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Sample records for 11-year longitudinal study

  1. Psychiatric Disorders in Extremely Preterm Children: Longitudinal Finding at Age 11 Years in the EPICure Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Hollis, Chris; Kochhar, Puja; Hennessy, Enid; Wolke, Dieter; Marlow, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for psychiatric disorders in extremely preterm children. Method: All babies born less than 26 weeks gestation in the United Kingdom and Ireland from March through December 1995 were recruited to the EPICure Study. Of 307 survivors at 11 years of age, 219 (71%) were assessed alongside 153…

  2. Longitudinal Study of Self-Esteem in Children from 7-11 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoglund, Connie L.; Bell, Terece S.

    A controversy currently exists in the literature regarding the stability of self-esteem across childhood. This ongoing study, initiated in 1987, was designed to respond to the limitations in the existing body of knowledge. It examines the influence of a variety of environmental variables, specifically home and school experiences, as well as…

  3. A longitudinal study of grapheme-color synesthesia in childhood: 6/7 years to 10/11 years

    PubMed Central

    Simner, Julia; Bain, Angela E.

    2013-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition characterized by enduring and consistent associations between letter/digits and colors. This study is the continuation of longitudinal research begun by Simner et al. (2009) which aimed to explore the development of this condition in real time within a childhood population. In that earlier study we randomly sampled over 600 children and tested them aged 6/7 and 7/8 years. We identified the child synesthetes within that cohort and measured their development over 1 year, in comparison to a group of non-synesthetic children with both average and superior memories. We were able to show the beginnings of a developmental progression in which synesthetic associations (e.g., A = red) mature over time from relatively chaotic pairings into a system of fixed consistent associations. In the current study we return to this same population three years later when participants are now 10/11 years. We used the same paired-association memory task to determine the synesthetic status of our participants and to also establish synesthetes' inventories of grapheme-color associations. We compared their inventories to those from age 6/7 and 7/8 years to examine how synesthesia matures over time. Together with earlier findings, our study shows that grapheme-color synesthesia emerges with a protracted trajectory, with 34% of letters/digits fixed at age 6/7 years, 48% fixed at 7/8 years and 71% fixed at 10/11 years. We also show several cases where synesthesia is not developing in the same time-frame as peers, either because it has died out at an older age, or because it was slower to develop than other cases. Our study paints the first picture of the emergence of synesthesia in real-time over four years within a randomly sampled population of child synesthetes. PMID:24312035

  4. A longitudinal study of semantic grouping strategy use in 6-11-year-old children: investigating developmental phases, the role of working memory, and strategy transfer.

    PubMed

    Schleepen, Tamara M J; Jonkman, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    This two-cohort longitudinal study on the development of the semantic grouping strategy had three goals. First, the authors examined if 6-7-year-olds are nonstrategic before becoming strategic after prompting at 8-9 years of age, and if 8-9-year-olds are prompted strategic before spontaneous strategy use at 10-11 years of age. Children 6-7 and 8-9 years old performed two sort-recall tasks (one without and one with a grouping prompt) at two time points separated 1.5 years from each other. Second, the authors investigated whether short-term or working memory capacity at time point 1 predicted recall in children who did or did not use the semantic grouping strategy 1.5 years later. Third, the authors investigated whether prompted strategic children and children who used the strategy spontaneously differed in strategy transfer to a new task. Developmental results confirmed previous cross-sectional results, but in a longitudinal two-cohort study 6-7-year-olds were nonstrategic, and became prompted strategic around 8-9 years of age, followed by spontaneous strategy use at age 10-11 years. The authors found that memory capacity was not predictive of later use of the strategy. New findings were that prompted strategic children were as equally able as spontaneously strategic children to transfer the strategy to a new task, albeit with smaller recall benefits. PMID:25375863

  5. The impact of petrochemical industrialisation on life expectancy and per capita income in Taiwan: an 11-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Petrochemical industries have been identified as important sources of emissions of chemical substances, and adverse health outcomes have been reported for residents who live nearby. The purpose of the current study was to examine the adverse effects of petrochemical industrialization in Taiwan on the life expectancy and personal income of people living in nearby communities. Methods This study compared life expectancies and personal income between one industrial county (Yunlin County) and one reference county (Yilan County), which had no significant industrial activity that might emit pollutants, in Taiwan through analysis of 11 year long and publicly available data. Data from before and after the petrochemical company in the industrial county started (year 1999) operating were compared. Results Residents of the industrialized county had lesser increases in life expectancy over time than did residents of a similar but less-industrialized county, with difference means ranging from 0.89 years (p < 0.05) to 1.62 years (p < 0.001) at different stages. Male residents were more vulnerable to the effects of industrialization. There were no significant differences in individual income between the two counties. Conclusions Countries, including Taiwan and the U.S., embracing petrochemical industries now face the challenge of environmental injustice. Our findings suggested that life expectancy lengthening was slowed and income growth was stalled for residents living in the industrial communities. PMID:24621018

  6. Er:YAG laser ablation: 5-11 years prospective study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    2005-03-01

    The Er:YAG laser at 2940 nm has been proposed for use in dental cavity preparation and removal of carious enamel and dentin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of the Er:YAG laser ablation in treating dental caries after a period from 5 to 11 years. For this study, 133 cavities were chosen, and for their reparation of it the three restorative materials were used. Baseline examination was made in the following intervals: one week, 1 year, and from 5 to 11 years after cavity preparation and placement of filling material. Clinical assessments were carried out in accordance with the US Public Health Service System. The follow-up included: the marginal ridge, marginal adaptation, anatomic form, caries, color match, cavo surface margin discoloration, surface smoothness, and postoperative sensitivity. Er:YAG laser ablation is an excellent method for treating frontal teeth, i.e., incisors, canines, premolars, and initial occlusal caries of molars. However, visual control of non-contact therapy is necessary. Er:YAG laser ablation is safe, and it strongly reduces pain. The laser treatment markedly decreases the unpleasant sound and vibration.

  7. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  8. The EPICure Study: Association between Hemodynamics and Lung Function at 11 Years after Extremely Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Charlotte E.; Stocks, Janet; Hennessy, Enid; Cockcroft, John R.; Fawke, Joseph; Lum, Sooky; McEniery, Carmel M.; Wilkinson, Ian B.; Marlow, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between disturbed lung function and large-artery hemodynamics in school-age children born extremely preterm (EP) (at 25 completed weeks of gestation or less). Study design This was a cross-sectional study of participants from the EPICure study, now aged 11 years (n = 66), and 86 age- and sex-matched term-born classmates. Spirometry parameters (including forced expiratory volume in 1 second), blood pressure, and augmentation index (AIx, a composite of arterial stiffness and global wave reflections) were measured. Results Compared with their classmates, the EP children had significantly impaired lung function, particularly those with neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Peripheral blood pressure did not differ significantly between the 2 groups, but AIx values were on average 5% higher (95% CI, 2%-8%) in the preterm infants, remaining significant after adjustment for potential confounders. Neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia status was not related to AIx. Lung function and maternal smoking were independently associated with AIx; AIx increased by 2.7% per z-score reduction in baseline forced expiratory volume in 1 second and by 4.9% in those whose mothers smoked during pregnancy. Conclusion The independent association between impaired lung function and cardiovascular physiology in early adolescence implies higher cardiovascular risk for children born EP, and suggests that prevention of chronic neonatal lung disease may be a priority in reducing later cardiovascular risk in preterm infants. PMID:22575246

  9. Upward movement of plutonium to surface sediments during an 11-year field study.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D I; Demirkanli, D I; Molz, F J; Beals, D M; Cadieux, J R; Halverson, J E

    2010-05-01

    An 11-year lysimeter study was established to monitor the movement of Pu through vadose zone sediments. Sediment Pu concentrations as a function of depth indicated that some Pu moved upward from the buried source material. Subsequent numerical modeling suggested that the upward movement was largely the result of invading grasses taking up the Pu and translocating it upward. The objective of this study was to determine if the Pu of surface sediments originated from atmosphere fallout or from the buried lysimeter source material (weapons-grade Pu), providing additional evidence that plants were involved in the upward migration of Pu. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu and (242)Pu/(239)Pu atomic fraction ratios of the lysimeter surface sediments, as determined by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS), were 0.063 and 0.00045, respectively; consistent with the signatures of the weapons-grade Pu. Our numerical simulations indicate that because plants create a large water flux, small concentrations over multiple years may result in a measurable accumulation of Pu on the ground surface. These results may have implications on the conceptual model for calculating risk associated with long-term stewardship and monitored natural attenuation management of Pu contaminated subsurface and surface sediments. PMID:20227801

  10. Coroner autopsy study of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria: 11-year review.

    PubMed

    Obiorah, C C; Amakiri, C N

    2014-01-01

    As most developing countries, including Nigeria, grapple with economic crisis, poor human capital development and high levels of income inequality, violent crimes - especially homicides - continue to be a cause for concern. We studied the pathology and demographic distribution of homicides in Rivers State of Nigeria expecting that the findings would be useful in formulating preventive strategies. Reports of homicide autopsies in the state for 11 years were retrospectively scrutinized for age, gender, type of weapon, site of injury, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 17. Homicides constituted 50.5% of the medicolegal autopsies. Although the overall male:female ratio was 12.4 : 1, there was variation with weapon. Deaths by firearm had the highest male:female ratio of 24.6 : 1. The mean and peak ages were 29.2 ± 11.4 and 21-30 years, respectively, while the range was 1 to 96 years. Firearms were the most common weapons, at 68.9%, hemorrhagic shock and head injuries at 61.5% and 28.2% respectively were the most common mechanisms and causes of death. Armed robbery incidents were the most common circumstances, while the head was the most common site of injury at 48.8%. The homicide rate is high in our environment and most homicides are committed during armed robberies using firearms. Improving medical care and providing emergency medical services will reduce cases of deaths from homicides, most of which occur due to manageable hemorrhagic shock. Increasing the drive towards controlling illegal arms acquisition and possession will reduce the present carnage in the state. PMID:23945261

  11. Bullied by Peers in Childhood and Borderline Personality Symptoms at 11-Years of Age: A Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolke, Dieter; Schreier, Andrea; Zanarini, Mary C.; Winsper, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abuse by adults has been reported as a potent predictor of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Unclear is whether victimisation by peers increases the risk of borderline personality symptoms. Method: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) prospective, longitudinal observation study of 6050 mothers and their…

  12. Forest Schools and Environmental Attitudes: A Case Study of Children Aged 8-11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turtle, Christina; Convery, Ian; Convery, Katie

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that children in the UK are suffering from a lack of engagement with nature and the outdoor environment. This paper investigates the attitudes of children towards the natural environment and focuses on Forest School programmes as a mechanism to promote a "pro-environmental" attitude. The study identified that…

  13. High voltage electrical injury: an 11-year single center epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Lipový, B.; Kaloudová, Y.; Ríhová, H.; Chaloupková, Z.; Kempný, T.; Suchanek, I.; Brychta, P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of patients with high voltage electrical injury from 1999 to 2009. The Clinic of Burns and Reconstructive Surgery, Faculty Hospital Brno is located in a region of 2,505,000 inhabitants. In total 13,911 patients (including both children and adults, and outpatients as well as hospitalized patients) were treated at our burn center during the period of study. Of these patients, 1,030 were hospitalized for burns treatment. For the purposes of this study, we have included only patients with high voltage electrical trauma, of which there were 58, 2 of whom were female. Basic epidemiological indicators were gathered on these patients, including age, gender, place of accident, extent of trauma, mortality and whether the injury was occupational or non-occupational. Electrical burns (caused by both low-voltage and high-voltage electric current) made up 1.10% of all burns treated in our burn center and high voltage electrical injuries represented 0.42% of all burn injuries. The average incidence of high voltage electrical trauma was 0.21 cases/100,000 inhabitants. The average age of the patients was 28.59 years. Nine patients died and the mortality was fixed at 15.52%. The average length of hospitalization was 53.43 days. The average extent of burnt area was 35.01% TBSA. In our study, we were able to define the basic epidemiological parameters in 58 patients with high voltage electrical trauma. We also have to highlight the still disappointingly high number of non-occupational electrical injuries affecting those in the lower age groups, especially children. However, preventive programmes for educating specific risk groups have shown positive results. PMID:26170781

  14. Non traumatic lower extremity amputations in younger patients: an 11-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jessica W S; Teague, Laura; McLaren, Ann-Marie; Mahoney, James L

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing non traumatic lower extremity amputations ≤65 years to identify the specific needs of these younger patients. A retrospective study was conducted to determine the demographics, comorbidity and mortality with below-knee amputations and above-knee amputations from 1998 to 2008. A total of 203 amputations were performed on 176 patients who were ≤65 years. Major comorbidities and associated physical findings were peripheral vascular disease, diabetes, pain, gangrene, hypertension, ulcer, local wound infection and hypercholesterolemia. Compared to patients who were not deceased post-amputation, those deceased had a higher prevalence of diabetes, renal failure, coronary artery disease (CAD) and sepsis. Significant predictors of mortality were renal failure (hazard ratio [HR] = 4·19; 95% CI 1·96-8·93), CAD (HR = 3·33; 95% CI 1·42-7·81) and amputation site (above-knee) (HR = 3·26; 95% CI 1·51-7·04). This study showed that younger patients may benefit from an interdisciplinary approach in treating local foot ulcers aggressively and optimising their cardiovascular, renal and diabetic risk factors. PMID:22329536

  15. UPWARD MOVEMENT OF PLUTONIUM TO SURFACE SEDIMENTS DURING AN 11-YEAR FIELD STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.; Beals, D.; Cadieux, J.; Halverson, J.

    2010-01-25

    An 11-y lysimeter study was established to monitor the movement of Pu through vadose zone sediments. Sediment Pu concentrations as a function of depth indicated that some Pu moved upward from the buried source material. Subsequent numerical modeling suggested that the upward movement was largely the result of invading grasses taking up the Pu and translocating it upward. The objective of this study was to determine if the Pu of surface sediments originated from atmosphere fallout or from the buried lysimeter source material (weapons-grade Pu), providing additional evidence that plants were involved in the upward migration of Pu. The {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu and {sup 242}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic fraction ratios of the lysimeter surface sediments, as determined by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS), were 0.063 and 0.00045, respectively; consistent with the signatures of the weapons-grade Pu. Our numerical simulations indicate that because plants create a large water flux, small concentrations over multiple years may result in a measurable accumulation of Pu on the ground surface. These results may have implications on the conceptual model for calculating risk associated with long-term stewardship and monitored natural attenuation management of Pu contaminated subsurface and surface sediments.

  16. Persistent financial hardship, 11-year weight gain, and health behaviors in the Whitehall II study

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Annalijn I; Forouhi, Nita G; Brunner, Eric J; Monsivais, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ascertain prospectively gender-specific associations between types and amounts of financial hardship and weight gain, and investigate potential behavioral mechanisms. Methods Prospective study of 3701 adult British civil servants with repeated measures of difficulty paying bills or insufficient money to afford adequate for food/clothing (1985-1988; 1989-1990; 1991-1993; 1997-1999), and weight (1985-1988; 1997-1999). Results Persistent hardships were associated with adjusted mean weight change in women over 10.9 years, but no consistent pattern was seen in men. During follow-up, 46% of women gained ≥5 kg. Women reporting persistent insufficient money for food/clothing had a significantly greater odds of gaining ≥5 kg (1.42 [1.05, 1.92]) compared to no hardship history, which remained after socioeconomic status (SES) adjustment (1.45 [1.05, 2.01]). The association between persistent difficulty paying bills and odds of excess weight gain was also significant (1.42 [1.03, 1.97]) but attenuated after considering SES (1.39 [0.98, 1.97]). Four health behaviors as single measures or change variables did not attenuate associations. Conclusions Results suggested strategies to tackle obesity must address employed women's everyday financial troubles which may influence weight through more biological pathways than classical correlates of economic disadvantage and weight. PMID:25155547

  17. Bathtub drowning: An 11-year retrospective study in the state of Maryland.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Takahisa; Wang, Zhuo; Lapan, Sheldon; Fowler, David R

    2015-08-01

    A bathtub drowning is one of the leading causes of death in a bathtub. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how reliable the drowning-related signs could be for identifying a bathtub drowning in the cases of death in the bathtub. Performing a retrospective review of 92 deaths in the bathtub in Maryland, 71.7 percent were the presence of bathtub drowning and 28.3 percent were the absence of bathtub drowning. Three leading contributory causes of death were cardiovascular disease, drug/alcohol-related death, and seizure disorder in both groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to a history of recovery from the water (95.5% and 38.4%, p<0.001), foam in the air way (33.3% and 15.4%, p<0.05), watery fluid in the sphenoid sinuses (81.8% and 11.5%, p<0.05), hyperinflated lungs (36.4% and 3.8%, p<0.01), and watery fluid in the stomach contents (40.9% and 3.8%, p<0.01). More than triple overlapped drowning-related signs could be beneficial for the diagnosis of a bathtub drowning. A comprehensive investigation incorporating a thorough scene investigation, gathering of the victim's medical and psychosocial history, and a meticulous full autopsy is necessary to elucidate both the cause and manner of death in these cases of death in the bathtub. PMID:26046678

  18. Radiation Therapy Following Total Keloidectomy: A Retrospective Study over 11 Years

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyuhee; Kim, Jinhee

    2015-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy treatment after keloidectomy is known to be an effective method for reducing the rate of recurrence. However, to date, the appropriate total radiation dose and fractionation have not yet been confirmed. The authors performed a retrospective analysis to identify the appropriate radiation dose and fractionation in post-keloidectomy radiotherapy. Methods From May 2000 to February 2011, postoperative radiotherapy was performed on 39 lesions in 28 patients after total keloidectomy. The keloid lesions were confined to the ear lobes. Between May 2000 and May 2004, 14 keloids were treated with surgical excision, followed by a total radiation dose of 1,200 cGy in three fractions over four to five days (group 1). Between June 2004 to February 2011, 25 keloids were treated with surgical excision, followed by a total radiation dose of 1,500 cGy in three fractions over four to five days (group 2). Patients were given a survey asking them to report their experiences regarding reoperation, recurrence of symptoms, recurrence of the lesion, and satisfaction with the operation. Results Of the 28 patients who were treated, 20 underwent follow-up. Group 2 had more cases showing elevation with erythematous changes, whereas group 1 had more cases showing progressive stages of elevation than group 2. These differences were statistically significant. Moreover, a correlation was observed between the level of keloid elevation and the extent of symptoms. Conclusions We suggest 1,500 cGy of radiation in three fractions following keloidectomy for ear lobe keloids. A further randomized study is needed to assess the recurrence of keloids after radiotherapy. PMID:26430630

  19. Masculine boys, feminine girls and cancer risk behaviors: An 11-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Rosario, Margaret; Calzo, Jerel P.; Corliss, Heather L.; Frazier, Lindsay; Austin, S. Bryn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cancer risk behaviors often begin in adolescence and persist through adulthood. Tobacco use, indoor tanning, and physical inactivity are highly prevalent, socially patterned cancer risk behaviors, and their prevalence differs strongly by sex. It is therefore possible that these behaviors also differ by gender expression within the sexes due to social patterning. Methods We examined whether 5 cancer risk behaviors differed by childhood gender expression within the sexes and whether patterns of media engagement (e.g., magazine readership and trying to look like media personalities) explained possible differences, in a US population-based cohort (N=9,435). Results The most feminine girls had higher prevalence of indoor tanning (prevalence risk ratio (pRR)=1.32, 95% CI=1.23, 1.42) and physical inactivity (pRR=1.16, 95% CI=1.01, 1.34) and lower prevalence of worse smoking trajectory (prevalence odds ratio (pOR)=0.75, 95% CI=0.65, 0.88) and smoking cigars (pRR=0.61, 95% CI=0.47, 0.79) compared with least-feminine girls. Media engagement accounted for part of the higher prevalence of indoor tanning. The most masculine boys were more likely to chew tobacco (pRR=1.78, 95% CI=1.14, 2.79) and smoke cigars (pRR=1.55, 95% CI=1.17, 2.06), but less likely to follow a worse smoking trajectory (pOR=0.69, 95% CI=0.55, 0.87) and be physically inactive (pRR=0.54, 95% CI=0.43, 0.69) compared with least-masculine boys. Conclusions We found some strong differences in patterns of cancer risk behaviors by gender expression within the sexes. Prevention efforts that challenge the “masculinity” of smoking cigarettes and cigars and chewing tobacco and challenge the “femininity” of indoor tanning to reduce their appeal to adolescents should be explored. PMID:24746678

  20. Stability of Interests after Severe Physical Disability: An 11-Year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohe, Daniel E.; Krause, J. Stuart

    1998-01-01

    Of 117 males with spinal-cord injuries who completed the Strong Campbell Interest Inventory in 1985, 70 took the Strong Interest Inventory in 1996. Interests remained as stable as those of nondisabled persons. Anticipated age-related increases in artistic/social and decreases in physically demanding/adventuresome interests did not occur. (SK)

  1. WISCONSIN LONGITUDINAL STUDY (WLS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a long-term study of a random sample of 10,317 men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957. The WLS provides an opportunity to study of the life course, intergenerational transfers and relationships, family functioning...

  2. Nutritional status of adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Cora Luiza; Dumith, Samuel C.; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Vieira, Maria de Fátima A.; Madruga, Samanta W.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the influence of demographic, socioeconomic, and maternal variables on the nutritional status of adolescents aged 11 years. We conducted a prospective cohort study including 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1993, accounting for 87.5% of the original cohort. Nutritional status was evaluated based on World Health Organization criteria. Subjects were classified according to nutritional status into thin, normal, overweight and obese. Independent variables analyzed included skin color, socioeconomic status, maternal schooling, and maternal body mass index (BMI). Analyses were stratified by sex, and multivariable regression was performed using the multinomial logistic approach. Overall, 7% of adolescents were classified as thin, 11.6% as overweight, and 11.6% as obese. Among boys, thinness was inversely associated with maternal schooling and maternal BMI. Among girls, thinness was directly associated with maternal BMI. Overweight and obesity were directly associated with socioeconomic status and maternal BMI, the former showing the strongest association with nutritional status among adolescents. PMID:20963286

  3. Frailty among Mexican community-dwelling elderly: a story told 11 years later. The Mexican Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Navarro, Sara G; Amieva, Hélène; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Avila-Funes, José Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics and prognosis of subjects classified as frail in a large sample of Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Materials and methods An eleven-year longitudinal study of 5 644 old adults participating in the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS). Frailty was defined loss, weakness, exhaustion, slow walking speed and low physical activity. The main outcomes were incident disability and death. Multiple covariates were used to test the prognostic value of frailty. Results Thirty-seven percent of participants (n = 2 102) met the frailty criteria. Frail participants were significantly older, female, less disease, lower income, and poorer self-reported health status, in comparison with their non-frail counterparts. Frailty was a predictor both for disability activities of daily living and for mortality. Conclusion After a follow-up of more than ten years, the phenotype of frailty was a predictor for adverse health-related outcomes, including ADL disability and death. PMID:26172236

  4. Daily home gardening improved survival for older people with mobility limitations: an 11-year follow-up study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lêng, Chhian Hūi; Wang, Jung-Der

    2016-01-01

    Aims To test the hypothesis that gardening is beneficial for survival after taking time-dependent comorbidities, mobility, and depression into account in a longitudinal middle-aged (50–64 years) and older (≥65 years) cohort in Taiwan. Methods The cohort contained 5,058 nationally sampled adults ≥50 years old from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (1996–2007). Gardening was defined as growing flowers, gardening, or cultivating potted plants for pleasure with five different frequencies. We calculated hazard ratios for the mortality risks of gardening and adjusted the analysis for socioeconomic status, health behaviors and conditions, depression, mobility limitations, and comorbidities. Survival models also examined time-dependent effects and risks in each stratum contingent upon baseline mobility and depression. Sensitivity analyses used imputation methods for missing values. Results Daily home gardening was associated with a high survival rate (hazard ratio: 0.82; 95% confidence interval: 0.71–0.94). The benefits were robust for those with mobility limitations, but without depression at baseline (hazard ratio: 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.48–0.87) when adjusted for time-dependent comorbidities, mobility limitations, and depression. Chronic or relapsed depression weakened the protection of gardening. For those without mobility limitations and not depressed at baseline, gardening had no effect. Sensitivity analyses using different imputation methods yielded similar results and corroborated the hypothesis. Conclusion Daily gardening for pleasure was associated with reduced mortality for Taiwanese >50 years old with mobility limitations but without depression. PMID:27486315

  5. Early Predictors of Language and Social Communication Impairments at Ages 9-11 Years: A Follow-up Study of Early-Referred Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiat, Shula; Roy, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate hypotheses that early sociocognition will predict later social communication and early phonology will predict later morphosyntax in clinically referred preschoolers. Method: Participants were 108 children ages 9-11 years who had been referred to clinical services with concerns about language at…

  6. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  7. Prevalence and long-term predictors of persistent chronic widespread pain in the general population in an 11-year prospective study: the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is common and associated with prominent negative consequences. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of persistent CWP in an 11-year prospective cohort study in the general population, and to examine anxiety, depression, alcohol use, poor sleep, body mass index (BMI) and chronic disease, along with demographic, lifestyle and other health-related variables as possible predictors for the assumed CWP persistence. Methods CWP was defined as having pain at three or more predefined sites (involving the trunk and upper and lower limbs) for at least three months in the last year. We used a Norwegian general population cohort of 28,367 individuals who responded to both the second (1995–1997) and the third (2006–2008) waves of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT2 and HUNT3, respectively). Data were analysed with logistic regression models. Results CWP prevalence in HUNT2 was 17%. Of those reporting CWP in HUNT2, 53% still reported CWP at follow-up in HUNT3. Adjusted analyses revealed that depression and alcohol consumption were not substantially associated with the 11-year prospective CWP outcome. Poor sleep, obesity and chronic disease predicted persistent CWP, and being male and/or 60 years or older was protective. Conclusions This cohort study revealed that nearly half of the participants with baseline CWP resolved from CWP 11 years later. Among those whose CWP did not resolve, obesity, sleeping problems and chronic disease predicted CWP persistence, while aging and male sex was protective. Anxiety, mixed anxiety and depression, former smoking, and overweight were weakly associated, while depression, moderate exercise, and alcohol use were not associated with persistent CWP. PMID:24951013

  8. Nickel Allergy Is a Risk Factor for Endometriosis: An 11-Year Population-Based Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Yuk, Jin-Sung; Shin, Jong Seung; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Oh, Eunsuk; Kim, Hyunmee; Park, Won I.

    2015-01-01

    Background A cross-sectional study has reported that nickel allergy is associated with endometriosis. However, causal studies of this association are limited. Objective The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of nickel allergy in women with and without endometriosis. Methods We used a National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) sample cohort dataset that included approximately 1 million individuals from South Korea; the data were obtained between January 01, 2002, and December 31, 2013. We selected the endometriosis group according to diagnosis code (N80.X), surgery codes, and drug codes during the years 2009~2013. The controls were randomly matched to the endometriosis patients at a ratio of 4:1 by age and socioeconomic status. Patients with nickel allergy were defined in the cohort dataset as those with a simultaneous diagnosis code (L23.0) and patch test code during 2002~2008. Results In total, 4,985 women were selected from the NHIS cohort database and divided into an endometriosis group (997 women) and a control group (3,988 women). The number of patients with nickel allergy in the endometriosis group was eight (0.8%), and that in the control group was thirteen (0.3%). After adjustment for age and socioeconomic status, the rate of nickel allergy in was higher in the endometriosis group than in the control group [odds ratio: 2.474; 95% confidence interval: 1.023~5.988; p = 0.044]. Conclusions We found that nickel allergy is a risk factor for endometriosis. PMID:26439741

  9. Incidence and prevalence of lupus in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a 11-year health management organisation-based study

    PubMed Central

    Scolnik, M; Marin, J; Valeiras, S M; Marchese, M F; Talani, A S; Avellaneda, N L; Etchepare, A; Etchepare, P; Plou, M S; Soriano, E R

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Studies regarding the epidemiology of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are lacking in Argentina. Our purpose was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of SLE in a university hospital-based health management organisation in Buenos Aires (HIMCP). Methods For incidence calculation, the population at risk included all adult members of the HIMCP, with continuous affiliation for at least 1 year from January 1998 to January 2009. Each person was followed until he/she voluntarily left the HIMCP, death or finalisation of the study. Multiple methods for case finding were used to ensure complete ascertainment: (a) patients with problem SLE, undifferentiated autoimmune disease or mixed connective tissue disease in the Computer-based Patient Record System, (b) patients with positive antinuclear antibody test, anti-Sm antibodies and/or anti-dsDNA antibodies in the laboratory database and (c) patients who consumed hydroxichloroquine, chloroquine, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate, cyclosporine or rituximab, from the administrative HIMCP drugs database. Medical records of all patients found were reviewed, and only patients fulfilling ACR criteria for SLE were included. Global and gender incidence rate (IR) was calculated. Prevalence was estimated on 1 January 2009, and the denominator population was the number of active members >18 years at that date (n=127 959). Results In the study period, 68 patients developed SLE. The observed IR (per 100 000 person-years, (CI 95%)) was 6.3 (4.9 to 7.7) for total population; 8.9 (CI 6.6 to 11.2) for women and 2.6 (1.2 to 3.9) for men. On 1 January 2009, 75 prevalent cases were identified. Prevalence rates (cases per 100 000 habitants, (CI 95%)) were 58.6 (46.1 to 73.5) for total population; 83.2 (63.9 to 106.4) for women and 23 (CI 11.9 to 40.1) for men. Conclusions SLE incidence and prevalence rates in Argentina are in agreement with those of other studies from different parts of the world. PMID:25379189

  10. Development studies towards an 11-year global gridded aerosol optical thickness reanalysis for climate and applied applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, P.; Reid, J. S.; Westphal, D. L.; Zhang, J.; Hogan, T. F.; Hyer, E. J.; Curtis, C. A.; Hegg, D. A.; Shi, Y.; Campbell, J. R.; Rubin, J. I.; Sessions, W. R.; Turk, F. J.; Walker, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    While standalone satellite and model aerosol products see wide utilization, there is a significant need in numerous climate and applied applications for a fused product on a regular grid. Aerosol data assimilation is an operational reality at numerous centers, and like meteorological reanalyses, aerosol reanalyses will see significant use in the near future. Here we present a standardized 2003-2013 global 1° × 1° and 6 hourly modal aerosol optical thickness (AOT) reanalysis product. This dataset can be applied to basic and applied earth system science studies of significant aerosol events, aerosol impacts on numerical weather prediction, and electro-optical propagation and sensor performance, among other uses. This paper describes the science of how to develop and score an aerosol reanalysis product. This reanalysis utilizes a modified Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) at its core and assimilates quality controlled retrievals of AOT from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on Terra and Aqua and the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on Terra. The aerosol source functions, including dust and smoke, were regionally tuned to obtain the best match between the model fine and coarse mode AOTs and the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) AOTs. Other model processes, including deposition, were tuned to minimize the AOT difference between the model and satellite AOT. Aerosol wet deposition in the tropics is driven with satellite retrieved precipitation, rather than the model field. The final reanalyzed fine and coarse mode AOT at 550 nm is shown to have good agreement with AERONET observations, with global mean root mean square error around 0.1 for both fine and coarse mode AOTs. This paper includes a discussion of issues particular to aerosol reanalyses that make them distinct from standard meteorological reanalyses, considerations for extending such a reanalysis outside of the NASA A-Train era, and examples of how the

  11. Mortality among residents of shelters, rooming houses, and hotels in Canada: 11 year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Russell; Tjepkema, Michael; O’Campo, Patricia J; Dunn, James R

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine mortality in a representative nationwide sample of homeless and marginally housed people living in shelters, rooming houses, and hotels. Design Follow-up study. Setting Canada 1991-2001. Participants 15 100 homeless and marginally housed people enumerated in 1991 census. Main outcome measures Age specific and age standardised mortality rates, remaining life expectancies at age 25, and probabilities of survival from age 25 to 75. Data were compared with data from the poorest and richest income fifths as well as with data for the entire cohort Results Of the homeless and marginally housed people, 3280 died. Mortality rates among these people were substantially higher than rates in the poorest income fifth, with the highest rate ratios seen at younger ages. Among those who were homeless or marginally housed, the probability of survival to age 75 was 32% (95% confidence interval 30% to 34%) in men and 60% (56% to 63%) in women. Remaining life expectancy at age 25 was 42 years (42 to 43) and 52 years (50 to 53), respectively. Compared with the entire cohort, mortality rate ratios for men and women, respectively, were 11.5 (8.8 to 15.0) and 9.2 (5.5 to 15.2) for drug related deaths, 6.4 (5.3 to 7.7) and 8.2 (5.0 to 13.4) for alcohol related deaths, 4.8 (3.9 to 5.9) and 3.8 (2.7 to 5.4) for mental disorders, and 2.3 (1.8 to 3.1) and 5.6 (3.2 to 9.6) for suicide. For both sexes, the largest differences in mortality rates were for smoking related diseases, ischaemic heart disease, and respiratory diseases. Conclusions Living in shelters, rooming houses, and hotels is associated with much higher mortality than expected on the basis of low income alone. Reducing the excessively high rates of premature mortality in this population would require interventions to address deaths related to smoking, alcohol, and drugs, and mental disorders and suicide, among other causes. PMID:19858533

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-01

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. PMID:22863660

  13. Childhood Gender Nonconformity, Bullying Victimization, and Depressive Symptoms across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: An 11-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Rosario, Margaret; Slopen, Natalie; Calzo, Jerel P.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Childhood gender nonconformity has been associated with increased risk of caregiver abuse and bullying victimization outside the home, but it is unknown whether as a consequence children who are nonconforming are at higher risk of depressive symptoms. Method: Using data from a large national cohort (N = 10,655), we examined differences…

  14. A Neurophysiological Marker of Impaired Preparation in an 11-Year Follow-Up Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doehnert, Mirko; Brandeis, Daniel; Schneider, Gudrun; Drechsler, Renate; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal electrophysiological study investigated the course of multiple impaired cognitive brain functions in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood by comparing developmental trajectories of individuals with ADHD and typically developing controls. Methods: Subjects with ADHD ("N"…

  15. Physical activity and all-cause mortality among older Brazilian adults: 11-year follow-up of the Bambuí Health and Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramalho, Juciany RO; Mambrini, Juliana VM; César, Cibele C; de Oliveira, César M; Firmo, Josélia OA; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Peixoto, Sérgio V

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between physical activity (eg, energy expenditure) and survival over 11 years of follow-up in a large representative community sample of older Brazilian adults with a low level of education. Furthermore, we assessed sex as a potential effect modifier of this association. Materials and methods A population-based prospective cohort study was conducted on all the ≥60-year-old residents in Bambuí city (Brazil). A total of 1,606 subjects (92.2% of the population) enrolled, and 1,378 (85.8%) were included in this study. Type, frequency, and duration of physical activity were assessed in the baseline survey questionnaire, and the metabolic equivalent task tertiles were estimated. The follow-up time was 11 years (1997–2007), and the end point was mortality. Deaths were reported by next of kin during the annual follow-up interview and ascertained through the Brazilian System of Information on Mortality, Brazilian Ministry of Health. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were estimated by Cox proportional-hazard models, and potential confounders were considered. Results A statistically significant interaction (P<0.03) was found between sex and energy expenditure. Among older men, increases in levels of physical activity were associated with reduced mortality risk. The hazard ratios were 0.59 (95% CI 0.43–0.81) and 0.47 (95% CI 0.34–0.66) for the second and third tertiles, respectively. Among older women, there was no significant association between physical activity and mortality. Conclusion It was possible to observe the effect of physical activity in reducing mortality risk, and there was a significant interaction between sex and energy expenditure, which should be considered in the analysis of this association in different populations. PMID:25931817

  16. A retrospective study on the aetiology, management, and outcome of brain abscess in an 11-year, single-centre study from China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain abscesses continue to pose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in developed and developing countries. Their aetiology and management remain complex and unclear, making improvement of treatments and outcome difficult. Methods To determine the demographics, management, and the variables that affect the outcome in subjects with brain abscesses treated at a single centre over an 11-year period, we retrospectively analysed data in 60 patients with brain abscesses surgically treated with stereotactically guided aspiration or open craniotomy excision in Shanghai Changzheng Hospital between January 2001 and December 2011. Such variables as age, gender, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score at admission, clinical presentation, location, number of lesions, predisposing factors, mechanism of infection, aetiological agent, and therapy were analysed independently. Results Our analysis demonstrated that patient age and gender were factors that influence the occurrence of brain abscess; female patients and patients greater than 40 years of age were most likely to suffer a brain abscess. We also found that a patient’s GCS score upon admission did not influence outcome. While frequency of successful culturing of the infectious agent was low, positive cultures were obtained in only 8 of the cases (13.33%), in which the most common isolate was Streptococcus milleri. Outcome was favourable in 78.33% of the subjects, while the mortality rate was 20%. The outcome of one patient was poor due to the abscess in the basal ganglia region. Conclusions Stereotactically guided aspiration is an effective treatment for brain abscess with an overall favourable outcome. Mortality due to brain abscess was not directly related to surgery nor surgical technique. Additional studies will continue to reveal patients trends that may improve treatment for brain abscess. PMID:24903315

  17. LONGITUDINAL COHORT METHODS STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Exposure classification for occupational studies is relatively easy compared to predicting residential childhood exposures. Recent NHEXAS (Maryland) study articl...

  18. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF AGING (LSOA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSOA) is a collaborative effort of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the National Institute on Aging (NIA). The Supplement on Aging (SOA), conducted in conjunction with the 1984 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), served as...

  19. SIAST Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkar, Gerlinde

    In 1991, the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) initiated a study of factors affecting student persistence, finding that high employment rates in particular sectors were related to higher rates of student attrition. In 1994, a follow-up study was conducted of the career/educational paths of 1,498 respondents from the…

  20. Inter-annual variation in American redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) plumage colour is associated with rainfall and temperature during moult: an 11-year study.

    PubMed

    Reudink, Matthew W; McKellar, Ann E; Marini, Kristen L D; McArthur, Sarah L; Marra, Peter P; Ratcliffe, Laurene M

    2015-05-01

    Carotenoid-based colouration plays an important role in sexual signaling in animals as an honest indicator of individual quality during mate choice and competitive interactions. However, few studies have examined how natural variation in weather conditions influences inter-annual variation in the expression of ornamentation, potentially through affecting the dietary availability of carotenoids. In this study, we examine variation in the expression of carotenoid-based plumage colouration in relation to temperature and rainfall during the pre-moulting and moulting period over 11 years in a population of American redstarts, Setophaga ruticilla, breeding in eastern Canada. We used reflectance spectrometry of tail feathers collected from male and female redstarts to relate feather colour with weather conditions the previous breeding season during the months over which redstarts are likely to moult (June-September). At a population level, birds expressed feathers with higher red chroma and lower brightness in years following high July rainfall and low August temperature. The pattern was stronger in males, but was generally consistent across ages and sexes. Analyses of feathers from repeatedly captured birds indicated that the above patterns could be explained by individual change in feather colour. We suggest that higher rainfall during the moulting period may increase insect abundance and the availability of dietary carotenoids. This is among the first studies to show effects of weather conditions on a sexual signalling trait, which may have important consequences for sexual selection, mate choice, and the reliability of putative signals. PMID:25433695

  1. A qualitative study of cancer survivors' responses to information on the long-term and late effects of pelvic radiotherapy 1-11 years post treatment.

