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Sample records for 11-year longitudinal study

  1. Picky eating during childhood: A longitudinal study to age 11-years

    PubMed Central

    Mascola, Anthony J.; Bryson, Susan W.

    2010-01-01

    Picky eating is a common disorder during childhood often causing considerable parental anxiety. This study examined the incidence, point prevalence, persistence and characteristics of picky eating in a prospective study of 120 children and their parents followed from 2 to 11 years. At any given age between 13% and 22% of the children were reported to be picky eaters. Incidence declined over time whereas point prevalence increased indicating that picky eating is often a chronic problem with 40% having a duration of more than 2-years. Those with longer duration differed from those with short duration having more strong likes and dislikes of food and not accepting new foods. Parents of picky eaters were more likely to report that their children consumed a limited variety of foods, required food prepared in specific ways, expressed stronger likes and dislikes for food, and threw tantrums when denied foods. They were also more likely to report struggles over feeding, preparing special meals, and commenting on their child’s eating. Hence, picky eating is a prevalent concern of parents and may remain so through childhood. It appears to be a relatively stable trait reflecting an individual eating style. However no significant effects on growth were observed. PMID:20850060

  2. Longitudinal Study of Self-Esteem in Children from 7-11 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoglund, Connie L.; Bell, Terece S.

    A controversy currently exists in the literature regarding the stability of self-esteem across childhood. This ongoing study, initiated in 1987, was designed to respond to the limitations in the existing body of knowledge. It examines the influence of a variety of environmental variables, specifically home and school experiences, as well as…

  3. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years

    PubMed Central

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E.

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes. PMID:24312035

  4. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years.

    PubMed

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes.

  5. Short normal children and environmental disadvantage: a longitudinal study of growth and cognitive development from 4 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Dowdney, L; Skuse, D; Morris, K; Pickles, A

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to follow up a sample of exceptionally short but medically healthy children, and a normal comparison group, previously studied at 4 years of age. They lived in an inner-city area which was, on objective criteria, seriously disadvantaged in socioeconomic terms. When first seen at 4 years, cases were significantly impaired in cognitive abilities relative to comparisons, although firstborns were much less severely affected. Of the original 46 cases, 45 were assessed again at 11 years. Most continued to live in the same geographical area. Case children remained exceptionally short, even when parental stature was taken into account, although a degree of catch-up had occurred. One third had special educational needs, and a similar proportion had been referred for speech therapy. Verbal and nonverbal cognitive skills of both case and comparison children had, on the whole, changed little and group differences persisted. In conclusion, short normal children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds are at high risk of educational failure at elementary school. PMID:9804034

  6. A longitudinal study of semantic grouping strategy use in 6-11-year-old children: investigating developmental phases, the role of working memory, and strategy transfer.

    PubMed

    Schleepen, Tamara M J; Jonkman, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    This two-cohort longitudinal study on the development of the semantic grouping strategy had three goals. First, the authors examined if 6-7-year-olds are nonstrategic before becoming strategic after prompting at 8-9 years of age, and if 8-9-year-olds are prompted strategic before spontaneous strategy use at 10-11 years of age. Children 6-7 and 8-9 years old performed two sort-recall tasks (one without and one with a grouping prompt) at two time points separated 1.5 years from each other. Second, the authors investigated whether short-term or working memory capacity at time point 1 predicted recall in children who did or did not use the semantic grouping strategy 1.5 years later. Third, the authors investigated whether prompted strategic children and children who used the strategy spontaneously differed in strategy transfer to a new task. Developmental results confirmed previous cross-sectional results, but in a longitudinal two-cohort study 6-7-year-olds were nonstrategic, and became prompted strategic around 8-9 years of age, followed by spontaneous strategy use at age 10-11 years. The authors found that memory capacity was not predictive of later use of the strategy. New findings were that prompted strategic children were as equally able as spontaneously strategic children to transfer the strategy to a new task, albeit with smaller recall benefits. PMID:25375863

  7. A longitudinal study of semantic grouping strategy use in 6-11-year-old children: investigating developmental phases, the role of working memory, and strategy transfer.

    PubMed

    Schleepen, Tamara M J; Jonkman, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    This two-cohort longitudinal study on the development of the semantic grouping strategy had three goals. First, the authors examined if 6-7-year-olds are nonstrategic before becoming strategic after prompting at 8-9 years of age, and if 8-9-year-olds are prompted strategic before spontaneous strategy use at 10-11 years of age. Children 6-7 and 8-9 years old performed two sort-recall tasks (one without and one with a grouping prompt) at two time points separated 1.5 years from each other. Second, the authors investigated whether short-term or working memory capacity at time point 1 predicted recall in children who did or did not use the semantic grouping strategy 1.5 years later. Third, the authors investigated whether prompted strategic children and children who used the strategy spontaneously differed in strategy transfer to a new task. Developmental results confirmed previous cross-sectional results, but in a longitudinal two-cohort study 6-7-year-olds were nonstrategic, and became prompted strategic around 8-9 years of age, followed by spontaneous strategy use at age 10-11 years. The authors found that memory capacity was not predictive of later use of the strategy. New findings were that prompted strategic children were as equally able as spontaneously strategic children to transfer the strategy to a new task, albeit with smaller recall benefits.

  8. The impact of petrochemical industrialisation on life expectancy and per capita income in Taiwan: an 11-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Petrochemical industries have been identified as important sources of emissions of chemical substances, and adverse health outcomes have been reported for residents who live nearby. The purpose of the current study was to examine the adverse effects of petrochemical industrialization in Taiwan on the life expectancy and personal income of people living in nearby communities. Methods This study compared life expectancies and personal income between one industrial county (Yunlin County) and one reference county (Yilan County), which had no significant industrial activity that might emit pollutants, in Taiwan through analysis of 11 year long and publicly available data. Data from before and after the petrochemical company in the industrial county started (year 1999) operating were compared. Results Residents of the industrialized county had lesser increases in life expectancy over time than did residents of a similar but less-industrialized county, with difference means ranging from 0.89 years (p < 0.05) to 1.62 years (p < 0.001) at different stages. Male residents were more vulnerable to the effects of industrialization. There were no significant differences in individual income between the two counties. Conclusions Countries, including Taiwan and the U.S., embracing petrochemical industries now face the challenge of environmental injustice. Our findings suggested that life expectancy lengthening was slowed and income growth was stalled for residents living in the industrial communities. PMID:24621018

  9. Telemark skiing injuries: an 11-year study.

    PubMed

    Made, C; Borg, H; Thelander, D; Elmqvist, L G

    2001-11-01

    This study evaluated telemark injuries in a Swedish ski area in terms of injury ratio, location, and causes over time. During the seasons of 1989-2000 all injured telemark skiers ( n=94) who attended the medical center in Tärnaby, Sweden, within 48 h after the accident were registered and asked to fill in an injury form. A control group of noninjured telemark skiers were interviewed in the season of 1999-2000. The most common cause of injury was fall (70%) and the injury ratio was 1.2. There was a higher proportion of beginners in the injured population, and they had a fall/run ratio of 0.7, compared with 0.3 for average and advanced skiers. Ankle/foot injuries were most common (28% of injuries) followed by knee (20%) and head/neck (17%). The ankle/foot injuries decreased from 35% to 22% in the seasons 1989-1995 to 1995-2000. Beginners had more ankle/foot injuries than skilled participants. The severity of ankle/foot injuries classified as the Abbreviated Injury Scale group 2 or higher decreased from 33% to 21% during the study period. Twenty-seven percent used plastic and 73% leather boots. We found no association between boot material and ankle/foot injuries. The proportion of high boots with two or more buckles was 51%. High boots appeared to be protective against ankle/foot injuries. The proportion of high boots increased from 24% to 67% during the study period. Thus ankle/foot injuries were the most common injury location, but have decreased over time. The severity of these injuries has also decreased. A possible explanation could be the increased use of high boots.

  10. Low Physical Activity Level and Short Sleep Duration Are Associated with an Increased Cardio-Metabolic Risk Profile: A Longitudinal Study in 8-11 Year Old Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Andersen, Rikke; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Background As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Objective To examine independent and combined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between movement behaviors and the MetS score in 8-11 year old Danish children. Design Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration (seven days and eight nights) were assessed by accelerometer and fat mass index (fat mass/height2) was assessed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The MetS-score was based on z-scores of waist circumference, mean arterial blood pressure, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. All measurements were taken at three time points separated by 100 days. Average of the three measurements was used as habitual behavior in the cross-sectional analysis and changes from first to third measurement was used in the longitudinal analysis. Results 723 children were included. In the cross-sectional analysis, physical activity was negatively associated with the MetS-score (P<0.03). In the longitudinal analysis, low physical activity and high sedentary time were associated with an increased MetS-score (all P<0.005); however, after mutual adjustments for movement behaviors, physical activity and sleep duration, but not sedentary time, were associated with the MetS-score (all P<0.03). Further adjusting for fat mass index while removing waist circumference from the MetS-score rendered the associations no longer statistically significant (all P>0.17). Children in the most favorable tertiles of changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sleep duration and sedentary time during the 200-day follow-up period had an improved MetS-score relative to children in the opposite tertiles (P = 0

  11. Capturing the Cumulative Effects of School Reform: An 11-Year Study of the Impacts of America's Choice on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Henry; Supovitz, Jonathan A.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of an 11-year longitudinal study of the impact of America's Choice comprehensive school reform (CSR) design on student learning gains in Rochester, New York. A quasi-experimental interrupted time-series approach using Bayesian hierarchical growth curve analysis with crossed random effects is used to compare the…

  12. Longitudinal association between early life socio-environmental factors and attention function at the age 11 years.

    PubMed

    Forns, Joan; Torrent, Maties; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Cáceres, Alejandro; Pilar Gomila, María; Martinez, David; Morales, Eva; Julvez, Jordi; Grimalt, Joan O; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal and early-life exposures can affect the course of children's neuropsychological development well into pre-adolescence, given the vulnerability of the developing brain. However, it is unknown which socio-environmental factors at early childhood can influence specific cognitive processes like attention at a later age. In this study, we aim to determine social and environmental exposures in early childhood that may be associated with attention function of 11-year-olds. We measured attention function using the continuous performance test-II (CPT-II) on 393 11-year old children from the Menorca's birth-cohort within the INMA-project (Spain), and pre-selected a list of socio-environmental observations taken when they were up to 4 years of age. We found that earlier socio-environmental characteristics, such as parental social class, educational level and maternal mental health are associated with later inattentive and impulsive symptomatology through a higher rate of omission and commission errors. In addition, omission errors were higher in children with atopy and lower in those whose mothers took dietary supplementation with folic acid and vitamins during pregnancy. Breastfeeding played a protective role against commission errors, while higher DDE and PCBs levels at age 4 were associated with slow speed response. Our findings suggest that a number of life socio-environmental factors during prenatal life and early childhood, such as socio-demographic characteristics, breastfeeding, maternal nutritional supplementation with folic acid and vitamins and exposure to some organochlorine compounds may influence inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptomatology during pre-adolescence. PMID:22608140

  13. Longitudinal association between early life socio-environmental factors and attention function at the age 11 years.

    PubMed

    Forns, Joan; Torrent, Maties; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Cáceres, Alejandro; Pilar Gomila, María; Martinez, David; Morales, Eva; Julvez, Jordi; Grimalt, Joan O; Sunyer, Jordi

    2012-08-01

    Prenatal and early-life exposures can affect the course of children's neuropsychological development well into pre-adolescence, given the vulnerability of the developing brain. However, it is unknown which socio-environmental factors at early childhood can influence specific cognitive processes like attention at a later age. In this study, we aim to determine social and environmental exposures in early childhood that may be associated with attention function of 11-year-olds. We measured attention function using the continuous performance test-II (CPT-II) on 393 11-year old children from the Menorca's birth-cohort within the INMA-project (Spain), and pre-selected a list of socio-environmental observations taken when they were up to 4 years of age. We found that earlier socio-environmental characteristics, such as parental social class, educational level and maternal mental health are associated with later inattentive and impulsive symptomatology through a higher rate of omission and commission errors. In addition, omission errors were higher in children with atopy and lower in those whose mothers took dietary supplementation with folic acid and vitamins during pregnancy. Breastfeeding played a protective role against commission errors, while higher DDE and PCBs levels at age 4 were associated with slow speed response. Our findings suggest that a number of life socio-environmental factors during prenatal life and early childhood, such as socio-demographic characteristics, breastfeeding, maternal nutritional supplementation with folic acid and vitamins and exposure to some organochlorine compounds may influence inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptomatology during pre-adolescence.

  14. Er:YAG laser ablation: 5-11 years prospective study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    2005-03-01

    The Er:YAG laser at 2940 nm has been proposed for use in dental cavity preparation and removal of carious enamel and dentin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of the Er:YAG laser ablation in treating dental caries after a period from 5 to 11 years. For this study, 133 cavities were chosen, and for their reparation of it the three restorative materials were used. Baseline examination was made in the following intervals: one week, 1 year, and from 5 to 11 years after cavity preparation and placement of filling material. Clinical assessments were carried out in accordance with the US Public Health Service System. The follow-up included: the marginal ridge, marginal adaptation, anatomic form, caries, color match, cavo surface margin discoloration, surface smoothness, and postoperative sensitivity. Er:YAG laser ablation is an excellent method for treating frontal teeth, i.e., incisors, canines, premolars, and initial occlusal caries of molars. However, visual control of non-contact therapy is necessary. Er:YAG laser ablation is safe, and it strongly reduces pain. The laser treatment markedly decreases the unpleasant sound and vibration.

  15. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  16. The EPICure Study: Association between Hemodynamics and Lung Function at 11 Years after Extremely Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Charlotte E.; Stocks, Janet; Hennessy, Enid; Cockcroft, John R.; Fawke, Joseph; Lum, Sooky; McEniery, Carmel M.; Wilkinson, Ian B.; Marlow, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between disturbed lung function and large-artery hemodynamics in school-age children born extremely preterm (EP) (at 25 completed weeks of gestation or less). Study design This was a cross-sectional study of participants from the EPICure study, now aged 11 years (n = 66), and 86 age- and sex-matched term-born classmates. Spirometry parameters (including forced expiratory volume in 1 second), blood pressure, and augmentation index (AIx, a composite of arterial stiffness and global wave reflections) were measured. Results Compared with their classmates, the EP children had significantly impaired lung function, particularly those with neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Peripheral blood pressure did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, but AIx values were on average 5% higher (95% CI, 2%-8%) in the preterm infants, remaining significant after adjustment for potential confounders. Neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia status was not related to AIx. Lung function and maternal smoking were independently associated with AIx; AIx increased by 2.7% per z-score reduction in baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second and by 4.9% in those whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Conclusion The independent association between impaired lung function and cardiovascular physiology in early adolescence implies higher cardiovascular risk for children born EP, and suggests that prevention of chronic neonatal lung disease may be a priority in reducing later cardiovascular risk in preterm infants. PMID:22575246

  17. The 11-year long-term follow-up study from the randomized BENEFIT CIS trial

    PubMed Central

    Edan, Gilles; Freedman, Mark S.; Montalbán, Xavier; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Hemmer, Bernhard; Fox, Edward J.; Barkhof, Frederik; Schippling, Sven; Schulze, Andrea; Pleimes, Dirk; Pohl, Christoph; Sandbrink, Rupert; Suarez, Gustavo; Wicklein, Eva-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess outcomes for patients treated with interferon beta-1b immediately after clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or after a short delay. Methods: Participants in BENEFIT (Betaferon/Betaseron in Newly Emerging MS for Initial Treatment) were randomly assigned to receive interferon beta-1b (early treatment) or placebo (delayed treatment). After conversion to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) or 2 years, patients on placebo could switch to interferon beta-1b or another treatment. Eleven years after randomization, patients were reassessed. Results: Two hundred seventy-eight (59.4%) of the original 468 patients (71.3% of those eligible at participating sites) were enrolled (early: 167 [57.2%]; delayed: 111 [63.1%]). After 11 years, risk of CDMS remained lower in the early-treatment arm compared with the delayed-treatment arm (p = 0.0012), with longer time to first relapse (median [Q1, Q3] days: 1,888 [540, not reached] vs 931 [253, 3,296]; p = 0.0005) and lower overall annualized relapse rate (0.21 vs 0.26; p = 0.0018). Only 25 patients (5.9%, overall; early, 4.5%; delayed, 8.3%) converted to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Expanded Disability Status Scale scores remained low and stable, with no difference between treatment arms (median [Q1, Q3]: 2.0 [1.0, 3.0]). The early-treatment group had better Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task–3 total scores (p = 0.0070). Employment rates remained high, and health resource utilization tended to be low in both groups. MRI metrics did not differ between groups. Conclusions: Although the delay in treatment was relatively short, several clinical outcomes favored earlier treatment. Along with low rates of disability and disease progression in both groups, this supports the value of treatment at CIS. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01795872. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that early compared to delayed treatment prolongs time to CDMS in CIS after 11 years. PMID

  18. Drunkenness and heavy drinking among 11year olds - Findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Yvonne; Britton, Annie; Cable, Noriko; Sacker, Amanda; Watt, Richard G

    2016-09-01

    Heavy drinking among young people is linked to negative consequences including other risky behaviours, educational failure and premature mortality. There is a lack of research examining factors that influence heavy and binge drinking in early adolescence as prior work has focused on older teenagers. The objective of this paper was to identify individual and family factors associated with drunkenness and episodes of heavy drinking in early adolescence. We analysed data on 11,046 11year olds from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for associations. 1.2% of participants reported having been drunk, and 0.6% reported having had 5 or more drinks in a single episode. Participants who reported drunkenness were more likely to be boys (1.6% vs 0.7%, p<0.01), to have socioemotional difficulties (2.6% vs 1.0%, p<0.001), to report antisocial behaviours (none=0.6%, 1=2.0%, 2 or more=7.0%, p<0.001), report truancy (6.0% vs 1.0%, p<0.001), smoke cigarettes (12.0% vs 0.8%, p<0.001). Parental drinking did not appear to be associated with the odds of drunkenness. Associated with higher odds of drunkenness were: having friends who drank (OR=5.17); having positive expectancies towards alcohol (OR 2+=2.02); ever having smoked cigarettes (OR=5.32); the mother-child relationship not being close (OR=2.17). Associated with a reduced odds of drunkenness was having a heightened perception of harm from drinking 1-2 drinks daily (OR - some risk=0.48, great risk=0.40). Our findings support policies aimed at multiple levels, starting in the preadolescent years, which incorporate individual, family, and peer factors. PMID:27413004

  19. Size at birth and blood pressure: cross sectional study in 8-11 year old children.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S. J.; Whincup, P. H.; Cook, D. G.; Papacosta, O.; Walker, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify which patterns of fetal growth, represented by different measurements of size at birth, are associated with increased blood pressure in children aged 8-11 years. DESIGN AND SETTING: School based, cross sectional survey conducted in 10 towns in England and Wales in 1994. SUBJECTS: 3010 singleton children (response rate 75%) with physical measurements and information on birth weight from parental questionnaires. Hospital birth records were examined for 1573. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure at age 8-11 years. RESULTS: In the whole group birth weight was inversely related to systolic pressure (regression coefficient -1.48 mm Hg/kg; 95% confidence interval -2.20 to -0.76) after adjustment for current body size. There was no significant association between birth weight and diastolic pressure. The association with systolic pressure was much stronger in girls (-2.54 mm Hg/kg; -3.60 to -1.48) than in boys (-0.64 mm Hg/kg; -1.58 to 0.30), with a significant difference between the sexes (P = 0.006). Among the other neonatal measures, head circumference and placental weight were inversely associated with subsequent blood pressure in girls, and placental ratio (placental weight:birth weight) was positively associated with blood pressure in boys. Neither ponderal index at birth nor length:head circumference ratio was related to blood pressure in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: In these contemporary children the association between birth weight and blood pressure was apparent only in girls. There was no evidence that measures of size at birth, which may be related to nutrition at critical periods of pregnancy (thinness at birth or shortness in relation to head circumference), are related to blood pressure in the offspring. PMID:9056797

  20. Bullied by Peers in Childhood and Borderline Personality Symptoms at 11-Years of Age: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolke, Dieter; Schreier, Andrea; Zanarini, Mary C.; Winsper, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abuse by adults has been reported as a potent predictor of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Unclear is whether victimisation by peers increases the risk of borderline personality symptoms. Method: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) prospective, longitudinal observation study of 6050 mothers and their…

  1. Forest Schools and Environmental Attitudes: A Case Study of Children Aged 8-11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turtle, Christina; Convery, Ian; Convery, Katie

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that children in the UK are suffering from a lack of engagement with nature and the outdoor environment. This paper investigates the attitudes of children towards the natural environment and focuses on Forest School programmes as a mechanism to promote a "pro-environmental" attitude. The study identified that…

  2. AN 11-YEAR FIELD STUDY WITH PASTEURIA PENETRANS: LESSONS LEARNED THE HARD WAY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in 1998, a bioassay using second-stage juveniles (J2) from a greenhouse (GH) population of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria (Ma) was used to monitor endospore densities of the bacterium Pasteuria penetrans, which was parasitizing Ma in a long-term rotation study (begun in 1991)....

  3. High voltage electrical injury: an 11-year single center epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Lipový, B; Kaloudová, Y; Ríhová, H; Chaloupková, Z; Kempný, T; Suchanek, I; Brychta, P

    2014-06-30

    The aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of patients with high voltage electrical injury from 1999 to 2009. The Clinic of Burns and Reconstructive Surgery, Faculty Hospital Brno is located in a region of 2,505,000 inhabitants. In total 13,911 patients (including both children and adults, and outpatients as well as hospitalized patients) were treated at our burn center during the period of study. Of these patients, 1,030 were hospitalized for burns treatment. For the purposes of this study, we have included only patients with high voltage electrical trauma, of which there were 58, 2 of whom were female. Basic epidemiological indicators were gathered on these patients, including age, gender, place of accident, extent of trauma, mortality and whether the injury was occupational or non-occupational. Electrical burns (caused by both low-voltage and high-voltage electric current) made up 1.10% of all burns treated in our burn center and high voltage electrical injuries represented 0.42% of all burn injuries. The average incidence of high voltage electrical trauma was 0.21 cases/100,000 inhabitants. The average age of the patients was 28.59 years. Nine patients died and the mortality was fixed at 15.52%. The average length of hospitalization was 53.43 days. The average extent of burnt area was 35.01% TBSA. In our study, we were able to define the basic epidemiological parameters in 58 patients with high voltage electrical trauma. We also have to highlight the still disappointingly high number of non-occupational electrical injuries affecting those in the lower age groups, especially children. However, preventive programmes for educating specific risk groups have shown positive results.

  4. Non traumatic lower extremity amputations in younger patients: an 11-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jessica W S; Teague, Laura; McLaren, Ann-Marie; Mahoney, James L

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing non traumatic lower extremity amputations ≤65 years to identify the specific needs of these younger patients. A retrospective study was conducted to determine the demographics, comorbidity and mortality with below-knee amputations and above-knee amputations from 1998 to 2008. A total of 203 amputations were performed on 176 patients who were ≤65 years. Major comorbidities and associated physical findings were peripheral vascular disease, diabetes, pain, gangrene, hypertension, ulcer, local wound infection and hypercholesterolemia. Compared to patients who were not deceased post-amputation, those deceased had a higher prevalence of diabetes, renal failure, coronary artery disease (CAD) and sepsis. Significant predictors of mortality were renal failure (hazard ratio [HR] = 4·19; 95% CI 1·96-8·93), CAD (HR = 3·33; 95% CI 1·42-7·81) and amputation site (above-knee) (HR = 3·26; 95% CI 1·51-7·04). This study showed that younger patients may benefit from an interdisciplinary approach in treating local foot ulcers aggressively and optimising their cardiovascular, renal and diabetic risk factors.

  5. Black Tea Consumption and Risk of Skin Cancer: An 11-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kyoko; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Arovah, Novita Intan; van der Pols, Jolieke C; Green, Adèle C

    2015-01-01

    Tea consumption has been shown to protect against skin carcinogenesis in laboratory-based studies; however, epidemiological evidence is limited and inconsistent. This prospective study examined the association between black tea consumption and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Usual black tea consumption was estimated from food frequency questionnaires completed in 1992, 1994, and 1996 by 1,325 Australian adults. All histologically confirmed skin cancers diagnosed in participants from 1997 to 2007 were recorded. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed using generalized linear models with Poisson and negative binomial distributions and adjusted for confounding factors including skin phenotype and sun exposure. Compared with never drinking black tea, drinking ≥4 cups/day was not associated with BCC (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.70-1.53; P-trend = 0.74) or SCC (RR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.71-2.19; P-trend = 0.29) in person-based analyses. Stratification by previous history of skin cancer as well as tumor-based analyses also showed no significant associations between black tea intake and incidence of BCC or SCC tumors. Our results do not support the hypothesis that high black tea consumption reduces risk of skin cancer, including in people with a previous history of skin cancer. PMID:26359536

  6. UPWARD MOVEMENT OF PLUTONIUM TO SURFACE SEDIMENTS DURING AN 11-YEAR FIELD STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.; Beals, D.; Cadieux, J.; Halverson, J.

    2010-01-25

    An 11-y lysimeter study was established to monitor the movement of Pu through vadose zone sediments. Sediment Pu concentrations as a function of depth indicated that some Pu moved upward from the buried source material. Subsequent numerical modeling suggested that the upward movement was largely the result of invading grasses taking up the Pu and translocating it upward. The objective of this study was to determine if the Pu of surface sediments originated from atmosphere fallout or from the buried lysimeter source material (weapons-grade Pu), providing additional evidence that plants were involved in the upward migration of Pu. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu and {sup 242}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic fraction ratios of the lysimeter surface sediments, as determined by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS), were 0.063 and 0.00045, respectively; consistent with the signatures of the weapons-grade Pu. Our numerical simulations indicate that because plants create a large water flux, small concentrations over multiple years may result in a measurable accumulation of Pu on the ground surface. These results may have implications on the conceptual model for calculating risk associated with long-term stewardship and monitored natural attenuation management of Pu contaminated subsurface and surface sediments.

  7. Black Tea Consumption and Risk of Skin Cancer: An 11-Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kyoko; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Arovah, Novita Intan; van der Pols, Jolieke C; Green, Adèle C

    2015-01-01

    Tea consumption has been shown to protect against skin carcinogenesis in laboratory-based studies; however, epidemiological evidence is limited and inconsistent. This prospective study examined the association between black tea consumption and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Usual black tea consumption was estimated from food frequency questionnaires completed in 1992, 1994, and 1996 by 1,325 Australian adults. All histologically confirmed skin cancers diagnosed in participants from 1997 to 2007 were recorded. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were assessed using generalized linear models with Poisson and negative binomial distributions and adjusted for confounding factors including skin phenotype and sun exposure. Compared with never drinking black tea, drinking ≥4 cups/day was not associated with BCC (RR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.70-1.53; P-trend = 0.74) or SCC (RR = 1.25, 95% CI: 0.71-2.19; P-trend = 0.29) in person-based analyses. Stratification by previous history of skin cancer as well as tumor-based analyses also showed no significant associations between black tea intake and incidence of BCC or SCC tumors. Our results do not support the hypothesis that high black tea consumption reduces risk of skin cancer, including in people with a previous history of skin cancer.

  8. Attempted suicide by black men and women: an 11 year study.

    PubMed

    Frierson, R L; Lippmann, S B

    1990-06-01

    Two hundred and thirty-two black patients (103 men, 129 women) who attempted suicide were referred for psychiatric consultation from January 1976 through August 1987. Black male attempters were (1) more often schizophrenic; (2) more apt to be intoxicated; (3) more commonly psychotic; and (4) more prone to use violent methods. Black women were more likely to manifest clinical depression and much more inclined to choose drug overdose as a method. Women were also more apt to jump from buildings or bridges and deliberately set themselves ablaze. Referrals of suicide attempters increased for both sexes over the study period, and violent methods, particularly firearm use, rose steadily among black women over the 11 1/2 years. Recommendations for providing care to black suicide attempters include (1) appreciation of the psychological effects of racism; (2) increased sensitivity to depressive features in black schizophrenics; (3) consideration of affective disorders in young black males frequently involved in violent acts; and (4) awareness of one's own racially biased attitudes.

  9. Persistent financial hardship, 11-year weight gain, and health behaviors in the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Brunner, Eric J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ascertain prospectively gender-specific associations between types and amounts of financial hardship and weight gain, and investigate potential behavioral mechanisms. Methods Prospective study of 3701 adult British civil servants with repeated measures of difficulty paying bills or insufficient money to afford adequate for food/clothing (1985-1988; 1989-1990; 1991-1993; 1997-1999), and weight (1985-1988; 1997-1999). Results Persistent hardships were associated with adjusted mean weight change in women over 10.9 years, but no consistent pattern was seen in men. During follow-up, 46% of women gained ≥5 kg. Women reporting persistent insufficient money for food/clothing had a significantly greater odds of gaining ≥5 kg (1.42 [1.05, 1.92]) compared to no hardship history, which remained after socioeconomic status (SES) adjustment (1.45 [1.05, 2.01]). The association between persistent difficulty paying bills and odds of excess weight gain was also significant (1.42 [1.03, 1.97]) but attenuated after considering SES (1.39 [0.98, 1.97]). Four health behaviors as single measures or change variables did not attenuate associations. Conclusions Results suggested strategies to tackle obesity must address employed women's everyday financial troubles which may influence weight through more biological pathways than classical correlates of economic disadvantage and weight. PMID:25155547

  10. [Epidemiological study of very preterm infants at Rouen University Hospital: changes in mortality, morbidity, and care over 11 years].

    PubMed

    Pinto Cardoso, G; Abily-Donval, L; Chadie, A; Guerrot, A-M; Pinquier, D; Marret, S

    2013-02-01

    The very preterm birth rate has increased in the past few years. Despite advances in neonatal medicine, neurodevelopmental sequelae have not decreased, despite a perinatal plan published in France in 1994. We conducted an epidemiological comparative survey at Rouen University Hospital in order to analyze morbidity, mortality, and care of very of premature infants by comparing the years 2000, 2005, and 2010. This hospital draws on an area of 17,000 births per year. Our survey was a single-center prospective, descriptive, and comparative study. The three cohorts had the same characteristics and the mortality rate was constant for 11 years. Use of medically assisted procreation and maternal age increased over this period. Chorioamnionitis halved, whereas duration of intrapartum antibiotic therapy increased. Neonatal morbidity was stable for hyaline membrane disease, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, maternofetal or nosocomial infections, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Regarding neurological complications, intraventricular hemorrhages decreased and white matter lesions remained constant. The rate of severe retinopathy remained low. The duration of parenteral nutrition and assisted ventilation, use of postnatal corticosteroids, and length of hospitalization decreased. The breastfeeding rate has increased since 2000 in parallel with postnatal growth restriction : 39% of the premature infants had a weight under the 10th percentile at hospital discharge. Our study allowed us to follow up the changes in neonatal epidemiological characteristics, the mortality and morbidity of extreme premature infants over a period of 11 years and showed few significant changes. Knowledge of medical practices is essential to improve the short- and long-term outcome of premature infants.

  11. Masculine boys, feminine girls and cancer risk behaviors: An 11-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P.; Corliss, Heather L.; Frazier, Lindsay; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cancer risk behaviors often begin in adolescence and persist through adulthood. Tobacco use, indoor tanning, and physical inactivity are highly prevalent, socially patterned cancer risk behaviors, and their prevalence differs strongly by sex. It is therefore possible that these behaviors also differ by gender expression within the sexes due to social patterning. Methods We examined whether 5 cancer risk behaviors differed by childhood gender expression within the sexes and whether patterns of media engagement (e.g., magazine readership and trying to look like media personalities) explained possible differences, in a US population-based cohort (N=9,435). Results The most feminine girls had higher prevalence of indoor tanning (prevalence risk ratio (pRR)=1.32, 95% CI=1.23, 1.42) and physical inactivity (pRR=1.16, 95% CI=1.01, 1.34) and lower prevalence of worse smoking trajectory (prevalence odds ratio (pOR)=0.75, 95% CI=0.65, 0.88) and smoking cigars (pRR=0.61, 95% CI=0.47, 0.79) compared with least-feminine girls. Media engagement accounted for part of the higher prevalence of indoor tanning. The most masculine boys were more likely to chew tobacco (pRR=1.78, 95% CI=1.14, 2.79) and smoke cigars (pRR=1.55, 95% CI=1.17, 2.06), but less likely to follow a worse smoking trajectory (pOR=0.69, 95% CI=0.55, 0.87) and be physically inactive (pRR=0.54, 95% CI=0.43, 0.69) compared with least-masculine boys. Conclusions We found some strong differences in patterns of cancer risk behaviors by gender expression within the sexes. Prevention efforts that challenge the “masculinity” of smoking cigarettes and cigars and chewing tobacco and challenge the “femininity” of indoor tanning to reduce their appeal to adolescents should be explored. PMID:24746678

  12. Population based, controlled study of behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders in low birthweight children at 11 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Elgen, I; Sommerfelt, K; Markestad, T

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the risk of long term behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders associated with being born with low birth weight. Design/study groups: A population based, controlled follow up study at 11 years of age of 130 low birthweight (LBW) children weighing less than 2000 g at birth who were without major handicaps, and a random sample of 131 normal birthweight (NBW) children born at term weighing over 3000 g. Main outcome measures: Validated questionnaires addressing behaviour completed by mothers and teachers and child evaluation by child psychiatrist using a semistructured interview. Results: Behavioural problems, as defined by abnormal scores on more than four of 32 measures, were found in 40% of LBW children compared with 7% of NBW children (odds ratio (OR) 8.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3 to 25, p = 0001). A psychiatric disorder was diagnosed in 27% of the LBW children compared with 9% of the NBW children (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.5 to 6.5, p = 0.001). The LBW children were more often inattentive, had social problems, and low self esteem. None of the pre-, neo-, or peri-natal variables in the LBW group were statistically significant predictors of behavioural outcomes or the presence of psychiatric disorders. Behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders were as common in those with birth weight less than 1500 g as those with birth weight 1500–2000 g. Conclusion: An increased risk of behavioural problems and psychiatric disorders persists in LBW adolescents. PMID:12193521

  13. The 11-year solar cycle in current reanalyses: a (non)linear attribution study of the middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchar, A.; Sacha, P.; Miksovsky, J.; Pisoft, P.

    2015-06-01

    This study focusses on the variability of temperature, ozone and circulation characteristics in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere with regard to the influence of the 11-year solar cycle. It is based on attribution analysis using multiple nonlinear techniques (support vector regression, neural networks) besides the multiple linear regression approach. The analysis was applied to several current reanalysis data sets for the 1979-2013 period, including MERRA, ERA-Interim and JRA-55, with the aim to compare how these types of data resolve especially the double-peaked solar response in temperature and ozone variables and the consequent changes induced by these anomalies. Equatorial temperature signals in the tropical stratosphere were found to be in qualitative agreement with previous attribution studies, although the agreement with observational results was incomplete, especially for JRA-55. The analysis also pointed to the solar signal in the ozone data sets (i.e. MERRA and ERA-Interim) not being consistent with the observed double-peaked ozone anomaly extracted from satellite measurements. The results obtained by linear regression were confirmed by the nonlinear approach through all data sets, suggesting that linear regression is a relevant tool to sufficiently resolve the solar signal in the middle atmosphere. The seasonal evolution of the solar response was also discussed in terms of dynamical causalities in the winter hemispheres. The hypothetical mechanism of a weaker Brewer-Dobson circulation at solar maxima was reviewed together with a discussion of polar vortex behaviour.

