year mission lifetime. Given the scientific objectives of determining time-variable hydrology, ice mass variations, and ocean bottom pressure signals with higher spatial resolution, we find that an optimal architecture consists of a polar pair of satellites coupled with a pair inclined at 72°, both in 13-day repeating orbits. This architecture provides a 67% reduction in error over one pair of satellites, in addition to reducing the longitudinal striping to such a level that minimal post-processing is required, permitting a substantial increase in the spatial

  18. A New Database Dedicated to Volcanic Hazards and Risks: The atlas of Merapi Volcano, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavigne, Franck; Surono, Dr; Mei, Estuning; de Belizal, Edouard; Cholik, Noer; Picquout, Adrien; Komorowski, Jean-Christophe; Morin, Julie; sri Hadmoko, Danang

    2014-05-01

    Merapi volcano is one of the most active volcanoes worldwide. Approximately 1.3 million people live within a radius 20 km from the summit. In the framework of both, the FP7 MIA VITA Project, and the SEDIMER Project funded by AXA Research Fund, we have built a database at the village scale, which includes the elements at risk and the local resources. This unique geospatial database was used to build a series of maps at the scale of the volcano, providing the core of the Merapi atlas. Designed by the French Laboratory of Physical Geography in Meudon (France) and the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazards Mitigation in Bandung (Indonesia), this atlas provides a state of the art synthesis of knowledge on Merapi, from the reconstruction of past eruptions and assessment of volcanic hazards to the quantification of vulnerability and capacities. It is pertinent to a broad audience ranging from volcanologists to the Indonesian population interested to learn about their sacred volcano. The primary goal of this Atlas is to provide an essential blueprint for planners and public officials involved in long-term development as well as risk and crisis management. The atlas contains 63 color plates gathered in 6 chapters: the introduction summarises the geological context as well as the environmental and human context of Merapi volcano. The second chapter pertains to the geology, the past activity, and the volcanic hazards at Merapi. The third chapter is dedicated to the resources offered by the volcano, including agriculture, livestock, and sand mining activities. The fourth chapter focuses on vulnerability and capacities. The fifth chapter provides a reconstruction of the 2010 VEI 4 eruption of Merapi and its environmental consequences. The sixth chapter summarises the socio-economical impact of the eruption, including mapping of casualties, evacuation, building damage, and an assessment of air traffic disturbance. The seventh chapter focuses on rain-triggered lahar

  19. NEMA NU-4 performance evaluation of PETbox4, a high sensitivity dedicated PET preclinical tomograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Z.; Taschereau, R.; Vu, N. T.; Wang, H.; Prout, D. L.; Silverman, R. W.; Bai, B.; Stout, D. B.; Phelps, M. E.; Chatziioannou, A. F.

    2013-06-01

    PETbox4 is a new, fully tomographic bench top PET scanner dedicated to high sensitivity and high resolution imaging of mice. This manuscript characterizes the performance of the prototype system using the National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU 4-2008 standards, including studies of sensitivity, spatial resolution, energy resolution, scatter fraction, count-rate performance and image quality. The PETbox4 performance is also compared with the performance of PETbox, a previous generation limited angle tomography system. PETbox4 consists of four opposing flat-panel type detectors arranged in a box-like geometry. Each panel is made by a 24 × 50 pixelated array of 1.82 × 1.82 × 7 mm bismuth germanate scintillation crystals with a crystal pitch of 1.90 mm. Each of these scintillation arrays is coupled to two Hamamatsu H8500 photomultiplier tubes via a glass light guide. Volumetric images for a 45 × 45 × 95 mm field of view (FOV) are reconstructed with a maximum likelihood expectation maximization algorithm incorporating a system model based on a parameterized detector response. With an energy window of 150-650 keV, the peak absolute sensitivity is approximately 18% at the center of FOV. The measured crystal energy resolution ranges from 13.5% to 48.3% full width at half maximum (FWHM), with a mean of 18.0%. The intrinsic detector spatial resolution is 1.5 mm FWHM in both transverse and axial directions. The reconstructed image spatial resolution for different locations in the FOV ranges from 1.32 to 1.93 mm, with an average of 1.46 mm. The peak noise equivalent count rate for the mouse-sized phantom is 35 kcps for a total activity of 1.5 MBq (40 µCi) and the scatter fraction is 28%. The standard deviation in the uniform region of the image quality phantom is 5.7%. The recovery coefficients range from 0.10 to 0.93. In comparison to the first generation two panel PETbox system, PETbox4 achieves substantial improvements on sensitivity and spatial resolution

  20. Benchmarking of Typical Meteorological Year datasets dedicated to Concentrated-PV systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realpe, Ana Maria; Vernay, Christophe; Pitaval, Sébastien; Blanc, Philippe; Wald, Lucien; Lenoir, Camille

    2016-04-01

    suitable for CPV systems. For these systems, the TMY datasets obtained using dedicated drivers (DNI only or more precise one) are more representative to derive TMY datasets from limited long-term meteorological dataset.

  1. Cone Beam Computed Tomography Image Guidance System for a Dedicated Intracranial Radiosurgery Treatment Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Ruschin, Mark; Komljenovic, Philip T.; Ansell, Steve; Menard, Cynthia; Bootsma, Gregory; Cho, Young-Bin; Chung, Caroline; Jaffray, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Image guidance has improved the precision of fractionated radiation treatment delivery on linear accelerators. Precise radiation delivery is particularly critical when high doses are delivered to complex shapes with steep dose gradients near critical structures, as is the case for intracranial radiosurgery. To reduce potential geometric uncertainties, a cone beam computed tomography (CT) image guidance system was developed in-house to generate high-resolution images of the head at the time of treatment, using a dedicated radiosurgery unit. The performance and initial clinical use of this imaging system are described. Methods and Materials: A kilovoltage cone beam CT system was integrated with a Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion radiosurgery unit. The X-ray tube and flat-panel detector are mounted on a translational arm, which is parked above the treatment unit when not in use. Upon descent, a rotational axis provides 210 Degree-Sign of rotation for cone beam CT scans. Mechanical integrity of the system was evaluated over a 6-month period. Subsequent clinical commissioning included end-to-end testing of targeting performance and subjective image quality performance in phantoms. The system has been used to image 2 patients, 1 of whom received single-fraction radiosurgery and 1 who received 3 fractions, using a relocatable head frame. Results: Images of phantoms demonstrated soft tissue contrast visibility and submillimeter spatial resolution. A contrast difference of 35 HU was easily detected at a calibration dose of 1.2 cGy (center of head phantom). The shape of the mechanical flex vs scan angle was highly reproducible and exhibited <0.2 mm peak-to-peak variation. With a 0.5-mm voxel pitch, the maximum targeting error was 0.4 mm. Images of 2 patients were analyzed offline and submillimeter agreement was confirmed with conventional frame. Conclusions: A cone beam CT image guidance system was successfully adapted to a radiosurgery unit. The system is capable of

  2. Anatomical-based partial volume correction for low-dose dedicated cardiac SPECT/CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Chan, Chung; Grobshtein, Yariv; Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi; Stacy, Mitchel R.; Sinusas, Albert J.; Liu, Chi

    2015-09-01

    Due to the limited spatial resolution, partial volume effect has been a major degrading factor on quantitative accuracy in emission tomography systems. This study aims to investigate the performance of several anatomical-based partial volume correction (PVC) methods for a dedicated cardiac SPECT/CT system (GE Discovery NM/CT 570c) with focused field-of-view over a clinically relevant range of high and low count levels for two different radiotracer distributions. These PVC methods include perturbation geometry transfer matrix (pGTM), pGTM followed by multi-target correction (MTC), pGTM with known concentration in blood pool, the former followed by MTC and our newly proposed methods, which perform the MTC method iteratively, where the mean values in all regions are estimated and updated by the MTC-corrected images each time in the iterative process. The NCAT phantom was simulated for cardiovascular imaging with 99mTc-tetrofosmin, a myocardial perfusion agent, and 99mTc-red blood cell (RBC), a pure intravascular imaging agent. Images were acquired at six different count levels to investigate the performance of PVC methods in both high and low count levels for low-dose applications. We performed two large animal in vivo cardiac imaging experiments following injection of 99mTc-RBC for evaluation of intramyocardial blood volume (IMBV). The simulation results showed our proposed iterative methods provide superior performance than other existing PVC methods in terms of image quality, quantitative accuracy, and reproducibility (standard deviation), particularly for low-count data. The iterative approaches are robust for both 99mTc-tetrofosmin perfusion imaging and 99mTc-RBC imaging of IMBV and blood pool activity even at low count levels. The animal study results indicated the effectiveness of PVC to correct the overestimation of IMBV due to blood pool contamination. In conclusion, the iterative PVC methods can achieve more accurate quantification, particularly for low

  3. Determination of protein conformation by isotopically labelled cross-linking and dedicated software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Tina; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Larsen, Nanna; Jørgensen, Flemming S.; Houen, Gunnar; Højrup, Peter

    2007-12-01

    Chemical cross-linking in conjunction with mass spectrometry (MS) can be used for sensitive and rapid investigation of the three-dimensional structure of proteins at low resolution. However, the resulting data are very complex, and on the bioinformatic side, there still exists an urgent need for improving computer software for (semi-) automated cross-linking data analysis. In this study, we have developed dedicated software for rapid and confident identification and validation of cross-linked species using an isotopic labelled cross-linker approach in combination with MS. Deuterated (+4 Da) and non-deuterated (+0 Da) bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate, BS3, was used as homobifunctional cross-linker to tag the cross-linked regions. Peptides generated from proteolysis were separated using high performance liquid chromatography, and peptide mass fingerprinting was obtained for the individual fractions using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI TOF) MS. The resulting peptide mass lists were combined and transferred to the program, ProteinXXX, which generated the theoretical mass values of all combinations of cross-linked peptides and dead-end cross-links and compared this to the obtained mass lists. In addition, screening for 4 Da-separated signals aided the identification of potential cross-linked species. Sequence information of these candidates was then obtained using MALDI TOF TOF. The cross-linked peptides could then be validated based on the match of the fragmentation pattern and the theoretical values produced by ProteinXXX. This semi-automated interpretation provided a high analysis speed of cross-linking data, with efficient and confident identification of cross-linked species. Four experiments using different conditions showed a high degree of reproducibility as only 1 and 2 cross-links out of 36 identified was not observed in two experiments. The method was tested using human placenta calreticulin (CRT). Based on the identified cross

  4. The planar electrostatic gradiometer GREMLIT for airborne geodesy and its dedicated controlled platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulon, Bernard; Christophe, Bruno; Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Lebat, Vincent; Perrot, Eddy

    2015-04-01

    Thanks to global positioning satellites constellations and to recent space gravity missions, the knowledge of the gravity field of the Earth has been considerably improved this last decade. Nevertheless these gravity data do not address spatial resolution shorter than 90 km and airborne gravity data collection will be of the highest interest to complete them at the short wavelengths in particular in the areas where spatial distribution and quality of ground data remain quite uneven like for example land/sea transition. Taking advantage of technologies, developed by ONERA for the GRACE and GOCE space missions, the GREMLIT airborne gravity gradiometer is composed of a double planar electrostatic gradiometer with eight proof-masses in a cubic configuration, the GREMLIT instrument is mounted on a dedicated stabilized platform which is controlled by the common mode outputs of the instrument itself to achieve a sufficient rejection ratio of the perturbations/vibrations induced by the airborne environment in the horizontal directions. The levitation of the proof-masses along the normal gravity and the vibration isolation of the platform are designed to allow the instrument to support 1g ± 1g along the vertical axis. In addition to be well suited to sustain the proof-mass levitation in the Earth's gravity field, the planar configuration of each accelerometer also presents an intrinsic linearity of the horizontal control loops which minimizes the aliasing due to high frequency vibrations or motions generated outside the measurement bandwidth. Realistic simulations, based on actual data and recorded environmental aircraft perturbations, demonstrate that a performance better or equal to one Eötvös can be obtained at least along the two horizontal components of the gravity gradient. If the performance of the electrostatic gradiometer is well assessed through the experience of the space accelerometers, the overall performance has also to take into account the estimated

  5. Anatomical-based partial volume correction for low-dose dedicated cardiac SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Chan, Chung; Grobshtein, Yariv; Ma, Tianyu; Liu, Yaqiang; Wang, Shi; Stacy, Mitchel R; Sinusas, Albert J; Liu, Chi

    2015-09-07

    Due to the limited spatial resolution, partial volume effect has been a major degrading factor on quantitative accuracy in emission tomography systems. This study aims to investigate the performance of several anatomical-based partial volume correction (PVC) methods for a dedicated cardiac SPECT/CT system (GE Discovery NM/CT 570c) with focused field-of-view over a clinically relevant range of high and low count levels for two different radiotracer distributions. These PVC methods include perturbation geometry transfer matrix (pGTM), pGTM followed by multi-target correction (MTC), pGTM with known concentration in blood pool, the former followed by MTC and our newly proposed methods, which perform the MTC method iteratively, where the mean values in all regions are estimated and updated by the MTC-corrected images each time in the iterative process. The NCAT phantom was simulated for cardiovascular imaging with (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin, a myocardial perfusion agent, and (99m)Tc-red blood cell (RBC), a pure intravascular imaging agent. Images were acquired at six different count levels to investigate the performance of PVC methods in both high and low count levels for low-dose applications. We performed two large animal in vivo cardiac imaging experiments following injection of (99m)Tc-RBC for evaluation of intramyocardial blood volume (IMBV). The simulation results showed our proposed iterative methods provide superior performance than other existing PVC methods in terms of image quality, quantitative accuracy, and reproducibility (standard deviation), particularly for low-count data. The iterative approaches are robust for both (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin perfusion imaging and (99m)Tc-RBC imaging of IMBV and blood pool activity even at low count levels. The animal study results indicated the effectiveness of PVC to correct the overestimation of IMBV due to blood pool contamination. In conclusion, the iterative PVC methods can achieve more accurate quantification, particularly

  6. Design Considerations for a Dedicated Gravity Recovery Satellite Mission Consisting of Two Pairs of Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiese, D. N.; Nerem, R. S.; Lemoine, F. G.

    2011-01-01

    Future satellite missions dedicated to measuring time-variable gravity will need to address the concern of temporal aliasing errors; i.e., errors due to high-frequency mass variations. These errors have been shown to be a limiting error source for future missions with improved sensors. One method of reducing them is to fly multiple satellite pairs, thus increasing the sampling frequency of the mission. While one could imagine a system architecture consisting of dozens of satellite pairs, this paper explores the more economically feasible option of optimizing the orbits of two pairs of satellites. While the search space for this problem is infinite by nature, steps have been made to reduce it via proper assumptions regarding some parameters and a large number of numerical simulations exploring appropriate ranges for other parameters. A search space originally consisting of 15 variables is reduced to two variables with the utmost impact on mission performance: the repeat period of both pairs of satellites (shown to be near-optimal when they are equal to each other), as well as the inclination of one of the satellite pairs (the other pair is assumed to be in a polar orbit). To arrive at this conclusion, we assume circular orbits, repeat groundtracks for both pairs of satellites, a 100-km inter-satellite separation distance, and a minimum allowable operational satellite altitude of 290 km based on a projected 10-year mission lifetime. Given the scientific objectives of determining time-variable hydrology, ice mass variations, and ocean bottom pressure signals with higher spatial resolution, we find that an optimal architecture consists of a polar pair of satellites coupled with a pair inclined at 72deg, both in 13-day repeating orbits. This architecture provides a 67% reduction in error over one pair of satellites, in addition to reducing the longitudinal striping to such a level that minimal post-processing is required, permitting a substantial increase in the spatial

  7. NEMA NU-4 performance evaluation of PETbox4, a high sensitivity dedicated PET preclinical tomograph

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Z; Taschereau, R; Vu, N T; Wang, H; Prout, D L; Silverman, R W; Bai, B; Stout, D B; Phelps, M E; Chatziioannou, A F

    2013-01-01

    PETbox4 is a new, fully tomographic bench top PET scanner dedicated to high sensitivity and high resolution imaging of mice. This manuscript characterizes the performance of the prototype system using the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 4–2008 standards, including studies of sensitivity, spatial resolution, energy resolution, scatter fraction, count-rate performance and image quality. The PETbox4 performance is also compared with the performance of PETbox, a previous generation limited angle tomography system. PETbox4 consists of four opposing flat-panel type detectors arranged in a box like geometry. Each panel is made by a 24 × 50 pixelated array of 1.82 × 1.82 × 7mm bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation crystals with a crystal pitch of 1.90mm. Each of these scintillation arrays is coupled to two Hamamatsu H8500 photomultiplier tubes via a glass light guide. Volumetric images for a 45 × 45 × 95 mm field of view (FOV) are reconstructed with a maximum likelihood expectation maximization (ML-EM) algorithm incorporating a system model based on a parameterized detector response. With an energy window of 150–650 keV, the peak absolute sensitivity is approximately 18% at the center of FOV. The measured crystal energy resolution ranges from 13.5% to 48.3% full width at half maximum (FWHM), with a mean of 18.0%. The intrinsic detector spatial resolution is 1.5mm FWHM in both transverse and axial directions. The reconstructed image spatial resolution for different locations in the FOV ranges from 1.32mm to 1.93 mm, with an average of 1.46 mm. The peak noise equivalent count rate for the mouse-sized phantom is 35 kcps for a total activity of 1.5 MBq (40 µCi) and the scatter fraction is 28%. The standard deviation in the uniform region of the image quality phantom is 5.7%. The recovery coefficients range from 0.10 to 0.93. In comparison to the first generation two panel PETbox system, PETbox4 achieves substantial improvements on sensitivity

  8. Design and development of a dedicated mammary and axillary region positron emission tomography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doshi, Niraj Kumar

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in women. Currently, mammography and physical breast examination, both non-invasive techniques, provide the two most effective methods available for screening potential breast cancer patients. During the management of patients, however, several invasive techniques such as axillary lymph node dissection, core biopsies and lumpectomies, are utilized to determine the stage or malignancy of the disease with significant cost and morbidity associated with them. Positron Emission Tomography (PET), using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) tracer is a sensitive and non-invasive imaging modality that may be a cost-effective alternative to certain invasive procedures. In this project we have developed a low cost, high performance, dedicated PET camera (maxPET) for mammary and axillary region imaging. The system consists of two 15x15 cm2 planar scintillation detector arrays composed of modular detectors operating in coincidence. The modular detectors are comprised of a 9x9 array of 3x3x20 mm3 lutetiurn oxyorthosilicate (LSO) detector elements, read out by a 5x5 array of position- sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The average measured intrinsic spatial resolution of a detector module is 2.26 mm with a sensitivity of up to 40% for a central point source. The measured coincidence timing resolution for two modules is 2.4 ns. The average energy resolution measured across the entire two detector plates is 21.6%. The coincidence timing resolution for the entire system is 8.1 ns. A line bar phantom was imaged and images were reconstructed using the focal plane tomography algorithm. A 4 mm projection image resolution was measured based on profiles taken through the line bar phantom images. The goal of the maxPET system will be to aid in breast cancer patient management by assisting in imaging women with dense, fibro-glandular breasts, detecting axillary lymph node metastases without surgery, monitoring chemotherapy effectiveness and

  9. Dedicated Three-dimensional Breast Computed Tomography: Lesion Characteristic Perception by Radiologists

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmiak, Cherie Marie; Cole, Elodia B; Zeng, Donglin; Tuttle, Laura A; Steed, Doreen; Pisano, Etta D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess radiologist confidence in the characterization of suspicious breast lesions with a dedicated three-dimensional breast computed tomography (DBCT) system in comparison to diagnostic two-dimensional digital mammography (dxDM). Materials and Methods: Twenty women were recruited who were to undergo a breast biopsy for a Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) 4 or 5 lesion evaluated with dxDM in this Institutional Review Board-approved study. The enrolled subjects underwent imaging of the breast(s) of concern using DBCT. Seven radiologists reviewed the cases. Each reader compared DBCT to the dxDM and was asked to specify the lesion type and BI-RADS score for each lesion and modality. They also compared lesion characteristics: Shape for masses or morphology for calcifications; and margins for masses or distribution for calcifications between the modalities using confidence scores (0–100). Results: Twenty-four biopsied lesions were included in this study: 17 (70.8%) masses and 7 (29.2%) calcifications. Eight (33.3%) lesions were malignant, and 16 (66.7%) were benign. Across all lesions, there was no significant difference in the margin/distribution (Δ = −0.99, P = 0.84) and shape/morphology (Δ = −0.10, P = 0.98) visualization confidence scores of DBCT in relation to dxDM. However, analysis by lesion type showed a statistically significant increase in reader shape (Δ =11.34, P = 0.013) and margin (Δ =9.93, P = 0.023) visualization confidence with DBCT versus dxDM for masses and significant decrease in reader morphology (Δ = −29.95, P = 0.001) and distribution (Δ = −28.62, P = 0.002) visualization confidence for calcifications. Conclusion: Reader confidence in the characterization of suspicious masses is significantly improved with DBCT, but reduced for calcifications. Further study is needed to determine whether this technology can be used for breast cancer screening. PMID:27195180

  10. Personalized estimates of radiation dose from dedicated breast CT in a diagnostic population and comparison with diagnostic mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedantham, Srinivasan; Shi, Linxi; Karellas, Andrew; O'Connell, Avice M.; Conover, David L.

    2013-11-01

    This study retrospectively analyzed the mean glandular dose (MGD) to 133 breasts from 132 subjects, all women, who participated in a clinical trial evaluating dedicated breast CT in a diagnostic population. The clinical trial was conducted in adherence to a protocol approved by institutional review boards and the study participants provided written informed consent. Individual estimates of MGD to each breast from dedicated breast CT was obtained by combining x-ray beam characteristics with estimates of breast dimensions and fibroglandular fraction from volumetric breast CT images, and using normalized glandular dose coefficients. For each study participant and for the breast corresponding to that imaged with breast CT, an estimate of the MGD from diagnostic mammography (including supplemental views) was obtained from the DICOM image headers for comparison. This estimate uses normalized glandular dose coefficients corresponding to a breast with 50% fibroglandular weight fraction. The median fibroglandular weight fraction for the study cohort determined from volumetric breast CT images was 15%. Hence, the MGD from diagnostic mammography was corrected to be representative of the study cohort. Individualized estimates of MGD from breast CT ranged from 5.7 to 27.8 mGy. Corresponding to the breasts imaged with breast CT, the MGD from diagnostic mammography ranged from 2.6 to 31.6 mGy. The mean (± inter-breast SD) and the median MGD (mGy) from dedicated breast CT exam were 13.9 ± 4.6 and 12.6, respectively. For the corresponding breasts, the mean (± inter-breast SD) and the median MGD (mGy) from diagnostic mammography were 12.4 ± 6.3 and 11.1, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that at the 0.05 level, the distributions of MGD from dedicated breast CT and diagnostic mammography were significantly different (Wilcoxon signed ranks test, p = 0.007). While the interquartile range and the range (maximum-minimum) of MGD from dedicated breast CT was lower than

  11. Isolated Teres Major Rupture: A case report with a suggested dedicated imaging protocol and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Darren; Cagle, Paul; Flatow, Evan

    2016-01-01

    Isolated injuries to the teres major muscle occur in competitive sporting activities such as baseball pitching, hockey and tennis. We report a similar event of a physically fit man sustaining an isolated teres major rupture while waterskiing. Non-operative management was chosen, with pain resolution and no appreciable functional limitations at follow up. Because teres major muscle injury was suspected at the time of imaging, we present a dedicated imaging protocol to optimize assessment for teres major injury. PMID:27200170

  12. Performance analysis of a dedicated breast MR-HIFU system for tumor ablation in breast cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckers, R.; Merckel, L. G.; de Senneville, B. Denis; Schubert, G.; Köhler, M.; Knuttel, F. M.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moonen, C. T. W.; van den Bosch, M. A. A. J.; Bartels, L. W.

