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Sample records for 11-year solar activity

  1. 11 -year planetary index of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okhlopkov, Victor

    In papers [1,2] introduced me parameter - the average difference between the heliocentric longitudes of planets ( ADL ) , which was used for comparison with solar activity. The best connection of solar activity ( Wolf numbers used ) was obtained for the three planets - Venus, Earth and Jupiter. In [1,2] has been allocated envelope curve of the minimum values ADL which has a main periodicity for 22 years and describes well the alternating series of solar activity , which also has a major periodicity of 22. It was shown that the minimum values of the envelope curve extremes ADL planets Venus, Earth and Jupiter are well matched with the 11- year solar activity cycle In these extremes observed linear configuration of the planets Venus, Earth and Jupiter both in their location on one side of the Sun ( conjunctions ) and at the location on the opposite side of the Sun ( three configurations ) This work is a continuation of the above-mentioned , and here for minimum ADL ( planets are in conjunction ) , as well as on the minimum deviation of the planets from a line drawn through them and Sun at the location of the planets on opposite sides of the Sun , compiled index (denoted for brevity as JEV ) that uniquely describes the 11- year solar cycle A comparison of the index JEV with solar activity during the time interval from 1000 to 2013 conducted. For the period from 1000 to 1699 used the Schove series of solar activity and the number of Wolf (1700 - 2013 ) During the time interval from 1000 to 2013 and the main periodicity of the solar activity and the index ADL is 11.07 years. 1. Okhlopkov V.P. Cycles of Solar Activity and the Configurations of Planets // Moscow University Physics Bulletin, 2012 , Vol. 67 , No. 4 , pp. 377-383 http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.3103/S0027134912040108. 2 Okhlopkov VP, Relationship of Solar Activity Cycles to Planetary Configurations // Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Physics, 2013 , Vol. 77 , No. 5

  2. Hysteresis of indices of solar and ionospheric activity during 11-year cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruevich, E. A.; Kazachevskaya, T. V.; Katyushina, V. V.; Nusinov, A. A.; Yakunina, G. V.

    2016-12-01

    The effects of hysteresis, which is a manifestation of ambiguous relationships between different solar activity indices during the rising and declining phases of solar cycles, are analyzed. The paper addresses the indices characterizing radiation from the solar photosphere, chromosphere, and corona, and the ionospheric indices. The 21st, 22nd, and 23rd solar cycles, which significantly differ from each other in amplitude, exhibit different extents of hysteresis.

  3. On dependence of seismic activity on 11 year variations in solar activity and/or cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhantayev, Zhumabek; Khachikyan, Galina; Breusov, Nikolay

    2014-05-01

    It is found in the last decades that seismic activity of the Earth has a tendency to increase with decreasing solar activity (increasing cosmic rays). A good example of this effect may be the growing number of catastrophic earthquakes in the recent rather long solar minimum. Such results support idea on existence a solar-lithosphere relationship which, no doubts, is a part of total pattern of solar-terrestrial relationships. The physical mechanism of solar-terrestrial relationships is not developed yet. It is believed at present that one of the main contenders for such mechanism may be the global electric circuit (GEC) - vertical current loops, piercing and electrodynamically coupling all geospheres. It is also believed, that the upper boundary of the GEC is located at the magnetopause, where magnetic field of the solar wind reconnects with the geomagnetic field, that results in penetrating solar wind energy into the earth's environment. The effectiveness of the GEC operation depends on intensity of cosmic rays (CR), which ionize the air in the middle atmosphere and provide its conductivity. In connection with the foregoing, it can be expected: i) quantitatively, an increasing seismic activity from solar maximum to solar minimum may be in the same range as increasing CR flux; and ii) in those regions of the globe, where the crust is shipped by the magnetic field lines with number L= ~ 2.0, which are populated by anomalous cosmic rays (ACR), the relationship of seismic activity with variations in solar activity will be manifested most clearly, since there is a pronounced dependence of ACR on solar activity variations. Checking an assumption (i) with data of the global seismological catalog of the NEIC, USGS for 1973-2010, it was found that yearly number of earthquake with magnitude M≥4.5 varies into the 11 year solar cycle in a quantitative range of about 7-8% increasing to solar minimum, that qualitatively and quantitatively as well is in agreement with the

  4. Fluctuations of the Caspian Sea level in the quasi-two-year and 11-year cycles of solar activity

    SciTech Connect

    Nuzhdina, M.A.

    1995-07-01

    Fluctuations of the Caspian Sea level due to dynamics of solar activity in its quasi-two-year and 11-year cycles, as well as to the influence of the 22-to 23-year magnetic cycle are analyzed. Perturbation of the geomagnetic field and the atmospheric circulation are regarded as a transmitting mechanism of the Sun`s influence on the Earth`s hydrosphere.

  5. Influence of the 11-Year Solar Cycle on Variations of Cosmic Ray Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, L. H.; Han, Y. B.; Yin, Z. Q.

    2009-03-01

    The monthly cosmic ray intensity (CRI) time series from Climax, Huancayo, Moscow, Kiel, and Calgary are used to investigate the presence of the 11-year periodic component with special attention paid to the solar influence on these variations. The results show obvious 11-year temporal characteristics in CRI variations. We also find a close anticorrelation between the 11-year solar cycle and CRI variations and time delays of the CRI relative to solar activity.

  6. The relationship of air temperature variations over the northern hemisphere during the secular and 11-year solar cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryzhakov, L. Y.; Tomskaya, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison was made of air temperature anomaly maps for the months of January and July against a background of high and low secular solar activity, with and without regard for the 11 year cycle. By comparing temperature variations during the 11 year and secular cycles, it is found that the 11 year cycle influences thermal conditions more strongly than the secular cycle, and that temperature differences between extreme phases of the solar cycles are greater in January than in July.

  7. Analysis of the sensitivity of the composition and temperature of the stratosphere to the variability of spectral solar radiation fluxes induced by the 11-year cycle of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyshlyaev, S. P.; Galin, V. Ya.; Blakitnaya, P. A.; Lemishchenko, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the gas composition of the atmosphere and its temperature to the changes in spectral radiation fluxes during the 11-year cycle of solar activity has been analyzed with a chemistry-climate model of the lower and middle atmosphere. For this, the data of satellite measurements acquired in the first decade of the 21st century were used. The results of the model calculations showed that, in addition to the increase in the spectral flux in the absorption bands of molecular oxygen that leads to the growth of the ozone content, the changes in the flux at longer wavelengths are significant for the composition and temperature of the atmosphere. The changes of the ozone destruction rate in different catalytic cycles partly compensate each other; in these processes, the destruction rate increases in the reaction with atomic oxygen, while it decreases in the hydrogen and chlorine cycles.

  8. The 11-year solar radiation rhythm and the North Atlantic Oscillation during the last two centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunck, Heiko; Sirocko, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The study is based on a historical chronology of freezing events in central Europe during the last 230 years (river Rhine (Sirocko et al. 2012), Baltic Sea (Koslowski and Glaser, 1999) and Lake Constance (Dobras, 1983)). These regions display both significant similarities with extremely cold winters in central Germany for the years 1799, 1830, 1895, 1929, 1940, 1942, 1947, 1956 and 1963, as well as regional differences in timing and severity of cold winters. The statistical analysis of all 92 historical freezing events showed that 80 events occurred during a negative NAOwinter phase. The bootstrap test defined the results as extremely significant. To understand the climatic forcing behind the freezing chronology the NAO data set was smoothed by a three point running mean filter and compared with the 11- year cyclicity of the sunspot numbers. A complete NAO cycle can be observed within each solar cycle back to 1960 and from 1820 to 1900. From 1900 to 1960 the correlation between the Sun and NAO was weak. This on/off mode becomes visible only in the smoothed NAO data, when time intervals longer than "normal" weather observations are analysed. Statistical test for the coherence of the entire 230 years are insignificant. However, the relation is highly significant, if only the intervals from 1960 to 2010 and 1830 to 1900 are analysed. The phase correlation can be explained by temperature variations up to +-2.5°C in time series of stratospheric air temperature at 40 km height, where ozone is formed by ultraviolet solar radiation. Advanced analysis of sea surface temperatures from reanalysis data (ECMWF Data Archiv, 2013) between 30° - 40°N and 65° - 75°N indicate similar temperature variations in phase with the solar activity. Consequently, the 11 year solar periodicity is related to various parts of the Earth/Ocean/Atmosphere system and not only to the stratospheric signal. However, the NAO is the dominating mediator to implement a solar component into the

  9. The 11 years solar cycle as the manifestation of the dark Universe

    SciTech Connect

    Zioutas, K.; Semertzidis, Y.; Tsagri, M.; Papaevangelou, T.; Hoffmann, D. H.H.; Anastassopoulos, V.

    2014-11-26

    Sun’s luminosity in the visible changes at the 10-3 level, following an 11 years period. In X-rays, which should not be there, the amplitude varies even ~105 times stronger, making their mysterious origin since the discovery in 1938 even more puzzling, and inspiring. We suggest that the multifaceted mysterious solar cycle is due to some kind of dark matter streams hitting the Sun. Planetary gravitational lensing enhances (occasionally) slow moving flows of dark constituents towards the Sun, giving rise to the periodic behaviour. Jupiter provides the driving oscillatory force, though its 11.8 years orbital period appears slightly decreased, just as 11 years, if the lensing impact of other planets is included. Then, the 11 years solar clock may help to decipher (overlooked) signatures from the dark sector in laboratory experiments or observations in space.

  10. The 11 years solar cycle as the manifestation of the dark Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zioutas, K.; Tsagri, M.; Semertzidis, Y. K.; Papaevangelou, T.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Anastassopoulos, V.

    2014-11-01

    Sun's luminosity in the visible changes at the 10-3 level, following the 11 years period. This variation increases with energy, and in X-rays, which should not even be there, the amplitude varies up to 105 times stronger, making their mysterious origin since the discovery in 1938 even more puzzling, and inspiring. We suggest that the multifaceted mysterious solar cycle is due to some kind of dark matter streams hitting the Sun. Planetary gravitational lensing enhances (occasionally) slow moving flows of dark constituents toward the Sun, giving rise to the periodic behavior. Jupiter provides the driving oscillatory force, though its 11.8 years orbital period appears slightly decreased, just as 11 years, if the lensing impact of other planets is included. Then, the 11 years solar clock may help to decipher (overlooked) signatures from the dark sector in laboratory experiments or observations in space.

  11. The 11 years solar cycle as the manifestation of the dark Universe

    DOE PAGES

    Zioutas, K.; Semertzidis, Y.; Tsagri, M.; ...

    2014-11-26

    Sun’s luminosity in the visible changes at the 10-3 level, following an 11 years period. In X-rays, which should not be there, the amplitude varies even ~105 times stronger, making their mysterious origin since the discovery in 1938 even more puzzling, and inspiring. We suggest that the multifaceted mysterious solar cycle is due to some kind of dark matter streams hitting the Sun. Planetary gravitational lensing enhances (occasionally) slow moving flows of dark constituents towards the Sun, giving rise to the periodic behaviour. Jupiter provides the driving oscillatory force, though its 11.8 years orbital period appears slightly decreased, just asmore » 11 years, if the lensing impact of other planets is included. Then, the 11 years solar clock may help to decipher (overlooked) signatures from the dark sector in laboratory experiments or observations in space.« less

  12. The spatial distribution of the association between total ozone and the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labitzke, K.; van Loon, H.

    1992-02-01

    The pattern of correlation between the 11-year solar cycle and heights and temperatures in the lower stratosphere is in all months shaped as a crescent with its axis in the subtropics. The change of total ozone from the solar maximum in 1979-1980 to the minimum in 1985-1986 has the same shape. Although the effect of the solar cycle is said to have been removed from the ozone data, two thirds of the stations which have been used for this purpose lie outside the regions where the stratosphere is significantly correlated with the solar cycle. For this reason it is unlikely that the influence of the cycle has been completely eliminated.

  13. On the ambiguous nature of the 11-year solar cycle signal profile in stratospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhomse, Sandip; Chipperfield, Martyn; Damadeo, Robert; Zawodny, Joe; Ball, William; Feng, Wuhu; Hossaini, Ryan; Mann, Graham; Haigh, Joana

    2016-04-01

    We use three satellite datasets and simulations from a 3-D chemical transport model, forced by three different solar flux datasets, to diagnose the 11-year solar cycle signal (SCS) in stratospheric ozone. Our analysis shows that compared to SAGE II v6.2, a reduced upper stratospheric SCS in SAGE II v7.0 is due to a more realistic ozone-temperature anti-correlation. Overall, all model simulations show a positive SCS in the lower and middle stratosphere and negligible SCS in the upper stratosphere in agreement with SAGE v7.0, HALOE and MLS data. The model simulations show a differently structured SCS over different time periods covered by the satellite datasets, which helps to resolve some observed differences. However, despite the improvements to the SAGE II data, due to remaining biases in current observational and reanalysis datasets, accurate quantification of the influence of solar flux variability on the climate system remains an open scientific question.

  14. Association between the 11-Year Solar Cycle and the Atmosphere. Part V: Summer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labitzke, K.; van Loon, H.

    1992-03-01

    We describe a 10-12-year oscillation (abbreviated to TTO in the following) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere of the Northern Hemisphere in summer. The TTO has been presented since the time series began in 1951, and it has been in phase with the 11-year solar cycle during that time. The analyses show that the large amplitude of the TTO in the geopotential heights of the lower stratosphere is associated with temperature variations on the same time scale in the upper troposphere.

  15. Using the 11-year Solar Cycle to Predict the Heliosheath Environment at Voyager 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, A.; Opher, M.; Provornikova, E.; Richardson, J. D.; Toth, G.

    2015-12-01

    As Voyager 2 moves further into the heliosheath, the region of subsonic solar wind plasma in between the termination shock and the heliopause, it has observed an increase of the magnetic field strength to large values, all while maintaining magnetic flux conservation. Dr. Burlaga will present these observations in the 2015 AGU Fall meeting (abstract ID: 59200). The increase in magnetic field strength could be a signature of Voyager 2 approaching the heliopause or, possibly, due to solar cycle effects. In this work we investigate the role the 11-year solar cycle variations as well as magnetic dissipation effects have on the heliosheath environments observed at Voyager 1 and 2 using a global 3D magnetohydrodynamic model of the heliosphere. We use time and latitude-dependent solar wind velocity and density inferred from SOHO/SWAN and IPS data and solar cycle variations of the magnetic field derived from 27-day averages of the field magnitude average of the magnetic field at 1 AU from the OMNI database as presented in Michael et al. (2015). Since the model has already accurately matched the flows and magnetic field strength at Voyager 2 until 93 AU, we extend the boundary conditions to model the heliosheath up until Voyager 2 reaches the heliopause. This work will help clarify if the magnetic field observed at Voyager 2 should increase or decrease due to the solar cycle. We describe the solar magnetic field both as a dipole, with the magnetic and rotational axes aligned, and as a monopole, with magnetic field aligned with the interstellar medium to reduce numerical reconnection within the heliosheath, due to the removal of the heliospheric surrent sheet, and at the solar wind - interstellar medium interface. A comparison of the models allows for a crude estimation of the role that magnetic dissipation plays in the system and whether it allows for a better understanding of the Voyager 2 location in the heliosheath.

  16. Climate variability related to the 11 year solar cycle as represented in different spectral solar irradiance reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruschke, Tim; Kunze, Markus; Misios, Stergios; Matthes, Katja; Langematz, Ulrike; Tourpali, Kleareti

    2016-04-01

    shortwave heating rate differences (additionally collated with line-by-line calculations using libradtran), differences in the photolysis rates, as well as atmospheric circulation features (temperature, zonal wind, geopotential height, etc.). It is shown that atmospheric responses to the different SSI datasets differ significantly from each other. This is a result from direct radiative effects as well as indirect effects induced by ozone feedbacks. Differences originating from using different SSI datasets for the same level of solar activity are in the same order of magnitude as those associated with the 11 year solar cycle within a specific dataset. However, the climate signals related to the solar cycle are quite comparable across datasets.

  17. Special points in 11-year variations in the latitudinal characteristics of sunspot activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miletsky, E. V.; Nagovitsyn, Yu. A.

    2012-12-01

    It has been indicated that special moments (turning points), when certain characteristics of the latitudinal (equatorward) drift of the sunspot drift zone suddenly change, exist in each 11-year solar cycle. The moment when a sunspot formation low-latitude boundary minimum (T2), coordinated in time with the end of a polar magnetic field polarity reversal, exists has a special place among these points. A conclusion has been drawn that it is impossible to reconstruct polarity reversal moments in the past based on information about turning points T2. The average velocities of the latitudinal drift of the minimal, average, and maximal sunspot group latitudes have been calculated. It has been indicated that the closeness of the relationship between the first two velocities and the maximal activity amplitudes in the cycles differ substantially for the first (before point T2) and second (after point T2) cycle parts. The corresponding values of the correlation coefficients increase substantially in the second cycle (after point T2). It has been established that a relationship exists between some velocities calculated in these cycles and the activity amplitudes at maximums of the next cycles. A model for predicting future cycle maximums has been constructed based on this conclusion. The probable average annual Wolf number at a maximum of cycle 24 has been determined (W(24) = 93).

  18. Relationship between phases of quasi-decadal oscillations of total ozone and the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visheratin, K. N.

    2012-02-01

    Temporal variability of the relationship between the phases of quasi-decadal oscillations (QDOs) of total ozone (TO), measured at the Arosa station, and the Ri international sunspot number have been analyzed for the period of 1932-2009. Before the 1970s, the maximum phase of ozone QDOs lagged behind solar activity variations by about 2.5-2.8 years and later outstripped by about 1.5 years. We assumed that the TO QDOs in midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere were close to being in resonance with solar activity oscillations in the period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s and assessed the characteristic delay period of TO QDOs. The global distribution of phases and amplitudes of TO QDOs have been studied for the period from 1979 to 2008 based on satellite data. The maximum phase of TO QDOs first onsets in northern middle and high latitudes and coincides with the end of the growth phase of the 11-year solar cycle. In the tropics, the maximum oscillation phase lags behind by 0.5-1 year. The maximum phase lag near 40-50° S is about two years. The latitudinal variations of the phase of TO QDOs have been approximated.

  19. Luni-solar 18.6- and solar cycle 10 - 11-year signals in USA air temperature records.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, R. G.

    1993-02-01

    Spectrum analysis of 1197 USA air temperature records yields evidence for two peaks with periods 18.8±1.7 and 10.4±0.5 years. Tests by the t-statistic show that both are significant at confidence levels of 99.9 per cent, and both account for 23 per cent of total variance in the raw data. They are identified as the luni-solar 18.6 year Mn and solar cycle Sc 10 - 11 year signals in climate, induced by the twelfth largest constituent tide acting on the Earth and a variation of 10 to 11 years in the Sun's luminosity of the order of 0.1 per cent. Amplitude and phase of Mn wavetrains are highly non-stationary with respect to both time and geography; in particular, abrupt 180° phase changes in wave polarity are often observed. Amplitude and phase of the Sc waves are also highly non-stationary.

  20. Altitude dependent sensitivity of equatorial atomic oxygen in the MLT region to the quasi-11-year and quasi-27-day solar cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lednyts'kyy, Olexandr; Von Savigny, Christian

    2016-07-01

    We retrieved atomic oxygen concentration ([O]) profiles with help of volume emission rate (VER) profiles calculated from the measured by SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) emissions of green line nightglow in the MLT (Mesosphere/Lower Thermosphere) region. We quantified the sensitivity of equatorial [O] to the 11-year and 27-day solar cycle forcing represented by such proxy indicators of solar activity as MgII index and Lyman-α with help of the wavelet, cross-correlation, superposed epoch, regression and harmonical analysis methods. We applied ordinary least squares bisector fitting on MgII index and F10.7 radio flux, which is measured in solar flux units (sfu), to convert the [O] sensitivity values in sfu and finally in percent changes. The same procedure was performed in the case of Lyman-α. Our results of the sensitivity analysis correspond well to the 11-year solar cycle response of O volume mixing ratios found in simulations performed with the WACCM3 (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model, v. 3) and the HAMMONIA (3D Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere) model. We identified an 11-year solar cycle variation, quasi-biennial and annual/semi-annual oscillations as well as signatures of the 27-day cycle of solar activity as presented in the MLT O layer. The most remarkable result is that the found sensitivities agree within their uncertainties and do not depend on averaging method (annual, monthly and daily) of the [O] time series. We report on 11-year and 27-day solar cycle signatures in dependence on altitude intervals used to average the [O] time series.

  1. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  2. 11-year solar cycle in Schumann resonance data as observed in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickolaenko, A. P.; Koloskov, A. V.; Hayakawa, M.; Yampolski, Yu. M.; Budanov, O. V.; Korepanov, V. E.

    2015-03-01

    Studies of Schumann resonance allows obtaining characteristics of the lower ionosphere and the dynamics of global thunderstorms based on the data recorded at a single or a few ground-based observatories. We use the simple model of a point source. The vertical profile of air conductivity is described by the "knee" model. We used continuous Schumann resonance record from the "Akademik Vernadsky" Ukrainian Antarctic station (geographic coordinates: 65.25S and 64.25W, L=2.6). A data processing show that the north-south seasonal drift of global thunderstorms was about 20°, and the intensity of global lightning activity changed annually by the factor 1.5-2. Unequal duration of the "electromagnetic" seasons was confirmed ("summer" ~ 120 days, "winter" ~ 60 days; duration of the "spring" is shorter than the "fall"). A possible explanation of inter-annual variations of Schumann resonance parameter follows from changes in the effective height of the lower ionosphere. In this case, we used the spatial thunderstorm distribution following from the annual data of the Optical Transient Detector satellite. We show that recorded inter-annual variations of resonance frequencies and intensities might be attributed to 1-2 km alterations in the knee height of ionosphere. The most realistic mechanism of changes should include both the height variations and the drift of global thunderstorms. Both the processes are governed by solar activity. We also estimated the feasible trend in the equatorial soil surface temperature by 1.6° C corresponding to the inter-annual change of Schumann resonance intensity.

  3. Active longitudes in the period of overlap of 11-year cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramynin, A. P.; Mikhalina, F. A.

    2016-12-01

    It is shown that "active longitudes" for the sunspots of old and new cycles manifest themselves approximately in the same longitudinal intervals and remain for several 11-year cycles. To be more accurate, they vanish in some cycles but then appear again at the same longitudinal intervals in the other cycles. The entire period is characterized by a total of four active longitudes. The old-cycle sunspots observed at low equatorial latitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres are characterized by a shift by ≈180°, which indicates antipodality of the active longitudes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In the case of highlatitude sunspots (new-cycle sunspots), the best correlation is observed for the shift of ≈90°. There is supposedly a dependence of the rotation speed of active longitudes on the secular cycle.

  4. Chemical-dynamical response to the 11-year solar cycle in a transient CCM simulation of the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubin, A.; Langematz, U.; Baumgärtner, A.; Brühl, Ch.

    2009-04-01

    We present results from a CCMVal REF1 simulation performed with the ECHAM5/MESSy model system. The time period 1960 to 2000 was simulated using the model in T42L90 resolution. The model was forced by observed sea surface temperatures and spectrally resolved solar irradiances as well as greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances according to the CCMVal recommendations. The QBO was internally generated and major volcanic eruptions were included. A state-of-the-art multiple linear regression model is used for the analysis. Emphasis is laid on the 11-year solar signal in chemical and dynamical variables such as ozone volume mixing ratio and related radiative heating, temperature and zonal wind. Moreover, the solar impact on planetary wave propagation and the residual circulation is examined as well as the transfer of the solar signal from the stratosphere to the troposphere. The solar influence on variability patterns as the Arctic Oscillation or the North Atlantic Oscillation is studied and we investigate furthermore the impact on tropical precipitation. The results are compared with observations.

  5. Harmonic model for solar and climate cyclical variation throughout the Holocene based on Jupiter-Saturn tidal frequencies plus the 11-year solar dynamo cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafetta, N.