    PubMed

    Boulton, M; Adams, E; Horne, A; Durrant, L; Rose, P; Watson, E

    2015-09-01

    As more patients survive cancer for longer term, the long-term and late effects of treatments become increasingly important issues for cancer survivors and providing information to enable survivors to recognise and manage them becomes an increasingly pressing challenge for health care professionals. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of cancer survivors regarding information given on potential long-term and late effects of pelvic radiotherapy. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 28 cancer survivors who had had radiotherapy to the pelvic area for a range of cancers 1-11 years previously. Participants were recruited using maximum variation sampling from a larger questionnaire survey of patients treated at one hospital. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Framework. Participants recognised the value of information to reassure and to inform action but also its potentially undesirable effects to frighten or raise anxieties about future problems and its inherent limitations in meeting their wider needs. They identified the timing, amount of information and context in which it was given as of particular importance. Information based on personal experience was also valued. These findings highlight the importance of appropriate, individualised information during treatment, at hospital discharge and subsequently in primary care. PMID:26202602

  2. The Importance of Longitudinal Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    It has been eight years since the AAS Council unanimously endorsed the document, known as "Equity Now: The Pasadena Recommendations for Gender Equality in Astronomy," in January 2005. This document was the main product of the conference entitled “Women in Astronomy II: Ten Years After” (WIA II), held in June 2003 in Pasadena, CA. One of the key recommendations represented in that document was the need for a longitudinal study of astronomers. It was recognized that in order to understand our own field, how it is evolving, and the impact on individuals, we need to track people over time. I will discuss the fundamental questions that led to the recommendation, and set the stage for the current (ongoing) longitudinal study.

  3. Effects of Early Relationships on Children's Perceived Control: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dan, Orrie; Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bar-haim, Yair; Eshel, Yohanan

    2011-01-01

    People's response to stress depends to a large extent on their sense of perceived control over the situations they encounter. This longitudinal study of 136 children (70 girls) examined associations between attachment patterns and maternal sensitivity at 12 months of age, and perceived primary and secondary control at 11 years of age. Compared…

  4. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  5. The Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children, 2012 version, for youth aged 9 to 11 Years: A validation study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to validate the 2012 version of the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall for Children (ASA24-Kids-2012), a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) instrument, among children aged 9 to 11 years, in two sites using a quasiexperimental design. In one s...

  6. Hospital admissions from birth to early adolescence and early-life risk factors: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M. B.; Noal, Ricardo B.; Cesar, Juraci A.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Dumith, Samuel C.; Barros, Fernando C.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this prospective analysis was to describe the cumulative incidence of hospital admissions in the first year of life and between 1 and 11 years of age and to explore associated factors. Hospital admissions were collected through regular monitoring in the first year of life, and through maternal report on admissions between 1 and 11 years. Analyses were stratified by sex and adjusted for confounding factors. 18.1% of children were hospitalized in the first year of life, and 30.7% between ages 1 and 11 years. Among boys, hospital admission in the first year was associated with low family income, paternal smoking during pregnancy, preterm delivery, and low birthweight. Among girls, in addition to the variables described for boys, black/mixed skin color was also a risk factor for hospital admission. For admissions between 1 and 11 years of age, low family income and gestational age ≥ 37 weeks were found to be significant risk factors. PMID:20963296

  7. Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Myopia and Ocular Biometry in 10- and 11-Year-Old Children: The Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G.; Nightingale, Claire M.; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Ethnic differences in childhood prevalence of myopia have not been well characterized in the United Kingdom. In this study, ethnic differences in refractive status and ocular biometry were examined in a multiethnic sample of British children. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of 10- and 11-year-old school children of South Asian, black African Caribbean, and white European ethnic origin. Vision, open-field autorefraction (without cycloplegia), and ocular biometry were measured in each eye. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent refraction of −0.50 D with unaided vision of 20/30 or worse (in one or both eyes). Ethnic differences in the prevalence of myopia were examined by using logistic regression, and multiple linear regression was used for ethnic differences in ocular biometry. All models were adjusted for age, sex, and clustering within school. Results. Data were available for 1179 children. The prevalence of myopia was 25.2%, 10.0%, and 3.4%, respectively, in the South Asian, black African Caribbean, and white European children. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of myopia compared with the white European children were 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.0 to 19.4) in the South Asian and 3.2 (95% CI, 1.4 to 7.2) in black African Caribbean children. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of myopia were largely accounted for by ethnic differences in axial length. The South Asian and black African Caribbean children had longer axial lengths (0.44 mm; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.57 mm and 0.30 mm; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.44 mm, respectively). Conclusions. Among British children exposed to the same schooling environment, the South Asians had the highest prevalence of myopia, followed by the black African Caribbeans compared with the white Europeans. A quarter of British South Asian children were myopic, which is strongly related to increased axial length. PMID:20631242

  8. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7-11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Faber, Irene R; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Faber, Niels R; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players' potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player's future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7-11 years). Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05). Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items 'aiming at target', 'throwing a ball', and 'eye-hand coordination' in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%). Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment's outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%). This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be included in a talent

  9. Double burden of undernutrition and overnutrition in Vietnam in 2011: results of the SEANUTS study in 0·5-11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Le Nguyen, Bao Khanh; Le Thi, Hop; Nguyen Do, Van Anh; Tran Thuy, Nga; Nguyen Huu, Chinh; Thanh Do, Tran; Deurenberg, Paul; Khouw, Ilse

    2013-09-01

    The Vietnamese South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS), a cross-sectional study, was undertaken to assess the nutritional status in a nationally representative sample of children aged 0·5-11·9 years. A multi-stage cluster-randomised sampling method was used to recruit 2872 children. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemistry involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24 h recall questionnaire, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Vietnamese RDA. In children aged < 5 years, approximately 14% were stunted, 8·6% underweight and 4·4% thin. A higher prevalence of stunting (15·6%) and underweight (22·2%) was observed in school-aged children. Undernutrition was more prevalent in rural areas than in urban areas. In contrast, almost 29% of the urban children were either overweight or obese when compared with 4% of the overweight children and 1·6% of the obese children in rural areas. A higher percentage of children in the age group 0·5-1·9 years and residing in rural areas had low Hb levels than those in the age group 2·0-5·9 years and residing in urban areas. In children aged 6-11 years, a small percentage had low Hb (11-14%) and vitamin A (5-10%) levels, but almost half the children (48-53%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Food consumption data indicated that the children did not meet the RDA for energy, protein, Fe, vitamin A, vitamin B1 and vitamin C. Results from the SEANUTS highlight the double burden of malnutrition in Vietnam. Information from the SEANUTS can serve as an input for targeted policy development, planning and development of nutrition programmes. PMID:24016766

  10. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7–11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players’ potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player’s future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7–11 years). Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05). Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items ‘aiming at target’, ‘throwing a ball’, and ‘eye-hand coordination’ in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%). Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment’s outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%). This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be

  11. Relationships between Parental Education and Overweight with Childhood Overweight and Physical Activity in 9–11 Year Old Children: Results from a 12-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, Stella K.; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Church, Timothy S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children has serious implications for morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood. Various parental factors are associated with childhood overweight and physical activity. The objective of this paper was to investigate relationships between parental education or overweight, and (i) child overweight, (ii) child physical activity, and (iii) explore household coexistence of overweight, in a large international sample. Methods Data were collected from 4752 children (9–11 years) as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment in 12 countries around the world. Physical activity of participating children was assessed by accelerometry, and body weight directly measured. Questionnaires were used to collect parents’ education level, weight, and height. Results Maternal and paternal overweight were positively associated with child overweight. Higher household coexistence of parent-child overweight was observed among overweight children compared to the total sample. There was a positive relationship between maternal education and child overweight in Colombia 1.90 (1.23–2.94) [odds ratio (confidence interval)] and Kenya 4.80 (2.21–10.43), and a negative relationship between paternal education and child overweight in Brazil 0.55 (0.33–0.92) and the USA 0.54 (0.33–0.88). Maternal education was negatively associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines in Colombia 0.53 (0.33–0.85), Kenya 0.35 (0.19–0.63), and Portugal 0.54 (0.31–0.96). Conclusions Results are aligned with previous studies showing positive associations between parental and child overweight in all countries, and positive relationships between parental education and child overweight or negative associations between parental education and child physical activity in lower economic status countries. Relationships between maternal and paternal education

  12. A comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 9–11 year old British Pakistani and White British girls: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that British children of South Asian origin are less active and more sedentary than White British children. However, little is known about the behaviours underlying low activity levels, nor the familial contexts of active and sedentary behaviours in these groups. Our aim was to test hypotheses about differences between British Pakistani and White British girls using accelerometry and self-reports of key active and sedentary behaviours, and to obtain an understanding of factors affecting these behaviours using parental interviews. Methods Participants were 145 girls (70 White British and 75 British Pakistani) aged 9–11 years and parents of 19 of the girls. Accelerometry data were collected over 4 days and girls provided 24-hour physical activity interviews on 3 of these days. Multilevel linear regression models and generalised linear mixed models tested for ethnic differences in activity, sedentary time, and behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents. Results Compared to White British girls, British Pakistani girls accumulated 102 (95% CI 59, 145) fewer counts per minute and 14 minutes (95% CI 8, 20) less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. British Pakistani girls spent more time (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 14, 42) sedentary. Fewer British Pakistani than White British girls reported participation in organised sports and exercise (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.64) or in outdoor play (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.20, 0.91). Fewer British Pakistani girls travelled actively to school (OR 0.26 95% CI 0.10, 0.71). There was no significant difference in reported screen time (OR 0.88 95% CI 0.45, 1.73). Parental interviews suggested that structural constraints (e.g. busy family schedules) and parental concerns about safety were important influences on activity levels. Conclusions British Pakistani girls were less active than White British girls and were less likely to participate in key active behaviours

  13. Longitudinal study of fingerprint recognition

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Soweon; Jain, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    Human identification by fingerprints is based on the fundamental premise that ridge patterns from distinct fingers are different (uniqueness) and a fingerprint pattern does not change over time (persistence). Although the uniqueness of fingerprints has been investigated by developing statistical models to estimate the probability of error in comparing two random samples of fingerprints, the persistence of fingerprints has remained a general belief based on only a few case studies. In this study, fingerprint match (similarity) scores are analyzed by multilevel statistical models with covariates such as time interval between two fingerprints in comparison, subject’s age, and fingerprint image quality. Longitudinal fingerprint records of 15,597 subjects are sampled from an operational fingerprint database such that each individual has at least five 10-print records over a minimum time span of 5 y. In regard to the persistence of fingerprints, the longitudinal analysis on a single (right index) finger demonstrates that (i) genuine match scores tend to significantly decrease when time interval between two fingerprints in comparison increases, whereas the change in impostor match scores is negligible; and (ii) fingerprint recognition accuracy at operational settings, nevertheless, tends to be stable as the time interval increases up to 12 y, the maximum time span in the dataset. However, the uncertainty of temporal stability of fingerprint recognition accuracy becomes substantially large if either of the two fingerprints being compared is of poor quality. The conclusions drawn from 10-finger fusion analysis coincide with the conclusions from single-finger analysis. PMID:26124106

  14. Fears in Czech Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalcáková, Radka; Lacinová, Lenka; Kyjonková, Hana; Bouša, Ondrej; Jelínek, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates developmental patterns of fear in adolescence. It is based on longitudinal data collected as a part of the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC) project. A total of 186 Czech adolescents (43% girls) were assessed repeatedly at the age of 11, 13, and 15 years. The free-response method was…

  15. Preschool Affects Longer Term Literacy and Numeracy: Results from a General Population Longitudinal Study in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melhuish, Edward; Quinn, Louise; Sylva, Kathy; Sammons, Pam; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The Effective Pre-school Provision in Northern Ireland (EPPNI) project is a longitudinal study of child development from 3 to 11 years. It is one of the first large-scale UK projects to investigate the effects of different kinds of preschool provision, and to relate experience in preschool to child development. In EPPNI, 683 children were randomly…

  16. ADDHEALTH - NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ADOLESCENT HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study provides a comprehensive view of the health and health behaviors of adolescents and the antecedents - personal, interpersonal, familial, and environmental of these outcomes. The study features a longitudinal, multi-level design with independent measurement at the indiv...

  17. An open randomised study of autoinflation in 4- to 11-year-old school children with otitis media with effusion in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Ian; Vennik, Jane; Harnden, Anthony; Voysey, Merryn; Perera, Rafael; Breen, Maria; Bradley, Brendan; Kelly, Sadie; Yao, Guiqing; Raftery, James; Mant, David; Little, Paul

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a very common problem in primary care, but one that lacks an evidence-based non-surgical treatment. OBJECTIVE To determine the clinical effectiveness of nasal balloon autoinflation for the treatment of OME in children. DESIGN A pragmatic, two-arm, open randomised controlled trial. SETTING Forty-three general practices from 17 UK primary care trusts recruited between January 2012 and February 2013. PARTICIPANTS School children aged 4-11 years with a history of OME symptoms or related concerns in the previous 3 months, and a type B tympanogram, diagnostic of a middle ear effusion, in one or both ears. INTERVENTION Three hundred and twenty children were randomised, 160 to each group, using independent web-based computer-generated randomisation (with minimisation based on age, sex and baseline severity of OME) to either nasal balloon autoinflation performed three times per day for 1-3 months plus usual care, or usual care alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The proportion of children demonstrating clearance of middle ear fluid in at least one ear (with normal tympanograms) at 1 and 3 months, assessed blind to treatment. An ear-related measure of quality of life (QoL) [a 14-point questionnaire on the impact of OME (OMQ-14)], weekly diary recorded symptoms, compliance and adverse events were all secondary outcomes. RESULTS At 1 month, the proportion of children with normal tympanograms was 47.3% (62/131) in those allocated to autoinflation and 35.6% (47/132) in those receiving usual care [adjusted relative risk (RR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99 to 1.88]. At 3 months, the proportions were 49.6% (62/125) and 38.3% (46/120), respectively (adjusted RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.83; number needed to treat = 9). The change in OMQ-14 also favoured the intervention arm (adjusted global score difference -0.42; p = 0.001). Reported compliance was good: 89% in the first month and 80% in months 2 and 3. Adverse events included

  18. Individual and area socioeconomic inequalities in cause-specific unintentional injury mortality: 11-year follow-up study of 2.7 million Canadians.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Stephanie; Auger, Nathalie; Gamache, Philippe; Hamel, Denis

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the association between individual and area socioeconomic status (SES) and leading causes of unintentional injury mortality in Canadian adults. Using the 1991-2001 Canadian Census Mortality Follow-up Study cohort (N=2,735,152), Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all-cause unintentional injury, motor vehicle collision (MVC), fall, poisoning, suffocation, fire/burn, and drowning deaths. Results indicated that associations with SES differed by cause of injury, and were generally more pronounced for males. Low education was associated with an elevated risk of mortality from all-cause unintentional injury and MVC (males only) and poisoning and drowning (both sexes). Low income was strongly associated with most causes of injury mortality, particularly fire/burn and poisoning. Having no occupation or low occupational status was associated with higher risks of all-cause injury, fall, poisoning and suffocation (both sexes) and MVC deaths among men. Associations with area deprivation were weak, and only areas with high deprivation had elevated risk of all-cause injury, MVC (males only), poisoning and drowning (both sexes). This study reveals the importance of examining SES differentials by cause of death from a multilevel perspective. Future research is needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying these differences to implement equity-oriented approaches for reducing differential exposures, vulnerability or consequences of injury mortality. PMID:22269490

  19. Concurrent determinants of blood pressure among adolescents: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Ana M. B.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Barros, Fernando C.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate concurrent risk factors for high blood pressure in adolescents. This is a prospective cohort study including 4,452 adolescents born in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 1993. Blood pressure was measured before and after the interview, and the mean value was used in the analyses. Mean systolic blood pressure was 101.9mmHg (SD = 12.3) and mean diastolic pressure was 63.4mmHg (SD = 9.9). Adolescents with black skin had higher blood pressure than those with white skin. Mean systolic pressure among subjects in the top quartile of body mass index (BMI) was 11.6mmHg higher than among those in the lowest quartile. Mean systolic pressure among postmenarcheal girls was 5.4mmHg higher than among premenarcheal girls. Similar trends were found for diastolic arterial pressure. Our findings suggest that blood pressure control must begin already in childhood and adolescence. PMID:20963295

  20. Intake of fat and fiber-rich foods according to socioeconomic status: the 11-year follow-up of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Neutzling, Marilda B.; Araújo, Cora Luiza; Vieira, Maria de Fátima A.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Menezes, Ana M. B.; Victora, Cesar G.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the food intake of adolescents participating in the 1993 birth cohort from Pelotas, Southern Brazil, according to socioeconomic position. We carried out a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in the 2004-2005 follow-up visit. Food intake in the previous year was evaluated using the Block questionnaire. Socioeconomic status was evaluated based on an assets index, divided into quintiles. Foods with the highest frequency of daily intake were white bread (83%), butter or margarine (74.6%), beans (66.4%) and milk (48.5%). Intake of butter or margarine, bread, and beans was more frequent among poorer adolescents, and the inverse was true for milk. Intake of fruits and vegetables was low in all socioeconomic strata, but particularly low among the poor. In early adolescence, all socioeconomic groups showed high consumption of foods rich in fat and low consumption of foods rich in fiber. PMID:20963287

  1. Assessing Body Fat of Children by Skinfold Thickness, Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis, and Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry: A Validation Study Among Malay Children Aged 7 to 11 Years.

    PubMed

    Noradilah, Mohd Jonit; Ang, Yeow Nyin; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Deurenberg, Paul; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to validate skinfold (SKF) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) against dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in determining body fat percentage (BF%) of Malay children aged 7 to 11 years. A total of 160 children had their BF% assessed using SKF and BIA, with DXA as the criterion method. Four SKF equations (SKFBray, SKFJohnston, SKFSlaughter, and SKFGoran) and 4 BIA equations (BIAManufacturer, BIAHoutkooper, BIARush, and BIAKushner) were used to estimate BF%. Mean age, weight, and height were 9.4 ± 1.1years, 30.5 ± 9.9 kg, and 131.3 ± 8.4 cm. All equations significantly underestimated BF% (P < .05). BIA equations had reasonable agreement with DXA and were independent of BF% with BIAManufacturer being the best equation. Although BIA underestimates BF% as compared with DXA, BIA was more suitable to measure BF% in a population that is similar to this study sample than SKF, suggesting a need to develop new SKF equations that are population specific. PMID:27073201

  2. ECEAP 1991 Longitudinal Study and Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Office of Community Development, Olympia.

    Washington State's Early Childhood Education and Assistance Program (ECEAP) provides a comprehensive, family-focused preschool program designed to help low-income children succeed in the public school system and help families support and participate in their children's success. Findings from an ongoing longitudinal study of the ECEAP program…

  3. MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study Baseline Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…

  4. Collaborative Knowledge-Building: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on knowledge-building in a technology-supported learning environment in higher education through a longitudinal study of a graduate course from 2003 to 2007. The primary question is: how do learning conditions designed into a graduate course contribute to collaborative knowledge building? In particular, two major…

  5. The 11-year cycle in human births

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Walter; Moos, Walter S.

    1993-06-01

    The annual numbers of human births were analyzed with regard to an 11-year cycle. The annual values were obtained from seven different regions: Australia, Germany, England and Wales, New Zealand, Japan, Switzerland, and the USA. Fifty-five annual values were obtained from each region for the years 1930 to 1984, comprising approximately five sunspot cycles. For each region the annual values were formed into 5 by 11 matrices; the eleven column means obtained were standardized, and plotted. A periodic regression technique, utilizing the fitting functions of the Fourier series, was used to evaluate the temporal order in the column means. Eleven-year rhythms were found and compared with solar and geophysical variables. Correlations were found with sunspots and solar flares, with terrestrial measures of magnetic disturbances (the magnetic indices derived from the K-index), and with temperature. The correlation of conceptions with the 11-year solar cycle may be a potential guide in the selection of further variables for the control and regulation of the rhythms in human conceptions.

  6. What Can We Learn From Longitudinal Studies of Adult Development?

    PubMed Central

    Schaie, K. Warner

    2005-01-01

    This article distinguishes between normal and pathological aging, provides an interdisciplinary context, and then considers a sample case of cognitive aging. Developmental influences on cognition include the physiological infrastructure, genetic predispositions, and environmental influences. Different types of longitudinal studies are distinguished, and contrasting findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal are examined in the sample case of the Seattle Longitudinal Study. Also considered is the longitudinal context for intervention studies and the role of longitudinal family studies in assessing rate of aging and generational differences in rates of aging. Finally, attention is given to the role of longitudinal studies in the early detection of risk for dementia in advanced age. PMID:16467912

  7. The Canadian longitudinal study on aging (CLSA).

    PubMed

    Raina, Parminder S; Wolfson, Christina; Kirkland, Susan A; Griffith, Lauren E; Oremus, Mark; Patterson, Christopher; Tuokko, Holly; Penning, Margaret; Balion, Cynthia M; Hogan, David; Wister, Andrew; Payette, Hélène; Shannon, Harry; Brazil, Kevin

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTCanadians are living longer, and older persons are making up a larger share of the population (14% in 2006, projected to rise to 20% by 2021). The Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA) is a national longitudinal study of adult development and aging that will recruit 50,000 Canadians aged 45 to 85 years of age and follow them for at least 20 years. All participants will provide a common set of information concerning many aspects of health and aging, and 30,000 will undergo an additional in-depth examination coupled with the donation of biological specimens (blood and urine). The CLSA will become a rich data source for the study of the complex interrelationship among the biological, physical, psychosocial, and societal factors that affect healthy aging. PMID:19860977

  8. A Longitudinal Study of the Cognitive Development of 3-5 Year Old Rural Children in the State of Nebraska, U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyan-Masih, Violet

    This study is part of a longitudinal research project which investigated the cognitive and social development of rural children (ages 3-5, 6-8, and 9-11 years) in eight states of the U.S.A. This paper, however, reports only the cognitive development of 3- to 5-year-old subjects in rural Nebraska from 1976-1978. The longitudinal sample plus control…

  9. Aging in Rett syndrome: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Halbach, N S J; Smeets, E E J; Steinbusch, C; Maaskant, M A; van Waardenburg, D; Curfs, L M G

    2013-09-01

    Little is known about the aging process of people with specific syndromes, like Rett syndrome (RTT). Recognition of the clinical and behavioral characteristics of the adult RTT is needed in order to improve future management of the RTT girl and counseling of parents. In association with the Dutch RTT parent association, a 5-year longitudinal study was carried out. The study population consisted of 53 adult women with a clinical diagnosis of RTT. Postal questionnaires were sent, including demographic features, skills, physical and psychiatric morbidity. At the time of the second measurement seven women had died. In 2012, 80% of the questionnaires (37/46) were returned. Mean age of the women was 31.4 years. Molecular confirmation was possible for 83% of the women for whom analyses were carried out. The adult RTT woman has a more or less stable condition. The general disorder profile is that of a slow on-going deterioration of gross motor functioning in contrast to a better preserved cognitive functioning, less autonomic and epileptic features and good general health. This is the first longitudinal cohort study about aging in RTT. Continuing longitudinal studies are needed to gain more insight into the aging process in RTT. PMID:23167724

  10. 11 -year planetary index of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okhlopkov, Victor

    In papers [1,2] introduced me parameter - the average difference between the heliocentric longitudes of planets ( ADL ) , which was used for comparison with solar activity. The best connection of solar activity ( Wolf numbers used ) was obtained for the three planets - Venus, Earth and Jupiter. In [1,2] has been allocated envelope curve of the minimum values ADL which has a main periodicity for 22 years and describes well the alternating series of solar activity , which also has a major periodicity of 22. It was shown that the minimum values of the envelope curve extremes ADL planets Venus, Earth and Jupiter are well matched with the 11- year solar activity cycle In these extremes observed linear configuration of the planets Venus, Earth and Jupiter both in their location on one side of the Sun ( conjunctions ) and at the location on the opposite side of the Sun ( three configurations ) This work is a continuation of the above-mentioned , and here for minimum ADL ( planets are in conjunction ) , as well as on the minimum deviation of the planets from a line drawn through them and Sun at the location of the planets on opposite sides of the Sun , compiled index (denoted for brevity as JEV ) that uniquely describes the 11- year solar cycle A comparison of the index JEV with solar activity during the time interval from 1000 to 2013 conducted. For the period from 1000 to 1699 used the Schove series of solar activity and the number of Wolf (1700 - 2013 ) During the time interval from 1000 to 2013 and the main periodicity of the solar activity and the index ADL is 11.07 years. 1. Okhlopkov V.P. Cycles of Solar Activity and the Configurations of Planets // Moscow University Physics Bulletin, 2012 , Vol. 67 , No. 4 , pp. 377-383 http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.3103/S0027134912040108. 2 Okhlopkov VP, Relationship of Solar Activity Cycles to Planetary Configurations // Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Physics, 2013 , Vol. 77 , No. 5

  11. Using the Longitudinal Study as a Central Teaching Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that treatment of one investigative longitudinal topic from start to finish in a high school biology class can illustrate many major ideas and concepts. Discusses ways to use various longitudinal studies of plant growth with General Biology classes. (WRM)

  12. Cohort Profile: Wisconsin longitudinal study (WLS)

    PubMed Central

    Herd, Pamela; Carr, Deborah; Roan, Carol

    2014-01-01

    The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a longitudinal study of men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957 and one of their randomly selected siblings. Wisconsin is located in the upper midwest of the United States and had a population of approximately 14 000 000 in 1957, making it the 14th most populous state at that time. Data spanning almost 60 years allow researchers to link family background, adolescent characteristics, educational experiences, employment experiences, income, wealth, family formation and social and religious engagement to midlife and late-life physical health, mental health, psychological well-being, cognition, end of life planning and mortality. The WLS is one of the few longitudinal data sets that include an administrative measure of cognition from childhood. Further, recently collected saliva samples allow researchers to explore the inter-relationships among genes, behaviours and environment, including genetic determinants of behaviours (e.g. educational attainment); the interactions between genes and environment; and how these interactions predict behaviours. Most panel members were born in 1939, and the sample is broadly representative of White, non-Hispanic American men and women who have completed at least a high school education. Siblings cover several adjoining cohorts: they were born primarily between 1930 and 1948. At each interview, about two-thirds of the sample lived in Wisconsin, and about one-third lived elsewhere in the United States or abroad. The data, along with documentation, are publicly accessible and can be accessed at http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/wlsresearch/. Requests for protected data or assistance should be sent to wls@ssc.wisc.edu. PMID:24585852

  13. Colorado longitudinal twin study of reading disability.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Sally J; DeFries, John C; Olson, Richard K; Willcutt, Erik G

    2007-12-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive abilities in this sample. Preliminary examination of the test scores of 124 twins with a history of reading difficulties and 154 twins with no history of reading difficulties indicates that over the 5- to 6-year interval between assessments, cognitive and reading performance are highly stable. As a group, those subjects with a history of reading difficulties had substantial deficits relative to control subjects on all measures at initial assessment, and significant deficits remained at follow-up. The stability noted for all cognitive and achievement measures was highest for a composite measure of reading, whose average stability correlation across groups was 0.80. Results of preliminary behavior genetic analyses for this measure indicated that shared genetic influences accounted for 86% and 49% of the phenotypic correlations between the two assessments for twin pairs with and without reading difficulties, respectively. In addition, genetic correlations reached unity for both groups, suggesting that the same genetic influences are manifested at both time points. PMID:18060583

  14. The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise B; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Lauritzen, Lotte; Michaelsen, Kim F; Egelund, Niels

    2015-04-28

    It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794). The d2 test of attention, the Learning Rating Scale (LRS) and standard tests on reading and mathematics proficiency were administered at baseline and at the end of each study period. Intervention effects were evaluated using hierarchical mixed models. The school meal intervention did not influence concentration performance (CP; primary outcome, n 693) or processing speed; however, the decrease in error percentage was 0·18 points smaller (P<0·001) in the intervention period than in the control period (medians: baseline 2·03%; intervention 1·46%; control 1·37%). In contrast, the intervention increased reading speed (0·7 sentence, P=0·009) and the number of correct sentences (1·8 sentences, P<0·001), which corresponded to 11 and 25%, respectively, of the effect of one school year. The percentage of correct sentences also improved (P<0·001), indicating that the number correct improved relatively more than reading speed. There was no effect on overall math performance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention. These findings are worth examining in future trials. PMID:25791747

  15. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  16. Paediatric UK demyelinating disease longitudinal study (PUDDLS)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is evidence that at least 5% of Multiple sclerosis (MS) cases manifest in childhood. Children with MS present with a demyelinating episode involving single or multiple symptoms prior to developing a second event (usually within two years) to then meet criteria for diagnosis. There is evidence from adult cohorts that the incidence and sex ratios of MS are changing and that children of immigrants have a higher risk for developing MS. A paediatric population should reflect the vanguard of such changes and may reflect trends yet to be observed in adult cohorts. Studying a paediatric population from the first demyelinating event will allow us to test these hypotheses, and may offer further valuable insights into the genetic and environmental interactions in the pathogenesis of MS. Methods/Design The Paediatric UK Demyelinating Disease Longitudinal Study (PUDDLS) is a prospective longitudinal observational study which aims to determine the natural history, predictors and outcomes of childhood CNS inflammatory demyelinating diseases. PUDDLS will involve centres in the UK, and will establish a cohort of children affected with a first CNS inflammatory demyelinating event for long-term follow up by recruiting for approximately 5 years. PUDDLS will also establish a biological sample archive (CSF, serum, and DNA), allowing future hypothesis driven research. For example, the future discovery of a biomarker will allow validation within this dataset for the evaluation of novel biomarkers. Patients will also be requested to consent to be contacted in the future. A secondary aim is to collaborate internationally with the International Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis Study Group when future collaborative studies are proposed, whilst sharing a minimal anonymised dataset. PUDDLS is the second of two jointly funded studies. The first (UCID-SS) is an epidemiological surveillance study that already received ethical approvals, and started on the 1st September 2009. There is

  17. The reliability and validity of a short food frequency questionnaire among 9–11-year olds: a multinational study on three middle-income and high-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Saloheimo, T; González, S A; Erkkola, M; Milauskas, D M; Meisel, J D; Champagne, C M; Tudor-Locke, C; Sarmiento, O; Katzmarzyk, P T; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a food frequency questionnaire with 23 food groups (I-FFQ) among a sample of 9–11-year-old children from three different countries that differ on economical development and income distribution, and to assess differences between country sites. Furthermore, we assessed factors associated with I-FFQ's performance. Methods: This was an ancillary study of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment. Reliability (n=321) and validity (n=282) components of this study had the same participants. Participation rates were 95% and 70%, respectively. Participants completed two I-FFQs with a mean interval of 4.9 weeks to assess reliability. A 3-day pre-coded food diary (PFD) was used as the reference method in the validity analyses. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, intraclass correlation coefficients and cross-classifications were used to assess the reliability of I-FFQ. Spearman correlation coefficients, percentage difference and cross-classifications were used to assess the validity of I-FFQ. A logistic regression model was used to assess the relation of selected variables with the estimate of validity. Analyses based on information in the PFDs were performed to assess how participants interpreted food groups. Results: Reliability correlation coefficients ranged from 0.37 to 0.78 and gross misclassification for all food groups was <5%. Validity correlation coefficients were below 0.5 for 22/23 food groups, and they differed among country sites. For validity, gross misclassification was <5% for 22/23 food groups. Over- or underestimation did not appear for 19/23 food groups. Logistic regression showed that country of participation and parental education were associated (P⩽0.05) with the validity of I-FFQ. Analyses of children's interpretation of food groups suggested that the meaning of most food groups was understood by the children. Conclusion: I-FFQ is a

  18. Analysis of variability of p-mode parameters in 11 years of IRIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabert, D.; Jiménez-Reyes, S. J.; Fossat, E.; Cacciani, A.; Ehgamberdiev, S.; Gelly, B.; Grec, G.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Khalikov, S.; Lazrek, M.; Pallé, P.; Schmider, F. X.; Tomczyk, S.

    2002-03-01

    11 years of IRIS (the low degree helioseismology network) have been analysed for the study of p-modes parameters variability. The duty cycle of the network data has been improved by the partial gap filling method named "repetitive music". This paper discusses the variations of all p-modes parameters along these 11 years.

  19. Objectives, Design, and History of the National Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, J. A.; Collins, Elmer

    The National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 (NLS) is a federally supported longitudinal study of a national sample of some 23,000 young people first surveyed as high school seniors in the spring of 1972. The historical precedents of such a study include the work of Friend and Haggert in a Boston settlement house, Louis…

  20. Early Predictors of Adolescent Depression: A 7-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazza, James J.; Abbott, Robert D.; Fleming, Charles B.; Harachi, Tracy W.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Park, Jisuk; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal relationship of early elementary predictors to adolescent depression 7 years later. The sample consisted of 938 students who have been part of a larger longitudinal study that started in 1993. Data collected from parents, teachers, and youth self-reports on early risk factors when students were in 1st and 2nd…

  1. Beyond Terman: Contemporary Longitudinal Studies of Giftedness and Talent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subotnik, Rena F., Ed.; Arnold, Karen D., Ed.

    This volume presents 16 papers describing recent longitudinal studies of giftedness. Papers have the following titles and authors: (1) "Longitudinal Study of Giftedness and Talent" (Rena F. Subotnik and Karen D. Arnold); (2) "The Illinois Valedictorian Project: Early Adult Careers of Academically Talented Male High School Students" (Karen D.…

  2. NASA Planetary Science Summer School: Longitudinal Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giron, Jennie M.; Sohus, A.

    2006-12-01

    NASA’s Planetary Science Summer School is a program designed to prepare the next generation of scientists and engineers to participate in future missions of solar system exploration. The opportunity is advertised to science and engineering post-doctoral and graduate students with a strong interest in careers in planetary exploration. Preference is given to U.S. citizens. The “school” consists of a one-week intensive team exercise learning the process of developing a robotic mission concept into reality through concurrent engineering, working with JPL’s Advanced Project Design Team (Team X). This program benefits the students by providing them with skills, knowledge and the experience of collaborating with a concept mission design. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess the impact of the program on the past participants of the program. Data collected included their current contact information, if they are currently part of the planetary exploration community, if participation in the program contributed to any career choices, if the program benefited their career paths, etc. Approximately 37% of 250 past participants responded to the online survey. Of these, 83% indicated that they are actively involved in planetary exploration or aerospace in general; 78% said they had been able to apply what they learned in the program to their current job or professional career; 100% said they would recommend this program to a colleague.

  3. Direct and Extended Friendship Effects on Minority and Majority Children's Interethnic Attitudes: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feddes, Allard R.; Noack, Peter; Rutland, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal direct and extended cross-ethnic friendship effects on out-group evaluations among German (majority status, N = 76) and Turkish (minority status, N = 73) children (age 7-11 years) in ethnically heterogeneous elementary schools were examined at the beginning and end of the school year (time lag: 7 months). The results showed that among…

  4. Borderline phylloides tumor in an 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Selamzade, M; Gidener, C; Koyuncuoglu, M; Mevsim, A

    1999-07-01

    Phylloides tumor is an uncommon breast tumor in children. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. A case of borderline phylloides tumor in an 11-year-old girl is described. PMID:10415310

  5. Fifteen years of child drowning--a 1967-1981 analysis of all fatal cases from the Brisbane Drowning Study and an 11 year study of consecutive near-drowning cases.

    PubMed

    Nixon, J; Pearn, J; Wilkey, I; Corcoran, A

    1986-06-01

    A total population study of childhood fresh water drowning accidents (fatalities) for the 15 year period, 1967-1981, is reported. These data are from the ongoing Brisbane Drowning Study which has now also analysed 255 fresh water child immersions (both fatalities and near-fatalities) over the eleven year period, 1978-1981, and as such forms a consecutive unselected series for over one decade. The annual fatality (drowning) rate is 3.53 per 100,000. Details of immersion accidents by site, sex and by outcome (survivors versus fatalities) are presented. An analysis of secular trends revealed that one epidemic peak of child drownings in swimming pools and domestic baths (noted in the mid 1970s in Australia and other countries) is now passed. Evidence is presented to suggest that a vigorous education, and public awareness campaign can reduce the incidence of serious child immersion accidents by one-third. Such a campaign may have influence on all types of childhood household drownings (pools, baths, garden ponds), irrespective of site. Survival rates for unsupervised children who lose consciousness in fresh water are site-dependent, only 21% of such potential victims surviving after losing consciousness in rivers and creeks, compared with the survival rate of 65% for those in potential drowning incidents in their own backyard. Violent death continues to account for more than half of all deaths in childhood up to the age of 14 years [Gratz, 1979; Mayer, Walker and Johnson et al., 1981].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3730093

  6. Separation-Individuation of Late Adolescents : A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslan, Sevda; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the change in separation-individuation between late adolescents in the first, second, third and fourth year of higher education. The study sample used for this longitudinal study consisted of 148 students attending class studies, computer education and science education departments of Kirikkale University.…

  7. Baseline Report for the Korean-English Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Kenneth Kong-On; Hong, Nam Sook

    The goals and methods of a longitudinal study of language development of eight Korean-English bilingual children are reported. The children were ages 4-8 at the beginning of the study. The goals of the study were (1) to document and analyze the development of English in natural communicative contexts, (2) to study the pattern of language shift…

  8. Social Class Differentiation in Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Mark; And Others

    In an effort to isolate the emergence and causes of social class differences in intellectual performance, this longitudinal study was undertaken as a follow-up on a cross-sectional study that yielded no social class differences on the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale for 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old black children. In the present study, 89 children…

  9. Conservative Management of Cardiac Hemangioma for 11 Years.

    PubMed

    Gribaa, Rym; Slim, Mehdi; Neffati, Elyes; Boughzela, Essia

    2015-10-01

    Cardiac hemangiomas are benign tumors with an unpredictable natural history. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice; however, conservative management can be an alternative in some patients. We report a case of a left-sided cardiac hemangioma that we managed conservatively for 11 years without obvious major complications in the patient, an adult woman. PMID:26504439

  10. Conservative Management of Cardiac Hemangioma for 11 Years

    PubMed Central

    Slim, Mehdi; Neffati, Elyes; Boughzela, Essia

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hemangiomas are benign tumors with an unpredictable natural history. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice; however, conservative management can be an alternative in some patients. We report a case of a left-sided cardiac hemangioma that we managed conservatively for 11 years without obvious major complications in the patient, an adult woman. PMID:26504439

  11. Homeschooling Education: Longitudinal Study of Methods, Materials, and Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanna, Linda G.