    2015-07-01

    MR-guided HIFU ablation is a promising technique for the non-invasive treatment of breast cancer. A phase I study was performed to assess the safety and treatment accuracy and precision of MR-HIFU ablation in breast cancer patients (n=10 ) using a newly developed MR-HIFU platform dedicated to applications in the breast. In this paper a technical analysis of the performance of the dedicated breast MR-HIFU system during breast tumors ablation is described. The main points of investigation were the spatial targeting accuracy and precision of the system and the performance of real-time respiration-corrected MR thermometry. The mean targeting accuracy was in the range of 2.4-2.6 mm, whereas the mean targeting precision was in the range of 1.5-1.8 mm. To correct for respiration-induced magnetic field fluctuations during MR temperature mapping a look-up-table (LUT)-based correction method was used. An optimized procedural sedation protocol in combination with the LUT-based correction method allowed for precise MR thermometry during the ablation procedure (temperature standard deviation <3 °C). No unwanted heating in the near field (i.e. skin) nor in the far field (pectoral muscle) was detected. The newly developed dedicated breast MR-HIFU system allows for safe, accurate and precise ablation of breast tumors.

  13. The specificity of Fe and P speciation in urban soils dedicated to stormwater infiltration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delolme, Cécile; Legendre, Tiphaine; Gautier, Mathieu; Chatain, Vincent; Gonzalez-Merchan, Carolina; Drapeau, Clémentine; Blanc, Denise; Lassabaterre, Laurent; Poulenard, Jérôme; Winiarski, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Stormwater infiltration devices are widely used in urban areas to recharge aquifers. They consequently store and concentrate over small surfaces suspended particles produced by the erosion over the whole urban watershed and carried by stormwater. This leads to a sedimentary layer that could be considered as an anthroposol where pedogenesis is occurring in relation with the underlying soil. The knowledge related to these soils is mainly dedicated to their pollutant contents (phosphorus, heavy metals, hydrocarbons, pesticides, etc.) in relation to the total organic matter content. Few information and knowledge are available concerning the mineral geochemical characteristics of this sedimentary layer. However, mechanisms controlling the retention or mobility of pollutants can be directly controlled by these major minerals through dissolution/precipitation processes. It is known that the mobility of phosphorus can be directly linked to the speciation of Fe and redox conditions in soils. Iron oxides can also play a major role on the sorption of trace elements. This presentation aims at giving new information on soil phosphorus and iron contents in an urban context. Their speciation in these specific urban soils were studied in order to identify the specific role of these minerals on the main geochemical properties and the consequences on heavy metal release. The surface soil of 19 infiltration basins situated in the East of Lyon were firstly sampled and chosen to represent a diversity of urban catchment typology. Representative samples of sedimentary layers were collected randomly in each basin. Major and trace mineral total element contents were measured. A more specific geochemical characterization of one of the 19 sites was then carried out, including X-ray diffraction analyses, XRF quantification. Finally, specific P (Kim, 2014) and Fe extraction procedure (Claff et al, 2009 and Van Bodegom, 2002) were also carried out for three subsamples collected on this site

  14. From surfaces to magnetic properties: special section dedicated to Juan Rojo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaraque, A.; Rodríguez de la Fuente, O.; González-Barrio, Miguel A.

    2013-12-01

    by Barandiarán et al. In the following paper, Crespo et al review the effect of organic and inorganic coatings on magnetic nanoparticles, showing that the coating can tune the magnetic properties of metallic and oxide nano-sized particles. Barja et al report on ordered magnetic ion structures formed by evaporation of Mn and Fe on self-assembled layers of tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) molecules on Cu(111). Finally, Rodríguez de la Fuente et al investigate the role of surface defects on the physico-chemical properties of metals and oxides in a variety of scenarios, showing how the surface controls the mechanical properties probed at the nanoscale or the chemical reactivity. Acknowledgments The editors are grateful to all the invited contributors to this special section of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter . We also thank the staff of IOP Publishing for handling the administrative matters and the refereeing process, and for their patience and helpful disposition. From surfaces to magnetic properties contents From surfaces to magnetic properties: special section dedicated to Juan RojoA Mascaraque, O Rodríguez de la Fuente and Miguel A González-Barrio Juan Rojo: the surface science and science politics maker in SpainA Mascaraque, O Rodríguez de la Fuente, Miguel A González-Barrio, Javier Solana, Luis Oro and Ana Crespo Initial stages of FeO growth on Ru(0001)I Palacio, M Monti, J F Marco, K F McCarty and J de la Figuera Surprising resistivity decrease in manganites with constant electronic densityR Cortés-Gil, M L Ruiz-González, J M Alonso, J L Martínez, A Hernando, M Vallet-Regí, and J M González-Calbet Thermoseeds for interstitial magnetic hyperthermia: from bioceramics to nanoparticlesA Baeza, D Arcos and M Vallet-Regí Revisited magnetic phase diagram for CeNi1-xCux system: spin-glass in the weak interaction limitN Marcano, J I Espeso and J C Gómez Sal Magnetic field and atomic order effect on the martensitic transformation of a metamagnetic alloyJ M

  15. A dedicated hardware architecture for data acquisition and processing in a time-of-flight emission tomography system (Super PETT)

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, T.J.; Blaine, G.J.; Fiche, D.C.; Hitchens, R.E.; Snyder, D.L.

    1983-02-01

    The authors present the architecture, implementation and performance aspects of a dedicated processor for use in Super-PETT. The micro-coded machine accepts event data from the acquisition circuitry and constructs in real time any of three pre-image types, including time-of-flight arrays. Pre-images are later backloaded to perform high speed reconstructions. One such processor is assigned to each image slice of the Super-PETT. Event rates and processing times are given for various application modalities.

  16. MASSIF-1: a beamline dedicated to the fully automatic characterization and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Matthew W.; Nurizzo, Didier; Barrett, Ray; Beteva, Antonia; Bodin, Marjolaine; Caserotto, Hugo; Delagenière, Solange; Dobias, Fabian; Flot, David; Giraud, Thierry; Guichard, Nicolas; Guijarro, Mattias; Lentini, Mario; Leonard, Gordon A.; McSweeney, Sean; Oskarsson, Marcus; Schmidt, Werner; Snigirev, Anatoli; von Stetten, David; Surr, John; Svensson, Olof; Theveneau, Pascal; Mueller-Dieckmann, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    MASSIF-1 (ID30A-1) is an ESRF undulator beamline operating at a fixed wavelength of 0.969 Å (12.8 keV) that is dedicated to the completely automatic characterization of and data collection from crystals of biological macromolecules. The first of the ESRF Upgrade MASSIF beamlines to be commissioned, it has been open since September 2014, providing a unique automated data collection service to academic and industrial users. Here, the beamline characteristics and details of the new service are outlined. PMID:26524320

  17. Development of a dedicated isotope mass spectrometer for the noninvasive diagnostics of humans infected with Helicobacter Pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blashenkov, N. M.; Sheshenya, E. S.; Solov'ev, S. M.; Gall', L. N.; Sachenko, V. M.; Zarutskii, I. V.; Gall', N. R.

    2013-06-01

    A dedicated isotope mass spectrometer for the noninvasive diagnostics of humans infected with Helicobacter Pylori using the isotope respiratory test is developed. A low-aberration mass analyzer is calculated, an input system that makes it possible to eliminate the memory effects is developed, and a small-size ion detector is constructed. The mass spectrometer is created, and the tests are performed. The measurement accuracy of the 13C/12C and 16O/18O isotope ratios are 1.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. Preliminary medical tests show that the spectrometer can be employed for the desired diagnostics.

  18. Wearable interrupter module for home-based applications in a telemedical system dedicated to respiratory mechanics measurements.

    PubMed

    Jabłoński, Ireneusz

    2011-03-01

    The mobile interrupter module, dedicated to the enhanced interrupter (EIT) measurement of respiratory mechanics in a home environment and capable of cooperation with a telemedical system, is presented. Characterized by noninvasiveness and minimal requirements regarding patient cooperation, the EIT algorithm is especially suitable for newborns, preschool children, and patients suffering from respiratory muscle impairment. Furthermore, this device enables access to raw data--without initial preprocessing--in a fully flexible measurement protocol (which is not available in any commercial apparatus), and the EIT procedure improves insight (the number and precision of assessed parameters) into the physiological system with respect to the classical occlusive methods.

  19. The Dedicated Chaperone Acl4 Escorts Ribosomal Protein Rpl4 to Its Nuclear Pre-60S Assembly Site

    PubMed Central

    Pillet, Benjamin; García-Gómez, Juan J.; Pausch, Patrick; Falquet, Laurent; Bange, Gert; de la Cruz, Jesús; Kressler, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Ribosomes are the highly complex macromolecular assemblies dedicated to the synthesis of all cellular proteins from mRNA templates. The main principles underlying the making of ribosomes are conserved across eukaryotic organisms and this process has been studied in most detail in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast ribosomes are composed of four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 79 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins). Most r-proteins need to be transported from the cytoplasm to the nucleus where they get incorporated into the evolving pre-ribosomal particles. Due to the high abundance and difficult physicochemical properties of r-proteins, their correct folding and fail-safe targeting to the assembly site depends largely on general, as well as highly specialized, chaperone and transport systems. Many r-proteins contain universally conserved or eukaryote-specific internal loops and/or terminal extensions, which were shown to mediate their nuclear targeting and association with dedicated chaperones in a growing number of cases. The 60S r-protein Rpl4 is particularly interesting since it harbours a conserved long internal loop and a prominent C-terminal eukaryote-specific extension. Here we show that both the long internal loop and the C-terminal eukaryote-specific extension are strictly required for the functionality of Rpl4. While Rpl4 contains at least five distinct nuclear localization signals (NLS), the C-terminal part of the long internal loop associates with a specific binding partner, termed Acl4. Absence of Acl4 confers a severe slow-growth phenotype and a deficiency in the production of 60S subunits. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicates that Acl4 can be considered as a dedicated chaperone of Rpl4. Notably, Acl4 localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus and it has the capacity to capture nascent Rpl4 in a co-translational manner. Taken together, our findings indicate that the dedicated chaperone Acl4 accompanies Rpl4 from the cytoplasm to its pre-60S

  20. Comparison of two dedicated 'in beam' PET systems via simultaneous imaging of (12)C-induced beta(+)-activity.

    PubMed

    Attanasi, F; Belcari, N; Del Guerra, A; Enghardt, W; Moehrs, S; Parodi, K; Rosso, V; Vecchio, S

    2009-01-21

    The selective energy deposition of hadrontherapy has led to a growing interest in quality assurance techniques such as 'in-beam' PET. Due to the current lack of commercial solutions, dedicated detectors need to be developed. In this paper, we compare the performances of two different 'in-beam' PET systems which were simultaneously operated during and after low energy carbon ion irradiation of PMMA phantoms at GSI Darmstadt. The results highlight advantages and drawbacks of a novel in-beam PET prototype against a long-term clinically operated tomograph for ion therapy monitoring.

  1. NOTE: Comparison of two dedicated 'in beam' PET systems via simultaneous imaging of 12C-induced β+-activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attanasi, F.; Belcari, N.; DelGuerra, A.; Enghardt, W.; Moehrs, S.; Parodi, K.; Rosso, V.; Vecchio, S.

    2009-01-01

    The selective energy deposition of hadrontherapy has led to a growing interest in quality assurance techniques such as 'in-beam' PET. Due to the current lack of commercial solutions, dedicated detectors need to be developed. In this paper, we compare the performances of two different 'in-beam' PET systems which were simultaneously operated during and after low energy carbon ion irradiation of PMMA phantoms at GSI Darmstadt. The results highlight advantages and drawbacks of a novel in-beam PET prototype against a long-term clinically operated tomograph for ion therapy monitoring.

  2. Focused ion beam preparation techniques dedicated for the fabrication of TEM lamellae of fibre-reinforced composites.

    PubMed

    Mucha, Herbert; Kato, Takeharu; Arai, Shigeo; Saka, Hiroyasu; Kuroda, Kotaro; Wielage, Bernhard

    2005-01-01

    Two Focused Ion Beam based transmission electron microscopy (TEM) thin film preparation techniques are introduced. One is dedicated to the preparation of single fibres, the other to fibre/matrix interfaces of fibre reinforced composites. Due to their thin film quality, reliability and predictable processing times both techniques are suited for routine applications in material science like TEM studies of fibre microtextures and fibre/matrix interfaces. Exemplarily they are applied to Carbon Fibres and Carbon Fibre reinforced Carbon Matrix Composites (C/C). The achieved preparation standard in both cases is substantiated by TEM investigations.

  3. The Dedicated Chaperone Acl4 Escorts Ribosomal Protein Rpl4 to Its Nuclear Pre-60S Assembly Site.

    PubMed

    Pillet, Benjamin; García-Gómez, Juan J; Pausch, Patrick; Falquet, Laurent; Bange, Gert; de la Cruz, Jesús; Kressler, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Ribosomes are the highly complex macromolecular assemblies dedicated to the synthesis of all cellular proteins from mRNA templates. The main principles underlying the making of ribosomes are conserved across eukaryotic organisms and this process has been studied in most detail in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast ribosomes are composed of four ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and 79 ribosomal proteins (r-proteins). Most r-proteins need to be transported from the cytoplasm to the nucleus where they get incorporated into the evolving pre-ribosomal particles. Due to the high abundance and difficult physicochemical properties of r-proteins, their correct folding and fail-safe targeting to the assembly site depends largely on general, as well as highly specialized, chaperone and transport systems. Many r-proteins contain universally conserved or eukaryote-specific internal loops and/or terminal extensions, which were shown to mediate their nuclear targeting and association with dedicated chaperones in a growing number of cases. The 60S r-protein Rpl4 is particularly interesting since it harbours a conserved long internal loop and a prominent C-terminal eukaryote-specific extension. Here we show that both the long internal loop and the C-terminal eukaryote-specific extension are strictly required for the functionality of Rpl4. While Rpl4 contains at least five distinct nuclear localization signals (NLS), the C-terminal part of the long internal loop associates with a specific binding partner, termed Acl4. Absence of Acl4 confers a severe slow-growth phenotype and a deficiency in the production of 60S subunits. Genetic and biochemical evidence indicates that Acl4 can be considered as a dedicated chaperone of Rpl4. Notably, Acl4 localizes to both the cytoplasm and nucleus and it has the capacity to capture nascent Rpl4 in a co-translational manner. Taken together, our findings indicate that the dedicated chaperone Acl4 accompanies Rpl4 from the cytoplasm to its pre-60S

  4. Dedicated memory structure holding data for detecting available worker thread(s) and informing available worker thread(s) of task(s) to execute

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, George L.; Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; O'Brien, John K. P.

    2016-12-13

    The present disclosure relates generally to a dedicated memory structure (that is, hardware device) holding data for detecting available worker thread(s) and informing available worker thread(s) of task(s) to execute.

  5. Multicenter study for the evaluation of a dedicated biopsy device for MR-guided vacuum biopsy of the breast.

    PubMed

    Perlet, C; Heinig, A; Prat, X; Casselman, J; Baath, L; Sittek, H; Stets, C; Lamarque, J; Anderson, I; Schneider, P; Taourel, P; Reiser, M; Heywang-Köbrunner, S H

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this multicenter study was to determine the accuracy and clinical value of a dedicated breast biopsy system which allows for MR-guided vacuum biopsy (VB) of contrast-enhancing lesions. In five European centers, MR-guided 11-gauge VB was performed on 341 lesions. In 7 cases VB was unsuccessful. This was immediately realized on postinterventional images or direct follow-up combined with histopathology-imaging correlation; thus, a false-negative diagnosis was avoided. Histology of 334 successful biopsies yielded 84 (25%) malignancies, 17 (5%) atypical ductal hyperplasias, and 233 (70%) benign entities. Verification of malignant or borderline lesions included reexcision of the biopsy cavity. Benign histologic biopsy results were verified by retrospective correlation with the pre- and postinterventional MRI and by subsequent follow-up. Our results indicate that MR-guided VB, in combination with the dedicated biopsy coil, offers the possibility to accurately diagnose even very small lesions that can only be visualized or localized by MRI.

  6. Design considerations for a C-shaped PET system, dedicated to small animal brain imaging, using GATE Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthimiou, N.; Papadimitroulas, P.; Kostou, T.; Loudos, G.

    2015-09-01

    Commercial clinical and preclinical PET scanners rely on the full cylindrical geometry for whole body scans as well as for dedicated organs. In this study we propose the construction of a low cost dual-head C-shaped PET system dedicated for small animal brain imaging. Monte Carlo simulation studies were performed using GATE toolkit to evaluate the optimum design in terms of sensitivity, distortions in the FOV and spatial resolution. The PET model is based on SiPMs and BGO pixelated arrays. Four different configurations with C- angle 0°, 15°, 30° and 45° within the modules, were considered. Geometrical phantoms were used for the evaluation process. STIR software, extended by an efficient multi-threaded ray tracing technique, was used for the image reconstruction. The algorithm automatically adjusts the size of the FOV according to the shape of the detector's geometry. The results showed improvement in sensitivity of ∼15% in case of 45° C-angle compared to the 0° case. The spatial resolution was found 2 mm for 45° C-angle.

  7. The impact of a dedicated orthoplastic operating list on time to soft tissue coverage of open lower limb fractures

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, MA; Wallis, K; Venus, M; Skillman, J; Young, J; Costa, ML

    2015-01-01

    An observational study was conducted of 105 patients presenting with an open fracture of the tibia or ankle to determine the impact of a dedicated orthoplastic operating list on our management of these injuries over the time period January 2012 to July 2014. There were 51 patients before and 54 after the introduction of the orthoplastic list. Significant improvements were noted in our ability to deliver a service in line with national guidelines across all Gustilo–Anderson grades of injury. Among patients with the most severe grades of injury (Gustilo types IIIB and IIIC), there was a trend towards an improved time to first skeletal stabilisation (29.5 vs 14.2 hours, p=0.068), an improvement in time to soft tissue coverage (173.6 vs 88.1 hours, p=0.009) and a trend towards a reduced length of inpatient stay (32.6 vs 23.2 days, p=0.138). Where the 72-hour target had been breached, there was a significant improvement in the proportion of patients covered within 7 days of injury (48.2% vs 83.3%, p=0.017). Our compliance with national management standards increased significantly to reflect these improvements in care. These results support the implementation of dedicated orthoplastic operating sessions to meet the growing burden of patients presenting with open fractures at specialist centres. PMID:26274740

  8. Optical calibration protocol for an x-ray and optical multimodality tomography system dedicated to small-animal examination

    SciTech Connect

    Da Silva, Anabela; Leabad, Mehdi; Driol, Clemence; Bordy, Thomas; Debourdeau, Mathieu; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Peltie, Philippe; Rizo, Philippe

    2009-04-01

    A small-animal multimodality tomography system dedicated to the coregistration of fluorescence optical signal and x-ray measurements has been developed in our laboratory. The purpose of such a system is to offer the possibility of getting in vivo anatomical and functional information simultaneously. Moreover, anatomical measurements can be used as a regularization factor to achieve more accurate reconstructions of the biodistribution of fluorochromes and to speed up treatment. A dedicated acquisition protocol has been established, and the methodology of the reconstruction of the three-dimensional distribution of the biomarkers under cylindrical geometry consistent with classic computed tomography has been implemented. A phantom study was conducted to evaluate and to fix the parameters for the coregistration. These test experiments were reproduced by considering anesthetized mice that had thin glass tubes containing fluorochromes inserted into their esophagus. The instrument is also used for an in vivo biological study conducted on mice with lung tumors, tagged with near-infrared optical probes (targeting probes such as Transferin-AlexaFluor750)

  9. SU-E-I-09: The Impact of X-Ray Scattering On Image Noise for Dedicated Breast CT

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, K; Gazi, P; Boone, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify the impact of detected x-ray scatter on image noise in flat panel based dedicated breast CT systems and to determine the optimal scanning geometry given practical trade-offs between radiation dose and scatter reduction. Methods: Four different uniform polyethylene cylinders (104, 131, 156, and 184 mm in diameter) were scanned as the phantoms on a dedicated breast CT scanner developed in our laboratory. Both stationary projection imaging and rotational cone-beam CT imaging was performed. For each acquisition type, three different x-ray beam collimations were used (12, 24, and 109 mm measured at isocenter). The aim was to quantify image noise properties (pixel variance, SNR, and image NPS) under different levels of x-ray scatter, in order to optimize the scanning geometry. For both projection images and reconstructed CT images, individual pixel variance and NPS were determined and compared. Noise measurement from the CT images were also performed with different detector binning modes and reconstruction matrix sizes. Noise propagation was also tracked throughout the intermediate steps of cone-beam CT reconstruction, including the inverse-logarithmic process, Fourier-filtering before backprojection. Results: Image noise was lower in the presence of higher scatter levels. For the 184 mm polyethylene phantom, the image noise (measured in pixel variance) was ∼30% lower with full cone-beam acquisition compared to a narrow (12 mm) fan-beam acquisition. This trend is consistent across all phantom sizes and throughout all steps of CT image reconstruction. Conclusion: From purely a noise perspective, the cone-beam geometry (i.e. the full cone-angle acquisition) produces lower image noise compared to the lower-scatter fan-beam acquisition for breast CT. While these results are relevant in homogeneous phantoms, the full impact of scatter on noise in bCT should involve contrast-to-noise-ratio measurements in heterogeneous phantoms if the goal is to optimize

  10. Technical Note: Skin thickness measurements using high-resolution flat-panel cone-beam dedicated breast CT

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Linxi; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Karellas, Andrew; O'Connell, Avice M.

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To determine the mean and range of location-averaged breast skin thickness using high-resolution dedicated breast CT for use in Monte Carlo-based estimation of normalized glandular dose coefficients. Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed image data from a clinical study investigating dedicated breast CT. An algorithm similar to that described by Huang et al.['The effect of skin thickness determined using breast CT on mammographic dosimetry,' Med. Phys. 35(4), 1199-1206 (2008)] was used to determine the skin thickness in 137 dedicated breast CT volumes from 136 women. The location-averaged mean breast skin thickness for each breast was estimated and the study population mean and range were determined. Pathology results were available for 132 women, and were used to investigate if the distribution of location-averaged mean breast skin thickness varied with pathology. The effect of surface fitting to account for breast curvature was also studied. Results: The study mean ({+-} interbreast SD) for breast skin thickness was 1.44 {+-} 0.25 mm (range: 0.87-2.34 mm), which was in excellent agreement with Huang et al. Based on pathology, pair-wise statistical analysis (Mann-Whitney test) indicated that at the 0.05 significance level, there were no significant difference in the location-averaged mean breast skin thickness distributions between the groups: benign vs malignant (p= 0.223), benign vs hyperplasia (p= 0.651), hyperplasia vs malignant (p= 0.229), and malignant vs nonmalignant (p= 0.172). Conclusions: Considering this study used a different clinical prototype system, and the study participants were from a different geographical location, the observed agreement between the two studies suggests that the choice of 1.45 mm thick skin layer comprising the epidermis and the dermis for breast dosimetry is appropriate. While some benign and malignant conditions could cause skin thickening, in this study cohort the location-averaged mean breast skin thickness

  11. Load estimator-based hybrid controller design for two-interleaved boost converter dedicated to renewable energy and automotive applications.

    PubMed

    Bougrine, Mohamed; Benmiloud, Mohammed; Benalia, Atallah; Delaleau, Emmanuel; Benbouzid, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the development of a hybrid controller for a two-interleaved boost converter dedicated to renewable energy and automotive applications. The control requirements, resumed in fast transient and low input current ripple, are formulated as a problem of fast stabilization of a predefined optimal limit cycle, and solved using hybrid automaton formalism. In addition, a real time estimation of the load is developed using an algebraic approach for online adjustment of the hybrid controller. Mathematical proofs are provided with simulations to illustrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed controller despite different disturbances. Furthermore, a fuel cell system supplying a resistive load through a two-interleaved boost converter is also highlighted.

  12. A multiclass vehicular dynamic traffic flow model for main roads and dedicated lanes/roads of multimodal transport network

    SciTech Connect

    Sossoe, K.S.; Lebacque, J-P.