    2012-12-01

    We show that the Schwabe frequency band of the Zurich sunspot record since 1749 is made of three major cycles that are closely related to the spring tidal period of Jupiter and Saturn (~9.93 year), to the tidal sidereal period of Jupiter (about 11.86 years) and to a central cycle that may be associated to a quasi-11-year solar dynamo cycle. The central harmonic is approximately synchronized to the average of the two planetary frequencies. A harmonic model based on the above two planetary tidal frequencies and on the exact dates of Jupiter and Saturn planetary tidal phases, plus a theoretically deduced 10.87-year central cycle reveals major beat periods occurring at about 115, 61 and 130 years, plus a quasi-millennial large beat cycle around 983 years. Equivalent synchronized cycles are found in cosmogenic solar proxy records used to reconstruct solar activity and in proxy climate records throughout the Holocene (last 12,000 years) up to now. The quasi-secular beat oscillations hindcast reasonably well the known prolonged periods of low solar activity during the last millennium such as the Oort, Wolf, Sporer, Maunder and Dalton minima, as well as the 17 115-year long oscillations found in a detailed temperature reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere covering the last 2000 years. The millennial three-frequency beat cycle hindcasts equivalent solar and climate cycles for 12,000 years. Finally, the harmonic model herein proposed reconstructs the prolonged solar minima around 1900-1920 and 1960-1980, the secular solar maxima around 1870-1890, 1940-1950 and 1995-2005, and a secular upward trending during the 20th century. The latter modulated trending agrees well with some solar proxy model, with the ACRIM TSI satellite composite and with the global surface temperature modulation since 1850. The model forecasts a new prolonged solar minimum during 2020-2045, which is produced by the minima of both the 61 and 115-year reconstructed cycles. Finally, the model predicts

  6. Multi-scale harmonic model for solar and climate cyclical variation throughout the Holocene based on Jupiter-Saturn tidal frequencies plus the 11-year solar dynamo cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2012-05-01

    The Schwabe frequency band of the Zurich sunspot record since 1749 is found to be made of three major cycles with periods of about 9.98, 10.9 and 11.86 years. The side frequencies appear to be closely related to the spring tidal period of Jupiter and Saturn (range between 9.5 and 10.5 years, and median 9.93 years) and to the tidal sidereal period of Jupiter (about 11.86 years). The central cycle may be associated to a quasi-11-year solar dynamo cycle that appears to be approximately synchronized to the average of the two planetary frequencies. A simplified harmonic constituent model based on the above two planetary tidal frequencies and on the exact dates of Jupiter and Saturn planetary tidal phases, plus a theoretically deduced 10.87-year central cycle reveals complex quasi-periodic interference/beat patterns. The major beat periods occur at about 115, 61 and 130 years, plus a quasi-millennial large beat cycle around 983 years. We show that equivalent synchronized cycles are found in cosmogenic records used to reconstruct solar activity and in proxy climate records throughout the Holocene (last 12,000 years) up to now. The quasi-secular beat oscillations hindcast reasonably well the known prolonged periods of low solar activity during the last millennium such as the Oort, Wolf, Spörer, Maunder and Dalton minima, as well as the 17 115-year long oscillations found in a detailed temperature reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere covering the last 2000 years. The millennial three-frequency beat cycle hindcasts equivalent solar and climate cycles for 12,000 years. Finally, the harmonic model herein proposed reconstructs the prolonged solar minima that occurred during 1900-1920 and 1960-1980 and the secular solar maxima around 1870-1890, 1940-1950 and 1995-2005 and a secular upward trending during the 20th century: this modulated trending agrees well with some solar proxy model, with the ACRIM TSI satellite composite and with the global surface temperature

  7. Schoolyard physical activity of 6–11 year old children assessed by GPS and accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Children’s current physical activity levels are disturbingly low when compared to recommended levels. This may be changed by intervening in the school environment. However, at present, it is unclear to what extent schoolyard physical activity contributes towards reaching the daily physical activity guideline. The aim of this study was to examine how long and at what intensity children are physically active at the schoolyard during different time segments of the day. Moreover, the contribution of schoolyard physical activity towards achieving the recommended guideline for daily physical activity was investigated. Methods Children (n=76) between the age of 6–11 years were recruited in six different schools in five cities (>70.000 residents) in the Netherlands. During the weekdays of a regular school week, childrens’ physical activity and location were measured with ActiGraph accelerometers and Travelrecorder GPS receivers. Data was collected from December 2008 to April 2009. From the data, the amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on and outside the schoolyard was established. Moreover, the percentage of MVPA on the schoolyard was compared between the following segments of the day: pre-school, school, school recess, lunch break and post-school. Differences between boys and girls were compared using linear and logistic mixed-effects models. Results On average, children spent 40.1 minutes/day on the schoolyard. During this time, boys were more active on the schoolyard, with 27.3% of their time spent as MVPA compared to 16.7% among girls (OR=2.11 [95% CI 1.54 - 2.90]). The children were most active on the schoolyard during school recess, during which boys recorded 39.5% and girls recorded 23.4% of the time as MVPA (OR=2.55 [95% CI: 1.69 - 3.85]). Although children were only present at the schoolyard for 6.1% of the total reported time, this time contributed towards 17.5% and 16.8% of boys’ and girls’ minutes of MVPA. Conclusions On

  8. Upper School Maths: Lesson Plans and Activities for Ages 9-11 Years. Series of Caribbean Volunteer Publications, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voluntary Services Overseas, Castries (St. Lucia).

    This collection of lesson plans and activities for students aged 9-11 years is based on a science curriculum developed by a group of Caribbean nations. The activities pertain to topics such as place value, prime and composite numbers, the sieve of Eratosthenes, square numbers, factors and multiples, sequences, averages, geometry, symmetry,…

  9. Predictors of Meeting Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Recommendations in 9-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Jimikaye; De Witt, Peter; McNally, Janise; Siegfried, Scott; Hill, James O; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Childhood obesity represents a significant public health problem. This study examined physical activity and nutrition behaviours and attitudes of 9-11-year-olds, and factors influencing these behaviours. Design: Study participants recorded pedometer steps for 7 days and completed physical activity enjoyment, food attitudes and food…

  10. Evaluation of Low-Cost, Objective Instruments for Assessing Physical Activity in 10-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Teresa L.; Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McClain, James J.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2011-01-01

    This study compared step counts detected by four, low-cost, objective, physical-activity-assessment instruments and evaluated their ability to detect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to the ActiGraph accelerometer (AG). Thirty-six 10-11-year-old children wore the NL-1000, Yamax Digiwalker SW 200, Omron HJ-151, and Walk4Life…

  11. Weight status associations with physical activity intensity and physical self-perceptions in 10- to 11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fairclough, Stuart J; Boddy, Lynne M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth

    2012-02-01

    The study examined associations between children's weight status, physical activity intensity, and physical self-perceptions. Data were obtained from 409 children (224 girls) aged 10-11 years categorized as normal-weight or overweight/obese. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometry, and children completed the Physical Self-Perception Profile. After controlling for the effects of age, maturation, and socioeconomic status vigorous physical activity was significantly associated with normal-weight status among boys (OR = 1.13, p = .01) and girls (OR = 1.13, p = .03). Normal-weight status was significantly associated with perceived Physical Condition (Boys: OR = 5.05, p = .008; Girls: OR = 2.50, p = .08), and Body Attractiveness (Boys: OR = 4.44, p = .007; Girls: OR = 2.56, p = .02). Weight status of 10-11 year old children was significantly associated with time spent in vigorous physical activity and self-perceptions of Body Attractiveness and Physical Condition.

  12. A New Component of Solar Dynamics: North-South Diverging Flows Migrating toward the Equator with an 11 Year Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, J. G.; Gizon, L.; Duvall, Thomas L., Jr.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Time-distance helioseismology analysis of dopplergrams provides maps of torsional oscillations and meridional flows. Meridional flow maps show a time-varying component that has a banded structure which matches the torsional oscillations with an equatorward migration over the solar cycle. The time-varying component of meridional flow consists of a flow diverging from the dominant latitude of magnetic activity. These maps are compared with other torsional oscillation maps and with magnetic flux maps, showing a strong correlation with active latitudes. These results demonstrate a strong link between the time-varying component of the meridional flow and the torsional oscillations.

  13. 11-year cycle solar modulation of cosmic ray intensity inferred from C-14 content variation in dated tree rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, C. Y.; Chen, T. M.; Yun, S. X.; Dai, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid scintillation-photomultiplier tube counter system was used to measure the Delta-C-14 values of 60 tree rings, dating from 1866 to 1925, that were taken from a white spruce grown in Canada at 68 deg N, 130 deg W. A 10-percent variation is found which is anticorrelated with sunspot numbers, although the amplitude of the variation is 2-3 times higher than expected in trees grown at lower latitudes. A large dip in the data at about 1875 suggests an anomalously large modulation of cosmic ray intensity during the 1867-1878 AD solar cycle, which was the most active of the 19th century.

  14. Effect of the Great Activity Programme on healthy lifestyle behaviours in 7-11 year olds.

    PubMed

    Morris, John G; Gorely, Trish; Sedgwick, Matthew J; Nevill, Alan; Nevill, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity and dietary variables. In total 378 children (177 intervention, 201 control; age 9.75 ± 0.82 years (mean ± s)) took part in the 7-month intervention comprising: preparation for and participation in 3 highlight events (a dance festival, a walking event and a running event); an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; and vacation activity planners. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers), endurance fitness and dietary variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for data analysis. The increase in physical activity was greater in the intervention group than the control group (steps: 1049 vs 632 daily steps each month; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) total: 4.6 min · day(-1) · month(-1) vs 1.3 min · day(-1) · month(-1); MVPA bouts: 5.4 min · day(-1) · month(-1) vs 2.6 min · day(-1) · month(-1); all P < 0.05). The increase in multi-stage fitness test distance was greater for intervention participants (46 vs 29 m · month(-1) of intervention, group × month interaction, P < 0.05). There were no differences between groups in dietary variables, body composition, knowledge of healthy lifestyles or psychological variables. Thus an intervention centred around highlight events and including relatively few additional resources can impact positively on the objectively measured physical activity of children.

  15. Prospective Associations Between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cognitive Performance Among Older Adults Across an 11-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Po-Wen; Stevinson, Clare; Chen, Li-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Background Few studies have explored the relations between naturally occurring changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in later life. This study examined prospective associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in a population-based sample of Taiwanese older adults during an 11-year period. Methods Analyses were based on nationally representative data from the Taiwan Health and Living Status of the Elderly Survey collected in 1996, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Data from a fixed cohort of 1160 participants who were aged 67 years or older in 1996 and followed for 11 years were included. Cognitive performance (outcome) was assessed using 5 questions from the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Physical activity (exposure) was self-reported as number of sessions per week. The latent growth model was used to examine associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance after controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle behaviors, and health status. Results With multivariate adjustment, higher initial levels of physical activity were significantly associated with better initial cognitive performance (standardized coefficient β = 0.17). A higher level of physical activity at baseline (1996) was significantly related to slower decline in cognitive performance, as compared with a lower level of activity (β = 0.22). The association between changes in physical activity and changes in cognitive performance was stronger (β = 0.36) than the previous 2 associations. The effect remained after excluding participants with cognitive decline before baseline. Conclusions Physical activity in later life is associated with slower age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22343329

  16. Decadal variability of upper ocean heat content in the Pacific: Responding to the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang; Yan, Shuangxi; Qiao, Fangli

    2015-12-01

    Ocean heat content anomaly (OHCa) time series in some areas of the Pacific are significantly correlated with the total solar irradiance (TSI). Using the composite mean-difference method, we determined the mean response of OHCa in the upper-700 m of the ocean to the TSI. Among the high solar response areas, we figure out two regions, one in the tropical mid-Pacific and the other in the western Pacific, where the OHCa present decadal variations, but different phases. The variation in phase of the solar response indicates that there exists an agency for the OHCa's response to TSI.

  17. Active school transport and weekday physical activity in 9–11-year-old children from 12 countries

    PubMed Central

    Denstel, K D; Broyles, S T; Larouche, R; Sarmiento, O L; Barreira, T V; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Active school transport (AST) may increase the time that children spend in physical activity (PA). This study examined relationships between AST and weekday moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity (LPA), sedentary time (SED) and total activity during naturally organized time periods (daily, before school, during school and after school) in a sample of children from 12 countries. METHODS: The sample included 6224 children aged 9–11 years. PA and sedentary time were objectively measured using Actigraph accelerometers. AST was self-reported by participants. Multilevel generalized linear and logistic regression statistical models were used to determine associations between PA, SED and AST across and within study sites. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, highest parental educational attainment, BMI z-score and accelerometer wear time, children who engaged in AST accumulated significantly more weekday MVPA during all studied time periods and significantly less time in LPA before school compared with children who used motorized transport to school. AST was unrelated to time spent in sedentary behaviors. Across all study sites, AST was associated with 6.0 min (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7–7.3; P<0.0001) more of weekday MVPA; however, there was some evidence that this differed across study sites (P for interaction=0.06). Significant positive associations were identified within 7 of 12 study sites, with differences ranging from 4.6 min (95% CI: 0.3–8.9; P=0.04, in Canada) to 10.2 min (95% CI: 5.9–14.4; P<0.0001, in Brazil) more of daily MVPA among children who engaged in AST compared with motorized transport. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that AST was associated with children spending more time engaged in MVPA throughout the day and less time in LPA before school. AST represents a good behavioral target to increase levels of PA in children. PMID:27152177

  18. The possible mechanism of the "stratospheric bridge" modulation by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in early winter and the QBO, 11-year solar cycle in late winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadin, Evgeny; Wei, Ke; Chen, Wen; Wang, Lin

    Questions of the interannual variations of the extra-tropical stratospheric dynamics, its rela-tionship with the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the North Pacific (Pacific Decadal Oscillation -PDO) in early winter (November-December), Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) (Holton-Tan relations), a decadal modulation by the 11-year Solar Cycle (SC) (Labitzke, van Loon -LvL correlations) in late winter (January-February) are discussed. In early winter, the interannual changes of the planetary wave activity define partly the variations of the strato-spheric circulation in subsequent January [Zyulyaeva and Jadin, 2009]. The interannual and decadal variations of the stratospheric wave activity appear to be associated with those of the PDO [Jadin et al. 2009]. A decadal period from the mid-1970s to mid-1990s of the violation of the Holton-Tan (HT) relationship corresponds well to that of the positive PDO phase (anoma-lously cold SSTs in the central North Pacific). Using the NCEP and ERA-40 monthly mean reanalysis datasets, the three-dimensional Eliassen-Palm fluxes are calculated. The results of the analysis of relations between the upward/downward propagation of planetary waves in the lower stratosphere ("stratospheric bridge"), their interaction with the zonal wind and the HT and LvL correlations for January-February are presented. In contrast with early winter, the large role in the wave-zonal flow interaction plays the downward propagation of planetary waves from the stratosphere to the troposphere over Canada and North Atlantic ("stratospheric wave hole") responsible for the sink of the eddy energy from the stratosphere. One can suggest that there are two dominant regimes in the stratosphere-troposphere coupling in late winter: 1) the "ventilation regime" with the strong penetration of planetary waves from the troposphere over north Eurasia and their strong downward propagation over Canada and North Atlantic, and 2) the "blocking regime" with the weak those

  19. Increased aggression and activity level in 3- to 11-year-old girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

    PubMed

    Pasterski, Vickie; Hindmarsh, Peter; Geffner, Mitchell; Brook, Charles; Brain, Caroline; Hines, Melissa

    2007-09-01

    Experimental research in a wide range of mammals has documented powerful influences of androgen during early development on brain systems and behaviors that show sex differences. Clinical research in humans suggests similar influences of early androgen concentrations on some behaviors, including childhood play behavior and adult sexual orientation. However, findings have been inconsistent for some other behaviors that show sex differences, including aggression and activity level in children. This inconsistency may reflect small sample sizes and assessment limitations. In the present study, we assessed aggression and activity level in 3- to 11-year-old children with CAH (38 girls, 29 boys) and in their unaffected siblings (25 girls, 21 boys) using a questionnaire that mothers completed to indicate current aggressive behavior and activity level in their children. Data supported the hypotheses that: (1) unaffected boys are more aggressive and active than unaffected girls; (2) girls with CAH are more aggressive and active than their unaffected sisters; and (3) boys with and without CAH are similar to one another in aggression and activity level. These data suggest that early androgens have a masculinizing effect on both aggressive behavior and activity level in girls.

  20. Middle Atmosphere Response to Different Descriptions of the 11-Year Solar Cycle in Spectral Irradiance in a Chemistry-Climate Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, W. H.; Stolarski, R. S.; Oman, L. D.; Fleming, E. L.; Jackman, C. H.

    2012-01-01

    The 11-year solar cycle in solar spectral irradiance (SSI) inferred from measurements by the SOlar Radiation & Climate Experiment (SORCE) suggests a much larger variation in the ultraviolet than previously accepted. We present middle atmosphere ozone and temperature responses to the solar cycles in SORCE SSI and the ubiquitous Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) SSI reconstruction using the Goddard Earth Observing System chemistry-climate model (GEOS CCM). The results are largely consistent with other recent modeling studies. The modeled ozone response is positive throughout the stratosphere and lower mesosphere using the NRL SSI, while the SORCE SSI produces a response that is larger in the lower stratosphere but out of phase with respect to total solar irradiance above 45 km. The modeled responses in total ozone are similar to those derived from satellite and ground-based measurements, 3-6 Dobson Units per 100 units of 10.7-cm radio flux (F10.7) in the tropics. The peak zonal mean tropical temperature response 50 using the SORCE SSI is nearly 2 K per 100 units 3 times larger than the simulation using the NRL SSI. The GEOS CCM and the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) 2-D coupled model are used to examine how the SSI solar cycle affects the atmosphere through direct solar heating and photolysis processes individually. Middle atmosphere ozone is affected almost entirely through photolysis, whereas the solar cycle in temperature is caused both through direct heating and photolysis feedbacks, processes that are mostly linearly separable. Further, the net ozone response results from the balance of ozone production at wavelengths less than 242 nm and destruction at longer wavelengths, coincidentally corresponding to the wavelength regimes of the SOLar STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) and Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SIM) on SORCE, respectively. A higher wavelength-resolution analysis of the spectral response could allow for a better prediction of the

  1. Regulation of brain activity in the fusiform face and parahippocampal place areas in 7-11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Vuontela, Virve; Jiang, Ping; Tokariev, Maksym; Savolainen, Petri; Ma, Yuanye; Aronen, Eeva T; Fontell, Tuija; Liiri, Tiina; Ahlström, Matti; Salonen, Oili; Carlson, Synnöve

    2013-03-01

    Developmental studies have demonstrated that cognitive processes such as attention, suppression of interference and memory develop throughout childhood and adolescence. However, little is currently known about the development of top-down control mechanisms and their influence on cognitive performance. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate modulation of activity in the ventral visual cortex in healthy 7-11-year-old children and young adults. The participants performed tasks that required attention to either face (Fs task) or scene (Sf task) images while trying to ignore distracting scene or face images, respectively. A face-selective area in the fusiform gyrus (fusiform face area, FFA) and an area responding preferentially to scene images in the parahippocampal gyrus (parahippocampal place area, PPA) were defined using functional localizers. Children responded slower and less accurately in the tasks than adults. In children, the right FFA was less selective to face images and regulation of activity between the Fs and Sf tasks was weaker compared to adults. In the PPA, selectivity to scenes and regulation of activity, there according to the task demands were comparable between children and adults. During the tasks, children activated prefrontal cortical areas including the middle (MFG) and superior (SFG) frontal gyrus more than adults. Functional connectivity between the right FFA and left MFG was stronger in adults than children in the Fs task. Children, on the other hand, had stronger functional connectivity than adults in the Sf task between the right FFA and right PPA and between right MFG and medial SFG. There were no group differences in the functional connectivity between the PPA and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Together the results suggest that, in 7-11-year-old children, the FFA is still immature, whereas the selectivity to scenes and regulation of activity in the PPA is comparable to adults. The results also

  2. January-february Tropospheric Climate for the Northern Hemisphere and the 11-year Solar Cycle, the QBO and the Southern Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnston, Anthony G.; Livezey, Robert E.

    1990-01-01

    Examined here is a recently discovered association between the 11-year solar cycle and the atmosphere that is most easily detectable when the two phases of the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO) are considered individually rather than pooled. The influence of the Southern Oscillation (SO) for either of the two QBO phases is then combined with that of the solar cycle in the form of two-predictor multiple regression. The strong and well-defined relationship between the 11-year 10.7 cm solar flux cycle and the lower troposphere Northern Hemisphere January-February climate for QBO phase-stratified samples (van Loon and Labitzke 1988, Barnston and Livezey 1989) failed for the west QBO phase in 1989. Here, the opposing 1989 event is explained, at least in part, on the basis of the phase of the SO (the cold tropical Pacific SST event of 1988 to 1989). It is demonstrated that both the SO and the solar flux have moderate and quasi-independent correlations with the climate over certain regions, and where there is strong overlap they can work either in harmony or in opposition. In 1989 in North America the influences of the SO and the flux conflicted to an unprecedented extent, and the SO was the controlling influence in most regions of the continent (western Canada being one exception). The 1989 event draws attention to the smallness of the QBO phase-stratified samples and the still more serious holes in the two-dimensional sample space of flux and SO when both factors are viewed as predictors within one QBO phase.

  3. Four minutes of in-class high-intensity interval activity improves selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jasmin K; Le Mare, Lucy; Gurd, Brendon J

    2015-03-01

    The amount of time allocated to physical activity in schools is declining. Time-efficient physical activity solutions that demonstrate their impact on academic achievement-related outcomes are needed to prioritize physical activity within the school curricula. "FUNtervals" are 4-min, high-intensity interval activities that use whole-body actions to complement a storyline. The purpose of this study was to (i) explore whether FUNtervals can improve selective attention, an executive function posited to be essential for learning and academic success; and (ii) examine whether this relationship is predicted by students' classroom off-task behaviour. Seven grade 3-5 classes (n = 88) were exposed to a single-group, repeated cross-over design where each student's selective attention was compared between no-activity and FUNtervals days. In week 1, students were familiarized with the d2 test of attention and FUNterval activities, and baseline off-task behaviour was observed. In both weeks 2 and 3 students completed the d2 test of attention following either a FUNterval break or a no-activity break. The order of these breaks was randomized and counterbalanced between weeks. Neither motor nor passive off-task behaviour predicted changes in selective attention following FUNtervals; however, a weak relationship was observed for verbal off-task behaviour and improvements in d2 test performance. More importantly, students made fewer errors during the d2 test following FUNtervals. In supporting the priority of physical activity inclusion within schools, FUNtervals, a time efficient and easily implemented physical activity break, can improve selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.

  4. Structure of the Heliotail from Interstellar Boundary Explorer Observations: Implications for the 11-year Solar Cycle and Pickup Ions in the Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirnstein, E. J.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Zank, G. P.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Funsten, H. O.; McComas, D. J.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2017-02-01

    Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) measurements of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the heliotail show a multi-lobe structure of ENA fluxes as a function of energy between ∼0.71 and 4.29 keV. Below ∼2 keV, there is a single structure of enhanced ENA fluxes centered near the downwind direction. Above ∼2 keV, this structure separates into two lobes, one north and one south of the solar equatorial plane. ENA flux from these two lobes can be interpreted as originating from the fast solar wind (SW) propagating through the inner heliosheath (IHS). Alternatively, a recently published model of the heliosphere suggests that the heliotail may split into a “croissant-like” shape, and that such a geometry could be responsible for the heliotail ENA feature. Here we present results from a time-dependent simulation of the heliosphere that produces a comet-like heliotail, and show that the 11-year solar cycle leads to the formation of ENA lobes with properties remarkably similar to those observed by IBEX. The ENA energy at which the north and south lobes appear suggests that the pickup ion (PUI) temperature in the slow SW of the IHS is ∼107 K. Moreover, we demonstrate that the extinction of PUIs by charge-exchange is an essential process required to create the observed global ENA structure. While the shape and locations of the ENA lobes as a function of energy are well reproduced by PUIs that cross the termination shock, the results appear to be sensitive to the form of the distribution of PUIs injected in the IHS.

  5. Hindcast and forecast of grand solar minina and maxima using a three-frequency dynamo model based on Jupiter-Saturn tidal frequencies modulating the 11-year sunspot cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scafetta, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The Schwabe frequency band of the Zurich sunspot record since 1749 is found to be made of three major cycles with periods of about 9.98, 10.9 and 11.86 years. The two side frequencies appear to be closely related to the spring tidal period of Jupiter and Saturn (range between 9.5 and 10.5 years, and median 9.93 years) and to the tidal sidereal period of Jupiter (about 11.86 years). The central cycle can be associated to a quasi-11-year sunspot solar dynamo cycle that appears to be approximately synchronized to the average of the two planetary frequencies. A simplified harmonic constituent model based on the above two planetary tidal frequencies and on the exact dates of Jupiter and Saturn planetary tidal phases, plus a theoretically deduced 10.87-year central cycle reveals complex quasi-periodic interference/beat patterns. The major beat periods occur at about 115, 61 and 130 years, plus a quasi-millennial large beat cycle around 983 years. These frequencies and other oscillations appear once the model is non-linearly processed. We show that equivalent synchronized cycles are found in cosmogenic records used to reconstruct solar activity and in proxy climate records throughout the Holocene (last 12,000 years) up to now. The quasi-secular beat oscillations hindcast reasonably well the known prolonged periods of low solar activity during the last millennium such as the Oort, Wolf, Sporer, Maunder and Dalton minima, as well as the 17 115-year long oscillations found in a detailed temperature reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere covering the last 2000 years. The millennial cycle hindcasts equivalent solar and climate cycles for 12,000 years. Finally, the harmonic model herein proposed reconstructs the prolonged solar minima that occurred during 1900- 1920 and 1960-1980 and the secular solar maxima around 1870-1890, 1940-1950 and 1995-2005 and a secular upward trending during the 20th century: this modulated trending agrees well with some solar proxy model, with

  6. Coupling of the Matched Gravity and Electromagnetic Fields of the Sun with Jupiter and its Moons Together in Nearest Portion of Jupiter's Orbit to the Sun as the Main Cause of the Peak of Approximately 11 Yearly Solar Cycles and Hazards from Solar Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholibeigian, Kazem; Gholibeigian, Hassan

    2016-04-01

    strongest variable GEFs in solar system after the Sun. For example, Ganymede is the largest moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System. Completing an orbit in roughly seven days. It means that it generates 52 GEFs oscillations (loading, unloading) per year in solar cycle while it is rotating around the Jupiter. New observations of the planet's extreme ultraviolet emissions show that bright explosions of Jupiter's aurora by the planet-moon interaction, not by solar activity [Tomoki Kimura, JAEA]. Coupling of Jupiter's GEFs and its moons with the Sun generate very strong GEFs and approximately 11 yearly solar cycles. The peaks of each cycle is when the Jupiter passes from the nearest portion of its orbit to the Sun. which some of its peaks generate gigantic solar storms and hazards to the Earth. The Earth passes from between of Sun and Jupiter eleven times in each solar cycle and may be under shooting of storms from the both side specially during 2-3 years in cycle's peak.