    2012-01-01

    In a comprehensive study of two-hundred fifty homeschooling families in urban, rural and suburban areas of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the researcher examined all aspects of the instruction, materials and curricula employed by the families in a ten-year longitudinal study from 1998 through 2008. The researcher conducted interviews and…

  12. Career Trajectories of Dutch Pop Musicians: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaan, Koos; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Raaijmakers, Quinten

    2010-01-01

    Systematic studies of artistic careers are scarce and this is the first large-scale study on the career development of pop musicians. Using a prospective longitudinal approach we followed a sample of aspiring pop musicians in the Netherlands (N=369) over a three-year period. First we identified four groups of pop musicians with different career…

  13. Longitudinal Study of Low and High Achievers in Early Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Jose I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Marchena, Esperanza; Ruiz, Gonzalo; Menacho, Inmaculada; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal studies allow us to identify, which specific maths skills are weak in young children, and whether there is a continuing weakness in these areas throughout their school years. Aims: This 2-year study investigated whether certain socio-demographic variables affect early mathematical competency in children aged 5-7 years.…

  14. Findings from longitudinal cohort studies: Gothenburg and Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Stessman, J; Hammerman-Rozenberg, R; Svanborg, A

    1996-08-01

    The longitudinal study of age-homogeneous cohorts is a powerful tool to elucidate age-related changes and to attempt to distinguish normal aging from the effects of disease. Many influences, such as the effect of changing lifestyle, medical practices and environmental factors with time must be considered when designing and interpreting such studies. Cross-cultural differences manifest in comparing different studies must also be accounted for, but alternately provide a tool to distinguish between endogenous and exogenous factors influencing human aging. The first stage of the longitudinal study of 70 year olds in Gothenburg, Sweden, a cross-sectional survey performed in 1971, is compared to a similar cross-sectional survey performed in Jerusalem in 1991 as part of a projected longitudinal study. The similarities between the two cohorts with regard to living conditions, functional independence and disease prevalence are striking. There are also significant contrasts that reflect the 20 years that elapsed between the execution of the two studies, as well as the cultural and social differences. In particular, the ethnic diversity of the Jerusalem population, hailing from 40 separate countries, is emphasized. The comparison of these two studies highlights many of the principles critical to the role of longitudinal cohort studies in gerontology. PMID:8816868

  15. Giftedness, Trauma, and Development: A Qualitative, Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative, longitudinal, phenomenological case study explored how a gifted female experienced various life events and aspects of development during adolescence and young adulthood (ages 15-30 years), particularly as related to multiple traumatic experiences, which were revealed late in the first year of the study. Additional experiences, well…

  16. Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Bob; Kavanagh, Denise; Caffrey, Shay; Power, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods: All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or…

  17. The Longitudinal Study (LAS): Thirteen Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Christopher M.

    This study is the fifth assessment in an 18-year longitudinal study begun in 1986 to follow a group of Montessori students who attended the Franciscan Montessori Earth School in Portland, Oregon. Participating were 45 students with an average age of 18 years, about half of whom were in high school and half in college. Students completed an online…

  18. A Longitudinal Case Study of Curriculum Genres, K-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Marilyn

    2002-01-01

    I have presented the findings from a longitudinal case study of one child's writing from kindergarten to grade 3, across different curriculum contexts, with a focus on writing in mathematics, social studies, science, and music. I describe changes in textual features of the child's writing over time, which support Newkirk's (1987) developmental…

  19. Suprasegmental Phonology Development and Reading Acquisition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calet, Nuria; Gutiérrez-Palma, Nicolás; Simpson, Ian C.; González-Trujillo, M. Carmen; Defior, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies implicate suprasegmental phonology in reading acquisition. However, little is known about how suprasegmental sensitivity develops or how it contributes to reading. Here, 130 Spanish primary-school children participated in this 2-year longitudinal study. Nonlinguistic rhythm, lexical-stress sensitivity and metrical-stress…

  20. English as a Foreign Language Spelling Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn-Horwitz, Janina; Sparks, Richard L.; Goldstein, Zahava

    2012-01-01

    English as a foreign language (EFL) spelling was examined longitudinally three times (4th, 9th, 12th grades) during 9 years of EFL study among Hebrew first language (L1) students. The study examined the impact of L1 literacy variables including phonemic awareness, word attack, and spelling on EFL spelling and the relationship between EFL literacy…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Judge Leniency and Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunz, Mary E.; O'Neill, Thomas R.

    This retrospective longitudinal study was designed to show grading leniency patterns of judges within and across clinical examination administrations. Data from 17 different administrations of the histology examination of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists over 10 years were studied. Over the 10 years there were 4,683 candidates and 57…

  2. Predictors of Educational Attainment in the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated a comprehensive set of predictors of high school completion and years of completed education for youth in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of over 1500 low-income, minority children who grew up on high-poverty neighborhoods. The study sample included 1286 youth for whom educational attainment could…

  3. Generalization of Rare Variant Association Tests for Longitudinal Family Studies.

    PubMed

    Chien, Li-Chu; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Bowden, Donald W; Chiu, Yen-Feng

    2016-02-01

    Given the functional relevance of many rare variants, their identification is frequently critical for dissecting disease etiology. Functional variants are likely to be aggregated in family studies enriched with affected members, and this aggregation increases the statistical power to detect rare variants associated with a trait of interest. Longitudinal family studies provide additional information for identifying genetic and environmental factors associated with disease over time. However, methods to analyze rare variants in longitudinal family data remain fairly limited. These methods should be capable of accounting for different sources of correlations and handling large amounts of sequencing data efficiently. To identify rare variants associated with a phenotype in longitudinal family studies, we extended pedigree-based burden (BT) and kernel (KS) association tests to genetic longitudinal studies. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) approaches were used to generalize the pedigree-based BT and KS to multiple correlated phenotypes under the generalized linear model framework, adjusting for fixed effects of confounding factors. These tests accounted for complex correlations between repeated measures of the same phenotype (serial correlations) and between individuals in the same family (familial correlations). We conducted comprehensive simulation studies to compare the proposed tests with mixed-effects models and marginal models, using GEEs under various configurations. When the proposed tests were applied to data from the Diabetes Heart Study, we found exome variants of POMGNT1 and JAK1 genes were associated with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26783077

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Principals' Activities and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Henry; Huff, Jason; Goldring, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Although a substantial amount of research on school leadership has focused on what principals may do to improve teaching and learning, little of this research has explored how principals' time spent on leadership activities may relate to and possibly affect student performance. This article presents results from a 3-year longitudinal study of…

  5. Minor Delinquency and Immigration: A Longitudinal Study among Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish…

  6. NATIONAL LONGITUDINAL MORTALITY STUDY- NATIONAL DEATH INDEX RECORD LINKAGE (NLMS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    National Longitudinal Mortality Study is to investigate social, economic, demographic and occupational differentials in mortality (total and by cause) within a national sample of the U.S. population. In a collaboration begun in 1999 with the Census Bureau and other federal agenci...

  7. A Longitudinal Study on Internship Effectiveness in Vocational Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Yang, Jen-te; Cheng, Shu-yun; Su, Chiakai

    2013-01-01

    A cooperative education experience (or internship placement) is an essential component of the curricula of vocational higher education. The efficacy of internship placements has become one of the major concerns facing those who develop education curricula. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to explore the relationships among the…

  8. A Longitudinal Study of Early Adolescent Precursors to Running Away

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Bersani, Bianca E.

    2008-01-01

    Although previous research has examined correlates of running away among samples of currently homeless and runaway adolescents, little is known about what factors will predict the likelihood that a housed adolescent with no prior history of running away will leave home. As such, the current study uses the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to…

  9. Attachment from Infancy to Adulthood: The Major Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossmann, Klaus E., Ed.; Grossmann, Karin, Ed.; Waters, Everett, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This volume provides unique and valuable firsthand accounts of the most important longitudinal studies of attachment. Presented are a range of research programs that have broadened the understanding of early close relationships and their role in individual adaptation throughout life. In addition to discussing the findings that emerged from each…

  10. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path…

  11. Stages of Headship: A Longitudinal Study of the Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weindling, Dick

    This paper uses socialization theory to re-examine a unique, 10-year longitudinal study of headteachers so as to describe the stages of headship transition. It outlines prior models of leadership succession in both business and schools and produces a stage theory of headship that can be used not only as a research tool, but also as a way to assist…

  12. Assessing CLIL at Primary School: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serra, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents aspects of a longitudinal study assessing integrative bilingual learning based on Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), implemented in three Swiss primary schools. From Grades 1 to 6, three classes of German-speaking pupils were taught 50% of the curriculum, notably mathematics, in Italian or in Romansh as a second…

  13. Document Use during a Research Project: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Peiling; White, Marilyn Domas

    1995-01-01

    Provides preliminary results of a longitudinal, qualitative research study of document use by academic agricultural economists in actual situations. Topics include users' changing information needs, use patterns, decision making regarding relevant items, and criteria and decision rules used to read or cite documents across stages of research.…

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Pretend Play in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Young, Gregory S.; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2007-01-01

    This study describes a longitudinal design (following subjects described in Rutherford & Rogers [2003, "Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorder", 33, 289-302]) to test for predictors of pretend play competence in a group of children with autism. We tested the hypothesis that developmental change in pretend play performance can be predicted by…

  15. Criminal Victimization and Crime Risk Perception: A Multilevel Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Silvia; Roccato, Michele; Vieno, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    In a national sample of the Italian population, surveyed four times between October 2002 and January 2007 (N = 2,008), we performed a multilevel longitudinal study aimed at predicting the increase in crime risk perception as a function of three families of independent variables, respectively lying at the within individual level (direct…

  16. Anxiety Sensitivity and Panic Attacks: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Wen; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    The hypothesis that anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a risk factor for panic genesis has obtained compelling support, but the clinical/practical importance of AS in panic genesis has been questioned. In addition, the association between panic experience and AS increase has not been clearly demonstrated. Through this 1-year longitudinal study among…

  17. Experimental study of the longitudinal instability for beam transport

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, M.; Wang, J.G.; Guo, W.M.; Wang, D.X.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical model for beam longitudinal instability in a transport pipe with general wall impedance is considered. The result shows that a capacitive wall tends to stabilize the beam. The experimental study of the instability for a pure resistive-wall is presented, including the design parameters, setup and components for the experiment. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Early Cognitive Profiles of Emergent Readers: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Rippon, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and…

  19. Connecticut Participation in the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Department of Education Research Bulletin, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Statewide information concerning the Connecticut eight-grade public school students who particpated in the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) in the spring of 1988 is presented. Over 900 students in 46 schools in 35 school districts, almost evenly divided between males and females, completed cognitive tests and student surveys about…

  20. Exploring Dynamism in Willingness to Communicate: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Yiqian Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines dynamism in students' situational willingness to communicate (WTC) within a second language classroom. This longitudinal study involved twelve English as a Second Language (ESL) participants who enrolled in an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) programme in New Zealand for five months. Based on data from classroom…

  1. Secondary Analysis of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Tyler A.; Knollman, Greg A.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines published secondary analyses of National Longitudinal Transition Study 2 (NLTS2) data, with a primary focus upon statistical objectives, paradigms, inferences, and methods. Its primary purpose was to determine which statistical techniques have been common in secondary analyses of NLTS2 data. The review begins with an…

  2. Pain Perceptions of the Oldest Old: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarit, Steven H.; Griffiths, Patricia C.; Berg, Stig

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study assessed self-reported pain in the oldest old and examined its changes over time and in relation to other measures of health and functioning. Design and Methods: A population-based sample of the oldest old (86-92 years of age) residing in Sweden who were participating in a multiwave longitudinal investigation were interviewed…

  3. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  4. Planning Papers for the National Longitudinal Study of Chapter 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Studies Associates, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The Elementary and Secondary School Improvement Amendments of 1988 (P.L. 100-297) require the U.S. Department of Education to conduct a national longitudinal study of Chapter 1 of the Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The department commissioned the selection of experts qualified to provide design suggestions and advice for the national…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Consumer Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moschis, George P.; Moore, Roy L.

    A study examined the effects of factors (including television, family, peers, age, and socioeconomic status) on consumer socialization, the process by which individuals develop consumption-related cognitions and behaviors. The specific criterion variables studied included consumer affairs knowledge, puffery filtering, consumer finance management,…

  6. Trauma, mental health, and intergenerational associations in Kosovar Families 11 years after the war

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Matthis; Morina, Naser; Klaghofer, Richard; Schnyder, Ulrich; Müller, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Background While there is a considerable amount of literature addressing consequences of trauma in veterans and holocaust survivors, war and postwar civilian populations, particularly children, are still understudied. Evidence regarding intergenerational effects of trauma in families is inconsistent. Objective To shed light on intergenerational aspects of trauma-related mental health problems among families 11 years after the Kosovo war. Method In a cross-sectional study, a paired sample of 51 randomly selected triplets (school-aged child, mother, father, N=153) of Kosovar families was investigated with regard to trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress (UCLA Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale), anxiety (Spence Children's Anxiety Scale, Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25), and depressive symptoms (Depressionsinventar für Kinder und Jugendliche [DIKJ; depression inventory for children and adolescents], Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25). Results Considerable trauma exposure and high prevalence rates of clinically relevant posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms were found in both parents and children. While strong correlations were found between children's depressive symptoms and paternal posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, maternal symptoms did not correlate with their children's. In multiple regression analyses, only posttraumatic stress symptoms of fathers were significantly related with children's depressive symptoms. Conclusion Eleven years after the Kosovo war, the presence of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms in civilian adults and their children is still substantial. As symptoms of parents and children are associated, mental health problems of close ones should be actively screened and accounted for in comprehensive treatment plans, using a systemic approach. Future research should include longitudinal studies conducting multivariate analyses with larger sample sizes in order to investigate indicators, causal and

  7. Factors affecting longitudinal trajectories of plasma sphingomyelins: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, Michelle M; Bandaru, Veera Venkata Ratnam; Han, Dingfen; An, Yang; Resnick, Susan M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Haughey, Norman J

    2015-01-01

    Sphingomyelin metabolism has been linked to several diseases and to longevity. However, few epidemiological studies have quantified individual plasma sphingomyelin species (identified by acyl-chain length and saturation) or their relationship between demographic factors and disease processes. In this study, we determined plasma concentrations of distinct sphingomyelin species in 992 individuals, aged 55 and older, enrolled in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Participants were followed, with serial measures, up to 6 visits and 38 years (3972 total samples). Quantitative analyses were performed on a high-performance liquid chromatography-coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometer. Linear mixed models were used to assess variation in specific sphingomyelin species and associations with demographics, diseases, medications or lifestyle factors, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. We found that most sphingomyelin species increased with age. Women had higher plasma levels of all sphingomyelin species and showed steeper trajectories of age-related increases compared to men. African Americans also showed higher circulating sphingomyelin concentrations compared to Caucasians. Diabetes, smoking, and plasma triglycerides were associated with lower levels of many sphingomyelins and dihydrosphingomyelins. Notably, these associations showed specificity to sphingomyelin acyl-chain length and saturation. These results demonstrate that longitudinal changes in circulating sphingomyelin levels are influenced by age, sex, race, lifestyle factors, and diseases. It will be important to further establish the intra-individual age- and sex-specific changes in each sphingomyelin species in relation to disease onset and progression. PMID:25345489

  8. Method for Studying Helicopter Longitudinal Maneuver Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, Kenneth B

    1954-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of helicopter maneuver stability is made and the results are compared with experimental results for both a single and a tandem rotor helicopter. Techniques are described for measuring in flight the significant stability derivatives for use with the theory to aid in design studies of means for achieving marginal maneuver stability for a prototype helicopter.

  9. Tourism Degree Internships: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, Graham

    2003-01-01

    This case study briefly reviews the development of tourism degrees in the United Kingdom before considering the experiences obtained by students on year-long internship programmes over a period of 8 years. Verbatim confidential comments, from students, are provided and specific transferable skills discussed. Whilst some skills can be developed…

  10. Young Children's Improvisations: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the behavior of 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children engaged in improvisational musical tasks. Ten subjects from each of the four age levels participated in the 4-year investigation, which lasted until the 2-year-olds reached 5 years of age. Children met individually with the investigator for 15 minutes…

  11. Concepts for NASA longitudinal health studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.; Pool, S. L.; Leach, C. S.; Moseley, E.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Clinical data collected from a 15-year study of the homogenous group of pre-Shuttle astronauts have revealed no significant long-term effects from spaceflight. The current hypothesis suggests that repeated exposures to the space environment in the Shuttle era will similarly have no long-term health effects. However, a much more heterogenous group of astronauts and non-astronaut scientists will fly in Shuttle, and data on this group's adaptation to the space environment and readaptation to earth are currently sparse. In addition, very little information is available concerning the short- and long-term medical consequences of long duration exposure to space and subsequent readaptation to the earth environment. In this paper, retrospective clinical information on astronauts is reviewed and concepts for conducting epidemiological studies examining long-term health effects of spaceflight on humans, including associated occupational risks factors, are presented.

  12. Korean 4- to 11-Year-Old Student Conceptions of Heat and Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paik, Seoung-Hey; Cho, Boo-Kyung; Go, Young-Mi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to shed light on the conceptions that young students have of heat and temperature, concepts that are both important in school science curricula and closely related to daily life. The subjects of the study were students from a rural district in South Korea and they ranged in age from 4 to 11 years. Interviews were…

  13. Losing Our Way? The Downward Path for Outdoor Learning for Children Aged 2-11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on three related empirical studies in the South West of England: a survey of outdoor experiential learning opportunities, examining attitudes, practice and aspirations of practitioners and children in educational and care settings for children between 2-11 years within a rural county; a follow-up series of five case studies; and…

  14. A longitudinal study of administrative segregation.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Maureen L; Klebe, Kelli J; Metzner, Jeffrey; Dvoskin, Joel; Fellner, Jamie; Stucker, Alysha

    2013-01-01

    The use of administrative segregation for inmates with and without mental illness has generated considerable criticism. Segregated inmates are locked in single cells for 23 hours per day, are subjected to rigorous security procedures, and have restricted access to programs. In this study, we examined whether inmates in segregation would show greater deterioration over time on psychological symptoms than would comparison offenders. The subjects were male inmates, with and without mental illness, in administrative segregation, general population, or special-needs prison. Subjects completed the Brief Symptom Inventory at regular intervals for one year. Results showed differentiation between groups at the outset and statistically significant but small positive change over time across all groups. All groups showed the same change pattern such that there was not the hypothesized differential change of inmates within administrative segregation. This study advances the empirical research, but replication research is needed to make a better determination of whether and under what conditions harm may or may not occur to inmates in solitary confinement. PMID:23503176

  15. Ophthalmologic complications of meningomyelocele: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed Central

    Biglan, A W

    1990-01-01

    Patients with spina bifida have multiple ophthalmologic problems, many of which are preventable. Most of the problems are related to the hydrocephalus, which is caused by the coexisting Arnold-Chiari malformation. When patients are treated for hydrocephalus, and comprehensive eye care is available, 94% of the patients will have 6/12 visual acuity or better. Strabismus is common but it responds well to medical and surgical treatment. Children with spina bifida should have frequent examinations by an ophthalmologist who is familiar with the diagnosis and management of the defects recorded in this study. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:2095031

  16. Correlates of Total Sedentary Time and Screen Time in 9–11 Year-Old Children around the World: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Allana G.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Church, Timothy S.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Harrington, Deirdre M.; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previously, studies examining correlates of sedentary behavior have been limited by small sample size, restricted geographic area, and little socio-cultural variability. Further, few studies have examined correlates of total sedentary time (SED) and screen time (ST) in the same population. This study aimed to investigate correlates of SED and ST in children around the world. Methods The sample included 5,844 children (45.6% boys, mean age = 10.4 years) from study sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Child- and parent-reported behavioral, household, and neighborhood characteristics and directly measured anthropometric and accelerometer data were obtained. Twenty-one potential correlates of SED and ST were examined using multilevel models, adjusting for sex, age, and highest parental education, with school and study site as random effects. Variables that were moderately associated with SED and/or ST in univariate analyses (p<0.10) were included in the final models. Variables that remained significant in the final models (p<0.05) were considered correlates of SED and/or ST. Results Children averaged 8.6 hours of daily SED, and 54.2% of children failed to meet ST guidelines. In all study sites, boys reported higher ST, were less likely to meet ST guidelines, and had higher BMI z-scores than girls. In 9 of 12 sites, girls engaged in significantly more SED than boys. Common correlates of higher SED and ST included poor weight status, not meeting physical activity guidelines, and having a TV or a computer in the bedroom. Conclusions In this global sample many common correlates of SED and ST were identified, some of which are easily modifiable (e.g., removing TV from the bedroom), and others that may require more intense behavioral interventions (e.g., increasing physical activity). Future work should incorporate these findings into the development of

  17. Validation of the existing modified screening criteria for detection of all cases of Retinopathy of Prematurity in preterm babies – 11 year study from a governorate referral hospital in Oman

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Mary K.; Sawardekar, Kiran P.; Ayoub, Hani Gameel; Busaidi, Ibrahim Al

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To study appropriateness of our modified screening criteria for detection of all cases of Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) among preterm babies. Method Retrospective observational cohort study among preterm neonates who underwent ROP screening as per set protocol for 11 years at Nizwa Hospital, Al Dhakilya Governorate, Oman. We screened all babies with gestational age ⩽32 weeks or BW ⩽ 1500 g. Preterm babies >32 weeks of GA or BW > 1500 g with unstable clinical course believed to be at high risk by the attending neonatologist also were screened. Results During the study period 528 babies were screened for ROP of which 76 babies were excluded due to death, associated congenital ocular malformation and loss for follow-up either due to transfer to other institution or defaulting. Thus 452 babies were included in the final analysis. Incidence of ROP was 46.4% of which 27.9% had mild ROP, 11.3% had severe ROP which regressed and 7.3% had severe ROP who were treated. The incidence of ROP among infants with GA < 26 wks, 26–28 wks, 29–30 wks, 31–32 wks and above 32 weeks was 100.0%, 80.0%, 59.3%, 34.4% and 19.4% respectively. 56 babies of this cohort belonged to Extended (modified) criteria group. Among these 12 babies had ROP out of which 9 had mild ROP and 3 had severe ROP. Among cases with severe ROP, two cases regressed spontaneously and one case needed treatment. Multivariate analysis using stepwise regression model showed statistically significant association of GA and BW to development of ROP. We would have missed few babies with ROP if we had followed other criteria. Conclusion Our modified screening criteria seem to be appropriate as no infant with severe ROP was missed during the study period. Incidence of severe ROP among babies in the extended criteria group (5.4%) is low but significant compared to lower gestational age. We plan to formulate a scoring system following all risk factor analysis to enable us to optimize the

  18. Frequency Doubling Technology Perimetry and Changes in Quality of Life of Glaucoma Patients: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Ricardo Y.; Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Zangwill, Linda M.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationship between rates of change on frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry and longitudinal changes in quality of life (QoL) of glaucoma patients. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Methods One hundred fifty-two subjects (127 glaucoma and 25 healthy) followed for an average of 3.2 ± 1.1 years. All subjects were evaluated with National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25), FDT and standard automated perimetry (SAP). Glaucoma patients had a median of 3 NEI VFQ-25, 8 FDT and 8 SAP tests during follow up. Mean sensitivities of the integrated binocular visual fields were estimated for FDT and SAP and used to calculate rates of change. A joint longitudinal multivariable mixed model was used to investigate the association between change in binocular mean sensitivities and change in NEI VFQ-25 Rasch-calibrated scores. Results There was a statistically significant correlation between change in binocular mean sensitivity for FDT and change in NEI VFQ-25 scores during follow-up in the glaucoma group. In multivariable analysis with the confounding factors, each 1dB/year change in binocular FDT mean sensitivity corresponded to a change of 0.8 units per year in the NEI VFQ-25 scores (P = 0.001). For binocular SAP mean sensitivity, each 1 dB/year change was associated with 2.4 units per year change in NEI VFQ-25 scores (P < 0.001). The multivariable model containing baseline and rate of change information from SAP had stronger ability to predict change in NEI VFQ-25 scores compared to the equivalent model for FDT (R2 of 50% and 30%, respectively; P = 0.001). Conclusion SAP performed significantly better than FDT in predicting change in NEI VFQ-25 scores in our population, suggesting that it may still be the preferable perimetric technique for predicting risk of disability from the disease. PMID:25868760

  19. Meaning-Making with Colour in Multimodal Texts: An 11-Year-Old Student's Purposeful "Doing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Colour, a visual element of art and design, is a semiotic mode that is used strategically by sign-makers to communicate meaning. Understanding the meaning-making potential of colour can enhance students' understanding, appreciation, interpretation and composition of multimodal texts. This article features a case study of Anya, an 11-year-old…

  20. CRY1 and CRY2 genetic variants in seasonality: A longitudinal and cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kovanen, Leena; Donner, Kati; Kaunisto, Mari; Partonen, Timo

    2016-08-30

    Cryptochromes are key components of the circadian clocks that generate and maintain seasonal variations. The aim of our study was to analyze the associations of CRY1 and CRY2 genetic variants with the problematicity of seasonal variations, and whether the problematicity of seasonal variations changed during the follow-up of 11 years. Altogether 21 CRY1 and 16 CRY2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and analyzed in 5910 individuals from a Finnish nationwide population-based sample who had filled in the self-report on the seasonal variations in mood and behavior in the year 2000. In the year 2011, 3356 of these individuals filled in the same self-report on the seasonal variations in mood and behavior. Regression models were used to test whether any of the SNPs associated with the problematicity of seasonal variations or with a change in the problematicity from 2000 to 2011. In the longitudinal analysis, CRY2 SNP rs61884508 was protective from worsening of problematicity of seasonal variations. In the cross-sectional analysis, CRY2 SNP rs72902437 showed evidence of association with problematicity of seasonal variations, as did SNP rs1554338 (in the MAPK8IP1 and downstream of CRY2). PMID:27267441

  1. A longitudinal study of gender-related cognition and behaviour.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anne; Shirley, Louisa; Candy, Julia

    2004-02-01

    Gender schema theory proposes that children's acquisition of gender labels and gender stereotypes informs gender-congruent behaviour. Most previous studies have been cross-sectional and do not address the temporal relationship between knowledge and behaviour. We report the results of a longitudinal study of gender knowledge and sex-typed behaviour across three domains in children tested at 24 and 36 months (N = 56). Although both knowledge and sex-typed behaviour increased significantly between 2 and 3 years, there was no systematic pattern of cross-lagged correlations between the two, although some concurrent relationships were present at 24 months. Future longitudinal work might profitably focus on younger children using reliable preverbal measures of gender knowledge and employing a shorter lag between measurement times. PMID:15323112

  2. Managing Endings in a Longitudinal Study: Respect for Persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2005-03-01

    In this paper I describe and discuss the way that a book I had written on a five-year longitudinal study of school science teaching was received by the pupils and teachers it featured. By and large the pupils' reception was positive. However, one group of teachers was deeply hurt by the book. I trace this mainly to my failure to consider adequately their fears of the consequences of the book's publication and possibly to my failure to consider with them the psychological significance of my withdrawing from the school after five years of regular study. I hope that there are lessons not only for myself but also for others considering longitudinal and ethnographic research in science education and more broadly.

  3. Cohort profile: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Wijnstok, Nienke J; Hoekstra, Trynke; van Mechelen, Willem; Kemper, Han C G; Twisk, Jos W R

    2013-04-01

    The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGHLS) is a unique, multidisciplinary cohort study that was initially set up to examine growth and health among teenagers. Throughout the years, the AGHLS has aimed to answer research questions dealing with the relationships between the (natural) development of anthropometry, lifestyle and health from adolescence into adulthood. The AGHLS specifically focuses on anthropometrics, physical activity and fitness, cardiovascular disease risk, lifestyle, musculoskeletal health, psychological health and well-being. Besides this, many methodological issues related to the analysis of longitudinal data were also explored within the framework of the AGHLS. In 1976, students from two secondary schools from the greater Amsterdam area were included in the study. Between 1976 and 2006, 10 rounds of measurement were performed covering an age range between 13 and 43 years. The huge database collected so far has been primarily used to answer relevant research questions regarding the longitudinal relationship between lifestyle and health. Further information about the study can be obtained from the principal investigator Jos Twisk (jwr.twisk@vumc.nl), and up-to-date information on AGHLS can be found by visiting the website www.aggo.nl. PMID:22434862

  4. Web-based tracking methods in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Williams, Izaak L; O'Donnell, Clifford R

    2014-08-01

    The use of online resources to reduce the attrition of program participants in longitudinal studies is examined. Higher-risk individuals, those involved in illegal activities, and females with last name changes are typically more difficult to locate. The effectiveness of using online resources for these participants is addressed. These resources include social networking sites, people-finder search engines, telephone and address directories, judicial records, and death records. The strengths and limitations of these resources are presented and discussed. Longitudinal studies using these resources are examined to evaluate their successful follow-up rates. The results of these studies indicate that participant characteristics are more important to successful follow-up than the length of time since participation or sample size. The use of multiple online sites increased follow-up rates, especially for those who are typically difficult to locate. The variables and websites to consider are discussed, and six lessons learned are offered. The prospective use of online participant involvement is especially important for successful longitudinal evaluation and program planning. PMID:24769078

  5. Higher maternal protectiveness is associated with higher odds of child overweight and obesity: a longitudinal Australian study.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kirsten J; Lawrence, David; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in overprotective parenting and the potential role it plays in child development. While some have argued that a trend towards increased parental fear and reduced opportunity for independent mobility may be linked to increasing rates of child overweight and obesity, there is limited empirical information available to support this claim. Using data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children, this study aimed to examine the longitudinal relationships between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity. A cohort of 4-5 year old children was followed up at 6-7, 8-9 and 10-11 years of age (n  =  2596). Measures included a protective parenting scale administered when children were 6-7 and 8-9 years of age, child body mass index (BMI), family characteristics including household income, neighbourhood disadvantage, child's position amongst siblings, and maternal BMI, education, employment, mental health and age at first birth. International Obesity Taskforce age- and sex-specific BMI cut points were used to determine if children were in the normal, overweight or obese BMI range. There was no association between maternal protectiveness and the odds of children being overweight or obese at age 4-5, 6-7 or 8-9 years. However at age 10-11 years, a 1 standard deviation increase in maternal protectiveness was associated with a 13% increase in the odds of children being overweight or obese. The results provide evidence of a relationship between maternal protectiveness and child overweight and obesity, however further research is required to understand the mechanism(s) that links the two concepts. PMID:24955586

  6. Residents’ perceptions of an integrated longitudinal curriculum: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Lubitz, Rebecca; Lee, Joseph; Hillier, Loretta M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore family medicine residents’ perceptions of a newly restructured integrated longitudinal curriculum. Method A purposeful sample of 16 family medicine residents participated in focus group interviews conducted from a grounded theory perspective to identify the characteristics of this training model that contribute to and that challenge learning. Results Eight key themes were identified: continuity of care, relevance to family medicine, autonomy, program-focused preparation, professional development as facilitated by role modeling, patient volume, clarity of expectations for learners, and logistics. Positive learning experiences were marked by high levels of autonomy, continuity, and relevance to family medicine. Less favorable learning experiences were characterized by limited opportunities for continuity of care, limited relevance to family medicine practice and unclear expectations for the resident’s role. Family physician-led learning experiences contributed to residents’ understanding of the full scope of family medicine practice, more so than specialist-led experiences. The logistics of implementing the integrated block were challenging and negatively impacted continuity and learning. Conclusions This study suggests that an integrated longitudinalized family medicine block training model has the potential to support the principles of a longitudinal integrated competency-based curriculum to effectively prepare residents for family medicine practice. PMID:27004074

  7. 77 FR 20885 - Agency Information Collection (Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study Survey...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    .... 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any correspondence. For Further Information or a Copy of....mclamb@va.gov . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey... Control Number: 2900-New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey). Type of Review: New data collection....

  8. Academic Performance of Language-Minority Students and All-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the effect of all-day kindergarten programs on the academic achievement of students from racial language minority and low socioeconomic class. The study employed a series of 3-level longitudinal multilevel analyses using a nationally representative database, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS). The study…

  9. [Longitudinal change in independence in the elderly--Kahoku Longitudinal Aging Study (KLAS)].

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, K; Okumiya, K; Kawamoto, A; Kimura, S; Wada, T; Fujisawa, M; Doi, Y; Shimada, K; Ozawa, T

    1994-10-01

    A community based study named Kahoku Longitudinal Aging Study (KLAS) was conducted since 1990 for the purpose of evaluating the comprehensive geriatric functional assessment (CGA) and preventing a decline in CGA in the community-dwelling elderly population. It was carried out in a Japanese rural town, in which 32% of the population was over 65 years of age. This study included a questionnaire about activity of daily living (ADL), information-related physical function, mental (cognitive and affective) and social functional domains. In addition to subjective informative instruments, various types of objective assessment such as quantitative neuro-behavioral function tests and medical examinations were performed. Subjects were all the eligible elderly aged over 65 years in the community. Although the ratio of subjects who were independent in ADL decreased with advancing age in both 1991 and 1993, the ratio of the independent elderly in ADL became significant higher (74%) in 1993 than in 1991 (71%). Scores on 2 kinds of neurobehavioral function tests in the 159 subjects aged over 75 years who attended the examination every year showed a significant and slight decrease during two years. However, some test indices significantly improved during the 2 years. These results suggested that age-related dependency in ADL and some kind of neurobehavioral functions might be prevented, in part, by health promoting education and improvement of life style. PMID:7853739

  10. Integrative Data Analysis through Coordination of Measurement and Analysis Protocol across Independent Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Scott M.; Piccinin, Andrea M.

    2009-01-01

    Replication of research findings across independent longitudinal studies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and the sophistication of analyses, and…

  11. Study of longitudinal dynamics in space-charge dominated beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Kai

    Modern accelerator applications, such as heavy ion fusion drivers, pulsed neutron sources, electron injectors for high-energy linear colliders, and X-ray Free Electron Lasers, demand beams with high intensity, low emittance and small energy spread. At low (non-relativistic) energies, the "electrostatic", collective interactions from space-charge forces existing in such intense beams play the dominant role; we characterize these beams as space-charge dominated beams. This dissertation presents numerous new findings on the longitudinal dynamics of a space-charge dominated beam, particularly on the propagation of density perturbations. In order to fully understand the complex physics of longitudinal space-charge waves, we combine the results of theory, computer simulation, and experiment. In the Long Solenoid Experimental system (LSE), with numerous diagnostic tools and techniques, we have, for the first time, experimentally measured the detailed energy profiles of longitudinal space-charge waves at different locations, both near the beam source and at the end of the transport system. Along with the current profiles, we have a complete set of experimental data for the propagation of space-charge waves. We compare these measured results to a 1-D theory and find better agreement for beams with perturbations in the linear regime, where the perturbation strength is less than 10%, than those with nonlinear perturbations. Using fast imaging techniques that we newly developed, we have, for the first time, obtained the progressive time-resolved images of longitudinal slices of a space-charge dominated beam. These images not only provide us time-resolved transverse density distribution of the beam, but also enable us to take time-resolved transverse phase space measurement using computerized tomography. By combining this information with the longitudinal energy measurement, we have, for the first time, experimentally constructed the full 6-D phase space. Part of the results

  12. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate 2 long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Within a 5-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures…

  13. Predicting future weight status from measurements made in early childhood: a novel longitudinal approach applied to Millennium Cohort Study data

    PubMed Central

    Mead, E; Batterham, A M; Atkinson, G; Ells, L J

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: There are reports that childhood obesity tracks into later life. Nevertheless, some tracking statistics such as correlations do not quantify individual agreement, whereas others such as diagnostic test statistics can be difficult to translate into practice. We aimed to employ a novel analytic approach, based on ordinal logistic regression, to predict weight status of 11-year-old children from measurements at age 5 years. Subjects/Methods: The UK 1990 growth references were used to generate clinical weight status categories of 12 076 children enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study. Using ordinal regression, we derived the predicted probability (percent chances) of 11-year-old children becoming underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese and severely obese from their weight status category at age 5 years. Results: The chances of becoming obese (including severely obese) at age 11 years were 5.7% (95% confidence interval: 5.2 to 6.2%) for a normal-weight 5-year-old child and 32.3% (29.8 to 34.8%) for an overweight 5-year-old child. An obese 5-year-old child had a 68.1% (63.8 to 72.5%) chance of remaining obese at 11 years. Severely obese 5-year-old children had a 50.3% (43.1 to 57.4%) chance of remaining severely obese. There were no substantial differences between sexes. Nondeprived obese 5-year-old boys had a lower probability of remaining obese than deprived obese boys: −21.8% (−40.4 to −3.2%). This association was not observed in obese 5-year-old girls, in whom the nondeprived group had a probability of remaining obese 7% higher (−15.2 to 29.2%). The sex difference in this interaction of deprivation and baseline weight status was therefore −28.8% (−59.3 to 1.6%). Conclusions: We have demonstrated that ordinal logistic regression can be an informative approach to predict the chances of a child changing to, or from, an unhealthy weight status. This approach is easy to interpret and could be applied to any longitudinal data set

  14. Cohort profile: the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaohui; Hu, Yisong; Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-02-01

    The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of persons in China 45 years of age or older and their spouses, including assessments of social, economic, and health circumstances of community-residents. CHARLS examines health and economic adjustments to rapid ageing of the population in China. The national baseline survey for the study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 and involved 17 708 respondents. CHARLS respondents are followed every 2 years, using a face-to-face computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI). Physical measurements are made at every 2-year follow-up, and blood sample collection is done once in every two follow-up periods. A pilot survey for CHARLS was conducted in two provinces of China in 2008, on 2685 individuals, who were resurveyed in 2012. To ensure the adoption of best practices and international comparability of results, CHARLS was harmonized with leading international research studies in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) model. Requests for collaborations should be directed to Dr Yaohui Zhao (yhzhao@nsd.edu.cn). All data in CHARLS are maintained at the National School of Development of Peking University and will be accessible to researchers around the world at the study website. The 2008 pilot data for CHARLS are available at: http://charls.ccer.edu.cn/charls/. National baseline data for the study are expected to be released in January 2013. PMID:23243115

  15. Cohort Profile: The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yaohui; Hu, Yisong; Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Yang, Gonghuan

    2014-01-01

    The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of persons in China 45 years of age or older and their spouses, including assessments of social, economic, and health circumstances of community-residents. CHARLS examines health and economic adjustments to rapid ageing of the population in China. The national baseline survey for the study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 and involved 17 708 respondents. CHARLS respondents are followed every 2 years, using a face-to-face computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI). Physical measurements are made at every 2-year follow-up, and blood sample collection is done once in every two follow-up periods. A pilot survey for CHARLS was conducted in two provinces of China in 2008, on 2685 individuals, who were resurveyed in 2012. To ensure the adoption of best practices and international comparability of results, CHARLS was harmonized with leading international research studies in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) model. Requests for collaborations should be directed to Dr Yaohui Zhao (yhzhao@nsd.edu.cn). All data in CHARLS are maintained at the National School of Development of Peking University and will be accessible to researchers around the world at the study website. The 2008 pilot data for CHARLS are available at: http://charls.ccer.edu.cn/charls/. National baseline data for the study are expected to be released in January 2013. PMID:23243115

  16. Longitudinal study of workers in an aluminum smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Enarson, D.A.; MacLean, L.; Irving, D.

    1989-05-01

    We conducted a 6-y follow-up study that included workers in an aluminum smelter in British Columbia. Of the original cohort, 951 workers left the industry and 985 workers participated in both studies. Comparison of those who left and those who remained showed that those who left were (1) older, (2) had a slightly higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, and (3) had lower lung function; this was especially true for workers who were 50 + y of age at the time the initial study was conducted. Analyses were conducted only on 586 male workers who did not change their job location or smoking habits between the initial and the follow-up study. Potroom workers in the ''high-exposure'' group had a significant reduction in the prevalence of cough, but experienced an increase in the prevalence of wheeze. There was no significant difference in the annual decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec and forced vital capacity between the potroom workers and controls. In general, older workers and smokers had a greater decline in lung function compared to younger workers and nonsmokers. Leukocyte count done during the initial study was found to be an independent predictor of longitudinal decline in lung function. The lack of exposure effect on longitudinal decline in lung function could be due to ''healthy worker'' effect and improvement in the working condition of the smelter.