    2015-03-10

    We present in this paper a model of vehicular traffic flow for a multimodal transportation road network. We introduce the notion of class of vehicles to refer to vehicles of different transport modes. Our model describes the traffic on highways (which may contain several lanes) and network transit for pubic transportation. The model is drafted with Eulerian and Lagrangian coordinates and uses a Logit model to describe the traffic assignment of our multiclass vehicular flow description on shared roads. The paper also discusses traffic streams on dedicated lanes for specific class of vehicles with event-based traffic laws. An Euler-Lagrangian-remap scheme is introduced to numerically approximate the model’s flow equations.

  13. Imaging and elemental mapping of biological specimens with a dual-EDS dedicated scanning transmission electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Wu, J S; Kim, A M; Bleher, R; Myers, B D; Marvin, R G; Inada, H; Nakamura, K; Zhang, X F; Roth, E; Li, S Y; Woodruff, T K; O'Halloran, T V; Dravid, Vinayak P

    2013-05-01

    A dedicated analytical scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) with dual energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) detectors has been designed for complementary high performance imaging as well as high sensitivity elemental analysis and mapping of biological structures. The performance of this new design, based on a Hitachi HD-2300A model, was evaluated using a variety of biological specimens. With three imaging detectors, both the surface and internal structure of cells can be examined simultaneously. The whole-cell elemental mapping, especially of heavier metal species that have low cross-section for electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), can be faithfully obtained. Optimization of STEM imaging conditions is applied to thick sections as well as thin sections of biological cells under low-dose conditions at room and cryogenic temperatures. Such multimodal capabilities applied to soft/biological structures usher a new era for analytical studies in biological systems.

  14. Decisional Information System for Safety (D.I.S.S.) Dedicated to the Human Space Exploration Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grès, Stéphane; Guyonnet, Jean-François

    2006-06-01

    At the heart of the issue of reliable and dependable systems and networks, this paper presents the conception of a Decisional Information System for Security (D.I.S.S.) dedicated to the Human Space Exploration Mission. The objective is to conceive a decisional information system for human long duration space flight (> 1000 days) which is realised in entire autonomy in the solar system. This article describes the importance of the epistemological and ontological context for designing an open, self-learning and reliable system able for self-adapt in dangerous and unforeseen situations. We present in link with our research, the limits of the empirical analytical paradigm and several paths of research lead by the nascent paradigm of enaction. The strong presumption is that the centralised models of security could not be sufficient today to respond and challenge the security of a technical system, which will support human exploration missions.

  15. Dedicated-site, interim storage of high-level nuclear waste as part of the management system

    PubMed Central

    Zen, E-an

    1980-01-01

    Dedicated-site interim storage of high-level reprocessed nuclear waste and of spent fuel rods is proposed as a long-term integral part of the systems approach of the national nuclear waste isolation program. Separation of interim sites for retrievable storage from permanent-disposal repositories should enhance ensurance of the performance of the latter; maintenance of retrievability at separate sites also has many advantages in both safety and possible use of waste as resources. Interim storage sites probably will not be needed beyond about 100 years from now, so the institutional and technical considerations involved in their choice should be much less stringent than those for the selection of permanent sites. Development of interim sites must be concurrent with unabated effort to identify and to develop permanent repositories. PMID:16592904

  16. Evolution of Cosmic Objects through their Physical Activity, Proceedings of the Conference dedicated to Viktor Ambartsumian's 100th anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunian, H. A.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Terzian, Y.

    2010-11-01

    The book presents papers of the Proceedings of the conference dedicated to Viktor Ambarstumian's 100 anniversary held in 2008 in Yerevan and Byurakan. It is divided into 5 parts related to the sessions held during the conference: Stars and Nebulae, Pulsars / Neutron Stars, Activity in Galaxies, Cosmology, Light Scattering and Radiative Transfer, and Miscellanea. All these fields reflect extremely productive results and achievements obtained by Viktor Ambarstumian during his long scientific life. Most of the authors have used Ambarstumian's ideas to obtain new results and give new interpretations on various cosmic phenomena, which come to prove the importance of Ambarstumian's works nowadays too. The book also includes a preface by the editors, the list of participants of the conference, report on the opening session at NAS RA, and author index at the end.

  17. Expression of factor H binding protein of meningococcus responds to oxygen limitation through a dedicated FNR-regulated promoter.

    PubMed

    Oriente, Francesca; Scarlato, Vincenzo; Delany, Isabel

    2010-02-01

    Factor H binding protein (fHBP) is a surface-exposed lipoprotein in Neisseria meningitidis, which is a component of several investigational vaccines against serogroup B meningococcus (MenB) currently in development. fHBP enables the bacterium to evade complement-mediated killing by binding factor H, a key downregulator of the complement alternative pathway, and, in addition, fHBP is important for meningococcal survival in the presence of the antimicrobial peptide LL-37. In this study, we investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in transcription and regulation of the fHBP-encoding gene, fhbp. We show that the fHBP protein is expressed from two independent transcripts: one bicistronic transcript that includes the upstream gene and a second shorter monocistronic transcript from its own dedicated promoter, P(fhbp). Transcription from the promoter P(fhbp) responds to oxygen limitation in an FNR-dependent manner, and, accordingly, the FNR protein binds to a P(fhbp) probe in vitro. Furthermore, expression in meningococci of a constitutively active FNR mutant results in the overexpression of the fHBP protein. Finally, the analysis of fHBP regulation was extended to a panel of strains expressing different fHBP allelic variants at different levels, and we demonstrate that FNR is involved in the regulation of this antigen in all but one of the strains tested. Our data suggest that oxygen limitation may play an important role in inducing the expression of fHBP from a dedicated FNR-regulated promoter. This implies a role for this protein in microenvironments lacking oxygen, for instance in the submucosa or intracellularly, in addition to its demonstrated role in serum resistance in the blood.

  18. Study of non-stoichiometric BaSrTiFeO3 oxide dedicated to semiconductor gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasquelle, D.; Verbrugghe, N.; Deputier, S.

    2016-11-01

    Developing instrumentation systems compatible with the European RoHS directive (restriction of hazardous substances) to monitor our environment is of great interest for our society. Our research therefore aims at developing innovating integrated systems of detection dedicated to the characterization of various environmental exposures. These systems, which integrate new gas sensors containing lead-free oxides, are dedicated to the detection of flammable and toxic gases. We have firstly chosen to study semiconductor gas sensors implemented with lead-free oxides in view to develop RoHS devices. Therefore thick films deposited by spin-coating and screen-printing have been chosen for their robustness, ease to realize and ease to finally obtain cost-effective sensors. As crystalline defects and ionic vacancies are of great interest for gas detection, we have decided to study a non-stoichiometric composition of the BaSrTiFeO3 sensible oxide. Nonstoichiometric BaSrTiFeO3 lead-free oxide thick films were deposited by screen-printing on polycrystalline AFO3 substrates covered by a layer of Ag-Pd acting as bottom electrode. The physical characterizations have revealed a crystalline structure mainly composed of BaTiO3 pseudo-cubic phase and Ba4Ti12O27 monoclinic phase for the powder, and a porous microstructure for the thick films. When compared to a BSTF thick film with a stoichiometric composition, a notable increase in the BSTF dielectric constant value was observed when taking into account of a similar microstructure and grain size. The loss tangent mean value varies more softly for the non-stoichiometric BaSrTiFeO3 films than for the perovskite BSTF film as tanδ decreases from 0.45 to 0.04 when the frequency increases from 100 Hz to 1 MHz.

  19. Regional CalVal of Altimeter Range at Non-Dedicated Sites in Preparation f Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancet, M.; Watson, C.; Haines, B.; Bonnefond, P.; Lyard, F.; Femenias, P.; Guinle, T.

    2015-12-01

    In situ calibration ensures regular and long-term control of the altimeter sea surface height (SSH) time series through comparisons with independent records. Usually, in situ calibration and validation of altimeter SSH is undertaken at specific CALVAL sites through the direct comparison of the altimeter data with in situ data [1]. However, NOVELTIS has developed a regional CALVAL technique, which aims at increasing the number and the repeatability of the altimeter bias assessments by determining the altimeter bias both on overflying passes and on satellite passes located far away from the calibration site. In principle this extends the single site approach to a wider regional scale, thus reinforcing the link between the local and the global CALVAL analyses. It also provides a means to maintain a calibration time series through periods of data-outage at a specific dedicated calibration site. The regional method was initially developed at the Corsican calibration sites of Senetosa and Ajaccio. The method was used to compute the biases of Jason-1, Jason-2 and Envisat (before and after the orbit change in 2010) at both sites, and proved its stability and generality through this cross-calibration exercise [2]. These last years, the regional method was successfully implemented at the Californian site of Harvest and at the Australian site of Bass Strait, in close collaboration with JPL and the University of Tasmania, respectively. These recent studies gave the first Envisat absolute bias estimates at non-dedicated sites using the same method, and showed high consistency with the analyses of the global CALVAL teams and the work of the in situ CALVAL teams. These results highlight the numerous advantages of this technique for monitoring missions on any orbits such as the future Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 missions.

  20. Inguinal hernia repair: are the results from a general hospital comparable to those from dedicated hernia centres?

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Kai Xiong; Lo, Hong Yee; Neo, Jun Xiang Andy; Appasamy, Vijayan; Chiu, Ming Terk

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We aimed to report the outcomes of inguinal hernia repair performed at Tan Tock Seng Hospital and compare them with those performed at dedicated hernia centres. METHODS We retrospectively analysed the medical records and telephone interviews of 520 patients who underwent inguinal hernia repair in 2010. RESULTS The majority of the patients were male (498 [95.8%] men vs. 22 [4.2%] women). The mean age was 59.9 ± 15.7 years. Most patients (n = 445, 85.6%) had unilateral hernias (25.8% direct, 64.3% indirect, 9.9% pantaloon). The overall recurrence rate was 3.8%, with a mean time to recurrence of 12.0 ± 8.6 months. Risk factors for recurrence included contaminated wounds (odds ratio [OR] 50.325; p = 0.004), female gender (OR 8.757; p = 0.003) and pantaloon hernias (OR 5.059; p = 0.013). Complication rates were as follows: chronic pain syndrome (1.2%), hypoaesthesia (5.2%), wound dehiscence (0.4%), infection (0.6%), haematoma/seroma (4.8%), urinary retention (1.3%) and intraoperative visceral injury (0.6%). Most procedures were open repairs (67.7%), and laparoscopic repair constituted 32.3% of all the inguinal hernia repairs. Open repairs resulted in longer operating times than laparoscopic repairs (86.6 mins vs. 71.6 mins; p < 0.001), longer hospital stays (2.7 days vs. 0.7 days; p = 0.020) and a higher incidence of post-repair hypoaesthesia (6.8% vs. 1.8%; p = 0.018). However, there were no significant differences in recurrence or other complications between open and laparoscopic repair. CONCLUSION A general hospital with strict protocols and teaching methodologies can achieve inguinal hernia repair outcomes comparable to those of dedicated hernia centres. PMID:24763834

  1. Design and characterization of a dedicated cone-beam CT scanner for detection of acute intracranial hemorrhage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Sisniega, A.; Zbijewski, W.; Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Wang, X.; Foos, D. H.; Aygun, N.; Koliatsos, V. E.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: Prompt and reliable detection of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) has substantial clinical impact in diagnosis and treatment of stroke and traumatic brain injury. This paper describes the design, development, and preliminary performance characterization of a dedicated cone-beam CT (CBCT) head scanner prototype for imaging of acute ICH. Methods: A task-based image quality model was used to analyze the detectability index as a function of system configuration, and hardware design was guided by the results of this model-based optimization. A robust artifact correction pipeline was developed using GPU-accelerated Monte Carlo (MC) scatter simulation, beam hardening corrections, detector veiling glare, and lag deconvolution. An iterative penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) reconstruction framework with weights adjusted for artifact-corrected projections was developed. Various bowtie filters were investigated for potential dose and image quality benefits, with a MC-based tool providing estimates of spatial dose distribution. Results: The initial prototype will feature a source-detector distance of 1000 mm and source-axis distance of 550 mm, a 43x43 cm2 flat panel detector, and a 15° rotating anode x-ray source with 15 kW power and 0.6 focal spot size. Artifact correction reduced image nonuniformity by ~250 HU, and PWLS reconstruction with modified weights improved the contrast to noise ratio by 20%. Inclusion of a bowtie filter can potentially reduce dose by 50% and improve CNR by 25%. Conclusions: A dedicated CBCT system capable of imaging millimeter-scale acute ICH was designed. Preliminary findings support feasibility of point-of-care applications in TBI and stroke imaging, with clinical studies beginning on a prototype.

  2. NEOSTEL: the telescope detail design program for the ESA optical ground network dedicated to NEO discovery and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibin, L.; Chiarini, M.; Bernardi, F.; Ragazzoni, R.; Salinari, P.

    The Fly-Eye architecture applied for a Space Debris and NEO Surveillance and Tracking optical telescope has been originally proposed by CGS and further refined in the framework of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Program studies. The high level architecture of a Telescope based on the Fly-Eye concept has been defined in the TELAD Study. Following TELAD conceptual design, the activities of NEOSTEL aim now at generating the Detailed Design of a NEO Survey Telescope based on the Fly-Eye concept. All components of the telescope are designed at detailed level to satisfy the specific requirements for the Survey and Follow Up of the Near Earth Objects. The NEO Survey Telescope detailed design generated under this Program will be directly utilized for the manufacturing of the first prototype, planned to be launched by the SSA Program in the second half of 2015. In addition, the result of the Detailed Design will produce the documentation necessary to prepare the future site that will host the NEO Survey Telescope prototype as well as the high level architecture of the data processing SW that will be required at the telescope site. The product of the prototypation activity will then constitute a full Italian key Optical Core Technology, dedicated to the NEO thematic but also extendable to the SST Segment, therefore offering possibility of application both at Civil and at Institutional level. Furthermore the Fly-Eye Telescope Technology can actively collaborate with a dedicated Space Segment, opening the way to a complete and autonomous EU System.

  3. Hardware assembly and prototype testing for the development of a dedicated liquefied propane gas ultra low emission vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-07-01

    On February 3, 1994, IMPCO Technologies, Inc. started the development of a dedicated LPG Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) under contract to the Midwest Research Institute National Renewable Energy Laboratory Division (NREL). The objective was to develop a dedicated propane vehicle that would meet or exceed the California ULEV emissions standards. The project is broken into four phases to be performed over a two year period. The four phases of the project include: (Phase 1) system design, (Phase 2) prototype hardware assembly and testing, (Phase 3) full-scale systems testing and integration, and (Phase 4) vehicle demonstration. This report describes the approach taken for the development of the vehicle and the work performed through the completion of Phase-2 dynamometer test results. Work was started on Phase 2 (Hardware Assembly and Prototype Testing) in May 1994 prior to completion of Phase 1 to ensure that long lead items would be available in a timely fashion for the Phase 2 work. In addition, the construction and testing of the interim electronic control module (ECM), which was used to test components, was begun prior to the formal start of Phase 2. This was done so that the shortened revised schedule for the project (24 months) could be met. In this report, a brief summary of the activities of each combined Phase 1 and 2 tasks will be presented, as well as project management activities. A technical review of the system is also given, along with test results and analysis. During the course of Phase 2 activities, IMPCO staff also had the opportunity to conduct cold start performance tests of the injectors. The additional test data was most positive and will be briefly summarized in this report.

  4. The effect of the source of microorganisms on adaptation of hydrolytic consortia dedicated to anaerobic digestion of maize silage.

    PubMed

    Poszytek, Krzysztof; Pyzik, Adam; Sobczak, Adam; Lipinski, Leszek; Sklodowska, Aleksandra; Drewniak, Lukasz

    2017-02-17

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the source of microorganisms on the selection of hydrolytic consortia dedicated to anaerobic digestion of maize silage. The selection process was investigated based on the analysis of changes in the hydrolytic activity and the diversity of microbial communities derived from (i) a hydrolyzer of a commercial agricultural biogas plant, (ii) cattle slurry and (iii) raw sewage sludge, during a series of 10 passages. Following the selection process, the adapted consortia were thoroughly analyzed for their ability to utilize maize silage and augmentation of anaerobic digestion communities. The results of selection of the consortia showed that every subsequent passage of each consortium leads to their adaptation to degradation of maize silage, which was manifested by the increased hydrolytic activity of the adapted consortia. Biodiversity analysis (based on the 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing) confirmed the changes microbial community of each consortium, and showed that after the last (10th) passage all microbial communities were dominated by the representatives of Lactobacillaceae, Prevotellaceae, Veillonellaceae. The results of the functional analyses showed that the adapted consortia improved the efficiency of maize silage degradation, as indicated by the increase in the concentration of glucose and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), as well as the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD). Moreover, bioaugmentation of anaerobic digestion communities by the adapted hydrolytic consortia increased biogas yield by 10-29%, depending on the origin of the community. The obtained results also indicate that substrate input (not community origin) was the driving force responsible for the changes in the community structure of hydrolytic consortia dedicated to anaerobic digestion.

  5. Hardware assembly and prototype testing for the development of a dedicated liquefied propane gas ultra low emission vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    On February 3, 1994, IMPCO Technologies, Inc. started the development of a dedicated LPG Ultra Low Emissions Vehicle (ULEV) under contract to the Midwest Research Institute National Renewable Energy Laboratory Division (NREL). The objective was to develop a dedicated propane vehicle that would meet or exceed the California ULEV emissions standards. The project is broken into four phases to be performed over a two year period. The four phases of the project include: (Phase 1) system design, (Phase 2) prototype hardware assembly and testing, (Phase 3) full-scale systems testing and integration, (Phase 4) vehicle demonstration. This report describes the approach taken for the development of the vehicle and the work performed through the completion of Phase II dynamometer test results. Work was started on Phase 2 (Hardware Assembly and Prototype Testing) in May 1994 prior to completion of Phase 1 to ensure that long lead items would be available in a timely fashion for the Phase 2 work. In addition, the construction and testing of the interim electronic control module (ECM), which was used to test components, was begun prior to the formal start of Phase 2. This was done so that the shortened revised schedule for the project (24 months) could be met. In this report, a brief summary of the activities of each combined Phase 1 and 2 tasks will be presented, as well as project management activities. A technical review of the system is also given, along with test results and analysis. During the course of Phase 2 activities, IMPCO staff also had the opportunity to conduct cold start performance tests of the injectors. The additional test data was most positive and will be briefly summarized in this report.

  6. Maxine M. Thompson - Dedication

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript summarizes the research career of Dr. Maxine M. Thompson, world renown horticulturist, plant breeder, and plant explorer. She became the first women professor at the Oregon State University, Deparment of Horticulture. She studied Rubus cytology and genetics and floral development in ...

  7. Dedicated to computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Princeton University astrophysicist David Spergel, founding director of the Center for Computational Astrophsyics at the Flatiron Institute, talks to Michael Banks about plans to make New York a major centre for computational science

  8. Dedicated Space | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The three-story, 330,000-square-foot Advanced Technology Research Facility has nearly 40,000 square feet designated as partnership space (shown in blue) for co-location of collaborators from industry, academia, nonprofit sectors, and other government agencies. The partnership space, combined with multiple conference rooms and meeting areas, encourages both internal and external collaborations.

  9. Saturn V Dedication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Members of the original Von Braun german rocket team participate in the Saturn V replica didication ceremony at the U. S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, AL. Pictured are (L/R): Walter Jacobi, Konrad Dannenberg, Apollo 14's Edgar Mitchell, NASA Administrator Dan Goldin, Apollo 12's Dick Gordon, Gerhard Reisig, Werner Dahm, MSFC Director Art Stephenson, Director of the U. S. Space and Rocket Center Mike Wing, Walter Haeusserman, and Ernst Stuhlinger.

  10. Creating dedicated bioenergy crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioenergy is one of the current mechanisms of producing renewable energy to reduce our use of nonrenewable fossil fuels and to reduce carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Humans have been using bioenergy since we first learned to create and control fire - burning manure, peat, and wood to cook food...

  11. Dedication to Herbert Friedman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gursky, Herbert

    2001-04-01

    Herbert Friedman died on 9 September 2000 at the age of 84. He spent his entire professional career at the Naval Research Laboratory, starting as a physicist in 1940 after completing his graduate work at Johns Hopkins University. During his first ten years at NRL he was occupied with analytical studies of materials using x-rays, building on the research experience he gained as a graduate student. His principal accomplishments related to the development and application of high efficiency gas counters for x-rays and the associated high speed electronics and included the development of x-ray fluorescence as a laboratory and industrial tool. He also developed the geiger counters used by NRL in the detection of the first Soviet nuclear bomb. By 1950 he had switched fields and had begun the program of rocket observations of the sun for which he is best known. His first rocket flight, a V2 flown in 1949, one of the first applications of photon counting to astronomy, established the relationship between solar x-rays and ultraviolet radiation and the ionization structure of the upper atmosphere. By the late 1950s Friedman had switched fields again, to the study of UV and x-rays from the night sky. In 1964 he performed a landmark rocket experiment, observing x-ray emission from the Crab Nebula as it was being occulted by the Moon. In 1960 Friedman was elected to the National Academy of Sciences and became increasingly involved in community affairs, including membership on the President’s Science Advisory Committee, the General Advisory Committee to the Atomic Energy Commission, the Space Science Board of the National Academy of Sciences and the Governing Board of the National Academy of Sciences.

  12. HyMeX-SOP1, the field campaign dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash-flooding in Northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducrocq, Véronique

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is frequently affected by heavy precipitation events associated with flash-floods, landslides and mudslides each year that cost several billions of dollars in damage and causing too often casualties. Within the framework of the 10-year international HyMeX program dedicated to the hydrological cycle and related processes in the Mediterranean (http://www.hymex.org), a major field campaign has been dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash-floods from September to November 2012. The 2-month field campaign took place over the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea and its surrounding coastal regions in France, Italy and Spain. The observation strategy aimed at documenting four key components leading to heavy precipitation and flash-flooding in that region: (i) the marine atmospheric flow that transport moist and conditionaly unstable air towards the coasts; (ii) the Mediterranean Sea as a moisture and energy source; (iii) the dynamics and microphysics of the convective systems; (iv) the hydrological processes during flash-floods. During the field campaign about twenty precipitation events were monitored, including mesoscale convective systems, Mediterranean cyclogenesis, shallow-convection orographic precipitation. Three aircraft performed about 250 flight hours for a survey of the upstream flow, the air-sea fluxes and the convective systems. About 700 additional radiosoundings were launched either from HyMeX sites or from operational RS sites in Europe, as well as about 20 boundary layer balloons were launched to monitor the low-level flow over the Mediterranean Sea and the ambient atmospheric conditions. Gliders, Argo floats, drifting buoys and ocean soundings from vessels monitored the Mediterranean Sea during the field campaign. Atmospheric and hydrological instruments such as radars, LIDARS, radiometers, wind profilers, lightning sensors, were deployed over 5 regions in France, Italy and Spain. The presentation will present the general

  13. Design study of a high-resolution breast-dedicated PET system built from cadmium zinc telluride detectors

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Levin, Craig S

    2013-01-01

    We studied the performance of a dual-panel positron emission tomography (PET) camera dedicated to breast cancer imaging using Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed system consists of two 4 cm thick 12 × 15 cm2 area cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) panels with adjustable separation, which can be put in close proximity to the breast and/or axillary nodes. Unique characteristics distinguishing the proposed system from previous efforts in breast-dedicated PET instrumentation are the deployment of CZT detectors with superior spatial and energy resolution, using a cross-strip electrode readout scheme to enable 3D positioning of individual photon interaction coordinates in the CZT, which includes directly measured photon depth-of-interaction (DOI), and arranging the detector slabs edge-on with respect to incoming 511 keV photons for high photon sensitivity. The simulation results show that the proposed CZT dual-panel PET system is able to achieve superior performance in terms of photon sensitivity, noise equivalent count rate, spatial resolution and lesion visualization. The proposed system is expected to achieve ~32% photon sensitivity for a point source at the center and a 4 cm panel separation. For a simplified breast phantom adjacent to heart and torso compartments, the peak noise equivalent count (NEC) rate is predicted to be ~94.2 kcts s−1 (breast volume: 720 cm3 and activity concentration: 3.7 kBq cm−3) for a ~10% energy window around 511 keV and ~8 ns coincidence time window. The system achieves 1 mm intrinsic spatial resolution anywhere between the two panels with a 4 cm panel separation if the detectors have DOI resolution less than 2 mm. For a 3 mm DOI resolution, the system exhibits excellent sphere resolution uniformity (σrms/mean) ≤ 10%) across a 4 cm width FOV. Simulation results indicate that the system exhibits superior hot sphere visualization and is expected to visualize 2 mm diameter spheres with a 5:1 activity concentration ratio within roughly 7

  14. Performance of a high-sensitivity dedicated cardiac SPECT scanner for striatal uptake quantification in the brain based on analysis of projection data

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Mi-Ae; Moore, Stephen C.; McQuaid, Sarah J.; Kijewski, Marie Foley; Mueller, Stefan P.