  14. Frailty among Mexican community-dwelling elderly: a story told 11 years later. The Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Navarro, Sara G; Amieva, Hélène; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Avila-Funes, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics and prognosis of subjects classified as frail in a large sample of Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Materials and methods An eleven-year longitudinal study of 5 644 old adults participating in the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Frailty was defined loss, weakness, exhaustion, slow walking speed and low physical activity. The main outcomes were incident disability and death. Multiple covariates were used to test the prognostic value of frailty. Results Thirty-seven percent of participants (n = 2 102) met the frailty criteria. Frail participants were significantly older, female, less disease, lower income, and poorer self-reported health status, in comparison with their non-frail counterparts. Frailty was a predictor both for disability activities of daily living and for mortality. Conclusion After a follow-up of more than ten years, the phenotype of frailty was a predictor for adverse health-related outcomes, including ADL disability and death. PMID:26172236

  15. Daily home gardening improved survival for older people with mobility limitations: an 11-year follow-up study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lêng, Chhian Hūi; Wang, Jung-Der

    2016-01-01

    Aims To test the hypothesis that gardening is beneficial for survival after taking time-dependent comorbidities, mobility, and depression into account in a longitudinal middle-aged (50–64 years) and older (≥65 years) cohort in Taiwan. Methods The cohort contained 5,058 nationally sampled adults ≥50 years old from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (1996–2007). Gardening was defined as growing flowers, gardening, or cultivating potted plants for pleasure with five different frequencies. We calculated hazard ratios for the mortality risks of gardening and adjusted the analysis for socioeconomic status, health behaviors and conditions, depression, mobility limitations, and comorbidities. Survival models also examined time-dependent effects and risks in each stratum contingent upon baseline mobility and depression. Sensitivity analyses used imputation methods for missing values. Results Daily home gardening was associated with a high survival rate (hazard ratio: 0.82; 95% confidence interval: 0.71–0.94). The benefits were robust for those with mobility limitations, but without depression at baseline (hazard ratio: 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.48–0.87) when adjusted for time-dependent comorbidities, mobility limitations, and depression. Chronic or relapsed depression weakened the protection of gardening. For those without mobility limitations and not depressed at baseline, gardening had no effect. Sensitivity analyses using different imputation methods yielded similar results and corroborated the hypothesis. Conclusion Daily gardening for pleasure was associated with reduced mortality for Taiwanese >50 years old with mobility limitations but without depression. PMID:27486315

  16. Plutonium Oxication State Transformations and Their Consequence on Plutonium Transport through Sediment During an 11-year Field Study

    SciTech Connect

    KAPLAN, DANIEL

    2004-09-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) contains a large inventory of plutonium (Pu), some of it in the form of Low-Level Waste (LLW). Much of this LLW has been or will be disposed at the E Area LLW Facility. As part of the permitting of LLW on-site disposal, SRS is required to periodically update the Performance Assessment calculations used in part to establish the facility specific amount of waste that can be safely disposed (or establish the Waste Acceptance Criteria). The objective of this project was to determine if a recent discovered change in plutonium chemistry (i.e., oxidation of PuO2, a common form of Pu waste, may form plutonium in the more mobile hexavalent form) was within the assumptions, parameters, and bases of the approved Performance Assessment WSRC (2000) and Composite Assessment, WSRC (1997). This project was initiated in 2001, and this is the final report describing laboratory and lysimeter (field) studies. Results from this year's work provided additional technical support f or the conceptual Pu geochemical model proposed for future risk-based calculations. When lysimeters containing Pu(III) or Pu(IV) were left exposed to the natural environment for 11 years, essentially all of the sediment-bound Pu existed as Pu(IV) and possibly Pu(III), the least mobile forms of Pu. This result was confirmed by two independent measurements, a very sensitive, indirect wet-chemistry method and a less-sensitive, direct spectroscopic technique, micro-X-ray adsorption near-edge structure (micro-XANES) spectroscopy. In these lysimeters, Pu sediment concentrations decreased on average an order-of-magnitude per centimeter for the first 5 cm below the source, an astounding rate of contaminant retardation. When Pu(VI), the more mobile form, may form from PuO2, was added to the lysimeters, the Pu moved faster than it had in the other lysimeters: Pu moving on average 12.5 cm/yr in the Pu(VI) lysimeter, compared to 0.9 cm/yr in the Pu(III) and Pu(IV) lysimeters. Importantly

  17. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  18. Early Predictors of Language and Social Communication Impairments at Ages 9-11 Years: A Follow-up Study of Early-Referred Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate hypotheses that early sociocognition will predict later social communication and early phonology will predict later morphosyntax in clinically referred preschoolers. Method: Participants were 108 children ages 9-11 years who had been referred to clinical services with concerns about language at…

  19. Predictors of Persistence in Girls with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Results from an 11-year Controlled Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Biederman, Joseph; Petty, Carter R.; O’Connor, Katherine B.; Hyder, Laran L.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study sought to examine the age-dependent persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its predictors in a large sample of girls with and without ADHD followed prospectively for 11 years into young adulthood. Method Participants were girls with (N=96) and without (N=91) ADHD 6 –17 years old at the baseline assessment (mean age 11 years) and 15–30 years old at the follow-up assessment (mean: 22 years). Participants were comprehensively and blindly assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and assessments of cognitive, social, school, and family functioning. Results At the 11-year follow-up, 33.3% met full criteria for ADHD, 29.2% showed partial persistence of the disorder, 10.4% had impaired functioning and 4.2% were remitted but treated (77.1% of the sample). Predictors of persistence were psychiatric comorbidity, family history of psychopathology, and family and school functioning at baseline. Conclusion These long-term, prospective, follow-up findings extend to girls findings that ADHD is persistent over the long term and can be predicted from psychosocial adversity and psychiatric comorbidity ascertained 11 years earlier. PMID:22097933

  20. [What is researched in Spain on childhood accidents and poisonings? A descriptive study of the last 11 years].

    PubMed

    Abad Pérez, I; Colmenar Revuelta, J; Gascón Pérez, E; Colmenar Revuelta, C

    1987-04-01

    Situation of research done in childhood accidents an accidental poisoning in Spain must be known to plan future studies. Authors studied 131 publications obtained from IME (Indice Medico Español) data bank (1974-1984). Only 62 of them were epidemiological studies or reviews. Most of them were based on hospital data. Authors were mainly pediatricians who lived in big cities and had articles published in pediatric journals. They conclude that there are few studies on epidemiology of accidents in general populations and on how to prevent them.

  1. Nickel Allergy Is a Risk Factor for Endometriosis: An 11-Year Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Yuk, Jin-Sung; Shin, Jong Seung; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Oh, Eunsuk; Kim, Hyunmee; Park, Won I.

    2015-01-01

    Background A cross-sectional study has reported that nickel allergy is associated with endometriosis. However, causal studies of this association are limited. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of nickel allergy in women with and without endometriosis. Methods We used a National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) sample cohort dataset that included approximately 1 million individuals from South Korea; the data were obtained between January 01, 2002, and December 31, 2013. We selected the endometriosis group according to diagnosis code (N80.X), surgery codes, and drug codes during the years 2009~2013. The controls were randomly matched to the endometriosis patients at a ratio of 4:1 by age and socioeconomic status. Patients with nickel allergy were defined in the cohort dataset as those with a simultaneous diagnosis code (L23.0) and patch test code during 2002~2008. Results In total, 4,985 women were selected from the NHIS cohort database and divided into an endometriosis group (997 women) and a control group (3,988 women). The number of patients with nickel allergy in the endometriosis group was eight (0.8%), and that in the control group was thirteen (0.3%). After adjustment for age and socioeconomic status, the rate of nickel allergy in was higher in the endometriosis group than in the control group [odds ratio: 2.474; 95% confidence interval: 1.023~5.988; p = 0.044]. Conclusions We found that nickel allergy is a risk factor for endometriosis. PMID:26439741

  2. Incidence and prevalence of lupus in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a 11-year health management organisation-based study

    PubMed Central

    Scolnik, M; Marin, J; Valeiras, S M; Marchese, M F; Talani, A S; Avellaneda, N L; Etchepare, A; Etchepare, P; Plou, M S; Soriano, E R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Studies regarding the epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lacking in Argentina. Our purpose was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of SLE in a university hospital-based health management organisation in Buenos Aires (HIMCP). Methods For incidence calculation, the population at risk included all adult members of the HIMCP, with continuous affiliation for at least 1 year from January 1998 to January 2009. Each person was followed until he/she voluntarily left the HIMCP, death or finalisation of the study. Multiple methods for case finding were used to ensure complete ascertainment: (a) patients with problem SLE, undifferentiated autoimmune disease or mixed connective tissue disease in the Computer-based Patient Record System, (b) patients with positive antinuclear antibody test, anti-Sm antibodies and/or anti-dsDNA antibodies in the laboratory database and (c) patients who consumed hydroxichloroquine, chloroquine, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate, cyclosporine or rituximab, from the administrative HIMCP drugs database. Medical records of all patients found were reviewed, and only patients fulfilling ACR criteria for SLE were included. Global and gender incidence rate (IR) was calculated. Prevalence was estimated on 1 January 2009, and the denominator population was the number of active members >18 years at that date (n=127 959). Results In the study period, 68 patients developed SLE. The observed IR (per 100 000 person-years, (CI 95%)) was 6.3 (4.9 to 7.7) for total population; 8.9 (CI 6.6 to 11.2) for women and 2.6 (1.2 to 3.9) for men. On 1 January 2009, 75 prevalent cases were identified. Prevalence rates (cases per 100 000 habitants, (CI 95%)) were 58.6 (46.1 to 73.5) for total population; 83.2 (63.9 to 106.4) for women and 23 (CI 11.9 to 40.1) for men. Conclusions SLE incidence and prevalence rates in Argentina are in agreement with those of other studies from different parts of the world. PMID:25379189

  3. Development studies towards an 11-year global gridded aerosol optical thickness reanalysis for climate and applied applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, P.; Reid, J. S.; Westphal, D. L.; Zhang, J.; Hogan, T. F.; Hyer, E. J.; Curtis, C. A.; Hegg, D. A.; Shi, Y.; Campbell, J. R.; Rubin, J. I.; Sessions, W. R.; Turk, F. J.; Walker, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    While standalone satellite and model aerosol products see wide utilization, there is a significant need in numerous climate and applied applications for a fused product on a regular grid. Aerosol data assimilation is an operational reality at numerous centers, and like meteorological reanalyses, aerosol reanalyses will see significant use in the near future. Here we present a standardized 2003-2013 global 1° × 1° and 6 hourly modal aerosol optical thickness (AOT) reanalysis product. This dataset can be applied to basic and applied earth system science studies of significant aerosol events, aerosol impacts on numerical weather prediction, and electro-optical propagation and sensor performance, among other uses. This paper describes the science of how to develop and score an aerosol reanalysis product. This reanalysis utilizes a modified Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) at its core and assimilates quality controlled retrievals of AOT from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on Terra. The aerosol source functions, including dust and smoke, were regionally tuned to obtain the best match between the model fine and coarse mode AOTs and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) AOTs. Other model processes, including deposition, were tuned to minimize the AOT difference between the model and satellite AOT. Aerosol wet deposition in the tropics is driven with satellite retrieved precipitation, rather than the model field. The final reanalyzed fine and coarse mode AOT at 550 nm is shown to have good agreement with AERONET observations, with global mean root mean square error around 0.1 for both fine and coarse mode AOTs. This paper includes a discussion of issues particular to aerosol reanalyses that make them distinct from standard meteorological reanalyses, considerations for extending such a reanalysis outside of the NASA A-Train era, and examples of how the

  4. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-01

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes.

  5. Childhood Gender Nonconformity, Bullying Victimization, and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: An 11-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Rosario, Margaret; Slopen, Natalie; Calzo, Jerel P.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Childhood gender nonconformity has been associated with increased risk of caregiver abuse and bullying victimization outside the home, but it is unknown whether as a consequence children who are nonconforming are at higher risk of depressive symptoms. Method: Using data from a large national cohort (N = 10,655), we examined differences…

  6. A Neurophysiological Marker of Impaired Preparation in an 11-Year Follow-Up Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doehnert, Mirko; Brandeis, Daniel; Schneider, Gudrun; Drechsler, Renate; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal electrophysiological study investigated the course of multiple impaired cognitive brain functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood by comparing developmental trajectories of individuals with ADHD and typically developing controls. Methods: Subjects with ADHD ("N"…

  7. Physical activity and all-cause mortality among older Brazilian adults: 11-year follow-up of the Bambuí Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Juciany RO; Mambrini, Juliana VM; César, Cibele C; de Oliveira, César M; Firmo, Josélia OA; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Peixoto, Sérgio V

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between physical activity (eg, energy expenditure) and survival over 11 years of follow-up in a large representative community sample of older Brazilian adults with a low level of education. Furthermore, we assessed sex as a potential effect modifier of this association. Materials and methods A population-based prospective cohort study was conducted on all the ≥60-year-old residents in Bambuí city (Brazil). A total of 1,606 subjects (92.2% of the population) enrolled, and 1,378 (85.8%) were included in this study. Type, frequency, and duration of physical activity were assessed in the baseline survey questionnaire, and the metabolic equivalent task tertiles were estimated. The follow-up time was 11 years (1997–2007), and the end point was mortality. Deaths were reported by next of kin during the annual follow-up interview and ascertained through the Brazilian System of Information on Mortality, Brazilian Ministry of Health. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were estimated by Cox proportional-hazard models, and potential confounders were considered. Results A statistically significant interaction (P<0.03) was found between sex and energy expenditure. Among older men, increases in levels of physical activity were associated with reduced mortality risk. The hazard ratios were 0.59 (95% CI 0.43–0.81) and 0.47 (95% CI 0.34–0.66) for the second and third tertiles, respectively. Among older women, there was no significant association between physical activity and mortality. Conclusion It was possible to observe the effect of physical activity in reducing mortality risk, and there was a significant interaction between sex and energy expenditure, which should be considered in the analysis of this association in different populations. PMID:25931817

  8. A retrospective study on the aetiology, management, and outcome of brain abscess in an 11-year, single-centre study from China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain abscesses continue to pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in developed and developing countries. Their aetiology and management remain complex and unclear, making improvement of treatments and outcome difficult. Methods To determine the demographics, management, and the variables that affect the outcome in subjects with brain abscesses treated at a single centre over an 11-year period, we retrospectively analysed data in 60 patients with brain abscesses surgically treated with stereotactically guided aspiration or open craniotomy excision in Shanghai Changzheng Hospital between January 2001 and December 2011. Such variables as age, gender, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission, clinical presentation, location, number of lesions, predisposing factors, mechanism of infection, aetiological agent, and therapy were analysed independently. Results Our analysis demonstrated that patient age and gender were factors that influence the occurrence of brain abscess; female patients and patients greater than 40 years of age were most likely to suffer a brain abscess. We also found that a patient’s GCS score upon admission did not influence outcome. While frequency of successful culturing of the infectious agent was low, positive cultures were obtained in only 8 of the cases (13.33%), in which the most common isolate was Streptococcus milleri. Outcome was favourable in 78.33% of the subjects, while the mortality rate was 20%. The outcome of one patient was poor due to the abscess in the basal ganglia region. Conclusions Stereotactically guided aspiration is an effective treatment for brain abscess with an overall favourable outcome. Mortality due to brain abscess was not directly related to surgery nor surgical technique. Additional studies will continue to reveal patients trends that may improve treatment for brain abscess. PMID:24903315

  9. Inter-annual variation in American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) plumage colour is associated with rainfall and temperature during moult: an 11-year study.

    PubMed

    Reudink, Matthew W; McKellar, Ann E; Marini, Kristen L D; McArthur, Sarah L; Marra, Peter P; Ratcliffe, Laurene M

    2015-05-01

    Carotenoid-based colouration plays an important role in sexual signaling in animals as an honest indicator of individual quality during mate choice and competitive interactions. However, few studies have examined how natural variation in weather conditions influences inter-annual variation in the expression of ornamentation, potentially through affecting the dietary availability of carotenoids. In this study, we examine variation in the expression of carotenoid-based plumage colouration in relation to temperature and rainfall during the pre-moulting and moulting period over 11 years in a population of American redstarts, Setophaga ruticilla, breeding in eastern Canada. We used reflectance spectrometry of tail feathers collected from male and female redstarts to relate feather colour with weather conditions the previous breeding season during the months over which redstarts are likely to moult (June-September). At a population level, birds expressed feathers with higher red chroma and lower brightness in years following high July rainfall and low August temperature. The pattern was stronger in males, but was generally consistent across ages and sexes. Analyses of feathers from repeatedly captured birds indicated that the above patterns could be explained by individual change in feather colour. We suggest that higher rainfall during the moulting period may increase insect abundance and the availability of dietary carotenoids. This is among the first studies to show effects of weather conditions on a sexual signalling trait, which may have important consequences for sexual selection, mate choice, and the reliability of putative signals. PMID:25433695

  10. Inter-annual variation in American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) plumage colour is associated with rainfall and temperature during moult: an 11-year study.

    PubMed

    Reudink, Matthew W; McKellar, Ann E; Marini, Kristen L D; McArthur, Sarah L; Marra, Peter P; Ratcliffe, Laurene M

    2015-05-01

    Carotenoid-based colouration plays an important role in sexual signaling in animals as an honest indicator of individual quality during mate choice and competitive interactions. However, few studies have examined how natural variation in weather conditions influences inter-annual variation in the expression of ornamentation, potentially through affecting the dietary availability of carotenoids. In this study, we examine variation in the expression of carotenoid-based plumage colouration in relation to temperature and rainfall during the pre-moulting and moulting period over 11 years in a population of American redstarts, Setophaga ruticilla, breeding in eastern Canada. We used reflectance spectrometry of tail feathers collected from male and female redstarts to relate feather colour with weather conditions the previous breeding season during the months over which redstarts are likely to moult (June-September). At a population level, birds expressed feathers with higher red chroma and lower brightness in years following high July rainfall and low August temperature. The pattern was stronger in males, but was generally consistent across ages and sexes. Analyses of feathers from repeatedly captured birds indicated that the above patterns could be explained by individual change in feather colour. We suggest that higher rainfall during the moulting period may increase insect abundance and the availability of dietary carotenoids. This is among the first studies to show effects of weather conditions on a sexual signalling trait, which may have important consequences for sexual selection, mate choice, and the reliability of putative signals.

  11. Mortality and Morbidity of Fireworks-Related Burns on the Annual Last Wednesday of the Year Festival (Charshanbeh Soori) in Iran: An 11-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaghardoost, Reza; Ghavami, Yaser; Sobouti, Behnam; Mobayen, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Management of firework-related injuries is costly for the patient, society, and government. Objectives Evaluating effective factors yielding to such injuries may lead to better management of patients and decreased costs and morbidities. Patients and Materials This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on burn patients referred to Shahid Motahari Burns Hospital on Charshanbeh Soori day festival during the period extending from March 2000 to March 2011 (11 days in an 11-year period). Demographic data, causes of burn injury, severity, and affected body parts were recorded. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results There were164 patients in the study with a mean age of 18.34 ± 9.31 years; 87% (145/164) were male. Homemade grenades were the most frequent cause of injury. Hand injury was reported in 56% (92/164) of the cases. Amputation was executed in 7 (4.3%) cases, and 6 (3.7%) patients died due to severe burn injuries and facial damage. Conclusions Fireworks- related injuries during Charshanbeh Soori ceremony causes significant morbidities and damage to different body parts (especially upper limbs and face), and some of these injuries will lead to life time disabilities, amputations, and even death. As most of the injured patients are young teenagers and children, special consideration must be taken into account to prevent long term morbidities. PMID:24350158

  12. A qualitative study of cancer survivors' responses to information on the long-term and late effects of pelvic radiotherapy 1-11 years post treatment.

    PubMed

    Boulton, M; Adams, E; Horne, A; Durrant, L; Rose, P; Watson, E

    2015-09-01

    As more patients survive cancer for longer term, the long-term and late effects of treatments become increasingly important issues for cancer survivors and providing information to enable survivors to recognise and manage them becomes an increasingly pressing challenge for health care professionals. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of cancer survivors regarding information given on potential long-term and late effects of pelvic radiotherapy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 cancer survivors who had had radiotherapy to the pelvic area for a range of cancers 1-11 years previously. Participants were recruited using maximum variation sampling from a larger questionnaire survey of patients treated at one hospital. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Framework. Participants recognised the value of information to reassure and to inform action but also its potentially undesirable effects to frighten or raise anxieties about future problems and its inherent limitations in meeting their wider needs. They identified the timing, amount of information and context in which it was given as of particular importance. Information based on personal experience was also valued. These findings highlight the importance of appropriate, individualised information during treatment, at hospital discharge and subsequently in primary care. PMID:26202602

  13. The Importance of Longitudinal Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.

  14. Effects of Early Relationships on Children's Perceived Control: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dan, Orrie; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bar-haim, Yair; Eshel, Yohanan

    2011-01-01

    People's response to stress depends to a large extent on their sense of perceived control over the situations they encounter. This longitudinal study of 136 children (70 girls) examined associations between attachment patterns and maternal sensitivity at 12 months of age, and perceived primary and secondary control at 11 years of age. Compared…

  15. The Precursors of Reading Ability in Young Readers: Evidence from a Four-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakhill, Jane V.; Cain, Kate

    2012-01-01

    We report a longitudinal study investigating the predictors of reading comprehension and word reading accuracy between the ages of 7 to 8 (UK Year 3) and 10 to 11 years (Year 6). We found that different skills predicted the development of each. Reading comprehension skill measured in Year 3 was a strong predictor of comprehension in Year 6;…

  16. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  17. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  18. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7-11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Faber, Irene R; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Faber, Niels R; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players' potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player's future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7-11 years). Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05). Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items 'aiming at target', 'throwing a ball', and 'eye-hand coordination' in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%). Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment's outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%). This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be included in a talent

  19. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7-11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Faber, Irene R; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Faber, Niels R; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players' potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player's future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7-11 years). Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05). Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items 'aiming at target', 'throwing a ball', and 'eye-hand coordination' in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%). Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment's outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%). This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be included in a talent

  20. Relationships between Parental Education and Overweight with Childhood Overweight and Physical Activity in 9–11 Year Old Children: Results from a 12-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, Stella K.; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Church, Timothy S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children has serious implications for morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood. Various parental factors are associated with childhood overweight and physical activity. The objective of this paper was to investigate relationships between parental education or overweight, and (i) child overweight, (ii) child physical activity, and (iii) explore household coexistence of overweight, in a large international sample. Methods Data were collected from 4752 children (9–11 years) as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment in 12 countries around the world. Physical activity of participating children was assessed by accelerometry, and body weight directly measured. Questionnaires were used to collect parents’ education level, weight, and height. Results Maternal and paternal overweight were positively associated with child overweight. Higher household coexistence of parent-child overweight was observed among overweight children compared to the total sample. There was a positive relationship between maternal education and child overweight in Colombia 1.90 (1.23–2.94) [odds ratio (confidence interval)] and Kenya 4.80 (2.21–10.43), and a negative relationship between paternal education and child overweight in Brazil 0.55 (0.33–0.92) and the USA 0.54 (0.33–0.88). Maternal education was negatively associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines in Colombia 0.53 (0.33–0.85), Kenya 0.35 (0.19–0.63), and Portugal 0.54 (0.31–0.96). Conclusions Results are aligned with previous studies showing positive associations between parental and child overweight in all countries, and positive relationships between parental education and child overweight or negative associations between parental education and child physical activity in lower economic status countries. Relationships between maternal and paternal education

  1. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7–11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players’ potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player’s future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7–11 years). Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05). Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items ‘aiming at target’, ‘throwing a ball’, and ‘eye-hand coordination’ in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%). Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment’s outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%). This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be

  2. A comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 9–11 year old British Pakistani and White British girls: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that British children of South Asian origin are less active and more sedentary than White British children. However, little is known about the behaviours underlying low activity levels, nor the familial contexts of active and sedentary behaviours in these groups. Our aim was to test hypotheses about differences between British Pakistani and White British girls using accelerometry and self-reports of key active and sedentary behaviours, and to obtain an understanding of factors affecting these behaviours using parental interviews. Methods Participants were 145 girls (70 White British and 75 British Pakistani) aged 9–11 years and parents of 19 of the girls. Accelerometry data were collected over 4 days and girls provided 24-hour physical activity interviews on 3 of these days. Multilevel linear regression models and generalised linear mixed models tested for ethnic differences in activity, sedentary time, and behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents. Results Compared to White British girls, British Pakistani girls accumulated 102 (95% CI 59, 145) fewer counts per minute and 14 minutes (95% CI 8, 20) less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. British Pakistani girls spent more time (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 14, 42) sedentary. Fewer British Pakistani than White British girls reported participation in organised sports and exercise (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.64) or in outdoor play (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.20, 0.91). Fewer British Pakistani girls travelled actively to school (OR 0.26 95% CI 0.10, 0.71). There was no significant difference in reported screen time (OR 0.88 95% CI 0.45, 1.73). Parental interviews suggested that structural constraints (e.g. busy family schedules) and parental concerns about safety were important influences on activity levels. Conclusions British Pakistani girls were less active than White British girls and were less likely to participate in key active behaviours

  3. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  4. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject's age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis.

  5. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  6. Longitudinal Studies of Spelling Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Nick

    Noting that proposed models of literacy development suggest that reading and writing mutually influence and grow from each other, this paper summarizes aspects of stage theories of literacy development and an integrative model, and considers how the model fared in empirical longitudinal tests. The paper begins with a summary of the modal aspects…

  7. Changes in hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in 8–11 year old novice female ballet dancers and controls: a 12 month follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Bennell, K; Khan, K; Matthews, B; Singleton, C

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To evaluate in a 12 month longitudinal study changes in hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in young female novice ballet dancers. Methods—Fifty three of the original 77 (69%) female dancers aged 8–11 years and 40 of the original 49 (82%) controls returned for follow up measurements one year later. Supine right active hip external (ER) and internal (IR) rotation were measured using an inclinometer. A turnout protractor was used to assess standing active turnout range. Range of right weight bearing ankle dorsiflexion and calf muscle length were measured in a standing lunge position using an inclinometer. A manual muscle tester was used to assess right hip flexor, IR, ER, abductor and adductor strength. Results—The mean (SD) 12 month change in hip ER did not differ between dancers (11.7 (11.3)°) and controls (8.1 (17.6)°). Dancers gained 12.5 (13.5)° hip IR which was significantly greater than controls (0.5 (13.9)°). Greater IR change was associated with improved IR strength (r = 0.34, p<0.001). Dancers increased total turnout (12.0 (16.7)°) significantly more than controls (2.2 (20.0)°). There was no significant change in ankle dorsiflexion range in either group. Dancers and controls increased in all measures of hip muscle strength (p<0.001) and dancers achieved significantly greater gains in three out of five muscle groups (all, p<0.05). Conclusions—Total hip range of motion increased in both ballet students and controls at this young age. However, ankle dorsiflexion did not, which is probably due to this movement being blocked by bony apposition, rather than soft tissue stretch. This has implications for ballet teachers, as it has long been accepted that this movement could be improved with training. Dancers had greater increases in hip strength after 12 months compared with controls in muscles specific for ballet, suggesting that hip strength can be trained at this young age. Whether these gains are permanent requires

  8. Preschool Affects Longer Term Literacy and Numeracy: Results from a General Population Longitudinal Study in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melhuish, Edward; Quinn, Louise; Sylva, Kathy; Sammons, Pam; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The Effective Pre-school Provision in Northern Ireland (EPPNI) project is a longitudinal study of child development from 3 to 11 years. It is one of the first large-scale UK projects to investigate the effects of different kinds of preschool provision, and to relate experience in preschool to child development. In EPPNI, 683 children were randomly…

  9. Emotional Reactivity and the Emergence of Conduct Problems and Emotional Symptoms in 7- to 11-Year-Olds: A 1-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Carla; Petersen, Nancy; Goodyer, Ian

    2008-01-01

    A study to investigate the relation between psychopathology and predictive validity of emotional reactivity in children over a 1-year follow up period was conducted. The investigation was done using the International Affective Picture System to determine individual differences in the emotional and attention process involved in appetitive and…

  10. Discontinuation of anti-hypertensive drugs increases 11-year cardiovascular mortality risk in community-dwelling elderly (the Bambuí Cohort Study of Ageing)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertension remains a major public health problem whose management is hampered by poor persistence with pharmacological therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between discontinuing antihypertensive drugs (AHDs) and the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. Methods A population-based prospective cohort study of all of the ≥60-year-old residents in Bambuí city (Brazil) enrolled 1606 subjects (92.2%), of whom 1494 (93.0%) were included in this study. The use of AHDs was ascertained annually in a real-clinical context, and time-varying AHD exposure was categorised as non-use, current use or stopped. The predicted cardiovascular mortality rates were estimated using interval Poisson models for ungrouped person-time data, taking into account current levels of systolic blood pressure (BP). Results The overall adjusted cardiovascular mortality risk ratio of AHD stoppers vs current users was 3.12 (95% CI: 2.35-4.15). There was a significant interaction with BP levels: the association between discontinuing AHDs and the risk of cardiovascular mortality was stronger at higher systolic BP levels. The estimates of the risk of cardiovascular mortality over the follow-up period were similar in AHD users and non-users, for whom AHDs were never prescribed. Conclusion Discontinuing AHDs increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. Misconceptions about symptoms or drug-related adverse effects could underlie a subject’s decision to discontinue AHDs. Greater attention should be paid to the choice of AHDs and informative action. PMID:25030357

  11. Adult tonic-clonic convulsive status epilepticus over the last 11 years in a resource-poor country: a tertiary referral centre study from southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Phabphal, Kanitpong; Geater, Alan; Limapichart, Kitti; Sathirapanya, Pornchai; Setthawatcharawanich, Suwanna

    2013-09-01

    Status epilepticus is a common condition in patients admitted to hospital in resource-poor countries and reports indicate that aetiology, factors of poor outcome, and treatment strategies are variable. To date, there is no report of a prospective study in Thai adults. Herein, we investigated the aetiology, clinical features, factors of predicted poor outcome, and treatment strategies in Thai adult patients who presented with convulsive status epilepticus. A total of 180 patients, whose ages ranged from 15 to 106 years, were included. Of these, 121 patients (67.2%) had acute symptomatic aetiology. The most common aetiology of status epilepticus was encephalitis (36.1%), followed by scarring of the cerebral hemisphere (15%). The median duration of status epilepticus before treatment was three hours. The rate of mortality in the study was 26.7%. Poor outcome was identified in 112 (62.2%) patients. For referral patients, all received only intravenous drugs before referral. The variables that correlated with poor outcome were aetiology and duration of status epilepticus. An approach to incorporate improved prevention of encephalitis, a more effective transportation system, and provision of the essential intravenous antiepileptic drugs would effectively increase the response to treatment.

  12. Intake of fat and fiber-rich foods according to socioeconomic status: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Neutzling, Marilda B.; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Vieira, Maria de Fátima A.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the food intake of adolescents participating in the 1993 birth cohort from Pelotas, Southern Brazil, according to socioeconomic position. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the 2004-2005 follow-up visit. Food intake in the previous year was evaluated using the Block questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was evaluated based on an assets index, divided into quintiles. Foods with the highest frequency of daily intake were white bread (83%), butter or margarine (74.6%), beans (66.4%) and milk (48.5%). Intake of butter or margarine, bread, and beans was more frequent among poorer adolescents, and the inverse was true for milk. Intake of fruits and vegetables was low in all socioeconomic strata, but particularly low among the poor. In early adolescence, all socioeconomic groups showed high consumption of foods rich in fat and low consumption of foods rich in fiber. PMID:20963287

  13. Adolescent survey non-response and later risk of death. A prospective cohort study of 78 609 persons with 11-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Ville M; Parkkari, Jari; Rimpelä, Arja

    2007-01-01

    Background Non-response in survey studies is a growing problem and, being usually selective, it leads to under- or overestimation of health outcomes in the follow-up. We followed both respondents and non-respondents by registry linkage to determine whether there is a risk of death, related to non-response at baseline. Methods Sample data of biennial surveys to 12-18-year-old Finns in 1979–1997 were linked with national death registry up to 2001. The number of respondents was 62 528 (79.6%) and non-respondents 16 081 (20.4%). The average follow-up was 11.1 years, totalling 876 400 person-years. The risk of death between non-respondents and respondents was estimated by hazard ratios (HR). Results The number of deaths per 100 000 person-years were 229 in non-respondents and 447 in respondents (HR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.5–2.6). The hazard ratios of death were for intoxication 3.2 (95% CI: 1.9–5.4), for disease 3.1 (95% CI: 2.2–4.1), for violence-related injury 2.0 (95% CI: 1.5–2.6) and for unintentional injury 1.8 (95% CI: 1.3–2.4) in non-respondents vs. respondents. The association between non-response and death increased with age at baseline, and the increase persisted after the age of 25. Conclusion Our study demonstrated significantly increased rates of death among adolescent non-respondents in a follow-up. The highest hazard ratios were seen in disease- and violence-related deaths. The death rate varied between respondents and non-respondents by death type. Increased rates of death persisted beyond the age of 25. PMID:17519009

  14. Effect of a family-based intervention on electronic media use and body composition among boys aged 8--11 years: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Todd, M Kent; Reis-Bergan, Monica J; Sidman, Cara L; Flohr, Judith A; Jameson-Walker, Kelly; Spicer-Bartolau, Tara; Wildeman, Kelly

    2008-12-01

    This study measured the effect of a 20-week, family-centered electronic media intervention on electronic media use, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; DXA), physical activity and dietary behaviors in boys. Twenty-two boys were assigned and 21 were analyzed in an experimental or control group. Boys in the experimental group set electronic media use goals and used TV Allowance device and ENUFF software to reduce electronic media use. Data were collected at baseline, 10 weeks and 20 weeks. Interactions were found in daily electronic media use and DXA. At 10 weeks, step counts increased by 543 steps per day in the experimental group and decreased by 340 steps per day in the controls. Steps in both groups were higher at 20 weeks. Meals or snacks eaten while using electronic media decreased in the experimental group only. In conclusion, a family-centered electronic media intervention may reduce electronic media use and contribute to desirable changes in body composition. PMID:19052191

  15. Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma May Develop Ischemic Heart Disease More Often than Those without Glaucoma: An 11-Year Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Yen; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Chu, Dachen; Chen, Hsin-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) have a higher proportion of ischemic heart disease (IHD) development. Design A population-based retrospective cohort study, using the National Health Insurance Database (NHID) from 1st January, 2001, to 31st December, 2011, in Taiwan. Methods 3510 subjects with POAG were enrolled into the POAG group and 14040 subjects without glaucoma into the comparison group. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected individuals, matched with the POAG group based on age, gender, and index date (date of enrollment) at a ratio of 1:4. The participants of both groups should have no IHD before the index date, and they were followed until the end of 2011 to see whether they had new-onset IHD or not. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the cumulative incidence of IHD between the two groups. Frailty model, a specialized form of Cox regression analysis, was used to estimate the crude and adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of IHD. Analyses were adjusted by age, gender, and systemic comorbidities (i.e. diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation and congestive heart failure). Results The mean age of the cohort was 57.6±11.0 years. There were slightly more males than females (51.6% vs. 48.4%). A log-rank test comparing Kaplan-Meier curves of the two groups revealed a significantly higher cumulative incidence of IHD in the POAG group (p-value<0.001). In the univariate analysis by Frailty model, POAG patients had a significantly higher hazard of IHD (unadjusted HR = 2.32; 95% confidence interval 1.93 to 2.79). After adjustment, results remained significant (adjusted HR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 1.72). Conclusion People with POAG may suffer from IHD more often than those without glaucoma. PMID:27649414

  16. Are Sibling Relationships Protective? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Krista; Jenkins, Jennifer; Dunn, Judy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Although the protective effects of familial and parental support have been studied extensively in the child psychopathology literature, few studies have explored the protective quality of positive sibling relationships. Methods: A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine the protective effect of positive sibling relationships…

  17. Longitudinal studies based on vital registration records.

    PubMed

    Fox, A J

    1989-01-01

    We describe here the increased use of routine vital event and census records to construct national follow-up and longitudinal studies. The strengths and weaknesses of these studies are discussed and examples given of their use in research into relationships between employment and mortality and socio-economic differences in mortality. PMID:2626588

  18. Assessing Body Fat of Children by Skinfold Thickness, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, and Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: A Validation Study Among Malay Children Aged 7 to 11 Years.