  17. Sleep and the Transition to Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Avi; Dahl, Ronald E.; Shahar, Golan; Rosenblat-Stein, Shiran

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the links between sleep and pubertal development using a longitudinal design. Design: Three consecutive annual assessments of sleep and pubertal development. Sleep was assessed using a week of home actigraphy. Setting: Naturalistic sleep in the home setting of school children, Tel Aviv Area, Israel. Participants: A sample of 94 (41 boys) typically developing healthy school-age children (age range at first assessment: 9.9–11.2 years). Intervention: N/A Measurements and Results: The Petersen's Pubertal Development Scale (PDS) and Sexual Maturation Scale (SMS) were used to assess pubertal development, and a week of actigraphy served to assess naturalistic sleep patterns. The results reflect expected developmental trends: an increase in signs of pubertal maturation, delayed sleep onset, and shorter sleep time. After controlling for age, significant relationships were found between sleep onset time, true sleep time, and number of night wakings at Time 1 and pubertal ratings at Time 2, and pubertal changes from Time 1 to Time 2. Delayed and disrupted sleep at Time 1 predicted faster pubertal changes from Time 1 to Time 2. These results were supported by structural equation modeling. These findings were similar in boys and girls. Conclusions: Based on these longitudinal data, it appears that pubertal changes in sleep (delayed sleep phase and disrupted sleep patterns) antedate bodily changes associated with puberty. The underlying mechanisms explaining these predictive links should be further explored. Citation: Sadeh A; Dahl RE; Shahar G; Rosenblat-Stein S. Sleep and the transition to adolescence: a longitudinal study. SLEEP 2009;32(12):1602-1609. PMID:20041596

  18. Histo-topographic study of the longitudinal anal muscle.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Veronica; Porzionato, Andrea; Stecco, Carla; Vigato, Enrico; Parenti, Anna; De Caro, Raffaele

    2008-07-01

    The longitudinal anal muscle (LAM) has been described as a vertical layer of muscular tissue interposed between the circular layers of the internal (IAS) and external (EAS) anal sphincters. There is, however, no general agreement in the literature on its composition and attachments. The aim of this study was to investigate the histological structure, attachments, and topography of the LAM in order to evaluate its role in continence and defecation, thus enhancing knowledge of the surgical anatomy of this region. After in situ formalin fixation, the pelvic viscera were removed from eight male and eight female cadavers (age range: 52-72 years). Serial macrosections of the bladder base, lower rectum and anal canal, cervix and pelvic floor complex, cut in the transverse (six specimens) and coronal (six specimens) planes, underwent histological and immunohistochemical studies. Four specimens were studied using the E12 sheet plastination technique. The LAM was identified in 10/12 specimens (83%). Transverse and coronal sections made clear that it is a longitudinal layer of muscular tissue, marking the boundary between the internal and external anal sphincters. From the anorectal junction it extends along the anal canal, receives fibers from the innermost part of the puborectalis and the puboanalis muscles, and terminates with seven to nine fibro-elastic septa, which traverse the subcutaneous part of the external anal sphincter, reaching the perianal dermis. In the transverse plane, the mean thickness of the LAM was 1.68 +/- 0.27 mm. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the LAM consists of predominantly outer striated muscle fibers and smaller numbers of inner smooth muscle fibers, respectively coming from the levator ani muscle and from the longitudinal muscular layer of the rectum. The oblique fibers suggest that the LAM may represent the intermediate longitudinal course of small bridging muscle bundles going reciprocally from the striated EAS to the smooth IAS and

  19. Design and methods of the national Vietnam veterans longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Schlenger, William E; Corry, Nida H; Kulka, Richard A; Williams, Christianna S; Henn-Haase, Clare; Marmar, Charles R

    2015-09-01

    The National Vietnam Veterans Longitudinal Study (NVVLS) is the second assessment of a representative cohort of US veterans who served during the Vietnam War era, either in Vietnam or elsewhere. The cohort was initially surveyed in the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study (NVVRS) from 1984 to 1988 to assess the prevalence, incidence, and effects of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other post-war problems. The NVVLS sought to re-interview the cohort to assess the long-term course of PTSD. NVVLS data collection began July 3, 2012 and ended May 17, 2013, comprising three components: a mailed health questionnaire, a telephone health survey interview, and, for a probability sample of theater Veterans, a clinical diagnostic telephone interview administered by licensed psychologists. Excluding decedents, 78.8% completed the questionnaire and/or telephone survey, and 55.0% of selected living veterans participated in the clinical interview. This report provides a description of the NVVLS design and methods. Together, the NVVRS and NVVLS constitute a nationally representative longitudinal study of Vietnam veterans, and extend the NVVRS as a critical resource for scientific and policy analyses for Vietnam veterans, with policy relevance for Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. PMID:26096554

  20. "Old Age and Loneliness: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analyses in the Tampere Longitudinal Study on Aging"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jylha, Marja

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether older age is associated with increasing loneliness in people aged 60 and over. Data came from TamELSA, a population-based prospective longitudinal study in Tampere, Finland. The followup time was 20 years. Loneliness was measured by a single question--"Do you feel lonely?"--with the possible answers…

  1. A longitudinal study of epigenetic variation in twins

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Avshalom; Williams, Benjamin; Craig, Ian W; Houts, Renate; Ambler, Antony; Moffitt, Terrie E; Mill, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism involved in the developmental regulation of gene expression. Alterations in DNA methylation are established contributors to inter-individual phenotypic variation and have been associated with disease susceptibility. The degree to which changes in loci-specific DNA methylation are under the influence of heritable and environmental factors is largely unknown. In this study, we quantitatively measured DNA methylation across the promoter regions of the dopamine receptor 4 gene (DRD4), the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4/SERT) and the X-linked monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) using DNA sampled at both ages 5 and 10 years in 46 MZ twinpairs and 45 DZ twin-pairs (total n = 182). Our data suggest that DNA methylation differences are apparent already in early childhood, even between genetically identical individuals, and that individual differences in methylation are not stable over time. Our longitudinal-developmental study suggests that environmental influences are important factors accounting for interindividual DNA methylation differences, and that these influences differ across the genome. The observation of dynamic changes in DNA methylation over time highlights the importance of longitudinal research designs for epigenetic research. PMID:20505345

  2. Maintaining Superior Follow-Up Rates in a Longitudinal Study: Experiences from the College Life Study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Garnier-Dykstra, Laura M.; Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal studies are often considered to be a gold standard for research, but the operational management of such studies is not often discussed in detail; this paper describes strategies used to track and maintain high levels of participation in a longitudinal study involving annual personal interviews with a cohort of 1,253 undergraduates (first-time, first-year students at time of enrollment) at a large public mid-Atlantic university. PMID:22247739

  3. Gender Equity Issues in Education: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gougeon, Thomas D.; And Others

    This paper addressed: (1) gender equity issues in a major Canadian urban school district; and (2) made gender comparisons relating to seven specific equity measures associated with teachers who were hired from September 1982 to June 1993. The comparisons were made over an 11 year period and included consistency of work, frequency of leaves from…

  4. Does age at first treatment episode make a difference in outcomes over 11 years?

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Weisner, Constance; Grella, Christine E; Hser, Yih-Ing; Moore, Charles; Mertens, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the associations between age at first substance use treatment entry and trajectory of outcomes over 11 years. We found significant differences in individual and treatment characteristics between adult intakes first treated during young adulthood (25 years or younger) and those first treated at an older age. Compared to their first treated older age counterparts matched on demographics and dependence type, those who entered first treatment during young adulthood had on average an earlier onset for substance use but a shorter duration between first substance use and first treatment entry; they also had worse alcohol and other drug outcomes 11 years post treatment entry. While subsequent substance use treatment and 12-step meeting attendance are important for both age groups in maintaining positive outcomes, relationships varied by age group. Findings underline the importance of different continuing care management strategies for those entering first treatment at different developmental stages. PMID:24462221

  5. Longitudinal bunch dynamics study with coherent synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, B. E.; Bergstrom, J. C.; Baribeau, C.; Batten, T.; May, T. E.; Vogt, J. M.; Wurtz, W. A.

    2016-02-01

    An electron bunch circulating in a storage ring constitutes a dynamical system with both longitudinal and transverse degrees of freedom. Through a self-interaction with the wakefields created by the bunch, certain of these degrees may get excited, defining a set of eigenmodes analogous to a spectroscopic series. The present study focuses on the longitudinal modes of a single bunch. The excitation of a mode appears as an amplitude modulation at the mode frequency of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by the bunch. The modulations are superimposed on a much larger continuum from CSR emission in the continuous mode. A given eigenmode is classified by the integer m which is the ratio of the mode frequency to the synchrotron frequency. The present measurements extend up to m =8 and focus on the region near the instability thresholds. At threshold the modes are excited sequentially, resembling a staircase when the mode frequencies are plotted as a function of bunch length or synchrotron frequency. Adjacent modes are observed to coexist at the boundaries between the modes. An energy-independent correlation is observed between the threshold current for an instability and the corresponding zero-current bunch length. Measurements were made at five beam energies between 1.0 and 2.9 GeV at the Canadian Light Source. The CSR was measured in the time domain using an unbiased Schottky diode spanning 50-75 GHz.

  6. Longitudinal Study: Efficacy of Online Technology Tools for Instructional Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uenking, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Studies show that the student population (secondary and post secondary) is becoming increasingly more technologically savvy. Use of the internet, computers, MP3 players, and other technologies along with online gaming has increased tremendously amongst this population such that it is creating an apparent paradigm shift in the learning modalities of these students. Instructors and facilitators of learning can no longer rely solely on traditional lecture-based lesson formals. In order to achieve student academic success and satisfaction and to increase student retention, instructors must embrace various technology tools that are available and employ them in their lessons. A longitudinal study (January 2009-June 2010) has been performed that encompasses the use of several technology tools in an instructional setting. The study provides further evidence that students not only like the tools that are being used, but prefer that these tools be used to help supplement and enhance instruction.

  7. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  8. Carotid Artery Stenting: Single-Center Experience Over 11 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Nolz, Richard Schernthaner, Ruediger Egbert; Cejna, Manfred; Schernthaner, Melanie Lammer, Johannes Schoder, Maria

    2010-04-15

    This article reports the results of carotid artery stenting during an 11-year period. Data from 168 carotid artery stenting procedures (symptomatic, n = 55; asymptomatic, n = 101; symptoms not accessible, n = 12) were retrospectively collected. Primary technical success rate, neurological events in-hospital, access-site complications, and contrast-induced nephropathy (n = 118) were evaluated. To evaluate the influence of experience in carotid artery stenting on intraprocedural neurologic complications, patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included the first 80 treated patients, and group 2 the remainder of the patients (n = 88). In-stent restenoses at last-follow-up examinations (n = 89) were assessed. The overall primary technical success rate was 95.8%. The in-hospital stroke-death rate was 3.0% (n = 5; symptomatic, 5.4%; asymptomatic, 2.0%; p = 0.346). Neurologic complications were markedly higher in group 1 (4.2%; three major strokes; symptomatic, 2.8%, asymptomatic, 1.4%) compared to group 2 (2.4%; one major and one minor stroke-symptomatic, 1.2%, asymptomatic 1.2%), but this was not statistically significant. Further complications were access-site complications in 12 (7.1%), with surgical revision required in 1 (0.6%) and mild contrast-induced nephropathy in 1 (0.85%). Twenty-one (23.6%) patients had >50% in-stent restenosis during a mean follow-up of 28.2 months. In conclusion, advanced experience in carotid artery stenting leads to an acceptable periprocedural stroke-death rate. In-stent restenosis could be a critical factor during the follow-up course.

  9. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  10. A longitudinal study of early intellectual development in hemiplegic children.

    PubMed

    Muter, V; Taylor, S; Vargha-Khadem, F

    1997-03-01

    Thirty-eight 3- to 5-year-old children with unilateral lesions sustained pre- or peri-natally were studied longitudinally over a 2-year period, and their IQ scores compared with those of 20 "medical' controls. The failure to discover laterality effects following early unilateral injury supports the hypothesis of at least broad functional equipotentiality. There were few decrements in intellectual functioning provided the injury was not accompanied by seizures. The presence of seizures in contrast had a deleterious effect on both verbal and nonverbal aspects of cognitive functioning. While the IQs of the hemiplegic groups showed considerable stability over the 2-year span of the study, there was evidence that performance IQ, even in seizure-free patients, might be selectively impaired because of competition within the intact neural space for the sparing of verbal IQ. PMID:9051677

  11. Semiparametric Stochastic Modeling of the Rate Function in Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bin; Taylor, Jeremy M.G.; Song, Peter X.-K.

    2011-01-01

    In longitudinal biomedical studies, there is often interest in the rate functions, which describe the functional rates of change of biomarker profiles. This paper proposes a semiparametric approach to model these functions as the realizations of stochastic processes defined by stochastic differential equations. These processes are dependent on the covariates of interest and vary around a specified parametric function. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is developed for inference. The proposed method is compared with several existing methods in terms of goodness-of-fit and more importantly the ability to forecast future functional data in a simulation study. The proposed methodology is applied to prostate-specific antigen profiles for illustration. Supplementary materials for this paper are available online. PMID:22423170

  12. North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS 2): The Prodromal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Addington, Jean; Liu, Lu; Buchy, Lisa; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Perkins, Diana O.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming T.; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Mathalon, Daniel H.; McGlashan, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    In studies describing the long-term follow-up up of youth at clinical high risk (CHR) of psychosis, little attention has been given to details of specific prodromal symptoms. In this paper we describe the prodromal symptoms of 764 CHR participants recruited in the multi-site North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). Symptoms were rated on the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS) at baseline and 6, 12, 18 and 24 month follow-ups. Clinical outcome at the 2-year assessment was categorized as psychotic, prodromal progression, symptomatic or in remission. The majority of the CHR sample (93%) met criteria for the attenuated positive symptoms syndrome (APSS). Significant improvements in SOPS symptoms were observed overtime. Unusual thought content, disorganized communication and overall ratings on disorganized symptoms differentiated those who transitioned to psychosis from the other clinical outcome groups. Suspiciousness and total positive symptoms differentiated those in remission from the other clinical outcome groups. PMID:25919383

  13. Hearing loss in the Royal Norwegian Navy: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Baste, Valborg; Bråtveit, Magne; Lind, Ola; Koefoed, Vilhelm F.; Moen, Bente E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this longitudinal study were to investigate a significant threshold shift (STS) among personnel working on board the Royal Norwegian Navy's (RNoN) vessels between 2012 and 2014 and to identify possible determinants of STS. Hearing thresholds were measured by pure tone audiometry in two consecutive examinations (n = 226). STS was defined as an average change in hearing thresholds ≥ + 10 dB at 2,000 Hz, 3,000 Hz, and 4,000 Hz in either ear. Determinants of STS were assessed through a questionnaire. The incidence of STS was 23.0%. Significant determinants of STS were the number of episodes of temporary threshold shifts (TTS) in the Navy, exposure to continuous loud noise during work on board, and the number of gun shots (in the Navy, hunting, and sports). This study indicated a significant association between noise exposure on board Navy vessels and development of STS. PMID:27157689

  14. A Longitudinal Adoption Study of Substance Use Behavior in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Huibregtse, Brooke M; Corley, Robin P; Wadsworth, Sally J; Vandever, Joanna M; DeFries, John C; Stallings, Michael C

    2016-08-01

    Although cross-sectional twin studies have assessed the genetic and environmental etiologies of substance use during adolescence and early adulthood, comparisons of results across different samples, measures, and cohorts are problematic. While several longitudinal twin studies have investigated these issues, few corroborating adoption studies have been conducted. The current study is the first to estimate the magnitude of genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on substance use (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) from ages 14 to 18 years, using a prospective longitudinal adoption design. Adoptive and control sibling correlations provided substantial evidence for early genetic effects on cigarette, alcohol, and marijuana use/no use. Shared environmental effects were relatively modest, except for alcohol use, which showed increases in late adolescence (age 17 to 18 years). Sibling similarity for quantity/frequency of use also support additive genetic influences across adolescence, with some shared environmental influences for all three substances. To test the stability of these influences across time, a series of independent pathway models were run to explore common and age-specific influences. For all substances, there were minimal age-specific additive genetic and shared environmental influences on quantity/frequency of use. Further, there was a trend toward increasing genetic influences on cigarette and alcohol use across ages. Genetic influences on marijuana were important early, but did not contribute substantially at age 17 and 18 years. Overall, the findings indicate that genetic influences make important contributions to the frequency/quantity of substance use in adolescence, and suggest that new genetic influences may emerge in late adolescence for cigarette and alcohol use. PMID:27161024

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Uremic Pruritus in Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Vandana S.; Lindberg, Jill; Germain, Michael; Block, Geoffrey; Tumlin, James; Smith, Mark; Grewal, Mandeep

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Although uremic pruritus (UP) is a highly prevalent complication of chronic kidney disease, it remains poorly characterized. There have been no longitudinal studies of natural history, and no health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) instruments have been developed for UP. The objectives of this study were to describe the natural history of UP, to compare rating scales of itching intensity, and to assess usefulness and validity of HR-QOL instruments for UP. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: The intensity, severity, and effects of pathologic itching on HR-QOL were assessed prospectively in 103 patients with UP on chronic hemodialysis. Outcome measures were obtained at scheduled intervals over 3.5 months. Results: Itching daily or nearly daily was reported by 84% of patients and had been ongoing for >1 year in 59%. In 83%, pruritus involved large, nondermatomal areas with striking bilateral symmetry. Two thirds of the patients were using medications such as antihistamines, steroids, and various emollients without satisfactory relief of itching. Statistically significant associations were found among itching intensity, severity, and HR-QOL measures in domains such as mood, social relations, and sleep. Among patients with moderate-to-severe UP, changes in itching intensity of 20% or greater were associated with significant reductions in HR-QOL measures. Conclusions: This first longitudinal study of UP describes key features of UP and its effect on HR-QOL. The assessment instruments we have developed are easily used, are responsive to changes in UP intensity, and should facilitate clinical evaluation and research to meet the needs of afflicted patients. PMID:20558560

  16. Attachment orientations and depression: a longitudinal study of new parents.

    PubMed

    Rholes, W Steven; Simpson, Jeffry A; Kohn, Jamie L; Wilson, Carol L; Martin, A McLeish; Tran, Sisi; Kashy, Deborah A

    2011-04-01

    In this longitudinal study, we followed a large sample of first-time parents (both partners) across the first 2 years of the transition to parenthood. Guided by attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969), we tested several predictions about how attachment anxiety and avoidance are related to the incidence, maintenance, increase, and decline of depressive symptoms in both sexes across the first 2 years of the transition. We found that (a) the association between attachment anxiety and depressive symptoms was moderated by factors related to the marital and/or romantic relationship; (b) the association between avoidance and depressive symptoms was moderated by factors related to family responsibilities; (c) styles of caregiving provided by romantic partners affected depressive symptoms differently among anxious and avoidant persons; and (d) in certain predictable situations, depressive symptoms persisted at higher levels or increased to higher levels in anxious or avoidant persons across the 2-year transition period. Important implications of these results are discussed. PMID:21443372

  17. Young adults with developmental coordination disorder: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tal-Saban, Miri; Ornoy, Asher; Parush, Shula

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to assess the continuing influence of developmental coordination disorder (DCD) on quality of life and participation. Ninety-six participants (25 in the DCD group, 30 in the borderline group, and 41 in the control group) ages 22-29 yr who had been screened for DCD 3-4 yr previously completed the Participation in Every Day Activities of Life, the Life-Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) instrument. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant between-groups difference, F(7, 95) = 2.89, p = .001, η = 0.173, and post hoc analyses revealed that participants in the DCD and borderline groups scored lower overall on participation, quality of life, and life satisfaction. Linear regression found the Psychological Health domain of the WHOQOL-BREF to be a significant predictor of life satisfaction (B = 0.533; p = .001). PMID:24797194

  18. Facial expression recognition in Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Torres, Bianca; Santos, Raquel Luiza; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Belfort, Tatiana T; Dias, Rachel; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2015-05-01

    Facial recognition is one of the most important aspects of social cognition. In this study, we investigate the patterns of change and the factors involved in the ability to recognize emotion in mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Through a longitudinal design, we assessed 30 people with AD. We used an experimental task that includes matching expressions with picture stimuli, labelling emotions and emotionally recognizing a stimulus situation. We observed a significant difference in the situational recognition task (p ≤ 0.05) between baseline and the second evaluation. The linear regression showed that cognition is a predictor of emotion recognition impairment (p ≤ 0.05). The ability to perceive emotions from facial expressions was impaired, particularly when the emotions presented were relatively subtle. Cognition is recruited to comprehend emotional situations in cases of mild dementia. PMID:26017202

  19. Nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: a longitudinal study of outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gaudine, Alice; Thorne, Linda

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals with organizational commitment, stress, turnover intention, absence and turnover. Participants were 410 nurses working at four different Canadian hospitals. A longitudinal design was used where nurses completed a questionnaire to capture ethical conflict, stress and organizational commitment, and one year later, measures of turnover intention, absence and actual turnover were obtained for the same sample. We found three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals: patient care values, value of nurses, and staffing policy values. Our findings showed that all three aspects of nurses' ethical conflict are associated with stress and patient care values is associated with actual turnover. We also found that staffing policy values is predictive of turnover intention, and that patient care values is predictive of absenteeism. Thus, our findings show the multidimensionality of nurses' ethical conflict with hospitals. Further implications of our findings for practice and theory are discussed. PMID:22619238

  20. Motion sickness susceptibility and aerobic fitness: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B S; Money, K E; Jacobs, I

    1990-03-01

    A longitudinal study evaluated the susceptibility to motion sickness in initially unfit subjects before and after an endurance training program. Motion stimulation was provided by the Precision Angular Mover, in which the subject was tumbled head over heels about an Earth-horizontal axis at 20 cycles per minute in darkness. Maximal aerobic power and the blood lactate response to submaximal exercise were evaluated with cycle ergometry. The training program caused significant improvements in VO2max and endurance capacity, and a significant decrease in percent body fat. There was a significant (p less than 0.0125) increase in motion sickness susceptibility after the physical training, suggesting that increased physical fitness caused increased susceptibility to motion sickness in some individuals. PMID:2156490

  1. Early cognitive profiles of emergent readers: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brunswick, Nicola; Neil Martin, G; Rippon, Georgina

    2012-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability to reading development in 142 English-speaking children from the start of kindergarten to the middle of Grade 2. Partial cross-lagged analyses revealed significant relationships between early performance on block design and matching letter-like forms tasks and later reading ability. Rhyme awareness correlated with later reading ability during the earliest stages, but onset awareness did not emerge as important until after the children had started reading. Digit span correlated significantly with future reading ability at every stage. These findings indicate that although phonological awareness, phonological memory, and visuospatial ability are all necessary for emergent reading, their relative importance varies across the first 2 years of reading development. PMID:21962459

  2. A Longitudinal Twin Study of Skewed X Chromosome-Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chloe Chung Yi; Caspi, Avshalom; Williams, Benjamin; Houts, Renate; Craig, Ian W.; Mill, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a pivotal epigenetic mechanism involved in the dosage compensation of X-linked genes between males and females. In any given cell, the process of XCI in early female development is thought to be random across alleles and clonally maintained once established. Recent studies, however, suggest that XCI might not always be random and that skewed inactivation may become more prevalent with age. The factors influencing such XCI skewing and its changes over time are largely unknown. To elucidate the influence of stochastic, heritable and environmental factors in longitudinal changes in XCI, we examined X inactivation profiles in a sample of monozygotic (MZ) (n = 23) and dizygotic (DZ) (n = 22) female twin-pairs at ages 5 and 10 years. Compared to MZ twins who were highly concordant for allelic XCI ratios, DZ twins showed much lower levels of concordance. Whilst XCI patterns were moderately stable between ages 5 and 10 years, there was some drift over time with an increased prevalence of more extreme XCI skewing at age 10. To our knowledge, this study represents the earliest longitudinal assessment of skewed XCI patterns, and suggests that skewed XCI may already be established in early childhood. Our data also suggest a link between MZ twinning and the establishment of allelic XCI ratios, and demonstrate that acquired skewing in XCI after establishment is primarily mediated by stochastic mechanisms. These data have implications for our understanding about sex differences in complex disease, and the potential causes of phenotypic discordance between MZ female twins. PMID:21445353

  3. Age, Intelligence, and Event-Related Brain Potentials during Late Childhood: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauder, Johannes E. A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the relationship between event-related brain activity, age, and intelligence using a visual oddball task presented to girls at 9, 10, and 11 years of age. Findings for 26 girls suggest a qualitative shift in the relation between event-related brain activity and intelligence between 9 and 10 years of age. (SLD)

  4. Positive Life Experiences: A Qualitative, Cross-Sectional, Longitudinal Study of Gifted Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jean Sunde; Canady, Kate; Duncan, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    At the culmination of an 11-year qualitative, cross-sectional study of life events, 48 high-ability high school graduates fitting common stereotypes associated with giftedness completed an open-ended questionnaire, part of which focused on positive life experiences and sources of support. Findings included that intense investment in academics,…

  5. Assessing candidate serum biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zabel, Matthew; Schrag, Matthew; Mueller, Claudius; Zhou, Weidong; Crofton, Andrew; Petersen, Floyd; Dickson, April; Kirsch, Wolff M

    2012-01-01

    Because of the growing impact of late onset cognitive loss, considerable effort has been directed toward the development of improved diagnostic techniques for Alzheimer's disease (AD) that may pave the way for earlier (and more effective) therapeutic efforts. Serum-based biomarkers are the least expensive and invasive modality for screening and routine monitoring. We systematically reviewed the literature to assemble a list of serum biomarkers relevant to AD. In parallel, we conducted a proteomic LC-MS/MS analysis of serum collected from neurologically normal subjects and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early AD (n = 6 in all). Complement C3 and alpha-2-macroglobulin were identified from both the literature review and our proteomic screen for further validation. For these two candidates, ELISA was performed on serum collected from a small independent cohort of subjects for longitudinal analysis. Serum was serially collected from neurologically normal subjects (n = 5) and subjects with MCI who were subsequently followed for a period of two years (n = 5) and regrouped into stable MCI and progressive MCI or AD (n = 6). The ability of each marker to predict which subjects with MCI would progress to dementia and which would remain cognitively stable was assessed. Patients with probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy were also identified (n = 3). This preliminary analysis tested the most-promising serum protein biomarkers for AD and we concluded that none are yet ready for use in the clinical diagnosis and management of dementia. However, a more thorough assessment in longitudinal studies with higher statistical power is warranted. PMID:22426016

  6. Optimal designs for epidemiologic longitudinal studies with binary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mehtälä, Juha; Auranen, Kari; Kulathinal, Sangita

    2015-12-01

    Alternating presence and absence of a medical condition in human subjects is often modelled as an outcome of underlying process dynamics. Longitudinal studies provide important insights into research questions involving such dynamics. This article concerns optimal designs for studies in which the dynamics are modelled as a binary continuous-time Markov process. Either one or both the transition rate parameters in the model are to be estimated with maximum precision from a sequence of observations made at discrete times on a number of subjects. The design questions concern the choice of time interval between observations, the initial state of each subject and the choice between number of subjects versus repeated observations per subject. Sequential designs are considered due to dependence of the designs on the model parameters. The optimal time spacing can be approximated by the reciprocal of the sum of the two rates. The initial distribution of the study subjects should be taken into account when relatively few repeated samples per subject are to be collected. A study with a reasonably large size should be designed in more than one phase because there are then enough observations to be spent in the first phase to revise the time spacing for the subsequent phases. PMID:22170892

  7. Natural history of alpha mannosidosis a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alpha-Mannosidosis is a rare lysosomal storage disorder, caused by the deficiency of the enzyme alpha-Mannosidase. Clinically it is characterized by hearing impairment, skeletal and neurological abnormalities and mental retardation. In order to characterize the clinical features and disease progression of patients affected by alpha-Mannosidosis, a survey study was conducted. 43 patients from 4 European countries participated in this longitudinal study. Age range of the participants was 3 to 42 years. For each patient a medical history, complete physical and neurological examination, joint range of motion and assessment of physical endurance and of lung function were completed. In addition, serum and urinary oligosaccharide levels were analysed. Methods In this multicenter longitudinal study clinical data of 43 alpha-Mannosidosis patients were collected. In addition to objective clinical measurements biochemical assays were performed. Results Data analysis revealed a wide spectrum of clinical presentation regarding the severity and disease progression. Most clinical abnormalities were observed in the musculoskeletal and neurological system. All patients showed mental retardation and hearing loss from early childhood. An impairment in physical endurance was revealed by the 6-minute walk and 3-minute stair stair climb tests. There was only slight progression of a few clinical findings: Psychiatric troubles in both groups essentially, and respiratory dysfunction under 18 years. The serum and urinary oligosaccharide levels were increased in all affected individuals and correlated well with the 6-minute walk and 3-minute stair climb test results. Conclusions This study confirms that alpha-Mannosidosis is a very heterogeneous disorder regarding both, disease severity and progression. As it has been shown that Mannosidosis patients are able to perform lung function tests and the 6MWT and stair-climb test, these clinical parameters apparently can be used as

  8. Connections between Learning Experience, Study Behaviour and Academic Performance: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, H. K.; Downing, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Background: Whilst past studies have established the joint influence of student learning experience and study behaviour on academic achievement, few attempts have been made to determine their causal ordering in a longitudinal framework. Purpose: This study explored the reciprocal relationship between learning experience and study behaviour, and…

  9. Stress Process of Illicit Drug Use among U.S. Immigrants' Adolescent Children: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Hyekyung

    2012-01-01

    This study examined a full path model of stress process for predicting illicit drug use among Asian and Latino immigrants' adolescent children. Using 2-year longitudinal data (National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health) from a sample of adolescents with Asian or Latino immigrant parents (N = 2,353), the study explored structural…

  10. Parental influences on adolescent physical activity: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Ornelas, India J; Perreira, Krista M; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2007-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is increasing among adolescents in the U.S., especially among girls. Despite growing evidence that parents are an important influence on adolescent health, few longitudinal studies have explored the causal relationship between parental influence and physical activity. This study examines how the relationships between parental influences and adolescent physical activity differ by gender and tests whether these relationships are mediated by adolescents' self-esteem and depression. Methods Data are from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The sample includes 13,246 youth, grades 7 to 12, interviewed in 1995 and again 1 year later. Logit models were used to evaluate parental influences on achieving five or more bouts of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week [MVPA] and whether the relationship between parental influence and MVPA was mediated by adolescents' level of self-esteem and depression. Results Family cohesion, parent-child communication and parental engagement positively predicted MVPA for both genders one year later (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for females, 1.09 [1.05–1.12], 1.13 [1.07–1.19], 1.25 [1.17–1.33] and males, 1.08 [1.04–1.11], 1.14 [1.07–1.23], 1.23 [1.14–1.33], respectively); however, parental monitoring did not (odds ratio and confidence intervals for females and males, 1.02 [.97–1.07]). For both females and males, self-esteem mediated the relationship between parental influence and physical activity. Depressive symptoms were only a mediator among males. Females reported higher levels of parent-child communication and lower family cohesion compared with males. There were no gender differences in levels of parental monitoring and engagement. Females had significantly lower levels of self-esteem and higher levels of depressive symptoms than males. Conclusion Strategies to promote physical activity among adolescents should focus on increasing levels of family

  11. Undergraduate nursing students' learning styles: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Sandra; McKee, Gabrielle; Huntley-Moore, Sylvia

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the main findings of a longitudinal study of the learning styles of one cohort of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students at an Irish university. The Honey and Mumford (2000a) Learning Styles Questionnaire was administered to a sample of students in their first (n=202) and final year of study (n=166), the final sample number (58) was based on matched pairs. The most common dominant learning style in first year was the dual learning category (35%) while a large proportion of the students (53%) in their final year had no dominant learning style. The preferred learning style of students in their first (69%) and final (57%) year was reflector. Learning styles were significantly different at the two time points and there was a significant relationship between some learning styles and students' age but not with academic achievement. Total scores of all learning styles showed significant improvements across the two time points of the study. An important implication for nurse education practice is the need for nurse educators to be aware of students' learning styles and in an attempt to maximise students' learning potential, utilise a range of teaching and learning methodologies and assessments that develop all learning styles. PMID:20863600

  12. A longitudinal study relating carpeting with sick building syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Norbaeck, D.; Torgen, M. )

    1989-01-01

    A longitudinal questionnaire study was performed among personnel in two Swedish primary schools with wall-to-wall carpets and four schools with hard floor covering. The study groups consisted of all primary schools equipped with wall-to-wall carpets in the town of Uppsala, plus a random sample of two newer and two elderly primary schools with hard floor covering. In an initial cross-sectional study, the wall-to-wall carpet group reported an enhanced prevalence of eye and airway symptoms, face rashes, headache, abnormal tiredness and a sensation of being electrostatically charged in comparison with personnel in schools with hard floor covering. Since the enhanced prevalence of symptoms in the wall-to-wall carpets versus the hard floor covering group was also observed among persons without signs of atopy it was concluded that wall-to-wall carpets are not exclusively a problem for the sensitive atopic individual. The type of ventilation system (mechanical ventilation versus natural ventilation) had no significant effect on the symptom frequencies. After the removal of the wall-to-wall carpets, many of the reported symptoms decreased to a level similar to the group without previous or present exposure to such carpets. However, the frequency of airway symptoms remained enhanced among the wall-to-wall carpet group.

  13. Longitudinal study of circulating protein biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Viennois, Emilie; Baker, Mark T.; Xiao, Bo; Wang, Lixin; Laroui, Hamed; Merlin, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic and progressive inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. In IBD, protein serological biomarkers could be relevant tools for assessing disease activity, performing early-stage diagnosis and managing the treatment. Using the interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10−/−) mouse, a model that develops a time-dependent IBD-like disorder that predominates in the colon; we performed longitudinal studies of circulating protein biomarkers in IBD. Circulating protein profiles in serum samples collected from 30-, 93-, and 135-day-old IL-10−/− mice were investigated using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis and MALDI TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 15 different proteins were identified and confirmed by ELISA and Western blot to be differentially accumulated in serum samples from mid- to late-stage IL-10−/− mice compared to early non-inflamed IL-10−/− mice. The use of another model of colitis and an extra-intestinal inflammation model validated this biomarker panel and demonstrated that comprised some global inflammatory markers, some intestinal inflammation-specific markers and some chronic intestinal inflammation markers. Statistical analyses using misclassification error rate charts validated the use of these identified proteins as powerful biomarkers of colitis. Unlike standard biomarker screening studies, our analyses identified a panel of proteins that allowed the definition of protein signatures that reflect colitis status. PMID:25230104

  14. A longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides.

    PubMed

    Dodge, R; Solomon, P; Moyers, J; Hayes, C

    1985-05-01

    This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate (SO4=). The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO2 levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO4= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO2 concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO4= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected. PMID:4014164

  15. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  16. Longitudinal study of children exposed to sulfur oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.; Solomon, P.; Moyers, J.; Hayes, C.

    1985-05-01

    This study is a longitudinal comparison of the health of children exposed to markedly different concentrations of sulfur dioxide and moderately different concentrations of particulate sulfate. The four groups of subjects lived in two areas of one smelter town and in two other towns, one of which was also a smelter town. In the area of highest pollution, children were intermittently exposed to high SO/sub 2/ levels (peak three-hour average concentration exceeded 2,500 micrograms/m3) and moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= levels (average concentration was 10.1 micrograms/m3). When the children were grouped by the four gradients of pollution observed, the prevalence of cough (measured by questionnaire) correlated significantly with pollution levels (trend chi-square = 5.6, p = 0.02). No significant differences in the incidence of cough or other symptoms occurred among the groups of subjects over three years, and pulmonary function and lung function growth over the study were roughly equal among all the groups. These results suggest that intermittent elevations in SO/sub 2/ concentration, in the presence of moderate particulate SO/sub 4/= concentration, produced evidence of bronchial irritation in the subjects, but no chronic effect on lung function or lung function growth was detected.

  17. A longitudinal study of very young children's vowel production

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Rebecca W.; McGowan, Richard S.; Denny, Margaret; Nittrouer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ecologically realistic, spontaneous adult-directed longitudinal speech data of young children was described by acoustic analyses. Method The first two formant frequencies of vowels produced by six children from different American English dialect regions were analyzed from ages 18 to 48 months. The vowels were from largely conversational contexts and were classified according to dictionary pronunciation. Results Within-subject formant frequency variability remained relatively constant for the span of ages studied here. It was often difficult to detect overall decreases in the first two formant frequencies between the ages of 30 and 48 months. A study of the movement of the corner vowels with respect to the vowel centroid showed that the shape of the vowel space remained qualitatively constant from 30 through 48 months. Conclusions The shape of the vowel space is established early in life. Some aspects of regional dialect were observed in some of the subjects at 42 months of age. The present paper adds to the existing data on the development of vowel spaces by describing ecologically realistic speech. PMID:24687464

  18. Whole grain intake: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Maras, Janice E.; Newby, P.K.; Bakun, Peter J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to identify major dietary sources of whole grains and to describe the construction of a database of whole grain content of foods. Dietary information was collected with 7-d food records from men and women in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, mean age 62.1 ± 16.0 years, who participated in the dietary assessment portion of the study (n = 1516), and estimates of whole grain intake were obtained from a newly developed database. The Pyramid Servings database and 1994–1996 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) recipe ingredients database were then used to calculate both servings and gram weights of whole grain intakes. Mean intakes of whole grains, refined grains, and total grains, as well as frequency of intake for major whole grain food groups and whole grain content for each group, were calculated. Top contributors of whole grains were ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (made with whole grain as well as bran), hot breakfast cereals (made with whole grain), multi-grain bread, and whole wheat bread. While more research is needed to better understand the benefits of whole grains, the development of research tools, including databases to accurately assess whole grain intake, is a critical step in completing such research. PMID:20126297

  19. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  20. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Hayat, Matthew J.; Gross, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers’ attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95% CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95% CI [.96-.99], p = .03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad. PMID:23737011

  1. Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwierzynska, Karolina; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Tanya S.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic childhood experiences have been found to predict later internalizing problems. This prospective longitudinal study investigated whether repeated and intentional harm doing by peers (peer victimization) in childhood predicts internalizing symptoms in early adolescence. 3,692 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  2. A Longitudinal Study on the Stability over Time of School and Teacher Effects on Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyriakides, Leonidas; Creemers, Bert P. M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews educational effectiveness theory, concentrating on the time stability of the teacher and school effect. The contribution of longitudinal studies investigating the long-term effect of schools and teachers to modelling educational effectiveness is discussed. Findings of a longitudinal study on the progress of students (N=1681) in…

  3. Reducing Bias Due to Systematic Attrition in Longitudinal Studies: The Benefits of Multiple Imputation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Hutteman, Roos

    2014-01-01

    Most longitudinal studies are plagued by drop-out related to variables at earlier assessments (systematic attrition). Although systematic attrition is often analysed in longitudinal studies, surprisingly few researchers attempt to reduce biases due to systematic attrition, even though this is possible and nowadays technically easy. This is…

  4. The doubly labeled water method produces highly reproducible longitudinal results in nutrition studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is considered the reference method for the measurement of energy expenditure under free-living conditions. However, the reproducibility of the DLW method in longitudinal studies is not well documented. This study was designed to evaluate the longitudinal reprodu...

  5. 77 FR 2349 - Proposed Information Collection (Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... VBA's Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (VR&E) Program. DATES: Written comments and... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900--New (VR&E Longitudinal Study Survey)'' in any correspondence...: Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Longitudinal Study Survey. OMB Control Number: 2900--New...

  6. The Timing of Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Child Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Jonathan; Melotti, Roberto; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul; Wiles, Nicola; Murray, Lynne; Stein, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression is known to be associated with impairments in child cognitive development, although the effect of timing of exposure to maternal depression is unclear. Methods: Data collected for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a longitudinal study beginning in pregnancy, included self-report measures of…

  7. Maturation of auditory neural processes in autism spectrum disorder — A longitudinal MEG study

    PubMed Central

    Port, Russell G.; Edgar, J. Christopher; Ku, Matthew; Bloy, Luke; Murray, Rebecca; Blaskey, Lisa; Levy, Susan E.; Roberts, Timothy P.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show atypical brain activity, perhaps due to delayed maturation. Previous studies examining the maturation of auditory electrophysiological activity have been limited due to their use of cross-sectional designs. The present study took a first step in examining magnetoencephalography (MEG) evidence of abnormal auditory response maturation in ASD via the use of a longitudinal design. Methods Initially recruited for a previous study, 27 children with ASD and nine typically developing (TD) children, aged 6- to 11-years-old, were re-recruited two to five years later. At both timepoints, MEG data were obtained while participants passively listened to sinusoidal pure-tones. Bilateral primary/secondary auditory cortex time domain (100 ms evoked response latency (M100)) and spectrotemporal measures (gamma-band power and inter-trial coherence (ITC)) were examined. MEG measures were also qualitatively examined for five children who exhibited “optimal outcome”, participants who were initially on spectrum, but no longer met diagnostic criteria at follow-up. Results M100 latencies were delayed in ASD versus TD at the initial exam (~ 19 ms) and at follow-up (~ 18 ms). At both exams, M100 latencies were associated with clinical ASD severity. In addition, gamma-band evoked power and ITC were reduced in ASD versus TD. M100 latency and gamma-band maturation rates did not differ between ASD and TD. Of note, the cohort of five children that demonstrated “optimal outcome” additionally exhibited M100 latency and gamma-band activity mean values in-between TD and ASD at both timepoints. Though justifying only qualitative interpretation, these “optimal outcome” related data are presented here to motivate future studies. Conclusions Children with ASD showed perturbed auditory cortex neural activity, as evidenced by M100 latency delays as well as reduced transient gamma-band activity. Despite evidence for maturation

  8. A longitudinal examination of the measurement properties and predictive utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale among North American Indigenous adolescents.