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: The authors have previously reported the advantages of high-sensitivity single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems for imaging structures located deep inside the brain. DaTscan (Isoflupane I-123) is a dopamine transporter (DaT) imaging agent that has shown potential for early detection of Parkinson disease (PD), as well as for monitoring progression of the disease. Realizing the full potential of DaTscan requires efficient estimation of striatal uptake from SPECT images. They have evaluated two SPECT systems, a conventional dual-head gamma camera with low-energy high-resolution collimators (conventional) and a dedicated high-sensitivity multidetector cardiac imaging system (dedicated) for imaging tasks related to PD. Methods: Cramer-Rao bounds (CRB) on precision of estimates of striatal and background activity concentrations were calculated from high-count, separate acquisitions of the compartments (right striata, left striata, background) of a striatal phantom. CRB on striatal and background activity concentration were calculated from essentially noise-free projection datasets, synthesized by scaling and summing the compartment projection datasets, for a range of total detected counts. They also calculated variances of estimates of specific-to-nonspecific binding ratios (BR) and asymmetry indices from these values using propagation of error analysis, as well as the precision of measuring changes in BR on the order of the average annual decline in early PD. Results: Under typical clinical conditions, the conventional camera detected 2 M counts while the dedicated camera detected 12 M counts. Assuming a normal BR of 5, the standard deviation of BR estimates was 0.042 and 0.021 for the conventional and dedicated system, respectively. For an 8% decrease to BR = 4.6, the signal-to-noise ratio were 6.8 (conventional) and 13.3 (dedicated); for a 5% decrease, they were 4.2 (conventional) and 8.3 (dedicated). Conclusions: This implies that PD can

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of second generation bioethanol produced from low-input dedicated crops of Arundo donax L.

    PubMed

    Zucaro, Amalia; Forte, Annachiara; Basosi, Riccardo; Fagnano, Massimo; Fierro, Angelo

    2016-11-01

    This work presents a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of bioethanol (EtOH) from perennial Arundo donax L. feedstock. A "cradle-to-wheel" approach was applied considering primary data for the cultivation of dedicated crops on hilly marginal lands and innovative "second generation technologies" for feedstock conversion into EtOH. The goals of the study were to: (i) quantify impacts of lignocellulosic EtOH production/use chain, (ii) identify hotspots and (iii) compare the environmental performance of different bioethanol-gasoline vehicles, E10 (10% EtOH and 90% gasoline) and E85 (85% EtOH and 15% gasoline), with a conventional gasoline passenger car. Results for E85 underlined that the feedstock production and the use phase were the prevailing contributors, whilst for E10 the gasoline production phase shared the largest part of impacts. The comparison showed that vehicles using lignocellulosic bioethanol have potentially significant benefits on global warming, ozone depletion, photochemical oxidant formation and fossil depletion in respect to conventional passenger car.

  16. The case for 100 GeV bino dark matter: a dedicated LHC tri-lepton search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beekveld, Melissa; Beenakker, Wim; Caron, Sascha; de Austri, Roberto Ruiz

    2016-04-01

    Global fit studies performed in the pMSSM and the photon excess signal originating from the Galactic Center seem to suggest compressed electroweak supersymmetric spectra with a ˜100 GeV bino-like dark matter particle. We find that these scenarios are not probed by traditional electroweak supersymmetry searches at the LHC. We propose to extend the ATLAS and CMS electroweak supersymmetry searches with an improved strategy for bino-like dark matter, focusing on chargino plus next-to-lightest neutralino production, with a subsequent decay into a tri-lepton final state. We explore the sensitivity for pMSSM scenarios with Δ m = m NLSP - m LSP ˜ (5 - 50) GeV in the √{s} = 14 TeV run of the LHC. Counterintuitively, we find that the requirement of low missing transverse energy increases the sensitivity compared to the current ATLAS and CMS searches. With 300 fb-1 of data we expect the LHC experiments to be able to discover these supersymmetric spectra with mass gaps down to Δ m ˜ 9 GeV for DM masses between 40 and 140 GeV. We stress the importance of a dedicated search strategy that targets precisely these favored pMSSM spectra.

  17. Fluorescence Quenching Nanoprobes Dedicated to In Vivo Photoacoustic Imaging and High-Efficient Tumor Therapy in Deep-Seated Tissue.

    PubMed

    Qin, Huan; Zhou, Ting; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2015-06-10

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) and photoacoustic (PA) therapy have promising applications for treating tumors. It is known that the utilization of high-absorption-coefficient probes can selectively enhance the PAI target contrast and PA tumor therapy efficiency in deep-seated tissue. Here, the design of a probe with the highest availability of optical-thermo conversion by using graphene oxide (GO) and dyes via π-π stacking interactions is reported. The GO serves as a base material for loading dyes and quenching dye fluorescence via fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), with the one purpose of maximum of PA efficiency. Experiments verify that the designed fluorescence quenching nanoprobes can produce stronger PA signals than the sum of the separate signals generated in the dye and the GO. Potential applications of the fluorescence quenching nanoprobes are demonstrated, dedicating to enhance PA contrast of targets in deep-seated tissues and tumors in living mice. PA therapy efficiency both in vitro and in vivo by using the fluorescence quenching nanoprobes is found to be higher than with the commonly used PA therapy agents. Taken together, quenching dye fluorescence via FRET will provide a valid means for developing high-efficiency PA probes. Fluorescence quenching nanoprobes are likely to become a promising candidate for deep-seated tumor imaging and therapy.

  18. A hybrid flowshop scheduling model considering dedicated machines and lot-splitting for the solar cell industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-Chih; Chen, Yin-Yann; Chen, Tzu-Li; Cheng, Chen-Yang; Chang, Chin-Wei

    2014-10-01

    This paper studies a solar cell industry scheduling problem, which is similar to traditional hybrid flowshop scheduling (HFS). In a typical HFS problem, the allocation of machine resources for each order should be scheduled in advance. However, the challenge in solar cell manufacturing is the number of machines that can be adjusted dynamically to complete the job. An optimal production scheduling model is developed to explore these issues, considering the practical characteristics, such as hybrid flowshop, parallel machine system, dedicated machines, sequence independent job setup times and sequence dependent job setup times. The objective of this model is to minimise the makespan and to decide the processing sequence of the orders/lots in each stage, lot-splitting decisions for the orders and the number of machines used to satisfy the demands in each stage. From the experimental results, lot-splitting has significant effect on shortening the makespan, and the improvement effect is influenced by the processing time and the setup time of orders. Therefore, the threshold point to improve the makespan can be identified. In addition, the model also indicates that more lot-splitting approaches, that is, the flexibility of allocating orders/lots to machines is larger, will result in a better scheduling performance.

  19. Potential land competition between open-pond microalgae production and terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems in the U.S.

    DOE PAGES

    Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Hellwinckel, Chad M.; ...

    2016-03-03

    To date, feedstock resource assessments have evaluated cellulosic and algal feedstocks independently, without consideration of demands for, and resource allocation to, each other. We assess potential land competition between algal and terrestrial feedstocks in the United States, and evaluate a scenario in which 41.5 × 109 L yr–1 of second-generation biofuels are produced on pastureland, the most likely land base where both feedstock types may be deployed. Under this scenario, open-pond microalgae production is projected to use 1.2 × 106 ha of private pastureland, while terrestrial biomass feedstocks would use 14.0 × 106 ha of private pastureland. A spatial meta-analysismore » indicates that potential competition for land under this scenario would be concentrated in 110 counties, containing 1.0 and 1.7 × 106 ha of algal and terrestrial dedicated feedstock production, respectively. Furthermore, a land competition index applied to these 110 counties suggests that 38 to 59 counties could experience competition for upwards of 40% of a county's pastureland, representing 2%–5% of total pastureland in the U.S.; therefore suggesting little overall competition between algae production, terrestrial energy feedstocks and alternative uses for existing agricultural production such as livestock grazing.« less

  20. Effect of the dedicated education unit on nursing student self-efficacy: A quasi-experimental research study.

    PubMed

    George, Lynn E; Locasto, Lisa W; Pyo, Katrina A; W Cline, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Although the Dedicated Education Unit (DEU) has shown initial promise related to satisfaction with the teaching/learning environment, few studies have examined student outcomes related to the use of the DEU as a clinical education model beyond student satisfaction. The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to compare student outcomes from the traditional clinical education (TCE) model with those from the DEU model. Participants were students enrolled in a four-year baccalaureate program in nursing (n = 193) who had clinical education activities in one of three clinical agencies. Participants were assigned to either the DEU or a TCE model. Pre-clinical and post-clinical self-efficacy scores were measured for each group using an adapted Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (Schwarzer and Jerusalem, 1995). Both groups experienced a significant increase in self-efficacy scores post clinical education. The increase in self-efficacy for the DEU students was significantly greater than the increase in self-efficacy for the traditional students. Self-efficacy is considered an important outcome of nursing education because high self-efficacy has been linked to making an easier transition from student to nursing professional. This study supports the quality of the DEU as a clinical education model by examining student self-efficacy outcomes.

  1. Prospects for dedicated energy crop production and attitudes towards agricultural straw use: The case of livestock farmers

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, P.; Glithero, N.J.; Ramsden, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Second generation biofuels utilising agricultural by-products (e.g. straw), or dedicated energy crops (DECs) produced on ‘marginal’ land, have been called for. A structured telephone survey of 263 livestock farmers, predominantly located in the west or ‘marginal’ upland areas of England captured data on attitudes towards straw use and DECs. Combined with farm physical and business data, the survey results show that 7.2% and 6.3% of farmers would respectively consider growing SRC and miscanthus, producing respective maximum potential English crop areas of 54,603 ha and 43,859 ha. If higher market prices for straw occurred, most livestock farmers would continue to buy straw. Reasons for not being willing to consider growing DECs include concerns over land quality, committing land for a long time period, lack of appropriate machinery, profitability, and time to financial return; a range of moral, land quality, production conflict and lack of crop knowledge factors were also cited. Results demonstrate limited potential for the production of DECs on livestock farms in England. Changes in policy support to address farmer concerns with respect to DECs will be required to incentivise farmers to increase energy crop production. Policy support for DEC production must be cognisant of farm-level economic, tenancy and personal objectives. PMID:25844008

  2. Optimized 31P MRS in the human brain at 7 T with a dedicated RF coil setup

    PubMed Central

    van de Bank, Bart L.; Orzada, Stephan; Smits, Frits; Lagemaat, Miriam W.; Rodgers, Christopher T.; Bitz, Andreas K.

    2015-01-01

    The design and construction of a dedicated RF coil setup for human brain imaging (1H) and spectroscopy (31P) at ultra‐high magnetic field strength (7 T) is presented. The setup is optimized for signal handling at the resonance frequencies for 1H (297.2 MHz) and 31P (120.3 MHz). It consists of an eight‐channel 1H transmit–receive head coil with multi‐transmit capabilities, and an insertable, actively detunable 31P birdcage (transmit–receive and transmit only), which can be combined with a seven‐channel receive‐only 31P array. The setup enables anatomical imaging and 31P studies without removal of the coil or the patient. By separating transmit and receive channels and by optimized addition of array signals with whitened singular value decomposition we can obtain a sevenfold increase in SNR of 31P signals in the occipital lobe of the human brain compared with the birdcage alone. These signals can be further enhanced by 30 ± 9% using the nuclear Overhauser effect by B 1‐shimmed low‐power irradiation of water protons. Together, these features enable acquisition of 31P MRSI at high spatial resolutions (3.0 cm3 voxel) in the occipital lobe of the human brain in clinically acceptable scan times (~15 min). © 2015 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26492089

  3. MR-Guided High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Breast Cancer with a Dedicated Breast Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Merckel, Laura G.; Bartels, Lambertus W.; Koehler, Max O.; Bongard, H. J. G. Desiree van den; Deckers, Roel; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; Binkert, Christoph A.; Moonen, Chrit T.; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G. A. Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den

    2013-04-15

    Optimizing the treatment of breast cancer remains a major topic of interest. In current clinical practice, breast-conserving therapy is the standard of care for patients with localized breast cancer. Technological developments have fueled interest in less invasive breast cancer treatment. Magnetic resonance-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (MR-HIFU) is a completely noninvasive ablation technique. Focused beams of ultrasound are used for ablation of the target lesion without disrupting the skin and subcutaneous tissues in the beam path. MRI is an excellent imaging method for tumor targeting, treatment monitoring, and evaluation of treatment results. The combination of HIFU and MR imaging offers an opportunity for image-guided ablation of breast cancer. Previous studies of MR-HIFU in breast cancer patients reported a limited efficacy, which hampered the clinical translation of this technique. These prior studies were performed without an MR-HIFU system specifically developed for breast cancer treatment. In this article, a novel and dedicated MR-HIFU breast platform is presented. This system has been designed for safe and effective MR-HIFU ablation of breast cancer. Furthermore, both clinical and technical challenges are discussed, which have to be solved before MR-HIFU ablation of breast cancer can be implemented in routine clinical practice.

  4. Cargo Logistics Airlift Systems Study (CLASS). Volume 4: Future requirements of dedicated freighter aircraft to year 2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burby, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The 1978 fleet operations are extended to the year 1992, thus providing an evaluation of current aircraft types in meeting the ensuing increased market demand. Possible changes in the fleet mix and the resulting economic situation are defined in terms of the number of units of each type aircraft and the resulting growth in operational frequency. Among the economic parameters considered are the associated investment required by the airline, the return on investment to the airline, and the accompanying levels of cash flow and operating income. Against this background the potential for a derivative aircraft to enter fleet operations in 1985 is defined as a function of payload size and as affected by 1980 technology. In a similar manner, the size and potential for a new dedicated 1990 technology, freighter aircraft to become operational in 1995 is established. The resulting aircraft and fleet operational and economic characteristics are evaluated over the period 1994 to 2008. The impacts of restricted growth in operational frequency, reduced market demand, variations in aircraft configurations, and military participation, are assessed.

  5. Predictive modeling of colorectal cancer using a dedicated pre-processing pipeline on routine electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Kop, Reinier; Hoogendoorn, Mark; Teije, Annette Ten; Büchner, Frederike L; Slottje, Pauline; Moons, Leon M G; Numans, Mattijs E

    2016-09-01

    Over the past years, research utilizing routine care data extracted from Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) has increased tremendously. Yet there are no straightforward, standardized strategies for pre-processing these data. We propose a dedicated medical pre-processing pipeline aimed at taking on many problems and opportunities contained within EMR data, such as their temporal, inaccurate and incomplete nature. The pipeline is demonstrated on a dataset of routinely recorded data in general practice EMRs of over 260,000 patients, in which the occurrence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is predicted using various machine learning techniques (i.e., CART, LR, RF) and subsets of the data. CRC is a common type of cancer, of which early detection has proven to be important yet challenging. The results are threefold. First, the predictive models generated using our pipeline reconfirmed known predictors and identified new, medically plausible, predictors derived from the cardiovascular and metabolic disease domain, validating the pipeline's effectiveness. Second, the difference between the best model generated by the data-driven subset (AUC 0.891) and the best model generated by the current state of the art hypothesis-driven subset (AUC 0.864) is statistically significant at the 95% confidence interval level. Third, the pipeline itself is highly generic and independent of the specific disease targeted and the EMR used. In conclusion, the application of established machine learning techniques in combination with the proposed pipeline on EMRs has great potential to enhance disease prediction, and hence early detection and intervention in medical practice.

  6. Comparative analysis of iterative reconstruction algorithms with resolution recovery and new solid state cameras dedicated to myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Marco; Lecchi, Michela; Matheoud, Roberta; Leva, Lucia; Lucignani, Giovanni; Marcassa, Claudio; Zoccarato, Orazio

    2017-03-23

    New technologies are available in myocardial perfusion imaging. They include new software that recovers image resolution and limits image noise, multifocal collimators and dedicated cardiac cameras in which solid-state detectors are used and all available detectors are constrained to imaging just the cardiac field of view. These innovations resulted in shortened study times or reduced administered activity to patients, while preserving image quality. Many single center and some multicenter studies have been published during the introduction of these innovations in the clinical practice. Most of these studies were lead in the framework of "agreement studies" between different methods of clinical measurement. They aimed to demonstrate that these new software/hardware solutions allow the acquisition of images with reduced acquisition time or administered activity with comparable results (as for image quality, image interpretation, perfusion defect quantification, left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction) to the standard-time or standard-dose SPECT acquired with a conventional gamma camera and reconstructed with the traditional FBP method, considered as the gold standard. The purpose of this review is to provide the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the pro and cons of the different approaches summarizing the achievements reached so far and the issues that need further investigations.

  7. Engaging students in dedicated research and scholarship during medical school: the long-term experiences at Duke and Stanford.

    PubMed

    Laskowitz, Daniel T; Drucker, Robert P; Parsonnet, Julie; Cross, Patricia C; Gesundheit, Neil

    2010-03-01

    For more than 40 years, the faculties of Duke University School of Medicine (SOM) and Stanford University SOM have encouraged or required students to engage in scholarship as a way to broaden their education and attract them to careers in academic medicine. A dedicated period of research was first integrated into the Duke curriculum in 1959 to provide an opportunity for students to develop into physician leaders through a rigorous scholarly experience in biomedically related research. Originally designed to foster experience in laboratory-based basic research, the third-year program has evolved in response to the changing landscape of medicine and shifting needs and career interests of the medical student population. Stanford University SOM also has a long-standing commitment to biomedical research and currently requires each student to complete an in-depth, mentored "scholarly concentration." In contrast to Duke, where most of the scholarly research experiences take place in an immersive third year, the Stanford program encourages a longitudinal, multiyear exposure over all four (or five) years of medical school. Although the enduring effects of embedding a rigorous research program are not yet fully known, preliminary data suggest that these experiences instill an appreciation for research, impart research rigor and methodologies, and may motivate students to pursue careers in academic medicine. The authors discuss the histories, evolution, logistics, and ongoing challenges of the research programs at Duke University SOM and Stanford University SOM.

  8. Response to a field of the D = 3 Ising spin glass with Janus and JanusII dedicated computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seoane, Beatriz; Janus Collaboration Collaboration

    Using the Janus dedicated computer, and its new generation JanusII, we study the linear response to a field of the Edwards-Anderson model for times that cover twelve orders of magnitude. The fluctuation-dissipation relations are investigated for several values of tw. We observe that the violations of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem can be directly related to the P (q) measured in equilibrium at finite sizes, although a simple statics-dynamics dictionary L <--> ξ (tw) is not enough to account for the behavior at large times. We show that the equivalence can be easily restored by taking into account the growth of ξ (t +tw) . Interestingly, experimental measurements of the spin glass correlation length rely precisely on the response of a spin glass to a field, although a direct relation between the measured object and the real ξ has never been established. In this work, we mimic the experimental protocol with Janus data, which lets us relate the experimental ξ with the length extracted from the spatial correlation function. These results allow us for the first time to make a quantitative comparison between experiments and simulations, finding a surprising good agreement with measurements in superspin glasses. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 654971, the ERC grant CRIPHERASY (no. 247328) and from the MINECO(Spain) (No. FIS2012-35719-C02).

  9. Development of the compact proton beam therapy system dedicated to spot scanning with real-time tumor-tracking technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, Masumi; Fujimoto, Rintaro; Umekawa, Tooru; Fujii, Yuusuke; Takayanagi, Taisuke; Ebina, Futaro; Aoki, Takamichi; Nagamine, Yoshihiko; Matsuda, Koji; Hiramoto, Kazuo; Matsuura, Taeko; Miyamoto, Naoki; Nihongi, Hideaki; Umegaki, Kikuo; Shirato, Hiroki

    2013-04-01

    Hokkaido University and Hitachi Ltd. have started joint development of the Gated Spot Scanning Proton Therapy with Real-Time Tumor-Tracking System by integrating real-time tumor tracking technology (RTRT) and the proton therapy system dedicated to discrete spot scanning techniques under the "Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R&D on Science and Technology (FIRST Program)". In this development, we have designed the synchrotron-based accelerator system by using the advantages of the spot scanning technique in order to realize a more compact and lower cost proton therapy system than the conventional system. In the gated irradiation, we have focused on the issues to maximize irradiation efficiency and minimize the dose errors caused by organ motion. In order to understand the interplay effect between scanning beam delivery and target motion, we conducted a simulation study. The newly designed system consists of the synchrotron, beam transport system, one compact rotating gantry treatment room with robotic couch, and one experimental room for future research. To improve the irradiation efficiency, the new control function which enables multiple gated irradiations per synchrotron cycle has been applied and its efficacy was confirmed by the irradiation time estimation. As for the interplay effect, we confirmed that the selection of a strict gating width and scan direction enables formation of the uniform dose distribution.

  10. Design of ADC in 25 μm pixels pitch dedicated for IRFPA image processing at LETI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchagaspanian, M.; Villard, P.; Dupont, B.; Chammings, G.; Martin, J. L.; Pistre, C.; Lattard, D.; Chantre, C.; Arnaud, A.; Yon, J. J.; Simoens, F.; Tissot, J. L.

    2007-04-01

    LETI has been involved in IRFPA development since 1978, the design department (LETI/DCIS) has focused its work on new ROIC architecture since many years. The trend is to integrate advanced functions into the CMOS design in the aim of making cost efficient sensors. The purpose of this paper is to present the latest developments of an Analog to Digital Converter embedded in a 25μm pixel. The design is driven by several goals. It targets both long integration time and snapshot exposure, 100% of image frame time being available for integration. All pixels are integrating the IR signal at the same time. The IR signal is converted into digital by using a charge packet counter. High density 130nm CMOS allows to use many digital functions such as counting, memory and addressing. This new structure has been applied to 25μm pitch bolometer sensors with a dedicated 320 x 240 IRCMOS circuit. Due to smart image processing in the CMOS, the bolometer architecture requirements may become very simple and low cost. The room temperature sensitivity and the DC offset are solved directly in the pixel. This FPA targets low NETD (<50mK), a variation of 80 Kelvin for the FPA temperature, 14 bits output at 50/60Hz video rate.

  11. Sorting of an integral outer membrane protein via the lipoprotein-specific Lol pathway and a dedicated lipoprotein pilotin.

    PubMed

    Collin, Séverine; Guilvout, Ingrid; Nickerson, Nicholas N; Pugsley, Anthony P

    2011-05-01

    The lipoprotein PulS is a dedicated chaperone that is required to target the secretin PulD to the outer membrane in Klebsiella or Escherichia coli, and to protect it from proteolysis. Here, we present indirect evidence that PulD protomers do not assemble into the secretin dodecamer before they reach the outer membrane, and that PulS reaches the outer membrane in a soluble heterodimer with the general lipoprotein chaperone LolA. However, we could not find any direct evidence for PulD protomer association with the PulS-LolA heterodimer. Instead, in cells producing PulD and a permanently locked PulS-LolA dimer (in which LolA carries an R43L substitution that prevents lipoprotein transfer to LolB in the outer membrane), LolAR43L was found in the inner membrane, probably still associated with PulS bound to PulD that had been incorrectly targeted because of the LolAR43L substitution. It is speculated that PulD protomers normally cross the periplasm together with PulS bound to LolA but when the latter cannot be separated (due to the mutation in lolA), the PulD protomers form dodecamers that insert into the inner membrane.