    PubMed

    Noradilah, Mohd Jonit; Ang, Yeow Nyin; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Deurenberg, Paul; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to validate skinfold (SKF) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in determining body fat percentage (BF%) of Malay children aged 7 to 11 years. A total of 160 children had their BF% assessed using SKF and BIA, with DXA as the criterion method. Four SKF equations (SKFBray, SKFJohnston, SKFSlaughter, and SKFGoran) and 4 BIA equations (BIAManufacturer, BIAHoutkooper, BIARush, and BIAKushner) were used to estimate BF%. Mean age, weight, and height were 9.4 ± 1.1years, 30.5 ± 9.9 kg, and 131.3 ± 8.4 cm. All equations significantly underestimated BF% (P < .05). BIA equations had reasonable agreement with DXA and were independent of BF% with BIAManufacturer being the best equation. Although BIA underestimates BF% as compared with DXA, BIA was more suitable to measure BF% in a population that is similar to this study sample than SKF, suggesting a need to develop new SKF equations that are population specific. PMID:27073201

  19. Assessing Body Fat of Children by Skinfold Thickness, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, and Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: A Validation Study Among Malay Children Aged 7 to 11 Years.

    PubMed

    Noradilah, Mohd Jonit; Ang, Yeow Nyin; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Deurenberg, Paul; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to validate skinfold (SKF) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in determining body fat percentage (BF%) of Malay children aged 7 to 11 years. A total of 160 children had their BF% assessed using SKF and BIA, with DXA as the criterion method. Four SKF equations (SKFBray, SKFJohnston, SKFSlaughter, and SKFGoran) and 4 BIA equations (BIAManufacturer, BIAHoutkooper, BIARush, and BIAKushner) were used to estimate BF%. Mean age, weight, and height were 9.4 ± 1.1years, 30.5 ± 9.9 kg, and 131.3 ± 8.4 cm. All equations significantly underestimated BF% (P < .05). BIA equations had reasonable agreement with DXA and were independent of BF% with BIAManufacturer being the best equation. Although BIA underestimates BF% as compared with DXA, BIA was more suitable to measure BF% in a population that is similar to this study sample than SKF, suggesting a need to develop new SKF equations that are population specific.

  20. Biomechanics of Distance Running: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard C.; Gregor, Robert J.

    1976-01-01

    Training for distance running over a long period produces meaningful changes in the running mechanics of experienced runners, as revealed in this longitudinal study of the biomechanical components of stride length, stride rate, stride time, and support and nonsupport time. (MB)

  1. Collaborative Knowledge-Building: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on knowledge-building in a technology-supported learning environment in higher education through a longitudinal study of a graduate course from 2003 to 2007. The primary question is: how do learning conditions designed into a graduate course contribute to collaborative knowledge building? In particular, two major…

  2. The 11-year cycle in human births

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Walter; Moos, Walter S.

    1993-06-01

    The annual numbers of human births were analyzed with regard to an 11-year cycle. The annual values were obtained from seven different regions: Australia, Germany, England and Wales, New Zealand, Japan, Switzerland, and the USA. Fifty-five annual values were obtained from each region for the years 1930 to 1984, comprising approximately five sunspot cycles. For each region the annual values were formed into 5 by 11 matrices; the eleven column means obtained were standardized, and plotted. A periodic regression technique, utilizing the fitting functions of the Fourier series, was used to evaluate the temporal order in the column means. Eleven-year rhythms were found and compared with solar and geophysical variables. Correlations were found with sunspots and solar flares, with terrestrial measures of magnetic disturbances (the magnetic indices derived from the K-index), and with temperature. The correlation of conceptions with the 11-year solar cycle may be a potential guide in the selection of further variables for the control and regulation of the rhythms in human conceptions.

  3. What Can We Learn From Longitudinal Studies of Adult Development?

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner

    2005-01-01

    This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912

  4. 11 -year planetary index of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okhlopkov, Victor

    In papers [1,2] introduced me parameter - the average difference between the heliocentric longitudes of planets ( ADL ) , which was used for comparison with solar activity. The best connection of solar activity ( Wolf numbers used ) was obtained for the three planets - Venus, Earth and Jupiter. In [1,2] has been allocated envelope curve of the minimum values ADL which has a main periodicity for 22 years and describes well the alternating series of solar activity , which also has a major periodicity of 22. It was shown that the minimum values of the envelope curve extremes ADL planets Venus, Earth and Jupiter are well matched with the 11- year solar activity cycle In these extremes observed linear configuration of the planets Venus, Earth and Jupiter both in their location on one side of the Sun ( conjunctions ) and at the location on the opposite side of the Sun ( three configurations ) This work is a continuation of the above-mentioned , and here for minimum ADL ( planets are in conjunction ) , as well as on the minimum deviation of the planets from a line drawn through them and Sun at the location of the planets on opposite sides of the Sun , compiled index (denoted for brevity as JEV ) that uniquely describes the 11- year solar cycle A comparison of the index JEV with solar activity during the time interval from 1000 to 2013 conducted. For the period from 1000 to 1699 used the Schove series of solar activity and the number of Wolf (1700 - 2013 ) During the time interval from 1000 to 2013 and the main periodicity of the solar activity and the index ADL is 11.07 years. 1. Okhlopkov V.P. Cycles of Solar Activity and the Configurations of Planets // Moscow University Physics Bulletin, 2012 , Vol. 67 , No. 4 , pp. 377-383 http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.3103/S0027134912040108. 2 Okhlopkov VP, Relationship of Solar Activity Cycles to Planetary Configurations // Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Physics, 2013 , Vol. 77 , No. 5

  5. Using the Longitudinal Study as a Central Teaching Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that treatment of one investigative longitudinal topic from start to finish in a high school biology class can illustrate many major ideas and concepts. Discusses ways to use various longitudinal studies of plant growth with General Biology classes. (WRM)

  6. A synthetic Longitudinal Study dataset for England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Dennett, Adam; Norman, Paul; Shelton, Nicola; Stuchbury, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the new synthetic England and Wales Longitudinal Study 'spine' dataset designed for teaching and experimentation purposes. In the United Kingdom, there exist three Census-based longitudinal micro-datasets, known collectively as the Longitudinal Studies. The England and Wales Longitudinal Study (LS) is a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales (around 500,000 individuals), linking individual person records from the 1971 to 2011 Censuses. The synthetic data presented contains a similar number of individuals to the original data and accurate longitudinal transitions between 2001 and 2011 for key demographic variables, but unlike the original data, is open access. PMID:27656667

  7. A synthetic Longitudinal Study dataset for England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Dennett, Adam; Norman, Paul; Shelton, Nicola; Stuchbury, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    This article describes the new synthetic England and Wales Longitudinal Study 'spine' dataset designed for teaching and experimentation purposes. In the United Kingdom, there exist three Census-based longitudinal micro-datasets, known collectively as the Longitudinal Studies. The England and Wales Longitudinal Study (LS) is a 1% sample of the population of England and Wales (around 500,000 individuals), linking individual person records from the 1971 to 2011 Censuses. The synthetic data presented contains a similar number of individuals to the original data and accurate longitudinal transitions between 2001 and 2011 for key demographic variables, but unlike the original data, is open access.

  8. The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise B; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Lauritzen, Lotte; Michaelsen, Kim F; Egelund, Niels

    2015-04-28

    It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794). The d2 test of attention, the Learning Rating Scale (LRS) and standard tests on reading and mathematics proficiency were administered at baseline and at the end of each study period. Intervention effects were evaluated using hierarchical mixed models. The school meal intervention did not influence concentration performance (CP; primary outcome, n 693) or processing speed; however, the decrease in error percentage was 0·18 points smaller (P<0·001) in the intervention period than in the control period (medians: baseline 2·03%; intervention 1·46%; control 1·37%). In contrast, the intervention increased reading speed (0·7 sentence, P=0·009) and the number of correct sentences (1·8 sentences, P<0·001), which corresponded to 11 and 25%, respectively, of the effect of one school year. The percentage of correct sentences also improved (P<0·001), indicating that the number correct improved relatively more than reading speed. There was no effect on overall math performance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention. These findings are worth examining in future trials. PMID:25791747

  9. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Engineering Students' Approaches to Their Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungert, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study draws on data from a larger project and examines how students' perceptions of their opportunities to influence their study environment may be enacted in approaches aimed at influencing their studies, and whether this changes during the course of their studies. Ten students from a 4.5-year Master's program in Engineering…

  11. The reliability and validity of a short food frequency questionnaire among 9–11-year olds: a multinational study on three middle-income and high-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Saloheimo, T; González, S A; Erkkola, M; Milauskas, D M; Meisel, J D; Champagne, C M; Tudor-Locke, C; Sarmiento, O; Katzmarzyk, P T; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a food frequency questionnaire with 23 food groups (I-FFQ) among a sample of 9–11-year-old children from three different countries that differ on economical development and income distribution, and to assess differences between country sites. Furthermore, we assessed factors associated with I-FFQ's performance. Methods: This was an ancillary study of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment. Reliability (n=321) and validity (n=282) components of this study had the same participants. Participation rates were 95% and 70%, respectively. Participants completed two I-FFQs with a mean interval of 4.9 weeks to assess reliability. A 3-day pre-coded food diary (PFD) was used as the reference method in the validity analyses. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, intraclass correlation coefficients and cross-classifications were used to assess the reliability of I-FFQ. Spearman correlation coefficients, percentage difference and cross-classifications were used to assess the validity of I-FFQ. A logistic regression model was used to assess the relation of selected variables with the estimate of validity. Analyses based on information in the PFDs were performed to assess how participants interpreted food groups. Results: Reliability correlation coefficients ranged from 0.37 to 0.78 and gross misclassification for all food groups was <5%. Validity correlation coefficients were below 0.5 for 22/23 food groups, and they differed among country sites. For validity, gross misclassification was <5% for 22/23 food groups. Over- or underestimation did not appear for 19/23 food groups. Logistic regression showed that country of participation and parental education were associated (P⩽0.05) with the validity of I-FFQ. Analyses of children's interpretation of food groups suggested that the meaning of most food groups was understood by the children. Conclusion: I-FFQ is a

  12. Objectives, Design, and History of the National Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, J. A.; Collins, Elmer

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is a federally supported longitudinal study of a national sample of some 23,000 young people first surveyed as high school seniors in the spring of 1972. The historical precedents of such a study include the work of Friend and Haggert in a Boston settlement house, Louis…

  13. Acceptability, Precision and Accuracy of 3D Photonic Scanning for Measurement of Body Shape in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Children Aged 5-11 Years: The SLIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Stocks, Janet; Bonner, Rachel; Raywood, Emma; Legg, Sarah; Lee, Simon; Treleaven, Philip; Lum, Sooky

    2015-01-01

    Background Information on body size and shape is used to interpret many aspects of physiology, including nutritional status, cardio-metabolic risk and lung function. Such data have traditionally been obtained through manual anthropometry, which becomes time-consuming when many measurements are required. 3D photonic scanning (3D-PS) of body surface topography represents an alternative digital technique, previously applied successfully in large studies of adults. The acceptability, precision and accuracy of 3D-PS in young children have not been assessed. Methods We attempted to obtain data on girth, width and depth of the chest and waist, and girth of the knee and calf, manually and by 3D-PS in a multi-ethnic sample of 1484 children aged 5–11 years. The rate of 3D-PS success, and reasons for failure, were documented. Precision and accuracy of 3D-PS were assessed relative to manual measurements using the methods of Bland and Altman. Results Manual measurements were successful in all cases. Although 97.4% of children agreed to undergo 3D-PS, successful scans were only obtained in 70.7% of these. Unsuccessful scans were primarily due to body movement, or inability of the software to extract shape outputs. The odds of scan failure, and the underlying reason, differed by age, size and ethnicity. 3D-PS measurements tended to be greater than those obtained manually (p<0.05), however ranking consistency was high (r2>0.90 for most outcomes). Conclusions 3D-PS is acceptable in children aged ≥5 years, though with current hardware/software, and body movement artefacts, approximately one third of scans may be unsuccessful. The technique had poorer technical success than manual measurements, and had poorer precision when the measurements were viable. Compared to manual measurements, 3D-PS showed modest average biases but acceptable limits of agreement for large surveys, and little evidence that bias varied substantially with size. Most of the issues we identified could be

  14. Beyond Terman: Contemporary Longitudinal Studies of Giftedness and Talent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subotnik, Rena F., Ed.; Arnold, Karen D., Ed.

    This volume presents 16 papers describing recent longitudinal studies of giftedness. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Longitudinal Study of Giftedness and Talent" (Rena F. Subotnik and Karen D. Arnold); (2) "The Illinois Valedictorian Project: Early Adult Careers of Academically Talented Male High School Students" (Karen D.…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Adjustment Following Family Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruschena, Eda; Prior, Margot; Sanson, Ann; Smart, Diana

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study examined the impact of family transitions, that is, parental separation, divorce, remarriage and death, upon the lives of Australian children and adolescents in a longitudinal study of temperament and development. Methods: Using longitudinal and concurrent questionnaire data, outcomes for young people experiencing…

  16. Mt. Druitt Longitudinal Study: Second Major Report, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Peter

    Sections of this report introduce many of the activities undertaken in 1982 within the purview of the Mt. Druitt (Australia) longitudinal study. Included are reports of (1) the 1982 math investigation, (2) a longitudinal study of child growth and development and the incidence of physical defects at ages 9 and 10, (3) an investigation of classroom…

  17. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Longitudinal Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giron, Jennie M.; Sohus, A.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The “school” consists of a one-week intensive team exercise learning the process of developing a robotic mission concept into reality through concurrent engineering, working with JPL’s Advanced Project Design Team (Team X). This program benefits the students by providing them with skills, knowledge and the experience of collaborating with a concept mission design. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the impact of the program on the past participants of the program. Data collected included their current contact information, if they are currently part of the planetary exploration community, if participation in the program contributed to any career choices, if the program benefited their career paths, etc. Approximately 37% of 250 past participants responded to the online survey. Of these, 83% indicated that they are actively involved in planetary exploration or aerospace in general; 78% said they had been able to apply what they learned in the program to their current job or professional career; 100% said they would recommend this program to a colleague.

  18. Acculturation attitudes and social adjustment in British South Asian children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rupert; Baysu, Gülseli; Cameron, Lindsey; Nigbur, Dennis; Rutland, Adam; Watters, Charles; Hossain, Rosa; Letouze, Dominique; Landau, Anick

    2013-12-01

    A 1-year longitudinal study with three testing points was conducted with 215 British Asian children aged 5 to 11 years to test hypotheses from Berry's acculturation framework. Using age-appropriate measures of acculturation attitudes and psychosocial outcomes, it was found that (a) children generally favored an "integrationist" attitude, and this was more pronounced among older (8-10 years) than in younger (5-7 years) children and (b) temporal changes in social self-esteem and peer acceptance were associated with different acculturation attitudes held initially, as shown by latent growth curve analyses. However, a supplementary time-lagged regression analysis revealed that children's earlier "integrationist" attitudes may be associated with more emotional symptoms (based on teachers' ratings) 6 months later. The implications of these different outcomes of children's acculturation attitudes are discussed.

  19. 77 FR 2349 - Proposed Information Collection (Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900--New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any correspondence...: Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study Survey. OMB Control Number: 2900--New...

  20. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Alters Cortisol Stress Reactivity in 11 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Lin, Richard; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Objective Determine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal environmental adversity on salivary cortisol stress reactivity in school aged children. Study design Subjects included 743 11 year old children (n=320 cocaine exposed; 423 comparison) followed since birth in a longitudinal prospective multisite study. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol at baseline and after a standardized procedure to induce psychological stress. Children were divided into those who showed an increase in cortisol from baseline to post stress and those who showed a decrease or blunted cortisol response. Covariates measured included site, birthweight, maternal pre and postnatal use of alcohol, tobacco or marijuana, social class, changes in caretakers, maternal depression and psychological symptoms, domestic and community violence, child abuse and quality of the home. Results With adjustment for confounding variables, cortisol reactivity to stress was more likely to be blunted in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Cocaine exposed children exposed to domestic violence showed the strongest effects. Conclusion The combination of prenatal cocaine exposure and an adverse postnatal environment could down regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) resulting in the blunted cortisol response to stress possibly increasing risk for later psychopathology and adult disease. PMID:20400094

  1. Eating attitudes in a group of 11-year-old urban South African girls

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Carmen D; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; MacKeown, Jenny M

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To explore and describe eating attitudes in early pubertal 11-year-old black and white South African girls in an urban environment undergoing transition. Design The study was designed as a cross-sectional baseline initiative within a longitudinal study. Subjects Two hundred and two subjects were randomly selected; 54 were white and 148 black. Methods Subjects completed questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements were taken. Outcome measures Variables included body mass index (BMI), eating attitudes (EAT score), dietary intake, socio-economic status, pubertal status and level of physical activity. Results As expected, the prevalence rate of abnormal eating attitudes in this group of girls was low (1%). No significant ethnic differences were found in the total EAT scores. White participants displayed greater oral control, while their black peers displayed greater tendencies toward dieting (p = 0.05). Girls who scored higher on the dieting subscale had a larger body size and were more inactive than low dieting scorers (p = 0.05). A relationship between body size measurements and dietary intake was found only in black girls. Traditionally a larger figure is accepted in black culture. However our data suggest a move away from this, indicating acculturation, as awareness of increased body size significantly influenced dieting attitudes. However, scores were within the normal range. Conclusions There is early evidence suggesting the impact of societal transition on young black girls with regard to eating attitudes. Black girls in this age group are adopting Western ideals of beauty and thinness. PMID:20526468

  2. Farming tractor fatalities in Virginia: an 11-year retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, James; Noller, Anna; Kay, Deborah

    2012-12-01

    This retrospective case review examines farm tractor-related deaths in the Commonwealth of Virginia for an 11-year period, from 1997 to 2007. This study compares decedent's demographic information, toxicology results, and medical histories.A vast majority of farm tractor-related deaths were male (98%) and white (91%). The average age was 60 years with most deaths occurring between the ages of 40 and 80 years. Ethanol use was observed in 9% of all cases with 7% of cases being more than 0.08% wt/vol ethanol, which is the legal limit in Virginia to operate a motor vehicle.The more mountainous, Western District Office of the Chief Medical Examiner composed 60% of total cases with 43% of these western cases related to tractor use on a natural slope or incline. The deaths in other districts were all less than 13% natural slope or incline related, reflecting the topography of these areas.These findings confirm much of what observation would suggest; accidents with farming tractors typically involve older white men. Operating a tractor on steep inclines is dangerous as many tractors do not have adequate rollover protection. The use of ethanol is dangerous when using any heavy equipment.This study provides an initial look at tractor-related deaths in Virginia, and more research is needed in this area to improve safety mechanisms on this machinery.

  3. Fifteen years of child drowning--a 1967-1981 analysis of all fatal cases from the Brisbane Drowning Study and an 11 year study of consecutive near-drowning cases.

    PubMed

    Nixon, J; Pearn, J; Wilkey, I; Corcoran, A

    1986-06-01

    A total population study of childhood fresh water drowning accidents (fatalities) for the 15 year period, 1967-1981, is reported. These data are from the ongoing Brisbane Drowning Study which has now also analysed 255 fresh water child immersions (both fatalities and near-fatalities) over the eleven year period, 1978-1981, and as such forms a consecutive unselected series for over one decade. The annual fatality (drowning) rate is 3.53 per 100,000. Details of immersion accidents by site, sex and by outcome (survivors versus fatalities) are presented. An analysis of secular trends revealed that one epidemic peak of child drownings in swimming pools and domestic baths (noted in the mid 1970s in Australia and other countries) is now passed. Evidence is presented to suggest that a vigorous education, and public awareness campaign can reduce the incidence of serious child immersion accidents by one-third. Such a campaign may have influence on all types of childhood household drownings (pools, baths, garden ponds), irrespective of site. Survival rates for unsupervised children who lose consciousness in fresh water are site-dependent, only 21% of such potential victims surviving after losing consciousness in rivers and creeks, compared with the survival rate of 65% for those in potential drowning incidents in their own backyard. Violent death continues to account for more than half of all deaths in childhood up to the age of 14 years [Gratz, 1979; Mayer, Walker and Johnson et al., 1981].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Fifteen years of child drowning--a 1967-1981 analysis of all fatal cases from the Brisbane Drowning Study and an 11 year study of consecutive near-drowning cases.

    PubMed

    Nixon, J; Pearn, J; Wilkey, I; Corcoran, A

    1986-06-01

    A total population study of childhood fresh water drowning accidents (fatalities) for the 15 year period, 1967-1981, is reported. These data are from the ongoing Brisbane Drowning Study which has now also analysed 255 fresh water child immersions (both fatalities and near-fatalities) over the eleven year period, 1978-1981, and as such forms a consecutive unselected series for over one decade. The annual fatality (drowning) rate is 3.53 per 100,000. Details of immersion accidents by site, sex and by outcome (survivors versus fatalities) are presented. An analysis of secular trends revealed that one epidemic peak of child drownings in swimming pools and domestic baths (noted in the mid 1970s in Australia and other countries) is now passed. Evidence is presented to suggest that a vigorous education, and public awareness campaign can reduce the incidence of serious child immersion accidents by one-third. Such a campaign may have influence on all types of childhood household drownings (pools, baths, garden ponds), irrespective of site. Survival rates for unsupervised children who lose consciousness in fresh water are site-dependent, only 21% of such potential victims surviving after losing consciousness in rivers and creeks, compared with the survival rate of 65% for those in potential drowning incidents in their own backyard. Violent death continues to account for more than half of all deaths in childhood up to the age of 14 years [Gratz, 1979; Mayer, Walker and Johnson et al., 1981].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3730093

  5. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  6. Set-based tests for genetic association in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    He, Zihuai; Zhang, Min; Lee, Seunggeun; Smith, Jennifer A; Guo, Xiuqing; Palmas, Walter; Kardia, Sharon L R; Diez Roux, Ana V; Mukherjee, Bhramar

    2015-09-01

    Genetic association studies with longitudinal markers of chronic diseases (e.g., blood pressure, body mass index) provide a valuable opportunity to explore how genetic variants affect traits over time by utilizing the full trajectory of longitudinal outcomes. Since these traits are likely influenced by the joint effect of multiple variants in a gene, a joint analysis of these variants considering linkage disequilibrium (LD) may help to explain additional phenotypic variation. In this article, we propose a longitudinal genetic random field model (LGRF), to test the association between a phenotype measured repeatedly during the course of an observational study and a set of genetic variants. Generalized score type tests are developed, which we show are robust to misspecification of within-subject correlation, a feature that is desirable for longitudinal analysis. In addition, a joint test incorporating gene-time interaction is further proposed. Computational advancement is made for scalable implementation of the proposed methods in large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The proposed methods are evaluated through extensive simulation studies and illustrated using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Our simulation results indicate substantial gain in power using LGRF when compared with two commonly used existing alternatives: (i) single marker tests using longitudinal outcome and (ii) existing gene-based tests using the average value of repeated measurements as the outcome.

  7. Social Class Differentiation in Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Mark; And Others

    In an effort to isolate the emergence and causes of social class differences in intellectual performance, this longitudinal study was undertaken as a follow-up on a cross-sectional study that yielded no social class differences on the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale for 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old black children. In the present study, 89 children…

  8. Positive illusions in marital relationships: a 13-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul J E; Niehuis, Sylvia; Huston, Ted L

    2006-12-01

    This study examined the long-term consequences of idealization in marriage, using both daily diary and questionnaire data collected from a sample of 168 newlywed couples who participated in a 4-wave, 13-year longitudinal study of marriage. Idealization was operationalized as the tendency for people to perceive their partner as more agreeable than would be expected based on their reports of their partner's agreeable and disagreeable behaviors. Spouses who idealized one another were more in love with each other as newlyweds. Longitudinal analyses suggested that spouses were less likely to suffer declines in love when they idealized one another as newlyweds. Newlywed levels of idealization did not predict divorce.

  9. Suprasegmental Phonology Development and Reading Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…

  10. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  11. Career Trajectories of Dutch Pop Musicians: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaan, Koos; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten

    2010-01-01

    Systematic studies of artistic careers are scarce and this is the first large-scale study on the career development of pop musicians. Using a prospective longitudinal approach we followed a sample of aspiring pop musicians in the Netherlands (N=369) over a three-year period. First we identified four groups of pop musicians with different career…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Judge Leniency and Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunz, Mary E.; O'Neill, Thomas R.

    This retrospective longitudinal study was designed to show grading leniency patterns of judges within and across clinical examination administrations. Data from 17 different administrations of the histology examination of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists over 10 years were studied. Over the 10 years there were 4,683 candidates and 57…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Gender-Related Cognition and Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour…

  14. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  15. Predictors of Educational Attainment in the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated a comprehensive set of predictors of high school completion and years of completed education for youth in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of over 1500 low-income, minority children who grew up on high-poverty neighborhoods. The study sample included 1286 youth for whom educational attainment could…

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Retirement in Older Male Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnurr, Paula P.; Lunney, Carole A.; Sengupta, Anjana; Spiro, Avron

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the effect of retirement on psychological and physical symptoms in 404 older male veterans who were taking part in an ongoing longitudinal study. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze symptom trajectories from preretirement, peri-retirement, and postretirement periods in veterans with either lifetime…

  17. Homeschooling Education: Longitudinal Study of Methods, Materials, and Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Linda G.

    2012-01-01

    In a comprehensive study of two-hundred fifty homeschooling families in urban, rural and suburban areas of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the researcher examined all aspects of the instruction, materials and curricula employed by the families in a ten-year longitudinal study from 1998 through 2008. The researcher conducted interviews and…

  18. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  19. The Longitudinal Study (LAS): Thirteen Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Christopher M.

    This study is the fifth assessment in an 18-year longitudinal study begun in 1986 to follow a group of Montessori students who attended the Franciscan Montessori Earth School in Portland, Oregon. Participating were 45 students with an average age of 18 years, about half of whom were in high school and half in college. Students completed an online…

  20. Theoretical study of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, H; Davidson, R C; Chung, M; Barnard, J J; Wang, T F

    2011-04-14

    The effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions is investigated using the generalized Courant-Snyder theory for coupled lattices. Recently, the concept and technique of transverse-longitudinal emittance coupling have been proposed for applications in the Linac Coherent Light Source and other free-electron lasers to reduce the transverse emittance of the electron beam. Such techniques can also be applied to the driver beams for the heavy ion fusion and beam-driven high energy density physics, where the transverse emittance budget is typically tighter than the longitudinal emittance. The proposed methods consist of one or several coupling components which completely swap the emittances of one of the transverse directions and the longitudinal direction at the exit of the coupling components. The complete emittance exchange is realized in one pass through the coupling components. In the present study, we investigate the effect of a weakly coupled periodic lattice in terms of achieving emittance exchange between the transverse and longitudinal directions. A weak coupling component is introduced at every focusing lattice, and we would like to determine if such a lattice can realize the function of emittance exchange.

  1. Generalization of Rare Variant Association Tests for Longitudinal Family Studies.

    PubMed

    Chien, Li-Chu; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Bowden, Donald W; Chiu, Yen-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Given the functional relevance of many rare variants, their identification is frequently critical for dissecting disease etiology. Functional variants are likely to be aggregated in family studies enriched with affected members, and this aggregation increases the statistical power to detect rare variants associated with a trait of interest. Longitudinal family studies provide additional information for identifying genetic and environmental factors associated with disease over time. However, methods to analyze rare variants in longitudinal family data remain fairly limited. These methods should be capable of accounting for different sources of correlations and handling large amounts of sequencing data efficiently. To identify rare variants associated with a phenotype in longitudinal family studies, we extended pedigree-based burden (BT) and kernel (KS) association tests to genetic longitudinal studies. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) approaches were used to generalize the pedigree-based BT and KS to multiple correlated phenotypes under the generalized linear model framework, adjusting for fixed effects of confounding factors. These tests accounted for complex correlations between repeated measures of the same phenotype (serial correlations) and between individuals in the same family (familial correlations). We conducted comprehensive simulation studies to compare the proposed tests with mixed-effects models and marginal models, using GEEs under various configurations. When the proposed tests were applied to data from the Diabetes Heart Study, we found exome variants of POMGNT1 and JAK1 genes were associated with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26783077

  2. Generalization of Rare Variant Association Tests for Longitudinal Family Studies.

    PubMed

    Chien, Li-Chu; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Bowden, Donald W; Chiu, Yen-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Given the functional relevance of many rare variants, their identification is frequently critical for dissecting disease etiology. Functional variants are likely to be aggregated in family studies enriched with affected members, and this aggregation increases the statistical power to detect rare variants associated with a trait of interest. Longitudinal family studies provide additional information for identifying genetic and environmental factors associated with disease over time. However, methods to analyze rare variants in longitudinal family data remain fairly limited. These methods should be capable of accounting for different sources of correlations and handling large amounts of sequencing data efficiently. To identify rare variants associated with a phenotype in longitudinal family studies, we extended pedigree-based burden (BT) and kernel (KS) association tests to genetic longitudinal studies. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) approaches were used to generalize the pedigree-based BT and KS to multiple correlated phenotypes under the generalized linear model framework, adjusting for fixed effects of confounding factors. These tests accounted for complex correlations between repeated measures of the same phenotype (serial correlations) and between individuals in the same family (familial correlations). We conducted comprehensive simulation studies to compare the proposed tests with mixed-effects models and marginal models, using GEEs under various configurations. When the proposed tests were applied to data from the Diabetes Heart Study, we found exome variants of POMGNT1 and JAK1 genes were associated with type 2 diabetes.

  3. Longitudinal Study of Obesity and Athletic Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bale, David B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that tracked the fatness of elementary students over two years using current fitness test standards, assessing the athletic competence of obese and nonobese children. Children who were obese at the beginning of the study were likely to remain so. The study's findings regarding athletic competence were equivocal. (SM)

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Children's Social Adjustment during Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battistich, Victor; Solomon, Daniel

    A 7-year, longitudinal study of children's social development from kindergarten through sixth grade was designed to identify unusually prosocial children and characteristics that differentiated them from average and antisocial peers. Another objective was to identify functional socioemotional predictors of changes in children's social adjustment.…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of ESL Learners' Fluency and Comprehensibility Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derwing, Tracey M.; Munro, Murray J.; Thomson, Ron I.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal mixed-methods study compared the oral fluency of well-educated adult immigrants from Mandarin and Slavic language backgrounds (16 per group) enrolled in introductory English as a second language (ESL) classes. Speech samples were collected over a 2-year period, together with estimates of weekly English use. We also conducted…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Pretend Play in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Young, Gregory S.; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder", 33, 289-302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Idiom and Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levorato, M. Chiara; Roch, Maja; Nesi, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    The relation between text and idiom comprehension in children with poor text comprehension skills was investigated longitudinally. In the first phase of the study, six-year-old first graders with different levels of text comprehension were compared in an idiom and sentence comprehension task. Text comprehension was shown to be more closely related…

  8. Helping Rural Adolescents Make Successful Postsecondary Transitions: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapan, Richard T.; Aoyagi, Mark; Kayson, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The longitudinal study in this article tested whether advantages in the career development of high school seniors resulted in better transition outcomes for these young adults 3 years after they graduated from high school. Enhanced career development in high school was significantly connected to more successful transitions into the adult roles of…

  9. Stages of Headship: A Longitudinal Study of the Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weindling, Dick

    This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinal study of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to assist…

  10. Early Cognitive Profiles of Emergent Readers: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…

  11. Experimental study of the longitudinal instability for beam transport

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, M.; Wang, J.G.; Guo, W.M.; Wang, D.X.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical model for beam longitudinal instability in a transport pipe with general wall impedance is considered. The result shows that a capacitive wall tends to stabilize the beam. The experimental study of the instability for a pure resistive-wall is presented, including the design parameters, setup and components for the experiment. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

  13. A Longitudinal Study on Internship Effectiveness in Vocational Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai

    2013-01-01

    A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  15. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  16. Pain Perceptions of the Oldest Old: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarit, Steven H.; Griffiths, Patricia C.; Berg, Stig

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed self-reported pain in the oldest old and examined its changes over time and in relation to other measures of health and functioning. Design and Methods: A population-based sample of the oldest old (86-92 years of age) residing in Sweden who were participating in a multiwave longitudinal investigation were interviewed…

  17. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  18. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path…

  19. Health Benefits of Volunteering in the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-01-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly…

  20. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescent Precursors to Running Away

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Bersani, Bianca E.