    PubMed

    Armenta, Brian E; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J; Whitbeck, Les B; Crawford, Devan M; Hoyt, Dan R

    2014-12-01

    We examined the longitudinal measurement properties and predictive utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) from early to late adolescence among a sample of North American Indigenous youths. Participants were 632 North American Indigenous adolescents (n = 632; 50.3% girls; M age at baseline = 11.11 years) participating in an 8-year, 8-wave longitudinal study. Via in-person interviews, participants completed the CES-D at Waves 1, 3, 5, and 7, and the major depressive disorder (MDD) module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children at Waves 1, 4, 6, and 8. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that responses to the CES-D were similarly explained by 2-, 3-, and 4-factor models, as well as a 1-factor model with correlations between the error variances for the positively worded items. Longitudinal measurement equivalence analyses indicated full structural (i.e., factor structure), metric (i.e., factor loadings), and scalar (i.e., observed item intercepts) equivalence for each factor structure. Substantive analyses showed that the CES-D was significantly associated with MDD both concurrently and prospectively, although these effects were smaller than might be expected. Finally, the CES-D negative affect and somatic complaints subscales were the strongest and most consistent predictors of MDD. Among our sample of North American Indigenous youths, the measurement properties of the CES-D were stable from early to late adolescence. Moreover, somatic difficulties and depressed affect were the strongest predictors of MDD. PMID:25181394

  9. A Longitudinal Examination of the Measurement Properties and Predictive Utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale Among North American Indigenous Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Armenta, Brian E.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; Whitbeck, Les B.; Crawford, Devan M.; Hoyt, Dan R.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the longitudinal measurement properties and predictive utility of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) from early to late adolescence among a sample of North American Indigenous youths. Participants were 632 North American Indigenous adolescents (n = 632; 50.3% girls; M age at baseline = 11.11 years) participating in an 8-year, 8-wave longitudinal study. Via in-person interviews, participants completed the CES-D at Waves 1, 3, 5, and 7, and the major depressive disorder (MDD) module of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children at Waves 1, 4, 6, and 8. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that responses to the CES-D were similarly explained by 2-, 3-, and 4-factor models, as well as a 1-factor model with correlations between the error variances for the positively worded items. Longitudinal measurement equivalence analyses indicated full structural (i.e., factor structure), metric (i.e., factor loadings), and scalar (i.e., observed item intercepts) equivalence for each factor structure. Substantive analyses showed that the CES-D was significantly associated with MDD both concurrently and prospectively, although these effects were smaller than might be expected. Finally, the CES-D negative affect and somatic complaints subscales were the strongest and most consistent predictors of MDD. Among our sample of North American Indigenous youths, the measurement properties of the CES-D were stable from early to late adolescence. Moreover, somatic difficulties and depressed affect were the strongest predictors of MDD. PMID:25181394

  10. Minor delinquency and immigration: a longitudinal study among male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Titzmann, Peter F; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Mesch, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of general theories of delinquency and the specific situation of immigrants, this longitudinal study investigated predictors of initial levels and rates of change in delinquency among 188 male ethnic German Diaspora immigrants from the former Soviet Union (FSU) in Germany, 237 male native German adolescents, and 182 male Jewish Diaspora adolescents from the FSU in Israel. The participants (15.2 years old) completed 3 annual assessments. Latent growth curve models showed that ethnic German adolescents reported higher initial levels of delinquency than native German adolescents and lower levels than the Russian Jewish adolescents. Groups did not differ in the rate of change, indicating a decrease in delinquency over time. Peer-oriented leisure related positively and parental knowledge negatively with levels and change rates in delinquency in all groups, but could not fully account for the ethnic differences in delinquency levels. School bonding was associated negatively with delinquency only among native German adolescents. Acculturation-related hassles were an additional predictor for higher levels and also associated with change rates in the immigrant groups. Thus, general theories of delinquency apply to immigrants, but may be complemented by adding acculturation-specific challenges. PMID:23586943

  11. Parent-Offspring Similarity for Drinking: A Longitudinal Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study (SIBS). Drinking data was available for 1229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22–28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  12. Results from the Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivie, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronomy Graduate Students (LSAGS), an ongoing, joint project of the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the American Institute of Physics (AIP), first collected survey data from astronomy and astrophysics graduate students in 2007-08. The LSAGS follows the same people, all of whom were in graduate school in 2006-07, over time as they start their careers. Most of the respondents are currently working as postdocs. There have been two rounds of the survey so far, and we have recently received funding for a third round from the National Science Foundation (AST-1347723). Results from the first round showed the importance of mentoring for graduate students. Data collection for the second round has been completed, and AIP has just begun analysis of these data. At this talk, I will present the results of the second survey. Ultimately, the LSAGS will *provide detailed data on trends in employment over 10+ years for a single cohort, *collect data on people who leave the field of astronomy during or after graduate school, *determine whether there are sex differences in attrition from astronomy and reasons for this, and *examine factors that precede decisions to persist in, or leave, the field of astronomy.

  13. Parent-offspring similarity for drinking: a longitudinal adoption study.

    PubMed

    McGue, Matt; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G

    2014-11-01

    Parent-offspring resemblance for drinking was investigated in a sample of 409 adopted and 208 non-adopted families participating in the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study. Drinking data was available for 1,229 offspring, assessed longitudinally up to three times in the age range from 10 to 28 years. A single drinking index was computed from four items measuring quantity, frequency and density of drinking. As expected, the mean drinking index increased with age, was greater in males as compared to females (although not at the younger ages), but did not vary significantly by adoption status. Parent-offspring correlation in drinking did not vary significantly by either offspring or parent gender but did differ significantly by adoption status. In adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages but decreased for the oldest age group (age 22-28). In non-adopted families, the parent-offspring correlation was statistically significant at all ages and increased in the oldest age group. Findings imply that genetic influences on drinking behavior increase with age while shared family environment influences decline, especially during the transition from late-adolescence to early adulthood. PMID:25224596

  14. Variable selection for semiparametric mixed models in longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xiao; Zhang, Daowen; Zhang, Hao Helen

    2010-03-01

    We propose a double-penalized likelihood approach for simultaneous model selection and estimation in semiparametric mixed models for longitudinal data. Two types of penalties are jointly imposed on the ordinary log-likelihood: the roughness penalty on the nonparametric baseline function and a nonconcave shrinkage penalty on linear coefficients to achieve model sparsity. Compared to existing estimation equation based approaches, our procedure provides valid inference for data with missing at random, and will be more efficient if the specified model is correct. Another advantage of the new procedure is its easy computation for both regression components and variance parameters. We show that the double-penalized problem can be conveniently reformulated into a linear mixed model framework, so that existing software can be directly used to implement our method. For the purpose of model inference, we derive both frequentist and Bayesian variance estimation for estimated parametric and nonparametric components. Simulation is used to evaluate and compare the performance of our method to the existing ones. We then apply the new method to a real data set from a lactation study. PMID:19397585

  15. Validation of Maturity Offset in the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M; Choh, Audrey C; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Chumlea, Wm Cameron

    2016-08-01

    Sex-specific equations for predicting maturity offset, time before or after peak height velocity (PHV), were evaluated in 63 girls and 74 boys from the Fels Longitudinal Study. Serially measured heights (0.1 cm), sitting heights (0.1 cm), weights (0.1 kg), and estimated leg lengths (0.1 cm) from 8 to 18 years were used. Predicted age at PHV (years) was calculated as the difference between chronological age (CA) and maturity offset. Actual age at PHV for each child was derived with a triple logistic model (Bock-Thissen-du Toit). Mean predicted maturity offset was negative and lowest at 8 years and increased linearly with increasing CA. Predicted ages at PHV increased linearly with CA from 8 to 18 years in girls and from 8 to 13 years in boys; predictions varied within relatively narrow limits from 12 to 15 years and then increased to 18 years in boys. Differences between predicted and actual ages at PHV among youth of contrasting maturity status were significant across the age range in both sexes. Dependence of predicted age at PHV upon CA at prediction and on actual age at PHV limits its utility as an indicator of maturity timing and in sport talent programs. PMID:26757350

  16. The evolution of pure alexia: a longitudinal study of recovery.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, M; Black, S E; Bub, D

    1990-10-01

    This case report documents the partial recovery, over a 12-month period, of pure alexia in an adult female following a left occipital infarction. Measures of speed and accuracy were obtained on an oral reading and a lexical decision task immediately postonset and then on 10 subsequent occasions. Explicit letter-by-letter reading was observed only during the first week poststroke but a significant effect of word length was seen in all testing sessions. Reading accuracy was relatively good at all stages and reading latency showed a remarkable decrease over time but did not reach normal reading rates. The inability to use higher-order orthographic knowledge, as manifest in the absence of a word superiority effect, was still noted at one year postonset. We therefore concluded that the change in behavior was attributable to increased proficiency in the use of the adaptive letter-by-letter procedure rather than to the resolution of the underlying deficit. It is suggested that longitudinal neurobehavioral studies add to our understanding of the alexic deficit and provide insight into the recovery process. PMID:2285860

  17. An international comparison of dietary patterns in 9–11-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Mikkilä, V; Vepsäläinen, H; Saloheimo, T; Gonzalez, S A; Meisel, J D; Hu, G; Champagne, C M; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Dietary pattern is defined as a combination of foods and drinks and the frequency of consumption within a population. Dietary patterns are changing on a global level, which may be linked to an increased incidence of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the dietary patterns among 9–11-year-old children living in urban regions in different parts of the world. METHODS: Participants were 7199 children (54% girls), aged 9–11 years, from 12 countries situated in all major world regions. Food consumption was assessed using a 23-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). To identify dietary patterns, principal components analyses (PCA) were carried out using weekly portions as input variables. RESULTS: Both site-specific and pooled PCA resulted in two strong components. Component 1 (‘unhealthy diet pattern') included fast foods, ice cream, fried food, French fries, potato chips, cakes and sugar-sweetened sodas with >0.6 loadings. The loadings for component 2 (‘healthy diet pattern') were slightly weaker with only dark-green vegetables, orange vegetables, vegetables in general, and fruits and berries reaching a >0.6 loading. The site-specific diet pattern scores had very strong correlations with the pattern scores from the pooled data: r=0.82 and 0.94 for components 1 and 2, respectively. CONCULSIONS: The results suggest that the same ‘healthier' and ‘unhealthier' foods tend to be consumed in similar combinations among 9–11-year-old children in different countries, despite variation in food culture, geographical location, ethnic background and economic development. PMID:27152179

  18. Social Strategies during University Studies Predict Early Career Work Burnout and Engagement: 18-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Tolvanen, Asko; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study spanning 18 years examined the role of social strategies in early career adaptation. The aim was to find out whether individuals' social strategies measured during their university studies had an impact on work burnout and work engagement measured 10-18 years later. A sample of 292 university students completed the SAQ…

  19. [Inequalities in mortality in the Italian longitudinal studies].

    PubMed

    Cardano, M; Costa, G; Demaria, M; Merler, E; Biggeri, A

    1999-01-01

    The article presents some of the most relevant results on inequalities in mortality, obtained by the two Italian longitudinal studies carried out in Turin, and Tuscany (in Leghorn and Florence). The two studies share the same methodology. Each database contains census data, information from population register and from death certificates. The authors approach this issue not in an analytical way (as they did in the works cited in the reference list), but answering some questions, relevant both from a scientific and a political point of view. How big are the health inequalities in Italy? Are the health inequalities in Italy increasing or decreasing? Are the health inequalities due to absolute or to relative deprivation? Does the mortality profile of the Italian population express the presence of old or new health inequalities? Can the health inequalities be reduced? The study's results prove that the health inequalities in Italy are deep and strictly related to individuals' position in the social fabric. Facing the other questions the authors focus only in the Turin data. From the 1970's to the 1990's the health inequalities in Turin have increased, despite of general improvement of population's health condition and the progressive reduction of the size of deprived groups. Turin data support both the hypotheses on the source of health inequalities, using long term unemployment as absolute deprivation's indicator, and status' inconsistency as (a row) indicator of relative deprivation. The growth of drug-related causes of death (AIDS and overdose) shows that in the Turin and--quite reasonably--Italian population old and new health inequalities live together. The essay closes offering evidence on the possibility to reduce health inequalities. For this purpose the authors analyses the Turin trend of avoidable deaths and infant and adolescent mortality. PMID:10605247

  20. Nine year longitudinal retrospective study of Taekwondo injuries.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Chudolinski, Artur; Turgeon, Matt; Simon, Aaron; Ho, Eric; Coombe, Lianne

    2009-12-01

    This retrospective longitudinal study aims to describe reported Taekwondo injuries and to examine associations between competitor experience level, age and gender, and the type, location, and mechanism of injury sustained. Additionally, we examined whether recent rule changes concerning increased point value of head shots in adult Taekwondo competition had affected injury incidence.This study was a summation of 9 years of data of competition injury reports, which included 904 injury reports spanning 58 individual competitions. The data was collected on standardized injury reports at time of injury during competition. Care was provided to the athletes, but the type of care provided was not included in the study. Participants included athletes injured during competition who sought care by the health care team, and for whom an injury report was filled out. The data analysis was performed at the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College.The three most common locations of presenting injury were the head (19%), foot (16%), and thigh (9%). The most common mechanism of presenting injury was found to be a defensive kick (44%), followed by an offensive kick (35%). The most commonly diagnosed injuries were contusions (36%), sprains (19%), and strains (15%). Coloured belts had a higher incidence of contusions, while black belts sustained more joint irritation injuries. Black belts were more likely to suffer multiple injuries. Colored belts suffered more injuries while receiving a kick, while black belts had a larger influence of past history of injury. We found no significant difference in location or type of injury when comparing pre versus post rule change. The most common locations of injury are head, foot, and thigh respectively, and are areas for concern when considering preventative measures. Colour belt competitors are more likely to sustain contusions, which the authors believe is due to more aggressive tactics and lack of control. Those more likely to be injured tend to

  1. Longitudinal study on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in households.

    PubMed

    Laarhoven, Laura M; de Heus, Phebe; van Luijn, Jeanine; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A; van Duijkeren, Engeline

    2011-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is an emerging pathogen in dogs and has been found in Europe, Asia and North America. To date most studies are one-point prevalence studies and therefore little is known about the dynamics of MRSP in dogs and their surrounding. In this longitudinal study MRSP colonization in dogs and the transmission of MRSP to humans, contact animals and the environment was investigated. Sixteen dogs with a recent clinical MRSP infection were included. The index dogs, contact animals, owners and environments were sampled once a month for six months. Samples taken from the nose, perineum and infection site (if present) of the index cases and contact animals, and the nares of the owners were cultured using pre-enrichment. Index cases were found positive for prolonged periods of time, in two cases during all six samplings. In five of the 12 households that were sampled during six months, the index case was intermittently found MRSP-positive. Contact animals and the environment were also found MRSP-positive, most often in combination with a MRSP-positive index dog. In four households positive environmental samples were found while no animals or humans were MRSP-positive, indicating survival of MRSP in the environment for prolonged periods of time. Genotyping revealed that generally similar or indistinguishable MRSP isolates were found in patients, contact animals and environmental samples within the same household. Within two households, however, genetically distinct MRSP isolates were found. These results show that veterinarians should stay alert with (former) MRSP patients, even after repeated MRSP-negative cultures or after the disappearance of the clinical infection. There is a considerable risk of transmission of MRSP to animals in close contact with MRSP patients. Humans were rarely MRSP-positive and never tested MRSP-positive more than once suggesting occasional contamination or rapid elimination of colonization of

  2. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    PubMed

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain. PMID:26588694

  3. A longitudinal study of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Fayer, Ronald

    2009-07-01

    Feces from each of 30 Holstein cattle on a Maryland dairy farm were examined at weekly, bimonthly, and then monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi. DNA was extracted from spores cleaned of fecal debris, and a two-step nested PCR protocol was used to amplify a fragment of the internal transcriber spacer region of the rRNA gene. All PCR-positive specimens were sequenced to determine the genotype of E. bieneusi. The overall prevalence was 24% (239/990) with a lower prevalence in pre-weaned calves (less than 8 weeks of age; 11.7%) and heifers (13-24 months of age) than post-weaned calves (3-12 months of age; 44.4%). Over the course of 24 months, the cumulative prevalence of E. bieneusi was 100% since all 30 calves shed spores at some time during the study. One or more of three genotypes of E. bieneusi, J, I, and BEB4, were detected in all 30 animals. Genotype I was detected in all 30 cattle between 1 week and 22 months of age with some cattle remaining infected as long as 17 months. At 4 months of age, 28 cattle were infected with genotype I. Genotype BEB4 was detected briefly in seven cattle, most between 15 and 20 months of age. Genotype J was detected in eight cattle, all between 16 and 24 months of age. This longitudinal study strongly supports the findings of point prevalence, multiple farm studies in which genotypes J, I, and BEB 4 were found. These genotypes appear to be cattle specific and have not been found in humans or other animals. PMID:19259701

  4. Explanatory model of emotional-cognitive variables in school mathematics performance: a longitudinal study in primary school

    PubMed Central

    Cerda, Gamal; Pérez, Carlos; Navarro, José I.; Aguilar, Manuel; Casas, José A.; Aragón, Estíbaliz

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a structural model of cognitive-emotional explanatory variables to explain performance in mathematics. The predictor variables assessed were related to students’ level of development of early mathematical competencies (EMCs), specifically, relational and numerical competencies, predisposition toward mathematics, and the level of logical intelligence in a population of primary school Chilean students (n = 634). This longitudinal study also included the academic performance of the students during a period of 4 years as a variable. The sampled students were initially assessed by means of an Early Numeracy Test, and, subsequently, they were administered a Likert-type scale to measure their predisposition toward mathematics (EPMAT) and a basic test of logical intelligence. The results of these tests were used to analyse the interaction of all the aforementioned variables by means of a structural equations model. This combined interaction model was able to predict 64.3% of the variability of observed performance. Preschool students’ performance in EMCs was a strong predictor for achievement in mathematics for students between 8 and 11 years of age. Therefore, this paper highlights the importance of EMCs and the modulating role of predisposition toward mathematics. Also, this paper discusses the educational role of these findings, as well as possible ways to improve negative predispositions toward mathematical tasks in the school domain. PMID:26441739

  5. Explanatory model of emotional-cognitive variables in school mathematics performance: a longitudinal study in primary school.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Gamal; Pérez, Carlos; Navarro, José I; Aguilar, Manuel; Casas, José A; Aragón, Estíbaliz

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a structural model of cognitive-emotional explanatory variables to explain performance in mathematics. The predictor variables assessed were related to students' level of development of early mathematical competencies (EMCs), specifically, relational and numerical competencies, predisposition toward mathematics, and the level of logical intelligence in a population of primary school Chilean students (n = 634). This longitudinal study also included the academic performance of the students during a period of 4 years as a variable. The sampled students were initially assessed by means of an Early Numeracy Test, and, subsequently, they were administered a Likert-type scale to measure their predisposition toward mathematics (EPMAT) and a basic test of logical intelligence. The results of these tests were used to analyse the interaction of all the aforementioned variables by means of a structural equations model. This combined interaction model was able to predict 64.3% of the variability of observed performance. Preschool students' performance in EMCs was a strong predictor for achievement in mathematics for students between 8 and 11 years of age. Therefore, this paper highlights the importance of EMCs and the modulating role of predisposition toward mathematics. Also, this paper discusses the educational role of these findings, as well as possible ways to improve negative predispositions toward mathematical tasks in the school domain. PMID:26441739

  6. Change over Time: Conducting Longitudinal Studies of Children’s Cognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Grammer, Jennie K.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental scientists have argued that the implementation of longitudinal methods is necessary for obtaining an accurate picture of the nature and sources of developmental change (Magnusson & Cairns, 1996; Morrison & Ornstein, 1996; Magnusson & Stattin, 2006). Developmentalists studying cognition have been relatively slow to embrace longitudinal research, and thus few exemplar studies have tracked individual children’s cognitive performance over time and even fewer have examined contexts that are associated with this growth. In this article we first outline some of the benefits of implementing longitudinal designs. Using illustrations from existing studies of children’s basic cognitive development and of their school-based academic performance, we discuss when it may be appropriate to employ longitudinal (versus other) methods. We then outline methods for integrating longitudinal data into one’s research portfolio, contrasting the leveraging of existing longitudinal data sets with the launching of new longitudinal studies in order to address specific questions concerning cognitive development. Finally, for those who are interested in conducting longitudinal investigations of their own, we provide practical on-the-ground guidelines for designing and carrying out such studies of cognitive development. PMID:24955035

  7. Longitudinal Trajectories of Self-System Processes and Depressive Symptoms among Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante

    2006-01-01

    This study used latent growth modeling to investigate longitudinal relationships between self-system processes and depressive symptoms among maltreated (n=142) and nonmaltreated children (n=109) aged 6--11 years. On average, self-esteem and self-agency increased and depressive symptoms decreased over time. Multivariate growth modeling indicated…

  8. Predictors of Meeting Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Recommendations in 9-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Jimikaye; De Witt, Peter; McNally, Janise; Siegfried, Scott; Hill, James O; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Childhood obesity represents a significant public health problem. This study examined physical activity and nutrition behaviours and attitudes of 9-11-year-olds, and factors influencing these behaviours. Design: Study participants recorded pedometer steps for 7 days and completed physical activity enjoyment, food attitudes and food…

  9. Medical Graduates, Tertiary Hospitals, and Burnout: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Parr, Justin M.; Pinto, Nigel; Hanson, Martin; Meehan, Ashlea; Moore, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Burnout among junior doctors can affect patient care. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study designed to explore the incidence of burnout in medical interns and to examine the changes in burnout during the course of the intern year. Methods: Interns were recruited at two tertiary hospitals in Brisbane, Australia (n=180). Participants completed surveys at four time points during their internship year. All interns (100%) completed the baseline survey during their orientation. Response rates were 85%, 88%, and 79%, respectively, at 5-week, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Results: Interns reported high levels of personal and work-related burnout throughout the year that peaked at 6 months with mean scores of 42.53 and 41.81, respectively. Increases of 5.1 points (confidence interval [CI] 2.5,7.7; P=0.0001) and 3.5 points (CI 1.3,5.6; P=0.0015) were seen at 6 months for personal and work-related burnout, respectively. The mean score for patient-related burnout at 12 months was 25.57, and this number had increased significantly by 5.8 points (CI 3.2,8.5; P<0.0001) throughout the year. Correlation with demographic variables (age, sex) were found. The total incidence of burnout was 55.9%. Conclusion: Our study showed that burnout is a common problem among interns. The high incidence of burnout demonstrates the need for appropriate strategies to prevent adverse effects on doctors' quality of life and on the quality of care patients receive. PMID:27046399

  10. A longitudinal study of maternal attachment and infant developmental outcomes.

    PubMed

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Hayat, Matthew J; Gross, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Extant research has demonstrated that compared to adults with insecure attachment styles, more securely attached parents tend to be more responsive, sensitive, and involved parents, resulting in improved outcomes for their children. Less studied is the influence of a mother's attachment style on her attachment to her unborn child during pregnancy and the consequent developmental outcomes of the child during early childhood. Thus, the aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to examine the relationship between maternal-fetal attachment (MFA) during pregnancy and infant and toddler outcomes and the role of mothers' attachment style on early childhood developmental outcomes in an economically disadvantaged sample of women and their children. Gamma regression modeling demonstrated that an avoidant maternal attachment style (b = .98, 95 % CI [.97, .98], p < 0.001) and post-partum depressive symptomatology (b = .97, 95 % CI [.96-.99], p = 0.03) were significant predictors of early childhood development. Women demonstrating higher avoidant attachment styles and greater depressive symptomatology were more likely to have children demonstrating early childhood developmental delays than those women with less avoidant attachment styles and less depressive symptomatology. Furthermore, women reporting higher MFA during pregnancy had more secure attachment styles, and their children had more optimal early childhood development than those women reporting lower MFA and less secure attachment styles. Findings have implications for enhancing early intervention programs aimed at improving maternal and childhood outcomes. An earlier identification of disruptions in attachment may be beneficial in tailoring interventions focused on the mother-child dyad. PMID:23737011

  11. Changes in HRM in Europe: A Longitudinal Comparative Study among 18 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikandrou, Irene; Apospori, Eleni; Papalexandris, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To examine HRM strategies and practices and HRM position within organizations in various cultural, economic and sociopolitical contexts from a longitudinal perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The study uses the 1995 and 1999 Cranet data in a longitudinal methodological framework to explore the changes and trends in 18 European…

  12. High School Social Climate and Antisocial Behavior: A 10 Year Longitudinal and Multilevel Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Line; Swisher, Raymond; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    A longitudinal and multilevel approach is used to examine the relationship between antisocial behavior during adolescence and high school social climate. The data are taken from a longitudinal study of 1,233 boys and girls who attended 217 public and private high schools. Students' disruptive behaviors were assessed yearly from 6 to 12 years of…

  13. Use of Missing Data Methods in Longitudinal Studies: The Persistence of Bad Practices in Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelicic, Helena; Phelps, Erin; Lerner, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental science rests on describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual changes and, hence, empirically requires longitudinal research. Problems of missing data arise in most longitudinal studies, thus creating challenges for interpreting the substance and structure of intraindividual change. Using a sample of reports of longitudinal…

  14. Problematics of Time and Timing in the Longitudinal Study of Human Development: Theoretical and Methodological Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.; Schwartz, Seth J.; Phelps, Erin

    2009-01-01

    Studying human development involves describing, explaining, and optimizing intraindividual change and interindividual differences in such change and, as such, requires longitudinal research. The selection of the appropriate type of longitudinal design requires selecting the option that best addresses the theoretical questions asked about…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Midage Women with Indicators of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather-Schmidt, A. Kate; Lee, Christina; Wade, Tracey D.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study of midage women has two main aims: to examine the effect of disordered eating (DE) on quality of life (QoL) among women, including a comparison with a younger cohort and to investigate the mediating roles of both depressive symptoms and social support on the longitudinal relationship between DE and QoL as potential…

  16. What Alumni Value from New Product Development Education: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Corie L.; Hey, Jonathan; Agogino, Alice M.; Beckman, Sara L.; Kim, Sohyeong

    2016-01-01

    We present a longitudinal study of what graduates take away from a cross-disciplinary graduate-level New Product Development (NPD) course at UC Berkeley over a 15-year period from 1996-2010. We designed and deployed a longitudinal survey and interviewed a segment of our NPD alumni population to better understand how well our course prepared these…

  17. The Study of Adolescent Identity Formation 2000-2010: A Review of Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeus, Wim

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal research into personal and ethnic identity has expanded considerably in the first decade of the present century. The longitudinal studies have shown that personal identity develops progressively during adolescence, but also that many individuals do not change identity, especially ethnic identity. Researchers have found rank-order…

  18. A Chinese Longitudinal Study on Work/Family Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Luo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore reciprocal relationships between work/family resources, work/family enrichment (WFE), and work/family satisfaction in a Chinese society. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal design was adopted using a three-wave panel sample. Data were obtained from 310 Taiwanese employees on three occasions,…

  19. Children's Perceptions of Live Arts Performances: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    "Children?s Voices" is a longitudinal research project to document and understand children's perceptions of live arts performance and the impact on their teachers and school communities. The research conducted in South Australia with 135 5?12-year-olds in four schools involves collaboration between the South Australian Department of Education and…

  20. A STUDY OF A LONGITUDINAL FIRST GRADE READING READINESS PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SPACHE, GEORGE D.; AND OTHERS

    THIS PROJECT ANALYZED A LONGITUDINAL READING PROGRAM FOR IDENTIFICATION OF GROWTH IN ABILITIES, AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TESTS. APPROXIMATELY 60 PUPILS FROM CONTROL AND EXPERIMENTAL CLASSES RECEIVED INTENSIVE READINESS TRAINING IN VISUAL PERCEPTION, AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION, AND LANGUAGE SKILLS. ALL WERE TESTED AT 25-MONTH INTERVALS. ANALYSES…

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Welfare Exit among American Indian Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Shanta; Guo, Baorong

    2007-01-01

    Data from a longitudinal survey of families from three reservations (Navajo Nation, San Carlos, and Salt River) in Arizona were used to examine their probability of welfare use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the effects of individual, family, and structural factors on welfare exit. Results indicate that their probability of…

  2. 1982 Maths Investigation: Technical Report. Mt. Druitt Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Karen; Low, Brian

    Aims of this phase of a longitudinal mathematics achievement investigation were to (1) detect individual and group differences in math achievement among a sample of fourth-year children, (2) monitor changes in math skills since a 1981 math investigation, and (3) identify limits of children's understanding of mathematical concepts. (The math test…

  3. Effects of Team and Organizational Commitment--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neininger, Alexandra; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone; Henschel, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Retention management, i.e., keeping qualified employees, is a top priority for contemporary organizations. Commitment, and especially team commitment, can be the key to mastering this challenge. There is a lack of longitudinal research concerning the development and the direction of the effects of team commitment over time. In a longitudinal…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Individual and Organisational Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Timothy T.; Armstrong, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to empirically examine organisational learning (OL) and individual managerial learning and provide a comparative evaluation of the ability of each to generate organisational benefits. Design/methodology/approach: A theoretical model of organisational learning is developed which was then longitudinally tested…

  5. Longitudinal study of aspergillosis in sea fan corals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiho; Alker, Alisa P; Shuster, Kara; Quirolo, Craig; Harvell, C Drew

    2006-03-23

    Aspergillosis (a fungal disease) is affecting sea fan corals Gorgonia spp. throughout the Caribbean. To measure the impact of this disease, we established longitudinal, or in other words individual-based, monitoring studies on 3 reefs in the Florida Keys, USA, to obtain estimates of incidence, rates of disease progress, recovery, and mortality. At Western Dry Rocks (near Key West), 40 Gorgonia ventalina colonies (20 initially healthy and 20 initially diseased) were photo-monitored between June 1996 and May 1998. Additional sea fans were visually monitored during 2 localized outbreaks at Conch (May 1998 to September 1999) and Carysfort (July 2000 to May 2001) reefs located in the Upper Keys. Data from Western Dry Rocks showed that over a 2 yr period, the incidence rate was 0.58 sea fans yr(-1) and that tissue purpling can lead to tissue loss and subsequently to mortality, albeit at low frequencies. Most sea fans, once infected, maintained a low level of damage over time. Only 3 fans recovered from the disease; however 2 were subsequently re-infected. Case fatality rate was 10% (2 of 20 initially infected died), which is equivalent to 5% yr(-1). However, mortality can increase during localized outbreaks. At Conch, mortality was 46% yr(-1) among infected sea fans (compared to 8% yr(-1) at Carysfort, a less impacted site, during the same period). During an outbreak at Carysfort, mortality was 95% yr(-1) among diseased sea fans. These data clearly demonstrate the significant role aspergillosis plays in the population ecology of sea fan corals. PMID:16703771

  6. Social-psychological adjustment to multiple sclerosis. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Brooks, N A; Matson, R R

    1982-01-01

    This study employs a longitudinal design to analyze the adjustment process of 103 people diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and in the middle and later stages of their illness careers. The mean age of the sample at Time 2 is 52 years, and mean duration since diagnosis is 17 years. A highly reliable self concept measure is the indicator of adjustment and changes in adjustment from T1 (1974) to T2 (1981). Four sets of variables are analyzed in their relationship to adjustment: (1) socio-demographic; (2) disease-related; (3) medical; and (4) social-psychological. Females are more likely than males to show positive adjustment (improving self concepts). Hours of employment and living arrangement are also related to the adjustment process. The vast majority of respondents show only slight decline in mobility, but among the disease related variables, number of episodes (exacerbations) in past seven years is the strongest predictor of changes in adjustment. Nearly half the respondents seek medical attention for their M.S. once a year or less, and the choice of health care professional is related to changes in the course of the disease. Subjects with an internal locus of control have more positive adjustment scores. Those who say they cope through acceptance of the disease show improvements in self concept while those reporting religion or family as major coping strategies have decreasing self concepts. Results indicate that the majority make satisfactory adjustment as indicated by maintenance of positive self concepts over the 7 year period, although the disease is chronic and progressive. For patients in the middle and later stages of illness careers, the data suggest comprehensive rehabilitation efforts that enhance autonomy and develop the social-psychological resources of the lifestyle. PMID:7157043

  7. Use of Social Media by Western European Hospitals: Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Berben, Sivera AA; Samsom, Melvin; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients increasingly use social media to communicate. Their stories could support quality improvements in participatory health care and could support patient-centered care. Active use of social media by health care institutions could also speed up communication and information provision to patients and their families, thus increasing quality even more. Hospitals seem to be becoming aware of the benefits social media could offer. Data from the United States show that hospitals increasingly use social media, but it is unknown whether and how Western European hospitals use social media. Objective To identify to what extent Western European hospitals use social media. Methods In this longitudinal study, we explored the use of social media by hospitals in 12 Western European countries through an Internet search. We collected data for each country during the following three time periods: April to August 2009, August to December 2010, and April to July 2011. Results We included 873 hospitals from 12 Western European countries, of which 732 were general hospitals and 141 were university hospitals. The number of included hospitals per country ranged from 6 in Luxembourg to 347 in Germany. We found hospitals using social media in all countries. The use of social media increased significantly over time, especially for YouTube (n = 19, 2% to n = 172, 19.7%), LinkedIn (n =179, 20.5% to n = 278, 31.8%), and Facebook (n = 85, 10% to n = 585, 67.0%). Differences in social media usage between the included countries were significant. Conclusions Social media awareness in Western European hospitals is growing, as well as its use. Social media usage differs significantly between countries. Except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, the group of hospitals that is using social media remains small. Usage of LinkedIn for recruitment shows the awareness of the potential of social media. Future research is needed to investigate how social media lead to improved health

  8. Memory T cell responses targeting the SARS coronavirus persist up to 11 years post-infection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Oi-Wing; Chia, Adeline; Tan, Anthony T; Jadi, Ramesh S; Leong, Hoe Nam; Bertoletti, Antonio; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2016-04-12

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly contagious infectious disease which first emerged in late 2002, caused by a then novel human coronavirus, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The virus is believed to have originated from bats and transmitted to human through intermediate animals such as civet cats. The re-emergence of SARS-CoV remains a valid concern due to the continual persistence of zoonotic SARS-CoVs and SARS-like CoVs (SL-CoVs) in bat reservoirs. In this study, the screening for the presence of SARS-specific T cells in a cohort of three SARS-recovered individuals at 9 and 11 years post-infection was carried out, and all memory T cell responses detected target the SARS-CoV structural proteins. Two CD8(+) T cell responses targeting the SARS-CoV membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins were characterized by determining their HLA restriction and minimal T cell epitope regions. Furthermore, these responses were found to persist up to 11 years post-infection. An absence of cross-reactivity of these CD8(+) T cell responses against the newly-emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was also demonstrated. The knowledge of the persistence of SARS-specific celullar immunity targeting the viral structural proteins in SARS-recovered individuals is important in the design and development of SARS vaccines, which are currently unavailable. PMID:26954467

  9. Prediction in Child Development: A Longitudinal Study of Adoptive and Nonadoptive Families. The Delaware Family Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoopes, Janet L.

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine factors predicting successful adoptions before placement and to identify differences and similarities between adoptive and biological families. Data collected on both adopted children and on their adoptive families before placement was related to data collected on the same children and families 6…

  10. IQ Change and Occupational Level: A Longitudinal Study with Third Harvard Growth Study Participants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dauphinais, Sarah M.; Bradley, Richard W.

    1979-01-01

    Participants in a longitudinal study, selected according to Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test scores administered in the 1930s, and their occupations, took the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Data suggest persons increase in mental abilities over time while maintaining IQ positions relative to peers. Changes in IQ are not related to occupational…

  11. Investigating Persuasive Writing by 9-11 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Roger; Burrell, Andrew; Homer, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Within research into children's persuasive writing, relatively little work has been done on the writing of advertisements, how such writing develops in the primary school years and the textual features that help to secure this development. Framed within rhetoric, writing and linguistics, an exploratory study was undertaken in which a standardised…

  12. Motor Competence in 11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedul-Kjelsås, Vigdis; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2013-01-01

    By using the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC), the present study investigated possible gender differences in several tasks of motor competence in children. The sample included 67 Norwegian sixth-grade children (Girls N?=?29; Boys?=?39). Boys' performance exceeds that of girls in ball skills and in one of the balance skills. No differences…

  13. Advanced Coursework Rates by Ethnicity: An 11-Year, Statewide Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Janis C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine advanced coursework completion rates, Advanced Placement (AP)/International Baccalaureate (IB) testing rates, AP/IB exam passage rates, and the percentage of AP/IB exam scores at or above the criterion that may exist among Texas public high school students from 2001 to 2012 to ascertain (a) the…

  14. Music therapy in Japan: an 11-year update.

    PubMed

    Gibson, C

    1987-01-01

    In the past 10 years, music therapy in Japan has begun to make an impact in the mental health field. An increase in research and publication can be attributed in part to the efforts of the Japan Society for the Study of Music Therapy and the Japanese Association of Music Psychology and Therapy. The Japanese still face the same difficulties now, however, as they did a decade ago. These difficulties include the lack of music therapy college degree programs and an absence of certification requirements for practitioners. PMID:10281805

  15. Effect of Ball Mass on Dribble, Pass, and Pass Reception in 9-11-Year-Old Boys' Basketball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Jose L.; Argudo, Francisco M.; Alonso, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of ball mass on dribble, pass, and pass reception in real game situations in 9-11-year-old boys' basketball. Participants were 54 boys identified from six federated teams. The independent variable was ball mass, and dependent variables were number of dribbles, passes, and pass receptions. Three…

  16. Comparative Analysis of Musical Abilities of 11-Year-Olds from Slovenia and the Island of Martinique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerman, Janez; Pretnar, Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the study is the comparison between the musical abilities of 11-year-old children on the island of Martinique and in Slovenia, and finding out to what extent their development of musical abilities is influenced by musical and cultural family background, music school attendance, choral singing and playing orchestral instruments. Our…

  17. Maximal Voluntary Static Force Production Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle in Children 8-11 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Going, Scott B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of maximal voluntary isometric muscle contraction force-time curves among 32 normal, healthy 8- to 11-year-olds performing tasks involving separate muscle groups found that force and maximal rate of force increase were quite reproducible, but time to selected force levels reflected considerable variations. (Author/CB)

  18. Expectations and Levels of Understanding When Using Mobile Phones among 9-11-Year Olds in Wales, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Joanne; Baker, Sally-Ann; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in examining the use of mobile technology among children. The present study extended this literature among a sample of 9-11-year olds in Wales, UK in three ways. First, to examine the level of mobile phone ownership; second, to consider how mobile phones are used, investigate timescales and expectations when communicating…

  19. Evaluation of Low-Cost, Objective Instruments for Assessing Physical Activity in 10-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Teresa L.; Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McClain, James J.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2011-01-01

    This study compared step counts detected by four, low-cost, objective, physical-activity-assessment instruments and evaluated their ability to detect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to the ActiGraph accelerometer (AG). Thirty-six 10-11-year-old children wore the NL-1000, Yamax Digiwalker SW 200, Omron HJ-151, and Walk4Life…

  20. Study on the Langevin piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer of longitudinal-flexural composite vibrational mode.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shuyu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the Langevin longitudinal-flexural composite mode piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer is studied. This type of transducers consists of slender metal rods and longitudinally polarized piezoelectric ceramic rings. The resonance frequency equations for the longitudinal and flexural vibrations in the transducer are derived. By correcting the length of the metal slender rods, the simultaneous resonance of the longitudinal and flexural vibrations in the transducer is acquired. The experimental results show that the measured resonance frequencies of the transducers are in good agreement with the computed ones, and the measured resonance frequencies of the longitudinal and the flexural vibrations in the composite transducers are also in good agreement with each other. PMID:16289195

  1. SORCE 11 years after launch: What's new? What's next?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahalan, Robert; Kopp, Greg; Pilewskie, Peter; Richard, Erik; Woods, Tom

    2014-05-01

    We discuss recent changes in estimates of the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and the energy budget. We highlight the historic closing of the calibration gap between the suite of TSI instruments, due largely to comparisons made with a cryogenic Transfer Radiometer Facility (TRF) located at the University of Colorado, built by UCO/LASP with support from NASA and NIST. The resulting continuous record of TSI promises to be a milestone in improving understanding of the Sun's impact on Earth's climate. Climate models are sensitive not only to TSI, but also to variations in the Spectral Solar Irradiance (SSI), and the vertical profiles of temperature and ozone are especially sensitive to SSI variations. Variations in SSI need further study before they may be considered as firmly established as TSI variations, which themselves remain controversial, despite a strengthening consensus over the SORCE epoch. The TSIS SIM has recently undergone comprehensive end-to-end calibration in the LASP SSI Radiometry Facility (SRF) utilizing the NIST SIRCUS laser system covering 210 - 2400 nm for SSI, a facility not yet available when SORCE launched in 2003. With SORCE follow-on missions such as the Total and Spectral Solar Irradiance Sensor (TSIS), we anticipate narrowing uncertainties in SSI variability that will be important to improving our understanding of the climate responses to solar forcing. The long-term goal of improving the ability to monitor Earth's energy balance, and the energy imbalance that drives global warming, will need continued improvements in the measurement of both shortwave solar and longwave earth-emitted radiation.