  12. Sentinel node biopsy in the surgical management of breast cancer: experience in a general hospital with a dedicated surgical team.

    PubMed

    Merson, M; Fenaroli, P; Gianatti, A; Virotta, G; Giuliano, L G; Bonasegale, A; Bambina, S; Pericotti, S; Guerra, U; Tondini, C

    2004-06-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse the feasibility and accuracy of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) procedure as performed in a general hospital compared with the literature results; to report on the organizational aspects of planning surgical time with higher accuracy of pathological analysis; and to verify that there is a real advantage of SLNB in the surgical management of breast cancer. From October 1999 to September 2000, 371 consecutive patients with T1-2N0 breast lesions underwent SLNB. The immunoscintigraphic method of sentinel node identification was the main one used, the blue dye method being used only when the lymphoscintigraphic method was unsuccessful in identifying sentinel nodes. SLNB was done under either general or local anaesthesia, depending on how the surgical procedure was organized and clinically planned. SLNB was successful in 99% of these T1-2N0 breast cancer cases, and in 71% no metastases were found in the sentinel node. In 47% of cases with axillary metastasis only the sentinel node was involved. Nodal involvement was not present in any case of microinvasive or in situ carcinoma. In T1 cancers nodal involvement was present in 21%; in T2 cases the corresponding rate reached 51%. The results obtained with the SLNB procedure at Bergamo Hospital are similar to the literature data. When a dedicated surgical team, the nuclear medicine department and the pathology department work together, a general hospital can provide breast cancer patients with appropriate surgical treatment.

  13. Evidence for photoneutron production in the lead shielding of a dedicated intra-operative electron only facility.

    PubMed

    Biggs, P J

    1998-01-01

    A dedicated electron-only intra-operative suite has just been completed at the Massachusetts General Hospital. This suite is located on the 3rd floor with the shielding consisting entirely of lead and borated polyethylene, except for concrete in the floor and ceiling to support the lead and on the finished floor. The radiation protection barriers for this facility were calculated on the basis of a maximum permissible dose of 10 microSv wk(-1) for photons and 10 microSv wk(-1) for neutrons, based on a quality factor of 10 (this factor is specified in the regulations of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts). This even split was predicated on the basis that, except for the primary beam, the neutron leakage from the machine was generally about the same as for x rays. The initial survey showed that the neutron dose equivalent outside all barriers, except below the floor, was within the calculated values, < 10 microSv wk(-1). However, the neutron dose equivalent measured directly below the floor was found to be 35 microSv wk(-1) for the highest electron energy, a difference of > 25 microSv wk(-1). The neutron dose equivalent, for neutrons produced by bremsstrahlung photon interactions in the lead and based on a 3% photon background in the electron beam, was calculated to be 25 microSv wk(-1), in good agreement with this difference.

  14. NOTE: Changes in the energy response of a dedicated gamma camera after exposure to a high-flux irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheoud, Roberta; Zito, Felicia; Canzi, Cristina; Voltini, Franco; Gerundini, Paolo

    1999-06-01

    This work reports the effects of the gain variation of the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) observed on a cardiac dedicated gamma camera after accidental high-flux irradiation. One detector of this dual-headed 90°-fixed gamma camera was accidentally left uncollimated during a quality assurance procedure on the other detector with a 57Co flood source (259 MBq) and received a non-uniform high flux of 1.9-0.6 Mcps over 25 000 mm2 areas for about 30 min. To evaluate the severity and the duration of the perturbation effect on the energy response of the detector, the photopeak position was monitored for about 1 month with a 99mTc point source. The 140 keV photopeak shifted to 158 keV soon after irradiation, reached the correct position after 9 days and moved to a stable value of 132 keV after 15 days. Afterwards, a new energy calibration reset the photopeak position at 140 keV and the correct energy response of the gamma camera. This experience suggests that particular care should be taken to avoid exposures to high radiation fluxes that induce persistent gain shifts on the PMTs of this system.

  15. Design, Construction and Magnetic Measurements of the HU640 (OPHELIE2) Undulator dedicated to the DESIRS VUV Beamline at SOLEIL

    SciTech Connect

    Marcouille, O.; Brunelle, P.; Chubar, O.; Marteau, F.; Massal, M.; Nahon, L.; Tavakoli, K.; Veteran, J.; Filhol, J.-M.

    2007-01-19

    A novel electromagnetic Insertion Device (ID) called HU640 (OPHELIE2) has been developed and constructed for the DESIRS beam line at SOLEIL. It is a 10 m-long helical/planar undulator designed to produce any kind of switchable photon polarizations in the range 5 eV - 40 eV. It is composed of three sets of pure air coils mounted in a special arrangment. One set coils is dedicated to generate the horizontal field component. Two other sets, shifted the one from the other by a quarter of period along the ID axis, produce the vertical component with a continuous translation dephasing varying from -180 deg. to +180 deg. . The use of non magnetic material makes the undulator linear with the coil current in terms of peak field and residual integrated field errors. This allows the number of magnetic controls, corrections to be significantly reduced and to ease the on-beam operation. The paper presents the design, the construction and the magnetic measurements of the undulator.

  16. Seismological Data Stewardship at the IRIS DMC: The Role of a Dedicated Data Management System for Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, R. B.; Ahern, T. K.; Trabant, C.; Casey, R.

    2011-12-01

    Since the founding of the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) in 1984, there has been a core program for data management, quite unique at the time, dedicated solely to ensuring that data recorded by IRIS and it's partners had a perpetual data management framework that ensures data will be searchable, well-documented, and preserved so that future generations can, at it's core, have an accurate history of ground motion recordings. This goal is manifest in the IRIS Data Management System, or DMS. The mission of this NSF-EAR facility is "To provide reliable and efficient access to high quality seismological and related geophysical data, generated by IRIS and its domestic and international partners, and to enable all parties interested in using these data to do so in a straightforward and efficient manner". This presentation will focus on the data management business rules that capture the data life-cycle of 3 different segments of seismological and related geophysical data managed by IRIS: - Images and parametric information of historical analog data, - Non-real time quality-controlled digital data, - Real time data that streams into the DMC through a number of different protocols. We will describe how data collection, curation, and distribution to users are cataloged to provide an accurate provenance log of contributed data, which are passed along to both the consumer and network data provider. In addition, we will discuss the need and business rules that apply to metadata and how it is managed.

  17. WE-FG-207A-05: Dedicated Breast CT as a Diagnostic Imaging Tool: Physics and Clinical Feasibility.

    PubMed

    Karellas, A

    2016-06-01

    Mammography-based screening has been a valuable imaging tool for the early detection of non-palpable lesions and has contributed to significant reduction in breast cancer associated mortality. However, the breast imaging community recognizes that mammography is not ideal, and in particular is inferior for women with dense breasts. Also, the 2-D projection of a 3-D organ results in tissue superposition contributing to false-positives. The sensitivity of mammography is breast-density dependent. Its sensitivity, especially in dense breasts, is low due to overlapping tissue and the fact that normal breast tissue, benign lesions and breast cancers all have similar "densities", making lesion detection more difficult. We ideally need 3-D imaging for imaging the 3-D breast. MRI is 3-D, whole breast ultrasound is 3-D, digital breast tomosynthesis is called 3-D but is really "pseudo 3-D" due to poor resolution along the depth-direction. Also, and importantly, we need to be able to administer intravenous contrast agents for optimal imaging, similar to other organ systems in the body. Dedicated breast CT allows for 3-D imaging of the uncompressed breast. In current designs, the patient is positioned prone on the table and the breast is pendant through an aperture and the scan takes approximately 10 seconds [O'Connell et al., AJR 195: 496-509, 2010]. Almost on the heels of the invention of CT itself, work began on the development of dedicated breast CT. These early breast CT systems were used in clinical trials and the results from comparative performance evaluation of breast CT and mammography for 1625 subjects were reported in 1980 [Chang et al., Cancer 46: 939-46, 1980]. However, the technological limitations at that time stymied clinical translation for decades. Subsequent to the landmark article in 2001 [Boone et al., Radiology 221: 657-67, 2001] that demonstrated the potential feasibility in terms of radiation dose, multiple research groups are actively investigating

  18. Potential land competition between open-pond microalgae production and terrestrial dedicated feedstock supply systems in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Hellwinckel, Chad M.; Brandt, Craig C.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Eaton, Laurence M.

    2016-03-03

    To date, feedstock resource assessments have evaluated cellulosic and algal feedstocks independently, without consideration of demands for, and resource allocation to, each other. We assess potential land competition between algal and terrestrial feedstocks in the United States, and evaluate a scenario in which 41.5 × 109 L yr–1 of second-generation biofuels are produced on pastureland, the most likely land base where both feedstock types may be deployed. Under this scenario, open-pond microalgae production is projected to use 1.2 × 106 ha of private pastureland, while terrestrial biomass feedstocks would use 14.0 × 106 ha of private pastureland. A spatial meta-analysis indicates that potential competition for land under this scenario would be concentrated in 110 counties, containing 1.0 and 1.7 × 106 ha of algal and terrestrial dedicated feedstock production, respectively. Furthermore, a land competition index applied to these 110 counties suggests that 38 to 59 counties could experience competition for upwards of 40% of a county's pastureland, representing 2%–5% of total pastureland in the U.S.; therefore suggesting little overall competition between algae production, terrestrial energy feedstocks and alternative uses for existing agricultural production such as livestock grazing.

  19. Multimedia Activities in L2 Course Websites--A Case Study of a Site Dedicated to Cultural Topics of Portuguese-Speaking Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This study examines student preferences and behavior when navigating online multimedia modules dedicated to teaching cultural aspects associated with an L2, and the contribution of the online multimedia format of the modules to raising interest in these cultural topics. It focuses on student options regarding reading texts on the modules' main…

  20. Wait No Longer. Report of the First National Conference on Special Recreation for the Handicapped and the Dedication Ceremonies of White Oak Village of Mountwood Park.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bane, David C., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    The document offers proceedings of the First National Conference on Special Recreation for the handicapped which coincided with the dedication of White Oak Village/Mountwood Park (West Virginia), a recreational facility designed to serve as a national model for meeting the recreational needs of the handicapped. An introductory paper by E. Lehew…

  1. COMPARISON OF GEOPROBE PRT AND AMS GVP SOIL-GAS SAMPLING SYSTEMS WITH DEDICATED VAPOR PROBES IN SANDY SOILS AT THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was conducted near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut to compare results of soil-gas sampling using dedicated vapor probes, a truck-mounted direct-push technique - the Geoprobe Post-Run-Tubing (PRT) system, and a hand-held rotary hammer technique - the A...

  2. Montecarlo simulation code in optimisation of the IntraOperative Radiation Therapy treatment with mobile dedicated accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, M.; Agosteo, S.; Moretti, R.; Andreoli, S.

    2007-06-01

    The principle of optimisation of the EURATOM 97/43 directive foresees that for all medical exposure of individuals for radiotherapeutic purposes, exposures of target volumes shall be individually planned, taking into account that doses of non-target volumes and tissues shall be as low as reasonably achievable and consistent with the intended radiotherapeutic purpose of the exposure. Treatment optimisation has to be carried out especially in non conventional radiotherapic procedures, as Intra Operative Radiation Therapy (IORT) with mobile dedicated LINear ACcelerator (LINAC), which does not make use of a Treatment Planning System. IORT is carried out with electron beams and refers to the application of radiation during a surgical intervention, after the removal of a neoplastic mass and it can also be used as a one-time/stand alone treatment in initial cancer of small volume. IORT foresees a single session and a single beam only; therefore it is necessary to use protection systems (disks) temporary positioned between the target volume and the underlying tissues, along the beam axis. A single high Z shielding disk is used to stop the electrons of the beam at a certain depth and protect the tissues located below. Electron back scatter produces an enhancement in the dose above the disk, and this can be reduced if a second low Z disk is placed above the first. Therefore two protection disks are used in clinical application. On the other hand the dose enhancement at the interface of the high Z disk and the target, due to back scattering radiation, can be usefully used to improve the uniformity in treatment of thicker target volumes. Furthermore the dose above the disks of different Z material has to be evaluated in order to study the optimal combination of shielding disks that allow both to protect the underlying tissues and to obtain the most uniform dose distribution in target volumes of different thicknesses. The dose enhancement can be evaluated using the electron

  3. Clinical profiles of adverse drug reactions spontaneously reported at a single Korean hospital dedicated to children with complex chronic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bomi; Kim, Sunwha Zara; Lee, Jin; Jung, Ae Hee; Jung, Sun-Hoi; Hahn, Hyeon-Joo; Kang, Hye Ryun

    2017-01-01

    Children with complex chronic conditions (CCC) are presumed to be vulnerable to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The clinical profiles of ADRs in CCC are not well known. Herein, we aim to describe the ADR profiles in CCC with regard to typical presentations and vulnerable groups. We accessed the ADR yearly reports at a tertiary children's hospital whose practice is mainly dedicated to CCC and descriptively analyzed their clinical profiles according to the presence of a complex chronic condition, ADR severity, and age groups. A total of 1841 cases were analyzed, among which 1258 (68.3%) were mild, 493 (26.8%) moderate, and 90 (4.9%) cases were severe. A total of 1581 (85.9%) cases of complex chronic condition were reported. The proportion of CCC in each severity group increased as the ADR becomes more severe. In CCC, ADRs were most frequently reported by nurses in the adolescent group and in cases where the symptoms involved the gastrointestinal system. The class of antineoplastic and immunomodulating drugs was the most commonly suspected of causing an ADR, followed by one of the antibiotics. When we focus on the trend across the age groups, the ratio of severe-to-total ADRs decreased with older age. Among severe cases, the ratio of off-label prescription-related cases was the highest in the infant/toddler group and decreased as the groups aged. In conclusion, ADRs of CCCs admitted to a tertiary children’s hospital have a unique profile. These groups are vulnerable to ADRs and thus they should be monitored closely, especially when they are infants or toddlers, so that severe ADRs can be identified and treated immediately. PMID:28199420

  4. Temporal change analysis for improved tumor detection in dedicated CT breast imaging using affine and free-form deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Joyoni; O'Connor, J. Michael; Chen, Yu; Glick, Stephen J.

    2008-03-01

    Preliminary evidence has suggested that computerized tomographic (CT) imaging of the breast using a cone-beam, flat-panel detector system dedicated solely to breast imaging has potential for improving detection and diagnosis of early-stage breast cancer. Hypothetically, a powerful mechanism for assisting in early stage breast cancer detection from annual screening breast CT studies would be to examine temporal changes in the breast from year-to-year. We hypothesize that 3D image registration could be used to automatically register breast CT volumes scanned at different times (e.g., yearly screening exams). This would allow radiologists to quickly visualize small changes in the breast that have developed during the period since the last screening CT scan, and use this information to improve the diagnostic accuracy of early-stage breast cancer detection. To test our hypothesis, fresh mastectomy specimens were imaged with a flat-panel CT system at different time points, after moving the specimen to emulate the re-positioning motion of the breast between yearly screening exams. Synthetic tumors were then digitally inserted into the second CT scan at a clinically realistic location (to emulate tumor growth from year-to-year). An affine and a spline-based 3D image registration algorithm was implemented and applied to the CT reconstructions of the specimens acquired at different times. Subtraction of registered image volumes was then performed to better analyze temporal change. Results from this study suggests that temporal change analysis in 3D breast CT can potentially be a powerful tool in improving the visualization of small lesion growth.

  5. Development, implementation and evaluation of a dedicated metal artefact reduction method for interventional flat-detector CT.

    PubMed

    Prell, D; Kalender, W A; Kyriakou, Y

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate a dedicated metal artefact reduction (MAR) method for flat-detector CT (FDCT). The algorithm uses the multidimensional raw data space to calculate surrogate attenuation values for the original metal traces in the raw data domain. The metal traces are detected automatically by a three-dimensional, threshold-based segmentation algorithm in an initial reconstructed image volume, based on twofold histogram information for calculating appropriate metal thresholds. These thresholds are combined with constrained morphological operations in the projection domain. A subsequent reconstruction of the modified raw data yields an artefact-reduced image volume that is further processed by a combining procedure that reinserts the missing metal information. For image quality assessment, measurements on semi-anthropomorphic phantoms containing metallic inserts were evaluated in terms of CT value accuracy, image noise and spatial resolution before and after correction. Measurements of the same phantoms without prostheses were used as ground truth for comparison. Cadaver measurements were performed on complex and realistic cases and to determine the influences of our correction method on the tissue surrounding the prostheses. The results showed a significant reduction of metal-induced streak artefacts (CT value differences were reduced to below 22 HU and image noise reduction of up to 200%). The cadaver measurements showed excellent results for imaging areas close to the implant and exceptional artefact suppression in these areas. Furthermore, measurements in the knee and spine regions confirmed the superiority of our method to standard one-dimensional, linear interpolation.

  6. Impact evaluation of an orbital depot on on-orbit servicing infrastructures dedicated to modularized earth-orbiting platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarton du Jonchay, Tristan; Ho, Koki

    2017-03-01

    This paper aims to quantify the responsiveness of two on-orbit servicing infrastructures providing services to multiple serviceable platforms in coplanar medium Earth orbit (MEO) and geostationary orbit (GEO). The platforms to be serviced are assumed to be made of elementary units (EUs). EUs are small standardized structural units capable of aggregating with each other and gathering the key functions of a typical satellite within the size of a 6U cubesat. The first servicing infrastructure considered in this paper, called "Without Depot" (WoD), includes a launch vehicle and a robotic servicer. The second servicing infrastructure, called "With Depot" (WD) includes a launch vehicle, a robotic servicer and an orbital depot of EUs. The responsiveness of these infrastructures is quantified using a queueing theory-based stochastic simulation on Simulink taking into account the launch and platform random failures. The metrics used to quantify the responsiveness are the service completion rate and the average waiting time before an EU is replaced over a 10-year period of operation. With respect to those metrics, it is demonstrated that WD is more responsive than WoD. However, WD is also shown to be likely to cost more than WoD. Finally, the sensitivity of the responsiveness of WD to the capacity of the orbital depot is analyzed to find the minimum storage capacity for which WD is the most responsive. This last result could be of interest for space designers dealing with the sizing of on-orbit servicing infrastructures. We believe that the concept introduced in this paper will be a critical milestone in the design of a responsive integrated space infrastructure dedicated to the development and prosperity of a new MEO/GEO economy.

  7. Comprehensive MRI simulation methodology using a dedicated MRI scanner in radiation oncology for external beam radiation treatment planning

    SciTech Connect

    Paulson, Eric S.; Erickson, Beth; Schultz, Chris; Allen Li, X.

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in radiation oncology is expanding rapidly, and more clinics are integrating MRI into their radiation therapy workflows. However, radiation therapy presents a new set of challenges and places additional constraints on MRI compared to diagnostic radiology that, if not properly addressed, can undermine the advantages MRI offers for radiation treatment planning (RTP). The authors introduce here strategies to manage several challenges of using MRI for virtual simulation in external beam RTP. Methods: A total of 810 clinical MRI simulation exams were performed using a dedicated MRI scanner for external beam RTP of brain, breast, cervix, head and neck, liver, pancreas, prostate, and sarcoma cancers. Patients were imaged in treatment position using MRI-optimal immobilization devices. Radiofrequency (RF) coil configurations and scan protocols were optimized based on RTP constraints. Off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity-induced geometric distortions were minimized or corrected prior to using images for RTP. A multidisciplinary MRI simulation guide, along with window width and level presets, was created to standardize use of MR images during RTP. A quality assurance program was implemented to maintain accuracy and repeatability of MRI simulation exams. Results: The combination of a large bore scanner, high field strength, and circumferentially wrapped, flexible phased array RF receive coils permitted acquisition of thin slice images with high contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and image intensity uniformity, while simultaneously accommodating patient setup and immobilization devices. Postprocessing corrections and alternative acquisition methods were required to reduce or correct off-resonance and gradient nonlinearity induced geometric distortions. Conclusions: The methodology described herein contains practical strategies the authors have implemented through lessons learned performing clinical MRI simulation exams. In

  8. BrachyGuide: a brachytherapy-dedicated DICOM RT viewer and interface to Monte Carlo simulation software.

    PubMed

    Pantelis, Evaggelos; Peppa, Vassiliki; Lahanas, Vasileios; Pappas, Eleftherios; Papagiannis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-08

    This work presents BrachyGuide, a brachytherapy-dedicated software tool for the automatic preparation of input files for Monte Carlo simulation from treatment plans exported in DICOM RT format, and results of calculations performed for its benchmarking. Three plans were prepared using two computational models, the image series of a water sphere and a multicatheter breast brachytherapy patient, for each of two commercially available treatment planning systems: BrachyVision and Oncentra Brachy. One plan involved a single source dwell position of an 192Ir HDR source (VS2000 or mHDR-v2) at the center of the water sphere using the TG43 algorithm, and the other two corresponded to the TG43 and advanced dose calculation algorithm for the multicatheter breast brachytherapy patient. Monte Carlo input files were prepared using BrachyGuide and simulations were performed with MCNP v.6.1. For the TG43 patient plans, the Monte Carlo computational model was manually edited in the prepared input files to resemble TG43 dosimetry assumptions. Hence all DICOM RT dose exports were equivalent to corresponding simulation results and their comparison was used for benchmarking the use of BrachyGuide. Monte Carlo simulation results and corresponding DICOM RT dose exports agree within type A uncertainties in the majority of points in the computational models. Treatment planning system, algorithm, and source specific differences greater than type A uncertainties were also observed, but these were explained by treatment planning system-related issues and other sources of type B uncertainty. These differences have to be taken into account in commissioning procedures of brachytherapy dosimetry algorithms. BrachyGuide is accurate and effective for use in the preparation of commissioning tests for new brachytherapy dosimetry algorithms as a user-oriented commissioning tool and the expedition of retrospective patient cohort studies of dosimetry planning.

  9. THE DETECTION RATE OF EARLY UV EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE: A DEDICATED GALEX/PTF SURVEY AND CALIBRATED THEORETICAL ESTIMATES

    SciTech Connect

    Ganot, Noam; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran O.; Sagiv, Ilan; Waxman, Eli; Lapid, Ofer; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Chelouche, Doron; Rafter, Stephen; Behar, Ehud; Laor, Ari; Poznanski, Dovi; Nakar, Ehud; Maoz, Dan; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Neill, James D.; Barlow, Thomas A.; Martin, Christofer D.; Collaboration: ULTRASAT Science Team; WTTH consortium; GALEX Science Team; Palomar Transient Factory; and others

    2016-03-20

    The radius and surface composition of an exploding massive star, as well as the explosion energy per unit mass, can be measured using early UV observations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We present the first results from a simultaneous GALEX/PTF search for early ultraviolet (UV) emission from SNe. Six SNe II and one Type II superluminous SN (SLSN-II) are clearly detected in the GALEX near-UV (NUV) data. We compare our detection rate with theoretical estimates based on early, shock-cooling UV light curves calculated from models that fit existing Swift and GALEX observations well, combined with volumetric SN rates. We find that our observations are in good agreement with calculated rates assuming that red supergiants (RSGs) explode with fiducial radii of 500 R{sub ⊙}, explosion energies of 10{sup 51} erg, and ejecta masses of 10 M{sub ⊙}. Exploding blue supergiants and Wolf–Rayet stars are poorly constrained. We describe how such observations can be used to derive the progenitor radius, surface composition, and explosion energy per unit mass of such SN events, and we demonstrate why UV observations are critical for such measurements. We use the fiducial RSG parameters to estimate the detection rate of SNe during the shock-cooling phase (<1 day after explosion) for several ground-based surveys (PTF, ZTF, and LSST). We show that the proposed wide-field UV explorer ULTRASAT mission is expected to find >85 SNe per year (∼0.5 SN per deg{sup 2}), independent of host galaxy extinction, down to an NUV detection limit of 21.5 mag AB. Our pilot GALEX/PTF project thus convincingly demonstrates that a dedicated, systematic SN survey at the NUV band is a compelling method to study how massive stars end their life.