    2008-01-01

    Although previous research has examined correlates of running away among samples of currently homeless and runaway adolescents, little is known about what factors will predict the likelihood that a housed adolescent with no prior history of running away will leave home. As such, the current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to…

  2. From ICT Coordination to ICT Integration: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tondeur, J.; Cooper, M.; Newhouse, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    This study utilizes a school-improvement perspective to examine the role of curriculum coordination in the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into primary schools. The nature and impact of this role is examined in seven primary schools in Australia. These seven schools were drawn from a longitudinal intervention that…

  3. Document Use during a Research Project: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Peiling; White, Marilyn Domas

    1995-01-01

    Provides preliminary results of a longitudinal, qualitative research study of document use by academic agricultural economists in actual situations. Topics include users' changing information needs, use patterns, decision making regarding relevant items, and criteria and decision rules used to read or cite documents across stages of research.…

  4. Exploring Dynamism in Willingness to Communicate: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines dynamism in students' situational willingness to communicate (WTC) within a second language classroom. This longitudinal study involved twelve English as a Second Language (ESL) participants who enrolled in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programme in New Zealand for five months. Based on data from classroom…

  5. Investing in Better Outcomes: The Delaware Early Childhood Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamel-McCormick, Michael; Amsden, Deborah

    This report details the outcomes for children enrolled in two types of early intervention programs in Delaware: those serving young children with disabilities and those serving young children living in poverty. The Delaware Early Childhood Longitudinal Study was designed as a retrospective, two-group, posttest-only design. Participating in the…

  6. Attachment from Infancy to Adulthood: The Major Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossmann, Klaus E., Ed.; Grossmann, Karin, Ed.; Waters, Everett, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This volume provides unique and valuable firsthand accounts of the most important longitudinal studies of attachment. Presented are a range of research programs that have broadened the understanding of early close relationships and their role in individual adaptation throughout life. In addition to discussing the findings that emerged from each…

  7. Connecticut Participation in the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Department of Education Research Bulletin, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Statewide information concerning the Connecticut eight-grade public school students who particpated in the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) in the spring of 1988 is presented. Over 900 students in 46 schools in 35 school districts, almost evenly divided between males and females, completed cognitive tests and student surveys about…

  8. Trauma, mental health, and intergenerational associations in Kosovar Families 11 years after the war

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Matthis; Morina, Naser; Klaghofer, Richard; Schnyder, Ulrich; Müller, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Background While there is a considerable amount of literature addressing consequences of trauma in veterans and holocaust survivors, war and postwar civilian populations, particularly children, are still understudied. Evidence regarding intergenerational effects of trauma in families is inconsistent. Objective To shed light on intergenerational aspects of trauma-related mental health problems among families 11 years after the Kosovo war. Method In a cross-sectional study, a paired sample of 51 randomly selected triplets (school-aged child, mother, father, N=153) of Kosovar families was investigated with regard to trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (UCLA Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale), anxiety (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25), and depressive symptoms (Depressionsinventar für Kinder und Jugendliche [DIKJ; depression inventory for children and adolescents], Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25). Results Considerable trauma exposure and high prevalence rates of clinically relevant posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found in both parents and children. While strong correlations were found between children's depressive symptoms and paternal posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, maternal symptoms did not correlate with their children's. In multiple regression analyses, only posttraumatic stress symptoms of fathers were significantly related with children's depressive symptoms. Conclusion Eleven years after the Kosovo war, the presence of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in civilian adults and their children is still substantial. As symptoms of parents and children are associated, mental health problems of close ones should be actively screened and accounted for in comprehensive treatment plans, using a systemic approach. Future research should include longitudinal studies conducting multivariate analyses with larger sample sizes in order to investigate indicators, causal and

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Consumer Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschis, George P.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…

  10. Factors affecting longitudinal trajectories of plasma sphingomyelins: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Michelle M; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Han, Dingfen; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Haughey, Norman J

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin metabolism has been linked to several diseases and to longevity. However, few epidemiological studies have quantified individual plasma sphingomyelin species (identified by acyl-chain length and saturation) or their relationship between demographic factors and disease processes. In this study, we determined plasma concentrations of distinct sphingomyelin species in 992 individuals, aged 55 and older, enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants were followed, with serial measures, up to 6 visits and 38 years (3972 total samples). Quantitative analyses were performed on a high-performance liquid chromatography-coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometer. Linear mixed models were used to assess variation in specific sphingomyelin species and associations with demographics, diseases, medications or lifestyle factors, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. We found that most sphingomyelin species increased with age. Women had higher plasma levels of all sphingomyelin species and showed steeper trajectories of age-related increases compared to men. African Americans also showed higher circulating sphingomyelin concentrations compared to Caucasians. Diabetes, smoking, and plasma triglycerides were associated with lower levels of many sphingomyelins and dihydrosphingomyelins. Notably, these associations showed specificity to sphingomyelin acyl-chain length and saturation. These results demonstrate that longitudinal changes in circulating sphingomyelin levels are influenced by age, sex, race, lifestyle factors, and diseases. It will be important to further establish the intra-individual age- and sex-specific changes in each sphingomyelin species in relation to disease onset and progression. PMID:25345489

  11. Young Children's Improvisations: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the behavior of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children engaged in improvisational musical tasks. Ten subjects from each of the four age levels participated in the 4-year investigation, which lasted until the 2-year-olds reached 5 years of age. Children met individually with the investigator for 15 minutes…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Moral Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Anne; And Others

    A 20-year study to verify Lawrence Kohlberg's theory of moral development through a new research design, the Standard Issue Scoring System, is reported. Kohlberg theorizes that an individual progresses through several stages in attaining moral judgment. As children grow older, they are able to integrate diverse points of view on a moral conflict.…

  13. Tourism Degree Internships: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Graham

    2003-01-01

    This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed…

  14. Pierce College Longitudinal Study: First Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, M. Stephen; Hunter, Russell

    During 1977-78 Pierce College undertook a study to (1) examine major reasons for attrition; (2) determine reasons for student attendance at Pierce; (3) determine the long-range effects of academic residence at Pierce for its students; and (4) experimentally determine the effects on retention of special treatment, through a "caring ombudsman." Each…

  15. Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

  16. Longitudinal studies of exposure to cadmium.

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, R; Chettle, D R; Scott, M C; Blindt, M; Mason, H J

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of urinary proteins, blood and urinary cadmium, and in vivo kidney and liver cadmium have been made for a group of workers at several times between 1981 and 1990. The possibility of the introduction of measurement artifacts due to the use of different in vivo measurement systems has been assessed and is considered to be small. Changes in cadmium body burden with time have been studied in relation to kidney function. The results suggest several interesting patterns, although more data are needed to elucidate these further. They do, however, show the effectiveness of good hygiene in the workplace. PMID:1515347

  17. Korean 4- to 11-Year-Old Student Conceptions of Heat and Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paik, Seoung-Hey; Cho, Boo-Kyung; Go, Young-Mi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to shed light on the conceptions that young students have of heat and temperature, concepts that are both important in school science curricula and closely related to daily life. The subjects of the study were students from a rural district in South Korea and they ranged in age from 4 to 11 years. Interviews were…

  18. A longitudinal study of administrative segregation.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Maureen L; Klebe, Kelli J; Metzner, Jeffrey; Dvoskin, Joel; Fellner, Jamie; Stucker, Alysha

    2013-01-01

    The use of administrative segregation for inmates with and without mental illness has generated considerable criticism. Segregated inmates are locked in single cells for 23 hours per day, are subjected to rigorous security procedures, and have restricted access to programs. In this study, we examined whether inmates in segregation would show greater deterioration over time on psychological symptoms than would comparison offenders. The subjects were male inmates, with and without mental illness, in administrative segregation, general population, or special-needs prison. Subjects completed the Brief Symptom Inventory at regular intervals for one year. Results showed differentiation between groups at the outset and statistically significant but small positive change over time across all groups. All groups showed the same change pattern such that there was not the hypothesized differential change of inmates within administrative segregation. This study advances the empirical research, but replication research is needed to make a better determination of whether and under what conditions harm may or may not occur to inmates in solitary confinement. PMID:23503176

  19. Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, A W

    1990-01-01

    Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

  20. Correlates of Total Sedentary Time and Screen Time in 9–11 Year-Old Children around the World: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Allana G.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Church, Timothy S.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Harrington, Deirdre M.; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previously, studies examining correlates of sedentary behavior have been limited by small sample size, restricted geographic area, and little socio-cultural variability. Further, few studies have examined correlates of total sedentary time (SED) and screen time (ST) in the same population. This study aimed to investigate correlates of SED and ST in children around the world. Methods The sample included 5,844 children (45.6% boys, mean age = 10.4 years) from study sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Child- and parent-reported behavioral, household, and neighborhood characteristics and directly measured anthropometric and accelerometer data were obtained. Twenty-one potential correlates of SED and ST were examined using multilevel models, adjusting for sex, age, and highest parental education, with school and study site as random effects. Variables that were moderately associated with SED and/or ST in univariate analyses (p<0.10) were included in the final models. Variables that remained significant in the final models (p<0.05) were considered correlates of SED and/or ST. Results Children averaged 8.6 hours of daily SED, and 54.2% of children failed to meet ST guidelines. In all study sites, boys reported higher ST, were less likely to meet ST guidelines, and had higher BMI z-scores than girls. In 9 of 12 sites, girls engaged in significantly more SED than boys. Common correlates of higher SED and ST included poor weight status, not meeting physical activity guidelines, and having a TV or a computer in the bedroom. Conclusions In this global sample many common correlates of SED and ST were identified, some of which are easily modifiable (e.g., removing TV from the bedroom), and others that may require more intense behavioral interventions (e.g., increasing physical activity). Future work should incorporate these findings into the development of

  1. Validation of the existing modified screening criteria for detection of all cases of Retinopathy of Prematurity in preterm babies – 11 year study from a governorate referral hospital in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Mary K.; Sawardekar, Kiran P.; Ayoub, Hani Gameel; Busaidi, Ibrahim Al

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To study appropriateness of our modified screening criteria for detection of all cases of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) among preterm babies. Method Retrospective observational cohort study among preterm neonates who underwent ROP screening as per set protocol for 11 years at Nizwa Hospital, Al Dhakilya Governorate, Oman. We screened all babies with gestational age ⩽32 weeks or BW ⩽ 1500 g. Preterm babies >32 weeks of GA or BW > 1500 g with unstable clinical course believed to be at high risk by the attending neonatologist also were screened. Results During the study period 528 babies were screened for ROP of which 76 babies were excluded due to death, associated congenital ocular malformation and loss for follow-up either due to transfer to other institution or defaulting. Thus 452 babies were included in the final analysis. Incidence of ROP was 46.4% of which 27.9% had mild ROP, 11.3% had severe ROP which regressed and 7.3% had severe ROP who were treated. The incidence of ROP among infants with GA < 26 wks, 26–28 wks, 29–30 wks, 31–32 wks and above 32 weeks was 100.0%, 80.0%, 59.3%, 34.4% and 19.4% respectively. 56 babies of this cohort belonged to Extended (modified) criteria group. Among these 12 babies had ROP out of which 9 had mild ROP and 3 had severe ROP. Among cases with severe ROP, two cases regressed spontaneously and one case needed treatment. Multivariate analysis using stepwise regression model showed statistically significant association of GA and BW to development of ROP. We would have missed few babies with ROP if we had followed other criteria. Conclusion Our modified screening criteria seem to be appropriate as no infant with severe ROP was missed during the study period. Incidence of severe ROP among babies in the extended criteria group (5.4%) is low but significant compared to lower gestational age. We plan to formulate a scoring system following all risk factor analysis to enable us to optimize the

  2. A review of longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Lisa; Waldie, Karen; D'Souza, Stephanie; Peterson, Elizabeth R; Morton, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Antenatal depression is a known risk factor for postnatal depression; both are common disorders associated with negative impacts on child development. Few studies have followed up women from pregnancy and through the postnatal period to explore how rates of depression change. This review evaluates recent evidence on depression during pregnancy and after childbirth. A search of Embase, PsychINFO, MEDLINE and Cochrane Reviews was carried out to identify longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression. Studies that measured depression during pregnancy and up to 1 year after childbirth were evaluated against a set of criteria (e.g. less than 50 % attrition). Of the initial 523 studies identified, 16 studies met the final inclusion criteria with a total of 35,419 women. The average rate of antenatal depression across these studies was 17 and 13 % postnatal depression. The longitudinal nature of the studies revealed that on average 39 % of those who experienced antenatal depression went on to have postnatal depression. Similarly, on average, 47 % of those with postnatal depression had also experienced antenatal depression. On average, almost 7 % of women reported significant depressive symptoms in pregnancy that persisted after childbirth. The review provided evidence that rates of depression tend to be higher during pregnancy than in the first year following childbirth. Furthermore, the longitudinal data show that there is much movement between the groups categorised as depressed or not depressed. There is evidence that postnatal depression is often a continuation of existing antenatal depression.

  3. Combining growth curves when a longitudinal study switches measurement tools

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Jacob J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Walker, Elizabeth; Dunn, Camille

    2014-01-01

    When longitudinal studies are performed to investigate the growth of traits in children, the measurement tool being used to quantify the trait may need to change as the subjects age throughout the study. Changing the measurement tool at some point in the longitudinal study makes the analysis of that growth challenging which, in turn, makes it difficult to determine what other factors influence the growth rate. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework that relates the growth curves per individual for each of the different measurement tools and allows for covariates to influence the shapes of the curves by borrowing strength across curves. The method is motivated by and demonstrated by speech perception outcome measurements of children who were implanted with cochlear implants. Researchers are interested in assessing the impact of age at implantation, and comparing the growth rates of children who are implanted under the age of two versus those implanted between the ages of two and four. PMID:24821002

  4. Persistence of Challenging Behaviours in Adults with Intellectual Disability over a Period of 11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, V.; Toogood, S.; Hastings, R. P.; Lewis, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Challenging behaviours in people with an intellectual disability (ID) often develop early and tend to persist throughout life. This study presents data on the chronicity of challenging behaviours in adults with ID over a period of 11 years, and explores the characteristics of people with persistent serious behaviour problems. Method:…

  5. Meaning-Making with Colour in Multimodal Texts: An 11-Year-Old Student's Purposeful "Doing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Colour, a visual element of art and design, is a semiotic mode that is used strategically by sign-makers to communicate meaning. Understanding the meaning-making potential of colour can enhance students' understanding, appreciation, interpretation and composition of multimodal texts. This article features a case study of Anya, an 11-year-old…

  6. Managing Endings in a Longitudinal Study: Respect for Persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2005-03-01

    In this paper I describe and discuss the way that a book I had written on a five-year longitudinal study of school science teaching was received by the pupils and teachers it featured. By and large the pupils' reception was positive. However, one group of teachers was deeply hurt by the book. I trace this mainly to my failure to consider adequately their fears of the consequences of the book's publication and possibly to my failure to consider with them the psychological significance of my withdrawing from the school after five years of regular study. I hope that there are lessons not only for myself but also for others considering longitudinal and ethnographic research in science education and more broadly.

  7. Web-based tracking methods in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R

    2014-08-01

    The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning. PMID:24769078

  8. Higher maternal protectiveness is associated with higher odds of child overweight and obesity: a longitudinal Australian study.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kirsten J; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information available to support this claim. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity. A cohort of 4-5 year old children was followed up at 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11 years of age (n  =  2596). Measures included a protective parenting scale administered when children were 6-7 and 8-9 years of age, child body mass index (BMI), family characteristics including household income, neighbourhood disadvantage, child's position amongst siblings, and maternal BMI, education, employment, mental health and age at first birth. International Obesity Taskforce age- and sex-specific BMI cut points were used to determine if children were in the normal, overweight or obese BMI range. There was no association between maternal protectiveness and the odds of children being overweight or obese at age 4-5, 6-7 or 8-9 years. However at age 10-11 years, a 1 standard deviation increase in maternal protectiveness was associated with a 13% increase in the odds of children being overweight or obese. The results provide evidence of a relationship between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity, however further research is required to understand the mechanism(s) that links the two concepts. PMID:24955586

  9. Residents’ perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Lubitz, Rebecca; Lee, Joseph; Hillier, Loretta M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore family medicine residents’ perceptions of a newly restructured integrated longitudinal curriculum. Method A purposeful sample of 16 family medicine residents participated in focus group interviews conducted from a grounded theory perspective to identify the characteristics of this training model that contribute to and that challenge learning. Results Eight key themes were identified: continuity of care, relevance to family medicine, autonomy, program-focused preparation, professional development as facilitated by role modeling, patient volume, clarity of expectations for learners, and logistics. Positive learning experiences were marked by high levels of autonomy, continuity, and relevance to family medicine. Less favorable learning experiences were characterized by limited opportunities for continuity of care, limited relevance to family medicine practice and unclear expectations for the resident’s role. Family physician-led learning experiences contributed to residents’ understanding of the full scope of family medicine practice, more so than specialist-led experiences. The logistics of implementing the integrated block were challenging and negatively impacted continuity and learning. Conclusions This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice. PMID:27004074

  10. Academic Performance of Language-Minority Students and All-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study…

  11. 77 FR 20885 - Agency Information Collection (Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study Survey.... 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any correspondence. For Further Information or a Copy of....mclamb@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study...

  12. [Cerebellar gangliocytoma in an 11-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Joly, Marie; Valmary-Degano, Séverine; Cattin, Françoise; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Jouvet, Anne; Viennet, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    Cerebellar gangliocytoma can correspond to Lhermitte-Duclos disease, a benign hamartomatous malformation encountered in young adults. It can also be a part of gangliogliomas/gangliocytomas family, which usually encompasses temporal pediatric neoplasms associated with longstanding seizures. We report a case of a young 11-year-old patient who presented with a gangliocytoma of the cerebellum revealed by neurologic manifestations (headache, dyspraxia, equilibrium and gait disturbances). Diagnosis was made on surgical material. Tumour was characterized by dysplastic mature ganglion cells, perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates and no glial neoplastic component. By immunohistochemistry, ganglion cells expressed neurofilaments, MAP2 protein, synaptophysin, chromogranin A and S100 protein. BRAF V600E mutation was absent. Clinical characteristics, radiology, histopathology of the two main diagnoses are discussed.

  13. First Manic Episode in an 11 Year-old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Don Quang; Beaudry, Vincent; Lajoie, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We present the case of an 11 year-old girl admitted to the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke for a first manic episode. Method: Differential diagnoses of adjustment disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder were considered but eliminated. Results: No organic etiology was detected. Her condition rapidly remitted with aripiprazole 3mg. After her discharge, she suffered a relapse due to instability of her living conditions and was rehospitalized. Conclusion: Mania is a difficult diagnosis in youths due to its nonspecific symptoms, rare prepubertal occurrence, and diagnostic complexity. Despite ongoing research, there is little conclusive information on the impact of psychosocial stressors on the evolution of early-onset bipolar disorder. PMID:24223053

  14. [Longitudinal change in independence in the elderly--Kahoku Longitudinal Aging Study (KLAS)].

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, K; Okumiya, K; Kawamoto, A; Kimura, S; Wada, T; Fujisawa, M; Doi, Y; Shimada, K; Ozawa, T

    1994-10-01

    A community based study named Kahoku Longitudinal Aging Study (KLAS) was conducted since 1990 for the purpose of evaluating the comprehensive geriatric functional assessment (CGA) and preventing a decline in CGA in the community-dwelling elderly population. It was carried out in a Japanese rural town, in which 32% of the population was over 65 years of age. This study included a questionnaire about activity of daily living (ADL), information-related physical function, mental (cognitive and affective) and social functional domains. In addition to subjective informative instruments, various types of objective assessment such as quantitative neuro-behavioral function tests and medical examinations were performed. Subjects were all the eligible elderly aged over 65 years in the community. Although the ratio of subjects who were independent in ADL decreased with advancing age in both 1991 and 1993, the ratio of the independent elderly in ADL became significant higher (74%) in 1993 than in 1991 (71%). Scores on 2 kinds of neurobehavioral function tests in the 159 subjects aged over 75 years who attended the examination every year showed a significant and slight decrease during two years. However, some test indices significantly improved during the 2 years. These results suggested that age-related dependency in ADL and some kind of neurobehavioral functions might be prevented, in part, by health promoting education and improvement of life style. PMID:7853739

  15. Study of longitudinal dynamics in space-charge dominated beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Kai

    Modern accelerator applications, such as heavy ion fusion drivers, pulsed neutron sources, electron injectors for high-energy linear colliders, and X-ray Free Electron Lasers, demand beams with high intensity, low emittance and small energy spread. At low (non-relativistic) energies, the "electrostatic", collective interactions from space-charge forces existing in such intense beams play the dominant role; we characterize these beams as space-charge dominated beams. This dissertation presents numerous new findings on the longitudinal dynamics of a space-charge dominated beam, particularly on the propagation of density perturbations. In order to fully understand the complex physics of longitudinal space-charge waves, we combine the results of theory, computer simulation, and experiment. In the Long Solenoid Experimental system (LSE), with numerous diagnostic tools and techniques, we have, for the first time, experimentally measured the detailed energy profiles of longitudinal space-charge waves at different locations, both near the beam source and at the end of the transport system. Along with the current profiles, we have a complete set of experimental data for the propagation of space-charge waves. We compare these measured results to a 1-D theory and find better agreement for beams with perturbations in the linear regime, where the perturbation strength is less than 10%, than those with nonlinear perturbations. Using fast imaging techniques that we newly developed, we have, for the first time, obtained the progressive time-resolved images of longitudinal slices of a space-charge dominated beam. These images not only provide us time-resolved transverse density distribution of the beam, but also enable us to take time-resolved transverse phase space measurement using computerized tomography. By combining this information with the longitudinal energy measurement, we have, for the first time, experimentally constructed the full 6-D phase space. Part of the results

  16. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…

  17. Cohort Profile: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yaohui; Hu, Yisong; Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-01-01

    The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of persons in China 45 years of age or older and their spouses, including assessments of social, economic, and health circumstances of community-residents. CHARLS examines health and economic adjustments to rapid ageing of the population in China. The national baseline survey for the study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 and involved 17 708 respondents. CHARLS respondents are followed every 2 years, using a face-to-face computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI). Physical measurements are made at every 2-year follow-up, and blood sample collection is done once in every two follow-up periods. A pilot survey for CHARLS was conducted in two provinces of China in 2008, on 2685 individuals, who were resurveyed in 2012. To ensure the adoption of best practices and international comparability of results, CHARLS was harmonized with leading international research studies in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) model. Requests for collaborations should be directed to Dr Yaohui Zhao (yhzhao@nsd.edu.cn). All data in CHARLS are maintained at the National School of Development of Peking University and will be accessible to researchers around the world at the study website. The 2008 pilot data for CHARLS are available at: http://charls.ccer.edu.cn/charls/. National baseline data for the study are expected to be released in January 2013. PMID:23243115

  18. Predicting future weight status from measurements made in early childhood: a novel longitudinal approach applied to Millennium Cohort Study data

    PubMed Central

    Mead, E; Batterham, A M; Atkinson, G; Ells, L J

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: There are reports that childhood obesity tracks into later life. Nevertheless, some tracking statistics such as correlations do not quantify individual agreement, whereas others such as diagnostic test statistics can be difficult to translate into practice. We aimed to employ a novel analytic approach, based on ordinal logistic regression, to predict weight status of 11-year-old children from measurements at age 5 years. Subjects/Methods: The UK 1990 growth references were used to generate clinical weight status categories of 12 076 children enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study. Using ordinal regression, we derived the predicted probability (percent chances) of 11-year-old children becoming underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese and severely obese from their weight status category at age 5 years. Results: The chances of becoming obese (including severely obese) at age 11 years were 5.7% (95% confidence interval: 5.2 to 6.2%) for a normal-weight 5-year-old child and 32.3% (29.8 to 34.8%) for an overweight 5-year-old child. An obese 5-year-old child had a 68.1% (63.8 to 72.5%) chance of remaining obese at 11 years. Severely obese 5-year-old children had a 50.3% (43.1 to 57.4%) chance of remaining severely obese. There were no substantial differences between sexes. Nondeprived obese 5-year-old boys had a lower probability of remaining obese than deprived obese boys: −21.8% (−40.4 to −3.2%). This association was not observed in obese 5-year-old girls, in whom the nondeprived group had a probability of remaining obese 7% higher (−15.2 to 29.2%). The sex difference in this interaction of deprivation and baseline weight status was therefore −28.8% (−59.3 to 1.6%). Conclusions: We have demonstrated that ordinal logistic regression can be an informative approach to predict the chances of a child changing to, or from, an unhealthy weight status. This approach is easy to interpret and could be applied to any longitudinal data set

  19. Theoretical study of longitudinal beam splitting and related phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, J.; Shih, H.J.; Kummer, M.

    1993-10-01

    A recent experiment at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) with electron cooling showed that rf phase modulation near 1:1 resonance leads to longitudinal beam splitting. Here we explain this by applying the method of averaging, a powerful tool from the study of dynamical systems, to the underlying equation of motion -- a pendulum equation with small damping and periodic forcing. The beam splitting is explained by showing that the associated Poincare map has two attracting fixed points, each with a well-defined basin of attraction. Our approach can be immediately applied to other accelerator physics problems governed by a similar equation.

  20. Longitudinal Associations between Objective Sleep and Lipids: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Megan E. Ruiter; Kim, Yongin; Lauderdale, Diane; Lewis, Cora E.; Reis, Jared P.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Knutson, Kristen; Glasser, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the longitudinal relationships between actigraph-derived sleep duration, fragmentation, and lipid levels. Design and Setting: Longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Sleep Study (2003-05), an observational cohort at the Chicago site. Participants: There were 503 black and white adults, ages 32-51 years, with no prior history of cardiovascular disease. Interventions: N/A. Measurement and Results: Sleep duration and fragmentation were measured using 6 days of wrist actigraphy. Sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The outcome variables, measured at 3 examinations over 10 years (Baseline [2000-01], 5-year [2005-06], and 10-year follow-up [2010-11]), were total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG), and TC/HDL ratio. The associations between each sleep parameter and 10-year change in lipids were analyzed with generalized estimating equation models adjusting for relevant confounders. After adjustment, each hour increase in sleep duration was significantly associated with higher TC (5.2 mg/dL, 95%CI: 1.7, 8.6) and LDL (3.4 mg/dL, 95%CI: 0.2, 6.6) in the total sample, a 1.1 mg/dL increase in TG (95%CI: 1.0, 1.1) among men, and a borderline significant greater odds for a TC/HDL ratio ≥ 5 among men (OR: 1.37, 95%CI: 0.99, 1.90). Overall, sleep fragmentation and sleep quality scores were not associated with change in lipids. Conclusions: Beyond relevant covariates, over a 10-year follow-up, longer objective sleep duration was longitudinally and significantly associated with a poorer lipid profile. Greater objective sleep fragmentation and self-reported poor sleep quality were not related to a poorer lipid profile. Citation: Petrov MER; Kim Y; Lauderdale D; Lewis CE; Reis JP; Carnethon MR; Knutson K; Glasser SJ. Longitudinal associations between objective sleep and lipids: The CARDIA Study. SLEEP 2013

  1. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

  2. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. PMID:26096554

  3. INCAP Oriente longitudinal study: 40 years of history and legacy.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Melgar, Paul; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    Our purpose in this article is to describe the objectives, design, overall coverage, and main domains of data collection of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama Oriente Longitudinal Study and subsequent follow-up studies. This supplementary feeding trial targeted to pregnant and lactating women and children from birth to 7 y of age, conducted in 4 rural Guatemalan villages (1969-77) with a series of follow-up studies (1988-2007), is one of the richest sources of information on the effects of nutrition, growth, development, and human capital in the developing world, with outstanding data from gestation to adult age and 40 y of follow-up. Its results have influenced nutrition knowledge and policy with over 300 scientific publications. We present brief descriptions of preliminary studies that were critical for the success of the trial and the design and methods used during the trial and in the follow-up studies, in chronological order.

  4. An insight-based longitudinal study of visual analytics.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Purvi; North, Chris; Lam, Vy; Duca, Karen A

    2006-01-01

    Visualization tools are typically evaluated in controlled studies that observe the short-term usage of these tools by participants on preselected data sets and benchmark tasks. Though such studies provide useful suggestions, they miss the long-term usage of the tools. A longitudinal study of a bioinformatics data set analysis is reported here. The main focus of this work is to capture the entire analysis process that an analyst goes through from a raw data set to the insights sought from the data. The study provides interesting observations about the use of visual representations and interaction mechanisms provided by the tools, and also about the process of insight generation in general. This deepens our understanding of visual analytics, guides visualization developers in creating more effective visualization tools in terms of user requirements, and guides evaluators in designing future studies that are more representative of insights sought by users from their data sets.

  5. Insight dimensions and cognitive function in psychosis: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Cuesta, Manuel J; Peralta, Victor; Zarzuela, Amalia; Zandio, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background It has been reported that lack of insight is significantly associated with cognitive disturbance in schizophrenia. This study examines the longitudinal relationships between insight dimensions and cognitive performance in psychosis. Methods Participants were 75 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia, affective disorder with psychotic symptoms or schizoaffective disorder. Assessments were conducted at two time points during the study: at the time of hospital discharge after an acute psychotic episode and at a follow-up time that occurred more than 6 months after discharge. A multidimensional approach of insight was chosen and three instruments for its assessment were used: the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), three items concerning insight on the Assessment and Documentation in Psychopathology (AMDP) system and the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire. The neuropsychological battery included a wide range of tests that assessed global cognitive function, attention, memory, and executive functions. Results After conducting adequate statistical correction to avoid Type I bias, insight dimensions and cognitive performance were not found to be significantly associated at cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments. In addition, baseline cognitive performance did not explain changes in insight dimensions at follow-up. Similar results were found in the subset of patients with schizophrenia (n = 37). The possibility of a Type II error might have increased due to sample attrition at follow-up. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of insight dimensions and cognitive functioning may be unrelated phenomena in psychosis. PMID:16737523

  6. A longitudinal study of epigenetic variation in twins

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Avshalom; Williams, Benjamin; Craig, Ian W; Houts, Renate; Ambler, Antony; Moffitt, Terrie E; Mill, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism involved in the developmental regulation of gene expression. Alterations in DNA methylation are established contributors to inter-individual phenotypic variation and have been associated with disease susceptibility. The degree to which changes in loci-specific DNA methylation are under the influence of heritable and environmental factors is largely unknown. In this study, we quantitatively measured DNA methylation across the promoter regions of the dopamine receptor 4 gene (DRD4), the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4/SERT) and the X-linked monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) using DNA sampled at both ages 5 and 10 years in 46 MZ twinpairs and 45 DZ twin-pairs (total n = 182). Our data suggest that DNA methylation differences are apparent already in early childhood, even between genetically identical individuals, and that individual differences in methylation are not stable over time. Our longitudinal-developmental study suggests that environmental influences are important factors accounting for interindividual DNA methylation differences, and that these influences differ across the genome. The observation of dynamic changes in DNA methylation over time highlights the importance of longitudinal research designs for epigenetic research. PMID:20505345

  7. Longitudinal study of defense mechanisms: late childhood to late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Phebe

    2007-02-01

    Based on longitudinal data from the Institute of Human Development Intergenerational Study, the use and change in defense mechanisms of more than 150 individuals, as assessed from TAT stories, was studied across ages 11, 12, and 18. The findings of this study, based on an earlier generation, were generally consistent with cross-sectional findings from current samples, showing that the defenses of projection and identification were used more frequently than denial at all three ages and that the use of projection and identification increased from early to late adolescence. However, unlike current findings, the 18-year-olds did not show greater use of identification than of projection, perhaps due to IQ differences between this community sample and the samples of more recent studies.

  8. Maintaining Superior Follow-Up Rates in a Longitudinal Study: Experiences from the College Life Study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal studies are often considered to be a gold standard for research, but the operational management of such studies is not often discussed in detail; this paper describes strategies used to track and maintain high levels of participation in a longitudinal study involving annual personal interviews with a cohort of 1,253 undergraduates (first-time, first-year students at time of enrollment) at a large public mid-Atlantic university. PMID:22247739

  9. Does age at first treatment episode make a difference in outcomes over 11 years?

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Weisner, Constance; Grella, Christine E; Hser, Yih-Ing; Moore, Charles; Mertens, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the associations between age at first substance use treatment entry and trajectory of outcomes over 11 years. We found significant differences in individual and treatment characteristics between adult intakes first treated during young adulthood (25 years or younger) and those first treated at an older age. Compared to their first treated older age counterparts matched on demographics and dependence type, those who entered first treatment during young adulthood had on average an earlier onset for substance use but a shorter duration between first substance use and first treatment entry; they also had worse alcohol and other drug outcomes 11 years post treatment entry. While subsequent substance use treatment and 12-step meeting attendance are important for both age groups in maintaining positive outcomes, relationships varied by age group. Findings underline the importance of different continuing care management strategies for those entering first treatment at different developmental stages. PMID:24462221

  10. Radiocarbon version of 11-year variations in the interplanetary magnetic field since 1250

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volobuev, D. M.; Makarenko, N. G.

    2015-12-01

    It is known that the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), which is controlled by solar activity, modulates the flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). Because GCRs are the only source of the 14C isotope in the atmosphere before the era of atmospheric nuclear tests, the formation rate of this isotope in the atmosphere is one of the few reliable sources of information on solar activity before the initiation of regular telescopic observations. In this study, we solve the inverse problem for the equation of radiocarbon diffusion from the atmosphere into the ocean by calibrating the radiocarbon content in tree rings from 1510 to 1950. We obtain an approximation of 11-year IMF cycles represented by the IDV index from 1872 to 1950. The model extrapolation to the calibration curve for the Korean Peninsula over the time period from 1250 to 1650 makes it possible to calculate the sequence of minima of quasi-11-year cycles since 1250.

  11. Cosmogenic Isotope Variability During the Maunder Minimum: Normal 11-year Cycles Are Expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poluianov, S. V.; Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.

    2014-12-01

    The amplitude of the 11-year cycle measured in the cosmogenic isotope 10Be during the Maunder Minimum is comparable to that during the recent epoch of high solar activity. Because of the virtual absence of the cyclic variability of sunspot activity during the Maunder Minimum this seemingly contradicts an intuitive expectation that lower activity would result in smaller solar-cycle variations in cosmogenic radio-isotope data, or in none, leading to confusing and misleading conclusions. It is shown here that large 11-year solar cycles in cosmogenic data observed during periods of suppressed sunspot activity do not necessarily imply strong heliospheric fields. Normal-amplitude cycles in the cosmogenic radio-isotopes observed during the Maunder Minimum are consistent with theoretical expectations because of the nonlinear relation between solar activity and isotope production. Thus, cosmogenic-isotope data provide a good tool to study solar-cycle variability even during grand minima of solar activity.

  12. Longitudinal bunch dynamics study with coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, B. E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; May, T. E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    An electron bunch circulating in a storage ring constitutes a dynamical system with both longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom. Through a self-interaction with the wakefields created by the bunch, certain of these degrees may get excited, defining a set of eigenmodes analogous to a spectroscopic series. The present study focuses on the longitudinal modes of a single bunch. The excitation of a mode appears as an amplitude modulation at the mode frequency of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by the bunch. The modulations are superimposed on a much larger continuum from CSR emission in the continuous mode. A given eigenmode is classified by the integer m which is the ratio of the mode frequency to the synchrotron frequency. The present measurements extend up to m =8 and focus on the region near the instability thresholds. At threshold the modes are excited sequentially, resembling a staircase when the mode frequencies are plotted as a function of bunch length or synchrotron frequency. Adjacent modes are observed to coexist at the boundaries between the modes. An energy-independent correlation is observed between the threshold current for an instability and the corresponding zero-current bunch length. Measurements were made at five beam energies between 1.0 and 2.9 GeV at the Canadian Light Source. The CSR was measured in the time domain using an unbiased Schottky diode spanning 50-75 GHz.

  13. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  14. Normalized endothelial function but sustained cardiovascular risk profile 11 years following a pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Östlund, Eva; Al-Nashi, Maha; Hamad, Rangeen Rafik; Larsson, Anders; Eriksson, Maria; Bremme, Katarina; Kahan, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    Women with a history of preeclampsia are at increased risk of future cardiovascular disease. Preeclampsia is associated with elevated blood pressure, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, and these findings remain 1 year after delivery. Whether these abnormalities persist long after delivery, and whether they may contribute to future cardiovascular disease, is not well studied. We studied 15 women with a history of preeclampsia and 16 matched controls with an uncomplicated pregnancy 11 years following the index pregnancy; all had also been previously examined at 1 year. We assessed arterial stiffness (pulse wave analysis), 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function (forearm flow-mediated dilatation and pulse wave analysis following β receptor agonist provocation), and determined markers of glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and vascular function. The preeclampsia group had higher blood pressures and reduced night/day blood pressure ratios, increased body mass index and reduced glucose tolerance, and increased levels of tissue necrosis factor receptor 1 and intracellular adhesion molecule-1, suggesting inflammatory and vascular activation. However, the endothelial impairment observed in the preeclampsia group at 1 year was normalized at 11 years, whereas the control group remained unchanged during follow-up. Our findings of higher blood pressures, impaired glucose tolerance and normalization of endothelial function 11 years after preeclampsia suggest cardiovascular risk factors present already before pregnancy to be more important than permanent endothelial damage for the increased risk of future cardiovascular complications in women with a history of preeclampsia.

  15. Carotid Artery Stenting: Single-Center Experience Over 11 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Nolz, Richard Schernthaner, Ruediger Egbert; Cejna, Manfred; Schernthaner, Melanie Lammer, Johannes Schoder, Maria

    2010-04-15

    This article reports the results of carotid artery stenting during an 11-year period. Data from 168 carotid artery stenting procedures (symptomatic, n = 55; asymptomatic, n = 101; symptoms not accessible, n = 12) were retrospectively collected. Primary technical success rate, neurological events in-hospital, access-site complications, and contrast-induced nephropathy (n = 118) were evaluated. To evaluate the influence of experience in carotid artery stenting on intraprocedural neurologic complications, patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included the first 80 treated patients, and group 2 the remainder of the patients (n = 88). In-stent restenoses at last-follow-up examinations (n = 89) were assessed. The overall primary technical success rate was 95.8%. The in-hospital stroke-death rate was 3.0% (n = 5; symptomatic, 5.4%; asymptomatic, 2.0%; p = 0.346). Neurologic complications were markedly higher in group 1 (4.2%; three major strokes; symptomatic, 2.8%, asymptomatic, 1.4%) compared to group 2 (2.4%; one major and one minor stroke-symptomatic, 1.2%, asymptomatic 1.2%), but this was not statistically significant. Further complications were access-site complications in 12 (7.1%), with surgical revision required in 1 (0.6%) and mild contrast-induced nephropathy in 1 (0.85%). Twenty-one (23.6%) patients had >50% in-stent restenosis during a mean follow-up of 28.2 months. In conclusion, advanced experience in carotid artery stenting leads to an acceptable periprocedural stroke-death rate. In-stent restenosis could be a critical factor during the follow-up course.