  2. Recruiting and Retaining Mobile Young Injection Drug Users in a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Lankenau, Stephen E.; Sanders, Bill; Hathazi, Dodi; Jackson Bloom, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal studies that research homeless persons or transient drug users face particular challenges in retaining subjects. Between 2005 and 2006, 101 mobile young injection drug users were recruited in Los Angeles into a 2-year longitudinal study. Several features of ethnographic methodology, including fieldwork and qualitative interviews, and modifications to the original design, such as toll-free calls routed directly to ethnographer cell phones and wiring incentive payments, resulted in retention of 78% of subjects for the first follow-up interview. Longitudinal studies that are flexible and based upon qualitative methodologies are more likely to retain mobile subjects while also uncovering emergent research findings. PMID:20222779

  3. Exploring the acceptability and feasibility of conducting a large longitudinal population-based study in Canada.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Susan A; Raina, Parminder S; Wolfson, Christina; Strople, Geoff; Kits, Olga; Dukeshire, Steven; Angus, Camille L; Szala-Meneok, Karen; Uniat, Jennifer; Keshavarz, Homa; Furlini, Linda; Pelletier, Amélie

    2009-09-01

    ABSTRACTSuccessful recruitment and retention for population-based longitudinal studies requires understanding facilitators and barriers to participation. This study explored Canadians' views regarding one such study, the proposed Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (CLSA). Focus groups of participants > or =40 years of age were held in six proposed CLSA data collection sites (Halifax, Montreal, Hamilton, Winnipeg, Calgary, and Vancouver) to discuss participating in a long-term study of healthy aging. There was fundamental support for longitudinal research on health and aging. Altruism was a key motivation to participation, and universities were viewed as credible parties to conduct such studies. Participants had few worries about providing biological samples but expressed concern about potential misuse of genetic materials, commercialization of participant data, and privacy issues. These findings have already informed current, and will inform future, work on the CLSA, and will also provide useful information to researchers who undertake other population-based longitudinal studies. PMID:19860978

  4. 77 FR 39344 - Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey)] Agency Information (Post-9/11 GI Bill Education Longitudinal Study Survey) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans.... Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-New (Post-9/11 GI Bill Longitudinal Study Survey) in...

  5. The Longitudinal Case Study: From Schon's Model to Self-Directed Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borduas, Francine; Gagnon, Robert; Laprise, Rejean; Lacoursiere, Yves

    2001-01-01

    An interactive workshop based on longitudinal case studies and using Schon's reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action was presented to 37 physicians. Pre/postworkshop data from eight participants showed significant improvements in their knowledge. (SK)

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

  7. Early Violent Death Among Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Teplin, Linda A.; McClelland, Gary M.; Abram, Karen M.; Mileusnic, Darinka

    2005-01-01

    Objective Youth processed in the juvenile justice system are at great risk for early violent death. Groups at greatest risk, ie, racial/ethnic minorities, male youth, and urban youth, are overrepresented in the juvenile justice system. We compared mortality rates for delinquent youth with those for the general population, controlling for differences in gender, race/ethnicity, and age. Methods This prospective longitudinal study examined mortality rates among 1829 youth (1172 male and 657 female) enrolled in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a study of health needs and outcomes of delinquent youth. Participants, 10 to 18 years of age, were sampled randomly from intake at the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center in Chicago, Illinois, between 1995 and 1998. The sample was stratified according to gender, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, or other), age (10–13 or ≥14 years), and legal status (processed as a juvenile or as an adult), to obtain enough participants for examination of key subgroups. The sample included 1005 African American (54.9%), 296 non-Hispanic white (16.2%), 524 Hispanic (28.17%), and 4 other-race/ethnicity (0.2%) subjects. The mean age at enrollment was 14.9 years (median age: 15 years). The refusal rate was 4.2%. As of March 31, 2004, we had monitored participants for 0.5 to 8.4 years (mean: 7.1 years; median: 7.2 years; interquartile range: 6.5–7.8 years); the aggregate exposure for all participants was 12 944 person-years. Data on deaths and causes of death were obtained from family reports or records and were then verified by the local medical examiner or the National Death Index. For comparisons of mortality rates for delinquents and the general population, all data were weighted according to the racial/ethnic, gender, and age characteristics of the detention center; these weighted standardized populations were used to calculate reported percentages and mortality ratios. We calculated mortality

  8. Trajectories of Mental Health over 16 Years amongst Young Adult Women: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Libby; Ware, Robert S.; Lee, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This article used data from 5,171 young women participating in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study, to identify longitudinal trajectory patterns of mental health across 6 surveys over 16 years of early adulthood, from age 18-23 to age 34-39. In addition, we identified both…

  9. Kindergarten Predictors of Mathematical Growth in the Primary Grades: An Investigation Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Pui-Wa; Reid, Erin E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal predictive relationships between young children's classroom behaviors and their growth in mathematics skills during the primary grades. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten cohort, the authors tested a longitudinal model featuring positive (interpersonal skills and approaches to learning) and…

  10. The Pioneer Venus Orbiter: 11 years of data. A laboratory for atmospheres seminar talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasprzak, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus Orbiter has been in operation since orbit insertion on December 4, 1978. For the past 11 years, it has been acquiring data in the salient features of the planet, its atmosphere, ionosphere, and interaction with the solar wind. A few of the results of this mission are summarized and their contribution to our general understanding of the planet Venus is discussed. Although Earth and Venus are often called twin planets, they are only superficially similar. Possessing no obvious evidence of plate tectonics, lacking water and an intrinsic magnetic field, and having a hot, dense carbon dioxide atmosphere with sulfuric acid clouds makes Venus a unique object of study by the Orbiter's instruments.

  11. Performance as a function of shooting style in basketball players under 11 years of age.

    PubMed

    Arias, José L

    2012-04-01

    Shooting style in basketball refers to the height adopted by a player in holding the ball, specifically the height of the hand and the ball with regard to the line of sight before the final extension of the elbow during a shot. The literature differentiates between a high and a low style. This study analyzed shooting frequency in young boys as a function of style and which shooting style had the highest accuracy and success in real games. Participants were 81 boys from eight basketball teams, aged 9-11 years. The sample consisted of 5,740 standard shots in 56 games. The design was nomotethic, follow-up, and multidimensional. The results indicated that low style predominated over the high style, although overall accuracy and efficacy were better using the high style. Various strategies and practical considerations are suggested for teachers and coaches to focus on teaching the high style. PMID:22755449

  12. A fatal outcome of complicated severe diabetic ketoacidosis in a 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Severinski, Srećko; Butorac Ahel, Ivona; Ovuka, Aleksandar; Verbić, Arijan

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complex metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis and ketonuria. Cerebral edema is the most common rare complication of DKA in children. The objective of the study was to emphasize the importance of careful evaluation and monitoring for signs and symptoms of cerebral edema in all children undergoing treatment for DKA. We present a case of 11-year-old girl with a history of diabetes mellitus type I (T1DM) who presented with severe DKA complicated by hypovolemic shock, cerebral edema and hematemesis. Considering the fact that complications of DKA are rare and require a high index of clinical suspicion, early recognition and treatment are crucial for avoiding permanent damage. PMID:27226096

  13. Longitudinal Changes in Adaptive Behavior in Adults with Down Syndrome: Interim Findings from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Chung, Man Cheung; Haque, M. S.

    1998-01-01

    A study examined underlying factors for age-related decline in adaptive behavior in 128 adults with trisomy 21 over a three-year period. Presence of dementia was the only determining factor, although the difference in trend over time as compared to subjects without dementia was not significant. (Author/CR)

  14. Longitudinal Trajectories in Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey Data: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Costa, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental trends in personality traits over 42 years were examined using data from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging (N = 2,359, aged 17 to 98), collected from 1958 to 2002. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed cumulative mean-level changes averaging about 0.5 SD across adulthood. Scales related to Extraversion showed distinct developmental patterns: General Activity declined from age 60 to 90; Restraint increased; Ascendance peaked around age 60; and Sociability declined slightly. Scales related to Neuroticism showed curvilinear declines up to age 70 and then increased. Scales related to Agreeableness and Openness changed little; Masculinity declined linearly. Significant individual variability in change was found. Although intercepts differed, trajectories were similar for men and women. Attrition and death had no effect on slopes. This study highlights the use of lower-order traits in providing a more nuanced picture of developmental change. PMID:16497954

  15. Development of the perceptual span in reading: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Anja; Meixner, Johannes; Laubrock, Jochen

    2016-06-01

    The perceptual span is a standard measure of parafoveal processing, which is considered highly important for efficient reading. Is the perceptual span a stable indicator of reading performance? What drives its development? Do initially slower and faster readers converge or diverge over development? Here we present the first longitudinal data on the development of the perceptual span in elementary school children. Using the moving window technique, eye movements of 127 German children in three age groups (Grades 1, 2, and 3 in Year 1) were recorded at two time points (T1 and T2) 1year apart. Introducing a new measure of the perceptual span, nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to separate window size effects from asymptotic reading performance. Cross-sectional differences were well replicated longitudinally. Asymptotic reading rate increased monotonously with grade, but in a decelerating fashion. A significant change in the perceptual span was observed only between Grades 2 and 3. Together with results from a cross-lagged panel model, this suggests that the perceptual span increases as a consequence of relatively well-established word reading. Stabilities of observed and predicted reading rates were high after Grade 1, whereas the perceptual span was only moderately stable for all grades. Comparing faster and slower readers as assessed at T1, in general, a pattern of stable between-group differences emerged rather than a compensatory pattern; second and third graders even showed a Matthew effect in reading rate and the perceptual span, respectively. PMID:26950508

  16. Change in waist circumference over 11 years and current waist circumference independently predict elevated CRP in Filipino women

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, J.N.; McDade, T.W.; Lee, N.R.; Adair, L.; Kuzawa, C.

    2012-01-01

    C-reactive protein, a marker of chronic, low-grade inflammation, is strongly associated with current central adiposity, and has been linked to elevated risk of cardiovascular disease. Less is known about the contribution of longitudinal change in waist circumference to current inflammation. We evaluated the extent to which current waist circumference and change over an 11-year interval contribute independently to low-grade systemic inflammation measured in a group of 1,294 women, 35–69 years, participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Nutrition and Health Survey in the Philippines. Waist circumference was measured at the time of blood draw for CRP analysis in 2005 and during an earlier survey in 1994. A waist circumference delta variable was constructed by subtracting current circumference from past circumference. We used logistic regression models to predict having an elevated plasma CRP concentration (3 mg/L11 years was a significant and independent predictor of elevated CRP risk (OR=1.023, 95% CI=1.00,1.05, P<0.05). Considering the average increase over time, the cumulative risk of elevated CRP due to increased central adiposity was 20.1%. However, women who reduced their waist circumference between 1994 and 2005 had greatly reduced risk (6.2%), suggesting that even long-term inflammatory burden can be reversed by weight loss. Although current waist circumference is an important contributor to risk of elevated systemic inflammation in this as in other populations, history of central adiposity may be an independent phenomenon. PMID:19856425

  17. Hierarchical Reproductive Allocation and Allometry within a Perennial Bunchgrass after 11 Years of Nutrient Addition

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Dashuan; Pan, Qingmin; Simmons, Matthew; Chaolu, Hada; Du, Baohong; Bai, Yongfei; Wang, Hong; Han, Xingguo

    2012-01-01

    Bunchgrasses are one of the most important plant functional groups in grassland ecosystems. Reproductive allocation (RA) for a bunchgrass is a hierarchical process; however, how bunchgrasses adjust their RAs along hierarchical levels in response to nutrient addition has never been addressed. Here, utilizing an 11-year nutrient addition experiment, we examined the patterns and variations in RA of Agropyron cristatum at the individual, tiller and spike levels. We evaluated the reproductive allometric relationship at each level by type II regression analysis to determine size-dependent and size-independent effects on plant RA variations. Our results indicate that the proportion of reproductive individuals in A. cristatum increased significantly after 11 years of nutrient addition. Adjustments in RA in A. cristatum were mainly occurred at the individual and tiller levels but not at the spike level. A size-dependent effect was a dominant mechanism underlying the changes in plant RA at both individual and tiller levels. Likewise, the distribution of plant size was markedly changed with large individuals increasing after nutrient addition. Tiller-level RA may be a limiting factor for the adjustment of RA in A. cristatum. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to examine plant responses in terms of reproductive allocation and allometry to nutrient enrichment within a bunchgrass population from a hierarchical view. Our findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying bunchgrass responses in RA to future eutrophication due to human activities. In addition, we developed a hierarchical analysis method for disentangling the mechanisms that lead to variation in RA for perennial bunchgrasses. PMID:22984408

  18. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN LONGITUDINAL STUDIES OF AGING IN THE UNITED STATES*

    PubMed Central

    WEIR, DAVID

    2015-01-01

    We review recent developments in longitudinal studies of aging, focusing on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Both studies are part of a trend toward biosocial surveys in which biological measurement is joined with traditional survey techniques, and a related trend toward greater harmonization across studies. Both studies have collected DNA samples and are working toward genotyping that would allow broadly based association studies. Increased attention to psychological measurement of personality and of cognitive ability using adaptive testing structures has also been shared across the studies. The HRS has expanded its economic measurement to longitudinal studies of consumption and to broader-based measurement of pension and Social Security wealth. It has added biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. The WLS has developed an integrated approach to the study of death and bereavement and an innovative use of high school yearbook photographs to capture information about health in early life of its participants. PMID:21302430

  19. Total body potassium in aging humans: A longitudinal study

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, M.A.; Nolph, G.B.; Baker, A.S.; Martin, W.M.; Krause, G. )

    1989-10-01

    Total body potassium (TBK) data calculated from longitudinal measurements over 18 y of 40K by whole-body counting of 564 male and 61 female healthy humans in a 2-pi liquid scintillation counter show little change in females younger than 50 y compared with males of those ages. Males show less TBK from 41 y onward as they age, with most rapid rate of loss between 41 and 60 y. Females have a rapid loss of TBK when they are older than 60 y; the loss is at a greater rate than that of males. Percent total body fat calculated from total body weight and lean body mass (LBM) derived from TBK document greater adiposity in females at all ages except ages 51-60 y when females are similar to males in change in percent fat per year per centimeter.

  20. Parenting practices and school dropout: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Blondal, Kristjana S; Adalbjarnardottir, Sigrun

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents' perceptions of parenting style and parental involvement in their education were examined longitudinally and related to school dropout among Icelandic youth (N = 427). Results indicated that adolescents who, at age 14, characterized their parents as authoritative (showing acceptance and supervision) were more likely to have completed upper secondary school by age 22 than adolescents from non-authoritative families, controlling for adolescents' gender, socioeconomic status (SES), temperament, and parental involvement. Parenting style seems to more strongly predict school dropout than parental involvement. Further, parenting style may moderate the relationship between parental involvement and dropout, but not in all groups; only in authoritative families does parental involvement decrease the likelihood of school dropout. Furthermore, even after controlling for previous academic achievement, adolescents from authoritative families were less likely to drop out than adolescents from authoritarian and neglectful families. These findings emphasize the importance of encouraging quality parent-child relationships in order to reduce the likelihood of school dropout. PMID:20432598

  1. The evolution of chronic back pain problems: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Philips, H C; Grant, L

    1991-01-01

    A longitudinal evaluation of the recovery from an acute back pain episode was undertaken on 117 sufferers, with assessments at the onset, 3 and 6 months. The number of individuals still reporting pain at 6 months, and therefore qualifying for 'chronic pain', was considerably higher than expected (40%). At 6 months, the persisting pain problems were found to be moderate to severe in intensity in approx. 20% of cases. Despite the pain, the chronic sufferers showed gradual continuing adjustments to it, re-establishing activities despite pain. Most of the change in the pain components (cognitive, subjective, behavioral, depression, anxiety) occur in the first 3 months, after which considerable stability is evident in the residual problem. In contrast, the impact of the pain and the consequent disability decline more markedly and continue to do so right up to the 6 month point. There was no evidence of chronic pain evolving and growing, but rather of a persistence of the acute presentation. PMID:1835836

  2. STUDY ON DISPERSION OF LONGITUDINAL ELASTIC WAVES IN ROCK SPECIMENS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Yuzo; Yano, Takao; Takahashi, Manabu; Yoshimura, Kimitaka; Ando, Ken-Ichi

    In order to estimate the permeable properties and pore fluid properties in the ground, survey methods using dispersion and attenuation of elastic waves have been developed. The Biot theory have been applied to the frequency-dependent dispersion data, but the influence of geological properties on velocity dispersion and the relation between the permeable properties and velocity dispersion in rock specimens have not become clear. Sedimentary rock and granite specimens were tested using longitudinal waves for the difference of velocity dispersion phenomena observed in each specimen, and we examine whether the Biot theory can be applied to observed experimental data. Moreover, we tried to estimate the permeability of the rock specimen based on the theory and show that the Biot-squirt theory can be applied to estimating rock permeability using the seismic wave dispersion characteristics.

  3. A Longitudinal Study on Human Outdoor Decomposition in Central Texas.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Joanna K; Spradley, M Katherine; Godde, Kanya

    2016-01-01

    The development of a methodology that estimates the postmortem interval (PMI) from stages of decomposition is a goal for which forensic practitioners strive. A proposed equation (Megyesi et al. 2005) that utilizes total body score (TBS) and accumulated degree days (ADD) was tested using longitudinal data collected from human remains donated to the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF) at Texas State University-San Marcos. Exact binomial tests examined the rate of the equation to successfully predict ADD. Statistically significant differences were found between ADD estimated by the equation and the observed value for decomposition stage. Differences remained significant after carnivore scavenged donations were removed from analysis. Low success rates for the equation to predict ADD from TBS and the wide standard errors demonstrate the need to re-evaluate the use of this equation and methodology for PMI estimation in different environments; rather, multivariate methods and equations should be derived that are environmentally specific. PMID:26258913

  4. A longitudinal study of self-control at the transition to secondary school: Considering the role of pubertal status and parenting.

    PubMed

    Ng-Knight, Terry; Shelton, Katherine H; Riglin, Lucy; McManus, I C; Frederickson, Norah; Rice, Frances

    2016-07-01

    Higher self-control in children and adolescents is associated with a range of positive outcomes in adulthood. However, little is known about the naturalistic development of self-control during early adolescence and the factors that affect this. We examined the role of puberty and parenting style as theoretically important influences on stability and change in self-control. A longitudinal (3 waves), multiple-informant dataset of children entering early adolescence (M = 11 years) was used to explore longitudinal change in self-control using latent growth curve modelling. Children's self-control declined during the one-year study period and declines were associated with children's behavioural and social functioning. Associations with self-control were found for pubertal status and parental warmth and hostility, but not for parental discipline. The findings suggest that during early adolescence, when children make the transition to secondary school, self-control declines. This is particularly the case for those experiencing puberty earlier than their peers. Parent warmth influences the trajectory of self-control during this period. PMID:27183536

  5. What is Learned from Longitudinal Studies of Advertising and Youth Drinking and Smoking? A Critical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Jon P

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the methodology employed in longitudinal studies of advertising and youth drinking and smoking behaviors. These studies often are given a causal interpretation in the psychology and public health literatures. Four issues are examined from the perspective of econometrics. First, specification and validation of empirical models. Second, empirical issues associated with measures of advertising receptivity and exposure. Third, potential endogeneity of receptivity and exposure variables. Fourth, sample selection bias in baseline and follow-up surveys. Longitudinal studies reviewed include 20 studies of youth drinking and 26 studies of youth smoking. Substantial shortcomings are found in the studies, which preclude a causal interpretation. PMID:20617009

  6. A Population-based Longitudinal Study of Childhood Neurodevelopmental Disorders, IQ and Subsequent Risk of Psychotic Experiences in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, Golam M.; Stochl, Jan; Zammit, Stanley; Lewis, Glyn; Jones, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia has a neurodevelopmental component to its origin, and may share overlapping pathogenic mechanisms with childhood neurodevelopmental disorders (ND). Yet longitudinal studies of psychotic outcomes among individuals with ND are limited. We report a population-based prospective study of six common childhood ND, subsequent neurocognitive performance and the risk of psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Methods PEs were assessed by semi-structured interviews at age 13 years. IQ and working memory were measured between ages 9 and 11 years. The presence of six neurodevelopmental disorders (autism spectrum, dyslexia, dyspraxia, dysgraphia, dysorthographia, dyscalculia) was determined from parent-completed questionnaire at age 9 years. Linear regression calculated mean difference in cognitive scores between those with and without ND. The association between ND and PEs was expressed as odds ratio (OR); effects of cognitive deficits were examined. Potential confounders included age, gender, father’s social class, ethnicity and maternal education. Results Out of 8,220 children, 487 (5.9%) were reported to have ND at age 9 years. Children with, compared with those without ND performed worse on all cognitive measures; adjusted mean difference in total IQ 6.84 (95% CI 5.00- 8.69). The association between total IQ and ND was linear (p<0.0001). The risk of PEs was higher in those with, compared with those without ND; adjusted OR for definite PEs 1.76 (95% CI 1.11- 2.79). IQ (but not working memory) deficit partly explained this association. Conclusion Higher risk of PEs in early adolescence among individuals with childhood ND is consistent with the neurodevelopmental hypothesis of schizophrenia. PMID:25066026

  7. Thyroid Antagonists (Perchlorate, Thiocyanate, and Nitrate) and Childhood Growth in a Longitudinal Study of U.S. Girls

    PubMed Central

    Mervish, Nancy A.; Pajak, Ashley; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Biro, Frank M.; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Blount, Benjamin C.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate are sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) inhibitors that block iodide uptake into the thyroid, thus affecting thyroid function. Thyroid dysfunction can adversely affect somatic growth and development in children. To our knowledge, no studies have examined effects of NIS inhibitors on body size measures. Objective: We investigated associations between NIS inhibitors and childhood growth in 940 girls from the Puberty Study of the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Program. Methods: Urine samples collected from girls 6–8 years of age at enrollment (2004–2007) from New York City, greater Cincinnati, Ohio, and the Bay Area in California were analyzed for NIS inhibitors and creatinine (C). The longitudinal association between NIS inhibitors and anthropometric measures [height, waist circumference, and body mass index (BMI)] during at least three visits was examined using mixed effects linear models, adjusted for race and site. Results: Compared with girls in the low-exposure group (3.6, 626, and 500 mg/gC, median perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate, respectively) girls with the highest NIS inhibitor exposure (9.6, 2,343, and 955 mg/gC, median perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate, respectively) had slower growth in waist circumference and BMI but not height. Significant differences in the predicted mean waist circumference and BMI between the low- and high-exposure groups were observed beginning at 11 years of age. Conclusions: Higher NIS inhibitor exposure biomarkers were associated with reductions in waist circumference and BMI. These findings underscore the need to assess exposure to NIS inhibitors with respect to their influence on childhood growth. Citation: Mervish NA, Pajak A, Teitelbaum SL, Pinney SM, Windham GC, Kushi LH, Biro FM, Valentin-Blasini L, Blount BC, Wolff MS, for the Breast Cancer and Environment Research Project (BCERP). 2016. Thyroid antagonists (perchlorate, thiocyanate, and nitrate) and

  8. Long term determinants of functional decline of mobility: an 11-year follow-up of 5464 adults of late middle aged and elderly.

    PubMed

    Lêng, Chhian Hūi; Wang, Jung-Der

    2013-01-01

    This confirmatory study aims at investigating the long term determinants of mobility limitation among late middle aged and elderly in a physically less active population. Five thousand four hundred and sixty-four participants aged 50-97 in 1996 enrolled the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging (TLSA) for four waves of interview during 11 years. Social and health-related determinants were collected in each interview. Mobility limitation was enquired level of difficulty in eight movement tasks, including lifting 11kg weight, squatting, running 20-30m, standing for 15min, walking 200-300m, climbing up two to three floors, raising arms up and grasping with fingers. According to the mixed models with repeated measurements, more frequent gardening and longer time for each exercise predicted subsequent better mobility function in Taiwanese elderly while controlling demographics and current comorbidities. The protective effect of gardening was robust in all models. Frequent alcohol consumption was harmful to future mobility function, but less as harmful when participants aged. Besides, the depression-related somatic complaints were predictive to future mobility limitation among those without limitation at baseline. It shall be worthy to explore the dosage as well as the mechanism of these protective factors, especially the most significant but the least explored factor, gardening. Additionally, efforts should be made to understand the relationship between depression-related somatic complaints and mobility decline and so as the relevant interventions. PMID:23608344

  9. Integrative data analysis through coordination of measurement and analysis protocol across independent longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Scott M; Piccinin, Andrea M

    2009-06-01

    Replication of research findings across independent longitudinal studies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and the sophistication of analyses, and practical limits on full reporting of results. In many cases, cross-study differences in sample composition and measurements impede or lessen the utility of pooled data analysis. A collaborative, coordinated analysis approach can provide a broad foundation for cumulating scientific knowledge by facilitating efficient analysis of multiple studies in ways that maximize comparability of results and permit evaluation of study differences. The goal of such an approach is to maximize opportunities for replication and extension of findings across longitudinal studies through open access to analysis scripts and output for published results, permitting modification, evaluation, and extension of alternative statistical models and application to additional data sets. Drawing on the cognitive aging literature as an example, the authors articulate some of the challenges of meta-analytic and pooled-data approaches and introduce a coordinated analysis approach as an important avenue for maximizing the comparability, replication, and extension of results from longitudinal studies. PMID:19485626

  10. Integrative Data Analysis through Coordination of Measurement and Analysis Protocol across Independent Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Scott M.; Piccinin, Andrea M.

    2009-01-01

    Replication of research findings across independent longitudinal studies is essential for a cumulative and innovative developmental science. Meta-analysis of longitudinal studies is often limited by the amount of published information on particular research questions, the complexity of longitudinal designs and sophistication of analyses, and practical limits on full reporting of results. In many cases, cross-study differences in sample composition and measurements impede or lessen the utility of pooled data analysis. A collaborative, coordinated analysis approach can provide a broad foundation for cumulating scientific knowledge by facilitating efficient analysis of multiple studies in ways that maximize comparability of results and permit evaluation of study differences. The goal of such an approach is to maximize opportunities for replication and extension of findings across longitudinal studies through open access to analysis scripts and output for published results, permitting modification, evaluation, and extension of alternative statistical models, and application to additional data sets. Drawing on the cognitive aging literature as an example, we articulate some of the challenges of meta-analytic and pooled-data approaches and introduce a coordinated analysis approach as an important avenue for maximizing the comparability, replication, and extension of results from longitudinal studies. PMID:19485626

  11. Maltreated children's representations of mother and an additional caregiver: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Manashko, Shany; Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz

    2009-04-01

    In the current longitudinal investigation, we explored the continuity of and changes in the mental representations of the mother and an additional caregiver among forty-five 9- to 11-year-old children who had been severely maltreated and subsequently placed in long-term residential care as well as the relationships between the content and structure of these representations and teacher's assessments of the child's externalizing and internalizing symptoms. At Time 1, a nonmaltreated comparison group was assessed concomitantly. Compared to nonmaltreated children, maltreated children scored higher for externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and their maternal representations were found to be significantly less benevolent and integrated and more punitive. In addition, among the maltreated children, the additional caregiver representations were found to be more benevolent and integrated, and less punitive, than the maternal representations. After 30 months, the maltreated children's levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms diminished, their maternal representations become more benevolent and less punitive, and the additional caregiver representations became less benevolent. Moreover, the Benevolence of the additional caregiver representation was found to predict these children's changes in externalizing symptoms beyond the effects of their symptomatology and its associations with the Benevolence of these representations at Time 1. PMID:19220720

  12. Integrating Prospective Longitudinal Data: Modeling Personality and Health in the Terman Life Cycle and Hawaii Longitudinal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Margaret L.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Goldberg, Lewis R.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a collaborative framework to integrate two long-term prospective studies: the Terman Life Cycle Study and the Hawaii Personality and Health Longitudinal Study. Using a five-factor personality-trait framework, teacher assessments of child personality were rationally and empirically aligned to establish similar factor structures across samples. Comparable items related to adult self-rated health, education, and alcohol use were harmonized, and data were pooled on harmonized items. A structural model was estimated, allowing paths to differ by sample. Harmonized child personality factors were then used to examine markers of physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and mortality risk in the Terman sample. Harmonized conscientiousness predicted less physiological dysfunction in the Hawaii sample and lower mortality risk in the Terman sample. These results illustrate how collaborative, integrative work with multiple samples offers the exciting possibility that samples from different cohorts and ages can be linked together to directly test lifespan theories of personality and health. PMID:23231689

  13. Forbidden fruit? A longitudinal study of Christianity, sex, and marriage.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Willy

    2014-01-01

    Does religion still play a role in explorations of romance and sexuality among adolescents and young adults in a secular society such as Norway? Does it influence the type of living arrangements chosen? A population-based sample (n = 2,454) was followed longitudinally from their midteens to their late 20s using survey and register data. Christian involvement in teenage years was associated with subsequent less "precoital" exploration, less masturbation, delayed sexual intercourse, and a smaller number of sex partners. However, there were no associations with prevalence of same-sex experiences. Christians also postponed initiating romantic relationships and chose marriage over cohabitation. Associations were reduced after controlling for confounding factors but remained significant. Some associations (for example, the form of residential union chosen) were present only in the most "active" Christians. In other areas, such as "precoital explorations" and the age at which intercourse is initiated, Christian norms seem to play a role in much broader segments of the population. The findings indicate that Christianity may continue to influence young Norwegians' experiences of sexuality and cohabitation more than has been expected. PMID:23631689

  14. Perianal injuries resulting from sexual abuse: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    McCann, J; Voris, J

    1993-02-01

    Four children who incurred perianal injuries as a result of a sexual assault were followed on a longitudinal basis to document the anatomical changes that ensued. The subjects, whose ages ranged from 4 to 8 years, were followed from 1 week to 14 months. They were examined in both supine and prone knee-chest positions and a 35-mm camera mounted on a colposcope was used to record their injuries. At the time of the initial examination, there were a variety of findings including erythema of the tissues, edema of the skin folds, localized venous engorgement, dilation of the external anal sphincter, and lacerations of different depths. Superficial lacerations reepithelized within 1 to 11 days. The second-degree wounds in two of the children were healed by the 1- and 5-week return visits, leaving narrow bands of scar tissue. In the two subjects who were followed the longest, signs of both a second-degree laceration and a surgically repaired third-degree injury had virtually disappeared by 12 to 14 months after the assaults. The wounds in one subject, infected with a herpes simplex type 2 virus, remained erythematous for a longer period of time than did similar injuries in the other children. A skin tag created by the avulsion of the tissues in one subject persisted, although it became less obvious as it retracted into the redundant folds of the perianal tissues over time. PMID:8424016

  15. Cumulative Risk, Cumulative Outcome: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Leslie; Beitchman, Joseph; Gonzalez, Andrea; Young, Arlene; Wilson, Beth; Escobar, Michael; Chisholm, Vivienne; Brownlie, Elizabeth; Khoury, Jennifer E.; Ludmer, Jaclyn; Villani, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative risk (CR) models provide some of the most robust findings in the developmental literature, predicting numerous and varied outcomes. Typically, however, these outcomes are predicted one at a time, across different samples, using concurrent designs, longitudinal designs of short duration, or retrospective designs. We predicted that a single CR index, applied within a single sample, would prospectively predict diverse outcomes, i.e., depression, intelligence, school dropout, arrest, smoking, and physical disease from childhood to adulthood. Further, we predicted that number of risk factors would predict number of adverse outcomes (cumulative outcome; CO). We also predicted that early CR (assessed at age 5/6) explains variance in CO above and beyond that explained by subsequent risk (assessed at ages 12/13 and 19/20). The sample consisted of 284 individuals, 48% of whom were diagnosed with a speech/language disorder. Cumulative risk, assessed at 5/6-, 12/13-, and 19/20-years-old, predicted aforementioned outcomes at age 25/26 in every instance. Furthermore, number of risk factors was positively associated with number of negative outcomes. Finally, early risk accounted for variance beyond that explained by later risk in the prediction of CO. We discuss these findings in terms of five criteria posed by these data, positing a “mediated net of adversity” model, suggesting that CR may increase some central integrative factor, simultaneously augmenting risk across cognitive, quality of life, psychiatric and physical health outcomes. PMID:26030616

  16. Gender representation in the vision sciences: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Emily A; Radonjic, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the current status and historical trends of gender representation within a research field is an important component of fostering a diverse and inclusive scientific community. Here, we report on the gender representation of a large sample of the vision science research community--the attendees of the Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society (VSS). Our analysis shows that the majority of scientists at all career levels in our sample are male. This imbalance is most pronounced for the senior scientists, whereas predoctoral students are nearly balanced between the genders. Historically, the gender imbalance was larger than it is at present, and it has followed a slow-but-steady trend toward gender parity over the past decade. A longitudinal analysis based on tracking individual attendees shows a larger dropout rate for female than male predoctoral trainees. However, among the trainees who continue in the vision science field after graduate school, evidence suggests that career advancement is quite similar between the genders. In an additional analysis, we found that the VSS Young Investigator awardees and the abstract review committee members reflect substantial gender imbalances, suggesting that these recognitions have yet to catch up with the greater gender balance of the rising generation of junior vision scientists. We hope that this report will encourage awareness of issues of diversity in the scientific community and further promote the development of a research field in which all talented scientists are supported to succeed. PMID:26818970

  17. Reporting accuracy of packed lunch consumption among Danish 11-year-olds differ by gender

    PubMed Central

    Lyng, Nina; Fagt, Sisse; Davidsen, Michael; Hoppe, Camilla; Holstein, Bjørn; Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Background Packed lunch is the dominant lunch format in many countries including Denmark. School lunch is consumed unsupervised, and self-reported recalls are appropriate in the school setting. However, little is known about the accuracy of recalls in relation to packed lunch. Objective To assess the qualitative recall accuracy of self-reported consumption of packed lunch among Danish 11-year-old children in relation to gender and dietary assessment method. Design A cross-sectional dietary recall study of packed lunch consumption. Digital images (DIs) served as an objective reference method to determine food items consumed. Recalls were collected with a lunch recall questionnaire (LRQ) comprising an open-ended recall (OE-Q) and a pre-coded food group prompted recall (PC-Q). Individual interviews (INTs) were conducted successively. The number of food items was identified and accuracy was calculated as match rates (% identified by DIs and reported correctly) and intrusion rates (% not identified by DIs but reported) were determined. Setting and subjects Three Danish public schools from Copenhagen. A total of 114 Danish 11-year-old children, mean (SE) age=11.1 (0.03), and body mass index=18.2 (0.26). Results The reference (DIs) showed that girls consumed a higher number of food items than boys [mean (SE) 5.4 (0.25) vs. 4.6 (0.29) items (p=0.05)]. The number of food items recalled differed between genders with OE-Q recalls (p=0.005) only. Girls’ interview recalls were more accurate than boys’ with higher match rates (p=0.04) and lower intrusion rates (p=0.05). Match rates ranged from 67–90% and intrusion rates ranged from 13–39% with little differences between girls and boys using the OE-Q and PC-Q methods. Conclusion Dietary recall validation studies should not only consider match rates as an account of accuracy. Intrusions contribute to over-reporting in non-validation studies, and future studies should address recall accuracy and inaccuracies in relation to

  18. A longitudinal study of the health status of a community of religious sisters: addressing the advantages, challenges, and limitations.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Phyllis Meyer; Bautch, Judith C; Strodthoff, Caritas M

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies are recognized as contributing to understanding the complexity of aging and generating insights that cannot be gained using other research methods. However, conducting longitudinal studies is recognized as challenging, especially among older adults. The purpose of the current review is to describe how the authors addressed the limitations and challenges of longitudinal studies in a study of the health status of a community of religious sisters. Methods of this specific longitudinal study are presented to provide background to the discussion. Challenges, limitations, and advantages of the current longitudinal study are organized into three categories (i.e., sample, method, and data analysis) that have been addressed in the literature as contributing to the fidelity of longitudinal studies. The unique characteristics of the current study sample, particularly their access to health care, creates a comparison group for the study of older women in general. PMID:25860013

  19. Gait Characteristics Associated with Walking Speed Decline in Older Adults: Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Jerome, Gerald J; Ko, Seung-uk; Kauffman, Danielle; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Simonsick, Eleanor M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to walking speed decline can provide needed insight for developing targeted interventions to reduce the rate and likelihood of decline. Objective Examine the association between gait characteristics and walking speed decline in older adults. Methods Participants in the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging aged 60 to 89 were evaluated in the gait laboratory which used a three dimensional motion capture system and force platforms to assess cadence, stride length, stride width, percent of gait cycle in double stance, anterior-posterior mechanical work expenditure (MWE), and medial-lateral MWE. Usual walking speed was assessed over 6 meters at baseline and follow-up. Gait characteristics associated with meaningful decline (decline ≥ 0.05 m/s/y) in walking speed were evaluated by logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, race, height, weight, initial walking speed and follow-up time. Results Among 362 participants, the average age was 72.4 (SD=8.1) years, 51% were female, 27% were black and 23% were identified has having meaningful decline in usual walking speed with an average follow-up time of 3.2 (1.1) years. In the fully adjusted model, faster cadence [ORadj=0.65 95% CI (0.43,0.97)] and longer strides [ORadj=0.87 95% CI (0.83,0.91)] were associated with lower odds of decline. However age [ORadj=1.04 95% CI (0.99,1.10)] was not associated with decline when controlling for gait characteristics and other demographics. Conclusion A sizable proportion of healthy older adults experienced walking speed decline over an average of 3 years. Longer stride and faster cadence were protective against meaningful decline in usual walking speed. PMID:25614178

  20. Psychosocial predictors of non-adherence to chronic medication: systematic review of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Bemt, Bart J; Vriezekolk, Johanna E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Several cross-sectional studies suggest that psychosocial factors are associated with non-adherence to chronic preventive maintenance medication (CPMM); however, results from longitudinal associations have not yet been systematically summarized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to systematically synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Materials and methods PUBMED, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases were searched for studies meeting our inclusion criteria. The reference lists and the ISI Web of Knowledge of the included studies were checked. Studies were included if they had an English abstract, involved adult populations using CPMM living in Western countries, and if they investigated associations between psychosocial predictors and medication non-adherence using longitudinal designs. Data were extracted according to a literature-based extraction form. Study quality was independently judged by two researchers using a framework comprising six bias domains. Studies were considered to be of high quality if ≥four domains were free of bias. Psychosocial predictors for non-adherence were categorized into five pre-defined categories: beliefs/cognitions; coping styles; social influences and social support; personality traits; and psychosocial well-being. A qualitative best evidence synthesis was performed to synthesize evidence of longitudinal associations between psychosocial predictors and CPMM non-adherence. Results Of 4,732 initially-identified studies, 30 (low-quality) studies were included in the systematic review. The qualitative best evidence synthesis demonstrated limited evidence for absence of a longitudinal association between CPMM non-adherence and the psychosocial categories. The strength of evidence for the review’s findings is limited by the low quality of included studies. Conclusion The results do not provide psychosocial targets for the development of new