  7. Comparison of short-term energy intake and appetite responses to active and seated video gaming, in 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Green, Benjamin P; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Barry, Gillian; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2016-03-28

    The acute effects of active and seated video gaming on energy intake (EI), blood glucose, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-17-36) and subjective appetite (hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness) were examined in 8-11-year-old boys. In a randomised, crossover manner, twenty-two boys completed one 90-min active and one 90-min seated video gaming trial during which food and drinks were provided ad libitum. EI, plasma GLP-17-36, blood glucose and subjective appetite were measured during and following both trials. Time-averaged AUC blood glucose was increased (P=0·037); however, EI was lower during active video gaming (1·63 (sem 0·26) MJ) compared with seated video gaming (2·65 (sem 0·32) MJ) (P=0·000). In a post-gaming test meal 1 h later, there were no significant differences in EI between the active and seated gaming trials. Although estimated energy expenditure was significantly higher during active video gaming, there was still no compensation for the lower EI. At cessation of the trials, relative EI (REI) was significantly lower following active video gaming (2·06 (sem 0·30) MJ) v. seated video gaming (3·34 (sem 0·35) MJ) (P=0·000). No significant differences were detected in time-averaged AUC GLP-17-36 or subjective appetite. At cessation of the active video gaming trial, EI and REI were significantly less than for seated video gaming. In spite of this, the REI established for active video gaming was a considerable amount when considering the total daily estimated average requirement for 8-11-year-old boys in the UK (7·70 MJ).

  8. Monthly variations of the Caspian sea level and solar activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanchuk, P. R.; Pasechnik, M. N.

    The connection between 11-year cycle of solar activity and the Caspian sea level is investigated. Seasonal changes of the Caspian sea level and annual variations of the sea level with variations of solar activity are studied. The results of the verifications of the sea level forecasts obtained with application of the rules discovered by the authors are given.

  9. Solar irradiance measurements - Minimum through maximum solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. B., III; Gibson, M. A.; Shivakumar, N.; Wilson, R.; Kyle, H. L.; Mecherikunnel, A. T.

    1991-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and the NOAA-9 spacecraft solar monitors were used to measure the total solar irradiance during the period October 1984 to December 1989. Decreasing trends in the irradiance measurements were observed as sunspot activity decreased to minimum levels in 1986; after 1986, increasing trends were observed as sunspot activity increased. The magnitude of the irradiance variability was found to be approximately 0.1 percent between sunspot minimum and maximum (late 1989). When compared with the 1984 to 1989 indices of solar magnetic activity, the irradiance trends appear to be in phase with the 11-year sunspot cycle. Both irradiance series yielded 1,365/sq Wm as the mean value of the solar irradiance, normalized to the mean earth/sun distance. The monitors are electrical substitution, active-cavity radiometers with estimated measurement precisions and accuracies of less than 0.02 and 0.2 percent, respectively.

  10. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts.

  11. A comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 9–11 year old British Pakistani and White British girls: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that British children of South Asian origin are less active and more sedentary than White British children. However, little is known about the behaviours underlying low activity levels, nor the familial contexts of active and sedentary behaviours in these groups. Our aim was to test hypotheses about differences between British Pakistani and White British girls using accelerometry and self-reports of key active and sedentary behaviours, and to obtain an understanding of factors affecting these behaviours using parental interviews. Methods Participants were 145 girls (70 White British and 75 British Pakistani) aged 9–11 years and parents of 19 of the girls. Accelerometry data were collected over 4 days and girls provided 24-hour physical activity interviews on 3 of these days. Multilevel linear regression models and generalised linear mixed models tested for ethnic differences in activity, sedentary time, and behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents. Results Compared to White British girls, British Pakistani girls accumulated 102 (95% CI 59, 145) fewer counts per minute and 14 minutes (95% CI 8, 20) less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. British Pakistani girls spent more time (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 14, 42) sedentary. Fewer British Pakistani than White British girls reported participation in organised sports and exercise (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.64) or in outdoor play (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.20, 0.91). Fewer British Pakistani girls travelled actively to school (OR 0.26 95% CI 0.10, 0.71). There was no significant difference in reported screen time (OR 0.88 95% CI 0.45, 1.73). Parental interviews suggested that structural constraints (e.g. busy family schedules) and parental concerns about safety were important influences on activity levels. Conclusions British Pakistani girls were less active than White British girls and were less likely to participate in key active behaviours

  12. Relationships between Parental Education and Overweight with Childhood Overweight and Physical Activity in 9–11 Year Old Children: Results from a 12-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, Stella K.; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Church, Timothy S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children has serious implications for morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood. Various parental factors are associated with childhood overweight and physical activity. The objective of this paper was to investigate relationships between parental education or overweight, and (i) child overweight, (ii) child physical activity, and (iii) explore household coexistence of overweight, in a large international sample. Methods Data were collected from 4752 children (9–11 years) as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment in 12 countries around the world. Physical activity of participating children was assessed by accelerometry, and body weight directly measured. Questionnaires were used to collect parents’ education level, weight, and height. Results Maternal and paternal overweight were positively associated with child overweight. Higher household coexistence of parent-child overweight was observed among overweight children compared to the total sample. There was a positive relationship between maternal education and child overweight in Colombia 1.90 (1.23–2.94) [odds ratio (confidence interval)] and Kenya 4.80 (2.21–10.43), and a negative relationship between paternal education and child overweight in Brazil 0.55 (0.33–0.92) and the USA 0.54 (0.33–0.88). Maternal education was negatively associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines in Colombia 0.53 (0.33–0.85), Kenya 0.35 (0.19–0.63), and Portugal 0.54 (0.31–0.96). Conclusions Results are aligned with previous studies showing positive associations between parental and child overweight in all countries, and positive relationships between parental education and child overweight or negative associations between parental education and child physical activity in lower economic status countries. Relationships between maternal and paternal education

  13. Vitamin D status is associated with cardiometabolic markers in 8-11-year-old children, independently of body fat and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Damsgaard, Camilla T

    2015-11-28

    Vitamin D status has been associated with cardiometabolic markers even in children, but the associations may be confounded by fat mass and physical activity behaviour. This study investigated associations between vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk profile, as well as the impact of fat mass and physical activity in Danish 8-11-year-old children, using baseline data from 782 children participating in the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study. We assessed vitamin D status as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and measured blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, homoeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, plasma lipids, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and physical activity by 7 d accelerometry during August-November. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Each 10 mmol/l 25(OH)D increase was associated with lower diastolic blood pressure (-0·3 mmHg, 95 % CI -0·6, -0·0) (P=0·02), total cholesterol (-0·07 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·10, -0·05), LDL-cholesterol (-0·05 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·08, -0·03), TAG (-0·02 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·03, -0·01) (P≤0·001 for all lipids) and lower metabolic syndrome (MetS) score (P=0·01). Adjustment for fat mass index did not change the associations, but the association with blood pressure became borderline significant after adjustment for physical activity (P=0·06). In conclusion, vitamin D status was negatively associated with blood pressure, plasma lipids and a MetS score in Danish school children with low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and apart from blood pressure the associations were independent of body fat and physical activity. The potential underlying cause-effect relationship and possible long-term implications should be investigated in randomised controlled trials.

  14. The effect of the 11-year solar-cycle on the temperature in the upper-stratosphere and mesosphere: Part II numerical simulations and the role of planetary waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampson, J.; Keckhut, P.; Hauchecorne, A.; Chanin, M. L.

    2005-07-01

    Results from mechanistic model simulations have been analysed to examine the effect of the solar cycle, and in particular how the level of planetary wave activity changes the effect of the solar cycle. The model is a stratosphere and mesosphere model with detailed chemical, radiative and dynamical schemes. Planetary waves are initiated at the lowest boundary level of the model, which corresponds to the tropopause height. Model simulations have been carried out in pairs, with one simulation using solar forcing corresponding to solar minimum and the other to solar maximum. The level of lower boundary planetary wave forcing is varied between pairs of model simulations. The difference in temperature signal between the pairs of simulations is presented. The results illustrate the crucial role played by the planetary wave forcing in the solar cycle temperature signal. The solar cycle temperature signal in the tropics and subtropics is about 1 K for all values of wave forcing. However, in the extra-tropics the solar signal varies critically with wave forcing, giving a solar signal as strong as 16 K for intermediate values of wave forcing. Despite some spatial differences, the simulations with a specific wave forcing show good qualitative agreements with observational results presented in the companion paper [Keckhut et al., 2005. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, submitted for publication]. Above a critical level of wave activity, the non-linear interaction with the mean flow induces a stratospheric warming and a strong temperature change. The critical wave-forcing amplitude necessary to produce such an event is very sensitive to the initial state of the atmosphere and a small change of the mean wind, due for example to an enhancement of the solar forcing, can generate a large difference in temperature, depending on the level of the wave forcing. The numerical simulations presented here suggest a mechanism by which a small change induced by the solar

  15. Solar activity and explosive transient eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambastha, Ashok

    2016-07-01

    We discuss active and explosive behavior of the Sun observable in a wide range of wavelengths (or energies) and spatio-temporal scales that are not possible for any other star. On the longer time scales, the most notable form of solar activity is the well known so called 11-year solar activity cycle. On the other hand, at shorter time scales of a few minutes to several hours, spectacular explosive transient events, such as, solar flares, prominence eruptions, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) occur in the outer layers of solar atmosphere. These solar activity cycle and explosive phenomena influence and disturb the space between the Sun and planets. The state of the interplanetary medium, including planetary and terrestrial surroundings, or "the space weather", and its forecasting has important practical consequences. The reliable forecasting of space weather lies in continuously observing of the Sun. We present an account of the recent developments in our understanding of these phenomena using both space-borne and ground-based solar observations.

  16. Periodogram analysis of sunspot numbers and the relation with solar activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hady, Ahmed A.

    1995-01-01

    The time series of average monthly sunspot numbers during 1900-1992 is studied by using power spectral analysis. This prediction method is used to study the sunspot periodicities relations between its, and with the other periodicities by solar activities. There are periodicities (between few days and 5 years) overwhelm on the mean solar cycle. ( 11 year cycle). These periodicities have the same relation with variations of solar constant and solar radiation reaching the Earth's atmosphere in the last solar cycle. These periods are related to the solar magnetic activity and to the modulation of solar features due to solar rotation.

  17. Some problems in coupling solar activity to meteorological phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a theory of coupling of solar activity to meteorological phenomena has to date foundered on the two difficulties of (1) devising a mechanism that can modify the behavior of the troposphere while employing only a negligible amount of energy compared with the energy necessary to drive the normal meteorological system; and (2) determining how such a mechanism can effectively couple some relevant magnetospheric process into the troposphere in such a way as to influence the weather. A clue to the nature of the interaction between the weather and solar activity might be provided by the fact that most solar activity undergoes a definite 11-year cycle, while meteorological phenomena undergo either no closely correlated variation, or an 11-year variation, or a 22-year variation.

  18. Physics of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  19. Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Charbonneau, Paul; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hasan, S. Sirajul; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kusano, Kanya; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Vršnak, Bojan; Yan, Yihua

    2012-04-01

    Commission 10 of the International Astronomical Union has more than 650 members who study a wide range of activity phenomena produced by our nearest star, the Sun. Solar activity is intrinsically related to solar magnetic fields and encompasses events from the smallest energy releases (nano- or even picoflares) to the largest eruptions in the Solar System, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which propagate into the Heliosphere reaching the Earth and beyond. Solar activity is manifested in the appearance of sunspot groups or active regions, which are the principal sources of activity phenomena from the emergence of their magnetic flux through their dispersion and decay. The period 2008-2009 saw an unanticipated extended solar cycle minimum and unprecedentedly weak polar-cap and heliospheric field. Associated with that was the 2009 historical maximum in galactic cosmic rays flux since measurements begun in the middle of the 20th Century. Since then Cycle 24 has re-started solar activity producing some spectacular eruptions observed with a fleet of spacecraft and ground-based facilities. In the last triennium major advances in our knowledge and understanding of solar activity were due to continuing success of space missions as SOHO, Hinode, RHESSI and the twin STEREO spacecraft, further enriched by the breathtaking images of the solar atmosphere produced by the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) launched on 11 February 2010 in the framework of NASA's Living with a Star program. In August 2012, at the time of the IAU General Assembly in Beijing when the mandate of this Commission ends, we will be in the unique position to have for the first time a full 3-D view of the Sun and solar activity phenomena provided by the twin STEREO missions about 120 degrees behind and ahead of Earth and other spacecraft around the Earth and ground-based observatories. These new observational insights are continuously posing new questions, inspiring and advancing theoretical analysis and

  20. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  1. Effects of long-period solar activity fluctuation on temperature and pressure of the terrestrial atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubashev, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    The present state of research on the influence of solar sunspot activity on tropospheric temperature and pressure is reviewed. The existence of an 11-year temperature cycle of 5 different types is affirmed. A cyclic change in atmospheric pressure, deducing characteristic changes between 11-year cycles is discussed. The existence of 80-year and 5-to-6-year cycles of temperature is established, and physical causes for birth are suggested.

  2. Apparent Relations Between Solar Activity and Solar Tides Caused by the Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    2007-01-01

    A solar storm is a storm of ions and electrons from the Sun. Large solar storms are usually preceded by solar flares, phenomena that can be characterized quantitatively from Earth. Twenty-five of the thirty-eight largest known solar flares were observed to start when one or more tide-producing planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Jupiter) were either nearly above the event positions (less than 10 deg. longitude) or at the opposing side of the Sun. The probability for this to happen at random is 0.039 percent. This supports the hypothesis that the force or momentum balance (between the solar atmospheric pressure, the gravity field, and magnetic field) on plasma in the looping magnetic field lines in solar corona could be disturbed by tides, resulting in magnetic field reconnection, solar flares, and solar storms. Separately, from the daily position data of Venus, Earth, and Jupiter, an 11-year planet alignment cycle is observed to approximately match the sunspot cycle. This observation supports the hypothesis that the resonance and beat between the solar tide cycle and nontidal solar activity cycle influences the sunspot cycle and its varying magnitudes. The above relations between the unpredictable solar flares and the predictable solar tidal effects could be used and further developed to forecast the dangerous space weather and therefore reduce its destructive power against the humans in space and satellites controlling mobile phones and global positioning satellite (GPS) systems.

  3. Activation of solar flares

    SciTech Connect

    Cargill, P.J.; Migliuolo, S.; Hood, A.W.

    1984-11-01

    The physics of the activation of two-ribbon solar flares via the MHD instability of coronal arcades is presented. The destabilization of a preflare magnetic field is necessary for a rapid energy release, characteristic of the impulsive phase of the flare, to occur. The stability of a number of configurations are examined, and the physical consequences and relative importance of varying pressure profiles and different sets of boundary conditions (involving field-line tying) are discussed. Instability modes, driven unstable by pressure gradients, are candidates for instability. Shearless vs. sheared equilibria are also discussed. (ESA)

  4. Ionospheric effects of the extreme solar activity of February 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boska, J.; Pancheva, D.

    1989-01-01

    During February 1986, near the minimum of the 11 year Solar sunspot cycle, after a long period of totally quiet solar activity (R sub z = 0 on most days in January) a period of a suddenly enhanced solar activity occurred in the minimum between solar cycles 21 and 22. Two proton flares were observed during this period. A few other flares, various phenomena accompanying proton flares, an extremely severe geomagnetic storm and strong disturbances in the Earth's ionosphere were observed in this period of enhanced solar activity. Two active regions appeared on the solar disc. The flares in both active regions were associated with enhancement of solar high energy proton flux which started on 4 February of 0900 UT. Associated with the flares, the magnetic storm with sudden commencement had its onset on 6 February 1312 UT and attained its maximum on 8 February (Kp = 9). The sudden enhancement in solar activity in February 1986 was accompanied by strong disturbances in the Earth's ionosphere, SIDs and ionospheric storm. These events and their effects on the ionosphere are discussed.

  5. Periodicities in the north-south asymmetry of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizoso, G.; Ballester, J. L.

    1989-09-01

    A Blackman-Tukey power spectrum is performed on the values of the north-south asymmetry in the sudden disappearance of solar prominences, and the results are reported. The findings confirm the proposed existence of a periodicity of around 11 years and fails to confirm another short periodicity of around 2.3 years. The results of the power spectrum performed using values of the flare number and flare index north-south asymmetry provide a significant peak of 3.1-3.2 years. This short periodicity could be related to those found by Ramanuja Rao (1973) in several indices of solar activity.

  6. Geomagnetic response to solar activity.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mead, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between solar activity and geomagnetic variations is discussed in the light of spacecraft data obtained during the last decade. The effects of centers of solar activity responsible for producing geomagnetic activity on earth are believed to be transmitted through the solar wind, and there is usually a delay of two or three days before the onset of magnetic activity. Attempts to make a one-to-one correspondence between specific solar events and specific magnetic storms, however, are usually unsuccessful, because of the complex and indirect processes linking the two phenomena. Normally, only statistical tendencies can be shown.

  7. Simulation of the solar-activity-weather-ecology chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obridko, V.; Dmitrieva, B.; Zaborova, E.

    1993-11-01

    The effect of weak solar activity generated disturbances on the ecological system has been investigated. The study is based on simulation of the tundra community `vegetation/lemmings/polar foxes'. The model was verified using the data on the West Taimir ecosystem. The summer duration determined from meteorological indices was taken as the input parameter of the model. If the effect was small enough in amplitude, the model demonstrated 3-year-long intervals between the maxima modulated by the 11-year-cycle. At the second stage of our study we used the real series of summer duration (from setting in to melting of the snow cover) in the region under consideration. When the real summer duration was included in the model, the spectrum displayed an 11-year component that was nearly as pronounced as the observed one. Since the data on summer duration used in the model were taken directly from meteorological stations without processing, the appearance of the 11-year periodicity in the model dynamics may be regarded as additional evidence for dependence of the meteorological series on solar activity.

  8. Decadal variability of European sea level extremes in relation to the solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Asensio, Adrián.; Tsimplis, Michael N.; Calafat, Francisco Mir

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the relationship between decadal changes in solar activity and sea level extremes along the European coasts and derived from tide gauge data. Autumn sea level extremes vary with the 11 year solar cycle at Venice as suggested by previous studies, but a similar link is also found at Trieste. In addition, a solar signal in winter sea level extremes is also found at Venice, Trieste, Marseille, Ceuta, Brest, and Newlyn. The influence of the solar cycle is also evident in the sea level extremes derived from a barotropic model with spatial patterns that are consistent with the correlations obtained at the tide gauges. This agreement indicates that the link to the solar cycle is through modulation of the atmospheric forcing. The only atmospheric regional pattern that showed variability at the 11 year period was the East Atlantic pattern.

  9. Solar activity and the weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The attempts during the past century to establish a connection between solar activity and the weather are discussed; some critical remarks about the quality of much of the literature in this field are given. Several recent investigations are summarized. Use of the solar/interplanetary magnetic sector structure in future investigations is suggested to add an element of cohesiveness and interaction to these investigations.

  10. Solar activity and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Szczeklik, E; Mergentaler, J; Kotlarek-Haus, S; Kuliszkiewicz-Janus, M; Kucharczyk, J; Janus, W

    1983-01-01

    The correlation between the incidence of myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, the solar activity and geomagnetism in the period 1969-1976 was studied, basing on Wrocław hospitals material registered according to WHO standards; sudden death was assumed when a person died within 24 hours after the onset of the disease. The highest number of infarctions and sudden deaths was detected for 1975, which coincided with the lowest solar activity, and the lowest one for the years 1969-1970 coinciding with the highest solar activity. Such an inverse, statistically significant correlation was not found to exist between the studied biological phenomena and geomagnetism.

  11. Hepatoblastoma in an 11-year-old

    PubMed Central

    Pateva, Irina B.; Egler, Rachel A.; Stearns, Duncan S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Hepatoblastoma is a rare malignancy. Approximately 100 cases are diagnosed yearly in the United States. The highest incidence occurs in infants and in children younger than 5 years. Cases involving patients older than 5 years are very rare. We describe the case of a patient who was diagnosed with hepatoblastoma at an atypical age of presentation for this type of malignancy. We also performed Ovid MEDLINE search for hepatoblastoma and epidemiology reports occurring in children between the ages of 5 and 18 years. In this article we review the epidemiology and summarize case reports published between 1997 and 2012 of patients with hepatoblastoma, who were older than 5 years. Patient concerns and diagnosis: Our patient is an 11 year old boy with stage IV hepatoblastoma with lung and omental metastases at diagnosis. Interventions: The patient received 7 cycles of chemotherapy following the treatment plan of COG protocol AHEP 0731, off study. He also had tumor resection and omentectomy and achieved complete remission. Outcomes: He later had disease recurrence and after undergoing treatment with different modalities, ultimately died of his disease. Review of SEER program data shows that the incidence of hepatoblastoma in children above the age of 5 years is too infrequent to be calculated. Literature review revealed 13 cases of patients diagnosed at age older than 5 years. Most cases were published due to unusual associations and/or complications. There are no obvious unifying characteristics for these cases, although there may be a slight male preponderance and many patients in this selected series presented with elevated Alpha-fetoprotein. Lessons: The reported case is rare, given the very low incidence of hepatoblastoma outside of infancy. A systematic review of characteristics and outcomes for patients older than 5 years who are enrolled in cooperative group hepatoblastoma trials may reveal important information about the epidemiology and tumor

  12. Solar active region display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  13. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  14. On the possible relations between solar activities and global seismicity in the solar cycle 20 to 23

    SciTech Connect

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Arif, Johan; Nurzaman, Muhamad Zamzam; Astuti, Isna Kusuma Dewi

    2015-09-30

    Solar activities consist of high energetic particle streams, electromagnetic radiation, magnetic and orbital gravitational forces. The well-know solar activity main indicator is the existence of sunspot which has mean variation in 11 years, named by solar cycle, allow for the above fluctuations. Solar activities are also related to the space weather affecting all planetary atmospheric variability, moreover to the Earth’s climate variability. Large extreme space and geophysical events (high magnitude earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions, magnetic storms, etc.) are hazards for humankind, infrastructure, economies, technology and the activities of civilization. With a growing world population, and with modern reliance on delicate technological systems, human society is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural hazardous events. The big question arises to the relation between solar forcing energy to the Earth’s global seismic activities. Estimates are needed for the long term occurrence-rate probabilities of these extreme natural hazardous events. We studied connectivity from yearly seismic activities that refer to and sunspot number within the solar cycle 20 to 23 of year 1960 to 2013 (53 years). We found clear evidences that in general high magnitude earthquake events and their depth were related to the low solar activity.

  15. Relationship of The Tropical Cyclogenesis With Solar and Magnetospheric Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnevsky, O.; Pankov, V.; Erokhine, N.

    Formation of tropical cyclones is a badly studied period in their life cycle even though there are many papers dedicated to analysis of influence of different parameters upon cyclones occurrence frequency (see e.g., Gray W.M.). Present paper is dedicated to study of correlation of solar and magnetospheric activity with the appearance of tropi- cal cyclones in north-west region of Pacific ocean. Study of correlation was performed by using both classical statistical methods (including maximum entropy method) and quite modern ones, for example multifractal analysis. Information about Wolf's num- bers and cyclogenesis intensity in period of 1944-2000 was received from different Internet databases. It was shown that power spectra maximums of Wolf's numbers and appeared tropical cyclones ones corresponds to 11-year period; solar activity and cyclogenesis processes intensity are in antiphase; maximum of mutual correlation co- efficient ( 0.8) between Wolf's numbers and cyclogenesis intensity is in South-China sea. There is a relation of multifractal characteristics calculated for both time series with the mutual correlation function that is another indicator of correlation between tropical cyclogenesis and solar-magnetospheric activity. So, there is the correlation between solar-magnetospheric activity and tropical cyclone intensity in this region. Possible physical mechanisms of such correlation including anomalous precipitations charged particles from the Earth radiation belts and wind intensity amplification in the troposphere are discussed.