  16. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  17. A longitudinal study of early intellectual development in hemiplegic children.

    PubMed

    Muter, V; Taylor, S; Vargha-Khadem, F

    1997-03-01

    Thirty-eight 3- to 5-year-old children with unilateral lesions sustained pre- or peri-natally were studied longitudinally over a 2-year period, and their IQ scores compared with those of 20 "medical' controls. The failure to discover laterality effects following early unilateral injury supports the hypothesis of at least broad functional equipotentiality. There were few decrements in intellectual functioning provided the injury was not accompanied by seizures. The presence of seizures in contrast had a deleterious effect on both verbal and nonverbal aspects of cognitive functioning. While the IQs of the hemiplegic groups showed considerable stability over the 2-year span of the study, there was evidence that performance IQ, even in seizure-free patients, might be selectively impaired because of competition within the intact neural space for the sparing of verbal IQ. PMID:9051677

  18. Adolescent-evaluated quality of life: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Ward-Smith, Peggy; McCaskie, Becki; Rhoton, Shannon

    2007-01-01

    Opportunities for adolescents with cancer to interact with each other are few. This project provided a weekend retreat for adolescents with cancer and obtained longitudinal self-evaluated quality of life data. Data were collected using the Adolescent Quality of Life instrument, which is a 16-item Likert-scaled survey that assesses quality of life. Twenty-two adolescents attended the weekend, and 17 participated in the study. Evaluations of the weekend retreat were positive, with "making friends" and "meeting others like me" the most frequent comments. Data from the Adolescent Quality of Life instrument revealed that for this population, quality of life was unchanged directly after the weekend and was statistically worse 1 month later. Enrollment methods skewed study participation toward individuals receiving treatment, which may explain these results. The reliability of the Adolescent Quality of Life instrument remained stable over time, and it appears to accurately assess and reflect changes in quality of life.

  19. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F.; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  20. North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS 2): The Prodromal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Addington, Jean; Liu, Lu; Buchy, Lisa; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Perkins, Diana O.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    In studies describing the long-term follow-up up of youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis, little attention has been given to details of specific prodromal symptoms. In this paper we describe the prodromal symptoms of 764 CHR participants recruited in the multi-site North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). Symptoms were rated on the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS) at baseline and 6, 12, 18 and 24 month follow-ups. Clinical outcome at the 2-year assessment was categorized as psychotic, prodromal progression, symptomatic or in remission. The majority of the CHR sample (93%) met criteria for the attenuated positive symptoms syndrome (APSS). Significant improvements in SOPS symptoms were observed overtime. Unusual thought content, disorganized communication and overall ratings on disorganized symptoms differentiated those who transitioned to psychosis from the other clinical outcome groups. Suspiciousness and total positive symptoms differentiated those in remission from the other clinical outcome groups. PMID:25919383

  1. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Huibregtse, Brooke M; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; Vandever, Joanna M; DeFries, John C; Stallings, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Although cross-sectional twin studies have assessed the genetic and environmental etiologies of substance use during adolescence and early adulthood, comparisons of results across different samples, measures, and cohorts are problematic. While several longitudinal twin studies have investigated these issues, few corroborating adoption studies have been conducted. The current study is the first to estimate the magnitude of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) from ages 14 to 18 years, using a prospective longitudinal adoption design. Adoptive and control sibling correlations provided substantial evidence for early genetic effects on cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use/no use. Shared environmental effects were relatively modest, except for alcohol use, which showed increases in late adolescence (age 17 to 18 years). Sibling similarity for quantity/frequency of use also support additive genetic influences across adolescence, with some shared environmental influences for all three substances. To test the stability of these influences across time, a series of independent pathway models were run to explore common and age-specific influences. For all substances, there were minimal age-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences on quantity/frequency of use. Further, there was a trend toward increasing genetic influences on cigarette and alcohol use across ages. Genetic influences on marijuana were important early, but did not contribute substantially at age 17 and 18 years. Overall, the findings indicate that genetic influences make important contributions to the frequency/quantity of substance use in adolescence, and suggest that new genetic influences may emerge in late adolescence for cigarette and alcohol use.

  2. Nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: a longitudinal study of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gaudine, Alice; Thorne, Linda

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals with organizational commitment, stress, turnover intention, absence and turnover. Participants were 410 nurses working at four different Canadian hospitals. A longitudinal design was used where nurses completed a questionnaire to capture ethical conflict, stress and organizational commitment, and one year later, measures of turnover intention, absence and actual turnover were obtained for the same sample. We found three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: patient care values, value of nurses, and staffing policy values. Our findings showed that all three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict are associated with stress and patient care values is associated with actual turnover. We also found that staffing policy values is predictive of turnover intention, and that patient care values is predictive of absenteeism. Thus, our findings show the multidimensionality of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals. Further implications of our findings for practice and theory are discussed.

  3. A longitudinal study on hand use while building a tower.

    PubMed

    Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Strohmeier, Andrea; Garzarolli, Bettina; Prechtl, Heinz F R

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study was to describe a developmental trend of hand use for picking up and stacking blocks from the age of 18 months to 7 years. A second aim was to determine whether there is a relationship between right-hand use while building a tower and manual laterality at school age. A total of 28 children were asked to build a tower at five longitudinal assessments. The use of the right hand fluctuated considerably with age (p<.05), but no age-related increase was observed. Right-hand use was rather prominent at 18 months, decreased significantly at 26 months, increased at age 4;7, decreased again at 5;7, and finally increased again at age 7. From age 4;7 onwards, the percentage of right-hand use for stacking the blocks was significantly (p<.05) related to the laterality quotient at school age.

  4. A longitudinal study on hand use while building a tower.

    PubMed

    Marschik, Peter B; Einspieler, Christa; Strohmeier, Andrea; Garzarolli, Bettina; Prechtl, Heinz F R

    2007-07-01

    The aim of the study was to describe a developmental trend of hand use for picking up and stacking blocks from the age of 18 months to 7 years. A second aim was to determine whether there is a relationship between right-hand use while building a tower and manual laterality at school age. A total of 28 children were asked to build a tower at five longitudinal assessments. The use of the right hand fluctuated considerably with age (p<.05), but no age-related increase was observed. Right-hand use was rather prominent at 18 months, decreased significantly at 26 months, increased at age 4;7, decreased again at 5;7, and finally increased again at age 7. From age 4;7 onwards, the percentage of right-hand use for stacking the blocks was significantly (p<.05) related to the laterality quotient at school age. PMID:17558817

  5. Health benefits of volunteering in the Wisconsin longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Piliavin, Jane Allyn; Siegl, Erica

    2007-12-01

    We investigate positive effects of volunteering on psychological well-being and self-reported health using all four waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. Confirming previous research, volunteering was positively related to both outcome variables. Both consistency of volunteering over time and diversity of participation are significantly related to well-being and self-reported health. The relationship of volunteering to psychological well-being was moderated by level of social integration, such that those who were less well integrated benefited the most. Mattering appears to mediate the link between volunteering and wellbeing. Controls for other forms of social participation and for the predictors of volunteering are employed in analyses of well-being in 1992. We find volunteering effects on psychological well-being in 2004, controlling for 1992 wellbeing, thus providing strong evidence for a causal effect.

  6. Facial expression recognition in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Bianca; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Belfort, Tatiana T; Dias, Rachel; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2015-05-01

    Facial recognition is one of the most important aspects of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the patterns of change and the factors involved in the ability to recognize emotion in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Through a longitudinal design, we assessed 30 people with AD. We used an experimental task that includes matching expressions with picture stimuli, labelling emotions and emotionally recognizing a stimulus situation. We observed a significant difference in the situational recognition task (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and the second evaluation. The linear regression showed that cognition is a predictor of emotion recognition impairment (p ≤ 0.05). The ability to perceive emotions from facial expressions was impaired, particularly when the emotions presented were relatively subtle. Cognition is recruited to comprehend emotional situations in cases of mild dementia.

  7. Young adults with developmental coordination disorder: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tal-Saban, Miri; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to assess the continuing influence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on quality of life and participation. Ninety-six participants (25 in the DCD group, 30 in the borderline group, and 41 in the control group) ages 22-29 yr who had been screened for DCD 3-4 yr previously completed the Participation in Every Day Activities of Life, the Life-Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant between-groups difference, F(7, 95) = 2.89, p = .001, η = 0.173, and post hoc analyses revealed that participants in the DCD and borderline groups scored lower overall on participation, quality of life, and life satisfaction. Linear regression found the Psychological Health domain of the WHOQOL-BREF to be a significant predictor of life satisfaction (B = 0.533; p = .001). PMID:24797194

  8. Facial expression recognition in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Bianca; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Belfort, Tatiana T; Dias, Rachel; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2015-05-01

    Facial recognition is one of the most important aspects of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the patterns of change and the factors involved in the ability to recognize emotion in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Through a longitudinal design, we assessed 30 people with AD. We used an experimental task that includes matching expressions with picture stimuli, labelling emotions and emotionally recognizing a stimulus situation. We observed a significant difference in the situational recognition task (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and the second evaluation. The linear regression showed that cognition is a predictor of emotion recognition impairment (p ≤ 0.05). The ability to perceive emotions from facial expressions was impaired, particularly when the emotions presented were relatively subtle. Cognition is recruited to comprehend emotional situations in cases of mild dementia. PMID:26017202

  9. A longitudinal study of low back pain in student nurses.

    PubMed

    Klaber Moffett, J A; Hughes, G I; Griffiths, P

    1993-06-01

    Results from a longitudinal study of low back pain in 199 student nurses followed up for 20 months show that 37% reported back pain which lasted for at least 3 consecutive days. The first incidence peaked markedly between 9 and 12 months into training, and coincided with work on wards described by the nurses as "heavy". A combination of personal characteristics are also associated with back pain reports, within this group of nurses. These include attitudes to health as measured by the Health Locus of Control, low levels of trait anxiety, increased neuroticism, and emotional disturbance as measured by the General Health Questionnaire, the strength endurance of the thigh muscles (quadriceps), and height. Recommendations are made for: (1) the consideration of a modified training programme for lifting and handling; and (2) the need for a standardized system of recording back problems as suggested by the DHSS-commissioned Robens Institute (University of Surrey) Report.

  10. Strategies for longitudinal neuroimaging studies of overt language production.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Jed A; Postman-Caucheteux, Whitney A; McArdle, Joseph J; Braun, Allen R

    2009-08-15

    Longitudinal fMRI studies of language production are of interest for evaluating recovery from post-stroke aphasia, but numerous methodological issues remain unresolved, particularly regarding strategies for evaluating single subjects at multiple timepoints. To address these issues, we studied overt picture naming in eleven healthy subjects, scanned four times each at one-month intervals. To evaluate the natural variability present across repeated sessions, repeated scans were directly contrasted in a unified statistical framework on a per-voxel basis. The effect of stimulus familiarity was evaluated using explicitly overtrained pictures, novel pictures, and untrained pictures that were repeated across sessions. For untrained pictures, we found that activation declined across multiple sessions, equally for both novel and repeated stimuli. Thus, no repetition priming for individual stimuli at one-month intervals was found, but rather a general effect of task habituation was present. Using a set of overtrained pictures identical in each session, no decline was found, but activation was minimized and produced less consistent patterns across participants, as measured by intra-class correlation coefficients. Subtraction of a baseline task, in which subjects produced a stereotyped utterance to scrambled pictures, resulted in specific activations in the left inferior frontal gyrus and other language areas for untrained items, while overlearned stimuli relative to pseudo pictures activated only the fusiform gyrus and supplementary motor area. These findings indicate that longitudinal fMRI is an effective means of detecting changes in neural activation magnitude over time, as long as the effect of task habituation is taken into account.

  11. Positive Life Experiences: A Qualitative, Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal Study of Gifted Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde; Canady, Kate; Duncan, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    At the culmination of an 11-year qualitative, cross-sectional study of life events, 48 high-ability high school graduates fitting common stereotypes associated with giftedness completed an open-ended questionnaire, part of which focused on positive life experiences and sources of support. Findings included that intense investment in academics,…

  12. Age, Intelligence, and Event-Related Brain Potentials during Late Childhood: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauder, Johannes E. A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the relationship between event-related brain activity, age, and intelligence using a visual oddball task presented to girls at 9, 10, and 11 years of age. Findings for 26 girls suggest a qualitative shift in the relation between event-related brain activity and intelligence between 9 and 10 years of age. (SLD)

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Man: A Course of Study. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, H. Russell, Jr.; Peskowitz, Nancy

    The document summarizes a two-year longitudinal evaluative study of the elementary school social studies curriculum, "Man: A Course of Study" (MACOS), which was compared with other social studies programs. The aims of the study were to examine what MACOS students seemed to learn, what they retained, and how what was learned was different from what…

  14. Dexa Body Composition Assessment in 10-11 Year Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Doodeman, H. J.; Struijf, E.; Houdijk, A. P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a growing health problem associated with metabolic derangements and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence links the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) to these obesity related health risks in adults. Childhood obesity is associated with a lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease and poses a serious challenge to future health care. In children, there is much less data on the prevalence and gender differences of visceral obesity than in adults. This study aims to provide reference values for VAT in children 10–11 years of age. Methods In a cross-sectional study performed in the north western part of theNetherlands, healthy children of 10–11 years of age, were recruited from primary schools. Anthropometric data consisting of height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI were measured. Body composition was measured using DXA, providing measures for bone mineral content, total fat mass (TFM), lean body mass (LBM) and VAT. Results 217 children were eligible for this study. Girls appeared to have a greater TFM (31.4% vs 27.5% of total body weight (TBW); P < .01) but lower VAT (0.3% vs 0.5% of TBW;P < .01) than boys, whereas boys had higher LBM (65.4% vs 69.3% TBW;P < .01). Median VAT area (cm2) was 41.1 for boys and 22.4 for girls (P < .01). Moderate to strong correlations were found for WC and BMI with VAT (boys: r = .664 and r = .630; Girls r = .699 and r = .546 respectively all P < .001). Discussion This study shows gender specific differences in VAT percentiles in healthy non-obese 10–11 year old children as measured by DXA that may serve as reference values in children. Independent of BMI and WC, girls tend to have more TFM but less VAT and LBM than boys. PMID:27788168

  15. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  16. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Ornelas, India J; Perreira, Krista M; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively); however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]). For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on increasing levels of family

  17. Biochemical markers of aging for longitudinal studies in humans.

    PubMed

    Engelfriet, Peter M; Jansen, Eugène H J M; Picavet, H Susan J; Dollé, Martijn E T

    2013-01-01

    Much progress has been made in the past decades in unraveling the mechanisms that are responsible for aging. The discovery that particular gene mutations in experimental species such as yeast, flies, and nematodes are associated with longevity has led to many important insights into pathways that regulate aging processes. However, extrapolating laboratory findings in experimental species to knowledge that is valid for the complexity of human physiology remains a major challenge. Apart from the restricted experimental possibilities, studying aging in humans is further complicated by the development of various age-related diseases. The availability of a set of biomarkers that really reflect underlying aging processes would be of much value in disentangling age-associated pathology from specific aging mechanisms. In this review, we survey the literature to identify promising biochemical markers of aging, with a particular focus on using them in longitudinal studies of aging in humans that entail repeated measurements on easily obtainable material, such as blood samples. Our search strategy was a 2-pronged approach, one focused on general mechanisms of aging and one including studies on clinical biomarkers of age-related diseases.

  18. A longitudinal study relating carpeting with sick building syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Norbaeck, D.; Torgen, M. )

    1989-01-01

    A longitudinal questionnaire study was performed among personnel in two Swedish primary schools with wall-to-wall carpets and four schools with hard floor covering. The study groups consisted of all primary schools equipped with wall-to-wall carpets in the town of Uppsala, plus a random sample of two newer and two elderly primary schools with hard floor covering. In an initial cross-sectional study, the wall-to-wall carpet group reported an enhanced prevalence of eye and airway symptoms, face rashes, headache, abnormal tiredness and a sensation of being electrostatically charged in comparison with personnel in schools with hard floor covering. Since the enhanced prevalence of symptoms in the wall-to-wall carpets versus the hard floor covering group was also observed among persons without signs of atopy it was concluded that wall-to-wall carpets are not exclusively a problem for the sensitive atopic individual. The type of ventilation system (mechanical ventilation versus natural ventilation) had no significant effect on the symptom frequencies. After the removal of the wall-to-wall carpets, many of the reported symptoms decreased to a level similar to the group without previous or present exposure to such carpets. However, the frequency of airway symptoms remained enhanced among the wall-to-wall carpet group.

  19. Biochemical Markers of Aging for Longitudinal Studies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Engelfriet, Peter M.; Jansen, Eugène H. J. M.; Picavet, H. Susan J.; Dollé, Martijn E. T.

    2013-01-01

    Much progress has been made in the past decades in unraveling the mechanisms that are responsible for aging. The discovery that particular gene mutations in experimental species such as yeast, flies, and nematodes are associated with longevity has led to many important insights into pathways that regulate aging processes. However, extrapolating laboratory findings in experimental species to knowledge that is valid for the complexity of human physiology remains a major challenge. Apart from the restricted experimental possibilities, studying aging in humans is further complicated by the development of various age-related diseases. The availability of a set of biomarkers that really reflect underlying aging processes would be of much value in disentangling age-associated pathology from specific aging mechanisms. In this review, we survey the literature to identify promising biochemical markers of aging, with a particular focus on using them in longitudinal studies of aging in humans that entail repeated measurements on easily obtainable material, such as blood samples. Our search strategy was a 2-pronged approach, one focused on general mechanisms of aging and one including studies on clinical biomarkers of age-related diseases. PMID:23382477

  20. [Morbidity rate and mental capacity of Moscow schoolchildren (longitudinal study)].

    PubMed

    Sukhareva, L M; Rapoport, I K; Polenova, M A

    2014-01-01

    In the article there are presented data of longitudinal study of the health of Moscow schoolchildren (426 children), followed throughout from the 1st to 9th class, inclusively. Students were annually clinically examined in the school. There was performed a comprehensive study of mental health and functional state of the organism in the process of education students in high school (over 2700 pupils of 5-9th classes). The health status of students was shown to deteriorate due to the increase of the prevalence of chronic disease, the rise in occupancy of the III-IV health groups, the decrease of the number of children referred to I and II health groups. Unfavorable trends in the health state among boys are more pronounced than in girls, while they are also characterized by lower functional capabilities of the CNS and lower resistance to the development of training fatigue. Relatively favorable stage of school ontogeny is characterized by period with reduced morbidity in children studying in 4th-6th classes. Deterioration in the health of students as a significant rate of the rise of chronic diseases morbidity is observed in 7-9th classes. Along with this, in the 7th and 9th classes there is revealed the deterioration of mental capacity and high frequency of the pronounced signs of fatigue among schoolchildren. PMID:25306705

  1. Undergraduate nursing students' learning styles: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles.

  2. Longitudinal study of circulating protein biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Viennois, Emilie; Baker, Mark T.; Xiao, Bo; Wang, Lixin; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic and progressive inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. In IBD, protein serological biomarkers could be relevant tools for assessing disease activity, performing early-stage diagnosis and managing the treatment. Using the interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10−/−) mouse, a model that develops a time-dependent IBD-like disorder that predominates in the colon; we performed longitudinal studies of circulating protein biomarkers in IBD. Circulating protein profiles in serum samples collected from 30-, 93-, and 135-day-old IL-10−/− mice were investigated using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and MALDI TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 15 different proteins were identified and confirmed by ELISA and Western blot to be differentially accumulated in serum samples from mid- to late-stage IL-10−/− mice compared to early non-inflamed IL-10−/− mice. The use of another model of colitis and an extra-intestinal inflammation model validated this biomarker panel and demonstrated that comprised some global inflammatory markers, some intestinal inflammation-specific markers and some chronic intestinal inflammation markers. Statistical analyses using misclassification error rate charts validated the use of these identified proteins as powerful biomarkers of colitis. Unlike standard biomarker screening studies, our analyses identified a panel of proteins that allowed the definition of protein signatures that reflect colitis status. PMID:25230104

  3. A longitudinal study of very young children's vowel production

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Rebecca W.; McGowan, Richard S.; Denny, Margaret; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ecologically realistic, spontaneous adult-directed longitudinal speech data of young children was described by acoustic analyses. Method The first two formant frequencies of vowels produced by six children from different American English dialect regions were analyzed from ages 18 to 48 months. The vowels were from largely conversational contexts and were classified according to dictionary pronunciation. Results Within-subject formant frequency variability remained relatively constant for the span of ages studied here. It was often difficult to detect overall decreases in the first two formant frequencies between the ages of 30 and 48 months. A study of the movement of the corner vowels with respect to the vowel centroid showed that the shape of the vowel space remained qualitatively constant from 30 through 48 months. Conclusions The shape of the vowel space is established early in life. Some aspects of regional dialect were observed in some of the subjects at 42 months of age. The present paper adds to the existing data on the development of vowel spaces by describing ecologically realistic speech. PMID:24687464

  4. Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730

  5. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  6. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  7. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Hayat, Matthew J.; Gross, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers’ attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95% CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95% CI [.96-.99], p = .03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad. PMID:23737011

  8. Heritability of Delay Discounting in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Golosheykin, Simon; Grant, Julia D.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Delay discounting (DD) refers to the preference for smaller immediate rewards over larger but delayed rewards, and is considered to be a distinct component of a broader “impulsivity” construct. Although greater propensity for discounting the value of delayed gratification has been associated with a range of problem behaviors and substance abuse, particularly in adolescents, the origins of individual differences in DD remain unclear. We examined genetic and environmental influences on a real-life behavioral measure of DD using a longitudinal twin design. Adolescent participants were asked to choose between a smaller ($7) reward available immediately and a larger ($10) reward to be received in 7 days. Biometrical genetic analysis using linear structural equation modeling showed significant heritability of DD at ages 12 and 14 (30 and 51%, respectively) and suggested that the same genetic factors influenced the trait at both ages. DD was significantly associated with symptoms of conduct disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, substance use, and with higher novelty seeking and poor self-regulation. This study provides the first evidence for heritability of DD in humans and suggests that DD can be a promising endophenotype for genetic studies of addiction and externalizing disorders. PMID:20700643

  9. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  10. An 11-year follow-up of a network of cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S B; Reinarman, C; Waldorf, D

    1989-04-01

    This paper presents findings from an exploratory 11-year follow-up study of a small network of cocaine users. These findings suggest that while serious abuse potential exists, addiction is not a uniform outcome of sustained use and that long-term controlled use is possible. In all, four types of career use pattern are described, in addition to one case of regular abuse. These data also suggest the importance of user norms and informal social controls in mitigating against the force of pharmacological and physiological factors leading toward dependence or addiction.

  11. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  12. The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

  13. A Longitudinal Study on the Stability over Time of School and Teacher Effects on Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews educational effectiveness theory, concentrating on the time stability of the teacher and school effect. The contribution of longitudinal studies investigating the long-term effect of schools and teachers to modelling educational effectiveness is discussed. Findings of a longitudinal study on the progress of students (N=1681) in…

  14. Reducing Bias Due to Systematic Attrition in Longitudinal Studies: The Benefits of Multiple Imputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Hutteman, Roos

    2014-01-01

    Most longitudinal studies are plagued by drop-out related to variables at earlier assessments (systematic attrition). Although systematic attrition is often analysed in longitudinal studies, surprisingly few researchers attempt to reduce biases due to systematic attrition, even though this is possible and nowadays technically easy. This is…

  15. Maturation of auditory neural processes in autism spectrum disorder — A longitudinal MEG study

    PubMed Central

    Port, Russell G.; Edgar, J. Christopher; Ku, Matthew; Bloy, Luke; Murray, Rebecca; Blaskey, Lisa; Levy, Susan E.; Roberts, Timothy P.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypical brain activity, perhaps due to delayed maturation. Previous studies examining the maturation of auditory electrophysiological activity have been limited due to their use of cross-sectional designs. The present study took a first step in examining magnetoencephalography (MEG) evidence of abnormal auditory response maturation in ASD via the use of a longitudinal design. Methods Initially recruited for a previous study, 27 children with ASD and nine typically developing (TD) children, aged 6- to 11-years-old, were re-recruited two to five years later. At both timepoints, MEG data were obtained while participants passively listened to sinusoidal pure-tones. Bilateral primary/secondary auditory cortex time domain (100 ms evoked response latency (M100)) and spectrotemporal measures (gamma-band power and inter-trial coherence (ITC)) were examined. MEG measures were also qualitatively examined for five children who exhibited “optimal outcome”, participants who were initially on spectrum, but no longer met diagnostic criteria at follow-up. Results M100 latencies were delayed in ASD versus TD at the initial exam (~ 19 ms) and at follow-up (~ 18 ms). At both exams, M100 latencies were associated with clinical ASD severity. In addition, gamma-band evoked power and ITC were reduced in ASD versus TD. M100 latency and gamma-band maturation rates did not differ between ASD and TD. Of note, the cohort of five children that demonstrated “optimal outcome” additionally exhibited M100 latency and gamma-band activity mean values in-between TD and ASD at both timepoints. Though justifying only qualitative interpretation, these “optimal outcome” related data are presented here to motivate future studies. Conclusions Children with ASD showed perturbed auditory cortex neural activity, as evidenced by M100 latency delays as well as reduced transient gamma-band activity. Despite evidence for maturation

  16. Some antecedents of academic self-concept: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chapman, J W; Lambourne, R; Silva, P A

    1990-06-01

    The influence of cognitive, achievement, and family background variables on academic self-concept was examined for 435 students participating in a major longitudinal study in New Zealand. Family background variables included mother's marital status at the birth of the child, family socio-economic status at the time the child was born, and family environment when the child was 7 years and 9 years of age. These factors were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. In addition, the general emotional status of mothers when their child was 3 years and 5 years old was not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 9 and 11. Mother's intelligence when the child was 3 years, and mother's expectations for school performance when the child started school at age 5 were not significantly related to academic self-concept. Similarly, cognitive and intellectual functioning at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 years were not significantly related to academic self-concept at ages 7 and 9 years. Rather, academic self-concept at age 11 appeared to be influenced primarily by reading achievement and academic self-concept at age 9, and academic self-concept at age 9 was influenced primarily by reading achievement at age 7. It was concluded that academic self-concept is mainly a product of school achievement, and that any influence home background factors may have are likely to occur by means of their effect on school achievement.

  17. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  18. Minor delinquency and immigration: a longitudinal study among male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges.

  19. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood.

  20. Variable selection for semiparametric mixed models in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiao; Zhang, Daowen; Zhang, Hao Helen

    2010-03-01

    We propose a double-penalized likelihood approach for simultaneous model selection and estimation in semiparametric mixed models for longitudinal data. Two types of penalties are jointly imposed on the ordinary log-likelihood: the roughness penalty on the nonparametric baseline function and a nonconcave shrinkage penalty on linear coefficients to achieve model sparsity. Compared to existing estimation equation based approaches, our procedure provides valid inference for data with missing at random, and will be more efficient if the specified model is correct. Another advantage of the new procedure is its easy computation for both regression components and variance parameters. We show that the double-penalized problem can be conveniently reformulated into a linear mixed model framework, so that existing software can be directly used to implement our method. For the purpose of model inference, we derive both frequentist and Bayesian variance estimation for estimated parametric and nonparametric components. Simulation is used to evaluate and compare the performance of our method to the existing ones. We then apply the new method to a real data set from a lactation study.

  1. Longitudinal Study of Student Attitudes in a Biology Program

    PubMed Central

    Birol, Gülnur

    2014-01-01

    This is among the first longitudinal studies to report student attitudes across 4 yr of a university program. We found that the attitudes of students in biology become significantly more expert-like from the first year to the fourth year of the program, that is, there was a significant positive shift in students’ overall percent favorable scores from 64.5 to 72%, as opposed to the expert response, which averaged 90%. There was a significant positive shift for the real world connection category (78–85%), the enjoyment (personal interest) category (74–82%), and the conceptual connections/memorization category (66–74%). Moreover, there was a significant correlation between students’ overall percent favorable scores and performance (cumulative grade point average) at the end, but not at the beginning, of the fourth year, with high-performing students having significantly more expert-like attitudes than low-performing students. The correlation between percent favorable score and performance was the strongest for the problem solving: synthesis and application category, in which the highest-performing students finished their fourth year with 90% favorable compared with 35% favorable for the lowest-performing students. A comparison of these results with previously reported results and their implications for teaching are discussed. PMID:26086663

  2. Executive function influences sedentary behavior: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Nooe, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Background: No study has evaluated the effects of executive function on follow-up sedentary behavior, which was this study’s purpose. Methods: A longitudinal design was employed among 18 young adult college students (Mage = 23.7 years; 88.9% female). Accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity, along with executive function, were assessed at baseline. Approximately 8 weeks later, re-assessment of accelerometer-determined sedentary behavior and physical activity occurred. Executive function was assessed using the Parametric Go/No-Go (PGNG) computer task. From this, 2 primary executive function outcome parameters were evaluated, including the Simple Rule and Repeating Rule. Results: After adjusting for baseline sedentary behavior, age, gender, body mass index and baseline moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), for every 25% increase in the number of correctly identified targets for the Repeating rule at the baseline assessment, participants engaged in 91.8 fewer minutes of sedentary behavior at the follow-up assessment (β = -91.8; 95% CI: -173.5, -10.0; P = 0.03). Results were unchanged when also adjusting for total baseline or follow-up physical activity. Conclusion: Greater executive function is associated with less follow-up sedentary behavior. PMID:27766234

  3. The evolution of pure alexia: a longitudinal study of recovery.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, M; Black, S E; Bub, D

    1990-10-01

    This case report documents the partial recovery, over a 12-month period, of pure alexia in an adult female following a left occipital infarction. Measures of speed and accuracy were obtained on an oral reading and a lexical decision task immediately postonset and then on 10 subsequent occasions. Explicit letter-by-letter reading was observed only during the first week poststroke but a significant effect of word length was seen in all testing sessions. Reading accuracy was relatively good at all stages and reading latency showed a remarkable decrease over time but did not reach normal reading rates. The inability to use higher-order orthographic knowledge, as manifest in the absence of a word superiority effect, was still noted at one year postonset. We therefore concluded that the change in behavior was attributable to increased proficiency in the use of the adaptive letter-by-letter procedure rather than to the resolution of the underlying deficit. It is suggested that longitudinal neurobehavioral studies add to our understanding of the alexic deficit and provide insight into the recovery process. PMID:2285860

  4. Results from the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.

  5. A longitudinal examination of the measurement properties and predictive utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale among North American Indigenous adolescents.

    PubMed

    Armenta, Brian E; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J; Whitbeck, Les B; Crawford, Devan M; Hoyt, Dan R

    2014-12-01

    We examined the longitudinal measurement properties and predictive utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) from early to late adolescence among a sample of North American Indigenous youths. Participants were 632 North American Indigenous adolescents (n = 632; 50.3% girls; M age at baseline = 11.11 years) participating in an 8-year, 8-wave longitudinal study. Via in-person interviews, participants completed the CES-D at Waves 1, 3, 5, and 7, and the major depressive disorder (MDD) module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children at Waves 1, 4, 6, and 8. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that responses to the CES-D were similarly explained by 2-, 3-, and 4-factor models, as well as a 1-factor model with correlations between the error variances for the positively worded items. Longitudinal measurement equivalence analyses indicated full structural (i.e., factor structure), metric (i.e., factor loadings), and scalar (i.e., observed item intercepts) equivalence for each factor structure. Substantive analyses showed that the CES-D was significantly associated with MDD both concurrently and prospectively, although these effects were smaller than might be expected. Finally, the CES-D negative affect and somatic complaints subscales were the strongest and most consistent predictors of MDD. Among our sample of North American Indigenous youths, the measurement properties of the CES-D were stable from early to late adolescence. Moreover, somatic difficulties and depressed affect were the strongest predictors of MDD. PMID:25181394

  6. An international comparison of dietary patterns in 9–11-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Mikkilä, V; Vepsäläinen, H; Saloheimo, T; Gonzalez, S A; Meisel, J D; Hu, G; Champagne, C M; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Dietary pattern is defined as a combination of foods and drinks and the frequency of consumption within a population. Dietary patterns are changing on a global level, which may be linked to an increased incidence of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the dietary patterns among 9–11-year-old children living in urban regions in different parts of the world. METHODS: Participants were 7199 children (54% girls), aged 9–11 years, from 12 countries situated in all major world regions. Food consumption was assessed using a 23-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). To identify dietary patterns, principal components analyses (PCA) were carried out using weekly portions as input variables. RESULTS: Both site-specific and pooled PCA resulted in two strong components. Component 1 (‘unhealthy diet pattern') included fast foods, ice cream, fried food, French fries, potato chips, cakes and sugar-sweetened sodas with >0.6 loadings. The loadings for component 2 (‘healthy diet pattern') were slightly weaker with only dark-green vegetables, orange vegetables, vegetables in general, and fruits and berries reaching a >0.6 loading. The site-specific diet pattern scores had very strong correlations with the pattern scores from the pooled data: r=0.82 and 0.94 for components 1 and 2, respectively. CONCULSIONS: The results suggest that the same ‘healthier' and ‘unhealthier' foods tend to be consumed in similar combinations among 9–11-year-old children in different countries, despite variation in food culture, geographical location, ethnic background and economic development. PMID:27152179

  7. Rationales, design and recruitment for the Elfe longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Bois, Corinne; Pirus, Claudine; Sarter, Hélène; Salines, Georges; Leridon, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Background Many factors act simultaneously in childhood to influence health status, life chances and well being, including pre-birth influences, the environmental pollutants of early life, health status but also the social influences of family and school. A cohort study is needed to disentangle these influences and explore attribution. Methods Elfe will be a nationally representative cohort of 20 000 children followed from birth to adulthood using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort will be based on the INSEE Permanent Demographic Panel (EDP) established using census data and civil records. The sample size has been defined in order to match the representativeness criteria and to obtain some prevalence estimation, but also to address the research area of low exposure/rare effects. The cohort will be based on repeated surveys by face to face or phone interview (at birth and each year) as well as medical interview (at 2 years) and examination (at 6 years). Furthermore, biological samples will be taken at birth to evaluate the foetal exposition to toxic substances, environmental sensors will be placed in the child's homes. Pilot studies have been initiated in 2007 (500 children) with an overall acceptance rate of 55% and are currently under progress, the 2-year survey being carried out in October this year. Discussion The longitudinal study will provide a unique source of data to analyse the development of children in their environment, to study the various factors interacting throughout the life course up to adulthood and to determine the impact of childhood experience on the individual's physical, psychological, social and professional development. PMID:19772571

  8. Marital status and suicide in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study

    PubMed Central

    Kposowa, A.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of marital status on the risk of suicide, using a large nationally representative sample. A related objective was to investigate the association between marital status and suicide by sex.
METHODS—Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study, based on the 1979-1989 follow up. In estimating the effect of marital status, adjustments were made for age, sex, race, education, family income, and region of residence.
RESULTS—For the entire sample, higher risks of suicide were found in divorced than in married persons. Divorced and separated persons were over twice as likely to commit suicide as married persons (RR=2.08, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 1.58, 2.72). Being single or widowed had no significant effect on suicide risk. When data were stratified by sex, it was observed that the risk of suicide among divorced men was over twice that of married men (RR=2.38, CI 1.77, 3.20). Among women, however, there were no statistically significant differentials in the risk of suicide by marital status categories.
CONCLUSIONS—Marital status, especially divorce, has strong net effect on mortality from suicide, but only among men. The study showed that in epidemiological research on suicide, more accurate results would be obtained if samples are stratified on the basis of key demographic or social characteristics. The study further observed that failure to control for relevant socioeconomic variables or combining men and women in the same models could produce misleading results.