  10. The Detection Rate of Early UV Emission from Supernovae: A Dedicated Galex/PTF Survey and Calibrated Theoretical Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganot, Noam; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Ofek, Eran. O.; Sagiv, Ilan; Waxman, Eli; Lapid, Ofer; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Ben-Ami, Sagi; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; The ULTRASAT Science Team; Chelouche, Doron; Rafter, Stephen; Behar, Ehud; Laor, Ari; Poznanski, Dovi; Nakar, Ehud; Maoz, Dan; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; WTTH Consortium, The; Neill, James D.; Barlow, Thomas A.; Martin, Christofer D.; Gezari, Suvi; the GALEX Science Team; Arcavi, Iair; Bloom, Joshua S.; Nugent, Peter E.; Sullivan, Mark; Palomar Transient Factory, The

    2016-03-01

    The radius and surface composition of an exploding massive star, as well as the explosion energy per unit mass, can be measured using early UV observations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We present the first results from a simultaneous GALEX/PTF search for early ultraviolet (UV) emission from SNe. Six SNe II and one Type II superluminous SN (SLSN-II) are clearly detected in the GALEX near-UV (NUV) data. We compare our detection rate with theoretical estimates based on early, shock-cooling UV light curves calculated from models that fit existing Swift and GALEX observations well, combined with volumetric SN rates. We find that our observations are in good agreement with calculated rates assuming that red supergiants (RSGs) explode with fiducial radii of 500 R ⊙, explosion energies of 1051 erg, and ejecta masses of 10 M ⊙. Exploding blue supergiants and Wolf-Rayet stars are poorly constrained. We describe how such observations can be used to derive the progenitor radius, surface composition, and explosion energy per unit mass of such SN events, and we demonstrate why UV observations are critical for such measurements. We use the fiducial RSG parameters to estimate the detection rate of SNe during the shock-cooling phase (<1 day after explosion) for several ground-based surveys (PTF, ZTF, and LSST). We show that the proposed wide-field UV explorer ULTRASAT mission is expected to find >85 SNe per year (˜0.5 SN per deg2), independent of host galaxy extinction, down to an NUV detection limit of 21.5 mag AB. Our pilot GALEX/PTF project thus convincingly demonstrates that a dedicated, systematic SN survey at the NUV band is a compelling method to study how massive stars end their life.

  11. The clinical and laboratory spectrum of dedicator of cytokinesis 8 immunodeficiency syndrome in patients with a unique mutation.

    PubMed

    Broides, Arnon; Mandola, Amarilla B; Levy, Jacov; Yerushalmi, Baruch; Pinsk, Vered; Eldan, Michal; Shubinsky, George; Hadad, Nurit; Levy, Rachel; Nahum, Amit; Ben-Harosh, Miriam; Lev, Atar; Simon, Amos; Somech, Raz

    2017-01-10

    Mutations in the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) gene cause a combined immunodeficiency usually diagnosed as autosomal recessive hyper IgE syndrome. We sought to reveal the varying manifestations in patients with a unique mutation in DOCK8 gene by a retrospective medical record review. Ten patients from five consanguineous families and three tribes were included. Seven patients were homozygous for the c.C5134A, p.S1711X mutation, and the remaining three patients were their siblings manifesting hyper IgE syndrome features without a genetic diagnosis. Prior to the genetic diagnosis, the clinical diagnosis was "hyper IgE syndrome" in six patients and "anti-pneumococcal antibody deficiency," "recurrent pneumonia with bronchiectasis," and "asthma with hypereosinophilic syndrome" each diagnosed once. One additional patient was diagnosed due to family history. The age of presentation varied from 1 to 16 months. Eczema was diagnosed in all patients, food allergies in three, and severe herpes keratitis or malignancy or autoimmunity in two patients. Elevated IgE was recorded in nine patients; however, in six patients, the initial serum IgE concentration was equal to or less than three times the normal concentration for age, and in these patients, the median age at IgE evaluation was 7.5 months compared with 21.5 months in patients with an initial IgE concentration above three times the normal concentration for age (P = 0.067). The spectrum of disease manifestations in patients with a unique mutation in DOCK8 is variable. The genotype-phenotype correlations may be modified by genetic and/or epigenetic modifiers beyond the monogenic effect. Younger patients tend to have lower IgE concentrations at the initial measurement of IgE.

  12. Physical effects of mechanical design parameters on photon sensitivity and spatial resolution performance of a breast-dedicated PET system

    PubMed Central

    Spanoudaki, V. C.; Lau, F. W. Y.; Vandenbroucke, A.; Levin, C. S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to address design considerations of a high resolution, high sensitivity positron emission tomography scanner dedicated to breast imaging. Methods: The methodology uses a detailed Monte Carlo model of the system structures to obtain a quantitative evaluation of several performance parameters. Special focus was given to the effect of dense mechanical structures designed to provide mechanical robustness and thermal regulation to the minuscule and temperature sensitive detectors. Results: For the energies of interest around the photopeak (450–700 keV energy window), the simulation results predict a 6.5% reduction in the single photon detection efficiency and a 12.5% reduction in the coincidence photon detection efficiency in the case that the mechanical structures are interspersed between the detectors. However for lower energies, a substantial increase in the number of detected events (approximately 14% and 7% for singles at a 100–200 keV energy window and coincidences at a lower energy threshold of 100 keV, respectively) was observed with the presence of these structures due to backscatter. The number of photon events that involve multiple interactions in various crystal elements is also affected by the presence of the structures. For photon events involving multiple interactions among various crystal elements, the coincidence photon sensitivity is reduced by as much as 20% for a point source at the center of the field of view. There is no observable effect on the intrinsic and the reconstructed spatial resolution and spatial resolution uniformity. Conclusions: Mechanical structures can have a considerable effect on system sensitivity, especially for systems processing multi-interaction photon events. This effect, however, does not impact the spatial resolution. Various mechanical structure designs are currently under evaluation in order to achieve optimum trade-off between temperature stability, accurate detector positioning, and minimum

  13. A dedicated fungal culture medium is useful in the diagnosis of fungemia: a retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shuwei; Ng, Tong Yong; Li, Huihua; Tan, Ai Ling; Tan, Thuan Tong; Tan, Ban Hock

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality for candidemia ranges from 15% to 35%. Current guidelines recommend inoculating blood into three aerobic and three anaerobic blood culture bottles when candidemia is suspected, without mention of a fungal blood culture bottle. Objective To determine the value of the BACTEC Myco/F Lytic blood culture media in the diagnosis of fungemia. Methods A two-year retrospective cross-sectional study was performed for patients who had fungemia with submitted BACTEC Plus Aerobic/F (Aer), BACTEC Plus Anaerobic/F (Anaer) or Myco/F Lytic (Myco) blood culture bottles. Results The detection rate of fungemia was 77.4% in 93 patients with contemporaneously submitted blood culture bottles when limited to only Aer/Anaer culture results. The detection rate improved significantly with the addition of the Myco culture bottle results (p<0.0001). A logistic regression model showed that Myco culture bottle submissions were less useful for patients with appropriate anti-fungal therapy administered within 48 hours [OR = 0.18, 95% CI = (0.06, 0.49), p = 0.001] and those with fungal growth detected within 48 hours [OR = 0.33, 95% CI = (0.12, 0.89), p = 0.001]. Among a subset of patients with concordant blood culture results, those with Myco culture bottles submission allowed earlier fungal detection and speciation by at least one day in 27.5% and 25.0% of the cases respectively. Conclusion Our study highlights the importance of a dedicated fungal blood culture when fungemia is clinically suspected. Nearly a quarter of fungemias may be missed if a fungal blood culture is not performed. PMID:27736956

  14. 2P2Idb v2: update of a structural database dedicated to orthosteric modulation of protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Basse, Marie-Jeanne; Betzi, Stéphane; Morelli, Xavier; Roche, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    2P2Idb is a hand-curated structural database dedicated to protein–protein interactions with known small molecule orthosteric modulators. It compiles the structural information related to orthosteric inhibitors and their target [i.e. related 3D structures available in the RCSB Protein Data Bank (PDB)] and provides links to other useful databases. 2P2Idb includes all interactions for which both the protein–protein and protein–inhibitor complexes have been structurally characterized. Since its first release in 2010, the database has grown constantly and the current version contains 27 protein–protein complexes and 274 protein–inhibitor complexes corresponding to 242 unique small molecule inhibitors which represent almost a 5-fold increase compared to the previous version. A number of new data have been added, including new protein–protein complexes, binding affinities, molecular descriptors, precalculated interface parameters and links to other webservers. A new query tool has been implemented to search for inhibitors within the database using standard molecular descriptors. A novel version of the 2P2I-inspector tool has been implemented to calculate a series of physical and chemical parameters of the protein interfaces. Several geometrical parameters including planarity, eccentricity and circularity have been added as well as customizable distance cutoffs. This tool has also been extended to protein–ligand interfaces. The 2P2I database thus represents a wealth of structural source of information for scientists interested in the properties of protein–protein interactions and the design of protein–protein interaction modulators. Database URL: http://2p2idb.cnrs-mrs.fr PMID:26980515

  15. Family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease: a twenty-year experience in two dedicated public cord blood banks.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Hanadi; Bernaudin, Françoise; Rouard, Helene; Vanneaux, Valérie; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Cavazzana, Marina; Gauthereau, Valerie; Stanislas, Aurélie; Benkerrou, Malika; De Montalembert, Mariane; Ferry, Christele; Girot, Robert; Arnaud, Cecile; Kamdem, Annie; Gour, Joelle; Touboul, Claudine; Cras, Audrey; Kuentz, Mathieu; Rieux, Claire; Volt, Fernanda; Cappelli, Barbara; Maio, Karina T; Paviglianiti, Annalisa; Kenzey, Chantal; Larghero, Jerome; Gluckman, Eliane

    2017-03-16

    Efforts to implement family cord blood banking have been developed in the past decades for siblings requiring stem cell transplantation for conditions such as sickle cell disease. However, public banks are faced with challenging decisions about the units to be stored, discarded, or used for other endeavors. We report here 20 years of experience in family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease in two dedicated public banks. Participants were pregnant women who had previous child diagnosed with homozygous sickle cell disease. Participation was voluntary and free of charge. All mothers underwent mandatory serologic screening. Cord blood units were collected in different hospitals, but processed and stored in two public banks. A total of 338 units were stored for 302 families. Median recipient's age was 6 years (11 months - 15 years). Median collected volume and total nucleated cell count were 91 ml (23 - 230) and 8.6 x108 (0.7 - 75 x108), respectively. Microbial contamination was observed in 3.5% (n=12), positive Hepatitis B serology in 25% (n=84) and homozygous sickle cell disease in 11% (n=37) of the collections. Forty-four units were HLA-identical to intended recipient, and 28 units were released for transplantation either alone (n=23) or in combination with the bone marrow from the same donor (n=5), reflecting a utilization rate of 8%. Engraftment rate was 96% with 100% survival. Family cord blood banking yields good quality units for sibling transplantation. More comprehensive banking based on close collaboration among banks, clinical and transplant teams is recommended for optimized utilization of these units.

  16. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis of benign eyelid lesions: Is a dedicated nurse-led service safe and effective?

    PubMed

    Mohite, Abhijit A; Johnson, Andria; Rathore, Deepa S; Bhandari, Kamal; Crossman, Richard; Mehta, Purnima; Ahluwalia, Harpreet S

    2016-08-01

    This article compares an independent nurse-led benign lesion service with a doctor-led one, and assesses the impact of clinician seniority on diagnostic accuracy rates. Retrospective review of benign lesions referred to a teaching hospital and managed in either a doctor- or nurse-led lid service. All lesions were diagnosed clinically, excised and then sent for histological diagnosis. Lesions were categorized into subtypes. Pre-excision clinical diagnoses were compared with histological diagnoses. Sensitivity, specificity and missed malignancy rates were calculated for each subtype. Accuracy was compared between different grades of doctors and a specialist nurse. 264 and 332 lesions were managed in a doctor-led and nurse-led service, respectively. Rates of accurate sub-typing were 79.6% and 80.4% in the doctor- and nurse-led services, respectively (p > 0.05). Clinician seniority had no bearing. Missed malignancies or pre-malignancies accounted for 1.1% and 1.5% of lesions in the doctor and nurse-led services, respectively (p > 0.05). Overall, the remaining misdiagnoses were benign lesions of another subtype (13.6%) or non-specific histological findings (5.0%) and 98.6% of lesions were confirmed as benign on histology. Overall sensitivity and specificity values were: benign epithelial proliferations 95.6% and 92.2%, epidermal inclusion cysts 92.2% and 88.0%, xanthelasma 97.5% and 100.0%, cysts of Moll 66.7% and 96.6%, naevi 39.4% and 99.8% and molluscum 20.0% and 99.8%, respectively. A dedicated nurse-led service is as effective in managing a range of clinically benign lid lesions as a doctor-led one, and clinician seniority has little impact on the diagnostic accuracy of these lesions.

  17. Change Detection Processing Chain Dedicated to Sentinel Data Time Series. Application to Forest and Water Bodies Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez Saavedra, L.-M.; Mercier, G.; Yesou, H.; Liege, F.; Pasero, G.

    2016-08-01

    The Copernicus program of ESA and European commission (6 Sentinels Missions, among them Sentinel-1 with Synthetic Aperture Radar sensor and Sentinel-2 with 13-band 10 to 60 meter resolution optical sensors), offers a new opportunity to Earth Observation with high temporal acquisition capability ( 12 days repetitiveness and 5 days in some geographic areas of the world) with high spatial resolution.Due to these high temporal and spatial resolutions, it opens new challenges in several fields such as image processing, new algorithms for Time Series and big data analysis. In addition, these missions will be able to analyze several topics of earth temporal evolution such as crop vegetation, water bodies, Land use and Land Cover (LULC), sea and ice information, etc. This is particularly useful for end users and policy makers to detect early signs of damages, vegetation illness, flooding areas, etc.From the state of the art, one can find algorithms and methods that use a bi-date comparison for change detection [1-3] or time series analysis. Actually, these methods are essentially used for target detection or for abrupt change detection that requires 2 observations only.A Hölder means-based change detection technique has been proposed in [2,3] for high resolution radar images. This so-called MIMOSA technique has been mainly dedicated to man-made change detection in urban areas and CARABAS - II project by using a couple of SAR images. An extension to multitemporal change detection technique has been investigated but its application to land use and cover changes still has to be validated.The Hölder Hp is a Time Series pixel by pixel feature extraction and is defined by:H𝑝[X]=[1/n∑ⁿᵢ₌1 Xᴾᵢ]1/p p∈R Hp[X] : N images * S Bandes * t datesn is the number of images in the time series. N > 2Hp (X) is continuous and monotonic increasing in p for - ∞ < p < ∞

  18. [Understanding positon emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-FDG in clinical oncology. Informations dedicated to patients and relatives].

    PubMed

    Bourguet, Patrick; Brusco, Sylvie; Corone, Corinne; Devillers, Anne; Foehrenbach, Hervé; Lumbroso, Jean-Daniel; Maszelin, Philippe; Montravers, Françoise; Moretti, Jean-Luc; Rain, Jean-Didier; Talbot, Jean-Noël; Carretier, Julien; Leichtnam-Dugarin, Line; Delavigne, Valérie; Philip, Thierry; Fervers, Béatrice

    2005-07-01

    In response to the evolution of the information-seeking behaviour of patients and concerns from health professionals regarding cancer patient information, the French National Federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (FNCLCC) introduced, in 1998, an information and education program dedicated to patients and relatives, the SOR SAVOIR PATIENT program (SSP). The methodology of this program adheres to established quality criteria regarding the elaboration of patient information. Cancer patient information, developed in this program, is based on clinical practice guidelines produced by the FNCLCC and the twenty French regional cancer centres, the National League against Cancer, the French Hospital Federation, the National Oncology Federation of Regional and University Hospitals, the French Oncology Federation of General Hospitals, many learned societies, as well as an active participation of patients, former patients and caregivers. The guidelines, "Standards, Options: Recommendations" (SOR) are used as primary information sources. The handbook SOR SAVOIR PATIENT Understanding positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-FDG in clinical oncology, integrally published in this issue of the Bulletin du Cancer, is an adapted version of the clinical practice guidelines (CPG) Standards, Options and Recommendations for positron emission tomography (PET) with [18F]-FDG in clinical oncology. The main objectives of this article are to allow persons affected by cancer and their close relatives to better understand this medical imaging technique and its implementation. This document also offers health professionals a synthetic evidence-based patient information source that should help them communicate that information during the physician-patient encounter. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a scintigraphy technique using a radiotracer, [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (abbreviated [18F]-FDG), administered intravenously into the patient's arm. This tracer, similar to glucose (sugar

  19. AixMICADAS, the accelerator mass spectrometer dedicated to 14C recently installed in Aix-en-Provence, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Edouard; Tuna, Thibaut; Fagault, Yoann; Bonvalot, Lise; Wacker, Lukas; Fahrni, Simon; Synal, Hans-Arno

    2015-10-01

    A compact AMS system dedicated to measuring 14C in ultra-small samples was installed at the CEREGE in Aix-en-Provence at the end of March 2014, together with an automated graphitization system. AixMICADAS operates at around 200 kV with carbon ion stripping in helium leading to a transmission of about 47%. The hybrid ion source works with graphite targets and CO2 gas. It is coupled to a versatile gas interface system that ensures stable gas measurements from different sources: a cracker for CO2 in glass ampoules, an elemental analyzer for combusting organic matter and an automated system to handle carbonate by wet chemistry. The analyses performed during the first half-year of operation show that a precision of about 2‰ is reached on modern samples of about 1 mg of carbon. Measurements of IAEA reference materials of various 14C ages show a good agreement with consensus values. Direct measurements of geological graphites indicate a machine background equivalent to an age of 68,000 years BP. AixMICADAS is thus limited solely by the 14C contamination of samples in the field and in the laboratory. The performances of the gas ion source and its gas interface system were tested with two CO2 production units: the elemental analyzer and the automated carbonate hydrolysis unit. These tests show that samples ranging between 10 and 100 μg C can produce a 12C- ion beam of the order of 10-15 μA during time spans ranging from 3 to 30 min depending on the sample mass. Coupling the automated hydrolysis system to the gas ion source of AixMICADAS, enables us to develop a method involving sequential leaching of carbonate samples with direct 14C measurements of the leached fractions and the residual sample. The main advantage is that all of steps leaching and hydrolysis are performed in the same vial for a particular sample. A sequential leaching was applied to a young carbonate sample (ca. 6600 years BP) whose 14C age agrees with previous determination and which shows no sign of

  20. WE-AB-204-10: Evaluation of a Novel Dedicated Breast PET System (Mammi-PET)

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Z; Swanson, T; O’Connor, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance characteristics of a novel dedicated breast PET system (Mammi-PET, Oncovision). The system has 2 detector rings giving axial/transaxial field of view of 8/17 cm. Each ring consists of 12 monolithic LYSO modules coupled to PSPMTs. Methods: Uniformity, sensitivity, energy and spatial resolution were measured according to NEMA standards. Count rate performance was investigated using a source of F-18 (1384uCi) decayed over 5 half-lives. A prototype PET phantom was imaged for 20 min to evaluate image quality, recovery coefficients and partial volume effects. Under an IRB-approved protocol, 11 patients who just underwent whole body PET/CT exams were imaged prone with the breast pendulant at 5–10 minutes/breast. Image quality was assessed with and without scatter/attenuation correction and using different reconstruction algorithms. Results: Integral/differential uniformity were 9.8%/6.0% respectively. System sensitivity was 2.3% on axis, 2.2% and 2.8% at 3.8 cm and 7.8 cm off-axis. Mean energy resolution of all modules was 23.3%. Spatial resolution (FWHM) was 1.82 mm and 2.90 mm on axis and 5.8 cm off axis. Three cylinders (14 mm diameter) in the PET phantom were filled with activity concentration ratios of 4:1, 3:1, and 2:1 relative to the background. Measured cylinder to background ratios were 2.6, 1.8 and 1.5 (without corrections) and 3.6, 2.3 and 1.5 (with attenuation/scatter correction). Five cylinders (14, 10, 6, 4 and 2 mm diameter) each with an activity ratio of 4:1 were measured and showed recovery coefficients of 1, 0.66, 0.45, 0.18 and 0.18 (without corrections), and 1, 0.53, 0.30, 0.13 and 0 (with attenuation/scatter correction). Optimal phantom image quality was obtained with 3D MLEM algorithm, >20 iterations and without attenuation/scatter correction. Conclusion: The MAMMI system demonstrated good performance characteristics. Further work is needed to determine the optimal reconstruction parameters for qualitative and

  1. WE-EF-207-05: Monte Carlo Dosimetry for a Dedicated Cone-Beam CT Head Scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Sisniega, A; Zbijewski, W; Xu, J; Dang, H; Stayman, J W; Aygun, N; Koliatsos, V E; Siewerdsen, J H; Wang, X; Foos, D H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Cone-Beam CT (CBCT) is an attractive platform for point-of-care imaging of traumatic brain injury and intracranial hemorrhage. This work implements and evaluates a fast Monte-Carlo (MC) dose estimation engine for development of a dedicated head CBCT scanner, optimization of acquisition protocols, geometry, bowtie filter designs, and patient-specific dosimetry. Methods: Dose scoring with a GPU-based MC CBCT simulator was validated on an imaging bench using a modified 16 cm CTDI phantom with 7 ion chamber shafts along the central ray for 80–100 kVp (+2 mm Al, +0.2 mm Cu). Dose distributions were computed in a segmented CBCT reconstruction of an anthropomorphic head phantom with 4×10{sup 5} tracked photons per scan (5 min runtime). Circular orbits with angular span ranging from short scan (180° + fan angle) to full rotation (360°) were considered for fixed total mAs per scan. Two aluminum filters were investigated: aggressive bowtie, and moderate bowtie (matched to 16 cm and 32 cm water cylinder, respectively). Results: MC dose estimates showed strong agreement with measurements (RMSE<0.001 mGy/mAs). A moderate (aggressive) bowtie reduced the dose, per total mAs, by 20% (30%) at the center of the head, by 40% (50%) at the eye lens, and by 70% (80%) at the posterior skin entrance. For the no bowtie configuration, a short scan reduced the eye lens dose by 62% (from 0.08 mGy/mAs to 0.03 mGy/mAs) compared to full scan, although the dose to spinal bone marrow increased by 40%. For both bowties, the short scan resulted in a similar 40% increase in bone marrow dose, but the reduction in the eye lens was more pronounced: 70% (90%) for the moderate (aggressive) bowtie. Conclusions: Dose maps obtained with validated MC simulation demonstrated dose reduction in sensitive structures (eye lens and bone marrow) through combination of short-scan trajectories and bowtie filters. Xiaohui Wang and David Foos are employees of Carestream Health.

  2. First full-beam PET acquisitions in proton therapy with a modular dual-head dedicated system.

    PubMed

    Sportelli, G; Belcari, N; Camarlinghi, N; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Ferretti, S; Kraan, A; Ortuño, J E; Romano, F; Santos, A; Straub, K; Tramontana, A; Guerra, A Del; Rosso, V

    2014-01-06

    During particle therapy irradiation, positron emitters with half-lives ranging from 2 to 20 min are generated from nuclear processes. The half-lives are such that it is possible either to detect the positron signal in the treatment room using an in-beam positron emission tomography (PET) system, right after the irradiation, or to quickly transfer the patient to a close PET/CT scanner. Since the activity distribution is spatially correlated with the dose, it is possible to use PET imaging as an indirect method to assure the quality of the dose delivery. In this work, we present a new dedicated PET system able to operate in-beam. The PET apparatus consists in two 10 cm × 10 cm detector heads. Each detector is composed of four scintillating matrices of 23 × 23 LYSO crystals. The crystal size is 1.9 mm × 1.9 mm × 16 mm. Each scintillation matrix is read out independently with a modularized acquisition system. The distance between the two opposing detector heads was set to 20 cm. The system has very low dead time per detector area and a 3 ns coincidence window, which is capable to sustain high single count rates and to keep the random counts relatively low. This allows a new full-beam monitoring modality that includes data acquisition also while the beam is on. The PET system was tested during the irradiation at the CATANA (INFN, Catania, Italy) cyclotron-based proton therapy facility. Four acquisitions with different doses and dose rates were analysed. In all cases the random to total coincidences ratio was equal or less than 25%. For each measurement we estimated the accuracy and precision of the activity range on a set of voxel lines within an irradiated PMMA phantom. Results show that the inclusion of data acquired during the irradiation, referred to as beam-on data, improves both the precision and accuracy of the range measurement with respect to data acquired only after irradiation. Beam-on data alone are enough to give precisions better than 1

  3. First full-beam PET acquisitions in proton therapy with a modular dual-head dedicated system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sportelli, G.; Belcari, N.; Camarlinghi, N.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; Ferretti, S.; Kraan, A.; Ortuño, J. E.; Romano, F.; Santos, A.; Straub, K.; Tramontana, A.; Del Guerra, A.; Rosso, V.