  16. Relationship of The Tropical Cyclogenesis With Solar and Magnetospheric Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnevsky, O. V.; Pankov, V. M.; Erokhine, N. S.

    Formation of tropical cyclones is a badly studied period in their life cycle even though there are many papers dedicated to analysis of influence of different parameters upon cyclones occurrence frequency (see e.g., Gray W.M.). Present paper is dedicated to study of correlation of solar and magnetospheric activity with the appearance of tropical cyclones in north-west region of Pacific ocean. Study of correlation was performed by using both classical statistical methods (including maximum entropy method) and quite modern ones, for example multifractal analysis. Information about Wolf's numbers and cyclogenesis intensity in period of 1944-2000 was received from different Internet databases. It was shown that power spectra maximums of Wolf's numbers and appeared tropical cyclones ones corresponds to 11-year period; solar activity and cyclogenesis processes intensity are in antiphase; maximum of mutual correlation coefficient (~ 0.8) between Wolf's numbers and cyclogenesis intensity is in South-China sea. There is a relation of multifractal characteristics calculated for both time series with the mutual correlation function that is another indicator of correlation between tropical cyclogenesis and solar-magnetospheric activity. So, there is the correlation between solar-magnetospheric activity and tropical cyclone intensity in this region. Possible physical mechanisms of such correlation including anomalous precipitations charged particles from the Earth radiation belts and wind intensity amplification in the troposphere are discussed.

  17. IS THE CURRENT LACK OF SOLAR ACTIVITY ONLY SKIN DEEP?

    SciTech Connect

    Broomhall, A.-M.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Fletcher, S. T.; New, R. E-mail: wjc@bison.ph.bham.ac.uk E-mail: S.Fletcher@shu.ac.uk

    2009-08-01

    The Sun is a variable star whose magnetic activity and total irradiance vary on a timescale of approximately 11 years. The current activity minimum has attracted considerable interest because of its unusual duration and depth. This raises the question: what might be happening beneath the surface where the magnetic activity ultimately originates? The surface activity can be linked to the conditions in the solar interior by the observation and analysis of the frequencies of the Sun's natural seismic modes of oscillation-the p modes. These seismic frequencies respond to changes in activity and are probes of conditions within the Sun. The Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON) has made measurements of p-mode frequencies over the last three solar activity cycles, and so is in a unique position to explore the current unusual and extended solar minimum. We show that the BiSON data reveal significant variations of the p-mode frequencies during the current minimum. This is in marked contrast to the surface activity observations, which show little variation over the same period. The level of the minimum is significantly deeper in the p-mode frequencies than in the surface observations. We observe a quasi-biennial signal in the p-mode frequencies, which has not previously been observed at mid- and low-activity levels. The stark differences in the behavior of the frequencies and the surface activity measures point to activity-related processes occurring in the solar interior, which are yet to reach the surface, where they may be attenuated.

  18. Seismic Forecasting of Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Douglas; Lindsey, Charles

    2001-01-01

    We have developed and improved helioseismic imaging techniques of the far-side of the Sun as part of a synoptic monitor of solar activity. In collaboration with the MIDI team at Stanford University we are routinely applying our analysis to images within 24 hours of their acquisition by SOHO. For the first time, real-time seismic maps of large active regions on the Sun's far surface are publicly available. The synoptic images show examples of active regions persisting for one or more solar rotations, as well as those initially detected forming on the solar far side. Until recently, imaging the far surface of the Sun has been essentially blind to active regions more than about 50 degrees from the antipode of disk center. In a paper recently accepted for publication, we have demonstrated how acoustic travel-time perturbations may be mapped over the entire hemisphere of the Sun facing away from the Earth, including the polar regions. In addition to offering significant improvements to ongoing space weather forecasting efforts, the procedure offers the possibility of local seismic monitoring of both the temporal and spatial variations in the acoustic properties of the Sun over the entire far surface.

  19. An Investigation into Understanding of Geological Time among 10- and 11-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trend, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the understanding of British children (N=189) of geologic time as they participate in related activities. Indicates that 10- and 11-year-old children lack a clear chronology of geologic events. Contains 22 references. (DDR)

  20. Decay of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    2005-01-01

    We examine the record of sunspot group areas observed over a period of 100 years to determine the rate of decay of solar active regions. We exclude observations of groups when they are more than 60deg in longitude from the central meridian and only include data when at least three days of observations are available following the date of maximum area for a spot group's disk passage. This leaves data for some 24,000 observations of active region decay. We find that the decay rate is a constant 20 microHem/day for spots smaller than about 200 microHem (about the size of a supergranule). This decay rate increases linearly to about 90 microHem/day for spots with areas of 1000 microHem. We find no evidence for significant variations in active region decay from one solar cycle to another. However, we do find that the decay rate is slower at lower latitudes. This gives a slower decay rate during the declining phase of sunspot cycles.

  1. Centennial Scale Variations in Lake Productivity Linked to Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englebrecht, A.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Guilderson, T. P.; Ingram, L.; Byrne, R.

    2012-12-01

    Solar variations on both decadal and centennial timescales have been associated with climate phenomena (van Loon et al., 2004; Hodell et al., 2001; White et al., 1997). The energy received by the Earth at the peak of the solar cycle increases by <0.1%; so the question has remained of how this could be amplified to produce an observable climate response. Recent modeling shows that the response of the Earth's climate system to the 11-year solar cycle may be amplified through stratosphere and ocean feedbacks and has the potential to impact climate variability on a multidecadal to centennial timescales (Meehl et al., 2009). Here, we report a 1000-year record of changes in the stratigraphy and carbon isotope composition of varved lake sediment from Isla Isabela (22°N, 106°W) in the subtropical northeast Pacific. Stable carbon isotopes and carbonate stratigraphy can be used to infer surface productivity in the lake. Our analysis shows variations in primary productivity on centennial timescales and suggests that solar activity may be an important component of Pacific climate variability. A possible response during solar maxima acts to keep the eastern equatorial Pacific cooler and drier than usual, producing conditions similar to a La Niña event. In the region around Isla Isabela peak solar years were characterized by decreased surface temperatures and suppressed precipitation (Meehl et al., 2009), which enhance productivity at Isabela (Kienel et al. 2011). In the future, we plan to analyze the data using advanced time series analysis techniques like the wavelets together with techniques to handle irregularly spaced time series data. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-571672

  2. Analysis of Solar Magnetic Activity with the Wavelet Coherence Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco, V. M.; Perez-Peraza, J. A.; Mendoza, B. E.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.; Sosa, O.; Alvarez-Madrigal, M.

    2007-05-01

    The origin, behavior and evolution of the solar magnetic field is one of the main challenges of observational and theoretical solar physics. Up to now the Dynamo theory gives us the best approach to the problem. However, it is not yet able to predict many features of the solar activity, which seems not to be strictly a periodical phenomenon. Among the indicators of solar magnetic variability there is the 11-years cycle of sunspots, as well as the solar magnetic cycle of 22 years (the Hale cycle). In order to provide more elements to the Dynamo theory that could help it in the predicting task, we analyze here the plausible existence of other periodicities associated with the solar magnetic field. In this preliminary work we use historical data (sunspots and aurora borealis), proxies (Be10 and C14) and modern instrumental data (Coronal Holes, Cosmic Rays, sunspots, flare indexes and solar radio flux at 10.7 cm). To find relationships between different time-frequency series we have employed the t Wavelet Coherence technique: this technique indicates if two time-series of solar activity have the same periodicities in a given time interval. If so, it determines whether such relation is a linear one or not. Such a powerful tool indicates that, if some periodicity at a given frequency has a confidence level below 95%, it appears very lessened or does not appear in the Wavelet Spectral Analysis, such periodicity does not exist . Our results show that the so called Glaisberg cycle of 80-90 years and the periodicity of 205 years (the Suess cycle) do not exist . It can be speculated that such fictitious periodicities hav been the result of using the Fourier transform with series with are not of stationary nature, as it is the case of the Be10 and C14 series. In contrast we confirm the presence of periodicities of 1.3, 1.7, 3.5, 5.5, 7, 60, 120 and 240 years. The concept of a Glaisberg cycle falls between those of 60 and 120 years. We conclude that the periodicity of 120 years

  3. Workshop on Solar Activity, Solar Wind, Terrestrial Effects, and Solar Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A summary of the proceedings from the workshop are presented. The areas covered were solar activity, solar wind, terrestrial effects, and solar acceleration. Specific topics addressed include: (1) solar cycle manifestations, both large and small scale, as well as long-term and short-term changes, including transients such as flares; (2) sources of solar wind, as identified by interplanetary observations including coronal mass ejections (CME's) or x-ray bright points, and the theory for and evolution of large-scale and small-scale structures; (3) magnetosphere responses, as observed by spacecraft, to variable solar wind and transient energetic particle emissions; and (4) origin and propagation of solar cosmic rays as related to solar activity and terrestrial effects, and solar wind coronal-hole relationships and dynamics.

  4. The ancient Egyptian civilization: maximum and minimum in coincidence with solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltout, M.

    It is proved from the last 22 years observations of the total solar irradiance (TSI) from space by artificial satellites, that TSI shows negative correlation with the solar activity (sunspots, flares, and 10.7cm Radio emissions) from day to day, but shows positive correlations with the same activity from year to year (on the base of the annual average for each of them). Also, the solar constant, which estimated fromth ground stations for beam solar radiations observations during the 20 century indicate coincidence with the phases of the 11- year cycles. It is known from sunspot observations (250 years) , and from C14 analysis, that there are another long-term cycles for the solar activity larger than 11-year cycle. The variability of the total solar irradiance affecting on the climate, and the Nile flooding, where there is a periodicities in the Nile flooding similar to that of solar activity, from the analysis of about 1300 years of the Nile level observations atth Cairo. The secular variations of the Nile levels, regularly measured from the 7 toth 15 century A.D., clearly correlate with the solar variations, which suggests evidence for solar influence on the climatic changes in the East African tropics The civilization of the ancient Egyptian was highly correlated with the Nile flooding , where the river Nile was and still yet, the source of the life in the Valley and Delta inside high dry desert area. The study depends on long -time historical data for Carbon 14 (more than five thousands years), and chronical scanning for all the elements of the ancient Egyptian civilization starting from the firs t dynasty to the twenty six dynasty. The result shows coincidence between the ancient Egyptian civilization and solar activity. For example, the period of pyramids building, which is one of the Brilliant periods, is corresponding to maximum solar activity, where the periods of occupation of Egypt by Foreign Peoples corresponding to minimum solar activity. The decline

  5. Solar activity and oscillation frequency splittings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, M. F.; Libbrecht, K. G.

    1993-01-01

    Solar p-mode frequency splittings, parameterized by the coefficients through order N = 12 of a Legendre polynomial expansion of the mode frequencies as a function of m/L, were obtained from an analysis of helioseismology data taken at Big Bear Solar Observatory during the 4 years 1986 and 1988-1990 (approximately solar minimum to maximum). Inversion of the even-index splitting coefficients confirms that there is a significant contribution to the frequency splittings originating near the solar poles. The strength of the polar contribution is anti correlated with the overall level or solar activity in the active latitudes, suggesting a relation to polar faculae. From an analysis of the odd-index splitting coefficients we infer an uppor limit to changes in the solar equatorial near-surface rotatinal velocity of less than 1.9 m/s (3 sigma limit) between solar minimum and maximum.

  6. Climate: how unusual is today's solar activity?

    PubMed

    Muscheler, Raimund; Joos, Fortunat; Müller, Simon A; Snowball, Ian

    2005-07-28

    To put global warming into context requires knowledge about past changes in solar activity and the role of the Sun in climate change. Solanki et al. propose that solar activity during recent decades was exceptionally high compared with that over the preceding 8,000 years. However, our extended analysis of the radiocarbon record reveals several periods during past centuries in which the strength of the magnetic field in the solar wind was similar to, or even higher than, that of today.

  7. Sustainable Buildings. Using Active Solar Power

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, M. Keith; Barnett, Russell

    2015-04-20

    The objective of this project is to promote awareness and knowledge of active solar energy technologies by installing and monitoring the following demonstration systems in Kentucky: 1) Pool heating system, Churchill Park School, 2) Water heating and daylighting systems, Middletown and Aiken Road Elementary Schools, 3) Photovoltaic street light comparison, Louisville Metro, 4) up to 25 domestic water heating systems across Kentucky. These tasks will be supported by outreach activities, including a solar energy installer training workshop and a Kentucky Solar Energy Conference.

  8. Solar neutrinos, solar flares, solar activity cycle and the proton decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raychaudhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that there may be a correlation between the galactic cosmic rays and the solar neutrino data, but it appears that the neutrino flux which may be generated during the large solar cosmic ray events cannot in any way effect the solar neutrino data in Davis experiment. Only initial stage of mixing between the solar core and solar outer layers after the sunspot maximum in the solar activity cycle can explain the higher (run number 27 and 71) of solar neutrino data in Davis experiment. But solar flare induced atmospheric neutrino flux may have effect in the nucleon decay detector on the underground. The neutrino flux from solar cosmic rays may be a useful guide to understand the background of nucleon decay, magnetic monopole search, and the detection of neutrino flux in sea water experiment.

  9. Dynamo theory prediction of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    The dynamo theory technique to predict decadal time scale solar activity variations is introduced. The technique was developed following puzzling correlations involved with geomagnetic precursors of solar activity. Based upon this, a dynamo theory method was developed to predict solar activity. The method was used successfully in solar cycle 21 by Schatten, Scherrer, Svalgaard, and Wilcox, after testing with 8 prior solar cycles. Schatten and Sofia used the technique to predict an exceptionally large cycle, peaking early (in 1990) with a sunspot value near 170, likely the second largest on record. Sunspot numbers are increasing, suggesting that: (1) a large cycle is developing, and (2) that the cycle may even surpass the largest cycle (19). A Sporer Butterfly method shows that the cycle can now be expected to peak in the latter half of 1989, consistent with an amplitude comparable to the value predicted near the last solar minimum.

  10. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  11. Solar activity, the QBO, and tropospheric responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinsley, Brian A.; Brown, Geoffrey M.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    1989-01-01

    The suggestion that galactic cosmic rays (GCR) as modulated by the solar wind are the carriers of the component of solar variability that affects weather and climate has been discussed in the literature for 30 years, and there is now a considerable body of evidence that supports it. Variations of GCR occur with the 11 year solar cycle, matching the time scale of recent results for atmospheric variations, as modulated by the quasibiennial oscillation of equatorial stratospheric winds (the QBO). Variations in GCR occur on the time scale of centuries with a well defined peak in the coldest decade of the little ice age. New evidence is presented on the meteorological responses to GCR variations on the time scale of a few days. These responses include changes in the vertical temperature profile in the troposphere and lower stratosphere in the two days following solar flare related high speed plasma streams and associated GCR decreases, and in decreases in Vorticity Area Index (VAI) following Forbush decreases of GCR. The occurrence of correlations of GCR and meteorological responses on all three time scales strengthens the hypothesis of GCR as carriers of solar variability to the lower atmosphere. Both short and long term tropospheric responses are understandable as changes in the intensity of cyclonic storms initiated by mechanisms involving cloud microphysical and cloud electrification processes, due to changes in local ion production from changes in GCR fluxes and other high energy particles in the MeV to low GeV range. The nature of these mechanisms remains undetermined. Possible stratospheric wind (particularly QBO) effects on the transport of HNO3 and other constituents incorporated in cluster ions and possible condensation and freezing nuclei are considered as relevant to the long term variations.

  12. Magnetic activity of seismic solar analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Beck, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    We present our latest results on the solar-stellar connection by studying 18 solar analogs that we identified among the Kepler seismic sample tep{salabert16a}. We measured their magnetic activity properties using observations collected by the Kepler satellite and the ground-based, high-resolution HERMES spectrograph. The photospheric (S{_ph}) and chromospheric (S) magnetic activity proxies of these seismic solar analogs are compared in relation to solar activity. We show that the activity of the Sun is actually comparable to the activity of the seismic solar analogs. Furthermore, we report on the discovery of temporal variability in the acoustic frequencies of the young (1 Gyr-old) solar analog KIC 10644253 with a modulation of about 1.5 years, which agrees with the derived photospheric activity tep{salabert16b}. It could actually be the signature of the short-period modulation, or quasi-biennal oscillation, of its magnetic activity as observed in the Sun and the 1-Gyr-old solar analog HD 30495. In addition, the lithium abundance and the chromospheric activity estimated from HERMES confirms that KIC 10644253 is a young and more active star than the Sun.

  13. Dynamo Sensitivity in Solar Analogs with 50 Years of Ca II H & K Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Soon, Willie H.; Baliunas, Sallie L.; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Henry, Gregory W.

    2016-05-01

    The Sun has a steady 11-year cycle in magnetic activity most well-known by the rising and falling in the occurrence of dark sunspots on the solar disk in visible bandpasses. The 11-year cycle is also manifest in the variations of emission in the Ca II H & K line cores, due to non-thermal (i.e. magnetic) heating in the lower chromosphere. The large variation in Ca II H & K emission allows for study of the patterns of long-term variability in other stars thanks to synoptic monitoring with the Mount Wilson Observatory HK photometers (1966-2003) and Lowell Observatory Solar-Stellar Spectrograph (1994-present). Overlapping measurements for a set of 27 nearby solar-analog (spectral types G0-G5) stars were used to calibrate the two instruments and construct time series of magnetic activity up to 50 years in length. Precise properties of fundamental importance to the dynamo are available from Hipparcos, the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey, and CHARA interferometry. Using these long time series and measurements of fundamental properties, we do a comparative study of stellar "twins" to explore the sensitivity of the stellar dynamo to small changes to structure, rotation, and composition. We also compare this sample to the Sun and find hints that the regular periodic variability of the solar cycle may be rare among its nearest neighbors in parameter space.

  14. Dynamo Sensitivity In Solar Analogs With 50 Years Of Ca II H & K Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egeland, Ricky; Soon, Willie; Baliunas, Sallie; Hall, Jeffrey C.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Henry, Gregory W.

    2016-09-01

    The Sun has a steady 11-year cycle in magnetic activity most well-known by the rising and falling in the occurrence of dark sunspots on the solar disk in visible bandpasses. The 11-year cycle is also manifest in the variations of emission in the Ca II H & K line cores, due to non-thermal (i.e. magnetic) heating in the lower chromosphere. The large variation in Ca II H & K emission allows for study of the patterns of long-term variability in other stars thanks to synoptic monitoring with the Mount Wilson Observatory HK photometers (1966-2003) and Lowell Observatory Solar-Stellar Spectrograph (1994-present). Overlapping measurements for a set of 27 nearby solar-analog (spectral types G0-G5) stars were used to calibrate the two instruments and construct time series of magnetic activity up to 50 years in length. Precise properties of fundamental importance to the dynamo are available from Hipparcos, the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey, and CHARA interferometry. Using these long time series and measurements of fundamental properties, we do a comparative study of stellar "twins" to explore the sensitivity of the stellar dynamo to small changes to structure, rotation, and composition. We also compare this sample to the Sun and find hints that the regular periodic variability of the solar cycle may be rare among its nearest neighbors in parameter space.

  15. The solar magnetic activity band interaction and instabilities that shape quasi-periodic variability

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Leamon, Robert J.; Krista, Larisza D.; Title, Alan M.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Riley, Pete; Harder, Jerald W.; Kopp, Greg; Snow, Martin; Woods, Thomas N.; Kasper, Justin C.; Stevens, Michael L.; Ulrich, Roger K.

    2015-01-01

    Solar magnetism displays a host of variational timescales of which the enigmatic 11-year sunspot cycle is most prominent. Recent work has demonstrated that the sunspot cycle can be explained in terms of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction between the overlapping activity bands of the 22-year magnetic polarity cycle. Those activity bands appear to be driven by the rotation of the Sun's deep interior. Here we deduce that activity band interaction can qualitatively explain the ‘Gnevyshev Gap'—a well-established feature of flare and sunspot occurrence. Strong quasi-annual variability in the number of flares, coronal mass ejections, the radiative and particulate environment of the heliosphere is also observed. We infer that this secondary variability is driven by surges of magnetism from the activity bands. Understanding the formation, interaction and instability of these activity bands will considerably improve forecast capability in space weather and solar activity over a range of timescales. PMID:25849045

  16. The solar magnetic activity band interaction and instabilities that shape quasi-periodic variability.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott W; Leamon, Robert J; Krista, Larisza D; Title, Alan M; Hudson, Hugh S; Riley, Pete; Harder, Jerald W; Kopp, Greg; Snow, Martin; Woods, Thomas N; Kasper, Justin C; Stevens, Michael L; Ulrich, Roger K

    2015-04-07

    Solar magnetism displays a host of variational timescales of which the enigmatic 11-year sunspot cycle is most prominent. Recent work has demonstrated that the sunspot cycle can be explained in terms of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction between the overlapping activity bands of the 22-year magnetic polarity cycle. Those activity bands appear to be driven by the rotation of the Sun's deep interior. Here we deduce that activity band interaction can qualitatively explain the 'Gnevyshev Gap'—a well-established feature of flare and sunspot occurrence. Strong quasi-annual variability in the number of flares, coronal mass ejections, the radiative and particulate environment of the heliosphere is also observed. We infer that this secondary variability is driven by surges of magnetism from the activity bands. Understanding the formation, interaction and instability of these activity bands will considerably improve forecast capability in space weather and solar activity over a range of timescales.

  17. Annual DOE Active Solar Heating and Cooling Contractors Review meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-09-01

    Ninety three project summaries dicussing the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling are presented: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology.

  18. Long-term global temperature variations under total solar irradiance, cosmic rays, and volcanic activity.

    PubMed

    Biktash, Lilia

    2017-07-01

    The effects of total solar irradiance (TSI) and volcanic activity on long-term global temperature variations during solar cycles 19-23 were studied. It was shown that a large proportion of climate variations can be explained by the mechanism of action of TSI and cosmic rays (CRs) on the state of the lower atmosphere and other meteorological parameters. The role of volcanic signals in the 11-year variations of the Earth's climate can be expressed as several years of global temperature drop. Conversely, it was shown that the effects of solar, geophysical, and human activity on climate change interact. It was concluded that more detailed investigations of these very complicated relationships are required, in order to be able to understand issues that affect ecosystems on a global scale.

  19. Breathing of heliospheric structures triggered by the solar-cycle activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, K.; Fahr, H. J.

    2003-06-01

    Solar wind ram pressure variations occuring within the solar activity cycle are communicated to the outer heliosphere as complicated time-variabilities, but repeating its typical form with the activity period of about 11 years. At outer heliospheric regions, the main surviving solar cycle feature is a periodic variation of the solar wind dynamical pressure or momentum flow, as clearly recognized by observations of the VOYAGER-1/2 space probes. This long-periodic variation of the solar wind dynamical pressure is modeled here through application of appropriately time-dependent inner boundary conditions within our multifluid code to describe the solar wind - interstellar medium interaction. As we can show, it takes several solar cycles until the heliospheric structures adapt to an average location about which they carry out a periodic breathing, however, lagged in phase with respect to the solar cycle. The dynamically active heliosphere behaves differently from a static heliosphere and especially shows a historic hysteresis in the sense that the shock structures move out to larger distances than explained by the average ram pressure. Obviously, additional energies are pumped into the heliosheath by means of density and pressure waves which are excited. These waves travel outwards through the interface from the termination shock towards the bow shock. Depending on longitude, the heliospheric sheath region memorizes 2-3 (upwind) and up to 6-7 (downwind) preceding solar activity cycles, i.e. the cycle-induced waves need corresponding travel times for the passage over the heliosheath. Within our multifluid code we also adequately describe the solar cycle variations in the energy distributions of anomalous and galactic cosmic rays, respectively. According to these results the distribution of these high energetic species cannot be correctly described on the basis of the actually prevailing solar wind conditions.

  20. Gap between active and passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

  1. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Included in this science activities energy package are 14 activities related to solar energy for secondary students. Each activity is outlined on a single card and is introduced by a question such as: (1) how much solar heat comes from the sun? or (2) how many times do you have to run water through a flat-plate collector to get a 10 degree rise in…

  2. About the Solar Activity Rotation Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouradian, Zadig

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evidence, from a statistical point of view, the different periods of solar activity. The well known period is that of 150-160 days, but many others were detected between 9 and 4750 days (length of solar cycle). We tabulated 49 articles revealing 231 periods. In order to explain them, different hypotheses were suggested.