Keywords: suicide; marital status; socioeconomic status; effect modification PMID:10827907

  9. Longitudinal variability of time-location/activity patterns of population at different ages: a longitudinal study in California

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Longitudinal time-activity data are important for exposure modeling, since the extent to which short-term time-activity data represent long-term activity patterns is not well understood. This study was designed to evaluate longitudinal variations in human time-activity patterns. Method We report on 24-hour recall diaries and questionnaires collected via the internet from 151 parents of young children (mostly under age 55), and from 55 older adults of ages 55 and older, for both a weekday and a weekend day every three months over an 18-month period. Parents also provided data for their children. The self-administrated diary and questionnaire distinguished ~30 frequently visited microenvironments and ~20 activities which we selected to represent opportunities for exposure to toxic environmental compounds. Due to the non-normal distribution of time-location/activity data, we employed generalized linear mixed-distribution mixed-effect models to examine intra- and inter-individual variations. Here we describe variation in the likelihood of and time spent engaging in an activity or being in a microenvironment by age group, day-type (weekday/weekend), season (warm/cool), sex, employment status, and over the follow-up period. Results As expected, day-type and season influence time spent in many location and activity categories. Longitudinal changes were also observed, e.g., young children slept less with increasing follow-up, transit time increased, and time spent on working and shopping decreased during the study, possibly related to human physiological changes with age and changes in macro-economic factors such as gas prices and the economic recession. Conclusions This study provides valuable new information about time-activity assessed longitudinally in three major age groups and greatly expands our knowledge about intra- and inter-individual variations in time-location/activity patterns. Longitudinal variations beyond weekly and seasonal patterns should be

  10. Comparing Longitudinal Profile Patterns of Mathematics and Reading in Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten: The Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS) Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Se-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare longitudinal patterns from Mathematics and Reading data from the direct child assessment of Early Child Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten (ECLS-K, US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics 2006), utilizing Profile Analysis via Multidimensional Scaling (PAMS). PAMS has been used initially…

  11. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain. PMID:26588694

  12. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain.

  13. Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children’s Cognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development. PMID:24955035

  14. Explanatory model of emotional-cognitive variables in school mathematics performance: a longitudinal study in primary school.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Gamal; Pérez, Carlos; Navarro, José I; Aguilar, Manuel; Casas, José A; Aragón, Estíbaliz

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a structural model of cognitive-emotional explanatory variables to explain performance in mathematics. The predictor variables assessed were related to students' level of development of early mathematical competencies (EMCs), specifically, relational and numerical competencies, predisposition toward mathematics, and the level of logical intelligence in a population of primary school Chilean students (n = 634). This longitudinal study also included the academic performance of the students during a period of 4 years as a variable. The sampled students were initially assessed by means of an Early Numeracy Test, and, subsequently, they were administered a Likert-type scale to measure their predisposition toward mathematics (EPMAT) and a basic test of logical intelligence. The results of these tests were used to analyse the interaction of all the aforementioned variables by means of a structural equations model. This combined interaction model was able to predict 64.3% of the variability of observed performance. Preschool students' performance in EMCs was a strong predictor for achievement in mathematics for students between 8 and 11 years of age. Therefore, this paper highlights the importance of EMCs and the modulating role of predisposition toward mathematics. Also, this paper discusses the educational role of these findings, as well as possible ways to improve negative predispositions toward mathematical tasks in the school domain.

  15. Explanatory model of emotional-cognitive variables in school mathematics performance: a longitudinal study in primary school

    PubMed Central

    Cerda, Gamal; Pérez, Carlos; Navarro, José I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Casas, José A.; Aragón, Estíbaliz

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a structural model of cognitive-emotional explanatory variables to explain performance in mathematics. The predictor variables assessed were related to students’ level of development of early mathematical competencies (EMCs), specifically, relational and numerical competencies, predisposition toward mathematics, and the level of logical intelligence in a population of primary school Chilean students (n = 634). This longitudinal study also included the academic performance of the students during a period of 4 years as a variable. The sampled students were initially assessed by means of an Early Numeracy Test, and, subsequently, they were administered a Likert-type scale to measure their predisposition toward mathematics (EPMAT) and a basic test of logical intelligence. The results of these tests were used to analyse the interaction of all the aforementioned variables by means of a structural equations model. This combined interaction model was able to predict 64.3% of the variability of observed performance. Preschool students’ performance in EMCs was a strong predictor for achievement in mathematics for students between 8 and 11 years of age. Therefore, this paper highlights the importance of EMCs and the modulating role of predisposition toward mathematics. Also, this paper discusses the educational role of these findings, as well as possible ways to improve negative predispositions toward mathematical tasks in the school domain. PMID:26441739

  16. Norms for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in 6- to 11-year-old children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shu, B C; Tien, A Y; Lung, F W; Chang, Y Y

    2000-08-01

    The main aims of this study were to develop norms for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in 6- to 11-year-old children in Taiwan; to explore the effect of sex, age, birth order, number of siblings, and parental education on WCST performance in 6- to 11-year-old children; and to make a comparison of WCST performance between children in Taiwan and the USA. The results of this comparison of developmental norms of school children in Taiwan and the United States may facilitate the WCST as a clinical or research instrument in combination with other test procedures to assess aspects of cognitive and neuropsychological functioning of school children.

  17. Longitudinal Trajectories of Self-System Processes and Depressive Symptoms among Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante

    2006-01-01

    This study used latent growth modeling to investigate longitudinal relationships between self-system processes and depressive symptoms among maltreated (n=142) and nonmaltreated children (n=109) aged 6--11 years. On average, self-esteem and self-agency increased and depressive symptoms decreased over time. Multivariate growth modeling indicated…

  18. National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972: An Historical Overview and Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdams, Kathy; And Others

    Meant to study post secondary educational and vocational activities, the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is reported to have consistently succeeded in overcoming diminishing response rates and sample attrition found in other longitudinal surveys. The purpose of understanding the focus and experiences affecting…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Midage Women with Indicators of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Lee, Christina; Wade, Tracey D.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of midage women has two main aims: to examine the effect of disordered eating (DE) on quality of life (QoL) among women, including a comparison with a younger cohort and to investigate the mediating roles of both depressive symptoms and social support on the longitudinal relationship between DE and QoL as potential…

  20. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  1. Use of Missing Data Methods in Longitudinal Studies: The Persistence of Bad Practices in Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal…

  2. Problematics of Time and Timing in the Longitudinal Study of Human Development: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Phelps, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Studying human development involves describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change and, as such, requires longitudinal research. The selection of the appropriate type of longitudinal design requires selecting the option that best addresses the theoretical questions asked about…

  3. What Alumni Value from New Product Development Education: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Corie L.; Hey, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.; Beckman, Sara L.; Kim, Sohyeong

    2016-01-01

    We present a longitudinal study of what graduates take away from a cross-disciplinary graduate-level New Product Development (NPD) course at UC Berkeley over a 15-year period from 1996-2010. We designed and deployed a longitudinal survey and interviewed a segment of our NPD alumni population to better understand how well our course prepared these…

  4. Recruitment Modeling Applied to Longitudinal Studies of Group Differences in Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Hunt, Earl; Deary, Ian J.; Gale, Catharine R.; Dykiert, Dominika

    2009-01-01

    In longitudinal studies data is collected in a series of waves. Each wave after the first suffers from attrition. Therefore it can be difficult to discriminate between changes in sample parameters due to a longitudinal process (e.g. ageing) and changes due to attrition. The problem is particularly vexing if one of the purposes is to compare…

  5. The Study of Adolescent Identity Formation 2000-2010: A Review of Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeus, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research into personal and ethnic identity has expanded considerably in the first decade of the present century. The longitudinal studies have shown that personal identity develops progressively during adolescence, but also that many individuals do not change identity, especially ethnic identity. Researchers have found rank-order…

  6. Impact of pregnancy on vitamin D status: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Joy Y; Lucey, Alice J; Horgan, Richard; Kenny, Louise C; Kiely, Mairead

    2014-10-14

    Nutritional requirements for vitamin D during pregnancy have been inadequately described, and there are conflicting data on the impact of gestation on vitamin D status. In the present study, we conducted a longitudinal analysis of total and free (unbound) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) and albumin concentrations in a random sample of thirty women from the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints Ireland pregnancy cohort study at 15, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 weeks of gestation and at 2 months postpartum. Concentrations of serum 25(OH)D, DBP and albumin were determined, and free 25(OH)D was calculated from the concentrations of total 25(OH)D, DBP and albumin. Serum albumin concentration decreased during pregnancy (P< 0·001), with a nadir at 36 weeks (P< 0·005), during which the concentration was approximately 80 % of the postnatal concentration. Serum DBP concentration increased during pregnancy and at 28 weeks of gestation, which was almost double the postnatal level (P< 0·001). Total and free 25(OH)D concentrations decreased (both P< 0·005) as pregnancy progressed, and both were lowest at 36 weeks of gestation. At 15 weeks, 10 and 63 % of the women had serum 25(OH)D concentration < 30 and 50 nmol/l, respectively, which increased to 53 and 80 % at 36 weeks of gestation. The time course of decreasing concentrations of 25(OH)D during gestation among women recruited during May-July, who delivered between October and November, and among those recruited in August-September, who delivered between February and March, was similar. The lower percentage of free 25(OH)D during pregnancy is mainly due to increased DBP.

  7. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95 % CI [.96-.99], p = 0.03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad.

  8. Medical Graduates, Tertiary Hospitals, and Burnout: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Justin M.; Pinto, Nigel; Hanson, Martin; Meehan, Ashlea; Moore, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Burnout among junior doctors can affect patient care. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study designed to explore the incidence of burnout in medical interns and to examine the changes in burnout during the course of the intern year. Methods: Interns were recruited at two tertiary hospitals in Brisbane, Australia (n=180). Participants completed surveys at four time points during their internship year. All interns (100%) completed the baseline survey during their orientation. Response rates were 85%, 88%, and 79%, respectively, at 5-week, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Results: Interns reported high levels of personal and work-related burnout throughout the year that peaked at 6 months with mean scores of 42.53 and 41.81, respectively. Increases of 5.1 points (confidence interval [CI] 2.5,7.7; P=0.0001) and 3.5 points (CI 1.3,5.6; P=0.0015) were seen at 6 months for personal and work-related burnout, respectively. The mean score for patient-related burnout at 12 months was 25.57, and this number had increased significantly by 5.8 points (CI 3.2,8.5; P<0.0001) throughout the year. Correlation with demographic variables (age, sex) were found. The total incidence of burnout was 55.9%. Conclusion: Our study showed that burnout is a common problem among interns. The high incidence of burnout demonstrates the need for appropriate strategies to prevent adverse effects on doctors' quality of life and on the quality of care patients receive. PMID:27046399

  9. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95 % CI [.96-.99], p = 0.03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad. PMID:23737011

  10. Predictors of Meeting Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Recommendations in 9-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Jimikaye; De Witt, Peter; McNally, Janise; Siegfried, Scott; Hill, James O; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Childhood obesity represents a significant public health problem. This study examined physical activity and nutrition behaviours and attitudes of 9-11-year-olds, and factors influencing these behaviours. Design: Study participants recorded pedometer steps for 7 days and completed physical activity enjoyment, food attitudes and food…

  11. Children's Perceptions of Live Arts Performances: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    "Children?s Voices" is a longitudinal research project to document and understand children's perceptions of live arts performance and the impact on their teachers and school communities. The research conducted in South Australia with 135 5?12-year-olds in four schools involves collaboration between the South Australian Department of Education and…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Accounting Students' Ethical Judgement Making Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohamed Saat, Maisarah; Porter, Stacey; Woodbine, Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of a moral education programme on the ethical judgement making ability of university students. The programme comprises two forms of intervention: a dedicated ethics course and subsequent practical training. A total of 113 accounting students from six Malaysian universities participated in a longitudinal study…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Welfare Exit among American Indian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Guo, Baorong

    2007-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal survey of families from three reservations (Navajo Nation, San Carlos, and Salt River) in Arizona were used to examine their probability of welfare use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of individual, family, and structural factors on welfare exit. Results indicate that their probability of…

  14. A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

  15. Cognitive Abilities in Reading-Disabled Children: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, L.A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Longitudinal psychometric test data collected at two different ages (approximately 9.5 and 15 years) were utilized to compare the developmental rates of 69 pairs of reading-disabled and matched control children. Results indicated that reading-disabled children manifested deficits on measures of academic achievement, symbolic processing speed, and…

  16. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Individual and Organisational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Timothy T.; Armstrong, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine organisational learning (OL) and individual managerial learning and provide a comparative evaluation of the ability of each to generate organisational benefits. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model of organisational learning is developed which was then longitudinally tested…

  18. Use of Social Media by Western European Hospitals: Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Berben, Sivera AA; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. Objective To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. Methods In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. Results We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Conclusions Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health

  19. Longitudinal study of aspergillosis in sea fan corals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiho; Alker, Alisa P; Shuster, Kara; Quirolo, Craig; Harvell, C Drew

    2006-03-23

    Aspergillosis (a fungal disease) is affecting sea fan corals Gorgonia spp. throughout the Caribbean. To measure the impact of this disease, we established longitudinal, or in other words individual-based, monitoring studies on 3 reefs in the Florida Keys, USA, to obtain estimates of incidence, rates of disease progress, recovery, and mortality. At Western Dry Rocks (near Key West), 40 Gorgonia ventalina colonies (20 initially healthy and 20 initially diseased) were photo-monitored between June 1996 and May 1998. Additional sea fans were visually monitored during 2 localized outbreaks at Conch (May 1998 to September 1999) and Carysfort (July 2000 to May 2001) reefs located in the Upper Keys. Data from Western Dry Rocks showed that over a 2 yr period, the incidence rate was 0.58 sea fans yr(-1) and that tissue purpling can lead to tissue loss and subsequently to mortality, albeit at low frequencies. Most sea fans, once infected, maintained a low level of damage over time. Only 3 fans recovered from the disease; however 2 were subsequently re-infected. Case fatality rate was 10% (2 of 20 initially infected died), which is equivalent to 5% yr(-1). However, mortality can increase during localized outbreaks. At Conch, mortality was 46% yr(-1) among infected sea fans (compared to 8% yr(-1) at Carysfort, a less impacted site, during the same period). During an outbreak at Carysfort, mortality was 95% yr(-1) among diseased sea fans. These data clearly demonstrate the significant role aspergillosis plays in the population ecology of sea fan corals.

  20. Longitudinal study of aspergillosis in sea fan corals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiho; Alker, Alisa P; Shuster, Kara; Quirolo, Craig; Harvell, C Drew

    2006-03-23

    Aspergillosis (a fungal disease) is affecting sea fan corals Gorgonia spp. throughout the Caribbean. To measure the impact of this disease, we established longitudinal, or in other words individual-based, monitoring studies on 3 reefs in the Florida Keys, USA, to obtain estimates of incidence, rates of disease progress, recovery, and mortality. At Western Dry Rocks (near Key West), 40 Gorgonia ventalina colonies (20 initially healthy and 20 initially diseased) were photo-monitored between June 1996 and May 1998. Additional sea fans were visually monitored during 2 localized outbreaks at Conch (May 1998 to September 1999) and Carysfort (July 2000 to May 2001) reefs located in the Upper Keys. Data from Western Dry Rocks showed that over a 2 yr period, the incidence rate was 0.58 sea fans yr(-1) and that tissue purpling can lead to tissue loss and subsequently to mortality, albeit at low frequencies. Most sea fans, once infected, maintained a low level of damage over time. Only 3 fans recovered from the disease; however 2 were subsequently re-infected. Case fatality rate was 10% (2 of 20 initially infected died), which is equivalent to 5% yr(-1). However, mortality can increase during localized outbreaks. At Conch, mortality was 46% yr(-1) among infected sea fans (compared to 8% yr(-1) at Carysfort, a less impacted site, during the same period). During an outbreak at Carysfort, mortality was 95% yr(-1) among diseased sea fans. These data clearly demonstrate the significant role aspergillosis plays in the population ecology of sea fan corals. PMID:16703771

  1. Investigating Persuasive Writing by 9-11 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Roger; Burrell, Andrew; Homer, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Within research into children's persuasive writing, relatively little work has been done on the writing of advertisements, how such writing develops in the primary school years and the textual features that help to secure this development. Framed within rhetoric, writing and linguistics, an exploratory study was undertaken in which a standardised…

  2. Advanced Coursework Rates by Ethnicity: An 11-Year, Statewide Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Janis C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine advanced coursework completion rates, Advanced Placement (AP)/International Baccalaureate (IB) testing rates, AP/IB exam passage rates, and the percentage of AP/IB exam scores at or above the criterion that may exist among Texas public high school students from 2001 to 2012 to ascertain (a) the…

  3. Motor Competence in 11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedul-Kjelsås, Vigdis; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2013-01-01

    By using the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC), the present study investigated possible gender differences in several tasks of motor competence in children. The sample included 67 Norwegian sixth-grade children (Girls N?=?29; Boys?=?39). Boys' performance exceeds that of girls in ball skills and in one of the balance skills. No differences…

  4. Memory T cell responses targeting the SARS coronavirus persist up to 11 years post-infection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Oi-Wing; Chia, Adeline; Tan, Anthony T; Jadi, Ramesh S; Leong, Hoe Nam; Bertoletti, Antonio; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2016-04-12

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly contagious infectious disease which first emerged in late 2002, caused by a then novel human coronavirus, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The virus is believed to have originated from bats and transmitted to human through intermediate animals such as civet cats. The re-emergence of SARS-CoV remains a valid concern due to the continual persistence of zoonotic SARS-CoVs and SARS-like CoVs (SL-CoVs) in bat reservoirs. In this study, the screening for the presence of SARS-specific T cells in a cohort of three SARS-recovered individuals at 9 and 11 years post-infection was carried out, and all memory T cell responses detected target the SARS-CoV structural proteins. Two CD8(+) T cell responses targeting the SARS-CoV membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins were characterized by determining their HLA restriction and minimal T cell epitope regions. Furthermore, these responses were found to persist up to 11 years post-infection. An absence of cross-reactivity of these CD8(+) T cell responses against the newly-emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was also demonstrated. The knowledge of the persistence of SARS-specific celullar immunity targeting the viral structural proteins in SARS-recovered individuals is important in the design and development of SARS vaccines, which are currently unavailable. PMID:26954467

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Attrition: A Case Study at a State University. AIR Forum 1979 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endo, Jean J.; Harpel, Richard L.

    As part of a Student Outcomes Model, a study was conducted of attrition in the 1975 freshman class at the University of Colorado using longitudinal survey data from nonreturning students and those currently enrolled. Discriminant analysis was employed to identify factors that distinguished persisters, academic dismissals, stopouts, and transfers.…

  6. IQ Change and Occupational Level: A Longitudinal Study with Third Harvard Growth Study Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauphinais, Sarah M.; Bradley, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    Participants in a longitudinal study, selected according to Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test scores administered in the 1930s, and their occupations, took the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Data suggest persons increase in mental abilities over time while maintaining IQ positions relative to peers. Changes in IQ are not related to occupational…

  7. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Janet L.

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

  8. 11-Year Experience with Gastroschisis: Factors Affecting Mortality and Morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Erdoğan, Derya; Azılı, Müjdem Nur; Çavuşoğlu, Yusuf Hakan; Tuncer, İlker SaA; Karaman, İbrahim; Karaman, Ayşe; Özgüner, İsmet Faruk

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was the evaluation of patients treated with a diagnosis of gastroschisis and to establish the factors which affected the morbidity and mortality. Methods Twenty-nine patients, managed for gastroschisis during 2000-2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were analysed in respect to gestational age, birth weight, associated anomalies, type of delivery, operative procedures, postoperative complications, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) related complications. The factors affecting mortality and morbidity were determined. Findings Associated abnormalities were present in 24% of the patients. Eleven patients underwent elective reduction in the incubator (Bianchi procedure) without anesthesia. Eight patients had delayed reduction with silo and ten patients had primary closure. Although the type of delivery had an effect on morbidity but not mortality, gestational age, birth weight, and the operative procedure performed had no effect on morbidity or mortality. Duration until tolerance of oral intake, and of TPN and hospitalization were found to be statistically significantly shorter in the group of babies delivered by cesarean section. Conclusion In our study the most important cause of mortality was the abdominal compartment syndrome and multi-organ failure in the early years. Long hospitalization periods and sepsis were the main causes of mortality in recent years. PMID:23399980

  9. Effect of Ball Mass on Dribble, Pass, and Pass Reception in 9-11-Year-Old Boys' Basketball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Jose L.; Argudo, Francisco M.; Alonso, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of ball mass on dribble, pass, and pass reception in real game situations in 9-11-year-old boys' basketball. Participants were 54 boys identified from six federated teams. The independent variable was ball mass, and dependent variables were number of dribbles, passes, and pass receptions. Three…

  10. Expectations and Levels of Understanding When Using Mobile Phones among 9-11-Year Olds in Wales, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Joanne; Baker, Sally-Ann; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in examining the use of mobile technology among children. The present study extended this literature among a sample of 9-11-year olds in Wales, UK in three ways. First, to examine the level of mobile phone ownership; second, to consider how mobile phones are used, investigate timescales and expectations when communicating…

  11. Maximal Voluntary Static Force Production Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle in Children 8-11 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Going, Scott B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of maximal voluntary isometric muscle contraction force-time curves among 32 normal, healthy 8- to 11-year-olds performing tasks involving separate muscle groups found that force and maximal rate of force increase were quite reproducible, but time to selected force levels reflected considerable variations. (Author/CB)

  12. Evaluation of Low-Cost, Objective Instruments for Assessing Physical Activity in 10-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Teresa L.; Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McClain, James J.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2011-01-01

    This study compared step counts detected by four, low-cost, objective, physical-activity-assessment instruments and evaluated their ability to detect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to the ActiGraph accelerometer (AG). Thirty-six 10-11-year-old children wore the NL-1000, Yamax Digiwalker SW 200, Omron HJ-151, and Walk4Life…

  13. Comparative Analysis of Musical Abilities of 11-Year-Olds from Slovenia and the Island of Martinique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerman, Janez; Pretnar, Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the study is the comparison between the musical abilities of 11-year-old children on the island of Martinique and in Slovenia, and finding out to what extent their development of musical abilities is influenced by musical and cultural family background, music school attendance, choral singing and playing orchestral instruments. Our…

  14. SORCE 11 years after launch: What's new? What's next?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahalan, Robert; Kopp, Greg; Pilewskie, Peter; Richard, Erik; Woods, Tom

    2014-05-01

    We discuss recent changes in estimates of the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and the energy budget. We highlight the historic closing of the calibration gap between the suite of TSI instruments, due largely to comparisons made with a cryogenic Transfer Radiometer Facility (TRF) located at the University of Colorado, built by UCO/LASP with support from NASA and NIST. The resulting continuous record of TSI promises to be a milestone in improving understanding of the Sun's impact on Earth's climate. Climate models are sensitive not only to TSI, but also to variations in the Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI), and the vertical profiles of temperature and ozone are especially sensitive to SSI variations. Variations in SSI need further study before they may be considered as firmly established as TSI variations, which themselves remain controversial, despite a strengthening consensus over the SORCE epoch. The TSIS SIM has recently undergone comprehensive end-to-end calibration in the LASP SSI Radiometry Facility (SRF) utilizing the NIST SIRCUS laser system covering 210 - 2400 nm for SSI, a facility not yet available when SORCE launched in 2003. With SORCE follow-on missions such as the Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS), we anticipate narrowing uncertainties in SSI variability that will be important to improving our understanding of the climate responses to solar forcing. The long-term goal of improving the ability to monitor Earth's energy balance, and the energy imbalance that drives global warming, will need continued improvements in the measurement of both shortwave solar and longwave earth-emitted radiation.

  15. Recruiting and Retaining Mobile Young Injection Drug Users in a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings. PMID:20222779

  16. Exploring the acceptability and feasibility of conducting a large longitudinal population-based study in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Susan A; Raina, Parminder S; Wolfson, Christina; Strople, Geoff; Kits, Olga; Dukeshire, Steven; Angus, Camille L; Szala-Meneok, Karen; Uniat, Jennifer; Keshavarz, Homa; Furlini, Linda; Pelletier, Amélie

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTSuccessful recruitment and retention for population-based longitudinal studies requires understanding facilitators and barriers to participation. This study explored Canadians' views regarding one such study, the proposed Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). Focus groups of participants > or =40 years of age were held in six proposed CLSA data collection sites (Halifax, Montreal, Hamilton, Winnipeg, Calgary, and Vancouver) to discuss participating in a long-term study of healthy aging. There was fundamental support for longitudinal research on health and aging. Altruism was a key motivation to participation, and universities were viewed as credible parties to conduct such studies. Participants had few worries about providing biological samples but expressed concern about potential misuse of genetic materials, commercialization of participant data, and privacy issues. These findings have already informed current, and will inform future, work on the CLSA, and will also provide useful information to researchers who undertake other population-based longitudinal studies.

  17. Habitual Levels of Physical Activity Influence Bone Mass in 11-Year-Old Children From the United Kingdom: Findings From a Large Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Jon H; Steer, Colin D; Mattocks, Calum G; Riddoch, Chris; Ness, Andy R

    2009-01-01

    We examined the influence of habitual levels of physical activity on bone mass in childhood by studying the relationship between accelerometer recordings and DXA parameters in 4457 11-year-old children. Physical activity was positively related to both BMD and bone size in fully adjusted models. However, further exploration revealed that this effect on bone size was modified by fat mass. Introduction Exercise interventions have been reported to increase bone mass in children, but it is unclear whether levels of habitual physical activity also influence skeletal development. Materials and Methods We used multivariable linear regression to analyze associations between amount of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), derived from accelerometer recordings for a minimum of 3 days, and parameters obtained from total body DXA scans in 4457 11-year-old boys and girls from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The influence of different activity intensities was also studied by stratification based on lower and higher accelerometer cut-points for moderate (3600 counts/minute) and vigorous (6200 counts/minute) activity, respectively. Results MVPA was positively associated with lower limb BMD and BMC adjusted for bone area (aBMC; p < 0.001, adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic factors, and height, with or without additional adjustment for lean and fat mass). MVPA was inversely related to lower limb bone area after adjusting for height and lean mass (p = 0.01), whereas a positive association was observed when fat mass was also adjusted for (p < 0.001). Lower limb BMC was positively related to MVPA after adjusting for height and lean and fat mass (p < 0.001), whereas little relationship was observed after adjusting for height and lean mass alone (p = 0.1). On multivariable regression analysis using the fully adjusted model, moderate activity exerted a stronger influence on lower limb BMC compared with light activity (light activity: 2.9 [1.2–4.7, p = 0

  18. 77 FR 39344 - Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans.... Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey) in...

  19. The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972: Annotated Bibliography of Studies, 1980-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maline, Mindi S., Comp.

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS-72) is the "grandmother" of the longitudinal studies designed and conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics, and is probably the richest archive ever assembled on a generation of Americans. Participants were selected as high school seniors in 1972 and were…

  20. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

  1. TOUS Revisited - A Longitudinal Study of the Development of Understanding of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungwirth E.

    1972-01-01

    Part of the persistent deficiencies in understanding the nature" of science that were detected in a longitudinal study of students using a four-year biology progrram may be due to linguistic problems. (AL)

  2. The role of longitudinal cohort studies in epigenetic epidemiology: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal cohort studies are ideal for investigating how epigenetic patterns change over time and relate to changing exposure patterns and the development of disease. We highlight the challenges and opportunities in this approach. PMID:22747597

  3. Auditory-Motor Learning during Speech Production in 9-11-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Shiller, Douglas M.; Gracco, Vincent L.; Rvachew, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background Hearing ability is essential for normal speech development, however the precise mechanisms linking auditory input and the improvement of speaking ability remain poorly understood. Auditory feedback during speech production is believed to play a critical role by providing the nervous system with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and subsequently fine-tune speech motor output. Surprisingly, few studies have directly investigated such auditory-motor learning in the speech production of typically developing children. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we manipulated auditory feedback during speech production in a group of 9–11-year old children, as well as in adults. Following a period of speech practice under conditions of altered auditory feedback, compensatory changes in speech production and perception were examined. Consistent with prior studies, the adults exhibited compensatory changes in both their speech motor output and their perceptual representations of speech sound categories. The children exhibited compensatory changes in the motor domain, with a change in speech output that was similar in magnitude to that of the adults, however the children showed no reliable compensatory effect on their perceptual representations. Conclusions The results indicate that 9–11-year-old children, whose speech motor and perceptual abilities are still not fully developed, are nonetheless capable of auditory-feedback-based sensorimotor adaptation, supporting a role for such learning processes in speech motor development. Auditory feedback may play a more limited role, however, in the fine-tuning of children's perceptual representations of speech sound categories. PMID:20886033

  4. A fatal outcome of complicated severe diabetic ketoacidosis in a 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Severinski, Srećko; Butorac Ahel, Ivona; Ovuka, Aleksandar; Verbić, Arijan

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complex metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis and ketonuria. Cerebral edema is the most common rare complication of DKA in children. The objective of the study was to emphasize the importance of careful evaluation and monitoring for signs and symptoms of cerebral edema in all children undergoing treatment for DKA. We present a case of 11-year-old girl with a history of diabetes mellitus type I (T1DM) who presented with severe DKA complicated by hypovolemic shock, cerebral edema and hematemesis. Considering the fact that complications of DKA are rare and require a high index of clinical suspicion, early recognition and treatment are crucial for avoiding permanent damage.

  5. The Pioneer Venus Orbiter: 11 years of data. A laboratory for atmospheres seminar talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasprzak, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus Orbiter has been in operation since orbit insertion on December 4, 1978. For the past 11 years, it has been acquiring data in the salient features of the planet, its atmosphere, ionosphere, and interaction with the solar wind. A few of the results of this mission are summarized and their contribution to our general understanding of the planet Venus is discussed. Although Earth and Venus are often called twin planets, they are only superficially similar. Possessing no obvious evidence of plate tectonics, lacking water and an intrinsic magnetic field, and having a hot, dense carbon dioxide atmosphere with sulfuric acid clouds makes Venus a unique object of study by the Orbiter's instruments.

  6. A fatal outcome of complicated severe diabetic ketoacidosis in a 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Severinski, Srećko; Butorac Ahel, Ivona; Ovuka, Aleksandar; Verbić, Arijan

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complex metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis and ketonuria. Cerebral edema is the most common rare complication of DKA in children. The objective of the study was to emphasize the importance of careful evaluation and monitoring for signs and symptoms of cerebral edema in all children undergoing treatment for DKA. We present a case of 11-year-old girl with a history of diabetes mellitus type I (T1DM) who presented with severe DKA complicated by hypovolemic shock, cerebral edema and hematemesis. Considering the fact that complications of DKA are rare and require a high index of clinical suspicion, early recognition and treatment are crucial for avoiding permanent damage. PMID:27226096

  7. Performance as a function of shooting style in basketball players under 11 years of age.

    PubMed

    Arias, José L

    2012-04-01

    Shooting style in basketball refers to the height adopted by a player in holding the ball, specifically the height of the hand and the ball with regard to the line of sight before the final extension of the elbow during a shot. The literature differentiates between a high and a low style. This study analyzed shooting frequency in young boys as a function of style and which shooting style had the highest accuracy and success in real games. Participants were 81 boys from eight basketball teams, aged 9-11 years. The sample consisted of 5,740 standard shots in 56 games. The design was nomotethic, follow-up, and multidimensional. The results indicated that low style predominated over the high style, although overall accuracy and efficacy were better using the high style. Various strategies and practical considerations are suggested for teachers and coaches to focus on teaching the high style.

  8. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  9. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome: Interim Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung; Haque, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined underlying factors for age-related decline in adaptive behavior in 128 adults with trisomy 21 over a three-year period. Presence of dementia was the only determining factor, although the difference in trend over time as compared to subjects without dementia was not significant. (Author/CR)

  10. Genital injuries resulting from sexual abuse: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    McCann, J; Voris, J; Simon, M

    1992-02-01

    Three children who incurred genital injuries as a result of sexual assaults were followed up on a longitudinal basis to document the anatomical changes which ensued. The subjects, who were 4 months, 4 years 5 months, and 9 years of age, were followed up for periods ranging from 14 months to 3 years. A multi-method examination approach and a 35-mm camera mounted on a colposcope were used to examine and record their injuries. Signs of the acute damage disappeared rapidly, and the wounds healed without complications. Following the resolution of the acute injuries, the changes created by the trauma remained relatively stable throughout the prepubertal years. The most persistent findings were irregular hymenal edges and narrow rims at the point of the injury. Over time the jagged, angular margins smoothed off. Disruption of the hymen exposed underlying longitudinal intravaginal ridges whose hymenal attachments created mounds or projections. There was little apparent scar formation. Even the injuries to the posterior fourchettes healed with minimal scar tissue and left only the slightest evidence of the trauma. With the onset of puberty, the hymenal changes in the oldest subject were obscured by the hypertrophy of this membrane. An examination technique which used a Q-tip to separate the redundant tissues demonstrated that the signs of trauma had survived. PMID:1734401

  11. Change in waist circumference over 11 years and current waist circumference independently predict elevated CRP in Filipino women

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, J.N.; McDade, T.W.; Lee, N.R.; Adair, L.; Kuzawa, C.

    2012-01-01

    C-reactive protein, a marker of chronic, low-grade inflammation, is strongly associated with current central adiposity, and has been linked to elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. Less is known about the contribution of longitudinal change in waist circumference to current inflammation. We evaluated the extent to which current waist circumference and change over an 11-year interval contribute independently to low-grade systemic inflammation measured in a group of 1,294 women, 35–69 years, participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Nutrition and Health Survey in the Philippines. Waist circumference was measured at the time of blood draw for CRP analysis in 2005 and during an earlier survey in 1994. A waist circumference delta variable was constructed by subtracting current circumference from past circumference. We used logistic regression models to predict having an elevated plasma CRP concentration (3 mg/L11 years was a significant and independent predictor of elevated CRP risk (OR=1.023, 95% CI=1.00,1.05, P<0.05). Considering the average increase over time, the cumulative risk of elevated CRP due to increased central adiposity was 20.1%. However, women who reduced their waist circumference between 1994 and 2005 had greatly reduced risk (6.2%), suggesting that even long-term inflammatory burden can be reversed by weight loss. Although current waist circumference is an important contributor to risk of elevated systemic inflammation in this as in other populations, history of central adiposity may be an independent phenomenon. PMID:19856425

  12. Hierarchical reproductive allocation and allometry within a perennial bunchgrass after 11 years of nutrient addition.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dashuan; Pan, Qingmin; Simmons, Matthew; Chaolu, Hada; Du, Baohong; Bai, Yongfei; Wang, Hong; Han, Xingguo

    2012-01-01

    Bunchgrasses are one of the most important plant functional groups in grassland ecosystems. Reproductive allocation (RA) for a bunchgrass is a hierarchical process; however, how bunchgrasses adjust their RAs along hierarchical levels in response to nutrient addition has never been addressed. Here, utilizing an 11-year nutrient addition experiment, we examined the patterns and variations in RA of Agropyron cristatum at the individual, tiller and spike levels. We evaluated the reproductive allometric relationship at each level by type II regression analysis to determine size-dependent and size-independent effects on plant RA variations. Our results indicate that the proportion of reproductive individuals in A. cristatum increased significantly after 11 years of nutrient addition. Adjustments in RA in A. cristatum were mainly occurred at the individual and tiller levels but not at the spike level. A size-dependent effect was a dominant mechanism underlying the changes in plant RA at both individual and tiller levels. Likewise, the distribution of plant size was markedly changed with large individuals increasing after nutrient addition. Tiller-level RA may be a limiting factor for the adjustment of RA in A. cristatum. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to examine plant responses in terms of reproductive allocation and allometry to nutrient enrichment within a bunchgrass population from a hierarchical view. Our findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying bunchgrass responses in RA to future eutrophication due to human activities. In addition, we developed a hierarchical analysis method for disentangling the mechanisms that lead to variation in RA for perennial bunchgrasses.