    2014-01-01

    During particle therapy irradiation, positron emitters with half-lives ranging from 2 to 20 min are generated from nuclear processes. The half-lives are such that it is possible either to detect the positron signal in the treatment room using an in-beam positron emission tomography (PET) system, right after the irradiation, or to quickly transfer the patient to a close PET/CT scanner. Since the activity distribution is spatially correlated with the dose, it is possible to use PET imaging as an indirect method to assure the quality of the dose delivery. In this work, we present a new dedicated PET system able to operate in-beam. The PET apparatus consists in two 10 cm × 10 cm detector heads. Each detector is composed of four scintillating matrices of 23 × 23 LYSO crystals. The crystal size is 1.9 mm × 1.9 mm × 16 mm. Each scintillation matrix is read out independently with a modularized acquisition system. The distance between the two opposing detector heads was set to 20 cm. The system has very low dead time per detector area and a 3 ns coincidence window, which is capable to sustain high single count rates and to keep the random counts relatively low. This allows a new full-beam monitoring modality that includes data acquisition also while the beam is on. The PET system was tested during the irradiation at the CATANA (INFN, Catania, Italy) cyclotron-based proton therapy facility. Four acquisitions with different doses and dose rates were analysed. In all cases the random to total coincidences ratio was equal or less than 25%. For each measurement we estimated the accuracy and precision of the activity range on a set of voxel lines within an irradiated PMMA phantom. Results show that the inclusion of data acquired during the irradiation, referred to as beam-on data, improves both the precision and accuracy of the range measurement with respect to data acquired only after irradiation. Beam-on data alone are enough to give precisions better than 1 mm

  4. An Internet portal dedicated to pig production and wild suids in the tropics: PigTrop web site http://pigtrop.cirad.fr.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, Vincent; Gourment, Cyricce; Erwin, Thierry; Nouaille, Christine

    2006-10-01

    Considering that a wide access to updated and relevant data is a key point for livestock development and research improvement in tropics, The PigTrop web site (http://pigtrop.cirad.fr) is dedicated to pig production and pork commodity chains in developing countries. It mainly addresses stakeholders involved in the pig commodity chain, but also researchers, students, or development agencies with an interest in tropical pig breeding. It is run by the French Agricultural Research Centre for International Development (CIRAD).

  5. Stent-coil treatment of a distal internal carotid artery dissecting pseudoaneurysm on a redundant loop by use of a flexible, dedicated nitinol intracranial stent.

    PubMed

    Pride, G Lee; Replogle, Robert E; Rappard, George; Graybeal, Christopher L Taylor Dion; White, Jonathan; Purdy, Phillip

    2004-02-01

    Treatment of dissecting pseudoaneurysms of the distal cervical internal carotid artery with preservation of the parent artery by using stents or coils has become routine. Tortuosity remains a significant obstacle to successful endovascular treatment in some cases. We report the use of a stent-coil technique to treat a nonhealing dissecting pseudoaneurysm and associated stenosis with anatomic preservation of a redundant loop involving the stented arterial segment. This was accomplished by using a Neuroform dedicated intracranial stent.

  6. Impact of a dedicated cancer-associated thrombosis service on clinical outcomes: a mixed-methods evaluation of a clinical improvement exercise

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Simon; Pease, Nikki; Sui, Jessica; Davies, James; Lewis, Sarah; Malik, Usman; Alikhan, Raza; Prout, Hayley; Nelson, Annmarie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) complex condition, which may present to any healthcare professional and at any point during the cancer journey. As such, patients may be managed by a number of specialties, resulting in inconsistent practice and suboptimal care. We describe the development of a dedicated CAT service and its evaluation. Setting Specialist cancer centre, district general hospital and primary care. Participants Patients with CAT and their referring clinicians. Intervention A cross specialty team developed a dedicated CAT service , including clear referral pathways, consistent access to medicines, patient's information and a specialist clinic. Primary and secondary outcome measures The service was evaluated using a mixed-methods evaluation , including audits of clinical practice, clinical outcomes, staff surveys and qualitative interviewing of patients and healthcare professionals. Results Data from 457 consecutive referrals over an 18-month period were evaluated. The CAT service has led to an 88% increase in safe and consistent community prescribing of low-molecular-weight heparin, with improved access to specialist advice and information. Patients reported improved understanding of their condition, enabling better self-management as well as better access to support and information. Referring clinicians reported better care standards for their patients with improved access to expertise and appropriate management. Conclusions A dedicated CAT service improves overall standards of care and is viewed positively by patients and clinicians alike. Further health economic evaluation would enhance the case for establishing this as the standard model of care. PMID:27895068

  7. A dedicated cone-beam CT system for musculoskeletal extremities imaging: Design, optimization, and initial performance characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Zbijewski, W.; De Jean, P.; Prakash, P.; Ding, Y.; Stayman, J. W.; Packard, N.; Senn, R.; Yang, D.; Yorkston, J.; Machado, A.; Carrino, J. A.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: This paper reports on the design and initial imaging performance of a dedicated cone-beam CT (CBCT) system for musculoskeletal (MSK) extremities. The system complements conventional CT and MR and offers a variety of potential clinical and logistical advantages that are likely to be of benefit to diagnosis, treatment planning, and assessment of therapy response in MSK radiology, orthopaedic surgery, and rheumatology. Methods: The scanner design incorporated a host of clinical requirements (e.g., ability to scan the weight-bearing knee in a natural stance) and was guided by theoretical and experimental analysis of image quality and dose. Such criteria identified the following basic scanner components and system configuration: a flat-panel detector (FPD, Varian 3030+, 0.194 mm pixels); and a low-power, fixed anode x-ray source with 0.5 mm focal spot (SourceRay XRS-125-7K-P, 0.875 kW) mounted on a retractable C-arm allowing for two scanning orientations with the capability for side entry, viz. a standing configuration for imaging of weight-bearing lower extremities and a sitting configuration for imaging of tensioned upper extremity and unloaded lower extremity. Theoretical modeling employed cascaded systems analysis of modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) computed as a function of system geometry, kVp and filtration, dose, source power, etc. Physical experimentation utilized an imaging bench simulating the scanner geometry for verification of theoretical results and investigation of other factors, such as antiscatter grid selection and 3D image quality in phantom and cadaver, including qualitative comparison to conventional CT. Results: Theoretical modeling and benchtop experimentation confirmed the basic suitability of the FPD and x-ray source mentioned above. Clinical requirements combined with analysis of MTF and DQE yielded the following system geometry: a {approx}55 cm source-to-detector distance; 1.3 magnification; a

  8. Laparoscopic bariatric surgery can be performed safely in secondary health care centres with a dedicated service corridor to an affiliated tertiary health care centre

    PubMed Central

    Christou, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background Canada needs to increase capacity for bariatric surgery to reduce the wait for this cost-effective, life-saving surgery. The aim of this study was to test whether laparoscopic bariatric surgery, including gastric bypass, can be delivered safely in secondary health care centres (SHCCs). Methods In this prospective cohort study, patients received bariatric surgery at an SHCC that had no intensive care unit but had a dedicated operating room and ward teams and a patient-monitoring environment. Patients with life-threatening complications were transferred to an affiliated tertiary health care centre (THCC) via a dedicated “service corridor.” Results In all, 830 patients were treated: 676 at the SHCC and 154 at the THCC. Gastric bypass was performed in 85.4%, gastric band in 11.1% and gastric sleeve in 3.5%. The body mass index (BMI) was significantly higher in the THCC than the SHCC group (mean 54.4 [standard deviation (SD) 9.7] v. 47.5 [SD 7.4]). Obesity-associated diseases were similar between the groups. Major complications occurred in 2.6% of SHCC patients and 1.7% of THCC patients. Seven patients (1%) required direct transfer to the THCC, and all were treated successfully. There were 2 deaths (1.3%) in the THCC and none in the SHCC groups (combined mortality 0.2%). Weight loss was equivalent up to the fourth year of the study. Conclusion With proper patient selection, a dedicated health care team and a service corridor to an affiliated THCC, laparoscopic bariatric surgery, including gastric bypass can be performed safely in SHCCs. Further study is needed to determine whether the model can be applied across Canada. PMID:23883507

  9. A technique for incorporating the NASA spacelab payload dedicated experiment processor software into the simulation system for the payload crew training complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bremmer, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of some off-the-shelf microprocessors and state-of-art software is assessed (1) as a development system for the principle investigator (pi) in the design of the experiment model, (2) as an example of available technology application for future PI's experiments, (3) as a system capable of being interactive in the PCTC's simulation of the dedicated experiment processor (DEP), preferably by bringing the PI's DEP software directly into the simulation model, (4) as a system having bus compatibility with host VAX simulation computers, (5) as a system readily interfaced with mock-up panels and information displays, and (6) as a functional system for post mission data analysis.

  10. Log files analysis to assess the use and workload of a dynamic web server dedicated to end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Ben Said, Mohamed; Le Mignot, Loic; Richard, Jean Baptiste; Le Bihan, Christine; Toubiana, Laurent; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Landais, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A Multi-Source Information System (MSIS), has been designed for the Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) dedicated to End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD). MSIS aims at providing reliable follow-up data for ESRD patients. It is based on an n-tier architecture, made out of a universal client, a dynamic Web server connected to a production database and to a data warehouse. MSIS is operational since 2002 and progressively deployed in 9 regions in France. It includes 16,677 patients. We show that the analysis of MSIS web log files allows evaluating the use of the system and the workload in a public-health perspective.

  11. Life sciences payload definition and integration study. Volume 4: Appendix, costs, and data management requirements of the dedicated 30-day laboratory. [carry-on laboratory for Spacelab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The results of the updated 30-day life sciences dedicated laboratory scheduling and costing activities are documented, and the 'low cost' methodology used to establish individual equipment item costs is explained in terms of its allowances for equipment that is commerical off-the-shelf, modified commercial, and laboratory prototype; a method which significantly lowers program costs. The costs generated include estimates for non-recurring development, recurring production, and recurring operations costs. A cost for a biomedical emphasis laboratory and a Delta cost to provide a bioscience and technology laboratory were also generated. All cost reported are commensurate with the design and schedule definitions available.

  12. Analysis of nanopore arrangement and structural features of anodic alumina layers formed by two-step anodizing in oxalic acid using the dedicated executable software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaraska, Leszek; Stępniowski, Wojciech J.; Sulka, Grzegorz D.; Ciepiela, Eryk; Jaskuła, Marian

    2014-02-01

    Anodic porous alumina layers were fabricated by a two-step self-organized anodization in 0.3 M oxalic acid under various anodizing potentials ranging from 30 to 60 V at two different temperatures (10 and 17 ∘C). The effect of anodizing conditions on structural features and pore arrangement of AAO was investigated in detail by using the dedicated executable publication combined with ImageJ software. With increasing anodizing potential, a linear increase of the average pore diameter, interpore distance, wall thickness and barrier layer thickness, as well as a decrease of the pore density, were observed. In addition, the higher pore diameter and porosity values were obtained for samples anodized at the elevated temperature, independently of the anodizing potential. A degree of pore order was investigated on the basis of Delaunay triangulations (defect maps) and calculation of pair distribution or angle distribution functions (PDF or ADF), respectively. All methods confirmed that in order to obtain nanoporous alumina with the best, hexagonal pore arrangement, the potential of 40 V should be applied during anodization. It was confirmed that the dedicated executable publication can be used to a fast and complex analysis of nanopore arrangement and structural features of nanoporous oxide layers.

  13. PREFACE: International Scientific and Research Conference on Topical Issues in Aeronautics and Astronautics (dedicated to the 55th anniversary from the foundation of SibSAU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-10-01

    The International Scientific and Research Conference ''Topical Issues in Aeronautics and Astronautics'' is one of the most significant scientific conferences arranged by the Reshetnev Siberian State Aerospace University (SibSAU) which is located in the Krasnoyarsk Region of Russian Federation. In April 2015 this Conference was dedicated to the 55th anniversary from the foundation of the University. Traditionally, the Conference is seen as emblematic of the University's specialty and is annually organized in April, when the first human travelled into space. This Conference is arranged for undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students, scientists and lecturers, as well as developers, designers and constructors representing leading companies and enterprises of the aerospace sector to give opportunities to present their projects, research work and results. The Conference is a great chance to connect scientists and highly-qualified and skilled specialists with a new community of future scientists and practitioners in the aerospace sector. The Conference proceedings include papers presented by creative young specialists closely connected with aviation and space vehicles - design, production, problem-solving in space machine building and aerospace education, macro- and microeconomic development of the field, new approaches to solving philosophical and social problems, - experienced scientists and specialists, and all those who want to dedicate themselves to aeronautics and astronautics. The selected papers are presented in these proceedings to share University research results, innovations and cutting-edge technologies with the international community to develop aeronautics and astronautics on a global scale.

  14. The dedicated high-resolution grazing-incidence X-ray scattering beamline 8-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhang; Li, Xuefa; Strzalka, Joseph; Sprung, Michael; Sun, Tao; Sandy, Alec R; Narayanan, Suresh; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Wang, Jin

    2012-07-01

    As an increasingly important structural-characterization technique, grazing-incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS) has found wide applications for in situ and real-time studies of nanostructures and nanocomposites at surfaces and interfaces. A dedicated beamline has been designed, constructed and optimized at beamline 8-ID-E at the Advanced Photon Source for high-resolution and coherent GIXS experiments. The effectiveness and applicability of the beamline and the scattering techniques have been demonstrated by a host of experiments including reflectivity, grazing-incidence static and kinetic scattering, and coherent surface X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy. The applicable systems that can be studied at 8-ID-E include liquid surfaces and nanostructured thin films.

  15. Characterization and performance of monolithic detector blocks with a dedicated ASIC front-end readout for PET imaging of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rato Mendes, Pedro; Sarasola Martín, Icíar; Cañadas, Mario; de Acilu, Paz García; Cuypers, Robin; Manuel Pérez, José; Willmott, Carlos

    2011-05-01

    We are developing a human brain PET scanner prototype compatible with MRI based on monolithic scintillator crystals, APD matrices and a dedicated ASIC front-end readout. In this work we report on the performance of individual detector modules and on the operation of such modules in PET coincidence. Results will be presented on the individual characterization of detector blocks and its ASIC front-end readout, with measured energy resolutions of 13% full-width half-maximum (FWHM) at 511 keV and spatial resolutions of the order of 2 mm FWHM. First results on PET coincidence performance indicate spatial resolutions as good as 2.1 mm FWHM for SSRB/FBP reconstruction of tomographic data obtained using a simple PET demonstrator based on a pair of monolithic detector blocks with ASIC readout.

  16. Proposed procedure for exemption from the requirement for segregated ballast tanks (SBT), dedicated clean ballast tanks (CBT), or a crude oil washing (COW) system for existing tank vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-22

    A proposed procedure for exemption from the requirement for segregated ballast tanks (SBT), dedicated clean ballast tanks (CBT), or a crude oil washing (COW) system for existing tank vessels of 40,000 dwt and over, in domestic trade has been issued by the US Coast Guard under the Port and Tanker Safety Act. Exemption would be allowed if shore-based reception facilities are a preferred method of handling dirty ballast and if such facilities are adequate and readily available. Adoption of the proposal would recognize that in certain trades where existing tank vessels have set loading locations, it is as effective to use shore-based reception facilities for the treatment of oil residues as it is to use SBT, CBT, or COW. The proposal requires, among others, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits for the reception facilities, and contains a provision for revocation of exemptions upon noncompliance with regulations. Comments must be received by 7/7/80.

  17. Patho-Genes.org: a website dedicated to gene sequences of potential bioterror bacteria and PCR primers used to amplify them.

    PubMed

    Gardès, Julien; Bachar, Dipankar; Croce, Olivier; Christen, Richard

    2012-09-01

    Pathogenic agents can be very hard to detect, and usually they do not cause illness for several hours or days. To improve the speed and the accuracy of detection tests and satisfy the needs of early diagnosis, molecular biology methods such as PCR are now used. However, selecting a proper target gene and designing good primers is often not easy. We present a dedicated website, http://patho-genes.org, where we provide every sequence, functional annotation, published primer and relevant article for every annotated gene of major pathogenic bacterial species listed as key agents to be used for a bioterrorism attack. Each published primer was analysed to determine its melting temperature, its specificity and its coverage (i.e. its sensitivity against every allele of its target gene). Data generated have been organized in the form of data sheet for each gene, which are available through multiple browser panels and query systems.

  18. Electronic structure and relative stability of 1:1 Cu-O2 adducts from difference-dedicated configuration interaction calculations.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Rivera, Jhon; Caballol, Rosa; Calzado, Carmen J

    2011-04-30

    A computational strategy to analyze Cu-O(2) adducts based on the use of difference-dedicated configuration interaction (DDCI) calculations is presented. The electronic structure, vertical gaps and nature of the metal-O(2) interaction, and the extension of the charge transfer between both fragments have been investigated. Relative stabilities between isomers are determined from triplet states CCSD(T) calculations. The key point of the here proposed strategy rests on the use of a rationally designed active space, containing only those orbitals, which optimize the interaction pathways between LCu and O(2) fragments. The procedure has been tested on a broad set of model and synthetic biomimetic systems, the results compared with previous theoretical evaluations and/or available experimental data. Our study indicates that this strategy can be considered as an alternative approach to multireference second-order perturbation theory methods to deal with this type of systems with remarkable biradical nature.

  19. Length of stay, wait time to surgery and 30-day mortality for patients with hip fractures after the opening of a dedicated orthopedic weekend trauma room

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michel; Hopman, Wilma; Yach, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Background In September 2011, Kingston General Hospital (KGH) opened a dedicated orthopedic weekend trauma room. Previously, 1 weekend operating room (OR) was used by all surgical services. We assessed the impact this dedicated weekend trauma room had on hospital length of stay (LOS), time to surgery and 30-day mortality for patients with hip fractures. Methods Patients admitted between Oct. 1, 2009, and Sept. 30, 2012, were identified through our trauma registry, representing the 2 years before and 1 year after the opening of the orthopedic weekend trauma room. We documented type of fracture, mode of fixation, age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, time to OR, LOS, discharge disposition and 30-day mortality. We excluded patients with multiple fractures, open fractures and those requiring trauma team activation. Results Our study included 609 patients (405 pre- and 204 post–trauma room opening). Mean LOS decreased from 11.6 to 9.4 days (p = 0.005) and there was a decreasing trend in mean time to OR from 31.5 to 28.5 hours (p = 0.16). There was no difference in 30-day mortality (p = 0.24). The LOS decreased by an average of 2 days following opening of the weekend trauma room (p = 0.031) and by an average of 2.2 additional days if the patient was admitted on the weekend versus during the week (p = 0.024). Conclusion The weekend trauma OR at KGH significantly decreased the LOS and appears to have decreased wait times to surgery. Further analysis is needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the current strategy, the long-term outcome of this patient population and the impact the additional orthopedic weekend trauma room has had on other surgical services (i.e., general surgery) and their patients. PMID:27668332

  20. Monte Carlo study for designing a dedicated “D”-shaped collimator used in the external beam radiotherapy of retinoblastoma patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mayorga, P. A.; Brualla, L.; Sauerwein, W.; Lallena, A. M.

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in the early childhood. Patients treated with external beam radiotherapy respond very well to the treatment. However, owing to the genotype of children suffering hereditary retinoblastoma, the risk of secondary radio-induced malignancies is high. The University Hospital of Essen has successfully treated these patients on a daily basis during nearly 30 years using a dedicated “D”-shaped collimator. The use of this collimator that delivers a highly conformed small radiation field, gives very good results in the control of the primary tumor as well as in preserving visual function, while it avoids the devastating side effects of deformation of midface bones. The purpose of the present paper is to propose a modified version of the “D”-shaped collimator that reduces even further the irradiation field with the scope to reduce as well the risk of radio-induced secondary malignancies. Concurrently, the new dedicated “D”-shaped collimator must be easier to build and at the same time produces dose distributions that only differ on the field size with respect to the dose distributions obtained by the current collimator in use. The scope of the former requirement is to facilitate the employment of the authors' irradiation technique both at the authors' and at other hospitals. The fulfillment of the latter allows the authors to continue using the clinical experience gained in more than 30 years. Methods: The Monte Carlo codePENELOPE was used to study the effect that the different structural elements of the dedicated “D”-shaped collimator have on the absorbed dose distribution. To perform this study, the radiation transport through a Varian Clinac 2100 C/D operating at 6 MV was simulated in order to tally phase-space files which were then used as radiation sources to simulate the considered collimators and the subsequent dose distributions. With the knowledge gained in that study, a new, simpler,

  1. Dedicated online virtual reference instruction.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Ladonna; Stahr, Beth; Plaisance, Louise

    2005-01-01

    To facilitate nursing students' information literacy skills and enhance traditional library user services, academic librarians have developed synchronous (real-time) online virtual reference instruction in nursing research classes. The authors discuss collaborative efforts of nursing and library faculty in planning, implementing, and evaluating a discipline-specific virtual reference pilot program.

  2. Religiously Dedicated, an Uncommon Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Margaret; Eppler, Kevin; O'Brien, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Almost countercultural today, focusing on the humanities--examining what it means to be human, understanding our cultures, and learning to embrace what Jonathan Sacks calls the "Dignity of Difference"--provides students with the tools to reclaim our public spaces, our public dialogue, and our businesses and corporations from the venal,…

  3. The role of implementation science training in global health: from the perspective of graduates of the field’s first dedicated doctoral program

    PubMed Central

    Means, Arianna R.; Phillips, David E.; Lurton, Grégoire; Njoroge, Anne; Furere, Sabine M.; Liu, Rong; Hassan, Wisal M.; Dai, Xiaochen; Augusto, Orvalho; Cherutich, Peter; Ikilezi, Gloria; Soi, Caroline; Xu, Dong (Roman); Kemp, Christopher G.

    2016-01-01

    Bridging the ‘know-do gap’ is an enormous challenge for global health practitioners. They must be able to understand local health dynamics within the operational and social contexts that engender them, test and adjust approaches to implementation in collaboration with communities and stakeholders, interpret data to inform policy decisions, and design adaptive and resilient health systems at scale. These skills and methods have been formalized within the nascent field of Implementation Science (IS). As graduates of the world's first PhD program dedicated explicitly to IS, we have a unique perspective on the value of IS and the training, knowledge, and skills essential to bridging the ‘know-do gap’. In this article, we describe the philosophy and curricula at the core of our program, outline the methods vital to IS in a global health context, and detail the role that we believe IS will increasingly play in global health practice. At this junction of enormous challenges and opportunities, we believe that IS offers the necessary tools for global health professionals to address complex problems in context and raises the bar of success for the global health programs of the future. PMID:27846928

  4. Assessing the kinetics of high temperature oxidation of Inconel 617 in a dedicated HTR impure helium facility coupling thermogravimetry and gas phase chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapovaloff, J.; Rouillard, F.; Combrade, P.; Pijolat, M.; Wolski, K.