  3. [Effects of planting years of vegetable solar greenhouse on soil microbial flora and enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Li, Liang

    2013-09-01

    Taking the vegetable solar greenhouses having been planted for 2, 4, 6, 11, 13, 16, and 19 years as test objects, and with the open vegetable field as the control, this paper studied the variations of soil microbial flora and enzyme activities. With the increasing years of planting, the numbers of soil bacteria, actinomycetes, and total microbes in vegetable solar greenhouses decreased after an initial increase, and reached the maximum in the greenhouse of 11 years planting, with a significant increment of 54.8%, 63.7%, and 55.4%, respectively, as compared to the control. The number of soil fungi in the vegetable solar greenhouses increased steadily with increasing planting years, being about 2.2 times higher in the greenhouse of 11 years planting. Among the microbial physiological groups, the numbers of aerobic cellulose-decomposer, aerobic azotobacter, nitrite bacteria, denitrifier, and sulphur reducer showed the same variation trend as the soil bacteria's, and those in the greenhouse of 11 years planting being 1.5, 1.6, 1.9, 1.4, and 1.1 times of the control, respectively. The number of ammonifiers increased after an initial decrease, reached the minimum in the greenhouse of 13 years planting, being only 56.0% of the control. The enzyme activities of soil urease, polyphenol oxidase, sucrase, protease, cellulase, and alkaline phosphatase increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing years of planting, but soil catalase activity was relatively stable. Correlation analysis showed that the numbers of soil bacteria, actinomycetes, and total microbes were significantly positively correlated with all test soil enzyme activities, while the number of soil fungi had significant negative correlation with the activity of soil catalase.

  4. History and Forecast of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikushina, O. V.; Klimenko, V. V.; Dovgalyuk, V. V.

    From a new reconstruction of the radiocarbon production rate in the atmosphere we obtain a long history of maximum Wolf sunspot numbers. Based on this reconstruction as well as on the history of other indicators of solar activity (10Be, aurora borealis), we derive a long-period trend which together with the results of spectral analysis of maximum Wolf numbers series (1506-1993) form a basis for prediction of solar activity up to 2100. The resulting trigonometric trend points to an essential decrease in solar activity in the coming decades.

  5. Solar activity cycle - History and predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Withbroe, G.L. )

    1989-12-01

    The solar output of short-wavelength radiation, solar wind, and energetic particles depends strongly on the solar cycle. These energy outputs from the sun control conditions in the interplanetary medium and in the terrestrial magnetosphere and upper atmosphere. Consequently, there is substantial interest in the behavior of the solar cycle and its effects. This review briefly discusses historical data on the solar cycle and methods for predicting its further behavior, particularly for the current cycle, which shows signs that it will have moderate to exceptionally high levels of activity. During the next few years, the solar flux of short-wavelength radiation and particles will be more intense than normal, and spacecraft in low earth orbit will reenter earlier than usual. 46 refs.

  6. Sources of solar wind over the solar activity cycle

    PubMed Central

    Poletto, Giannina

    2012-01-01

    Fast solar wind has been recognized, about 40 years ago, to originate in polar coronal holes (CHs), that, since then, have been identified with sources of recurrent high speed wind streams. As of today, however, there is no general consensus about whether there are, within CHs, preferential locations where the solar wind is accelerated. Knowledge of slow wind sources is far from complete as well. Slow wind observed in situ can be traced back to its solar source by backward extrapolation of magnetic fields whose field lines are streamlines of the outflowing plasma. However, this technique often has not the necessary precision for an indisputable identification of the region where wind originates. As the Sun progresses through its activity cycle, different wind sources prevail and contribute to filling the heliosphere. Our present knowledge of different wind sources is here summarized. Also, a Section addresses the problem of wind acceleration in the low corona, as inferred from an analysis of UV data, and illustrates changes between fast and slow wind profiles and possible signatures of changes along the solar cycle. A brief reference to recent work about the deep roots of solar wind and their changes over different solar cycles concludes the review. PMID:25685421

  7. Sources of solar wind over the solar activity cycle.

    PubMed

    Poletto, Giannina

    2013-05-01

    Fast solar wind has been recognized, about 40 years ago, to originate in polar coronal holes (CHs), that, since then, have been identified with sources of recurrent high speed wind streams. As of today, however, there is no general consensus about whether there are, within CHs, preferential locations where the solar wind is accelerated. Knowledge of slow wind sources is far from complete as well. Slow wind observed in situ can be traced back to its solar source by backward extrapolation of magnetic fields whose field lines are streamlines of the outflowing plasma. However, this technique often has not the necessary precision for an indisputable identification of the region where wind originates. As the Sun progresses through its activity cycle, different wind sources prevail and contribute to filling the heliosphere. Our present knowledge of different wind sources is here summarized. Also, a Section addresses the problem of wind acceleration in the low corona, as inferred from an analysis of UV data, and illustrates changes between fast and slow wind profiles and possible signatures of changes along the solar cycle. A brief reference to recent work about the deep roots of solar wind and their changes over different solar cycles concludes the review.

  8. Solar collector manufacturing activity, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-09

    This report presents data provided by US-based manufacturers and importers of solar collectors. Summary data on solar thermal collector shipments are presented for the years 1974 through 1992. Summary data on photovoltaic cell and module shipments are presented for the years 1982 through 1992. Detailed information for solar thermal collectors and photovoltaic cells and modules are presented for 1992. Appendix A describes the survey methodology. Appendix B contains the 1992 survey forms and instructions. Appendices C and D list the companies that responded to the 1992 surveys and granted permission for their names and addresses to appear in the report. Appendix E provides selected tables from this report with data shown in the International System of Units (SI) metric units. Appendix F provides an estimate of installed capacity and energy production from solar collectors for 1992.

  9. Solar activities and Climate change hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hady, A. A., II

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the geological history of Earth, climate change is one of the recurrent natural hazards. In recent history, the impact of man brought about additional climatic change. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary, both solar activities and building-up of green-house gases effect added to the climatic changes. This paper discusses if the global worming caused by the green-house gases effect will be equal or less than the global cooling resulting from the solar activities. In this respect, we refer to the Modern Dalton Minimum (MDM) which stated that starting from year 2005 for the next 40 years; the earth's surface temperature will become cooler than nowadays. However the degree of cooling, previously mentioned in old Dalton Minimum (c. 210 y ago), will be minimized by building-up of green-house gases effect during MDM period. Regarding to the periodicities of solar activities, it is clear that now we have a new solar cycle of around 210 years. Keywords: Solar activities; solar cycles; palaeoclimatic changes; Global cooling; Modern Dalton Minimum.

  10. Solar activity and climate change during the 1750 A.D. solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bard, Edouard; Baroni, Mélanie; Aster Team

    2015-04-01

    . Dyn.), who focused their data-model comparison on the Dalton Minimum, which occurred between 1790 and 1830 A.D. and which, fortuitously, included several major volcanic eruptions such as the Tambora eruption in 1815. Their conclusion was that the global imprint of the volcanic forcing was significantly larger than that of contemporaneous solar forcing and the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. A different approach is to consider another recent solar minimum over a period characterized by a low volcanicity and minimal changes of greenhouse gases. Such a minimum does exist between the Maunder and the Dalton Minima and lasted for a mere two decades between 1745 and 1765 A.D. The sunspot number exhibits a clear 11-year cycle, but it only reaches a maximal value lower than 100, i.e. less than observed for the past seven 11-year cycles. Incidentally, the maximal values observed between 1745 and 1765 are similar to those observed during the maximum of the present solar cycle. The 1750 A.D. solar minimum can also be studied in other records such as counts of auroras at mid-latitudes and cosmogenic isotopes such as 14C and 10Be. In addition to reviewing published time series, we will report a new 10Be record from a well-dated ice core from Dome C in Antarctica. Sulfate concentration, a proxy for volcanic eruptions, has also been measured in the very same samples, allowing a precise comparison of both 10Be and sulfate profiles. The full record covers the last millennium and will be presented separately by Baroni, Bard and the ASTER Team. Zooming in on the century between 1700 and 1800 A.D. allows to identify an extended period of low volcanicity and to observe a clear 10Be increase corresponding to the solar minimum. We will present the new data over the 18th century as well as their first interpretation in the context of other useful records based on greenhouse gas concentrations, paleotemperature proxies and climate modeling available in the literature.

  11. Non-Stationary Effects and Cross Correlations in Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Yuri; Panischev, Oleg; Demin, Sergey

    2016-07-01

    In this paper within the framework of the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) we consider the dynamic properties of the solar activity by analyzing the Zurich sunspot numbers. As is well-known astrophysics objects are the non-stationary open systems, whose evolution are the quite individual and have the alternation effects. The main difference of FNS compared to other related methods is the separation of the original signal reflecting the dynamics of solar activity into three frequency bands: system-specific "resonances" and their interferential contributions at lower frequencies, chaotic "random walk" ("irregularity-jump") components at larger frequencies, and chaotic "irregularity-spike" (inertial) components in the highest frequency range. Specific parameters corresponding to each of the bands are introduced and calculated. These irregularities as well as specific resonance frequencies are considered as the information carriers on every hierarchical level of the evolution of a complex natural system with intermittent behavior, consecutive alternation of rapid chaotic changes in the values of dynamic variables on small time intervals with small variations of the values on longer time intervals ("laminar" phases). The jump and spike irregularities are described by power spectra and difference moments (transient structural functions) of the second order. FNS allows revealing the most crucial points of the solar activity dynamics by means of "spikiness" factor. It is shown that this variable behaves as the predictor of crucial changes of the sunspot number dynamics, particularly when the number comes up to maximum value. The change of averaging interval allows revealing the non-stationary effects depending by 11-year cycle and by inside processes in a cycle. To consider the cross correlations between the different variables of solar activity we use the Zurich sunspot numbers and the sequence of corona's radiation energy. The FNS-approach allows extracting the

  12. Science Activities in Energy: Solar Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 12 activities relating to solar energy. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a single card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's supplement…

  13. Hinode Captures Images of Solar Active Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    In these images, Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) zoomed in on AR 11263 on August 4, 2011, five days before the active region produced the largest flare of this cycle, an X6.9. We show images...

  14. Geomagnetic activity during 10 - 11 solar cycles that has been observed by old Russian observatories.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredyn, Tomasz; Wysokinski, Arkadiusz; Kobylinski, Zbigniew; Bialy, Jerzy

    2016-07-01

    A good knowledge of solar-terrestrial relations during past solar activity cycles could give the appropriate tools for a correct space weather forecast. The paper focuses on the analysis of the historical collections of the ground based magnetic observations and their operational indices from the period of two sunspot solar cycles 10 - 11, period 1856 - 1878 (Bartels rotations 324 - 635). We use hourly observations of H and D geomagnetic field components registered at Russian stations: St. Petersburg - Pavlovsk, Barnaul, Ekaterinburg, Nertshinsk, Sitka, and compare them to the data obtained from the Helsinki observatory. We compare directly these records and also calculated from the data of the every above mentioned station IHV indices introduced by Svalgaard (2003), which have been used for further comparisons in epochs of assumed different polarity of the heliospheric magnetic field. We used also local index C9 derived by Zosimovich (1981) from St. Petersburg - Pavlovsk data. Solar activity is represented by sunspot numbers. The correlative and continuous wavelet analyses are applied for estimation of the correctness of records from different magnetic stations. We have specially regard to magnetic storms in the investigated period and the special Carrington event of 1-2 Sep 1859. Generally studied magnetic time series correctly show variability of the geomagnetic activity. Geomagnetic activity presents some delay in relation to solar one as it is seen especially during descending and minimum phase of the even 11-year cycle. This pattern looks similarly in the case of 16 - 17 solar cycles.

  15. Relationships between solar activity and climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. O.

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between recurrent droughts in the High Plains of the United States and the double sunspot cycle is discussed in detail. It is suggested that high solar activity is generally related to an increase in meridional circulation and blocking patterns at high and intermediate latitudes, especially in winter, and the effect is related to the sudden formation of cirrus clouds during strong geomagnetic activity that originates in the solar corpuscular emission.

  16. Low Latitude Aurora: Index of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekli, M. R.; Aissani, D.; Chadou, I.

    2010-10-01

    Observations of aurora borealis at low latitudes are rare, and are clearly associated with high solar activity. In this paper, we analyze some details of the solar activity during the years 1769-1792. Moreover, we describe in detail three low latitude auroras. The first event was reported by ash-Shalati and observed in North Africa (1770 AD). The second and third events were reported by l'Abbé Mann and observed in Europe (1770 and 1777 AD).

  17. Volcanic eruptions and solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    The historical record of large volcanic eruptions from 1500 to 1980 is subjected to detailed time series analysis. In two weak but probably statistically significant periodicities of about 11 and 80 yr, the frequency of volcanic eruptions increases (decreases) slightly around the times of solar minimum (maximum). Time series analysis of the volcanogenic acidities in a deep ice core from Greenland reveals several very long periods ranging from about 80 to about 350 yr which are similar to the very slow solar cycles previously detected in auroral and C-14 records. Solar flares may cause changes in atmospheric circulation patterns that abruptly alter the earth's spin. The resulting jolt probably triggers small earthquakes which affect volcanism.

  18. Is Solar Activity Once More Fainting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mares Aguilar, C. E.; Schröder, K.-P.; Song, G.

    2013-04-01

    After an anomalously long and deep minimum, will the Sun now once again reach a period of weaker activity cycles, which would affect northern hemisphere winter climate? We here discuss the current state and outlook of solar activity, and we propose to monitor the solar Ca II K line emission “as a star”, as part of the regular observing schedule of the Hamburg robotic telescope, which is bound to move to Guanajuato this year (2012). In fact, the chromospheric Ca II K line emission is a good proxy for the solar far-ultraviolet flux, as both are generated at about the same plasma temperatures (12-15,000 K) and both originate from the same active regions (plages). The solar ultraviolet flux, in turn, warms the stratosphere by photo dissociation of ozone and other molecules and, consequently, affects the strength of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NOA).

  19. Solar Activity Heading for a Maunder Minimum?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, K. H.; Tobiska, W. K.

    2003-05-01

    Long-range (few years to decades) solar activity prediction techniques vary greatly in their methods. They range from examining planetary orbits, to spectral analyses (e.g. Fourier, wavelet and spectral analyses), to artificial intelligence methods, to simply using general statistical techniques. Rather than concentrate on statistical/mathematical/numerical methods, we discuss a class of methods which appears to have a "physical basis." Not only does it have a physical basis, but this basis is rooted in both "basic" physics (dynamo theory), but also solar physics (Babcock dynamo theory). The class we discuss is referred to as "precursor methods," originally developed by Ohl, Brown and Williams and others, using geomagnetic observations. My colleagues and I have developed some understanding for how these methods work and have expanded the prediction methods using "solar dynamo precursor" methods, notably a "SODA" index (SOlar Dynamo Amplitude). These methods are now based upon an understanding of the Sun's dynamo processes- to explain a connection between how the Sun's fields are generated and how the Sun broadcasts its future activity levels to Earth. This has led to better monitoring of the Sun's dynamo fields and is leading to more accurate prediction techniques. Related to the Sun's polar and toroidal magnetic fields, we explain how these methods work, past predictions, the current cycle, and predictions of future of solar activity levels for the next few solar cycles. The surprising result of these long-range predictions is a rapid decline in solar activity, starting with cycle #24. If this trend continues, we may see the Sun heading towards a "Maunder" type of solar activity minimum - an extensive period of reduced levels of solar activity. For the solar physicists, who enjoy studying solar activity, we hope this isn't so, but for NASA, which must place and maintain satellites in low earth orbit (LEO), it may help with reboost problems. Space debris, and other

  20. Global water cycle and solar activity variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Tameemi, Muthanna A.; Chukin, Vladimir V.

    2016-05-01

    The water cycle is the most active and most important component in the circulation of global mass and energy in the Earth system. Furthermore, water cycle parameters such as evaporation, precipitation, and precipitable water vapour play a major role in global climate change. In this work, we attempt to determine the impact of solar activity on the global water cycle by analyzing the global monthly values of precipitable water vapour, precipitation, and the Solar Modulation Potential in 1983-2008. The first object of this study was to calculate global evaporation for the period 1983-2008. For this purpose, we determined the water cycle rate from satellite data, and precipitation/evaporation relationship from 10 years of Planet Simulator model data. The second object of our study was to investigate the relationship between the Solar Modulation Potential (solar activity index) and the evaporation for the period 1983-2008. The results showed that there is a relationship between the solar modulation potential and the evaporation values for the period of study. Therefore, we can assume that the solar activity has an impact on the global water cycle.

  1. The solar activity measurements experiments (SAMEX) for improved scientific understanding of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Solar Activity Measurements Experiments (SAMEX) mission is described. It is designed to provide a look at the interactions of magnetic fields and plasmas that create flares and other explosive events on the sun in an effort to understand solar activity and the nature of the solar magnetic field. The need for this mission, the instruments to be used, and the expected benefits of SAMEX are discussed.

  2. Prediciting Solar Activity: Today, Tomorrow, Next Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, William Dean

    2008-01-01

    Fleets of satellites circle the Earth collecting science data, protecting astronauts, and relaying information. All of these satellites are sensitive at some level to space weather effects. Predictions of drag on LEO spacecraft are one of the most important. Launching a satellite with less fuel can mean a higher orbit, but unanticipated solar activity and increased drag can make that a Pyrrhic victory. Energetic events at the Sun can produce crippling radiation storms. Predicting those events that will affect our assets in space includes a solar prediction and how the radiation will propagate through the solar system. I will talk our need for solar activity predictions and anticipate how those predictions could be made more accurate in the future.

  3. Asymmetric behavior of different solar activity features over solar cycles 20-23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankoti, Neeraj Singh; Joshi, Navin Chandra; Pande, Bimal; Pande, Seema; Uddin, Wahab; Pandey, Kavita

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the study of normalized north-south asymmetry, cumulative normalized north-south asymmetry and cumulative difference indices of sunspot areas, solar active prominences (at total, low (⩽40°) and high (⩾50°) latitudes) and H α solar flares from 1964 to 2008 spanning the solar cycles 20-23. Three different statistical methods are used to obtain the asymmetric behavior of different solar activity features. Hemispherical distribution of activity features shows the dominance of activities in northern hemisphere for solar cycle 20 and in southern hemisphere for solar cycles 21-23 excluding solar active prominences at high latitudes. Cumulative difference index of solar activity features in each solar cycle is observed at the maximum of the respective solar cycle suggesting a cyclic behavior of approximately one solar cycle length. Asymmetric behavior of all activity features except solar active prominences at high latitudes hints at the long term periodic trend of eight solar cycles. North-south asymmetries of SAP (H) express the specific behavior of solar activity at high solar latitudes and its behavior in long-time scale is distinctly opposite to those of other activity features. Our results show that in most cases the asymmetry is statistically highly significant meaning thereby that the asymmetries are real features in the N-S distribution of solar activity features.

  4. Properties of solar activity and ionosphere for solar cycle 25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deminov, M. G.; Nepomnyashchaya, E. V.; Obridko, V. N.

    2016-11-01

    Based on the known forecast of solar cycle 25 amplitude ( Rz max ≈ 50), the first assessments of the shape and amplitude of this cycle in the index of solar activity F10.7 (the magnitude of solar radio flux at the 10.7 cm wavelength) are given. It has been found that ( F10.7)max ≈ 115, which means that it is the lowest solar cycle ever encountered in the history of regular ionospheric measurements. For this reason, many ionospheric parameters for cycle 25, including the F2-layer peak height and critical frequency ( hmF2 and foF2), will be extremely low. For example, at middle latitudes, typical foF2 values will not exceed 8-10 MHz, which makes ionospheric heating ineffective in the area of upper hybrid resonance at frequencies higher than 10 MHz. The density of the atmosphere will also be extremely low, which significantly extends the lifetime of low-orbit satellites. The probability of F-spread will be increased, especially during night hours.

  5. Trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome) with an 11-year survival.

    PubMed

    Zoll, B; Wolf, J; Lensing-Hebben, D; Pruggmayer, M; Thorpe, B

    1993-01-01

    Trisomy 13 is very rare in live-born children. Only a small number of these children survive the first year and very few cases are reported to live longer. Survival time depends partly on the cytogenetic findings--full trisomy 13 or trisomy 13 mosaicism--and partly on the existence of serious somatic malformations. We report on a 11-year-old girl with full trisomy 13. In this case, missing cerebral and cardiovascular malformations probably allowed the long survival.

  6. Comparative Analysis of the Activity Cycles of the Atmospheres of the Sun and of Stars of the Solar-Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruevich, E. A.; Bruevich, V. V.; Shimanovskaya, E. V.

    2016-03-01

    The atmospheric activity of the sun and of stars of the solar-type is analyzed using observations from the HK-project at the Mount Wilson Observatory, California, and the Carnegie Planet Search Program at the Keck and Lick Observatories, as well as from the Magellan Planet Search Program at the Las Campanas Observatory. It is shown that a cyclical activity of the stars that is analogous to the 11-year solar activity cycle occurs in stars of spectral classes F, G, and K and is more pronounced in stars of class K. A comparative analysis of the solar-type stars with different levels of chromospheric and coronal activity confirms that the sun is one of the stars with a comparatively low level of atmospheric activity and that these stars have a minimal level of coronal emission and minimal variations in the fluxes of photospheric radiation.

  7. Solar Energy Education. Home economics: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A view of solar energy from the standpoint of home economics is taken in this book of activities. Students are provided information on solar energy resources while performing these classroom activities. Instructions for the construction of a solar food dryer and a solar cooker are provided. Topics for study include window treatments, clothing, the history of solar energy, vitamins from the sun, and how to choose the correct solar home. (BCS)

  8. The Causes of Geomagnetic Storms During Solar Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, B. T.; Gonzalez, W. D.

    1998-01-01

    One of the oldest mysteries in geomagnetism is the linkage between solar and geomagnetic activity. The 11-year cycles of both the numbers of sunspots and Earth geomagnetic storms were first noted by Sabine (1852).

  9. The solar wind effect on cosmic rays and solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujimoto, K.; Kojima, H.; Murakami, K.

    1985-01-01

    The relation of cosmic ray intensity to solar wind velocity is investigated, using neutron monitor data from Kiel and Deep River. The analysis shows that the regression coefficient of the average intensity for a time interval to the corresponding average velocity is negative and that the absolute effect increases monotonously with the interval of averaging, tau, that is, from -0.5% per 100km/s for tau = 1 day to -1.1% per 100km/s for tau = 27 days. For tau 27 days the coefficient becomes almost constant independently of the value of tau. The analysis also shows that this tau-dependence of the regression coefficiently is varying with the solar activity.

  10. A study of solar magnetic fields below the surface, at the surface, and in the solar atmosphere - understanding the cause of major solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintzoglou, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic fields govern all aspects of solar activity from the 11-year solar cycle to the most energetic events in the solar system, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). As seen on the surface of the sun, this activity emanates from localized concentrations of magnetic fields emerging sporadically from the solar interior. These locations are called solar Active Regions (ARs). However, the fundamental processes regarding the origin, emergence and evolution of solar magnetic fields as well as the generation of solar activity are largely unknown or remain controversial. In this dissertation, multiple important issues regarding solar magnetism and activities are addressed, based on advanced observations obtained by AIA and HMI instruments aboard the SDO spacecraft. First, this work investigates the formation of coronal magnetic flux ropes (MFRs), structures associated with major solar activity such as CMEs. In the past, several theories have been proposed to explain the cause of this major activity, which can be categorized in two contrasting groups (a) the MFR is formed in the eruption, and (b) the MFR pre-exists the eruption. This remains a topic of heated debate in modern solar physics. This dissertation provides a complete treatment of the role of MFRs from their genesis all the way to their eruption and even destruction. The study has uncovered the pre-existence of two weakly twisted MFRs, which formed during confined flaring 12 hours before their associated CMEs. Thus, it provides unambiguous evidence for MFRs truly existing before the CME eruptions, resolving the pre-existing MFR controversy. Second, this dissertation addresses the 3-D magnetic structure of complex emerging ARs. In ARs the photospheric fields might show all aspects of complexity, from simple bipolar regions to extremely complex multi-polar surface magnetic distributions. In this thesis, we introduce a novel technique to infer the subphotospheric configuration of emerging

  11. Effects of Solar Activities on the Transient Luminous Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Williams, E.; Chou, J.; Lee, L.; Huang, S.; Chang, S.; Chen, A. B.; Kuo, C.; Su, H.; Hsu, R.; Frey, H. U.; Takahashi, Y.; Lee, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Imager of Sprite and Upper Atmosphere Lightning (ISUAL) onboard the Formosat-2 was launched in May 2004; since then, it has continuously observed transient luminous events (TLEs) within the +/-60 degree of latitude for nearly 10 years. Due to ISUAL's long-term observations, the possible correlation between the TLE and the solar activity can be explored. Among the ISUAL TLEs, elves, which occur at the mesospheric altitude ~90 km and are caused by the heating incurred by the lightning-launched electromagnetic pulse of the lower ionosphere boundary are the most numerous and are the most suitable for this type of study. In previous studies, the elve distribution has proved to be a good surrogate for the lightning with exceptional peak current globally. ISUAL records the occurrence time and the height and location of elves, and the spectral emission intensities at six different band pass including the FUV N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) band, which is a dominant emission in elves. The LBH intensity not only reflects the peak current of parent lightning, but may also represent the solar-activity-driven-lighting's perturbation to the ionosphere. In this study, we first examine whether the 11-year solar cycle affects the elve activity and altitude by analyzing the elve occurrence rates and heights in different latitudinal regions. To avoid the climatological and instrumental biases in the elve observations, the effects arising from the ENSO and moonlight must be carefully eliminated. Besides, we will discuss the elve variation in shorter time scale due to strong and sudden change of solar activity. Since the ion density of the mesosphere at mid-latitude may be significantly altered during/after a strong corona mass ejection (CME).Furthermore, it has been proven that the changes in the solar X-ray flux dominate the variations in the conductivity profile within the upper characteristic ELF layer (the 90-100km portion of the E-region). we will compare the variation of

  12. Stratospheric ozone, solar activity and volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komitov, Boris; Stoychev, Konstantin

    The aim of this study is to investigate the long-term (multiannual) variations of the total ozone content (TOC) on the base of TOMS instrument measurements on the board of Nimbus-7 satellite for the period 1979 -- 1993 AD. The total effects of the solar activity influence over stratosphere ozone has been investigated by using multiple regression analysis. The monthly radio-index F10.7, the cosmic rays neutron flux, the geomagnetic index Ap and the number of GOES x-ray X-class flares have been used as solar or solar-modulated parameters as predictors in the model. The global mean-monthly TOC-parameter has been used as a predictant. It has been found that the coefficient of correlation of the model between TOC and above-mentioned solar and geomagnetic factors is about 0.544. Thus the corresponding factor variance is about 37%. The results calculated by the model have been removed from the original TOC data. It has been found out that during the first 12 years since 1979 the downward trend is predominantly caused by the solar and solar-modulated processes. However during the remaining 3 years after 1990 the slope of the negative trend has been essentially increased. This phenomenon could only be explained by some catastrophic event. Most probably such one is the Pinatubo volcano eruption in June, 1991. An evidence for the possibility that the last one is caused by trigger effect from the extremely high solar flare activity in May -- June 1991, is given.