  1. Auditory sensory deficits in developmental dyslexia: a longitudinal ERP study.

    PubMed

    Stefanics, Gabor; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Mead, Natasha; Szucs, Denes; Goswami, Usha

    2011-08-01

    The core difficulty in developmental dyslexia across languages is a "phonological deficit", a specific difficulty with the neural representation of the sound structure of words. Recent data across languages suggest that this phonological deficit arises in part from inefficient auditory processing of the rate of change of the amplitude envelope at syllable onset (inefficient sensory processing of rise time). Rise time is a complex percept that also involves changes in duration and perceived intensity. Understanding the neural mechanisms that give rise to the phonological deficit in dyslexia is important for optimising educational interventions. In a three-deviant passive 'oddball' paradigm and a corresponding blocked 'deviant-alone' control condition we recorded ERPs to tones varying in rise time, duration and intensity in children with dyslexia and typically developing children longitudinally. We report here results from test Phases 1 and 2, when participants were aged 8-10 years. We found an MMN to duration, but not to rise time nor intensity deviants, at both time points for both groups. For rise time, duration and intensity we found group effects in both the Oddball and Blocked conditions. There was a slower fronto-central P1 response in the dyslexic group compared to controls. The amplitude of the P1 fronto-centrally to tones with slower rise times and lower intensity was smaller compared to tones with sharper rise times and higher intensity in the Oddball condition, for children with dyslexia only. The latency of this ERP component for all three stimuli was shorter on the right compared to the left hemisphere, only for the dyslexic group in the Blocked condition. Furthermore, we found decreased N1c amplitude to tones with slower rise times compared to tones with sharper rise times for children with dyslexia, only in the Oddball condition. Several other effects of stimulus type, age and laterality were also observed. Our data suggest that neuronal responses

  2. Longitudinal Study of Developmental Problems of Children: Comparison between Japan and U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ueda, Reiko

    Two studies investigated behavioral problems in childhood. Study 1 longitudinally investigated similarities and differences in enuresis and nailbiting among Japanese and American children. Incidences of enuresis decreased as subjects' age increased. Socio-cultural and family tolerance were related to incidences of nailbiting. In Study 2, changes…

  3. The Skinny on Body Dissatisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Presnell, Katherine; Martinez, Erin; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The present study tested whether theoretically derived risk factors predicted increases in body dissatisfaction and whether gender moderated these relations with data from a longitudinal study of 428 adolescent girls and boys because few prospective studies have examined these aims, despite evidence that body dissatisfaction increases risk for…

  4. Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuffe, Steven P.; McKeown, Robert E.; Addy, Cheryl L.; Garrison, Carol Z.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of family and social risk factors with psychopathology in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Method: From 1986 to 1988, 3,419 seventh through ninth graders were screened with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The top decile scorers and a random sample of the remainder were interviewed…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Pubertal Timing and Extreme Body Change Behaviors among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marita P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the prevalence of disordered eating and other health risk behaviors among adolescent boys and girls. However, these studies generally have not examined predictors of these behaviors, and have not embedded the investigations within a theoretical framework. This study employed a longitudinal design to evaluate the…

  6. A Longitudinal Investigation into L2 Learners' Cognitive Processes during Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The present study longitudinally investigates the cognitive processes of advanced L2 learners engaged in a multimedia task that elicited status-equal and status-unequal refusals in English during their study abroad. Data were collected three times by retrospective verbal report from 20 Chinese learners who were studying abroad over the course of…

  7. Longitudinal Studies Using a "Natural Experiment" Design: The Case of Adoptees from Romanian Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kumsta, Robert; Schlotz, Wolff; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the advantages and limitations of general population, high-risk and "natural experiment" longitudinal studies for studying psychological change. The English and Romanian Adoptees study is used as an example of a "natural experiment," and detailed findings are provided. Method: What is new is a focus on the young people who…

  8. Re-Examining Exit Exams: New Findings from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Using the nationally representative, cohort-based data of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:02), this study employs multiple regression to examine the effects of exit exams on student achievement and school completion. This study finds that exit exams as a whole do not have substantial effects on student achievement in mathematics,…

  9. A Stage-Sequential Model of Reading Transitions: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, David; Walpole, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    This study uses latent transition analysis to examine reading development across the kindergarten and 1st-grade year. Data include poverty status and dichotomous measures of reading at 4 time points for a large sample of children within the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. In each of 4 waves of the study, 5 latent classes were represented in…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Enhancing Critical Thinking and Reading Comprehension in Title I Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Bracken, Bruce; Feng, Annie; Brown, Elissa

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal study of student growth gains was conducted in Title I schools to assess growth in reading comprehension and critical thinking. Results suggested that all students benefited from the intervention of Project Athena units of study designed for high-ability learners. In addition, the study suggested that the comparison curriculum also…

  11. Development of the Literacy Achievement Gap: A Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten through Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Wayne A.; Miller, Merideth

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The major goal of this study was to specify the developmental trajectories for phonics and early text comprehension skills of children from kindergarten through third grade. Method: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (N = 12,261) were used in this study. The participants were divided into 3 school readiness groups based on…

  12. The 11-year solar radiation rhythm and the North Atlantic Oscillation during the last two centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunck, Heiko; Sirocko, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The study is based on a historical chronology of freezing events in central Europe during the last 230 years (river Rhine (Sirocko et al. 2012), Baltic Sea (Koslowski and Glaser, 1999) and Lake Constance (Dobras, 1983)). These regions display both significant similarities with extremely cold winters in central Germany for the years 1799, 1830, 1895, 1929, 1940, 1942, 1947, 1956 and 1963, as well as regional differences in timing and severity of cold winters. The statistical analysis of all 92 historical freezing events showed that 80 events occurred during a negative NAOwinter phase. The bootstrap test defined the results as extremely significant. To understand the climatic forcing behind the freezing chronology the NAO data set was smoothed by a three point running mean filter and compared with the 11- year cyclicity of the sunspot numbers. A complete NAO cycle can be observed within each solar cycle back to 1960 and from 1820 to 1900. From 1900 to 1960 the correlation between the Sun and NAO was weak. This on/off mode becomes visible only in the smoothed NAO data, when time intervals longer than "normal" weather observations are analysed. Statistical test for the coherence of the entire 230 years are insignificant. However, the relation is highly significant, if only the intervals from 1960 to 2010 and 1830 to 1900 are analysed. The phase correlation can be explained by temperature variations up to +-2.5°C in time series of stratospheric air temperature at 40 km height, where ozone is formed by ultraviolet solar radiation. Advanced analysis of sea surface temperatures from reanalysis data (ECMWF Data Archiv, 2013) between 30° - 40°N and 65° - 75°N indicate similar temperature variations in phase with the solar activity. Consequently, the 11 year solar periodicity is related to various parts of the Earth/Ocean/Atmosphere system and not only to the stratospheric signal. However, the NAO is the dominating mediator to implement a solar component into the

  13. Acceptance of Nordic snack bars in children aged 8–11 years

    PubMed Central

    Holmer, Anna; Hausner, Helene; Reinbach, Helene C.; Bredie, Wender L. P.; Wendin, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Background A health promoting diet is suggested to be tailored to regional circumstances to preserve the cultural diversity in eating habits, as well as contribute to more environmentally friendly eating. It may influence consumer acceptance, however, if the components of the diet differs considerably from their habitual food. Objective This study aimed to investigate whether snack bars composed of Nordic ingredients were accepted by 8–11 year-old Danish (n=134) and Swedish (n=109) children. Design A seven-point hedonic scale was used to measure the children's acceptance of five snack bars that varied in their composition of whole grains, berries and nuts. A preference rank ordering of the five bars was also performed. Results The results showed that samples that were rated highest in liking and were most preferred in both countries were a kamut/pumpkin bar and an oat/cranberry bar. The sample with the lowest rating that was also least preferred was a pumpernickel/sea buckthorn bar. Flavour was the most important determinant of overall liking followed by texture, odour and appearance. Conclusions Children's acceptances and preferences were highly influenced by the sensory characteristics of the bars, mainly flavour. In agreement with earlier studies, the novel food ingredients seemed to influence children's preferences. The Nordic snack bars may have a potential to be a snack option for Danish and Swedish school children, but repeated exposures to the products are recommended to increase children's acceptance. PMID:22545034

  14. Ability Emotional Intelligence, Trait Emotional Intelligence, and Academic Success in British Secondary Schools: A 5 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qualter, Pamela; Gardner, Kathryn J.; Pope, Debbie J.; Hutchinson, Jane M.; Whiteley, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the long-term effects of ability- and trait EI on academic performance for British adolescents. The sample comprised 413 students from three secondary schools in the North-West of England. Students completed tests of ability EI, trait EI, personality, and cognitive ability in Year 7 (mean age = 11 years 2 months). Performance…

  15. Long path-length experimental studies of longitudinal phenomena in intense beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, B. L.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Bernal, S.; Koeth, T. W.

    2016-05-01

    Intense charged particle beams are nonneutral plasmas as they can support a host of plasma waves and instabilities. The longitudinal physics, for a long beam, can often be reasonably described by a 1-D cold-fluid model with a geometry factor to account for the transverse effects. The plasma physics of such beams has been extensively studied theoretically and computationally for decades, but until recently, the only experimental measurements were carried out on relatively short linacs. This work reviews experimental studies over the past five years on the University of Maryland Electron Ring, investigating longitudinal phenomena over time scales of thousands of plasma periods, illustrating good agreement with simulations.

  16. Assessment of bully/victim problems in 8 to 11 year-olds.

    PubMed

    Austin, S; Joseph, S

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop two six-item self-report scales (the Bullying-Behaviour Scale and the Peer-Victimisation Scale) to assess bully-victim problems at school. These scales were designed so that they could be immersed within the Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC: Harter, 1985) thus reducing the saliency of the items. Internal reliability of both scales was found to be satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83 and 0.82 respectively). Data are reported on the association between scores on both scales and scores on the SPPC and the Birleson Depression Inventory (Birleson, 1981) with 425 children (204 boys and 221 girls) ranging from 8 to 11 years (mean = 9.2 years). Forty-six per cent of the children were classified as bullies, victims, or both: 22 per cent were classified as victims only, 15 per cent as bully/victims, and 9 per cent as bullies only. PMID:9008423

  17. The 11 year solar cycle signature on wave-driven dynamics in WACCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullens, Chihoko Y.; England, Scott L.; Garcia, Rolando R.

    2016-04-01

    This study describes the influence of the 11 year solar cycle on gravity waves and the wave-driven circulation, using an ensemble of six simulations of the period from 1955 to 2005 along with fixed solar maximum and minimum simulations of the Whole Atmospheric Community Climate Model (WACCM). Solar cycle signals are estimated by calculating the difference between solar maximum and minimum conditions. Simulations under both time-varying and fixed solar inputs show statistically significant responses in temperatures and winds in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) during austral winter and spring. At solar maximum, the monthly mean, zonal mean temperature in the SH from July to October is cooler (~1-3 K) in the stratosphere and warmer (~1-4 K) in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere (MLT). In solar maximum years, the SH polar vortex is more stable and its eastward speed is about 5-8 m s-1 greater than during solar minimum. The increase in the eastward wind propagates downward and poleward from July to October in the SH. Because of increase in the eastward wind, the propagation of eastward gravity waves to the MLT is reduced. This results in a net westward response in gravity wave drag, peaking at ~10 m s-1 d-1 in the SH high-latitude MLT. These changes in gravity wave drag modify the wave-induced residual circulation, and this contributes to the warming of ~1-4 K in the MLT.

  18. Learning Styles and Motivational Styles in Different Academic Contexts: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozen, Rasit; Eren, Altay

    2009-01-01

    In this study, individual differences among the first year undergraduate students' learning styles and motivational styles were examined in two different academic contexts. Changes in students' learning styles and motivational styles were also investigated through a longitudinal design over one academic year. The results of this study showed that…

  19. The Relationship between Working Memory for Serial Order and Numerical Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attout, Lucie; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Despite numerous studies, the link between verbal working memory (WM) and calculation abilities remains poorly understood. The present longitudinal study focuses specifically on the role of serial order retention capacities, based on recent findings suggesting a link between ordinal processing in verbal WM and numerical processing tasks. Children…

  20. Etiology of Pervasive versus Situational Antisocial Behaviors: A Multi-informant Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, Jasmin; Zavos, Helena M. S.; Matthews, Timothy; Gray, Rebecca; Best-Lane, Janis; Pariante, Carmine M.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle pervasive from situational antisocial behaviors using multiple informants, and to investigate their genetic and environmental etiologies in preadolescence and across time. Antisocial behaviors were assessed in 2,232 twins from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study at ages 5 and 12.…

  1. Longitudinal Study of Nightmares in Children: Stability and Effect of Emotional Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schredl, Michael; Fricke-Oerkermann, Leonie; Mitschke, Alexander; Wiater, Alfred; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    Nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions which awaken the dreamer and are common during childhood: cross-sectional data shows the highest prevalence rates between the ages of five and ten. The present longitudinal study was designed to study the stability of nightmares over the course of 2 years. Sleep questionnaires and…

  2. Language Learning at Key Stage 2: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cable, Carrie; Driscoll, Patricia; Mitchell, Rosamond; Sing, Sue; Cremin, Teresa; Earl, Justine; Eyres, Ian; Holmes, Bernardette; Martin, Cynthia; Heins, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the findings from a 3-year longitudinal study of language learning in the upper stage of English primary schools, i.e. at Key Stage 2. This largely qualitative study (commissioned by the then Department for Children, Schools and Families) was designed to explore and document developing provision and practice in a…

  3. Media Exposure, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior during Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2006-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…

  4. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in the Context of Cyberbullying: A Longitudinal Study among German Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Jakel, Anne; Schultze, Martin; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Although many studies have reported on internalising and externalising problems related to cyberbullying roles, there is a lack of longitudinal research in this area. This study reports (1) cross-sectional data from 412 German middle-school students to examine differences between cyberbullies, cybervictims and cyberbully-victims compared to…

  5. Continuing and Ceasing Leisure Activities in Later Life: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, Laurel A.; Grabusic, Carmen C.; Searle, Mark S.; Dunn, Nicole J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined changes in leisure activities of older adults over an 8-year period, and associated sociodemographic and health characteristics. Design and Methods: Data were from a longitudinal study conducted in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 380 respondents were interviewed in-person in both 1985 and 1993. Changes in ten specific…

  6. Job Demands and Resources as Antecedents of Work Engagement: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Ruokolainen, Mervi

    2007-01-01

    By utilizing a 2-year longitudinal design, the present study investigated the experience of work engagement and its antecedents among Finnish health care personnel (n = 409). The data were collected by questionnaires in 2003 (Time 1) and in 2005 (Time 2). The study showed that work engagement--especially vigor and dedication--was relatively…

  7. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

  8. Power of Models in Longitudinal Study: Findings from a Full-Crossed Simulation Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fang, Hua; Brooks, Gordon P.; Rizzo, Maria L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Barcikowski, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Because the power properties of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models have not been clearly determined in the balanced design for longitudinal studies in the literature, the authors present a power comparison study of traditional repeated measures and hierarchical multivariate linear models under 3…

  9. LIFESPAN: A tool for the computer-aided design of longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596

  10. Online Communication, Compulsive Internet Use, and Psychosocial Well-Being among Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.; Meerkerk, Gert-Jan; Vermulst, Ad A.; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15 years. Questionnaires were administered in a…

  11. Serial-Order Short-Term Memory Predicts Vocabulary Development: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leclercq, Anne-Lise; Majerus, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Serial-order short-term memory (STM), as opposed to item STM, has been shown to be very consistently associated with lexical learning abilities in cross-sectional study designs. This study investigated longitudinal predictions between serial-order STM and vocabulary development. Tasks maximizing the temporary retention of either serial-order or…

  12. Making Meaning of Constructivism: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of historical content knowledge and classroom control were major barriers for the…

  13. Local Implementation of PL 94-142: Third Year Report of a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Anne R.; And Others

    The document contains the third annual update of a longitudinal study on the implementation of P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, by 16 local education agencies (LEAs). An introductory chapter outlines the content of the report and the study design. Section II describes implementation of P.L. 94-142 in 16 special…

  14. College Student Employment: Patterns and Profiles. Maryland Longitudinal Study Research Highlights. Research Report 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Maryland Longitudinal Study Steering Committee.

    As part of the Maryland Longitudinal Study of 772 students entering the University of Maryland, College Park (UMCP) in the fall of 1980, a study was conducted to determine patterns of college student employment and profiles of students in different employment categories. Findings included the following: (1) approximately 40% of students were…

  15. Information Behavior of People Diagnosed with a Chronic Serious Health Condition: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Jean, Beth Lenore

    2012-01-01

    This study consisted of a longitudinal investigation into the information behavior of people diagnosed with a particular chronic serious health condition, type 2 diabetes. This study sought to identify the factors that motivate or impede the information seeking and use of these individuals and to discover how these factors and their influences…

  16. Understanding Differences in State Support for Higher Education across States, Sectors, and Institutions: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weerts, David J.; Ronca, Justin M.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines factors that explain differences in levels of state appropriations for higher education across states, sectors, and institutions between 1984 and 2004. The study sheds light on the complex relationship between institutional mission, state fiscal health, and state political context in explaining appropriations for…

  17. Attitudes and Aspirations of Female Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study-in-Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmurak, Carole B.

    This paper describes a longitudinal study which followed a group of young women through high school and college. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between: (1) aspirations and achievement of young women; (2) the relative influence of high school and college on career choice in young women; and (3) the interactions between…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Institutional Autonomy in Thirty Community Colleges. AIR 1997 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, Anita Claire; Volkwein, James Fredericks

    This longitudinal multi-method study assessed changes in institutional autonomy at 30 community colleges in one state. Six years after legislated changes intended to increase autonomy and create a uniform fiscal operation system had been implemented, the study found that changes in autonomy in selected fiscal, personnel, and operational matters…

  19. Positive Socialization Mechanisms in Secure and Insecure Parent-Child Dyads: Two Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Woodard, Jarilyn; Kim, Sanghag; Koenig, Jamie L.; Yoon, Jeung Eun; Barry, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Implications of early attachment have been extensively studied, but little is known about its long-term indirect sequelae, where early security organization moderates future parent-child relationships, serving as a catalyst for adaptive and maladaptive processes. Two longitudinal multi-trait multi-method studies examined whether early…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Career Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carless, Sally A.; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2011-01-01

    The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness…

  1. Rates of Bullying Perpetration and Victimisation: A Longitudinal Study of Secondary School Students in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Tollit, Michelle; Kotevski, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Bullying perpetration and victimisation are common issues confronting schools. To understand the extent of bullying in schools and differences in the experiences of boys and girls, longitudinal studies of different subtypes of bullying perpetration and victimisation are essential. The current study aims to describe the rates of bullying…

  2. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age <32 weeks) and very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 grams) is related to attention problems in childhood and adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  3. Which Middle School Model Works Best? Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carolan, Brian V.; Weiss, Christopher C.; Matthews, Jamaal S.

    2015-01-01

    There are few areas of school organization that reflect more dissatisfaction than how to structure the education of adolescents in the middle grades. This study uses multilevel models on nationally representative data provided by the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study to investigate the relationship between schools' middle-level grade span and…

  4. Career Aspirations of Young Women in High School and in College: A Seven Year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shmurak, Carole B.

    This paper reports on a longitudinal study with results drawn from 7 years of data on a group of young women (N=42), following them from the ninth grade through the third year of college. The purpose of the study was to trace development of the participants' thinking about school, career, and women's roles while also tracking their grades,…

  5. Selective Attrition Effects in a Longitudinal Study of Adult Intelligence: Methodological Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsiske, Michael; Willis, Sherry L.

    Selective subject attrition from longitudinal study panels can bias estimates of developmental change. Particularly in studies of older adults, sampling effects can adversely affect attempts to estimate true ontogenetic change. Selective attrition effects were examined in 636 Pennsylvania adults (138 males, 498 females), aged 58-91, who were…

  6. Listening Text Comprehension in Preschoolers: A Longitudinal Study on the Role of Semantic Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florit, Elena; Roch, Maja; Levorato, M. Chiara

    2014-01-01

    A longitudinal study analyzed (a) which lower- and higher-level semantic components uniquely predicted listening text comprehension and (b) the nature of the relation (i.e., direct and indirect) between the predictors and listening text comprehension in preschoolers. One-hundred and fifty-two children participated in the present study (68 females;…

  7. A Longitudinal Investigation of Project-Based Instruction and Student Achievement in High School Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Emily J.; Dickinson, Gail

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study focused on how project-based instruction (PBI) influenced secondary social studies students' academic achievement and promoted College and Career Readiness (CCR). We explored and compared student achievement in a PBI high school versus a traditional instruction high school within the same rural school district. While…

  8. Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

  9. Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study: 1996-2001 (BPS:1996/2001) Methodology Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wine, Jennifer S.; Heuer, Ruth E.; Wheeless, Sara C.; Francis, Talbric L.; Franklin, Jeff W.; Dudley, Kristin M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the procedures and results of the full-scale Implementation of the final followup interview with the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study 1996/2001. This study follows a cohort first interviewed in 1996 in their first year of postsecondary education. (SLD)

  10. Computer-Assisted Interventions Targeting Reading Skills of Children with Reading Disabilities--A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falth, Linda; Gustafson, Stefan; Tjus, Tomas; Heimann, Mikael; Svensson, Idor

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three computerized interventions on the reading skills of children with reading disabilities in Grade 2. This longitudinal intervention study included five test sessions over 1 year. Two test points occur before the intervention, and three afterwards. The last follow-up was conducted 1…

  11. The Intergenerational Continuity of Observed Early Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovan, Nikki M.; Chung, Alissa L.; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the results from a prospective, longitudinal study of cross-generational parenting quality in a lower socioeconomic status sample of moderate ethnic diversity (N = 61). The study extends previous research on intergenerational continuity of parenting in several significant ways: (a) Assessments in both generations were based on…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Career Maturity of Korean Adolescents: The Effects of Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Kyu Jin; Joeng, Ju-Ri; Goh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study is to examine the effects of personal factors and contextual determinants on the career maturity change of Korean adolescents over a 5-year period. This study used data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey which was administered to 3,449 junior high students from Grades 8 to 12, starting in 2003. A linear…

  13. Dynamics of Complexity and Accuracy: A Longitudinal Case Study of Advanced Untutored Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polat, Brittany; Kim, Youjin

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal case study follows a dynamic systems approach to investigate an under-studied research area in second language acquisition, the development of complexity and accuracy for an advanced untutored learner of English. Using the analytical tools of dynamic systems theory (Verspoor et al. 2011) within the framework of complexity,…

  14. Early Intervention and Juvenile Delinquency Prevention: Evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Emily A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the role of an early educational intervention and child-, family-, peer-, and school-level predictors on court-reported juvenile delinquency. Data were provided from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of the scholastic and social development of more than 1,500 low-income youths (93% of whom were…

  15. Evidence for a General ADHD Factor from a Longitudinal General School Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand, Sebastien; Flora, David B.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Tannock, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    Recent factor analytic studies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have shown that hierarchical models provide a better fit of ADHD symptoms than correlated models. A hierarchical model includes a general ADHD factor and specific factors for inattention, and hyperactivity/impulsivity. The aim of this 12-month longitudinal study was…

  16. The Developmental Sequence of Social-Communicative Skills in Young Children with Autism: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chin-Chin; Chiang, Chung-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    To explore the different developmental trajectories of social-communicative skills in children with autism and typically developing infants, two longitudinal studies were conducted. In Study 1, we examined the developmental sequence of social-communicative skills in 26 typically developing infants when they were 9 months old and reexamined them…

  17. LIFESPAN: A tool for the computer-aided design of longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Brandmaier, Andreas M; von Oertzen, Timo; Ghisletta, Paolo; Hertzog, Christopher; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    Researchers planning a longitudinal study typically search, more or less informally, a multivariate space of possible study designs that include dimensions such as the hypothesized true variance in change, indicator reliability, the number and spacing of measurement occasions, total study time, and sample size. The main search goal is to select a research design that best addresses the guiding questions and hypotheses of the planned study while heeding applicable external conditions and constraints, including time, money, feasibility, and ethical considerations. Because longitudinal study selection ultimately requires optimization under constraints, it is amenable to the general operating principles of optimization in computer-aided design. Based on power equivalence theory (MacCallum et al., 2010; von Oertzen, 2010), we propose a computational framework to promote more systematic searches within the study design space. Starting with an initial design, the proposed framework generates a set of alternative models with equal statistical power to detect hypothesized effects, and delineates trade-off relations among relevant parameters, such as total study time and the number of measurement occasions. We present LIFESPAN (Longitudinal Interactive Front End Study Planner), which implements this framework. LIFESPAN boosts the efficiency, breadth, and precision of the search for optimal longitudinal designs. Its initial version, which is freely available at http://www.brandmaier.de/lifespan, is geared toward the power to detect variance in change as specified in a linear latent growth curve model. PMID:25852596

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Environmental and Outdoor Education: A Cultural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tal, Tali; Morag, Orly

    2013-01-01

    In this case-study, we present a longitudinal study of one elementary (grades 1-6) school's environmental education (EE) in order to understand the ways in which the school culture supports outdoor EE as a critical component of their science education program. The school, which was known for its school-based EE curriculum that encompasses an…

  19. Analysis of Apprenticeship Training from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Robert F.; And Others

    A study investigated effects of on-the-job or "hands-on" vocational training relative to standard classroom vocational instruction on subsequent employment, earnings, wages, and job satisfaction. The data used were from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972 and five follow-up surveys of this population. An analysis of…

  20. Summary of Reviewers Comments [of the Rand Corporations Design for a Longitudinal Study of School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crain, Robert L.

    Four groups of people were requested to review the Rand Corporation's design for a longitudinal study of school desegregation. When the study design documents were sent to the reviewers, an evaluation questionnaire was attached. The reviewers were asked to add any needed clarifying comments in the spaces provided after each question, and to write…

  1. Individual Differences in Pronoun Reversal: Evidence from Two Longitudinal Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Karen E.; Demuth, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Pronoun reversal, the use of "you" for self-reference and "I" for an addressee, has often been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and impaired language. However, recent case studies have shown the phenomenon also to occur in typically developing and even precocious talkers. This study examines longitudinal corpus data from two…

  2. Levels of Phonological Awareness in Korean and English: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined associations of levels of phonological awareness to word recognition in Korean and English in a 1-year longitudinal study of 91 children from Masan, Korea. With performances on tasks of speeded naming, vocabulary, and Korean Hangul in 2nd grade statistically controlled, only Korean syllable deletion predicted unique…

  3. Chronic Illness and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese Older Adults: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Chi, Iris

    2002-01-01

    Depression is quite common among the elderly members of Hong Kong Chinese society. This study examined the impact of a series of chronic illnesses on change in depressive symptoms among the older people. The respondents were 260 people aged 70 years or older from a longitudinal study of a representative community sample of the elderly population…

  4. EVALUATION OF THE CLEVELAND CHILD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM. A LONGITUDINAL STUDY (FIRST YEAR REPORT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CORTES, CARLOS F.; AND OTHERS

    IN ORDER TO EVALUATE THE EFFECT OF A STRUCTURED PRESCHOOL ACADEMIC PROGRAM UPON THE COGNITIVE GROWTH OF CULTURALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN, A LONGITUDINAL STUDY WAS BEGUN ON 107 FOUR-YEAR-OLDS IN CLEVELAND, OHIO. RELEVANT RESEARCH LITERATURE WAS REVIEWED IN DESIGNING THE STUDY. THE FIRST PHASE, RECOUNTED IN THIS REPORT, EXPLORED PSYCHO-LINGUISTIC,…

  5. Variability in Fundamental Frequency during Speech in Prodromal and Incipient Parkinson's Disease: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harel, Brian; Cannizzaro, Michael; Snyder, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    Nearly two centuries ago, Parkinson (1817) first observed that a particular pattern of speech changes occur in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Numerous studies have documented these changes using a wide variety of acoustic measures, and yet few studies have attempted to quantify any such changes longitudinally, through the early…

  6. Development of Working Memory and Performance in Arithmetic: A Longitudinal Study with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This study has aimed to investigate the relationship between the development of working memory and performance on arithmetic activities. Method: We conducted a 3-year longitudinal study of a sample of 90 children, that was followed during the first, second and third year of primary school. All children were tested on measures of WM…

  7. Impaired Perception of Syllable Stress in Children with Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha; Mead, Natasha; Fosker, Tim; Huss, Martina; Barnes, Lisa; Leong, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Prosodic patterning is a key structural element of spoken language. However, the potential role of prosodic awareness in the phonological difficulties that characterise children with developmental dyslexia has been little studied. Here we report the first longitudinal study of sensitivity to syllable stress in children with dyslexia, enabling the…

  8. Building a Constructivist Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Beginning History Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal interpretative case study examined the constructivist beliefs and related practices of four secondary history teachers from their teacher preparation through their first year in the classroom. The results of this study showed that issues of classroom control were major barriers for the implementation of constructivist-oriented…

  9. Personal Context and Continuity of Human Thought: Recurrent Themes in a Longitudinal Study of Students' Conceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellden, Gustav F.

    The present study of personal context and continuity in twenty-three students' thinking builds upon data from a longitudinal study of the students' conceptualizations of ecological processes. Each student was interviewed eleven times from age 9-15 about the conditions for life, decomposition, and the role of the flower in plant reproduction. At…

  10. Conditions for Ubiquitous Computing: What Can Be Learned from a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Jing

    2010-01-01

    Based on survey data and interview data collected over four academic years, this longitudinal study examined how a ubiquitous computing project evolved along with the changes in teachers, students, the human infrastructure, and technology infrastructure in the school. This study also investigated what conditions were necessary for successful…

  11. Prospective Prediction of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury: A 1-Year Longitudinal Study in Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David

    2011-01-01

    Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has become a significant public health problem. Although numerous studies have examined cross-sectional psychological correlates of NSSI, there has been little research examining predictors of NSSI over time. The present study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal correlates of NSSI in 81 young adult…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of the Social and Academic Competence of Economically Disadvantaged Bilingual Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oades-Sese, Geraldine V.; Esquivel, Giselle B.; Kaliski, Pamela K.; Maniatis, Lisette

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study was conducted to gain understanding of the social-emotional and academic development of economically disadvantaged bilingual preschool children. In Study 1, the authors combined cognitive, psychosocial, and cultural-linguistic factors to determine profiles of social competence as measured by peer play. A person-centered…

  13. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  14. Exposure to Parental Cigarette Smoking and Child Problem Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Fagan, Pebbles

    2008-01-01

    This study examined exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), a major public health problem. ETS has been found to be associated with an increased risk of adverse health effects in children. This study utilizes data from a community-based, longitudinal investigation examining the relation between children's exposure to ETS and later…

  15. Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence, Peer Relations, and Risk for Internalizing Behaviors: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Kathleen; Ehrensaft, Miriam K.; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the quality of peer relations as a mediator between exposure to IPV (intimate partner violence) and internalizing behaviors in a sample of 129 preadolescents and adolescents (ages 10-18), who were interviewed via telephone as part of a multigenerational, prospective, longitudinal study. Relational victimization is also…

  16. Longitudinal Associations between Externalizing Behavior and Dysfunctional Eating Attitudes and Behaviors: A Community-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.; von Ranson, Kristin M.; Iacono, William G.; Succop, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated longitudinal associations between externalizing behavior and dysfunctional eating attitudes and behaviors. Participants were girls drawn from the community-based Minnesota Twin Family Study and assessed at ages 11, 14, and 17. Cross-sectional correlations indicated that the strength of the associations between externalizing…

  17. Memory and Depressive Symptoms Are Dynamically Linked among Married Couples: Longitudinal Evidence from the AHEAD Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerstorf, Denis; Hoppmann, Christiane A.; Kadlec, Kelly M.; McArdle, John J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined dyadic interrelations between episodic memory and depressive symptom trajectories of change in old and advanced old age. The authors applied dynamic models to 10-year incomplete longitudinal data of initially 1,599 married couples from the study of Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (M[subscript age] = 75 years at…

  18. Depressive Symptoms and School Burnout during Adolescence: Evidence from Two Cross-Lagged Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which middle and late adolescents' depressive symptoms predict their later school burnout and, in turn, the extent to which school burnout predicts depressive symptoms. Drawing on data gathered at ages 15-19 in two-three-wave longitudinal studies, we investigated cross-lagged paths…

  19. The 11 years solar cycle as the manifestation of the dark Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Zioutas, K.; Semertzidis, Y.; Tsagri, M.; Papaevangelou, T.; Hoffmann, D. H.H.; Anastassopoulos, V.

    2014-11-26

    Sun’s luminosity in the visible changes at the 10-3 level, following an 11 years period. In X-rays, which should not be there, the amplitude varies even ~105 times stronger, making their mysterious origin since the discovery in 1938 even more puzzling, and inspiring. We suggest that the multifaceted mysterious solar cycle is due to some kind of dark matter streams hitting the Sun. Planetary gravitational lensing enhances (occasionally) slow moving flows of dark constituents towards the Sun, giving rise to the periodic behaviour. Jupiter provides the driving oscillatory force, though its 11.8 years orbital period appears slightly decreased, just as 11 years, if the lensing impact of other planets is included. Then, the 11 years solar clock may help to decipher (overlooked) signatures from the dark sector in laboratory experiments or observations in space.

  20. The 11 years solar cycle as the manifestation of the dark Universe

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zioutas, K.; Semertzidis, Y.; Tsagri, M.; Papaevangelou, T.; Hoffmann, D. H.H.; Anastassopoulos, V.

    2014-11-26

    Sun’s luminosity in the visible changes at the 10-3 level, following an 11 years period. In X-rays, which should not be there, the amplitude varies even ~105 times stronger, making their mysterious origin since the discovery in 1938 even more puzzling, and inspiring. We suggest that the multifaceted mysterious solar cycle is due to some kind of dark matter streams hitting the Sun. Planetary gravitational lensing enhances (occasionally) slow moving flows of dark constituents towards the Sun, giving rise to the periodic behaviour. Jupiter provides the driving oscillatory force, though its 11.8 years orbital period appears slightly decreased, just asmore » 11 years, if the lensing impact of other planets is included. Then, the 11 years solar clock may help to decipher (overlooked) signatures from the dark sector in laboratory experiments or observations in space.« less

  1. Earlier age at menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk and cardiometabolic disease risk factors in Brazilian adults: Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Early menarche has been linked to higher risk of type 2 diabetes in Western and Asian societies, yet whether age at menarche is associated with diabetes in Latin America, where puberty and diabetes may have different life courses, is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with higher diabetes risk in Brazilian adults. Methods We used data from 8,075 women aged 35-74 years in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) who had complete information on age at menarche, diabetes status, and covariates. Diabetes was defined based on self-reported physician diagnosis, medication use, and laboratory variables (fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, and glycated hemoglobin). Poisson regression was used to generate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Menarche onset < 11 years [vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher risk of diabetes (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.14-1.57) after adjusting for sociodemographic factors, maternal education, maternal and paternal diabetes, and birth weight. This persisted after further control for BMI at age 20 years and relative leg length. Additionally, among those not taking diabetes medications, earlier menarche [<11 years vs. 13-14 years (referent)] was associated with higher % glycated hemoglobin (p < 0.001), alanine aminotransferase (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (p = 0.003), waist circumference (p < 0.001), and BMI measured at baseline exam (p < 0.001). Conclusion These findings support the hypothesis that earlier menarche is associated with greater risk for adult diabetes and cardiometabolic disease in the Brazilian context. PMID:24438044

  2. Intensity based methods for brain MRI longitudinal registration. A study on multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Diez, Yago; Oliver, Arnau; Cabezas, Mariano; Valverde, Sergi; Martí, Robert; Vilanova, Joan Carles; Ramió-Torrentà, Lluís; Rovira, Alex; Lladó, Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Registration is a key step in many automatic brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) applications. In this work we focus on longitudinal registration of brain MRI for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. First of all, we analyze the effect that MS lesions have on registration by synthetically eliminating some of the lesions. Our results show how a widely used method for longitudinal registration such as rigid registration is practically unconcerned by the presence of MS lesions while several non-rigid registration methods produce outputs that are significantly different. We then focus on assessing which is the best registration method for longitudinal MRI images of MS patients. In order to analyze the results obtained for all studied criteria, we use both descriptive statistics and statistical inference: one way ANOVA, pairwise t-tests and permutation tests. PMID:24338728

  3. Tailored Panel Management: A Theory-Based Approach to Building and Maintaining Participant Commitment to a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Mica; Woodcock, Anna; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2014-01-01

    Many psychological processes unfold over time, necessitating longitudinal research designs. Longitudinal research poses a host of methodological challenges, foremost of which is participant attrition. Building on Dillman’s work, we provide a review of how social influence and relationship research informs retention strategies in longitudinal studies. Objective: We introduce the tailored panel management (TPM) approach, which is designed to establish communal norms that increase commitment to a longitudinal study, and this commitment, in turn, increases response rates and buffers against attrition. Specifically, we discuss practices regarding compensation, communication, consistency, and credibility that increase longer term commitment to panel participation. Research design: Throughout the article, we describe how TPM is being used in a national longitudinal study of undergraduate minority science students. TheScienceStudy is a continuing panel, which has 12 waves of data collected across 6 academic years, with response rates ranging from 70% to 92%. Although more than 90% of participants have either left or graduated from their undergraduate degree program, this highly mobile group of people remains engaged in the study. TheScienceStudy has usable longitudinal data from 96% of the original panel. Conclusion: This article combines social psychological theory, current best practice, and a detailed case study to illustrate the TPM approach to longitudinal data collection. The approach provides guidance for other longitudinal researchers, and advocates for empirical research into longitudinal research methodologies. PMID:24590918

  4. Study on longitudinal dispersion relation in one-dimensional relativistic plasma: Linear theory and Vlasov simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Wu, S. Z.; Zhou, C. T.; He, X. T.; Key Laboratory of HEDP of the Ministry of Education, CAPT, Peking University, Beijing 100871 ; Zhu, S. P.

    2013-09-15

    The dispersion relation of one-dimensional longitudinal plasma waves in relativistic homogeneous plasmas is investigated with both linear theory and Vlasov simulation in this paper. From the Vlasov-Poisson equations, the linear dispersion relation is derived for the proper one-dimensional Jüttner distribution. Numerically obtained linear dispersion relation as well as an approximate formula for plasma wave frequency in the long wavelength limit is given. The dispersion of longitudinal wave is also simulated with a relativistic Vlasov code. The real and imaginary parts of dispersion relation are well studied by varying wave number and plasma temperature. Simulation results are in agreement with established linear theory.