  13. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Instrumental and Emotional Social Support on Physical Activity in Underserved Adolescents in the ACT Trial

    PubMed Central

    Siceloff, E. Rebekah; Wilson, Dawn K.; Van Horn, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Background Few previous studies have examined the influence of instrumental and emotional social support on physical activity (PA) longitudinally in underserved adolescents. Purpose This longitudinal study was a secondary analysis of the Active by Choice Today (ACT) trial examining whether instrumental social support predicts increases in PA in underserved adolescents, above and beyond emotional social support provided by family or peers. Methods Students in 6th grade (N=1422, 73% African American, 54% female, Mage=11 years) in the ACT trial participated. At baseline and 19 weeks, previously validated measures of social support (family instrumental, family emotional, and peer emotional) were completed and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed using 7-day accelerometry estimates. Results A mixed ANCOVA demonstrated that baseline (p=.02) and change in family instrumental support (p=.01), but not emotional support from family or peers, predicted increases in MVPA across a 19-week period. Conclusions Future interventions in underserved adolescents should enhance opportunities for instrumental support for PA. PMID:24327135

  14. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF AGING IN THE UNITED STATES*

    PubMed Central

    WEIR, DAVID

    2015-01-01

    We review recent developments in longitudinal studies of aging, focusing on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Both studies are part of a trend toward biosocial surveys in which biological measurement is joined with traditional survey techniques, and a related trend toward greater harmonization across studies. Both studies have collected DNA samples and are working toward genotyping that would allow broadly based association studies. Increased attention to psychological measurement of personality and of cognitive ability using adaptive testing structures has also been shared across the studies. The HRS has expanded its economic measurement to longitudinal studies of consumption and to broader-based measurement of pension and Social Security wealth. It has added biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. The WLS has developed an integrated approach to the study of death and bereavement and an innovative use of high school yearbook photographs to capture information about health in early life of its participants. PMID:21302430

  15. Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout. PMID:20432598

  16. Cognitive abilities in reading-disabled children: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Baker, L A; Decker, S N; DeFries, J C

    1984-01-01

    Longitudinal psychometric test data collected at two different ages (9.4 +/- 1.3 and 14.8 +/- 1.2 years) were utilized to compare the developmental rates of 69 pairs of reading-disabled and matched control children. Results of a two-factor (GROUP X TIME), mixed-model, multivariate analysis of variance indicated that reading-disabled children manifested deficits on measures of academic achievement, symbolic processing speed and spatial reasoning abilities at both ages. Although both reading-disabled and control children were found to improve significantly between the two testing sessions, the lack of a significant GROUP X TIME interaction on measures of academic achievement and spatial reasoning abilities indicated that the rate of development was similar for the two groups. For measures of symbolic processing speed, however, differences between reading-disabled and control children were somewhat greater at the later age.

  17. Total body potassium in aging humans: A longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, M.A.; Nolph, G.B.; Baker, A.S.; Martin, W.M.; Krause, G. )

    1989-10-01

    Total body potassium (TBK) data calculated from longitudinal measurements over 18 y of 40K by whole-body counting of 564 male and 61 female healthy humans in a 2-pi liquid scintillation counter show little change in females younger than 50 y compared with males of those ages. Males show less TBK from 41 y onward as they age, with most rapid rate of loss between 41 and 60 y. Females have a rapid loss of TBK when they are older than 60 y; the loss is at a greater rate than that of males. Percent total body fat calculated from total body weight and lean body mass (LBM) derived from TBK document greater adiposity in females at all ages except ages 51-60 y when females are similar to males in change in percent fat per year per centimeter.

  18. A longitudinal study of self-control at the transition to secondary school: Considering the role of pubertal status and parenting.

    PubMed

    Ng-Knight, Terry; Shelton, Katherine H; Riglin, Lucy; McManus, I C; Frederickson, Norah; Rice, Frances

    2016-07-01

    Higher self-control in children and adolescents is associated with a range of positive outcomes in adulthood. However, little is known about the naturalistic development of self-control during early adolescence and the factors that affect this. We examined the role of puberty and parenting style as theoretically important influences on stability and change in self-control. A longitudinal (3 waves), multiple-informant dataset of children entering early adolescence (M = 11 years) was used to explore longitudinal change in self-control using latent growth curve modelling. Children's self-control declined during the one-year study period and declines were associated with children's behavioural and social functioning. Associations with self-control were found for pubertal status and parental warmth and hostility, but not for parental discipline. The findings suggest that during early adolescence, when children make the transition to secondary school, self-control declines. This is particularly the case for those experiencing puberty earlier than their peers. Parent warmth influences the trajectory of self-control during this period. PMID:27183536

  19. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jon P

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation. PMID:20617009

  20. Long term determinants of functional decline of mobility: an 11-year follow-up of 5464 adults of late middle aged and elderly.

    PubMed

    Lêng, Chhian Hūi; Wang, Jung-Der

    2013-01-01

    This confirmatory study aims at investigating the long term determinants of mobility limitation among late middle aged and elderly in a physically less active population. Five thousand four hundred and sixty-four participants aged 50-97 in 1996 enrolled the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (TLSA) for four waves of interview during 11 years. Social and health-related determinants were collected in each interview. Mobility limitation was enquired level of difficulty in eight movement tasks, including lifting 11kg weight, squatting, running 20-30m, standing for 15min, walking 200-300m, climbing up two to three floors, raising arms up and grasping with fingers. According to the mixed models with repeated measurements, more frequent gardening and longer time for each exercise predicted subsequent better mobility function in Taiwanese elderly while controlling demographics and current comorbidities. The protective effect of gardening was robust in all models. Frequent alcohol consumption was harmful to future mobility function, but less as harmful when participants aged. Besides, the depression-related somatic complaints were predictive to future mobility limitation among those without limitation at baseline. It shall be worthy to explore the dosage as well as the mechanism of these protective factors, especially the most significant but the least explored factor, gardening. Additionally, efforts should be made to understand the relationship between depression-related somatic complaints and mobility decline and so as the relevant interventions. PMID:23608344

  1. A Population-based Longitudinal Study of Childhood Neurodevelopmental Disorders, IQ and Subsequent Risk of Psychotic Experiences in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, Golam M.; Stochl, Jan; Zammit, Stanley; Lewis, Glyn; Jones, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia has a neurodevelopmental component to its origin, and may share overlapping pathogenic mechanisms with childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (ND). Yet longitudinal studies of psychotic outcomes among individuals with ND are limited. We report a population-based prospective study of six common childhood ND, subsequent neurocognitive performance and the risk of psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Methods PEs were assessed by semi-structured interviews at age 13 years. IQ and working memory were measured between ages 9 and 11 years. The presence of six neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia, dysorthographia, dyscalculia) was determined from parent-completed questionnaire at age 9 years. Linear regression calculated mean difference in cognitive scores between those with and without ND. The association between ND and PEs was expressed as odds ratio (OR); effects of cognitive deficits were examined. Potential confounders included age, gender, father’s social class, ethnicity and maternal education. Results Out of 8,220 children, 487 (5.9%) were reported to have ND at age 9 years. Children with, compared with those without ND performed worse on all cognitive measures; adjusted mean difference in total IQ 6.84 (95% CI 5.00- 8.69). The association between total IQ and ND was linear (p<0.0001). The risk of PEs was higher in those with, compared with those without ND; adjusted OR for definite PEs 1.76 (95% CI 1.11- 2.79). IQ (but not working memory) deficit partly explained this association. Conclusion Higher risk of PEs in early adolescence among individuals with childhood ND is consistent with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. PMID:25066026

  2. Thyroid Antagonists (Perchlorate, Thiocyanate, and Nitrate) and Childhood Growth in a Longitudinal Study of U.S. Girls

    PubMed Central

    Mervish, Nancy A.; Pajak, Ashley; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Biro, Frank M.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Blount, Benjamin C.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate are sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors that block iodide uptake into the thyroid, thus affecting thyroid function. Thyroid dysfunction can adversely affect somatic growth and development in children. To our knowledge, no studies have examined effects of NIS inhibitors on body size measures. Objective: We investigated associations between NIS inhibitors and childhood growth in 940 girls from the Puberty Study of the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program. Methods: Urine samples collected from girls 6–8 years of age at enrollment (2004–2007) from New York City, greater Cincinnati, Ohio, and the Bay Area in California were analyzed for NIS inhibitors and creatinine (C). The longitudinal association between NIS inhibitors and anthropometric measures [height, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI)] during at least three visits was examined using mixed effects linear models, adjusted for race and site. Results: Compared with girls in the low-exposure group (3.6, 626, and 500 mg/gC, median perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate, respectively) girls with the highest NIS inhibitor exposure (9.6, 2,343, and 955 mg/gC, median perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate, respectively) had slower growth in waist circumference and BMI but not height. Significant differences in the predicted mean waist circumference and BMI between the low- and high-exposure groups were observed beginning at 11 years of age. Conclusions: Higher NIS inhibitor exposure biomarkers were associated with reductions in waist circumference and BMI. These findings underscore the need to assess exposure to NIS inhibitors with respect to their influence on childhood growth. Citation: Mervish NA, Pajak A, Teitelbaum SL, Pinney SM, Windham GC, Kushi LH, Biro FM, Valentin-Blasini L, Blount BC, Wolff MS, for the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Project (BCERP). 2016. Thyroid antagonists (perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate) and

  3. Integrative data analysis through coordination of measurement and analysis protocol across independent longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Scott M; Piccinin, Andrea M

    2009-06-01

    Replication of research findings across independent longitudinal studies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and the sophistication of analyses, and practical limits on full reporting of results. In many cases, cross-study differences in sample composition and measurements impede or lessen the utility of pooled data analysis. A collaborative, coordinated analysis approach can provide a broad foundation for cumulating scientific knowledge by facilitating efficient analysis of multiple studies in ways that maximize comparability of results and permit evaluation of study differences. The goal of such an approach is to maximize opportunities for replication and extension of findings across longitudinal studies through open access to analysis scripts and output for published results, permitting modification, evaluation, and extension of alternative statistical models and application to additional data sets. Drawing on the cognitive aging literature as an example, the authors articulate some of the challenges of meta-analytic and pooled-data approaches and introduce a coordinated analysis approach as an important avenue for maximizing the comparability, replication, and extension of results from longitudinal studies. PMID:19485626

  4. Maltreated children's representations of mother and an additional caregiver: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Manashko, Shany; Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz

    2009-04-01

    In the current longitudinal investigation, we explored the continuity of and changes in the mental representations of the mother and an additional caregiver among forty-five 9- to 11-year-old children who had been severely maltreated and subsequently placed in long-term residential care as well as the relationships between the content and structure of these representations and teacher's assessments of the child's externalizing and internalizing symptoms. At Time 1, a nonmaltreated comparison group was assessed concomitantly. Compared to nonmaltreated children, maltreated children scored higher for externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and their maternal representations were found to be significantly less benevolent and integrated and more punitive. In addition, among the maltreated children, the additional caregiver representations were found to be more benevolent and integrated, and less punitive, than the maternal representations. After 30 months, the maltreated children's levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms diminished, their maternal representations become more benevolent and less punitive, and the additional caregiver representations became less benevolent. Moreover, the Benevolence of the additional caregiver representation was found to predict these children's changes in externalizing symptoms beyond the effects of their symptomatology and its associations with the Benevolence of these representations at Time 1. PMID:19220720

  5. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate two long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Using a five-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated, allowing paths to differ by sample. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test lifespan theories of personality and health. PMID:23231689

  6. Speech-Language and swallowing manifestations and rehabilitation in an 11-year-old girl with MELAS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vandana, V P; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Sonam, Kothari; Taly, Arun B; Gayathri, N; Madhu, N; Sinha, S

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a rare mitochondrial disease. The available studies on MELAS syndrome are limited to evaluation of radiological, audiological, genetic, and neurological findings. Among the various neurological manifestations, speech-language and swallowing manifestations are less discussed in the literature. This report describes the speech-language and swallowing function in an 11-year-old girl with MELAS syndrome. The intervention over a period of 6 months is discussed.

  7. Perianal injuries resulting from sexual abuse: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    McCann, J; Voris, J

    1993-02-01

    Four children who incurred perianal injuries as a result of a sexual assault were followed on a longitudinal basis to document the anatomical changes that ensued. The subjects, whose ages ranged from 4 to 8 years, were followed from 1 week to 14 months. They were examined in both supine and prone knee-chest positions and a 35-mm camera mounted on a colposcope was used to record their injuries. At the time of the initial examination, there were a variety of findings including erythema of the tissues, edema of the skin folds, localized venous engorgement, dilation of the external anal sphincter, and lacerations of different depths. Superficial lacerations reepithelized within 1 to 11 days. The second-degree wounds in two of the children were healed by the 1- and 5-week return visits, leaving narrow bands of scar tissue. In the two subjects who were followed the longest, signs of both a second-degree laceration and a surgically repaired third-degree injury had virtually disappeared by 12 to 14 months after the assaults. The wounds in one subject, infected with a herpes simplex type 2 virus, remained erythematous for a longer period of time than did similar injuries in the other children. A skin tag created by the avulsion of the tissues in one subject persisted, although it became less obvious as it retracted into the redundant folds of the perianal tissues over time. PMID:8424016

  8. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected. PMID:23631689

  9. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected.

  10. Study of fatigue behavior of longitudinal welded pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simion, P.; Dia, V.; Istrate, B.; Hrituleac, G.; Hrituleac, I.; Munteanu, C.

    2016-08-01

    During transport and storage of the various fluids, welded pipes are subjected to cyclic loading due to pressure fluctuations that often exceed the prescribed values for normal operation. These cyclic loading can significantly reduce the life of the pipes; as a result the design should be based on the fatigue strength not only on static resistance. In general the fatigue strength of pipes is dependent by strength, pipe geometry and surface quality. In case of the electric longitudinal welded pipes, the fatigue strength is significantly limited by concentration of residual stress and the size of existing defects in the weld seam. This paper presents the fatigue behaviour of the electric welded pipes by high frequency, under conditions that simulate real operating conditions pipes. Fatigue testing was performed on welded pipes made of micro alloyed carbon steels. Some of these pipes were previously subjected to a heat treatment of normalization, in order to also determine the influence of heat treatment on the fatigue strength of welded pipes. To determine and correlate the different factors affecting the fatigue strength, welded pipes were also subjected to various tests: tensile tests, impact tests, measurement of micro hardness, microstructural analysis by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Reporting accuracy of packed lunch consumption among Danish 11-year-olds differ by gender

    PubMed Central

    Lyng, Nina; Fagt, Sisse; Davidsen, Michael; Hoppe, Camilla; Holstein, Bjørn; Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Background Packed lunch is the dominant lunch format in many countries including Denmark. School lunch is consumed unsupervised, and self-reported recalls are appropriate in the school setting. However, little is known about the accuracy of recalls in relation to packed lunch. Objective To assess the qualitative recall accuracy of self-reported consumption of packed lunch among Danish 11-year-old children in relation to gender and dietary assessment method. Design A cross-sectional dietary recall study of packed lunch consumption. Digital images (DIs) served as an objective reference method to determine food items consumed. Recalls were collected with a lunch recall questionnaire (LRQ) comprising an open-ended recall (OE-Q) and a pre-coded food group prompted recall (PC-Q). Individual interviews (INTs) were conducted successively. The number of food items was identified and accuracy was calculated as match rates (% identified by DIs and reported correctly) and intrusion rates (% not identified by DIs but reported) were determined. Setting and subjects Three Danish public schools from Copenhagen. A total of 114 Danish 11-year-old children, mean (SE) age=11.1 (0.03), and body mass index=18.2 (0.26). Results The reference (DIs) showed that girls consumed a higher number of food items than boys [mean (SE) 5.4 (0.25) vs. 4.6 (0.29) items (p=0.05)]. The number of food items recalled differed between genders with OE-Q recalls (p=0.005) only. Girls’ interview recalls were more accurate than boys’ with higher match rates (p=0.04) and lower intrusion rates (p=0.05). Match rates ranged from 67–90% and intrusion rates ranged from 13–39% with little differences between girls and boys using the OE-Q and PC-Q methods. Conclusion Dietary recall validation studies should not only consider match rates as an account of accuracy. Intrusions contribute to over-reporting in non-validation studies, and future studies should address recall accuracy and inaccuracies in relation to

  12. Muscle Fiber Size and Function in Elderly Humans: A Longitudinal Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cross-sectional studies are likely to underestimate age-related changes in skeletal muscle strength and mass. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to assess whole muscle and single muscle fiber alterations in the same cohort of 12 older (mean age: start of study=71.1+/-5.4 yrs and end of study...

  13. Merging multiple longitudinal studies with study-specific missing covariates: A joint estimating function approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Song, Peter X-K; Wang, Lu

    2015-12-01

    Merging multiple datasets collected from studies with identical or similar scientific objectives is often undertaken in practice to increase statistical power. This article concerns the development of an effective statistical method that enables to merge multiple longitudinal datasets subject to various heterogeneous characteristics, such as different follow-up schedules and study-specific missing covariates (e.g., covariates observed in some studies but missing in other studies). The presence of study-specific missing covariates presents great statistical methodology challenge in data merging and analysis. We propose a joint estimating function approach to addressing this challenge, in which a novel nonparametric estimating function constructed via splines-based sieve approximation is utilized to bridge estimating equations from studies with missing covariates to those with fully observed covariates. Under mild regularity conditions, we show that the proposed estimator is consistent and asymptotically normal. We evaluate finite-sample performances of the proposed method through simulation studies. In comparison to the conventional multiple imputation approach, our method exhibits smaller estimation bias. We provide an illustrative data analysis using longitudinal cohorts collected in Mexico City to assess the effect of lead exposures on children's somatic growth.

  14. Skinfold thickness at ulnar, triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac regions in 1,656 Japanese children aged 3-11 years.

    PubMed

    Ohzeki, T; Hanaki, K; Motozumi, H; Matsuda-Ohtahara, H; Shiraki, K

    1992-01-01

    We measured body weight, height, and skinfold thickness (SFT) at ulnar, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac regions in 1,656 Japanese children aged 3-11 years. Means of SFT in boys and girls with normal weight exhibited similar changes with age to Caucasian children. However, nadirs of SFT were observed 1 year earlier and means at 11 years were slightly higher in Japanese. Correlation coefficients between SFT and excess weight (EW) were high in boys and girls when EW was more than 10%. Some children with EW of more than 10% had abnormal SFT. Skinfolds in all children with EW of 30% or more were beyond the normal limits. In this study, normal ranges of SFT in Japanese children are demonstrated and their racial characteristics are compared to Caucasians. It is suggested that children with EW of 10-30% are heterogenous and determination of fat volume is essential to confirm the diagnosis of obesity in these subjects.

  15. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ≥four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new

  16. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

    PubMed

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  17. A longitudinal study of WIC participation on household food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth; Gorman, Kathleen S; Wilde, Parke; Kallio, Jan

    2011-07-01

    We examined the association between women's/children's duration of WIC participation and household food security status. For mothers (n = 21,863) and their children (n = 57,377) participating in WIC (2001-2006), longitudinal measures of household food security status were collected using a subscale of the USDA Food Security Module. Using logistic regression, household food security status at the last WIC visit was associated with measures of WIC duration (number of trimesters on WIC for pregnant women, and number of WIC visits for children). Among women with prenatal household food insecurity with hunger, odds of any post-partum household food insecurity was reduced with first (AOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.48-0.94) or second trimester of entry (AOR= 0.64, 95% CI = 0.45-0.90) versus third. Among children with initial household food insecurity without hunger, an additional WIC visit reduced the odds of any household food insecurity (AOR = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.90-0.94) and of household food insecurity with hunger (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.89-0.98) at the last visit. Among those with initial household food insecurity with hunger, an additional WIC visit reduced the odds of any household food insecurity (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.92-0.99) and of household food insecurity with hunger (AOR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.83-0.94) at the last visit. Earlier and longer WIC participation may improve household food security status, particularly of vulnerable groups.

  18. Coming Together in the Middle Years: A Longitudinal Study of Sex Role Convergence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livson, Florine B.

    This study examines the hypothesis that in early adulthood each sex represses opposite-sex characteristics in order to provide optimum conditions for care of the young. Sex roles become less distinct in the second half of life, when parenting is completed. The study draws on longitudinal data from the Oakland Growth Study at Berkely, which…

  19. Longitudinal Study of Developmental Problems of Children: Comparison between Japan and U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    Two studies investigated behavioral problems in childhood. Study 1 longitudinally investigated similarities and differences in enuresis and nailbiting among Japanese and American children. Incidences of enuresis decreased as subjects' age increased. Socio-cultural and family tolerance were related to incidences of nailbiting. In Study 2, changes…

  20. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Junior High School Students' Conceptions of the Structure of Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margel, Hannah; Eylon, Bat-Sheva; Scherz, Zahava

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the progression in junior high school (JHS) students' conceptions of the structure of matter while studying a new instructional approach dealing with "Materials." In particular, we studied the progression of students' learning along two dimensions: (a) the conceptual model; and (b) the context of application.…

  2. Development of the Literacy Achievement Gap: A Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten through Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Wayne A.; Miller, Merideth

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The major goal of this study was to specify the developmental trajectories for phonics and early text comprehension skills of children from kindergarten through third grade. Method: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (N = 12,261) were used in this study. The participants were divided into 3 school readiness groups based on…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Timing and Extreme Body Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the prevalence of disordered eating and other health risk behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. However, these studies generally have not examined predictors of these behaviors, and have not embedded the investigations within a theoretical framework. This study employed a longitudinal design to evaluate the…

  4. Longitudinal Studies Using a "Natural Experiment" Design: The Case of Adoptees from Romanian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kumsta, Robert; Schlotz, Wolff; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the advantages and limitations of general population, high-risk and "natural experiment" longitudinal studies for studying psychological change. The English and Romanian Adoptees study is used as an example of a "natural experiment," and detailed findings are provided. Method: What is new is a focus on the young people who…

  5. A Longitudinal Investigation into L2 Learners' Cognitive Processes during Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…

  6. Youths' Caretaking of Their Adolescent Sisters' Children: Results from Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.; Slonim, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    The extent and experiences of youths' caretaking of their adolescent sisters' children have been assessed in two longitudinal studies. The first study examines the caretaking patterns of 132 Latino and African American youth during middle and late adolescence. The second study involves 110 Latino youth whose teenage sister has recently given…

  7. Melancholic versus non-melancholic depression: differences on cognitive function. A longitudinal study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cognitive dysfunction is common among depressed patients. However, the pattern and magnitude of impairment during episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD) through to clinical remission remains unclear. Heterogeneity of depressive patients and the lack of longitudinal studies may account for contradictory results in previous research. Methods/Design This longitudinal study will analyze cognitive differences between CORE-defined melancholic depressed patients (n = 60) and non-melancholic depressed patients (n = 60). A comprehensive clinical and cognitive assessment will be performed at admission and after 6 months. Cognitive dysfunction in both groups will be longitudinally compared, and the persistence of cognitive impairment after clinical remission will be determined. Discussion The study of neuropsychological dysfunction and the cognitive changes through the different phases of depression arise a wide variety of difficulties. Several confounding variables must be controlled to determine if the presence of depression could be considered the only factor accounting for group differences. PMID:20565743

  8. The 11-year solar radiation rhythm and the North Atlantic Oscillation during the last two centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunck, Heiko; Sirocko, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The study is based on a historical chronology of freezing events in central Europe during the last 230 years (river Rhine (Sirocko et al. 2012), Baltic Sea (Koslowski and Glaser, 1999) and Lake Constance (Dobras, 1983)). These regions display both significant similarities with extremely cold winters in central Germany for the years 1799, 1830, 1895, 1929, 1940, 1942, 1947, 1956 and 1963, as well as regional differences in timing and severity of cold winters. The statistical analysis of all 92 historical freezing events showed that 80 events occurred during a negative NAOwinter phase. The bootstrap test defined the results as extremely significant. To understand the climatic forcing behind the freezing chronology the NAO data set was smoothed by a three point running mean filter and compared with the 11- year cyclicity of the sunspot numbers. A complete NAO cycle can be observed within each solar cycle back to 1960 and from 1820 to 1900. From 1900 to 1960 the correlation between the Sun and NAO was weak. This on/off mode becomes visible only in the smoothed NAO data, when time intervals longer than "normal" weather observations are analysed. Statistical test for the coherence of the entire 230 years are insignificant. However, the relation is highly significant, if only the intervals from 1960 to 2010 and 1830 to 1900 are analysed. The phase correlation can be explained by temperature variations up to +-2.5°C in time series of stratospheric air temperature at 40 km height, where ozone is formed by ultraviolet solar radiation. Advanced analysis of sea surface temperatures from reanalysis data (ECMWF Data Archiv, 2013) between 30° - 40°N and 65° - 75°N indicate similar temperature variations in phase with the solar activity. Consequently, the 11 year solar periodicity is related to various parts of the Earth/Ocean/Atmosphere system and not only to the stratospheric signal. However, the NAO is the dominating mediator to implement a solar component into the

  9. Time knowledge acquisition in children aged 6 to 11 years and its relationship with numerical skills.

    PubMed

    Labrell, Florence; Mikaeloff, Yann; Perdry, Hervé; Dellatolas, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Acquisition of time knowledge (TK; the correct representation and use of time units) is linked to the development of numerical abilities, but this relationship has not been investigated in children. The current study examined the acquisition of TK and its association with numerical skills. A total of 105 children aged 6 to 11 years were interviewed with our Time Knowledge Questionnaire (TKQ), developed for purposes of this study, and the Zareki-R, a battery for the evaluation of number processing and mental calculation. The TKQ assessed conventional time knowledge (temporal orientation, temporal sequences, relationships between time units, and telling the time on a clock), estimation of longer durations related to birthday and life span, and estimation of the duration of the interview. Time knowledge increased with age, especially from 6 to 8 years, and was strongly linked to numerical skills. Regression analyses showed that four numerical components were implicated in TK: academic knowledge of numbers and number facts (e.g., reading Arabic numerals, mental calculation), number line estimation (e.g., correspondence between a number and a distance), contextual estimation (e.g., many/few leaves on a tree, children in a family), and numerical tasks involving verbal working memory (e.g., comparison of numbers presented orally). Numerical correlations with TK varied according to children's age; subtests based on academic knowledge of numbers, working memory, and number line estimation were linked with TK in the younger children, but only contextual estimation was associated with TK in the older children. PMID:26590852

  10. Long path-length experimental studies of longitudinal phenomena in intense beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, B. L.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Bernal, S.; Koeth, T. W.

    2016-05-01

    Intense charged particle beams are nonneutral plasmas as they can support a host of plasma waves and instabilities. The longitudinal physics, for a long beam, can often be reasonably described by a 1-D cold-fluid model with a geometry factor to account for the transverse effects. The plasma physics of such beams has been extensively studied theoretically and computationally for decades, but until recently, the only experimental measurements were carried out on relatively short linacs. This work reviews experimental studies over the past five years on the University of Maryland Electron Ring, investigating longitudinal phenomena over time scales of thousands of plasma periods, illustrating good agreement with simulations.

  11. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932

    PubMed Central

    Shenkin, S; Starr, J; Pattie, A; Rush, M; Whalley, L; Deary, I; PHARAOH, E. P.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.
METHODS—Retrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932.Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital in 1921. Moray House Test scores from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 were traced on 449of these children.
RESULTS—Mean score on Moray House Test increased from 30.6 at a birth weight of <2500 g to 44.7 at 4001-4500 g, after correcting for gestational age, maternal age, parity, social class, and legitimacy of birth. Multiple regression showed that 15.6% of the variance in Moray House Test score is contributed by a combination of social class (6.6%), birth weight (3.8%), child's exact age (2.4%), maternal parity (2.0%), and illegitimacy (1.5%). Structural equation modelling confirmed the independent contribution from each of these variables in predicting cognitive ability. A model in which birth weight acted as a mediator of social class had poor fit statistics.
CONCLUSION—In this 1921 birth cohort, social class and birth weight have independent effects on cognitive function at age 11. Future research will relate these childhood data to health and cognition in old age.

 PMID:11517097

  12. Sludge accumulation in shallow maturation ponds treating UASB reactor effluent: results after 11 years of operation.

    PubMed

    Possmoser-Nascimento, Thiago Emanuel; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; von Sperling, Marcos; Vasel, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Polishing ponds are natural systems used for the post-treatment of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) effluents. They are designed as maturation ponds and their main goal is the removal of pathogens and nitrogen and an additional removal of residual organic matter from the UASB reactor. This study aimed to evaluate organic matter and suspended solids removal as well as sludge accumulation in two shallow polishing ponds in series treating sanitary effluent from a UASB reactor with a population equivalent of 200 inhabitants in Brazil, operating since 2002. For this evaluation, long-term monitoring of biochemical oxygen demand and total suspended solids and bathymetric surveys have been undertaken. The ponds showed an irregular distribution of total solids mass in the sludge layer of the two ponds, with mean accumulation values of 0.020 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) and 0.004 m(3) person(-1) year(-1) in Ponds 1 and 2, leading to around 40% and 8% of the liquid volume occupied by the sediments after 11 years of operation. The first pond showed better efficiency in relation to organic matter removal, although its contribution was limited, due to algal growth. No simple input-output mass balance of solids can be applied to the ponds due to algal growth in the liquid phase and sludge digestion in the sludge.

  13. Physical training improves body composition of black obese 7- to 11-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Gutin, B; Cucuzzo, N; Islam, S; Smith, C; Moffatt, R; Pargman, D

    1995-07-01

    We determined the effect of supervised physical training without dietary intervention, on body composition of obese girls. The subjects were 25 obese 7- to 11-year-old black girls, divided into physical training and lifestyle education groups which were comparable on baseline body composition; 22 girls finished all aspects of the study. Twelve girls engaged in aerobic training (10 weeks, 5 days/week) while 10 engaged in weekly lifestyle discussions without formal physical training. Total body and regional body composition were measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, skinfolds and circumferences. Aerobic fitness was measured by heart rate response to submaximal treadmill exercise. The physical training group attended 94% of scheduled sessions and kept their heart rates at an average of 163 bpm for 28 minutes/session. The lifestyle group attended 95% of their sessions; they remained stable in aerobic fitness and most body composition measurements. The physical training group showed a significant improvement in aerobic fitness and a significant decline of 1.4% body fat. Skinfold and circumference indices of fatness also declined significantly in the training group. We conclude that controlled physical training, without dietary intervention, improved the fitness and body composition of obese black girls.

  14. Ability Emotional Intelligence, Trait Emotional Intelligence, and Academic Success in British Secondary Schools: A 5 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualter, Pamela; Gardner, Kathryn J.; Pope, Debbie J.; Hutchinson, Jane M.; Whiteley, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the long-term effects of ability- and trait EI on academic performance for British adolescents. The sample comprised 413 students from three secondary schools in the North-West of England. Students completed tests of ability EI, trait EI, personality, and cognitive ability in Year 7 (mean age = 11 years 2 months). Performance…

  15. The 11 years solar cycle as the manifestation of the dark Universe

    DOE PAGES

    Zioutas, K.; Semertzidis, Y.; Tsagri, M.; Papaevangelou, T.; Hoffmann, D. H.H.; Anastassopoulos, V.

    2014-11-26

    Sun’s luminosity in the visible changes at the 10-3 level, following an 11 years period. In X-rays, which should not be there, the amplitude varies even ~105 times stronger, making their mysterious origin since the discovery in 1938 even more puzzling, and inspiring. We suggest that the multifaceted mysterious solar cycle is due to some kind of dark matter streams hitting the Sun. Planetary gravitational lensing enhances (occasionally) slow moving flows of dark constituents towards the Sun, giving rise to the periodic behaviour. Jupiter provides the driving oscillatory force, though its 11.8 years orbital period appears slightly decreased, just asmore » 11 years, if the lensing impact of other planets is included. Then, the 11 years solar clock may help to decipher (overlooked) signatures from the dark sector in laboratory experiments or observations in space.« less

  16. The 11 years solar cycle as the manifestation of the dark Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Zioutas, K.; Semertzidis, Y.; Tsagri, M.; Papaevangelou, T.; Hoffmann, D. H.H.; Anastassopoulos, V.

    2014-11-26

    Sun’s luminosity in the visible changes at the 10-3 level, following an 11 years period. In X-rays, which should not be there, the amplitude varies even ~105 times stronger, making their mysterious origin since the discovery in 1938 even more puzzling, and inspiring. We suggest that the multifaceted mysterious solar cycle is due to some kind of dark matter streams hitting the Sun. Planetary gravitational lensing enhances (occasionally) slow moving flows of dark constituents towards the Sun, giving rise to the periodic behaviour. Jupiter provides the driving oscillatory force, though its 11.8 years orbital period appears slightly decreased, just as 11 years, if the lensing impact of other planets is included. Then, the 11 years solar clock may help to decipher (overlooked) signatures from the dark sector in laboratory experiments or observations in space.

  17. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  18. Longitudinal Study of the Vocational Rehabilitation Services Program. Final Report 2: VR Services and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Becky J.; Schmidt-Davis, Holly

    This report is the second in a series of four final reports that present the findings of the Longitudinal Study of the Vocational Rehabilitation (VR) Services Program. Initiated in fall 1992, the study has tracked VR participation and post-VR experiences of applicants to and consumers of VR services (n=8,500) for up to 3 years following exit from…

  19. Variability in Fundamental Frequency during Speech in Prodromal and Incipient Parkinson's Disease: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harel, Brian; Cannizzaro, Michael; Snyder, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Nearly two centuries ago, Parkinson (1817) first observed that a particular pattern of speech changes occur in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Numerous studies have documented these changes using a wide variety of acoustic measures, and yet few studies have attempted to quantify any such changes longitudinally, through the early…

  20. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  1. Powerful and Cost-Efficient Designs for Longitudinal Intervention Studies with Two Treatment Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2008-01-01

    Three issues need to be decided in the design stage of a longitudinal intervention study: the number of persons, the number of repeated measurements per person, and the duration of the study. The degree to which polynomial effects vary across persons and the drop-out pattern also influence the statistical power to detect intervention effects. This…

  2. Chronic Illness and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Chi, Iris

    2002-01-01

    Depression is quite common among the elderly members of Hong Kong Chinese society. This study examined the impact of a series of chronic illnesses on change in depressive symptoms among the older people. The respondents were 260 people aged 70 years or older from a longitudinal study of a representative community sample of the elderly population…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Internet Addiction: The Role of Conscientiousness and Classroom Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Kuss, Daria; Griffiths, Mark; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, research on Internet addiction (IA) has increased. However, almost all studies in the area are cross-sectional and do not examine the context in which Internet use takes place. Therefore, a longitudinal study examined the role of conscientiousness (as a personality trait) and classroom hostility (as a contextual factor) in…

  4. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up (BPS:90/94) Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Daniel J.; And Others

    This document provides a summary and evaluation of the methodological procedures and results of the full-scale implementation of the Beginning Postsecondary Student Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up, 1990-94 (BPS:90/94). The study was conducted for the National Center for Education Statistics by Research Triangle Institute with the assistance of…

  5. Making Meaning of Constructivism: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of historical content knowledge and classroom control were major barriers for the…

  6. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

  7. Rates of Bullying Perpetration and Victimisation: A Longitudinal Study of Secondary School Students in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Kotevski, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Bullying perpetration and victimisation are common issues confronting schools. To understand the extent of bullying in schools and differences in the experiences of boys and girls, longitudinal studies of different subtypes of bullying perpetration and victimisation are essential. The current study aims to describe the rates of bullying…

  8. Understanding Differences in State Support for Higher Education across States, Sectors, and Institutions: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David J.; Ronca, Justin M.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines factors that explain differences in levels of state appropriations for higher education across states, sectors, and institutions between 1984 and 2004. The study sheds light on the complex relationship between institutional mission, state fiscal health, and state political context in explaining appropriations for…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Environmental and Outdoor Education: A Cultural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2013-01-01

    In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Career Maturity of Korean Adolescents: The Effects of Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Kyu Jin; Joeng, Ju-Ri; Goh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study is to examine the effects of personal factors and contextual determinants on the career maturity change of Korean adolescents over a 5-year period. This study used data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey which was administered to 3,449 junior high students from Grades 8 to 12, starting in 2003. A linear…

  11. Impaired Perception of Syllable Stress in Children with Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Career Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…

  13. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  14. Building a Constructivist Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of classroom control were major barriers for the implementation of constructivist-oriented…

  15. Children's Drawing and Painting from a Cognitive Perspective: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, E. Beverley

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a longitudinal study undertaken with 40 pre-schoolers during their last six months in an early childhood centre and their first six months at school. The study presents an investigation of the pathways that child drawers and painters make towards representational depictions. As such its primary focus is on cognitive processes.…

  16. Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Jean, Beth Lenore

    2012-01-01

    This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

  17. Longitudinal Case Studies of the Information Search Process of Users in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhlthau, Carol Collier

    1988-01-01

    Presents longitudinal case studies of four students in high school and after completion of college to compare their perceptions of the information search process in libraries. Library user studies are discussed, a model of the search process is described, and implications for the design of information systems are suggested. (36 references) (LRW)

  18. Memory and Depressive Symptoms Are Dynamically Linked among Married Couples: Longitudinal Evidence from the AHEAD Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstorf, Denis; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Kadlec, Kelly M.; McArdle, John J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined dyadic interrelations between episodic memory and depressive symptom trajectories of change in old and advanced old age. The authors applied dynamic models to 10-year incomplete longitudinal data of initially 1,599 married couples from the study of Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (M[subscript age] = 75 years at…

  19. Depressive Symptoms and School Burnout during Adolescence: Evidence from Two Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which middle and late adolescents' depressive symptoms predict their later school burnout and, in turn, the extent to which school burnout predicts depressive symptoms. Drawing on data gathered at ages 15-19 in two-three-wave longitudinal studies, we investigated cross-lagged paths…

  20. Early Intervention and Juvenile Delinquency Prevention: Evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Emily A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of an early educational intervention and child-, family-, peer-, and school-level predictors on court-reported juvenile delinquency. Data were provided from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of the scholastic and social development of more than 1,500 low-income youths (93% of whom were…

  1. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  2. Media Exposure, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior during Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2006-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…

  3. Computer-Assisted Interventions Targeting Reading Skills of Children with Reading Disabilities--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falth, Linda; Gustafson, Stefan; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael; Svensson, Idor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three computerized interventions on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2. This longitudinal intervention study included five test sessions over 1 year. Two test points occur before the intervention, and three afterwards. The last follow-up was conducted 1…

  4. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: 1996-2001 (BPS:1996/2001) Methodology Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer S.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Wheeless, Sara C.; Francis, Talbric L.; Franklin, Jeff W.; Dudley, Kristin M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the procedures and results of the full-scale Implementation of the final followup interview with the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study 1996/2001. This study follows a cohort first interviewed in 1996 in their first year of postsecondary education. (SLD)

  5. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 grams) is related to attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  6. Which Middle School Model Works Best? Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Brian V.; Weiss, Christopher C.; Matthews, Jamaal S.