  13. The dynamic relation between activities in the Northern and Southern solar hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volobuev, D. M.; Makarenko, N. G.

    2016-12-01

    The north-south (N/S) asymmetry of solar activity is the most pronounced phenomenon during 11-year cycle minimums. The goal of this work is to try to interpret the asymmetry as a result of the generalized synchronization of two dynamic systems. It is assumed that these systems are localized in two solar hemispheres. The evolution of these systems is considered in the topological embeddings of a sunspot area time series obtained with the use of the Takens algorithm. We determine the coupling measure and estimate it on the time series of daily sunspot areas. The measurement made it possible to interpret the asymmetry as an exchangeable dynamic equation, in which the roles of the driver-slave components change in time for two hemispheres.

  14. Two principal components of solar magnetic field variations and prediction of solar activity on multi-millennium timescale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkova, Valentina; Popova, Helen; Zharkov, Sergei; Shepherd, Simon

    2016-07-01

    We present principal components analysis (PCA) of temporal magnetic field variations over the solar cycles 21-24 and their classification with symbolic regression analysis using Hamiltonian method. PCA reveals 4 pairs of magnetic waves with a significant variance and the two principal components with the highest eigen values covering about 40% of this variance. The PC waves are found to have close frequencies while travelling from the opposite hemispheres with an increasing phase shift. Extrapolation of these PCs through their summary curve backward for 5000 years reveals a repeated number of ~350-400 year grand cycles superimposed on 22 year-cycles with the features showing a remarkable resemblance to sunspot activity reported in the past including Maunder, Dalton and Wolf minima, as well as the modern, medieval and roman warmth periods. The summary curve calculated forward for the next millennium predicts further three grand cycles with the closest grand minimum (Maunder minimum) occurring in the forthcoming cycles 25-27 when the two magnetic field waves approach the phase shift of 11 years. We also note a super-grand cycle of about 2000 years which reveal the 5 repeated grand cycles of 350 years with the similar patterns. We discuss a role of other 3 pairs of magnetic waves in shaping the solar activity and compare our predicted curve with the previous predictions of the solar activity on a long timescale based on the terrestrial proxies. These grand cycle variations are probed by Parker's two layer dynamo model with meridional circulation revealing two dynamo waves generated with close frequencies. Their interaction leads to beating effects responsible for the grand cycles (300-350 years) and super-grand cycles of 2000 years superimposed on standard 22 year cycles. This approach opens a new era in investigation and prediction of solar activity on long-term timescales.

  15. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  16. Acquired myopia in 11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Peckham, C S; Gardiner, P A; Goldstein, H

    1977-02-26

    Children who had acquired myopia by the age of 11 years were identified from a nationally representative sample. There were no overall sex differences in its occurrence but myopia was more common in children from non-manual families than in those from manual families. Short-sighted children were more likely to come from small families and to be of higher birth order than children with normal vision, and these associations held within each social class. At 11 years myopic children showed striking advantages in educational performance over their normal-sighted peers, as judged by tests of reading, arithmetic, and general ability. After adjustments had been made for social background, this age gain still amounted to over one year. Findings obtained at 7 years of age showed that superior educational attainments were already apparent before the onset of myopia. Children with myopia read in their leisure time more often than normally sighted children, but despite the visual impairment, they participated in outdoor sports as often as other children.

  17. Seismic Holography of Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The basic goal of the project was to extend holographic seismic imaging techniques developed under a previous NASA contract, and to incorporate phase diagnostics. Phase-sensitive imaging gives us a powerful probe of local thermal and Doppler perturbations in active region subphotospheres, allowing us to map thermal structure and flows associated with "acoustic moats" and "acoustic glories". These remarkable features were discovered during our work, by applying simple acoustic power holography to active regions. Included in the original project statement was an effort to obtain the first seismic images of active regions on the Sun's far surface.

  18. Dynamics of Minor Solar Activity \

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauzzi, G.; Vial, J. C.; Falciani, R.; Falchi, A.; Smaldone, L. A.

    We present a program for coordinated observations between ground based observatories, mainly NSO/Sacramento Peak, and several instruments onboard SOHO (primarily SUMER). The scientific goal is the study of small activity phenomena, at high spatial and temporal resolution.

  19. Catawba Science Center solar activities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    Two demonstration solar water heaters were built. One was to be used at the Science Center and the other with traveling programs. This was completed and both units are being used for these programs which continue. We were able to build a library of 99 solar energy books and booklets that are available to the public for reference. We also conducted programs for 683 students of all ages. The culminating activity was the planned Energy Awareness Festival. This was held on September 26, 1981 and attracted 450 area citizens. We offered free exhibit space and hosted 17 exhibitors.

  20. Division II: Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Scrijver, Karel J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Charbonneau, Paul; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hasan, S. Sirajul; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kusano, Kanya; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Vršnak, Bojan; Yan, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    The Business Meeting of Commission 10 was held as part of the Business Meeting of Division II (Sun and Heliosphere), chaired by Valentin Martínez-Pillet, the President of the Division. The President of Commission 10 (C10; Solar activity), Lidia van Driel-Gesztelyi, took the chair for the business meeting of C10. She summarised the activities of C10 over the triennium and the election of the incoming OC.

  1. 11-Year cyclicity of the near-surface heat flux at the Vostok station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volobuev, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    It is known that the solar component is difficult to find in a climatic signal due to its small size and significant internal random disturbances of the climatic system, such as variations in cloudiness, precipitation, winds, and oceanic currents. In the center of the polar cap, these disturbances are as minimal as possible; therefore, solving the inverse heat conduction problem, we can calculate the informative heat flux through the ice cover based on temperature data. Variations in the heat flux are quite significant in amplitude (0.2-0.3 W/m2) and coincide with the 11-year solar cycle in phase. Application of this approach to the indices of the global and sea surface temperatures cannot yield a solar signal, yet it can be traced for solar cycles with big amplitude (cycles 19 and 21). Thus, the found variation in the heat flux is most probably caused by a change in the solar constant (TSI); however, other mechanisms are also possible.

  2. Analyzing the combined influence of solar activity and El Niño on streamflow across southern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Congsheng; James, April L.; Wachowiak, Mark P.

    2012-05-01

    It is well known that the spatial and temporal patterns in streamflow can be correlated with many teleconnections, e.g., solar activity and climatic phenomena such as El Niño. However, fewer studies have attempted to analyze both the influence of solar activity and large scale climatic phenomena on natural processes, particularly hydrological processes. In this study we examine long term records of solar activity and El Niño for their combined influence on streamflow across southern Canada. Data used in the analysis include sunspot number, sea surface temperature anomaly in Niño region 3.4, and annual mean streamflow from 50 Canadian Reference Hydrometric Basin Network (RHBN) stations with record lengths ≥50 years (14 of them ≥90 years). Analysis is performed using Fourier spectrum analysis (FSA), continuous wavelet transform (CWT), and cross wavelet transform coherence analysis (WTC). Results of FSA show that for almost all the 14 RHBN stations with record lengths of ≥90 years, streamflow exhibits periodicities of approximately 11 and 22 years (which is in accordance with solar activity), as well as shorter term periodicities consistent with El Niño (2-7 years). WTC analysis confirms the correlation between these periodicities (2-7 years, 11 years, 22 years) in streamflow with solar activity and El Niño records. Both solar activity and El Niño's influences on annual mean streamflow in 18-32 year bands are common, while the influence of El Nino is more extensive in the 2-7 and ˜11 year bands. Through examination of correlations between solar activity and streamflow, El Niño and streamflow, and finally El Niño and solar activity, WTC analysis has identified that solar activity affects El Niño first, and this influence is then transferred by El Niño to streamflow. This study expands on earlier efforts examining linkages between El Niño and streamflow across southern Canada to an examination of linkages between solar activity, El Niño, and

  3. Orthodontic treatment for a patient with advanced periodontal disease: 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Carlos Alberto Estevanell; Allgayer, Susiane; Calvete, Ernani da Silva; Polido, Waldemar Daudt

    2013-09-01

    This case report demonstrates the interdisciplinary treatment of an adult patient with a Class II malocclusion, convex profile, incompetent lips, gummy smile, and advanced periodontal loss. Initial periodontal-endodontic treatment was followed by orthodontic and orthognathic surgical therapies. An esthetic facial profile, a pleasing smile, an appropriate occlusion, and overall good treatment outcomes, including the periodontal condition, remained stable 11 years after active orthodontic treatment.

  4. Forecasts of solar and geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joselyn, Joann

    1987-01-01

    Forecasts of solar and geomagnetic activity are critical since these quantities are such important inputs to the thermospheric density models. At this time in the history of solar science there is no way to make such a forecast from first principles. Physical theory applied to the Sun is developing rapidly, but is still primitive. Techniques used for forecasting depend upon the observations over about 130 years, which is only twelve solar cycles. It has been noted that even-numbered cycles systematically tend to be smaller than the odd-numbered ones by about 20 percent. Another observation is that for the last 12 cycle pairs, an even-numbered sunspot cycle looks rather like the next odd-numbered cycle, but with the top cut off. These observations are examples of approximate periodicities that forecasters try to use to achieve some insight into the nature of an upcoming cycle. Another new and useful forecasting aid is a correlation that has been noted between geomagnetic indices and the size of the next solar cycle. Some best estimates are given concerning both activities.

  5. Coronal Activity and Extended Solar Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altrock, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    Wilson et al. (1988, Nature 333, 748) discussed a number of solar parameters, which appear at high latitudes and gradually migrate towards the equator, merging with the sunspot "butterfly diagram". They found that this concept had been identified by earlier investigators extending back to 1957. They named this process the "Extended Solar Cycle" (ESC). Altrock (1997, Solar Phys. 170, 411) found that this process continued in Fe XIV 530.3 nm emission features. In cycles 21 - 23 solar maximum occurred when the number of Fe XIV emission regions per day > 0.19 (averaged over 365 days and both hemispheres) first reached latitudes 18°, 21° and 21°, for an average of 20° ± 1.7°. Other recent studies have shown that Torsional Oscillation (TO) negative-shear zones are co-located with the ESC from at least 50° down to the equator and also in the zones where the Rush to the Poles occur. These phenomena indicate that coronal activity occurring up to 50° and higher latitudes is related to TO shear zones, another indicator that the ESC is an important solar process. Another high-latitude process, which appears to be connected with the ESC, is the "Rush to the Poles" ("Rush") of polar crown prominences and their associated coronal emission, including Fe XIV. The Rush is is a harbinger of solar maximum (cf. Altrock, 2003, Solar Phys. 216, 343). Solar maximum in cycles 21 - 23 occurred when the center line of the Rush reached a critical latitude. These latitudes were 76°, 74° and 78°, respectively, for an average of 76° ± 2°. Applying the above conclusions to Cycle 24 is difficult due to the unusual nature of this cycle. Cycle 24 displays an intermittent "Rush" that is only well-defined in the northern hemisphere. In 2009 an initial slope of 4.6°/yr was found in the north, compared to an average of 9.4 ± 1.7 °/yr in the previous three cycles. This early fit to the Rush would have reached 76° at 2014.6. However, in 2010 the slope increased to 7.5°/yr (an increase

  6. Solar-stellar connection : A solar analogous behaviour by an active ultra fast rotator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sairam, Lalitha; Schmitt, Juergen; Pal Singh, Kulinder

    2015-08-01

    AB Dor is an ultra-fast rotating (Prot ~ 0.51 d) active young K dwarf with an age of ~40-50 Myr. Located as a foreground star towards large magellanic cloud (LMC), AB Dor has the advantage of being observed at all times by most of the X-ray satellites making it a favourite calibration target. AB Dor has been repeatedly observed for calibration by reflection grating spectrometer (RGS) on board XMM- Newton over last decade. This gives an ideal opportunity to perform a detailed analysis of the coronal emission, and to compare the flare characteristics with the Sun, since the Sun is usually considered as a prototype of low mass stars. Flares are frequent in low mass active stars across the electromagnetic spectrum similar to the Sun. We will for the first time, present an analysis of 30 intense X-ray flares observed from AB Dor. These flares detected in XMM-Newton data show a rapid rise (500-3000 s) and a slow decay (1000-6000 s). The derived X-ray luminosity during the flares ranges between 30.20 ≤ log(Lx) ≤ 30.83 erg/s; the flare peak temperature lies between 30-80 MK and the emission measures for these flares are in the range of 52.3 ≤ log(EM) ≤ 53.5 cm^-3. Our studies suggest that the scaling law between the flare peak emission measure and the flare peak temperature for all the flares observed on AB Dor is very similar to the relationship followed by solar flares, despite the fact that the AB Dor flare emission is ~250 times higher than the solar flare emission. We also carried out a homogenous study of flare frequencies, energetics and its occurrence in AB Dor. The frequency distribution of flare energies is a crucial diagnostic to calculate the overall energy residing in a flare. Our results of this study indicate that the large flare (33 ≤ log(E) ≤ 34 erg) may not contribute to the heating of the corona. We will show the presence of a possible long-term cycle in AB Dor both from a photospheric and coronal point of view, similar to the 11-year

  7. Geomagnetic responses to the solar wind and the solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svalgaard, L.

    1975-01-01

    Following some historical notes, the formation of the magnetosphere and the magnetospheric tail is discussed. The importance of electric fields is stressed and the magnetospheric convection of plasma and magnetic field lines under the influence of large-scale magnetospheric electric fields is outlined. Ionospheric electric fields and currents are intimately related to electric fields and currents in the magnetosphere and the strong coupling between the two regions is discussed. The energy input of the solar wind to the magnetosphere and upper atmosphere is discussed in terms of the reconnection model where interplanetary magnetic field lines merge or connect with the terrestrial field on the sunward side of the magnetosphere. The merged field lines are then stretched behind earth to form the magnetotail so that kinetic energy from the solar wind is converted into magnetic energy in the field lines in the tail. Localized collapses of the crosstail current, which is driven by the large-scale dawn/dusk electric field in the magnetosphere, divert part of this current along geomagnetic field lines to the ionosphere, causing substorms with auroral activity and magnetic disturbances. The collapses also inject plasma into the radiation belts and build up a ring current. Frequent collapses in rapid succession constitute the geomagnetic storm.

  8. Division E Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Asai, Ayumi; Cally, Paul S.; Charbonneau, Paul; Gibson, Sarah E.; Gomez, Daniel; Hasan, Siraj S.; Veronig, Astrid M.; Yan, Yihua

    2016-04-01

    After more than half a century of community support related to the science of ``solar activity'', IAU's Commission 10 was formally discontinued in 2015, to be succeeded by C.E2 with the same area of responsibility. On this occasion, we look back at the growth of the scientific disciplines involved around the world over almost a full century. Solar activity and fields of research looking into the related physics of the heliosphere continue to be vibrant and growing, with currently over 2,000 refereed publications appearing per year from over 4,000 unique authors, publishing in dozens of distinct journals and meeting in dozens of workshops and conferences each year. The size of the rapidly growing community and of the observational and computational data volumes, along with the multitude of connections into other branches of astrophysics, pose significant challenges; aspects of these challenges are beginning to be addressed through, among others, the development of new systems of literature reviews, machine-searchable archives for data and publications, and virtual observatories. As customary in these reports, we highlight some of the research topics that have seen particular interest over the most recent triennium, specifically active-region magnetic fields, coronal thermal structure, coronal seismology, flares and eruptions, and the variability of solar activity on long time scales. We close with a collection of developments, discoveries, and surprises that illustrate the range and dynamics of the discipline.

  9. Cosmic rays, solar activity and the climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, T.; Wolfendale, A. W.

    2013-12-01

    Although it is generally believed that the increase in the mean global surface temperature since industrialization is caused by the increase in green house gases in the atmosphere, some people cite solar activity, either directly or through its effect on cosmic rays, as an underestimated contributor to such global warming. In this letter a simplified version of the standard picture of the role of greenhouse gases in causing the global warming since industrialization is described. The conditions necessary for this picture to be wholly or partially wrong are then introduced. Evidence is presented from which the contributions of either cosmic rays or solar activity to this warming is deduced. The contribution is shown to be less than 10% of the warming seen in the twentieth century.

  10. Solar activities at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Klimas, P.C.; Hasti, D.E.

    1994-03-01

    The use of renewable energy technologies is typically thought of as an integral part of creating and sustaining an environment that maximizes the overall quality of life of the Earth`s present inhabitants and does not leave an undue burden on future generations. Sandia National Laboratories has been a leader in developing and deploying many of these technologies over the last two decades. A common but special aspect of all of these activities is that they are all conducted in cooperation with various types of partners. Some of these partners have an interest in seeing these systems grow in the marketplace, while others are primarily concerned with economic benefits that can come from immediate use of these renewable energy systems. This paper describes solar thermal and photovoltaic technology activities at Sandia that are intended to accelerate the commercialization of these solar systems.

  11. Patterns of helicity in solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Canfield, Richard C.; Metcalf, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    Using 46 vector magnetograms from the Stokes Polarimeter of Mees Solar Observatory (MSO), we studied patterns of local helicity in three diverse solar active regions. From these magnetograms we computed maps of the local helicity parameter alpha = J(sub z)/B(sub z). Although such maps are noisy, we found patterns at the level approximately 2 to 3 sigma(sub J(sub z)), which repeat in successive magnetograms for up to several days. Typically, the alpha maps of any given active region contain identifiable patches with both positive and negative values of alpha. Even within a single sunspot complex, several such alpha patches can often be seen. We followed 68 alpha patches that could be identified on at least two successive alpha maps. We found that the persistence fraction of such patches decrease exponentially, with a characteristic time approximately 27 hr.

  12. What do the solar activity indices represent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li , K. J.; Kong, D. F.; Liang, H. F.; Feng, W.

    Sunspot number, sunspot area, and radio flux at 10.7 cm are the indices which are most frequently used to describe the long-term solar activity. The data of the daily solar full-disk magnetograms measured at Mount Wilson Observatory from 19 January 1970 to 31 December 2012 are utilized together with the daily observations of the three indices to probe the relationship of the full-disk magnetic activity respectively with the indices. Cross correlation analyses of the daily magnetic field measurements at Mount Wilson observatory are taken with the daily observations of the three indices, and the statistical significance of the difference of the obtained correlation coefficients is investigated. The following results are obtained: (1) The sunspot number should be preferred to represent/reflect the full-disk magnetic activity of the Sun to which the weak magnetic fields (outside of sunspots) mainly contribute, the sunspot area should be recommended to represent the strong magnetic activity of the Sun (in sunspots), and the 10.7 cm radio flux should be preferred to represent the full-disk magnetic activity of the Sun (both the weak and strong magnetic fields) to which the weak magnetic fields mainly contribute. (2) On the other hand, the most recommendable index that could be used to represent/reflect the weak magnetic activity is the 10.7 cm radio flux, the most recommendable index that could be used to represent the strong magnetic activity is the sunspot area, and the most recommendable index that could be used to represent the full-disk magnetic activity of the Sun is the 10.7 cm radio flux. Additionally, the cycle characteristics of the magnetic field strengths on the solar disk are given.

  13. The Magnetic Origins of Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    The defining physical property of the Sun's corona is that the magnetic field dominates the plasma. This property is the genesis for all solar activity ranging from quasi-steady coronal loops to the giant magnetic explosions observed as coronal mass ejections/eruptive flares. The coronal magnetic field is also the fundamental driver of all space weather; consequently, understanding the structure and dynamics of the field, especially its free energy, has long been a central objective in Heliophysics. The main obstacle to achieving this understanding has been the lack of accurate direct measurements of the coronal field. Most attempts to determine the magnetic free energy have relied on extrapolation of photospheric measurements, a notoriously unreliable procedure. In this presentation I will discuss what measurements of the coronal field would be most effective for understanding solar activity. Not surprisingly, the key process for driving solar activity is magnetic reconnection. I will discuss, therefore, how next-generation measurements of the coronal field will allow us to understand not only the origins of space weather, but also one of the most important fundamental processes in cosmic and laboratory plasmas.

  14. Solar irradiance variations due to active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, L.; Schatten, K.H.; Sofia, S.

    1982-05-15

    We have been able to reproduce the variations of the solar irradiance observed by ACRIM to an accuracy of better than +- 0.4 W m/sup -2/, assuming that during the 6 month observation period in 1980 the solar luminosity was constant. The improvement over previous attempts is primarily due to the inclusion of faculae. The reproduction scheme uses simple geometrical data on spot and facula areas, and conventional parameters for the respective fluxes and angular dependencies. The quality of reproduction is not very sensitive to most of the details of these parameters; nevertheless, there conventional parameters cannot be very different from their actual values in the solar atmosphere. It is interesting that the time average of the integrated excess emission (over directions) of the faculae cancels out the integrated deficit produced by the spots, within an accuracy of about 10%. If this behavior were maintained over longer periods of time, say, on the order of an activity cycle, active regions could be viewed as a kind of lighthouse where the energy deficit near the normal direction, associated with the spots, is primarily reemitted close to the tangential directions by the faculae. The currently available data suggest that energy ''storage'' associated with the redirection of flux near active regions on the Sun is comparable to the lifetime of the faculae.

  15. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for earth science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A teaching manual is provided to aid teachers in introducing renewable energy topics to earth science students. The main emphasis is placed on solar energy. Activities for the student include a study of the greenhouse effect, solar gain for home heating, measuring solar radiation, and the construction of a model solar still to obtain fresh water. Instructions for the construction of apparatus to demonstrate a solar still, the greenhouse effect and measurement of the altitude and azimuth of the sun are included. (BCS)

  16. Shuttle program. Solar activity prediction of sunspot numbers, predicted solar radio flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, G. G.; Newman, S. R.

    1980-01-01

    A solar activity prediction technique for monthly mean sunspot numbers over a period of approximately ten years from February 1979 to January 1989 is presented. This includes the predicted maximum epoch of solar cycle 21, approximately January 1980, and the predicted minimum epoch of solar cycle 22, approximately March 1987. Additionally, the solar radio flux 10.7 centimeter smooth values are included for the same time frame using a smooth 13 month empirical relationship. The incentive for predicting solar activity values is the requirement of solar flux data as input to upper atmosphere density models utilized in mission planning satellite orbital lifetime studies.

  17. A 449 year warm season temperature reconstruction in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau and its relation to solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jianping; Zhang, Qi-Bin

    2014-10-01

    There is a close relationship between solar activity and the Earth's surface temperature, but this relationship has weakened with recent global warming. To better understand this puzzle, temperature records need to be extended, and the relationship between long-term variation in temperature and solar activity needs to be examined. In this study, we reconstruct April-September temperature variation back to 1563 using tree ring maximum late wood density (MXD) data from Balfour spruce in the southeastern Tibetan Plateau (TP). Spatial correlation analysis indicates that our reconstruction is representative of temperature variability over the large-scale TP. On the 22 year time scale, the reconstructed April-September temperature corresponds generally to solar activity over the past three centuries. Spectral analyses also indicate that the significant periodicities of ~11 years, 54 years, and 204 years observed in the MXD chronology correspond to the Schwabe cycle, the fourth harmonic of the Suess cycle, and the Suess solar cycle, respectively. However, disparities between temperature change and solar activity are identified in two periods, the 1880s-1900s and the 1980s-present. These results suggest that solar forcing is the critical driver for long-term temperature variability in the TP, but other factors may uncouple surface temperature and solar activity in some periods. One possible cause of the weak effect of solar activity on temperature during the 1880s-1900s is internal climate variability, while human-activity-induced greenhouse gas emissions have likely superseded solar forcing as the major driver of the rapid warming observed since the 1980s.