  5. Education does not slow cognitive decline with aging: 12-year evidence from the victoria longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Glymour, M Maria; Sparks, Catharine; Bontempo, Daniel; Dixon, Roger A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Manly, Jennifer J

    2011-11-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Fewer studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1014 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range, 54-95 years) and gender, we found that years of education (range, 6-20 years) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging. PMID:21923980

  6. Education Does Not Slow Cognitive Decline with Aging: 12-Year Evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Zahodne, L.B.; Glymour, M.M.; Sparks, C.; Bontempo, D.; Dixon, R.A.; MacDonald, S.W.S.; Manly, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Few studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1,023 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range: 55–94) and gender, we found that years of education (range: 6–20) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging. PMID:21923980

  7. Pathways Linking Perceived Athletic Competence and Parental Support at Age 9 Years to Girls' Physical Activity at Age 11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Downs, Danielle Symons; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Girls' perceived athletic competence and parental support of physical activity across the ages of 9 to 11 years were examined as predictors of girls' physical activity at age 11 years. Participants were 174 girls and their mothers and fathers who completed questionnaires when the girls were ages 9 and 11 years. Two alternative temporal pathways…

  8. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation as Predictors of Reading Literacy: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Michael; McElvany, Nele; Kortenbruck, Marthe

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this study was to examine the longitudinal relationships of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation with reading literacy development. In particular, the authors (a) investigated reading amount as mediator between motivation and reading literacy and (b) probed for bidirectional relationships between reading motivation and reading…

  9. Self-Rated Health and the "First Move" around Retirement: A Longitudinal Study of Older Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Nan E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: I examine whether less favorable self-rated health raises the risk of outmigration more for young-old adults (aged 53-63 at the start of the 10-year longitudinal study in 1994) in nonmetro than metro counties and increases the odds that both groups of outmigrants will choose metro over nonmetro destinations. Finally, I examine whether…

  10. Children's Perspectives on Their Relationships with Grandparents following Parental Separation: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Laura J.; Roe, Amy E. C.; Dunn, Judy; O'Connor, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    Following parental separation, children's closeness to grandparents has been reported to be linked to their family situation and differences in adjustment. This relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. This study investigated children's relationships with grandparents over time in different family settings, and associations with…

  11. National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988. First Follow-Up: School Component Data File User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; And Others

    This manual has been produced to familiarize data users with the procedures followed for data collection and processing of the first follow-up component of the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88). A corollary objective is to provide the necessary documentation for use of the data file. Use of the data set does not require the…

  12. Strong Genetic Contribution to Peer Relationship Difficulties at School Entry: Findings from a Longitudinal Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Girard, Alain; Perusse, Daniel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the genetic and environmental contributions to peer difficulties in the early school years. Twins' peer difficulties were assessed longitudinally in kindergarten (796 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 6.1 years), Grade 1 (948 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 7.1 years), and Grade 4 (868 twins, "M"[subscript age] = 10 years) through…

  13. Everyday Segregation amongst Disabled Children and Their Peers: A Qualitative Longitudinal Study in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ytterhus, Borgunn

    2012-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative longitudinal study of children's changing peer relationships through childhood, with particular emphasis on experiences of disabled children. Initial observation of face-to-face-encounters among children in school made us aware of social inclusion and exclusion mechanisms relating to informal interaction…

  14. Emotional Intelligence throughout Portuguese Secondary School: A Longitudinal Study Comparing Performance and Self-Report Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Ana; Faria, Luísa

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the developmental trajectories of ability and trait emotional intelligence (EI) in the Portuguese secondary school. Within a three-wave longitudinal design, 395 students (M[subscript age] = 15.4; SD = 0.74) completed both the Emotional Skills and Competence Questionnaire (ESCQ) and the Vocabulary of Emotions Test (VET). Results…

  15. Pre-K Longitudinal Study: Findings from the 1999-2000 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Gary T.; Gordon, Craig S.; Mashburn, Andrew; Ponder, Bentley D.

    The Georgia Prekindergarten Program was established in 1993 to provide the state's 4-year-olds with high-quality preschool experiences. A five-year, longitudinal study examined the ways in which differences in prekindergarten services received by 3,639 Pre-K 4-year-olds affected them during their first 3 years of elementary school and assessed the…

  16. Constructing a Measure for Longitudinal Medical Achievement Studies by the Rasch Model One-Step Equating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Linjun

    As part of a longitudinal study of the growth of general medical knowledge among osteopathic medical students, a simple, convenient, and accurate vertical equating method was developed for constructing a scale for medical achievement. It was believed that Parts 1, 2, and 3 of the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners' (NBOME) examination…

  17. Low Levels of Vitamin D and Worsening of Knee OA: Results from Two Longitudinal Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To confirm reports that 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) deficiency is associated with an increased risk of joint space narrowing or cartilage loss in osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: We measured 25-OH D levels in subjects from two longitudinal cohort studies, the Framingham Osteoarthritis Stud...

  18. A Longitudinal Study of School Belonging and Academic Motivation across High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Fuligni, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined how school belonging changes over the years of high school, and how it is associated with academic achievement and motivation. Students from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds participated ("N" = 572; age span = 13.94-19.15 years). In ninth grade, girls' school belonging was higher than boys'. Over the…

  19. Female Bisexuality from Adolescence to Adulthood: Results from a 10-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Debates persist over whether bisexuality is a temporary stage of denial or transition, a stable "3rd type" of sexual orientation, or a heightened capacity for sexual fluidity. The present study uses 5 waves of longitudinal data collected from 79 lesbian, bisexual, and "unlabeled" women to evaluate these models. Both the "3rd orientation" and…

  20. Developing Discourses of Knowledge and Understanding: Longitudinal Studies of Ph.D. Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandiko, Camille B.; Kinchin, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    Competing notions of what a Ph.D. has been, is and should be are undercurrents in doctoral education. A longitudinal study of Ph.D. supervision based on interviews and concept mapping was used to surface understandings of the purpose of a Ph.D. This research tracks change over time for both the student and the supervisor. The data were analysed…

  1. Changing Stereotypes, Changing Grades: A Longitudinal Study of Stereotyping during a College Math Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Laura R.; Sekaquaptewa, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has illuminated an important connection between stereotypes and the performance of those targeted by a stereotype. This body of work suggests that even implicit (i.e., nonconscious and unintended) math-gender stereotyping is related to poor math performance among women. Our longitudinal study sought to measure students'…

  2. Moving Forward: College and Career Transitions of LAMP Graduates. Findings from the LAMP Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAllum, Keith; Yoder, Karla; Kim, Scott; Bozick, Robert

    A longitudinal study examined the college and career transitions of graduates of the Lansing Area Manufacturing Partnership (LAMP) program, which is a school-to-career (STC) program sponsored by the United Auto Workers, General Motors Corporation, and Michigan's Ingham County Intermediate School District. The progress of three cohorts of LAMP…

  3. Investigation of University Students' Self-Acceptance and Learned Resourcefulness: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceyhan, A. Aykut; Ceyhan, Esra

    2011-01-01

    Self-acceptance and learned resourcefulness of university students are important concepts in coping with the environmental and developmental stressors and in the development of healthy personality. In this study, university students' self acceptance and learned resourcefulness levels were investigated longitudinally. 198 university students' self…

  4. Multiracial Children and Poverty: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study of Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratter, Jenifer; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent growth in multiracial children among American children, we know very little about their well-being. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class (N?=?17,706), we evaluated the likelihood of living in poverty and near poverty for multiracial and monoracial children. Most multiracial groups have poverty or near…

  5. The Long-Term Sequelae of Child and Adolescent Abuse: A Longitudinal Community Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Amy B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A 17-year longitudinal study of 375 individuals found that, at age 21, almost 11% reported physical or sexual abuse before age 18. Compared to nonabused counterparts, abused subjects demonstrated significant impairments in functioning at ages 15 and 21, including more depressive symptomatology, anxiety, psychiatric disorders, emotional-behavioral…

  6. Academic and Work-Related Burnout: A Longitudinal Study of Working Undergraduate University Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Craig S.; Merrill, Gregory B.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interaction between academic burnout and work-related burnout for a sample of working undergraduate university students. Using a longitudinal design we found that the factors of burnout (Exhaustion, Cynicism, and Efficacy) change significantly over the semester. In addition, the study suggests there are distinct differences in how…

  7. Exceptional Rule Learning in a Longitudinal Case Study of Williams Syndrome: Acquisition of Past Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Peggy F.; Cairns, Helen Smith

    2010-01-01

    Conflicting reports of language ability in Williams syndrome (WS) are confusing and may hinder accurate clinical decisions with respect to therapeutic services and educational placements for children with WS.This longitudinal case study examined the acquisition of regular and irregular past tense verbs in a child with WS. The development of…

  8. Stability and Change in Work Values: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Jing; Rounds, James

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was conducted to investigate stability and change in work values across the life span. Both rank-order stability and mean-level change were investigated using an integrative classification for intrinsic, extrinsic, social and status work values (Ross, Schwartz, & Surkis, 1999). Results of rank-order…

  9. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  10. Person-Organization (Culture) Fit and Employee Commitment under Conditions of Organizational Change: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, John P.; Hecht, Tracy D.; Gill, Harjinder; Toplonytsky, Laryssa

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines how person-organization fit, operationalized as congruence between perceived and preferred organizational culture, relates to employees' affective commitment and intention to stay with an organization during the early stages of a strategic organizational change. Employees in a large energy company completed surveys…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Students' Academic Self-Concept in a Streamed Setting: The Singapore Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, W. C.; Wang, C. K. J.; Parkins, E. J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Although several studies support the existence of a negative stream effect on lower-ability stream students' academic self-concept, there is not enough longitudinal research evidence to preclude the possibility that the stream effect may only be temporary. In addition, not much is known about the effect of streaming on changes in…

  12. The Longitudinal Assessment Study (LAS): Eighteen Year Follow-Up. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Christopher M.

    Premised on the view that students with more years of Montessori education (MEY) would possess to a higher degree those qualities emphasized in the Montessori environment and that Montessori students would be as successful as students more traditionally educated, this report presents the final assessment for the Longitudinal Assessment Study,…

  13. Component Processes of Early Reading, Spelling, and Narrative Writing Skills in Turkish: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babayigit, Selma; Stainthorp, Rhona

    2010-01-01

    The study examined: (a) the role of phonological, grammatical, and rapid automatized naming (RAN) skills in reading and spelling development; and (b) the component processes of early narrative writing skills. Fifty-seven Turkish-speaking children were followed from Grade 1 to Grade 2. RAN was the most powerful longitudinal predictor of reading…

  14. LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF SEMEN QUALITY AFTER INTERMITTENT EXPOSURE TO AIR POLLUTION. J. Rubes*, D. Zudova*, Veterinary Research Institute, Brno, CR, S.G. Selevan*, US EPA/ORD/NCEA, Washington, DC, D.P. Evenson, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, and S.D. Perreault, US ...

  15. Impact of Curriculum on Understanding of Professional Practice: A Longitudinal Study of Students Commencing Dental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieser, Jules A.; Dall'Alba, Gloria; Livingstone, Vicki

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines changes in understanding of dental practice among a cohort of students in the early years of a dentistry programme. In their first two professional years, we identified five distinct understandings of dental practice that we have ordered from least to most comprehensive: "relieving pain or generally caring for…

  16. Foreign Language Learning Motivation in Higher Education: A Longitudinal Study of Motivational Changes and Their Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, Vera; Walter, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study involving first-year modern foreign languages students enrolled in German degree courses at two major universities in the United Kingdom. It explores the experience of these students from a motivational angle. A longitudinal mixed-methods approach was employed in order to address the time- and context-sensitive…

  17. The Home Environment and School Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Primary School Children in Swaziland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller

    In rural Swaziland, fathers often migrate for work, leaving wives and children behind. The family is denied the presence of a husband, father, and role model, as well as economic support, which fathers often fail to remit home regularly. A longitudinal study investigated the effects of parent availability and other home characteristics on the…

  18. A Longitudinal Study of Conceptual Change: Preservice Elementary Teachers' Conceptions of Moon Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

    2007-01-01

    This research consists of a longitudinal study of 12 female elementary preservice teachers' conceptual understanding over the course of several months. The context in which the participants received instruction was in an inquiry-based physics course, and the targeted science content was the cause of moon phases. Qualitative research methods,…

  19. Structure and Development of Personal-Social Behaviors in Preschool Settings. ETS Head Start Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmerich, Walter

    As part of an ongoing longitudinal study of early cognitive, affective, and social development in economically disadvantaged children, this investigation assessed the classroom behavior of 500 urban preschool children from Portland, Oregon, St. Louis, Missouri, and Trenton, New Jersey. The majority were black and enrolled in Head Start. Primary…

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Information Technology Impact on Business Faculty in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Jensen, J.; Alexander, Melody W.; Perrreault, Heidi; Waldman, Lila

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared business faculty's use of information technology in distance education as well as their perception of the technology's impact on their productivity and technology preferences between 2000 and 2006. Data were collected from 81 professors in 2000 and 140 professors in 2006 at AACSB-accredited business colleges across…

  1. Gender Differences in and Risk Factors for Depression in Adolescence: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Nancy L.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Barker, Erin T.

    2004-01-01

    The current study used longitudinal data (N = 1322; 648 males, 674 females) from adolescents ages 12 to 19 years (in 1994) to investigate gender differences in and risk factors for depressive symptoms and major depressive episodes (MDEs). The sample had participated in three waves of Canada's National Population Health Survey (1994, 1996, and…

  2. Mediating Mechanisms for the Intergenerational Transmission of Constructive Parenting: A Prospective Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Zeng-yin; Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2008-01-01

    Based on a prospective longitudinal panel data set that was collected at three developmental stages--early adolescence, young adulthood, and middle adulthood--this study investigates marital satisfaction and educational attainment as mediating mechanisms as well as gender's moderating effect for the intergenerational transmission of constructive…

  3. Longitudinal Study of Performance of Students Entering Harper College, 1976-1986. Volume XVII, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Toni

    A longitudinal study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC), in Illinois, to observe the performance and achievement of students entering the college each fall from 1967 through 1986. Academic and personal data from transcripts were analyzed for randomly selected samples of 200 full- and 200 part-time students from each fall's…

  4. Consequences of Parenthood in Late Adolescence: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study of High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haggstrom, Gus W.; Morrison, Peter A.

    The effects of adolescent parenthood upon certain outcome measures reflecting changes in aspirations, attitudes, and well-being were investigated using data from the National Longitudinal Study of High School Class of 1972. Analyses were computed for expected educational attainment; self-esteem; locus of control; orientation toward work, family,…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Changes in Marketing Practices at Private Christian Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a longitudinal study investigating current marketing practices at selected church-related, private, four-year compared to those in place in 1997. The role that institutional selectivity plays in the use of marketing activities was also investigated. The researcher surveyed the admissions directors or enrollment…

  6. Stability and Change in Farming Plans: Results from a Longitudinal Study of Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyson, Thomas A.

    To examine 2 shortcomings of previous cross-sectional farm recruitment research, the study population of the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972, consisting of 14,112 individuals who completed the base year questionnaire and 3 subsequent follow-up questionnaires, was divided into analytic sub-groups based on senior year…

  7. Vulnerability and Resiliency: A Longitudinal Study of Asian Americans from Birth to Age 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Emmy E.

    A 30-year longitudinal study was undertaken in order to document the course, and determine the outcome, of all pregnancies in a community of Asian Americans on Kauai, the western most of the Hawaiian Islands and equidistant from the continental United States and Japan. The project's goal was to document both the good and poor outcomes of the…

  8. Longitudinal Study of Self-Regulation, Positive Parenting, and Adjustment Problems among Physically Abused Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen.; Haskett, Mary E.; Longo, Gregory S.; Nice, Rachel.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research using normative and high-risk samples indicates a significant link between problems with self-regulation and child maladjustment. Nevertheless, little is known about the processes that may modify the link between self-regulation and maladjustment. This longitudinal study examined the joint contributions of child self-regulation…

  9. A Longitudinal Study Showing How Students Use a Molecule Concept when Explaining Everyday Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofgren, Lena; Hellden, Gustav

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present results from a 10-year (1997-2006) longitudinal study in which we, by interviews once or twice every year, followed how students, throughout the compulsory school, developed their understanding of three situations in which transformations of matter occur. We believe that students have to meet scientific ideas early in…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of OPAC Screen Changes on Searching Behavior and Searcher Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blecic, Deborah D.; Dorsch, Josephine L.; Koenig, Melissa H.; Bangalore, Nimala S.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a longitudinal study of four sets of OPAC (online public access catalog) transaction logs that examined the effects of screen changes in helping searchers improve their search behavior. Results show that while screen changes initially had a positive impact on search behavior, they were not always sustained over time. (Author/LRW)

  11. Change in Teachers' Knowledge of Subject Matter: A 17-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arzi, Hanna J.; White, Richard T.

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored change in teachers' knowledge of subjects they teach from preservice training through 17 years of professional experience. It followed secondary school science teachers in Australia, through sequences of individual interviews in which change in content knowledge (mainly energy-related) was probed primarily via…

  12. Students' Development in Self-Regulated Learning in Postgraduate Professional Education: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endedijk, Maaike D.; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    One of the tasks of postgraduate education is to develop students' conceptions and skills necessary for lifelong learning in their profession. Therefore, this study aimed at identifying students' development in self-regulated learning throughout a postgraduate teacher education programme. A longitudinal design with three measurement…

  13. Segmental Acquisition in Adult ESL Learners: A Longitudinal Study of Vowel Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Murray J.; Derwing, Tracey M.

    2008-01-01

    Research on second language (L2) phonetic learning indicates that, even in adults, segmental acquisition remains possible through L2 experience. However, the findings of previous cross-sectional studies of vowel and consonant learning have proved difficult to interpret. In this longitudinal investigation of 44 recent arrivals in Canada,…

  14. Basic Aspects of Infant-Grandparent "Interaction": An Eight-Month Longitudinal and Naturalistic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratikaki, Anastasia; Germanakis, Ioannis; Kokkinaki, Theano

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal and naturalistic study aims to describe basic aspects of early imitative exchanges in dyadic infant-grandfather and infant-grandmother free interactions, from the second to the 10th month of age. Sixteen infants were video-recorded at home in the course of spontaneous dyadic interactions with maternal grandfathers and…

  15. Longitudinal HIV Risk Behavior among the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies (DATOS) Adult Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Debra A.; Brecht, Mary-Lynn; Herbeck, Diane; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal trajectories for HIV risk were examined over 5 years following treatment among 1,393 patients who participated in the nationwide Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Studies. Both injection drug use and sexual risk behavior declined over time, with most of the decline occurring between intake and the first-year follow-up. However, results of…

  16. Predicting Children's Academic Achievement after the Transition to First Grade: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossaert, Goele; Doumen, Sarah; Buyse, Evelien; Verschueren, Karine

    2011-01-01

    The transition from kindergarten to first grade has been described as a critical period for children's academic development. Furthermore, research indicates that peer status is connected with academic adjustment, yet the underlying processes remain unclear. By means of a two-year longitudinal study during kindergarten and first grade (N = 153), we…

  17. Faculty Adoption of Distance Education Innovations in a Southwestern Rural Community College: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Diane June

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal case study was to examine the faculty adoption of distance education in a rural community college over a span of ten years in the southwestern United States, beginning in 1999 with the adoption and implementation of an instructional television (ITV) system and ending in 2009 with the adoption and implementation of…

  18. Individual and Environmental Characteristics Associated with Cognitive Development in Down Syndrome: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couzens, Donna; Haynes, Michele; Cuskelly, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Background: Associations among cognitive development and intrapersonal and environmental characteristics were investigated for 89 longitudinal study participants with Down syndrome to understand developmental patterns associated with cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Materials and Methods: Subtest scores of the Stanford-Binet IV collected…

  19. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of High School Dropouts: Examining Multiple Predictors across Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane; Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L. Alan; Carlson, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Utilizes data from a prospective longitudinal study of at-risk children to explore multiple predictors of high school dropouts across development. Results reveal association of early home environment, quality of early caregiving, socioeconomic status, IQ, behavior problems, academic achievement, peer relations, and parent involvement with dropping…

  20. Statewide Longitudinal Study: Report on Academic Year 1979-80. Part 4--Spring 1980 Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Russell; Sheldon, M. Stephen

    As the fourth in a series of reports on a longitudinal study of over 7,000 students who entered 15 California community colleges in Fall 1978, this eight-chapter report profiles the students as of Spring 1980 in terms of: (1) demography, academic progress, and employment status; and (2) their distribution among 18 "prototypes," defined by the…

  1. Shyness and Emotion-Processing Skills in Preschoolers: A 6-Month Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Paul S.; Cerna, Sandra; Downs, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The present study utilized a short-term longitudinal research design to examine the hypothesis that shyness in preschoolers is differentially related to different aspects of emotion processing. Using teacher reports of shyness and performance measures of emotion processing, including (1) facial emotion recognition, (2) non-facial emotion…

  2. The More Things Change: A Longitudinal Study of Placements of Special Education Students in Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Jane Nell; Durrett, John

    This paper discusses the outcomes of a longitudinal study that investigated whether significant change has occurred in the number of Louisiana students in general education, resource, and separation placements from 1990 to 1999; whether significant differences in placement by age category have continued; and which school systems show a tendency…

  3. L1/L2/L3 Writing Development: Longitudinal Case Study of a Japanese Multicompetent Writer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Hiroe; Rinnert, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal case study, supplemented by cross-sectional comparisons among five groups of writers with differing backgrounds, investigates how Natsu, a Japanese multilingual writer, developed her L1, L2 (English), and L3 (Chinese) writing competence over two and a half years. To create a comprehensive picture of this multilingual writer, the…

  4. Timing of Mother and Child Depression in a Longitudinal Study of Children at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, Constance; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examined temporal associations of diagnoses in mothers and children in 3-year longitudinal study of unipolar, bipolar, and comparison women and their 8- to 16-year-old children. Found significant temporal association between mother and child diagnoses, especially in unipolar families, and most children who experienced major depressive episode did…

  5. Long-Term Benefits of Full-Day Kindergarten: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownell, M. D.; Nickel, N. C.; Chateau, D.; Martens, P. J.; Taylor, C.; Crockett, L.; Katz, A.; Sarkar, J.; Burland, E.; Goh, C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    In the first longitudinal, population-based study of full-day kindergarten (FDK) outcomes beyond primary school in Canada, we used linked administrative data to follow 15 kindergarten cohorts (n ranging from 112 to 736) up to grade 9. Provincial assessments conducted in grades 3, 7, and 8 and course marks and credits earned in grade 9 were…

  6. A Longitudinal Study of the Development of Stop Consonant Production in Normal and Down's Syndrome Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce L.; Stoel-Gammon, Carol

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal study of four normal children, 18 to 36 months old, and five Down's syndrome (DS) children, 3 to 6 years old, analyzed the development of stop consonants and stop clusters. Although similar sound patterns were observed for the two groups, the DS children showed considerable performance delay. (DB)

  7. A Longitudinal Study of Consequential Transitions in the Teaching of Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, George E.; Tallman, Linda; Letcher, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This four-year longitudinal study examines the transitions of an early-career teacher from her completion of a graduate program with English certification (grades 7-12) into teaching literature in an urban high school. Our central question was how Beth's pedagogical knowledge was shaped over time by her consistent efforts to enact two key…

  8. Measuring Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching: A Longitudinal Study Using Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copur-Gencturk, Yasemin; Lubienski, Sarah T.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines growth in teacher knowledge as measured by two popular assessments--Learning Mathematics for Teaching (LMT) and Diagnostic Teacher Assessments in Mathematics and Science (DTAMS). Using data collected from 24 teachers, we compare the extent to which each assessment captured teacher learning during a K-8 mathematics…

  9. Does the Left Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus Play a Role in Language? A Brain Stimulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Nouet, Aurelien; Gatignol, Peggy; Capelle, Laurent; Duffau, Hugues

    2007-01-01

    Although advances in diffusion tensor imaging have enabled us to better study the anatomy of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), its function remains poorly understood. Recently, it was suggested that the subcortical network subserving the language semantics could be constituted, in parallel with the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, by…

  10. Children's Theory of Mind, Self-Perceptions, and Peer Relations: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosacki, Sandra Leanne

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored Theory of Mind (ToM), self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations of 91 children (52 females, ages 6-8?years) drawn from two schools situated in a mainly Euro-Canadian, middle socioeconomic status, semi-rural central Canadian context. ToM, self-perceptions, and teacher ratings of peer relations were…

  11. Factors Affecting Turnover among Family Child Care Providers: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Christine M., Deery-Schmitt, Deanna M.

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated 57 family child caregivers longitudinally to identify turnover precursors. Providers most likely to leave had more education, less training, and more stress than providers who stayed. Training and caring for one's own children indirectly affected turnover through job stress. Job satisfaction was unrelated to turnover. Job…

  12. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  13. Classroom Climate, Parental Educational Involvement, and Student School Functioning in Early Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan Toren, Nurit; Seginer, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    In this 2-year longitudinal study, we examine the effects of perceived classroom climate and two aspects of parental educational involvement (home-based and school-based) on junior high school students' self-evaluation and academic achievement. Our main hypothesis was that perceived parental educational involvement mediates students' perceived…

  14. The Role of Educational Track in Adolescents' School Burnout: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Kiuru, Noona; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Background: Transition from comprehensive school to later educational tracks is challenging for many adolescents. The present three-wave longitudinal study conducted in Finland considers this issue from the perspective of school burnout. Background: Transition from comprehensive school to later educational tracks is challenging for many…

  15. From Phonological Recoding to Lexical Reading: A Longitudinal Study on Reading Development in Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsolini, Margherita; Fanari, Rachele; Tosi, Valeria; De Nigris, Barbara; Carrieri, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study we analyse the early phases of reading development in Italian and explore the transition from phonological to lexical reading. A group of 28 Italian children was tested in four phases. Language and cognitive skills were first assessed in the preschool. Reading performance was then tested in three different sessions, in…

  16. Social Identities among Engineering Students and through Their Transition to Work: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungert, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a longitudinal and qualitative study of students in a master's program in engineering. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyze annual, semi-structured interviews with ten students, from the first semester until one year after graduation. The program enjoys a high status and has a reputation of being…

  17. A Longitudinal Study of the CO-OP Upward Bound Program 2003-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Sharmakrenia D.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal case study examined the effectiveness of the CO-OP Upward Bound Program activities from 2003 through 2008 applying cultural and social capital theories. The program was evaluated in order to give a local perspective to program implementation and operations in a community-based setting. The participant researcher used mixed…

  18. Almost All Start but Who Continue? A Longitudinal Study of Youth Participation in Swedish Club Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsson, Britta Thedin; Lundvall, Suzanne; Redelius, Karin; Engstrom, Lars-Magnus

    2012-01-01

    Many young people in Sweden stop participating in club sports during their teens, but some continue. Drawing on a longitudinal study, the aim of this article is to highlight some of the characteristics of teenagers who continue with club sports and to discuss the relation between club-sport participation and social and cultural conditions, with…

  19. Prenatal Stress and Risk of Febrile Seizures in Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiong; Olsen, Jorn; Obel, Carsten; Christensen, Jakob; Precht, Dorthe Hansen; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether exposure to prenatal stress following maternal bereavement is associated with an increased risk of febrile seizures. In a longitudinal population-based cohort study, we followed 1,431,175 children born in Denmark. A total of 34,777 children were born to women who lost a close relative during pregnancy or within 1 year…

  20. Researching the Benefits of Learning: The Persuasive Power of Longitudinal Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2011-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed considerable growth of research on the benefits of adult learning. Much of this is UK-based, and draws on evidence from large scale longitudinal data sets. Overwhelmingly, these studies have found clear evidence of economic, social and individual benefits as a result of participating in adult learning. While these…

  1. Conceptualizing the Role of Early Experience: Lessons from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Coffino, Brianna; Carlson, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    We draw upon data from a prospective, longitudinal study to evaluate the role of typically occurring variations in early experience on development from birth to adulthood. Such an evaluation is complex for both methodological and conceptual reasons. Methodological issues include the need to control for both later experience and potentially…

  2. Teacher-Child Relationships and Social Competence: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study of Chinese Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiao; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Based on a two-year and three-wave longitudinal sample of 118 Chinese preschoolers, the present study examined the cross-lagged associations between teacher-child relationships and social competence, and the cross-system generalization of social competence between home and school. At each of the three waves, teachers rated the children's…

  3. Psychological Distress among Nursing, Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy Students: A Longitudinal and Predictive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nerdrum, Per; Rustoen, Tone; Helge Ronnestad, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present longitudinal data on changes in psychological distress among 232 Norwegian undergraduate students of nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy. Psychological distress was assessed by applying the 12-item version of the General Health Questionnaire. Nursing students became substantially more distressed during the…

  4. Predictors of the Acquisition and Portability of Transferable Skills: A Longitudinal Portuguese Case Study on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Magda

    2015-01-01

    The basis for this longitudinal study was to find the predictors of transferable skills acquisition and portability among university sophomore students. The method employed was the path analysis using as variables: (1) the theoretical framework of transferable skills representations (Evers and Rush in "Manag Learn" 27(4):275-300, 1996;…

  5. State Dependence and Trait Stability of Perfectionism: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Kenneth G.; Aldea, Mirela A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined state dependency on depression, trait stability, and state-trait characteristics of perfectionism in a short-term longitudinal study of university students. Relative stability of perfectionism was assessed with test-retest correlations across 3 time points, and results showed higher rank order and relative stability for…

  6. Grandfather Effects: A Longitudinal Case Study of the Phonological Acquisition of Intervocalic Consonants in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Jessica A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I present a longitudinal study of a child's (male, aged 3;0-3;4) acquisition of intervocalic consonants characterized within the framework of Optimality Theory (OT). At Stage I, the child presents with unusual error patterns, weakening and labial substitution, and shows evidence of phonologically opaque surface forms. These…

  7. Change in University Teachers' Elearning Beliefs and Practices: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Little longitudinal research has examined change in university teachers' elearning beliefs and practices after their initial experience with elearning. This study addresses this gap by focusing on six teachers who developed and implemented an elearning resource, and the changes they made to the resource and its implementation over two years. A…

  8. Summary of Reviewers Comments [of the Rand Corporation's Design for a Longitudinal Study of School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Gregg

    Four groups of people were requested to review the Rand Corporation's design for a longitudinal study of school desegregation. These groups can be labeled as Desegregation and Minority Student Education Experts, Distinguished Social Scientists, Federal Officals Responsible for Desegregation Research, and U.S. Commission on Civil Rights (USCCR)…

  9. The Effects of Education on Business Ownership: A Longitudinal Study of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolinsky, Arthur L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study using a national longitudinal sample of women to examine variations in the likelihood of entering, staying, and reentering self-employment by level of educational attainment found that each likelihood increased with increasing levels of education. Differences in the likelihood of entry accounted for most of the overall difference between…

  10. A Longitudinal Evaluation Study of a Science Professional Development Program for K-12 Teachers: NERDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing-Taylor, Jacque M.

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal evaluation study of a science professional development program for K-12 teachers was conducted using the CIPP evaluation model. Eleven years of program data were described and analyzed. Elementary teachers comprised 62% of the 384 participants, 17% of all participants were middle school teachers, and 13% of all participants were…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of a 5th Grade Science Curriculum Based on the 5E Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Timothy P.; Schroeder, Carolyn; Tolson, Homer; Huang, Tse-Yang; Williams, Omah M.

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Mathematics and Science Education at Texas A&M University contracted with Region 4 Education Service Center (ESC) and a large, diverse school district to conduct a longitudinal study from 2005-2009. The state achievement test scores of 5th graders who were taught using a Grade 5 science textbook designed by Region 4 ESC were…

  12. A Longitudinal Study of Pragmatic Language Development in Three Children with Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown how cochlear implants (CIs), in children with hearing impairments, have improved speech perception and production, but very little is known about the children's pragmatic language development. During a 4-year longitudinal study of three children with CIs, certain aspects of pragmatic language development were observed in free…

  13. A Longitudinal Study of Narrative Development in Children and Adolescents with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleave, Patricia; Bird, Elizabeth Kay-Raining; Czutrin, Rachael; Smith, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined narrative development in children and adolescents with Down syndrome longitudinally. Narratives were collected from 32 children and adolescents with Down syndrome three times over a 1-year period. Both micro- and macrolevel analyses were conducted. Significant growth over the 1-year period was seen in semantic complexity…

  14. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading and Spelling in Greek: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Speech Timing in Young Children Later Found to Have Reading Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allan B.; Smith, Susan Lambrecht; Locke, John L.; Bennett, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the development of timing characteristics in early spontaneous speech of children who were later identified as having reading disability (RD). Method: Child-adult play sessions were recorded longitudinally at 2 and 3 years of age in 27 children, most of whom were at high familial risk for RD. For each speaking turn,…

  16. Women in Intercollegiate Sport. A Longitudinal Study--Twenty Three Year Update, 1977-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, R. Vivian; Carpenter, Linda Jean

    This report presents data from a longitudinal study of women in intercollegiate sports, highlighting: participation opportunities for female athletes and the status of women as head coaches, assistant coaches, administrators, sports information directors, and athletic trainers. The average number of teams for women offered per school is at an…

  17. "I Feel So Confused": A Longitudinal Study of Young Adolescents' Change in Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Margaret Zoller; Curran, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the growth of early adolescent self-esteem and self-concept as students progress through the middle level years (sixth through eighth grade). Based on mixed method longitudinal research conducted from 2004 to 2007, the study's findings suggest that this sample of 104 urban students' self-esteem changed most significantly…

  18. Developing Communicative Competence: A Longitudinal Study of the Acquisition of Mental State Terms and Indirect Requests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Mulder, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study involving 101 Dutch four- and five-year-olds charts indirect request (IR) and mental state term (MST) understanding and investigates the role that Theory of Mind (ToM) and general linguistic ability (vocabulary, syntax, and spatial language) play in this development. The results showed basic understanding of IR and MST in…

  19. Head Start Participation and School Readiness: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ˜ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care…

  20. Working Memory, Attention, and Mathematical Problem Solving: A Longitudinal Study of Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2011-01-01

    The role of working memory (WM) in children's growth in mathematical problem solving was examined in a longitudinal study of children (N = 127). A battery of tests was administered that assessed problem solving, achievement, WM, and cognitive processing (inhibition, speed, phonological coding) in Grade 1 children, with follow-up testing in Grades…

  1. Early Risk Indicators of Internalizing Problems in Late Childhood: A 9-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashford, Janka; Smit, Filip; van Lier, Pol A. C.; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Longitudinal studies on risk indicators of internalizing problems in childhood are in short supply, but could be valuable to identify target groups for prevention. Methods: Standardized assessments of 294 children's internalizing problems at the age of 2-3 years (parent report), 4-5 years (parent and teacher report) and 11 years…

  2. The Interpersonal Antecedents of Supportive Parenting: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, K. Lee; Lawler, Jamie M.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hesemeyer, Paloma S.; Collins, W. Andrew; Sroufe, L. Alan

    2015-01-01

    This study drew on prospective, longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that the intergenerational transmission of positive parenting is mediated by competence in subsequent relationships with peers and romantic partners. Interview-based ratings of supportive parenting were completed with a sample of 113 individuals (46% male) followed from birth…

  3. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LARGE LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recruitment and Retention Issues for a Large Longitudinal Study of Children's Environmental Health *D Lobdell, S Gilboa, P Mendola (US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711)

    An understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and rete...

  4. A Longitudinal Study of Body Image and Strategies to Lose Weight and Increase Muscles among Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, M. P.; Ricciardelli, L. A.

    2005-01-01

    A longitudinal study was used to examine age differences in the role of body mass index (BMI) and sociocultural pressures in predicting changes in body image and strategies to both lose weight and increase muscles among 443 children aged between 8 and 12 years (207 boys, 236 girls) over a 16-month period. The strongest predictors of body image and…

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  6. RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION ISSUES FOR A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better understanding of the most effective recruitment techniques and retention strategies for longitudinal, community-based, children's environmental health studies is needed. A series of 18 focus groups were conducted across the U.S. in February 2003. Pregnant women and exp...

  7. Why Intensive Interventions Matter: Longitudinal Studies of Adolescents with Reading Disabilities and Poor Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis, Michael; Miciak, Jeremy; Vaughn, Sharon; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe findings from a series of longitudinal studies utilizing a response to intervention framework implemented over 3 years with students in Grades 6 through 8 with reading disabilities and poor reading comprehension. Students were identified based on reading comprehension scores in Grade 5 (n = 1,083) and then randomized to treatment or…

  8. Education Longitudinal Study of 2002: Base Year Data File User's Manual. NCES 2004-405

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Pratt, Daniel J.; Rogers, James E.; Siegel, Peter H.; Stutts, Ellen S.

    2004-01-01

    This manual has been produced to familiarize data users with the procedures followed for data collection and processing for the base year of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002). It also provides the necessary documentation for use of the public-use data files, as they appear on the ELS:2002 base year Electronic Codebook (ECB). Most…

  9. The Relations of Effortful Control and Impulsivity to Children's Sympathy: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Michalik, Nicole; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Hofer, Claire; Kupfer, Anne; Valiente, Carlos; Liew, Jeffrey; Cumberland, Amanda; Reiser, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The relations of children's (n=214 at Time 1; M age=6 years at Time 1) dispositional sympathy to adult-reported and behavioral measures of effortful control (EC) and impulsivity were examined in a longitudinal study including five assessments, each two years apart. Especially for boys, relatively high levels of EC and growth in EC were related to…

  10. How Fast Do Students Forget What They Learn in Consumer Behavior? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Donald R.; Stewart, Kim A.

    2006-01-01

    The retention curve for knowledge acquired in a consumer behavior course is explored in a longitudinal study, tracking individual students from 8 to 101 weeks following course completion. Rasch measurement is used to link tests and to achieve intervally scaled measures of knowledge. The findings indicate that most of the knowledge gained in the…

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Black Adoptions: Single Parent Transracial, and Traditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shireman, Joan F.; Johnson, Penny R.

    1986-01-01

    This longitudinal study of Black children reared in single-parent, transracial, and traditional adoptive homes reveals that most children grow well in these homes. Interest at this reporting is chiefly focused on the transracially adopted children because their pattern of racial identity development differs from that of children in Black homes.…

  12. Women, Schooling, and Work in Chile: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefelbein, Ernesto; Farrell, Joseph P.

    1980-01-01

    In comparison to most developing nations, Chile enjoys a relatively high level of female participation in education and the labor force. This article analyzes this phenomenon by drawing data from an ongoing longitudinal study of Chilean youth. It offers some tentative explanations using both current and historical data. (Author/SJL)

  13. Montessori and Responsive Environment Models: A Longitudinal Study of Two Preschool Programs, Phase Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Carol

    This study represents a continuation of a longitudinal assessment of the effectiveness of a Montessori and Responsive Environment preschool program sponsored by the Arlington Public Schools. The Metropolitan Readiness Test, the Caldwell Cooperative Preschool Inventory, and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test were used to assess the academic…

  14. School, Neighborhood, and Family Factors Are Associated with Children's Bullying Involvement: A Nationally Representative Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowes, Lucy; Arseneault, Louise; Maughan, Barbara; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Ashalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2009-01-01

    School size and problems with neighbors is associated with a greater risk of being a bullying victim while family factors such as maltreatment and domestic violence are associated with involvement in bullying. The findings are based on the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study that involves 2,232 children.

  15. Spouse Health Status, Depressed Affect, and Resilience in Mid and Late Life: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwala, Jamila

    2014-01-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine the effects of spousal illness on depressive symptoms among middle-aged and older married individuals and the extent to which the adverse effects of illness in a spouse were mitigated by 2 psychological resources, mastery and self-esteem. Using 1,704 married participants who were 51 years of age on…

  16. A Library Credit Course and Student Success Rates: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jean Marie

    2014-01-01

    The University of West Georgia's Ingram Library has offered a fifteen-week two-hour credit course since 1998. In a longitudinal study covering twelve years, the library analyzed the progression and graduation rates of more than fifteen thousand students. Students who took the class during their undergraduate career were found to graduate at much…

  17. EFL Learning and Identity Development: A Longitudinal Study in 5 Universities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yihong; Jia, Zengyan; Zhou, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Combining psychological and social perspectives and using mixed methods, this 4-year longitudinal study examined the EFL learning and self-identity development of about 1,000 students from 5 universities in Beijing, China. The self-designed questionnaire, administered 5 times during the 4 years, consisted of 7 identity categories of identity…

  18. MPCP Longitudinal Educational Growth Study: Baseline Report. SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, John F.; Wolf, Patrick J.; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.; Lucas-McLean, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This report focuses on the initial design, implementation and baseline results of the five-year Longitudinal Educational Growth Study (LEGS) of the Milwaukee Parental Choice Program (MPCP) being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP). The LEGS will be the first evaluation of the participant effects of the MPCP using…

  19. The Value of the State Longitudinal Study for Vocational Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohanneson, Gregory S.

    This review paper discusses the implications of the California Statewide Longitudinal Study (SLS) of community college students for 2-year vocational education. After introductory material examining problems in vocational student follow-up, the paper presents relevant findings from the SLS, discusses their significance for vocational education,…

  20. A 2 year longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes in dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this, the first long term longitudinal study of cryptosporidiosis in cattle, 30 pure-bred Holstein female cattle on a dairy farm in Maryland were examined consecutively at weekly, biweekly, or monthly intervals from 1 week to 24 months of age for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. Feces wer...