    2015-01-01

    There are few areas of school organization that reflect more dissatisfaction than how to structure the education of adolescents in the middle grades. This study uses multilevel models on nationally representative data provided by the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate the relationship between schools' middle-level grade span and…

  7. Listening Text Comprehension in Preschoolers: A Longitudinal Study on the Role of Semantic Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study analyzed (a) which lower- and higher-level semantic components uniquely predicted listening text comprehension and (b) the nature of the relation (i.e., direct and indirect) between the predictors and listening text comprehension in preschoolers. One-hundred and fifty-two children participated in the present study (68 females;…

  8. Longitudinal Study of Nightmares in Children: Stability and Effect of Emotional Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael; Fricke-Oerkermann, Leonie; Mitschke, Alexander; Wiater, Alfred; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions which awaken the dreamer and are common during childhood: cross-sectional data shows the highest prevalence rates between the ages of five and ten. The present longitudinal study was designed to study the stability of nightmares over the course of 2 years. Sleep questionnaires and…

  9. Attitudes and Aspirations of Female Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study-in-Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmurak, Carole B.

    This paper describes a longitudinal study which followed a group of young women through high school and college. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between: (1) aspirations and achievement of young women; (2) the relative influence of high school and college on career choice in young women; and (3) the interactions between…

  10. Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

  11. Early Career Secondary Science Teachers: A Longitudinal Study of Beliefs in Relation to Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Steven S.; Luft, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study explores the evolving beliefs of five prospective secondary science teachers in a university preparation program from recruitment through their first year in the classroom. As an interpretive qualitative study, data were collected through semistructured interviews and an array of artifacts. The data sources were used…

  12. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  13. Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  14. Drug Exposure Opportunities and Use Patterns among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Fitzelle, Dawn B.; Johnson, Erin P.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinking and drug use among college students are major public health concerns, yet few studies have examined these behaviors and their associated risk factors and consequences prospectively. This paper describes the sampling and recruitment methods of a longitudinal study of 1253 college students at a large, mid-Atlantic university.…

  15. Power of Models in Longitudinal Study: Findings from a Full-Crossed Simulation Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Hua; Brooks, Gordon P.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Barcikowski, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Because the power properties of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models have not been clearly determined in the balanced design for longitudinal studies in the literature, the authors present a power comparison study of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models under 3…

  16. Exploring Student Teachers' Beliefs about Language Learning and Teaching: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Kemal Sinan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a four-year longitudinal study of student teachers' beliefs about language learning and teaching over the course of an English teacher education (ELT) program. The study attempts to track possible changes in the beliefs and to analyze the impact of an ELT pre-service program by taking the program itself as a dynamic variable.…

  17. Psychological and Social Factors in Fertility in the Early Years of Marriage: An Exploratory Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claudy, John G.; Richards, James M., Jr.

    Project TALENT, a 20 year, national longitudinal study of the development of youth in to adults, is described. Begun in 1960, only the 5 year follow-up data is currently available. As part of the overall project, an exploratory study is in progress to examine factors which might influence the development of ideal or desired family size preferences…

  18. Conditions for Ubiquitous Computing: What Can Be Learned from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…

  19. The Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning: Challenging Assumptions. Research Brief. Perspectives on Literacy and Essential Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reder, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Professor Stephen Reder presented the Longitudinal Study of Adult Learning (LSAL) at The Centre's 2011 Fall Institute--IALS: Its Meaning and Impact for Policy and Practice--whose findings had implications far beyond assessment. Based on evidence from the ten-year study of more than a thousand adult high school drop-outs, Dr. Reder challenges many…

  20. Interim Report on Panel One of a Longitudinal Study of Developing Career Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Lawrence; Chiteji, Lisa

    The first panel of a three-year longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the process by which youth form career expectations. The study was designed around a cross-sectional path model of career expectations drawn from the sociological literature on status attainment and is based on differential equations in which all expectation variables…

  1. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  2. High School and Beyond: A National Longitudinal Study For the 1980's. Sample Design Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Martin R.; And Others

    The 1980 National Center for Education Statistics' National Longitudinal Survey, "High School and Beyond," was intended to be a general, multi-purpose study, serving a number of diverse needs. The present study sought to increase the data's usefulness, accuracy, and scope. While allowing for analyses of schools and students on a national level,…

  3. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  4. Analysis of Apprenticeship Training from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Robert F.; And Others

    A study investigated effects of on-the-job or "hands-on" vocational training relative to standard classroom vocational instruction on subsequent employment, earnings, wages, and job satisfaction. The data used were from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 and five follow-up surveys of this population. An analysis of…

  5. Overview: Statistical Almanac, Volume 1. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Kathryn A.; And Others

    The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students (NLTS) was Congressionally mandated to provide information regarding the transition of youth with disabilities from secondary school to early adulthood. Data were collected for more than 8,000 special education students, ages 13-21. The study design involved a survey of…

  6. The Relationship between Working Memory for Serial Order and Numerical Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attout, Lucie; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Despite numerous studies, the link between verbal working memory (WM) and calculation abilities remains poorly understood. The present longitudinal study focuses specifically on the role of serial order retention capacities, based on recent findings suggesting a link between ordinal processing in verbal WM and numerical processing tasks. Children…

  7. The Developmental Sequence of Social-Communicative Skills in Young Children with Autism: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…

  8. LIFESPAN: A tool for the computer-aided design of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596

  9. Cognitive/Developmental Characteristics of Play and Their Relation to Ego Resiliency: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Debra Ellen

    This study links cognitive development and psychological adaptation by relating play attributes, assessed from a predominantly cognitive-developmental perspective, to "ego resiliency," which is a measure of flexibility in coping with stress. Subjects were 104 participants in a longitudinal study (Block & Block, 1980); 78 were given solitary free…

  10. Positive Socialization Mechanisms in Secure and Insecure Parent-Child Dyads: Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Woodard, Jarilyn; Kim, Sanghag; Koenig, Jamie L.; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Barry, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Implications of early attachment have been extensively studied, but little is known about its long-term indirect sequelae, where early security organization moderates future parent-child relationships, serving as a catalyst for adaptive and maladaptive processes. Two longitudinal multi-trait multi-method studies examined whether early…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  12. Exposure to Parental Cigarette Smoking and Child Problem Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Fagan, Pebbles

    2008-01-01

    This study examined exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), a major public health problem. ETS has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects in children. This study utilizes data from a community-based, longitudinal investigation examining the relation between children's exposure to ETS and later…

  13. Prospective Prediction of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has become a significant public health problem. Although numerous studies have examined cross-sectional psychological correlates of NSSI, there has been little research examining predictors of NSSI over time. The present study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal correlates of NSSI in 81 young adult…

  14. Dynamics of Complexity and Accuracy: A Longitudinal Case Study of Advanced Untutored Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Brittany; Kim, Youjin

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal case study follows a dynamic systems approach to investigate an under-studied research area in second language acquisition, the development of complexity and accuracy for an advanced untutored learner of English. Using the analytical tools of dynamic systems theory (Verspoor et al. 2011) within the framework of complexity,…

  15. Is the human left middle longitudinal fascicle essential for language? A brain electrostimulation study.

    PubMed

    De Witt Hamer, Philip C; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Gatignol, Peggy; Duffau, Hugues

    2011-06-01

    Human brain pathways required for language processing are poorly known. A new white matter tract in humans, the middle longitudinal fascicle, has recently been anatomically determined by diffusion tensor imaging and suggested to be essential for language. Our aim is to determine the importance of the middle longitudinal fascicle for language processing. This study is based on 8 patients with glioma resection at least involving the superior temporal gyrus of the left dominant hemisphere. Language is systematically examined pre- and postoperatively at 3 months. Intraoperative electrostimulation is used to map cortical and subcortical structures as functional boundaries of the glioma resection, including those essential for language processing. The resections are extensive (on average 62 ml, ranging from 21 to 111 ml) and include a large part of the middle longitudinal fascicle in all patients. Intraoperatively, no interference with picture naming is observed by electrostimulation of the middle longitudinal fascicle, while in all patients the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle is identified by eliciting semantic paraphasia as functional boundary. Postoperatively, no new permanent language deficits are detected by systematic language examination. Therefore, we suggest that the middle longitudinal fascicle may participate but is not essential for language processing.

  16. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  17. Tailored Panel Management: A Theory-Based Approach to Building and Maintaining Participant Commitment to a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Many psychological processes unfold over time, necessitating longitudinal research designs. Longitudinal research poses a host of methodological challenges, foremost of which is participant attrition. Building on Dillman’s work, we provide a review of how social influence and relationship research informs retention strategies in longitudinal studies. Objective: We introduce the tailored panel management (TPM) approach, which is designed to establish communal norms that increase commitment to a longitudinal study, and this commitment, in turn, increases response rates and buffers against attrition. Specifically, we discuss practices regarding compensation, communication, consistency, and credibility that increase longer term commitment to panel participation. Research design: Throughout the article, we describe how TPM is being used in a national longitudinal study of undergraduate minority science students. TheScienceStudy is a continuing panel, which has 12 waves of data collected across 6 academic years, with response rates ranging from 70% to 92%. Although more than 90% of participants have either left or graduated from their undergraduate degree program, this highly mobile group of people remains engaged in the study. TheScienceStudy has usable longitudinal data from 96% of the original panel. Conclusion: This article combines social psychological theory, current best practice, and a detailed case study to illustrate the TPM approach to longitudinal data collection. The approach provides guidance for other longitudinal researchers, and advocates for empirical research into longitudinal research methodologies. PMID:24590918

  18. Study on longitudinal dispersion relation in one-dimensional relativistic plasma: Linear theory and Vlasov simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Wu, S. Z.; Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T.; Zhu, S. P.

    2013-09-15

    The dispersion relation of one-dimensional longitudinal plasma waves in relativistic homogeneous plasmas is investigated with both linear theory and Vlasov simulation in this paper. From the Vlasov-Poisson equations, the linear dispersion relation is derived for the proper one-dimensional Jüttner distribution. Numerically obtained linear dispersion relation as well as an approximate formula for plasma wave frequency in the long wavelength limit is given. The dispersion of longitudinal wave is also simulated with a relativistic Vlasov code. The real and imaginary parts of dispersion relation are well studied by varying wave number and plasma temperature. Simulation results are in agreement with established linear theory.

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Learning to Teach History as Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade many social studies educators have called for teachers to engage their students in historical interpretation. This case study examined the beliefs and practices related to engaging students in historical interpretation of four secondary social studies teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the…

  20. Schooling, Childhood Poverty and International Development: Choices and Challenges in a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyden, Jo; James, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rarity of longitudinal data, evidence on the benefits of education across the life-course is relatively sparse in developing countries. Young Lives is the only comparative dual-cohort study to combine data collection using mixed-methods at child, household, school and community levels, following 12,000 children in two cohorts across…

  1. Long-Term Benefits of Full-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, M. D.; Nickel, N. C.; Chateau, D.; Martens, P. J.; Taylor, C.; Crockett, L.; Katz, A.; Sarkar, J.; Burland, E.; Goh, C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    In the first longitudinal, population-based study of full-day kindergarten (FDK) outcomes beyond primary school in Canada, we used linked administrative data to follow 15 kindergarten cohorts (n ranging from 112 to 736) up to grade 9. Provincial assessments conducted in grades 3, 7, and 8 and course marks and credits earned in grade 9 were…

  2. Vulnerability and Resiliency: A Longitudinal Study of Asian Americans from Birth to Age 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Emmy E.

    A 30-year longitudinal study was undertaken in order to document the course, and determine the outcome, of all pregnancies in a community of Asian Americans on Kauai, the western most of the Hawaiian Islands and equidistant from the continental United States and Japan. The project's goal was to document both the good and poor outcomes of the…

  3. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading and Spelling in Greek: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…

  4. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…

  5. Classroom Climate, Parental Educational Involvement, and Student School Functioning in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan Toren, Nurit; Seginer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In this 2-year longitudinal study, we examine the effects of perceived classroom climate and two aspects of parental educational involvement (home-based and school-based) on junior high school students' self-evaluation and academic achievement. Our main hypothesis was that perceived parental educational involvement mediates students' perceived…

  6. Measuring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching: A Longitudinal Study Using Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin; Lubienski, Sarah T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines growth in teacher knowledge as measured by two popular assessments--Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) and Diagnostic Teacher Assessments in Mathematics and Science (DTAMS). Using data collected from 24 teachers, we compare the extent to which each assessment captured teacher learning during a K-8 mathematics…

  7. Education Longitudinal Study of 2002: Base Year Data File User's Manual. NCES 2004-405

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Rogers, James E.; Siegel, Peter H.; Stutts, Ellen S.

    2004-01-01

    This manual has been produced to familiarize data users with the procedures followed for data collection and processing for the base year of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). It also provides the necessary documentation for use of the public-use data files, as they appear on the ELS:2002 base year Electronic Codebook (ECB). Most…

  8. A Longitudinal Study Showing How Students Use a Molecule Concept when Explaining Everyday Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofgren, Lena; Hellden, Gustav

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present results from a 10-year (1997-2006) longitudinal study in which we, by interviews once or twice every year, followed how students, throughout the compulsory school, developed their understanding of three situations in which transformations of matter occur. We believe that students have to meet scientific ideas early in…

  9. From Phonological Recoding to Lexical Reading: A Longitudinal Study on Reading Development in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsolini, Margherita; Fanari, Rachele; Tosi, Valeria; De Nigris, Barbara; Carrieri, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we analyse the early phases of reading development in Italian and explore the transition from phonological to lexical reading. A group of 28 Italian children was tested in four phases. Language and cognitive skills were first assessed in the preschool. Reading performance was then tested in three different sessions, in…

  10. Relationships between Substance Use and Depressive Symptoms: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal relationships between depressive symptoms and use of alcohol, cigarettes, and illicit substances among adolescents, addressing methodological limitations and potential confounding in the extant literature. The sample comprised adolescents who were surveyed in Grades 6 (n = 916), 9 (n = 804), and 11 (n = 791).…

  11. Constructing a Measure for Longitudinal Medical Achievement Studies by the Rasch Model One-Step Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    As part of a longitudinal study of the growth of general medical knowledge among osteopathic medical students, a simple, convenient, and accurate vertical equating method was developed for constructing a scale for medical achievement. It was believed that Parts 1, 2, and 3 of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners' (NBOME) examination…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the CO-OP Upward Bound Program 2003-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Sharmakrenia D.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal case study examined the effectiveness of the CO-OP Upward Bound Program activities from 2003 through 2008 applying cultural and social capital theories. The program was evaluated in order to give a local perspective to program implementation and operations in a community-based setting. The participant researcher used mixed…

  13. A Library Credit Course and Student Success Rates: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    The University of West Georgia's Ingram Library has offered a fifteen-week two-hour credit course since 1998. In a longitudinal study covering twelve years, the library analyzed the progression and graduation rates of more than fifteen thousand students. Students who took the class during their undergraduate career were found to graduate at much…

  14. Relations of Television Viewing and Reading: Findings from a 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ennemoser, Marco; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the long-term effects of television viewing on the development of children's reading competencies. Among 2 cohorts of German children (N[subscript 1] = 165, N[subscript 2] = 167), measures of television viewing were collected over 4 years, and tests of reading speed and reading comprehension were administered…

  15. Low Levels of Vitamin D and Worsening of Knee OA: Results from Two Longitudinal Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To confirm reports that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) deficiency is associated with an increased risk of joint space narrowing or cartilage loss in osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: We measured 25-OH D levels in subjects from two longitudinal cohort studies, the Framingham Osteoarthritis Stud...

  16. Investigating the Double-Deficit Hypothesis in Greek: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Georgiou, George K.; Kendeou, Panayiota

    2009-01-01

    This study examined longitudinally the double-deficit hypothesis in Greek, an orthographically consistent language, following a group of children from kindergarten to Grade 2. Four groups were formed on the basis of two composite scores of phonological and naming-speed criterion measures: a double-deficit group (DD; n = 17), a phonological deficit…

  17. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Maternal Depressive Symptoms, Negative Expectations and Perceptions of Child Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luoma, Ilona; Kaukonen, Palvi; Mantymaa, Mirjami; Puura, Kaija; Tamminen, Tuula; Salmelin, Raili

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the associations between maternal depressive symptoms and perceptions of children's problems. One hundred and nineteen mother-child dyads were followed from the third trimester of pregnancy for almost 10 years. Depressive symptoms and background factors of the mothers and the anticipated/perceived…

  19. Multiracial Children and Poverty: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…

  20. Children's Theory of Mind, Self-Perceptions, and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored Theory of Mind (ToM), self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations of 91 children (52 females, ages 6-8?years) drawn from two schools situated in a mainly Euro-Canadian, middle socioeconomic status, semi-rural central Canadian context. ToM, self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations were…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of the Consequences of Full-Day Kindergarten: Kindergarten through Grade Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evansville-Vanderburgh School Corp., IN.

    Indiana's Evansville-Vanderburgh School Corporation began full-day, everyday kindergarten in four schools in the 1978-1979 school year. In 1980, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the first two years of full-day kindergarten was published. A longitudinal study of the effectiveness of full-day kindergarten, including information concerning…

  2. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of OPAC Screen Changes on Searching Behavior and Searcher Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blecic, Deborah D.; Dorsch, Josephine L.; Koenig, Melissa H.; Bangalore, Nimala S.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a longitudinal study of four sets of OPAC (online public access catalog) transaction logs that examined the effects of screen changes in helping searchers improve their search behavior. Results show that while screen changes initially had a positive impact on search behavior, they were not always sustained over time. (Author/LRW)

  3. A Longitudinal Study of a 5th Grade Science Curriculum Based on the 5E Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Timothy P.; Schroeder, Carolyn; Tolson, Homer; Huang, Tse-Yang; Williams, Omah M.

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Mathematics and Science Education at Texas A&M University contracted with Region 4 Education Service Center (ESC) and a large, diverse school district to conduct a longitudinal study from 2005-2009. The state achievement test scores of 5th graders who were taught using a Grade 5 science textbook designed by Region 4 ESC were…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Conceptual Change: Preservice Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Moon Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

    2007-01-01

    This research consists of a longitudinal study of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods,…

  5. Exceptional Rule Learning in a Longitudinal Case Study of Williams Syndrome: Acquisition of Past Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Peggy F.; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2010-01-01

    Conflicting reports of language ability in Williams syndrome (WS) are confusing and may hinder accurate clinical decisions with respect to therapeutic services and educational placements for children with WS.This longitudinal case study examined the acquisition of regular and irregular past tense verbs in a child with WS. The development of…

  6. Foreign Language Learning Motivation in Higher Education: A Longitudinal Study of Motivational Changes and Their Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Walter, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study involving first-year modern foreign languages students enrolled in German degree courses at two major universities in the United Kingdom. It explores the experience of these students from a motivational angle. A longitudinal mixed-methods approach was employed in order to address the time- and context-sensitive…

  7. The Development of Prospective Grasping Control between 5 and 7 Months: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witherington, David C.

    2005-01-01

    By 7 months, infants, when reaching for an object, visually guide their grasp by preorienting their hands to match the object's orientation. Evidence at earlier ages, however, for prospective grasp control via anticipatory hand orientation is mixed. This study examined longitudinally the development of anticipatory hand orientation in 15 infants,…

  8. Stability and Change in Work Values: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Jing; Rounds, James

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was conducted to investigate stability and change in work values across the life span. Both rank-order stability and mean-level change were investigated using an integrative classification for intrinsic, extrinsic, social and status work values (Ross, Schwartz, & Surkis, 1999). Results of rank-order…

  9. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  10. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, children's environmental health studies is needed. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted across the U.S. in February 2003. Pregnant women and exp...

  11. The Dynamics of an Online Knowledge Building Community: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myllari, Jarkko; Ahlberg, Mauri; Dillon, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a 5-year design experiment on cumulative knowledge building as part of an international project. Through a longitudinal study and analysis of cumulative research data, we sought to answer the question, "what happened and why in knowledge building?" Research data constitute messages which participants have written into a shared…

  12. Segmental Acquisition in Adult ESL Learners: A Longitudinal Study of Vowel Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Murray J.; Derwing, Tracey M.

    2008-01-01

    Research on second language (L2) phonetic learning indicates that, even in adults, segmental acquisition remains possible through L2 experience. However, the findings of previous cross-sectional studies of vowel and consonant learning have proved difficult to interpret. In this longitudinal investigation of 44 recent arrivals in Canada,…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Body Image and Strategies to Lose Weight and Increase Muscles among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…

  14. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  15. The Effects of Education on Business Ownership: A Longitudinal Study of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolinsky, Arthur L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study using a national longitudinal sample of women to examine variations in the likelihood of entering, staying, and reentering self-employment by level of educational attainment found that each likelihood increased with increasing levels of education. Differences in the likelihood of entry accounted for most of the overall difference between…

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Conversations with Parents about Sex and Dating during College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Elizabeth M.; Thorne, Avril; Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2010-01-01

    Emerging adulthood is a time of sexual and romantic relationship development as well as change in the parent-child relationship. This study provides a longitudinal analysis of 30 young adults' (17 women, 13 men) sexual experiences, attitudes about sexuality and dating, and reported conversations with parents about sexuality and dating from the 1st…

  17. 78 FR 44553 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Early Childhood Longitudinal Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K: 2011) Spring Third-Grade National Collection, Fourth-Grade Recruitment... Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011) Spring Third-Grade National Collection, Fourth-Grade Recruitment... Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011), sponsored by the National...

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Psychological Functioning and Academic Attainment at the Transition to Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riglin, Lucy; Frederickson, Norah; Shelton, Katherine H.; Rice, Frances

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study of adolescents in the first year of secondary school, examined the relationship between psychological functioning at the beginning of year 7 (mean age 11.25 years) with attainment at the end of year 7 (mean age 11.78 years). Depressive symptoms, school liking and conduct problems predicted lower attainment across time…

  19. The Relationship between the Negotiation of Meaning and Language Learning: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitchener, John

    2004-01-01

    For over 20 years, SLA research has been investigating the role of negotiation in second language acquisition. While much attention has been given to an examination of the conditions that are necessary for acquisition and the factors that can facilitate opportunities for negotiation, limited attention has been given to a longitudinal study of the…

  20. Young Children's Acquisition of Knowledge about the Earth: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannust, Triin; Kikas, Eve

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the acquisition of early knowledge of astronomy to determine whether children's knowledge at any point in time is consistent with a naive "mental model." Children were first assessed by means of open questions and drawing tasks at 2 and 3 years of age (N = 143). The knowledge was reassessed over the course of the…

  1. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION. J. Rubes*, D. Zudova*, Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, CR, S.G. Selevan*, US EPA/ORD/NCEA, Washington, DC, D.P. Evenson, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, and S.D. Perreault, US ...

  2. Prenatal Stress and Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…

  3. How Fast Do Students Forget What They Learn in Consumer Behavior? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.; Stewart, Kim A.

    2006-01-01

    The retention curve for knowledge acquired in a consumer behavior course is explored in a longitudinal study, tracking individual students from 8 to 101 weeks following course completion. Rasch measurement is used to link tests and to achieve intervally scaled measures of knowledge. The findings indicate that most of the knowledge gained in the…

  4. Academic and Work-Related Burnout: A Longitudinal Study of Working Undergraduate University Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…

  5. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  6. National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972: Critical Data Base. 22U-884.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbert, Robin

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) critical data base contains 151 items (plus background information) from the base year and followup questionnaires; about thirty-seven percent of all items. This set of critical items consists of: (1) basic demographic variables; (2) items necessary for defining activity states…

  7. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  8. Classroom Connectivity and Algebra 1 Achievement: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irving, Karen E.; Pape, Stephen J.; Owens, Douglas T.; Abrahamson, Louis; Silver, David; Sanalan, Vehbi A.

    2016-01-01

    Findings from three years of a longitudinal randomized control trial involving a national U.S. sample of Algebra 1 teachers and students are reported. The study examines the effects of a connected classroom technology (CCT) professional development and classroom intervention on student achievement when compared to classroom instruction with…

  9. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Chronic Maltreatment on Children's Behavioral and Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethier, L.S.; Lemelin, J.P.; Lacharite, C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present longitudinal study was to examine the links between chronicity of maltreatment and child behavioral and emotional problems. Method: Forty-nine maltreated children (32 victims of continuous, or chronic, maltreatment; 17 victims of transitory maltreatment) and their mothers were evaluated in their homes three times…

  10. Language Factors Associated with Achievement Grouping in Math Classrooms: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Filer, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The study examines the effects of classroom achievement grouping (AG) practices on the early mathematics performance of language-minority students and compares their mathematics achievement to that of English-speaking majority students. Using a nationally representative database of the USA, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were done.…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of the Relation between Depressive Symptomatology and Parenting Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arellano, Paula A. Errazuriz; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Thakar, Dhara A.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether mothers' depressive symptomatology predicted parenting practices in a sample of 199 mothers of 3-year-old children with behavior problems who were assessed yearly until age 6. Higher maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher overreactivity and laxness and lower warmth when children were 6…

  12. Educational Success in High-Risk Settings: Contributions of the Chicago Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J.

    1999-01-01

    Provides overview of the Chicago Longitudinal Study which traces the educational and social success of a large sample of low-income children from high-poverty neighborhoods in the Chicago area. The articles in this special issue highlight the contributions of school mobility, parent involvement, educational expectations, and other family and…

  13. The Cognitive and Linguistic Foundations of Early Reading Development: A Norwegian Latent Variable Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lervag, Arne; Braten, Ivar; Hulme, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The authors present the results of a 2-year longitudinal study of 228 Norwegian children beginning some 12 months before formal reading instruction began. The relationships between a range of cognitive and linguistic skills (letter knowledge, phoneme manipulation, visual-verbal paired-associate learning, rapid automatized naming (RAN), short-term…

  14. EFL Learning and Identity Development: A Longitudinal Study in 5 Universities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yihong; Jia, Zengyan; Zhou, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Combining psychological and social perspectives and using mixed methods, this 4-year longitudinal study examined the EFL learning and self-identity development of about 1,000 students from 5 universities in Beijing, China. The self-designed questionnaire, administered 5 times during the 4 years, consisted of 7 identity categories of identity…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Speech Timing in Young Children Later Found to Have Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allan B.; Smith, Susan Lambrecht; Locke, John L.; Bennett, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the development of timing characteristics in early spontaneous speech of children who were later identified as having reading disability (RD). Method: Child-adult play sessions were recorded longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age in 27 children, most of whom were at high familial risk for RD. For each speaking turn,…

  16. Spouse Health Status, Depressed Affect, and Resilience in Mid and Late Life: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2014-01-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on…

  17. Person-Organization (Culture) Fit and Employee Commitment under Conditions of Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…

  18. Does the Left Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus Play a Role in Language? A Brain Stimulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Nouet, Aurelien; Gatignol, Peggy; Capelle, Laurent; Duffau, Hugues

    2007-01-01

    Although advances in diffusion tensor imaging have enabled us to better study the anatomy of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), its function remains poorly understood. Recently, it was suggested that the subcortical network subserving the language semantics could be constituted, in parallel with the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, by…

  19. The Development of Second Language Writing Complexity in Groups and Individuals: A Longitudinal Learner Corpus Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vyatkina, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the development of multiple dimensions of linguistic complexity in the writing of beginning learners of German both as a group and as individuals. The data come from an annotated, longitudinal learner corpus. The development of lexicogrammatical complexity is explored at 2 intersections: (a) between cross-sectional trendlines…

  20. Predictors of the Acquisition and Portability of Transferable Skills: A Longitudinal Portuguese Case Study on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Magda

    2015-01-01

    The basis for this longitudinal study was to find the predictors of transferable skills acquisition and portability among university sophomore students. The method employed was the path analysis using as variables: (1) the theoretical framework of transferable skills representations (Evers and Rush in "Manag Learn" 27(4):275-300, 1996;…

  1. Factors Affecting the Implementation of Argument in the Elementary Science Classroom. A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anita M.; Hand, Brian

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal case study describes the factors that affect an experienced teacher's attempt to shift her pedagogical practices in order to implement embedded elements of argument into her science classroom. Research data was accumulated over 2 years through video recordings of science classes. The Reformed Teacher Observation Protocol (RTOP)…

  2. Newspapers and Adult Understanding of Public Affairs: Two Longitudinal Community Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichenor, P. J.; And Others

    Two longitudinal field studies of the process of information dissemination through newspapers were conducted on two different public affairs topics (regional planning and routing of a high voltage power line) in four communities to examine the role of newspapers in increasing levels of conflict and in creating greater levels of awareness and…

  3. Validating the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Peter M.; Cooper, Diane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study assessed the effectiveness of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA) in measuring psychosocial changes from the freshman year through the senior year using longitudinal research design. Results provide evidence of validity for the SDTLA and demonstrate that as a measurement tool, the SDTLA is sensitive to changes…

  4. Emotional Intelligence throughout Portuguese Secondary School: A Longitudinal Study Comparing Performance and Self-Report Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Ana; Faria, Luísa

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the developmental trajectories of ability and trait emotional intelligence (EI) in the Portuguese secondary school. Within a three-wave longitudinal design, 395 students (M[subscript age] = 15.4; SD = 0.74) completed both the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ) and the Vocabulary of Emotions Test (VET). Results…

  5. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…

  6. Mediating Mechanisms for the Intergenerational Transmission of Constructive Parenting: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zeng-yin; Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2008-01-01

    Based on a prospective longitudinal panel data set that was collected at three developmental stages--early adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood--this study investigates marital satisfaction and educational attainment as mediating mechanisms as well as gender's moderating effect for the intergenerational transmission of constructive…

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Information Technology Impact on Business Faculty in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen, J.; Alexander, Melody W.; Perrreault, Heidi; Waldman, Lila

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared business faculty's use of information technology in distance education as well as their perception of the technology's impact on their productivity and technology preferences between 2000 and 2006. Data were collected from 81 professors in 2000 and 140 professors in 2006 at AACSB-accredited business colleges across…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of the Development of Stop Consonant Production in Normal and Down's Syndrome Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce L.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal study of four normal children, 18 to 36 months old, and five Down's syndrome (DS) children, 3 to 6 years old, analyzed the development of stop consonants and stop clusters. Although similar sound patterns were observed for the two groups, the DS children showed considerable performance delay. (DB)

  9. Head Start Participation and School Readiness: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ˜ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care…

  10. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  11. Change in University Teachers' Elearning Beliefs and Practices: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A…

  12. The Statewide Longitudinal Study: An Overview of Perspectives and Policy Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Thomas F.

    Highlights are presented from 10 critical papers prepared by a panel of experts to describe the relevance of the Statewide Longitudinal Study (SLS) of California community college (CCC) students to each panelist's area of expertise, to identify policy issues or considerations related to SLS data, and to prepare recommendations. The paper begins by…

  13. Sport Involvement and Educational Outcomes of High School Students: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Seunghyun; Feltz, Deborah L.; Kietzmann, Laura A.; Diemer, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relations among sport involvement and social and personal influences on high school students' educational expectations and attainment, using National Education Longitudinal Survey-88. Athletic engagement, educational expectations of significant others, peer support for academics, parental involvement in academics, and…

  14. "I Feel So Confused": A Longitudinal Study of Young Adolescents' Change in Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth of early adolescent self-esteem and self-concept as students progress through the middle level years (sixth through eighth grade). Based on mixed method longitudinal research conducted from 2004 to 2007, the study's findings suggest that this sample of 104 urban students' self-esteem changed most significantly…

  15. The Role of Educational Track in Adolescents' School Burnout: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Background: Transition from comprehensive school to later educational tracks is challenging for many adolescents. The present three-wave longitudinal study conducted in Finland considers this issue from the perspective of school burnout. Background: Transition from comprehensive school to later educational tracks is challenging for many…

  16. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Marketing Practices at Private Christian Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a longitudinal study investigating current marketing practices at selected church-related, private, four-year compared to those in place in 1997. The role that institutional selectivity plays in the use of marketing activities was also investigated. The researcher surveyed the admissions directors or enrollment…

  17. Conceptualizing the Role of Early Experience: Lessons from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Coffino, Brianna; Carlson, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    We draw upon data from a prospective, longitudinal study to evaluate the role of typically occurring variations in early experience on development from birth to adulthood. Such an evaluation is complex for both methodological and conceptual reasons. Methodological issues include the need to control for both later experience and potentially…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of School Connectedness and Academic Outcomes across Sixth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Kate; Rudasill, Kathleen Moritz; Rakes, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examines the extent to which school connectedness (i.e., students' perceptions of school support and the number of adults with whom they have a positive relationship) is associated with academic outcomes across sixth grade for students from high poverty neighborhoods. Data were collected from 330 sixth-grade students…

  19. Gender Differences in the Content of Preschool Children's Recollections: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tõugu, Pirko; Tulviste, Tiia; Suits, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    Personal recollections constitute autobiographical memory that develops intensively during the preschool years. The two-wave longitudinal study focuses on gender differences in preschool children's independent recollections. The same children (N = 275; 140 boys, 135 girls) were asked to talk about their previous birthday and the past weekend…

  20. MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study: Baseline Report. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…