  18. Influence of solar activity on Jupiter's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    The influx of solar energy to different latitudes while Jupiter's orbital motion around the Sun varies significantly. This leads to a change in the optical and physical characteristics of its atmosphere. Analysis of the data for 1850-1991 on determination of the integral magnitude Mj Jupiter in the V filter, and a comparison with the changes of the Wolf numbers W, characterizing the variations of solar activity (SA) - showed that the change of Mj in maxima of the SA - has minima for odd, and maximums - for the even of SA cycles. That is, changing of the Jupiter brightness in visible light is much evident 22.3-year magnetic cycle, and not just about the 11.1-year cycle of solar activity. Analysis of the obtained in 1960-2015 data on the relative distribution of brightness along the central meridian of Jupiter, for which we calculated the ratio of the brightness Aj of northern to the southern part of the tropical and temperate latitudinal zones, allowed to approximate the change of Aj by sinusoid with a period of 11.91±0.07 earth years. Comparison of time variation of Aj from changes in the index of SA R, and the movement of the planet in its orbit - indicates the delay of response of the visible cloud layer in the atmosphere of the Sun's exposure mode for 6 years. This value coincides with the radiative relaxation of the hydrogen-helium atmosphere

  19. Musculoskeletal complaints among 11-year-old children and associated factors: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hulsegge, Gerben; van Oostrom, Sandra H; Picavet, H Susan J; Twisk, Jos W R; Postma, Dirkje S; Kerkhof, Marjan; Smit, Henriëtte A; Wijga, Alet H

    2011-10-15

    Musculoskeletal complaints (MSC) are common among children, often persist into adolescence, and increase the risk of MSC in adulthood. Knowledge regarding determinants of MSC among children is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MSC at age 11 years and to examine associations with sociodemographic factors, growth and development factors, mental health, tiredness, and lifestyle. Data from a Netherlands birth cohort study, the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) Study (n = 2,638), were used (1996-2009). MSC were defined as complaints about the back, an upper extremity, a lower extremity, or any of these sites. Logistic regression analyses using a forward stepwise procedure were performed on multiply imputed data. The 1-year period prevalences of back, upper extremity, and lower extremity complaints that lasted at least 1 month were 2.8%, 4.8%, and 10.9%, respectively. Only poorer mental health was consistently associated with all 3 types of complaints. Poorer mental health, daytime tiredness, early pubertal development, being physically active at age 11 years, and weight-for-height z score were associated with having any MSC. This study showed that MSC, especially lower extremity complaints, are common among 11-year old-children and that only poorer mental health status is associated with MSC at all anatomic sites.

  20. Tsunami related to solar and geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2016-04-01

    The authors of this study wanted to verify the existence of a correlation between earthquakes of high intensity capable of generating tsunami and variations of solar and Earth's geomagnetic activity. To confirming or not the presence of this kind of correlation, the authors analyzed the conditions of Spaceweather "near Earth" and the characteristics of the Earth's geomagnetic field in the hours that preceded the four earthquakes of high intensity that have generated tsunamis: 1) Japan M9 earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 at 05:46 UTC; 2) Japan M7.1 earthquake occurred on October 25, 2013 at 17:10 UTC; 3) Chile M8.2 earthquake occurred on April 1, 2014 at 23:46 UTC; 4) Chile M8.3 earthquake occurred on September 16, 2015 at 22:54 UTC. The data relating to the four earthquakes were provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The data on ion density used to realize the correlation study are represented by: solar wind ion density variation detected by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) Satellite, in orbit near the L1 Lagrange point, at 1.5 million of km from Earth, in direction of the Sun. The instrument used to perform the measurement of the solar wind ion density is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument, equipped on the ACE Satellite. To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density of three different energy fractions: differential proton flux 1060-1900 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 761-1220 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 310-580 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV). Geomagnetic activity data were provided by Tromsø Geomagnetic Observatory (TGO), Norway; by Scoresbysund Geomagnetic Observatory (SCO), Greenland, Denmark and by Space Weather Prediction Center of Pushkov Institute of terrestrial magnetism, ionosphere and radio wave propagation (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow Region. The results of the study, in agreement with what already

  1. COUPLING THE SOLAR DYNAMO AND THE CORONA: WIND PROPERTIES, MASS, AND MOMENTUM LOSSES DURING AN ACTIVITY CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Rui F.; Brun, Allan Sacha; Grappin, Roland

    2011-08-20

    We study the connections between the Sun's convection zone and the evolution of the solar wind and corona. We let the magnetic fields generated by a 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) axisymmetric kinematic dynamo code (STELEM) evolve in a 2.5D axisymmetric coronal isothermal magnetohydrodynamic code (DIP). The computations cover an 11 year activity cycle. The solar wind's asymptotic velocity varies in latitude and in time in good agreement with the available observations. The magnetic polarity reversal happens at different paces at different coronal heights. Overall the Sun's mass-loss rate, momentum flux, and magnetic braking torque vary considerably throughout the cycle. This cyclic modulation is determined by the latitudinal distribution of the sources of open flux and solar wind and the geometry of the Alfven surface. Wind sources and braking torque application zones also vary accordingly.

  2. Cyclicity of Suicides May Be Modulated by Internal or External - 11-Year Cycles: An Example of Suicide Rates in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, B. D.; Atanassova, P. A.; Rachkova, M. I.

    2009-12-01

    Multicomponent cyclicity in monthly suicides (periods T = 18, 46 and 198 months) was found and close similarity with heliogeophysical activity (HGA) suggested by Dimitrov in 1999. The current report aimed at scrutinizing the results on suicide annual cyclicity (seasonality) in Slovenia as reported by Oravecz et al in 2007 as well as at analyzing suicide data from Finland in this regard. We postulated that: (i) trans-year (12-24 months) or far-trans-year long-term cycles of suicides might interfere with their seasonality; and (ii) associations to environmental factors with alike cyclicity (e.g. HGA, temperature) could exist. Annual suicide incidence from Oulu, Finland over years 1987-1999 was analyzed. Annual data on solar activity (sunspot index Rz or Wolf number), planetary geomagnetic activity (aa-index) and local daily mean temperatures were used. The exploration of underlying chronomes (time structures) was done by periodogram regression analysis with trigonometric approximation. We analyzed temporal dynamics, revealed cyclicity, decomposed and reconstructed significant cycles and correlated the time series data. Suicide seasonality in Slovenia during the years 1971-2002 (n=384 months, peak May-June) was considered and, although some discrepancies and methodological weaknesses were suspected, we further hypothesized about trans-year and/or longer (far-transyear) cyclic components. Suicide incidence data from Finland indicated that the 12.5-year cyclic component (or trend) was almost parallel (coherent) to the cyclic heliogeophysical parameters and similar to local decreasing temperature dynamics. Also, 8-year and 24.5-year cycles were revealed. A correlation between the 12.5-year suicide cycle and 11-year solar cycle was found (R=0.919, p=0.000009). Above findings on cyclicity and temporal correlations of suicides with cyclic environmental factors, even being still preliminary, might not only allow for further more specific analyses. They might also corroborate

  3. The Solar Cycle.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, David H

    The solar cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. A number of other solar activity indicators also vary in association with the sunspots including; the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores. Individual solar cycles are characterized by their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, the equatorward drift of the active latitudes, hemispheric asymmetries, and active longitudes. Cycle-to-cycle variability includes the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev-Ohl (even-odd) Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double-peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle and a closer look at cycles 23 and 24.

  4. The Solar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    2015-12-01

    The solar cycle is reviewed. The 11-year cycle of solar activity is characterized by the rise and fall in the numbers and surface area of sunspots. A number of other solar activity indicators also vary in association with the sunspots including; the 10.7 cm radio flux, the total solar irradiance, the magnetic field, flares and coronal mass ejections, geomagnetic activity, galactic cosmic ray fluxes, and radioisotopes in tree rings and ice cores. Individual solar cycles are characterized by their maxima and minima, cycle periods and amplitudes, cycle shape, the equatorward drift of the active latitudes, hemispheric asymmetries, and active longitudes. Cycle-to-cycle variability includes the Maunder Minimum, the Gleissberg Cycle, and the Gnevyshev-Ohl (even-odd) Rule. Short-term variability includes the 154-day periodicity, quasi-biennial variations, and double-peaked maxima. We conclude with an examination of prediction techniques for the solar cycle and a closer look at cycles 23 and 24.

  5. Transient flows of the solar wind associated with small-scale solar activity in solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemzin, Vladimir; Veselovsky, Igor; Kuzin, Sergey; Gburek, Szymon; Ulyanov, Artyom; Kirichenko, Alexey; Shugay, Yulia; Goryaev, Farid

    The data obtained by the modern high sensitive EUV-XUV telescopes and photometers such as CORONAS-Photon/TESIS and SPHINX, STEREO/EUVI, PROBA2/SWAP, SDO/AIA provide good possibilities for studying small-scale solar activity (SSA), which is supposed to play an important role in heating of the corona and producing transient flows of the solar wind. During the recent unusually weak solar minimum, a large number of SSA events, such as week solar flares, small CMEs and CME-like flows were observed and recorded in the databases of flares (STEREO, SWAP, SPHINX) and CMEs (LASCO, CACTUS). On the other hand, the solar wind data obtained in this period by ACE, Wind, STEREO contain signatures of transient ICME-like structures which have shorter duration (<10h), weaker magnetic field strength (<10 nT) and lower proton temperature than usual ICMEs. To verify the assumption that ICME-like transients may be associated with the SSA events we investigated the number of weak flares of C-class and lower detected by SPHINX in 2009 and STEREO/EUVI in 2010. The flares were classified on temperature and emission measure using the diagnostic means of SPHINX and Hinode/EIS and were confronted with the parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density, ion composition and temperature, magnetic field, pitch angle distribution of the suprathermal electrons). The outflows of plasma associated with the flares were identified by their coronal signatures - CMEs (only in few cases) and dimmings. It was found that the mean parameters of the solar wind projected to the source surface for the times of the studied flares were typical for the ICME-like transients. The results support the suggestion that weak flares can be indicators of sources of transient plasma flows contributing to the slow solar wind at solar minimum, although these flows may be too weak to be considered as separate CMEs and ICMEs. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme

  6. Is there long-range memory in solar activity on timescales shorter than the sunspot period?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rypdal, M.; Rypdal, K.

    2012-04-01

    The sunspot number (SSN), the total solar irradiance (TSI), a TSI reconstruction, and the solar flare index (SFI) are analyzed for long-range persistence (LRP). Standard Hurst analysis yields H ≈ 0.9, which suggests strong LRP. However, solar activity time series are nonstationary because of the almost-periodic 11 year smooth component, and the analysis does not give the correct H for the stochastic component. Better estimates are obtained by detrended fluctuation analysis, but estimates are biased and errors are large because of the short time records. These time series can be modeled as a stochastic process of the form x(t) = y(t) + σy(t)wH(t), where y(t) is the smooth component and wH(t) is a stationary fractional noise with Hurst exponent H. From ensembles of numerical solutions to the stochastic model and application of Bayes' theorem, we can obtain bias and error bars on H and also a test of the hypothesis that a process is uncorrelated (H = 1/2). The conclusions from the present data sets are that SSN, TSI, and TSI reconstruction almost certainly are long-range persistent, but with the most probable value H ≈ 0.7. The SFI process, however, is either very weakly persistent (H < 0.6) or completely uncorrelated on timescales longer than a few solar rotations. Differences between stochastic properties of the TSI and its reconstruction indicate some error in the reconstruction scheme.

  7. Evidence of active region imprints on the solar wind structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hick, P.; Jackson, B. V.

    1995-01-01

    A common descriptive framework for discussing the solar wind structure in the inner heliosphere uses the global magnetic field as a reference: low density, high velocity solar wind emanates from open magnetic fields, with high density, low speed solar wind flowing outward near the current sheet. In this picture, active regions, underlying closed magnetic field structures in the streamer belt, leave little or no imprint on the solar wind. We present evidence from interplanetary scintillation measurements of the 'disturbance factor' g that active regions play a role in modulating the solar wind and possibly contribute to the solar wind mass output. Hence we find that the traditional view of the solar wind, though useful in understanding many features of solar wind structure, is oversimplified and possibly neglects important aspects of solar wind dynamics

  8. The Pioneer Venus Orbiter: 11 years of data. A laboratory for atmospheres seminar talk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasprzak, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus Orbiter has been in operation since orbit insertion on December 4, 1978. For the past 11 years, it has been acquiring data in the salient features of the planet, its atmosphere, ionosphere, and interaction with the solar wind. A few of the results of this mission are summarized and their contribution to our general understanding of the planet Venus is discussed. Although Earth and Venus are often called twin planets, they are only superficially similar. Possessing no obvious evidence of plate tectonics, lacking water and an intrinsic magnetic field, and having a hot, dense carbon dioxide atmosphere with sulfuric acid clouds makes Venus a unique object of study by the Orbiter's instruments.

  9. Solar and stellar activity - The theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belvedere, G.

    1985-10-01

    The unified approach to understanding solar and stellar activity is examined. Stellar activity observations have stimulated theoretical work, mostly within the framework of the alpha-omega dynamo theory. A number of uncertainties and intrinsic limits in dynamo theory do still exist, and these are discussed together with alternative or complementary suggestions. The relevance is stressed of nonlinear problems in dynamo theory - magnetoconvection, growth and stability of flux tubes against magnetic buoyancy, hydromagnetic global dynamos - to improve the understanding of both small and large scale interaction of rotation, turbulent convection and magnetic fields, and the transition from the linear to the nonlinear regime. Recent dynamo models of stellar activity are critically reviewed regarding the dependence of activity indexes and cycles on rotation rate and spectral type. Open problems to be solved by future work are outlined.

  10. Carotid Artery Stenting: Single-Center Experience Over 11 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Nolz, Richard Schernthaner, Ruediger Egbert; Cejna, Manfred; Schernthaner, Melanie Lammer, Johannes Schoder, Maria

    2010-04-15

    This article reports the results of carotid artery stenting during an 11-year period. Data from 168 carotid artery stenting procedures (symptomatic, n = 55; asymptomatic, n = 101; symptoms not accessible, n = 12) were retrospectively collected. Primary technical success rate, neurological events in-hospital, access-site complications, and contrast-induced nephropathy (n = 118) were evaluated. To evaluate the influence of experience in carotid artery stenting on intraprocedural neurologic complications, patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included the first 80 treated patients, and group 2 the remainder of the patients (n = 88). In-stent restenoses at last-follow-up examinations (n = 89) were assessed. The overall primary technical success rate was 95.8%. The in-hospital stroke-death rate was 3.0% (n = 5; symptomatic, 5.4%; asymptomatic, 2.0%; p = 0.346). Neurologic complications were markedly higher in group 1 (4.2%; three major strokes; symptomatic, 2.8%, asymptomatic, 1.4%) compared to group 2 (2.4%; one major and one minor stroke-symptomatic, 1.2%, asymptomatic 1.2%), but this was not statistically significant. Further complications were access-site complications in 12 (7.1%), with surgical revision required in 1 (0.6%) and mild contrast-induced nephropathy in 1 (0.85%). Twenty-one (23.6%) patients had >50% in-stent restenosis during a mean follow-up of 28.2 months. In conclusion, advanced experience in carotid artery stenting leads to an acceptable periprocedural stroke-death rate. In-stent restenosis could be a critical factor during the follow-up course.

  11. Nanoflare activity in the solar chromosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M.; Keys, P. H.

    2014-11-10

    We use ground-based images of high spatial and temporal resolution to search for evidence of nanoflare activity in the solar chromosphere. Through close examination of more than 1 × 10{sup 9} pixels in the immediate vicinity of an active region, we show that the distributions of observed intensity fluctuations have subtle asymmetries. A negative excess in the intensity fluctuations indicates that more pixels have fainter-than-average intensities compared with those that appear brighter than average. By employing Monte Carlo simulations, we reveal how the negative excess can be explained by a series of impulsive events, coupled with exponential decays, that are fractionally below the current resolving limits of low-noise equipment on high-resolution ground-based observatories. Importantly, our Monte Carlo simulations provide clear evidence that the intensity asymmetries cannot be explained by photon-counting statistics alone. A comparison to the coronal work of Terzo et al. suggests that nanoflare activity in the chromosphere is more readily occurring, with an impulsive event occurring every ∼360 s in a 10,000 km{sup 2} area of the chromosphere, some 50 times more events than a comparably sized region of the corona. As a result, nanoflare activity in the chromosphere is likely to play an important role in providing heat energy to this layer of the solar atmosphere.

  12. MASC: Magnetic Activity of the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchere, Frederic; Fineschi, Silvano; Gan, Weiqun; Peter, Hardi; Vial, Jean-Claude; Zhukov, Andrei; Parenti, Susanna; Li, Hui; Romoli, Marco

    We present MASC, an innovative payload designed to explore the magnetic activity of the solar corona. It is composed of three complementary instruments: a Hard-X-ray spectrometer, a UV / EUV imager, and a Visible Light / UV polarimetric coronagraph able to measure the coronal magnetic field. The solar corona is structured in magnetically closed and open structures from which slow and fast solar winds are respectively released. In spite of much progress brought by two decades of almost uninterrupted observations from several space missions, the sources and acceleration mechanisms of both types are still not understood. This continuous expansion of the solar atmosphere is disturbed by sporadic but frequent and violent events. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale massive eruptions of magnetic structures out of the corona, while solar flares trace the sudden heating of coronal plasma and the acceleration of electrons and ions to high, sometimes relativistic, energies. Both phenomena are most probably driven by instabilities of the magnetic field in the corona. The relations between flares and CMEs are still not understood in terms of initiation and energy partition between large-scale motions, small-scale heating and particle acceleration. The initiation is probably related to magnetic reconnection which itself results magnetic topological changes due to e.g. flux emergence, footpoints motions, etc. Acceleration and heating are also strongly coupled since the atmospheric heating is thought to result from the impact of accelerated particles. The measurement of both physical processes and their outputs is consequently of major importance. However, despite its fundamental importance as a driver for the physics of the Sun and of the heliosphere, the magnetic field of our star’s outer atmosphere remains poorly understood. This is due in large part to the fact that the magnetic field is a very difficult quantity to measure. Our knowledge of its strength and

  13. Periodogram Analysis on Solar Activities Based on El Campo Solar Radar Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ye; Zhi-ning, Qu; Min, Wang; Guan-nan, Gao; Jun, Lin; Zhi-chun, Duan

    2016-10-01

    Solar radar can transmit radar waves toward the Sun actively at a specific waveband and receive the reflected waves. By analyzing the echoes, we can obtain the information of motion, magnetic field, and other properties of the solar atmosphere. The El Campo solar radar has done regular observations on the solar corona for 8 years from 1961 to 1969, to trace the variation of solar activities. We have made a periodicity analysis on the obtained data with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram algorithm, and found that there are the 200 day and 540 day periods existed in the variation of the measured solar radar cross section. In addition, we have selected the larger radar cross sections (≥ 20σ⊙) to compare with the Dst indexes. Finally, we have summarized the El Campo solar radar experiment and give a prospect for the future development of the solar radar observation.

  14. Magnetic helicity in emerging solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Bobra, M.; Hayashi, K.; Sun, X.; Schuck, P. W.

    2014-04-10

    Using vector magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we study magnetic helicity injection into the corona in emerging active regions (ARs) and examine the hemispheric helicity rule. In every region studied, photospheric shearing motion contributes most of the helicity accumulated in the corona. In a sample of 28 emerging ARs, 17 follow the hemisphere rule (61% ± 18% at a 95% confidence interval). Magnetic helicity and twist in 25 ARs (89% ± 11%) have the same sign. The maximum magnetic twist, which depends on the size of an AR, is inferred in a sample of 23 emerging ARs with a bipolar magnetic field configuration.

  15. Solar Activity and the Sea-surface Temperature Record-evidence of a Long-period Variation in Solar Total Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, George C.

    1990-01-01

    There have been many suggestions over the years of a connection between solar activity and the Earth's climate on time scales long compared to the 11-year sunspot cycle. They have remained little more than suggestions largely because of the major uncertainties in the climate record itself, and the difficulty in trying to compile a global average from an assembly of measurements that are uneven in both quality and distribution. Different climate time response to solar activity, some suggesting a positive correlation, some a negative correlation, and some no correlation at all. The only excuse for making yet another such suggestion is that much effort has been devoted in recent years to compiling climate records for the past century or more that are internally consistent and believable, and that a decadal-scale record of solar total irradiance is emerging from spacecraft measurements, and can be used to set limits on the variation that is likely to have occurred on these time scales. The work described here was originally inspired by the observation that the time series of globally averaged sea-surface temperatures over the past 120 years or so, as compiled by the British Meteorological Office group (Folland and Kates, 1984), bore a resonable similarity to the long-term average sunspot number, which is an indicator of the secular variability of solar activity. The two time series are shown where the sunspot number is shown as the 135-month running mean, and the SST variation is shown as the departure from an arbitrary average value. The simplest explanation of the similarity, if one accepts it as other than coincidental, is that the sun's luminosity may have been varying more or less in step with the level of solar activity, or in other words that there is a close coupling between the sun's magnetic condition and its radiative output on time scales longer than the 11-year cycle. Such an idea is not new, and in fact the time series shown can be regarded as a modern

  16. Solar Energy Education. Industrial arts: student activities. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In this teaching manual several activities are presented to introduce students to information on solar energy through classroom instruction. Wind power is also included. Instructions for constructing demonstration models for passive solar systems, photovoltaic cells, solar collectors and water heaters, and a bicycle wheel wind turbine are provided. (BCS)

  17. Babcock-Leighton Solar Dynamo: The Role of Downward Pumping and the Equatorward Propagation of Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Cameron, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The key elements of the Babcock-Leighton dynamos are the generation of poloidal field through decay and the dispersal of tilted bipolar active regions and the generation of toroidal field through the observed differential rotation. These models are traditionally known as flux transport dynamo models as the equatorward propagations of the butterfly wings in these models are produced due to an equatorward flow at the bottom of the convection zone. Here we investigate the role of downward magnetic pumping near the surface using a kinematic Babcock-Leighton model. We find that the pumping causes the poloidal field to become predominately radial in the near-surface shear layer, which allows the negative radial shear to effectively act on the radial field to produce a toroidal field. We observe a clear equatorward migration of the toroidal field at low latitudes as a consequence of the dynamo wave even when there is no meridional flow in the deep convection zone. Both the dynamo wave and the flux transport type solutions are thus able to reproduce some of the observed features of the solar cycle including the 11-year periodicity. The main difference between the two types of solutions is the strength of the Babcock-Leighton source required to produce the dynamo action. A second consequence of the magnetic pumping is that it suppresses the diffusion of fields through the surface, which helps to allow an 11-year cycle at (moderately) larger values of magnetic diffusivity than have previously been used.

  18. Are Solar Activity Variations Amplified by the QBO: A Modeling Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, J. G.; Mayr, H. G.; Drob, D. P.; Porter, H. S.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Solar cycle activity effects (SCAE) in the lower and middle atmosphere, reported in several studies, are difficult to explain on the basis of the small changes in solar radiation that accompany the 11-year cycle. It is therefore natural to speculate that dynamical processes may come into play to produce a leverage. Such a leverage may be provided by the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in the zonal circulation of the stratosphere, which has been linked to solar activity variations. Driven primarily by wave mean flow interaction, the QBO period and its amplitude are variable but are also strongly influenced by the seasonal cycle in the solar radiation. This influence extends to low altitudes and is referred to as 'downward control'. Small changes in the solar radiative forcing may produce small changes in the period and phase of the QBO, but these in turn may produce measurable differences in the wind field. Thus, the QBO may be an amplifier of solar activity variations and a natural conduit of these variations to lower altitudes. To test this hypothesis, we conducted experiments with a 2D version of our Numerical Spectral Model that incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GW). Solar cycle radiance variations (SCRV) are accounted for by changing the radiative heating rate on a logarithmic scale from 0.1% at the surface to 1% at 50 km to 10% at 100 km. With and without SCRV, but with the same GW flux, we then conduct numerical experiments to evaluate the magnitude of the SCAE in the zonal circulation. The numerical results indicate that, under certain conditions, the SCAE is significant and can extend to lower altitudes where the SCRV is small. For a modeled QBO period of 30 months, we find that the seasonal cycle in the solar forcing acts as a strong pacemaker to lock up the phase and period of the QBO. The SCAE then shows up primarily as a distinct but relatively weak amplitude modulation. But with a different QBO period

  19. Cosmic Ray 11-Year Modulation for Sunspot Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.; Ygbuhay, R. C.

    2015-02-01

    Galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) modulation at 1 AU for sunspot (SSN) Cycle 24 is studied using data from a global network of detectors and balloon measurements of low-energy ions at high latitudes in Russia. The observed modulation is modest compared with previous cycles. The tilt angle of the heliospheric current sheet reached a maximum value for Cycle 24 even though the peak of the interplanetary magnetic-field intensity at 1 AU has a much lower value (≈ 5 nT). The solar polar field in the northern hemisphere reversed in June 2012 and again in March 2014 while that in the southern hemisphere reversed in July 2013. The double field reversal in northern hemisphere after SSN maximum is not expected from dynamo theory. GCR modulation is at maximum phase in 2013. We have also studied the anomalous GCR recovery in 2009 using data from a low-energy proton channel on Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA). The rigidity dependence of the Cycle 24 modulation is computed using data from neutron monitors, directional muon telescopes at Nagoya, Japan, and detectors on balloons at high latitudes in Russia. It is a power law with an exponent -1.29, similar to previous solar cycles (-1.2±0.1); the nearly linear dependence of the modulation on the rigidity over a wide range poses a challenge to the quasi-linear theory (QLT) of GCR modulation.