    2013-10-01

    A new facility coupling thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) with gas phase chromatography (GPC) has been developed. This facility is dedicated for studying high temperature oxidation of Inconel 617 in impure helium environment containing H2O, H2 and CO at very low partial pressures (in the Pa range), which is representative of the high temperature reactor (HTR) concept developed within the Generation IV Forum. Simultaneous acquisition of mass gain and gas composition has allowed the influence of carbon monoxide and water vapour on the kinetics of oxidation to be studied. GPC measurements of gas consumption have allowed the plotting of individual mass gain curves for oxidation by H2O and CO. During isothermal exposure at 1123 K for 20 h, the oxidation was mainly due to water vapour with a minor contribution of carbon monoxide during the first hours. The contribution of water vapour to the oxidation kinetics was extracted. It was shown to obey a complete parabolic law and to be limited by an interfacial reaction during the first few hours of oxidation and to be controlled by a mixed interfacial and diffusion process, diffusion becoming the rate-determining step for long term oxidation. There was very good agreement between GPC measurements and the experimental TGA results.

  5. An analysis of partnership performance: the St. Johns Mercy Medical Center-Saint Louis University School of Nursing dedicated education unit project.

    PubMed

    Murray, Teri A; Macintyre, Richard C; Teel, Cynthia S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the St. Johns Mercy Medical Center (SJMMC)-Saint Louis University School of Nursing (SLUSON) dedicated education unit (DEU) project for partnership effectiveness. The DEU, an innovative and collaborative academic-service partnership, reconceptualizes the role of the faculty and staff nurse in the clinical educational process. In a DEU, the staff nurse provides the clinical instruction to the student, and the faculty member coaches the staff nurse on the teaching-learning process. Rather than explore the effectiveness of the DEU as an innovative clinical pedagogy, this article analyzes the relationship between the academic and service institutions for strategic effectiveness. The analysis is based on themes found across three successful and distinct academic partnerships and other evaluative models from business, government, and alliance research. The themes and models provide the frameworks needed to analyze the SJMMC-SLUSON academic-service partnership for structure, process, and outcomes. This analysis can serve as a guide for the development of academic-service partnership practices to facilitate successful, sustainable, and replicable partnerships that benefit both institutions.

  6. Real time in vivo imaging and measurement of serine protease activity in the mouse hippocampus using a dedicated complementary metal-oxide semiconductor imaging device.

    PubMed

    Ng, David C; Tamura, Hideki; Tokuda, Takashi; Yamamoto, Akio; Matsuo, Masamichi; Nunoshita, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Shiosaka, Sadao; Ohta, Jun

    2006-09-30

    The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the application of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imaging technology for studying the mouse brain. By using a dedicated CMOS image sensor, we have successfully imaged and measured brain serine protease activity in vivo, in real-time, and for an extended period of time. We have developed a biofluorescence imaging device by packaging the CMOS image sensor which enabled on-chip imaging configuration. In this configuration, no optics are required whereby an excitation filter is applied onto the sensor to replace the filter cube block found in conventional fluorescence microscopes. The fully packaged device measures 350 microm thick x 2.7 mm wide, consists of an array of 176 x 144 pixels, and is small enough for measurement inside a single hemisphere of the mouse brain, while still providing sufficient imaging resolution. In the experiment, intraperitoneally injected kainic acid induced upregulation of serine protease activity in the brain. These events were captured in real time by imaging and measuring the fluorescence from a fluorogenic substrate that detected this activity. The entire device, which weighs less than 1% of the body weight of the mouse, holds promise for studying freely moving animals.

  7. Research and development of a dedicated collimator for 14.2 MeV fast neutrons for imaging using a D-T generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo-Napadensky, I.; Weiss-Babai, R.; Gayer, A.; Vartsky, D.; Bar, D.; Mor, I.; Chacham-Zada, R.; Cohen, M.; Tamim, N.

    2012-06-01

    One of the main problems in neutron imaging is the scattered radiation that accompanies the direct neutrons that reach the imaging detectors and affect the image quality. We have developed a dedicated collimator for 14.2 MeV fast neutrons. The collimator optimizes the amount of scattered radiation to primary neutrons that arrive at the imaging plane. We have used different materials within the collimator in order to lower the scattered radiation that arrives at the scanned object. The image quality and the signal to noise ratios that are measured show that a mixture of BORAX (Na2B4O7ṡ10H2O) and water in the experimental beam collimator give the best results. We have used GEANT4 to simulate the collimator performance, the simulations predict the optimized material looking on the ratios of the scattered to primary neutrons that contribute in the detector. We present our experimental setup, report the results of the experimental and related simulation studies with neutrons beam generated by a 14.2 MeV D-T neutron generator.

  8. DEdicated MONitor of EXotransits and Transients (DEMONEXT): Low-Cost Robotic and Automated Telescope for Followup of Exoplanetary Transits and Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Steven; Eastman, Jason D.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Pogge, Richard W.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    We present the design, development, and early science from the DEdicated MONitor of EXotransits and Transients (DEMONEXT), an automated and robotic 20 inch telescope jointly funded by The Ohio State University and Vanderbilt University. The telescope is a PlaneWave CDK20 f/6.8 Corrected Dall-Kirkham Astrograph telescope on a Mathis Instruments MI-750/1000 Fork Mount located at Winer Observatory in Sonoita, AZ. DEMONEXT has a Hedrick electronic focuser, Finger Lakes Instrumentation (FLI) CFW-3-10 filter wheel, and a 2048 x 2048 pixel FLI Proline CCD3041 camera with a pixel scale of 0.90 arc-seconds per pixel and a 30.7 x 30.7 arc-minute field-of-view. The telescope's automation, controls, and scheduling are implemented in Python, including a facility to add new targets in real time for rapid follow-up of time-critical targets. DEMONEXT will be used for the confirmation and detailed investigation of newly discovered planet candidates from the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) survey, exploration of the atmospheres of Hot Jupiters via transmission spectroscopy and thermal emission measurements, and monitoring of select eclipsing binary star systems as benchmarks for models of stellar evolution. DEMONEXT will enable rapid confirmation imaging of supernovae, flare stars, tidal disruption events, and other transients discovered by the All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN).

  9. A Special Issue (Part-II): Mafic-ultramafic rocks and alkaline-carbonatitic magmatism and associated hydrothermal mineralization - dedication to Lia Nikolaevna Kogarko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogarko, Lia N.; Gwalani, Lalchand G.; Downes, Peter J.; Randive, Kirtikumar R.

    2015-10-01

    This is the second part of a two-volumespecial issue of Open Geoscience (formerly Central European Journal of Geosciences) that aims to be instrumental in providing an update of Mafic-Ultramafic Rocks and Alkaline- Carbonatitic Magmatism and Associated Hydrothermal Mineralization. Together, these two volumes provide a detailed and comprehensive coverage of the subjects that are relevant to the research work of P.Comin-Chiaramonti (Italy) and LiaN. Kogarko (Russia) towhomPart-I and Part- II have been respectively dedicated. To a significant extent, the development of advanced sampling technologies related to alkaline and carbonatitic magmatism by Lia N. Kogarko, has allowed geoscientists to measure and sample the deep crust of the planet not only for the exploration for the mineral deposits, but also to answer basic scientific questions about the origin and evolution of alkaline rocks (kimberlites, lamproites and related rocks associated with carbonatites). The papers presented in this Part-II of the special issue cover the petrology and geochemistry of the rocks collected from the surface and penetrated by drilling. Lia Kogarko proposed a new theory for the evolution of alkaline magmatism in the geological history of the Earth - that the appearance of alkaline magmatism at the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary (~2.5 - 2.7 Ga), and its growing intensity, was related to changes in the geodynamic regime of the Earth and oxidation of the mantle due to mantle-crust interaction.

  10. Spotting the differences: probing host/microbiota interactions with a dedicated software tool for the analysis of faecal outputs in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wayland, Matthew T; Defaye, Arnaud; Rocha, Joao; Jayaram, Satish Arcot; Royet, Julien; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene; Leulier, François; Cognigni, Paola

    2014-10-01

    The intestinal physiology of Drosophila melanogaster can be monitored in an integrative, non-invasive manner by analysing graphical features of the excreta produced by flies fed on a dye-supplemented diet. This assay has been used by various labs to explore gut function and its regulation. To facilitate its use, we present here a free, stand-alone dedicated software tool for the analysis of fly excreta. The Ultimate Reader of Dung (T.U.R.D.) is designed to offer a flexible environment for a wide range of experimental designs, with special attention to automation and high-throughput processing. This software detects the distinctive changes in acid-base and water balance previously reported to occur in response to dietary challenges and mating. We have used T.U.R.D. to test the contribution of the bacterial environment of the flies to various intestinal parameters including the established diet- and mating-triggered responses. To this end, we have analysed the faecal patterns of flies reared in germ-free conditions, upon re-association with controlled microbiota and subjected to food-borne or systemic, non-lethal bacterial infections. We find that the tested faecal outputs are unchanged in all these conditions, suggesting that the impact of the bacterial environment on the intestinal features highlighted by faecal deposit analysis is minimal.

  11. Biosynthesis of the Allylmalonyl-CoA Extender Unit for the FK506 Polyketide Synthase (PKS) Proceeds Through a Dedicated PKS and Facilitates the Mutasynthesis of Novel Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Mo, SangJoon; Kim, Dong Hwan; Lee, Jong Hyun; Park, Je Won; Basnet, Devi B.; Ban, Yeon Hee; Yoo, Young Ji; Chen, Shu-wei; Park, Sung Ryeol; Choi, Eun Ae; Kim, Eunji; Jin, Ying-Yu; Lee, Sung-Kwon; Park, Ju Yeol; Liu, Yuan; Lee, Mi Ok; Lee, Keum Soon; Kim, Sang Jun; Kim, Dooil; Park, Byoung Chul; Lee, Sang-gi; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Suh, Joo-Won; Moore, Bradley S.; Lim, Si-Kyu; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2011-01-01

    The allyl moiety of the immunosuppressive agent FK506 is structurally unique amongst polyketides and critical for its potent biological activity. Here, we detail the biosynthetic pathway to allylmalonyl-coenzyme A (CoA), from which the FK506 allyl group is derived, based on a comprehensive chemical, biochemical and genetic interrogation of three FK506 gene clusters. A discrete polyketide synthase (PKS) with noncanonical domain architecture presumably in coordination with the fatty acid synthase pathway of the host catalyzes a multi-step enzymatic reaction to allylmalonyl-CoA via trans-2-pentenyl-acyl carrier protein. Characterization of this discrete pathway facilitated the engineered biosynthesis of novel allyl group-modified FK506 analogs, namely 36-fluoro-FK520 and 36-methyl-FK506, the latter of which exhibits improved neurite outgrowth activity. This unique feature of FK506 biosynthesis, in which a dedicated PKS provides an atypical extender unit for the main modular PKS, illuminates a new strategy for the combinatorial biosynthesis of designer macrolide scaffolds as well as FK506 analogs. PMID:21175203

  12. Applicability of compressive sensing on three-dimensional terahertz imagery for in-depth object defect detection and recognition using a dedicated semisupervised image processing methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Cristofani, Edison; Becquaert, Mathias; Lauwens, Ben; Jonuscheit, Joachim; Vandewal, Marijke

    2013-04-01

    The quality control of composite multilayered materials and structures using nondestructive tests is of high interest for numerous applications in the aerospace and aeronautics industry. One of the established nondestructive methods uses microwaves to reveal defects inside a three-dimensional (3-D) object. Recently, there has been a tendency to extrapolate this method to higher frequencies (going to the subterahertz spectrum) which could lead to higher resolutions in the obtained 3-D images. Working at higher frequencies reveals challenges to deal with the increased data rate and to efficiently and effectively process and evaluate the obtained 3-D imagery for defect detection and recognition. To deal with these two challenges, we combine compressive sensing (for data rate reduction) with a dedicated image processing methodology for a fast, accurate, and robust quality evaluation of the object under test. We describe in detail the used methodology and evaluate the obtained results using subterahertz data acquired of two calibration samples with a frequency modulated continuous wave system. The applicability of compressive sensing within this context is discussed as well as the quality of the image processing methodology dealing with the reconstructed images.

  13. X-ray production cross-sections measurements for high-energy alpha particle beams: New dedicated set-up and first results with aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, T.; Chêne, G.; Mathis, F.; Marchal, A.; Garnir, H.-P.; Strivay, D.

    2011-12-01

    The "IPNAS" laboratory, in collaboration with the "Centre Européen d'Archéométrie" is partly focused on material analysis by means of IBA techniques: PIXE, PIGE and RBS. A new transport beam line has been developed at our CGR-520 MeV cyclotron to analyze Cultural Heritage objects using these techniques. This facility allows us to produce proton and alpha particle beams with energies up to 20 MeV. A vacuum chamber dedicated to X-ray production and Non-Rutherford cross-section measurements has been recently constructed. After determination of the chamber's geometry for X-ray detection using thin foils of several elements (11 ⩽ Z ⩽ 82) and 3 MeV proton beams, the measurement of the X-ray production cross-sections in the 6-12 MeV energy range has started using alpha particle beams on light element targets. These experiments contribute to the filling a serious lack of experimental values for alpha particles of this particular energy range in databases. The recent decision to focus our work on the alpha particle interaction with light elements was taken because of the high interest of the low Z elements in the field of archaeometry.

  14. A symbiosis-dedicated SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II isoform controls the formation of a stable host-microbe interface in symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Huisman, Rik; Hontelez, Jan; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Wen, Jiangqi; Bisseling, Ton; Limpens, Erik

    2016-09-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and rhizobium bacteria are accommodated in specialized membrane compartments that form a host-microbe interface. To better understand how these interfaces are made, we studied the regulation of exocytosis during interface formation. We used a phylogenetic approach to identify target soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptors (t-SNAREs) that are dedicated to symbiosis and used cell-specific expression analysis together with protein localization to identify t-SNAREs that are present on the host-microbe interface in Medicago truncatula. We investigated the role of these t-SNAREs during the formation of a host-microbe interface. We showed that multiple syntaxins are present on the peri-arbuscular membrane. From these, we identified SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS 13II (SYP13II) as a t-SNARE that is essential for the formation of a stable symbiotic interface in both AM and rhizobium symbiosis. In most dicot plants, the SYP13II transcript is alternatively spliced, resulting in two isoforms, SYP13IIα and SYP13IIβ. These splice-forms differentially mark functional and degrading arbuscule branches. Our results show that vesicle traffic to the symbiotic interface is specialized and required for its maintenance. Alternative splicing of SYP13II allows plants to replace a t-SNARE involved in traffic to the plasma membrane with a t-SNARE that is more stringent in its localization to functional arbuscules.

  15. 2P2I HUNTER: a tool for filtering orthosteric protein-protein interaction modulators via a dedicated support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Hamon, Véronique; Bourgeas, Raphael; Ducrot, Pierre; Theret, Isabelle; Xuereb, Laura; Basse, Marie Jeanne; Brunel, Jean Michel; Combes, Sebastien; Morelli, Xavier; Roche, Philippe

    2014-01-06

    Over the last 10 years, protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have shown increasing potential as new therapeutic targets. As a consequence, PPIs are today the most screened target class in high-throughput screening (HTS). The development of broad chemical libraries dedicated to these particular targets is essential; however, the chemical space associated with this 'high-hanging fruit' is still under debate. Here, we analyse the properties of 40 non-redundant small molecules present in the 2P2I database (http://2p2idb.cnrs-mrs.fr/) to define a general profile of orthosteric inhibitors and propose an original protocol to filter general screening libraries using a support vector machine (SVM) with 11 standard Dragon molecular descriptors. The filtering protocol has been validated using external datasets from PubChem BioAssay and results from in-house screening campaigns. This external blind validation demonstrated the ability of the SVM model to reduce the size of the filtered chemical library by eliminating up to 96% of the compounds as well as enhancing the proportion of active compounds by up to a factor of 8. We believe that the resulting chemical space identified in this paper will provide the scientific community with a concrete support to search for PPI inhibitors during HTS campaigns.

  16. Simultaneous multi-scale microscopy as a potential dedicated tool for intra-operative parathyroid identification during thyroid surgery (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Montigny, Étienne; Goulamhoussen, Nadir; Madore, Wendy-Julie; Strupler, Mathias; Maniakas, Anastasios; Ayad, Tareck; Boudoux, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    While thyroidectomy is considered a safe surgery, dedicated tools facilitating tissue identification during surgery could improve its outcome. The most common complication following surgery is hypocalcaemia, which results from iatrogenic removal or damage to parathyroid glands. This research project aims at developing and validating an instrument based on optical microscopy modalities to identify tissues in real time during surgery. Our approach is based on a combination of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to obtain multi-scale morphological contrast images. The orthogonal field of views provide information to navigate through the sample. To allow simultaneous, synchronized video-rate imaging in both modalities, we designed and built a dual-band wavelength-swept laser which scans a 30 nm band centered at 780 nm and a 90 nm band centered at 1310 nm. We built an imaging setup integrating a custom-made objective lens and a double-clad fibre coupler optimized for confocal microscopy. It features high resolutions in RCM (2µm lateral and 20 µm axial) in a 500 µm x 500 µm field-of-view and a larger field-of-view of 2 mm (lateral) x 5 mm (axial) with 20 µm lateral and axial resolutions in OCT. Imaging of ex vivo animal samples is demonstrated on a bench-top system. Tissues that are visually difficult to distinguish from each other intra-operatively such as parathyroid gland, lymph nodes and adipose tissue are imaged to show the potential of this approach in differentiating neck tissues. We will also provide an update on our ongoing clinical pilot study on patients undergoing thyroidectomy.

  17. Sub-millimetre DOI detector based on monolithic LYSO and digital SiPM for a dedicated small-animal PET system.

    PubMed

    Marcinkowski, Radosław; Mollet, Pieter; Van Holen, Roel; Vandenberghe, Stefaan

    2016-03-07

    The mouse model is widely used in a vast range of biomedical and preclinical studies. Thanks to the ability to detect and quantify biological processes at the molecular level in vivo, PET has become a well-established tool in these investigations. However, the need to visualize and quantify radiopharmaceuticals in anatomic structures of millimetre or less requires good spatial resolution and sensitivity from small-animal PET imaging systems.In previous work we have presented a proof-of-concept of a dedicated high-resolution small-animal PET scanner based on thin monolithic scintillator crystals and Digital Photon Counter photosensor. The combination of thin monolithic crystals and MLE positioning algorithm resulted in an excellent spatial resolution of 0.7 mm uniform in the entire field of view (FOV). However, the limitation of the scanner was its low sensitivity due to small thickness of the lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) crystals (2 mm).Here we present an improved detector design for a small-animal PET system that simultaneously achieves higher sensitivity and sustains a sub-millimetre spatial resolution. The proposed detector consists of a 5 mm thick monolithic LYSO crystal optically coupled to a Digital Photon Counter. Mean nearest neighbour (MNN) positioning combined with depth of interaction (DOI) decoding was employed to achieve sub-millimetre spatial resolution. To evaluate detector performance the intrinsic spatial resolution, energy resolution and coincidence resolving time (CRT) were measured. The average intrinsic spatial resolution of the detector was 0.60 mm full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). A DOI resolution of 1.66 mm was achieved. The energy resolution was 23% FWHM at 511 keV and CRT of 529 ps were measured. The improved detector design overcomes the sensitivity limitation of the previous design by increasing the nominal sensitivity of the detector block and retains an excellent intrinsic spatial resolution.

  18. A breast-specific, negligible-dose scatter correction technique for dedicated cone-beam breast CT: a physics-based approach to improve Hounsfield Unit accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kai; Burkett, George, Jr.; Boone, John M.

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a method to correct the cupping artifact caused from x-ray scattering and to achieve consistent Hounsfield Unit (HU) values of breast tissues for a dedicated breast CT (bCT) system. The use of a beam passing array (BPA) composed of parallel-holes has been previously proposed for scatter correction in various imaging applications. In this study, we first verified the efficacy and accuracy using BPA to measure the scatter signal on a cone-beam bCT system. A systematic scatter correction approach was then developed by modeling the scatter-to-primary ratio (SPR) in projection images acquired with and without BPA. To quantitatively evaluate the improved accuracy of HU values, different breast tissue-equivalent phantoms were scanned and radially averaged HU profiles through reconstructed planes were evaluated. The dependency of the correction method on object size and number of projections was studied. A simplified application of the proposed method on five clinical patient scans was performed to demonstrate efficacy. For the typical 10-18 cm breast diameters seen in the bCT application, the proposed method can effectively correct for the cupping artifact and reduce the variation of HU values of breast equivalent material from 150 to 40 HU. The measured HU values of 100% glandular tissue, 50/50 glandular/adipose tissue, and 100% adipose tissue were approximately 46, -35, and -94, respectively. It was found that only six BPA projections were necessary to accurately implement this method, and the additional dose requirement is less than 1% of the exam dose. The proposed method can effectively correct for the cupping artifact caused from x-ray scattering and retain consistent HU values of breast tissues.

  19. Trained and dedicated staff appears to be the main factor in decreasing anxiety and improving overall satisfaction during urodynamic testing: A prospective, randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Khavari, Rose; Gu, Cindy; Tran, Anastasia C.; Chan, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We sought to determine whether listening to patient-selected music during urodynamic study (UDS) reduced pain and anxiety while increasing overall patient satisfaction and willingness to repeat the procedure. Methods: Fifty-one (51) patients who underwent UDS from March to July 2014 were randomized into two groups: Group 1 with patient-selected music during the procedure (n=27) and Group 2 without music (n=24). Standard multichannel filling cystometry was performed. Anxiety was self-assessed using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, while overall pain, satisfaction, and willingness to undergo the procedure again were self-measured using a visual analogue scale. Results: Demographic characteristics and reasons for testing were similar between the two groups. The state score for Groups 1 and 2 were 27.04 and 29.5, respectively (p=0.3225) and 31.78 and 33.86, respectively (p=0.4970) for the trait score. The mean pain scores were 1.04 and 1.57, respectively (p=0.2047); the mean satisfaction scores were 0.65 and 0.52, respectively (p=0.8169); and the scores for willingness to undergo the procedure again were 0.77 and 0.74, respectively (p=0.9442). While there were no significant differences between the two groups in anxiety and satisfaction scores, pain, and willingness to undergo the procedure again, both groups commented on the nurse as the most important factor in their overall comfort. Conclusions: Music during UDS did not appear to lower pain and anxiety, nor increase overall satisfaction and willingness to repeat the procedure. The most important aspect in alleviating patients’ pain and anxiety was the person actually performing the testing, highlighting the importance of having trained and dedicated staff. PMID:27713797

  20. Study of the performance of a novel 1 mm resolution dual-panel PET camera design dedicated to breast cancer imaging using Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jin; Olcott, Peter D.; Chinn, Garry; Foudray, Angela M. K.; Levin, Craig S.

    2007-02-15

    We studied the performance of a dual-panel positron emission tomography (PET) camera dedicated to breast cancer imaging using Monte Carlo simulation. The PET camera under development has two 10x15 cm{sup 2} plates that are constructed from arrays of 1x1x3 mm{sup 3} LSO crystals coupled to novel ultra-thin (<200 {mu}m) silicon position-sensitive avalanche photodiodes (PSAPD). In this design the photodetectors are configured ''edge-on'' with respect to incoming photons which encounter a minimum of 2 cm thick of LSO with directly measured photon interaction depth. Simulations predict that this camera will have 10-15% photon sensitivity, for an 8-4 cm panel separation. Detector measurements show {approx}1 mm{sup 3} intrinsic spatial resolution, <12% energy resolution, and {approx}2 ns coincidence time resolution. By performing simulated dual-panel PET studies using a phantom comprising active breast, heart, and torso tissue, count performance was studied as a function of coincident time and energy windows. We also studied visualization of hot spheres of 2.5-4.0 mm diameter and various locations within the simulated breast tissue for 1x1x3 mm{sup 3}, 2x2x10 mm{sup 3}, 3x3x30 mm{sup 3}, and 4x4x20 mm{sup 3} LSO crystal resolutions and different panel separations. Images were reconstructed by focal plane tomography with attenuation and normalization corrections applied. Simulation results indicate that with an activity concentration ratio of tumor:breast:heart:torso of 10:1:10:1 and 30 s of acquisition time, only the dual-plate PET camera comprising 1x1x3 mm{sup 3} crystals could resolve 2.5 mm diameter spheres with an average peak-to-valley ratio of 1.3.