  20. Solar-terrestrial predictions proceedings. Volume 4: Prediction of terrestrial effects of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donnelly, R. E. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Papers about prediction of ionospheric and radio propagation conditions based primarily on empirical or statistical relations is discussed. Predictions of sporadic E, spread F, and scintillations generally involve statistical or empirical predictions. The correlation between solar-activity and terrestrial seismic activity and the possible relation between solar activity and biological effects is discussed.

  1. Long-term persistence of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Feynman, Joan; Robinson, Paul

    1994-01-01

    We examine the question of whether or not the non-periodic variations in solar activity are caused by a white-noise, random process. The Hurst exponent, which characterizes the persistence of a time series, is evaluated for the series of C-14 data for the time interval from about 6000 BC to 1950 AD. We find a constant Hurst exponent, suggesting that solar activity in the frequency range from 100 to 3000 years includes an important continuum component in addition to the well-known periodic variations. The value we calculate, H approximately 0.8, is significantly larger than the value of 0.5 that would correspond to variations produced by a white-noise process. This value is in good agreement with the results for the monthly sunspot data reported elsewhere, indicating that the physics that produces the continuum is a correlated random process and that it is the same type of process over a wide range of time interval lengths.

  2. Prominences: The Key to Understanding Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpen, Judy T.

    2011-01-01

    Prominences are spectacular manifestations of both quiescent and eruptive solar activity. The largest examples can be seen with the naked eye during eclipses, making prominences among the first solar features to be described and catalogued. Steady improvements in temporal and spatial resolution from both ground- and space-based instruments have led us to recognize how complex and dynamic these majestic structures really are. Their distinguishing characteristics - cool knots and threads suspended in the hot corona, alignment along inversion lines in the photospheric magnetic field within highly sheared filament channels, and a tendency to disappear through eruption - offer vital clues as to their origin and dynamic evolution. Interpreting these clues has proven to be contentious, however, leading to fundamentally different models that address the basic questions: What is the magnetic structure supporting prominences, and how does so much cool, dense plasma appear in the corona? Despite centuries of increasingly detailed observations, the magnetic and plasma structures in prominences are poorly known. Routine measurements of the vector magnetic field in and around prominences have become possible only recently, while long-term monitoring of the underlying filament-channel formation process also remains scarce. The process responsible for prominence mass is equally difficult to establish, although we have long known that the chromosphere is the only plausible source. As I will discuss, however, the motions and locations of prominence material can be used to trace the coronal field, thus defining the magnetic origins of solar eruptions. A combination of observations, theory, and numerical modeling must be used to determine whether any of the competing theories accurately represents the physics of prominences. I will discuss the criteria for a successful prominence model, compare the leading models, and present in detail one promising, comprehensive scenario for

  3. Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Theresa A; Hayes, Dayle

    2008-06-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. The health status of American children has generally improved during the past 3 decades. However, the number of children who are overweight has more than doubled among 2- to 5-year-old children and more than tripled among 6- to 11-year-old children, which has major health consequences. This increase in childhood overweight has broadened the focus of dietary guidance to address children's overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and physical activity patterns. Health promotion will help reduce diet-related risks of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This position reviews what US children are eating and explores trends in food and nutrient intakes as well as the impact of school meals on children's diets. Dietary recommendations and guidelines and the benefits of physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of healthful eating behaviors are highlighted. Specific recommendations and sources of nutrition messages to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for food and nutrition professionals

  4. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Dietary guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Thersea; Johnson, Rachel

    2004-04-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. The health status of American children has generally improved over the past three decades. However, the number of children who are overweight has more than doubled among 2- to 5-year-old children and more than tripled among 6- to 11-year-old children, which has major health consequences. This increase in childhood overweight has broadened the focus of dietary guidance to address children's over consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and physical activity patterns. Health promotion will help reduce diet-related risks of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This position paper reviews what US children are eating and explores trends in food and nutrient intakes as well as the impact of school meals on children's diets. Dietary recommendations and guidelines and the benefits of physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The American Dietetic Association works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into achievable, healthful messages. Specific recommendations to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for dietetics professionals, parents, and caregivers.

  5. Solar Activity Studies using Microwave Imaging Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the status of solar cycle 24 based on polar prominence eruptions (PEs) and microwave brightness enhancement (MBE) information obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph. The north polar region of the Sun had near-zero field strength for more than three years (2012-2015) and ended only in September 2015 as indicated by the presence of polar PEs and the lack of MBE. The zero-polar-field condition in the south started only around 2013, but it ended by June 2014. Thus the asymmetry in the times of polarity reversal switched between cycle 23 and 24. The polar MBE is a good proxy for the polar magnetic field strength as indicated by the high degree of correlation between the two. The cross-correlation between the high- and low-latitude MBEs is significant for a lag of approximately 5.5 to 7.3 years, suggesting that the polar field of one cycle indicates the sunspot number of the next cycle in agreement with the Babcock-Leighton mechanism of solar cycles. The extended period of near-zero field in the north-polar region should result in a weak and delayed sunspot activity in the northern hemisphere in cycle 25.

  6. Solar Activity Forecasting for use in Orbit Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    Orbital prediction for satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) or low planetary orbit depends strongly on exospheric densities. Solar activity forecasting is important in orbital prediction, as the solar UV and EUV inflate the upper atmospheric layers of the Earth and planets, forming the exosphere in which satellites orbit. Geomagnetic effects also relate to solar activity. Because of the complex and ephemeral nature of solar activity, with different cycles varying in strength by more than 100%, many different forecasting techniques have been utilized. The methods range from purely numerical techniques (essentially curve fitting) to numerous oddball schemes, as well as a small subset, called 'Precursor techniques.' The situation can be puzzling, owing to the numerous methodologies involved, somewhat akin to the numerous ether theories near the turn of the last century. Nevertheless, the Precursor techniques alone have a physical basis, namely dynamo theory, which provides a physical explanation for why this subset seems to work. I discuss this solar cycle's predictions, as well as the Sun's observed activity. I also discuss the SODA (Solar Dynamo Amplitude) index, which provides the user with the ability to track the Sun's hidden, interior dynamo magnetic fields. As a result, one may then update solar activity predictions continuously, by monitoring the solar magnetic fields as they change throughout the solar cycle. This paper ends by providing a glimpse into what the next solar cycle (#24) portends.

  7. Downward Link of Solar Activity Variations Through Wave Driven Equatorial Oscillations (QBO and SAO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, J. G.; Mayr, H. G.; Chan, K. L.; Porter, H. S.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Signatures of the 11-year solar activity/irradiance cycle are observed in the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) of the lower stratosphere. At these altitudes, the QBO is understood to be the result of "downward control" exerted by the wave mean flow interactions that drive the phenomenon. It is reasonable then to speculate that the QBO is a natural conduit to lower altitudes of solar activity variations in radiance (SAV). To test this hypothesis, we conducted experiments with a 2D version of our Numerical Spectral Model that incorporates Hines' Doppler Spread Parameterization for small-scale gravity waves (GW). To account for the SAV, we change the solar heating rate on a logarithmic scale from 0.1% at the surface to 1% at 50 kin to 10% at 100 km. With the same GW flux, we then conduct numerical experiments to evaluate the magnitude of the solar activity irradiance effect (SAE) on the zonal circulation at low latitudes. The numerical results obtained show that, under certain conditions, the SAE is significant in the zonal circulation and does extend to lower altitudes where the SAV is small. The differences in the wind velocities can be as large as 5 m/s at 20 kin. We carried out two numerical experiments with integrations over more than 20 years: 1) With the QBO period "tuned" to be 30 months, of academic interest but instructive, the seasonal cycle in the solar forcing [through the Semi-annual Oscillation (SAO)] acts as a strong pacemaker to produce a firm lock on the period and phase of the QBO. The SAE then shows up primarily as a distinct but relatively weak amplitude modulation. 2) With the QBO period between 30 and 34 (or less than 30, presumably) months, the seasonal phase lock is weak compared with (1). The SAV in the seasonal cycle then causes variations in the QBO period and phase, and this amplifies the SAE to produce relatively large variations in the wind field. We conclude that, under realistic conditions as in (2), the solar seasonal forcing, with

  8. Revisiting the question: Does high-latitude solar activity lead low-latitude solar activity in time phase?

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, D. F.; Qu, Z. N.; Guo, Q. L.

    2014-05-01

    Cross-correlation analysis and wavelet transform methods are used to investigate whether high-latitude solar activity leads low-latitude solar activity in time phase or not, using the data of the Carte Synoptique solar filaments archive from 1919 March to 1989 December. From the cross-correlation analysis, high-latitude solar filaments have a time lead of 12 Carrington solar rotations with respect to low-latitude ones. Both the cross-wavelet transform and wavelet coherence indicate that high-latitude solar filaments lead low-latitude ones in time phase. Furthermore, low-latitude solar activity is better correlated with high-latitude solar activity of the previous cycle than with that of the following cycle, which is statistically significant. Thus, the present study confirms that high-latitude solar activity in the polar regions is indeed better correlated with the low-latitude solar activity of the following cycle than with that of the previous cycle, namely, leading in time phase.

  9. Long-term variation of solar activity: recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquero, J. M.

    2017-03-01

    The concept of solar activity is a common term nowadays. However, it is not straight-forwardly interpreted and it is ambiguously defined. A review of our knowledge of the long-term behavior of solar activity in the past is presented, as reconstructed using the indirect proxy method (millennial time scale) and the direct historical observations (secular time scale). The latest international efforts to obtain a series of sunspot numbers of the last four centuries are reviewed. Observations of sunspots during the Maunder minimum (1645–1715) are particularly interesting and they show the solar cycle during this period of Grand Minimum of solar activity.

  10. Solar activity affects avian timing of reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Marcel E.; Sanz, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    Avian timing of reproduction is strongly affected by ambient temperature. Here we show that there is an additional effect of sunspots on laying date, from five long-term population studies of great and blue tits (Parus major and Cyanistes caeruleus), demonstrating for the first time that solar activity not only has an effect on population numbers but that it also affects the timing of animal behaviour. This effect is statistically independent of ambient temperature. In years with few sunspots, birds initiate laying late while they are often early in years with many sunspots. The sunspot effect may be owing to a crucial difference between the method of temperature measurements by meteorological stations (in the shade) and the temperatures experienced by the birds. A better understanding of the impact of all the thermal components of weather on the phenology of ecosystems is essential when predicting their responses to climate change. PMID:19574283

  11. Active Vibration Damping of Solar Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinicke, Gunar; Baier, Horst; Grillebeck, Anton; Scharfeld, Frank; Hunger, Joseph; Abou-El-Ela, A.; Lohberg, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    Current generations of large solar array panels are lightweight and flexible constructions to reduce net masses. They undergo strong vibrations during launch. The active vibration damping is one convenient option to reduce vibration responses and limit stresses in facesheets. In this study, two actuator concepts are used for vibration damping. A stack interface actuator replaces a panel hold down and is decoupled from bending moments and shear forces. Piezoelectric patch actuators are used as an alternative, where the number, position and size of actuators are mainly driven by controllability analyses. Linear Quadratic Gaussian control is used to attenuate vibrations of selected mode shapes with both actuators. Simulations as well as modal and acoustic tests show the feasibility of selected actuator concepts.

  12. Solar Irradiance Variations on Active Region Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labonte, B. J. (Editor); Chapman, G. A. (Editor); Hudson, H. S. (Editor); Willson, R. C. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The variations of the total solar irradiance is an important tool for studying the Sun, thanks to the development of very precise sensors such as the ACRIM instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission. The largest variations of the total irradiance occur on time scales of a few days are caused by solar active regions, especially sunspots. Efforts were made to describe the active region effects on total and spectral irradiance.

  13. Solar air-conditioning-active, hybrid and passive

    SciTech Connect

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    After a discussion of summer air conditioning requirements in the United States, active, hybrid, and passive cooling systems are defined. Active processes and systems include absorption, Rankine cycle, and a small variety of miscellaneous systems. The hybrid solar cooling and dehumidification technology of desiccation is covered as well as evaporative cooling. The passive solar cooling processes covered include convective, radiative and evaporative cooling. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is then discussed. (LEW)

  14. Solar cycle changes in the polar solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, W. A.; Rickett, B. J.; Rumsey, V. H.; Kaufman, J. J.; Turley, D. G.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Armstrong, J. W.; Harmons, J. K.; Scott, S. L.; Sime, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that although the 11 year solar cycle was first recognized in 1843, it is still only poorly understood. Further, while there are satisfactory models for the magnetic variations, the underlying physics is still obscure. New observations on the changing three-dimensional form of the solar wind are presented which help relate some of the modulations observed in geomagnetic activity, the ionosphere, and the flux of galactic cosmic rays.

  15. The periodicities of Solar Magnetic Activity with the Wavelet Coherence Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel

    The origin, behavior and evolution of the solar magnetic field is one of the main challenges of observational and theoretical solar physics. Up to now the Dynamo theory gives us the best approach to the problem. However, it is not yet able to predict many features of the solar activity, which seems not to be strictly a periodical phenomenon. Among the indicators of solar magnetic variability there is the 11-years cycle of sunspots, as well as the solar magnetic cycle of 22 years (the Hale cycle). In order to provide more elements to the Dynamo theory that could help it in the predicting task, we analyze here the plausible existence of other periodicities associated with the solar magnetic field. In this preliminary work we use historical data (sunspots and aurora borealis), proxies (10 Be and 14 C) and modern instrumental data (Coronal Holes, Cosmic Rays, sunspots, flare indexes and solar radio flux at 10.7 cm). To find relationships between different time-frequency series we have employed the Wavelet Coherence technique: this technique indicates if two time-series of solar activity have the same periodicities in a given time interval. If so, it determines whether such relation is a linear one or not. Such a powerful tool indicates that, if some periodicity at a given frequency has a confidence level below 95%, it appears very lessened or does not appear in the Wavelet Spectral Analysis, such periodicity does not exist. Our results show that the so called Glaisberg cycle of 80-90 years and the periodicity of 205 years (the Suess cycle) do not exist. It can be speculated that such fictitious periodicities have been the result of using the Fourier transform with series with are not of stationary nature, as it is the case of the Be10 and C14 series. In contrast we confirm the presence of periodicities of 1.3, 1.7, quasi-triennial, quasi-quinquennial, Shawabe-cycle, Gale-cycle 60, 120 and 240 years.

  16. Solar irradiance modulation by active regions from 1969 through 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Schatten, K.H.; Miller, N.; Sofia, S.; Oster, L.

    1982-01-01

    The solar irradiance variations resulting from sunspot deficits and facular excesses in emission have been calculated from 1969 through 1980. Agreement appears to exist between our calculations and the major features seen with the Nimbus 7 cavity pyrheliometer and with both the major and minor features detected by The Solar Maximum Mission ACRIM experiment. The 12-year irradiance variations we calculate suggest a larger variance with increased solar activity, and little change in the average irradiance with solar activity. The largest excursions over these 12 years show a 0.4% variation. Removal of the activity influences upon solar irradiance during the numerous rocket experiments observing the solar ''constant'' may allow a better value for this quantity to be determined.

  17. Correlative Aspects of the Solar Electron Neutrino Flux and Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Between 1970 and 1994, the Homestake Solar Neutrino Detector obtained 108 observations of the solar electron neutrino flux (less than 0.814 MeV). The "best fit" values derived from these observations suggest an average daily production rate of about 0.485 Ar-37 atom per day, a rate equivalent to about 2.6 SNU (solar neutrino units) or about a factor of 3 below the expected rate from the standard solar model. In order to explain, at least, a portion of this discrepancy, some researchers have speculated that the flux of solar neutrinos is variable, possibly being correlated with various markers of the solar cycle (e.g., sunspot number, the Ap index, etc.). In this paper, using the larger "standard data set," the issue of correlative behavior between solar electron neutrino flux and solar activity is re-examined. The results presented here clearly indicate that no statistically significant association exists between any of the usual markers of solar activity and the solar electron neutrino flux.

  18. The Signal of the 11-Year Sunspot Cycle in the Upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labitzke, K.; van Loon, H.

    1997-05-01

    The paper summarizes work by the authors over the past ten years on an apparent signal of the 11-year sunspot cycle in the lower stratosphere-upper troposphere. The signal appears as a basic, consistent pattern in correlations between heights of stratospheric constant-pressure levels, at least as high as 25 km, and the solar cycle in which the highest correlations are in the subtropics. The variation of the stratospheric heights in phase with the sunspot cycle are - in the areas of high correlations between the two - associated with temperature variations on the same time scale in the middle and upper troposphere. The spatial distribution of the correlations suggests that the year-to-year changes in tropical and subtropical vertical motions contain a component on the time scale of the solar cycle. In January and February the correlations with the sunspot cycle are smallest. The smallness of the correlations is owing to the fact that they are different in the east and west years of the quasi-biennial oscillation in the equatorial stratospheric winds. The correlation pattern in the east years is the same as in the other seasons and is statistically significant. In the west years the correlations are insignificant outside the arctic, and the positive correlation in the arctic in these years is related to the fact that major midwinter breakdowns of the cyclonic vortex in the west years so far have happened only at maxima in the solar cycle. Until recently reliable continuous series of analyses of the stratosphere were not available for the southern hemisphere. The U.S. National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research have now, however, issued a 23-year series of re-analyzed global data which has made it possible to detect the solar signal on the southern hemisphere. It turns out to be almost the same as that on the northern hemisphere. The correlations between total column ozone and the sunspot cycle are lowest in the

  19. Multi-wavelength solar activity complexes evolution from Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolkova, Olga; Benevolenskaya, Elena

    The main problem of the solar physics is to understand a nature of the solar magnetic activity. New space missions and background observations provide us by data describing solar activity with a good space and time resolution. Space missions data observe the solar activity in multi-wavelength emissions come from photosphere to corona. The complex of the solar activity has roots in inte-rior and extends to the solar corona. Thus, modern data give an opportunity to study the activity on the Sun at different levels simultaneously. Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) [1] which launched at the beginning of 2010, looks at Sun in different wavelengths such as coronal lines 171Å & 335Å. Also SDO measures photospheric magnetic flux (line-of-sight component of the magnetic field strength) and gives images in continuum. We have studied a stable complexes of the solar activity (about 30 com-plexes) during 6 hours from 10 March 2013 to 14 October 2013 using 720s ca-dence of HMI (Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager) [2] and AIA (Atmospheric Imaging Assembly) [3] instruments of SDO. We have found a good relationship between the magnetic flux and coronal emissions. Here we discuss properties of the complexes in the different levels from photosphere to corona. References 1. W. Dean Pesnell, B.J. Thompson, P.C. Chamberlin // Solar Phys., v. 275, p. 3-15, (2012). 2. P.H. Scherrer, J. Schou, R.I. Bush et al. // Solar Phys., v. 275, p. 207-227, (2012). 3. James R. Lemen • Alan M. Title • David J. Akin et al. // Solar Phys., v. 275, p. 17-40, (2012).

  20. Are solar activity and sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus strandings around the North Sea related?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow, Klaus Heinrich; Ricklefs, Klaus

    2005-04-01

    In the final decades of the last century, an increasing number of strandings of male sperm whales ( Physeter macrocephalus) around the North Sea led to an increase in public interest. Anthropogenic influences (such as contaminants or intensive sound disturbances) are supposed to be the main causes, but natural environmental effects may also explain the disorientation of the animals. We compared the documented sperm whale strandings in the period from 1712 to 2003 with solar activity, especially with sun spot number periodicity and found that 90% of 97 sperm whale stranding events around the North Sea took place when the smoothed sun spot period length was below the mean value of 11 years, while only 10% happened during periods of longer sun spot cycles. The relation becomes even more pronounced (94% to 6%, n = 70) if a smaller time window from November to March is used (which seems to be the main southward migration period of male sperm whales). Adequate chi-square tests of the data give a significance of 1% error probability that sperm whale strandings can depend on solar activity. As an alternative explanation, we suggest that variations of the earth's magnetic field, due to variable energy fluxes from the sun to the earth, may cause a temporary disorientation of migrating animals.

  1. Recent Perplexing Behavior in Solar Activity Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, James C.

    1997-05-01

    Calcium K and Hα and SOHO He II UV plage and sunspot ara have been monitored using images on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The purpose of the project is to determine the degree of correlation between changing plage area and solar irradiance changes (also obtained via the INTERNET). Also the project provides a low cost process to involve undergraduates in astronomy research. When using weighted weekly averages for both spot Hα plage pixel counts, we see the expected decline from the last maximum. The activity continues to decline, or at best, has flattened out over the past several months. In contrast, the K-line plage pixel count from both Big Bear and Sacramento Peak show an upswing since mid-1995 or earlier. The k2 measurments from both Kitt Peak and Sacramento Peak are in general agreement with the spot and Hα behavior, indicating wer are in, or barely passed minimum. Images high in the chromosphere, detailing the magnetic network, may be more senstive to smaller field changes. This might be a partial explanation for the earlier upswing in K line and He 304 activity, which are receiving radiation near or at the top of the chromosphere.

  2. Activity of the northern and southern hemispheres as a basis of the solar cycle manifestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, M. I.

    2015-12-01

    The dynamics of the evolution of solar cycles is considered a result of the activity manifestation in the northern and southern hemispheres. A study was performed based on separate datasets for the northern and southern hemispheres that contain the monthly and daily averages of the areas of sunspot groups for the period covering activity cycles from 12 to 24 (1874-2013) and the daily values of the Wolf number in the northern and southern hemispheres during cycles 23-24 (1992-2013).To obtain a pattern of development of the "northern" and "southern" solar cycles in detail, a special technique for the extended application of the wavelet analysis has been developed. It allows different the wave processes forming a solar cycle to be distinguished, together with the time of their existence. The application of bandpass Fourier filtering to the obtained data shows that the length of "11-year" cycles by the index S p varies from 10.2 to 11.5 years in the northern hemisphere and from 9.7 to 13.2 years in the southern. The 19th "northern" and 18th "southern" cycles turned out to be maximal. The formation of each of the cycles by all activity indices is determined by the joint effect of long-period processes lasting from 3 to 7 years and short-period processes lasting less than 2 years. When moving from one cycle to another, the long-period processes demonstrate mergings, separations, modulation, and periodic decays. The abnormal activity that appears during the growth, maximum, or decay phase of a cycle is formed at the expense of the simultaneous strengthening of short-period processes, the lengths and "period spectra" of which noticeably differ in the northern and southern hemispheres.

  3. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of the Rigidity Spectrum of the 27-Day Variation of the Galactic Cosmic Ray Intensity in Different Epochs of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, A.; Alania, M. V.

    2013-04-01

    We consider the recent, very exceptional, 11-year cycle (2003 - 2009) of solar activity and confirm that the relative amplitude in rigidity spectrum, δD( R)/ D( R), which can be approximated by a power law in rigidity R, of the first three harmonics of the 27-day variation of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity is hard in the maximum and soft in the minimum epochs of solar activity, as was found by neutron monitor data for the period of 1965 - 2002. This property is seen not only in separate minimum and maximum epochs but in individual intervals of a solar Carrington rotation as well: There exist many individual intervals of solar rotation when the expected rigidity spectrum of the 27-day variation of the GCR intensity indeed is hard in the maximum epoch of solar activity and is soft in the minimum epoch. We then construct a three-dimensional model of the 27-day variation of the GCR intensity based on Parker's transport equation, by implementing in situ measurements of the changes in heliographic longitude of the solar wind velocity and interplanetary magnetic field for different epochs of solar activity.

  4. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  5. Heliospheric Consecuences of Solar Activity In Several Interplanetary Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Mendoza, B.; Lara, A.; Maravilla, D.

    We have done an analysis of several phenomena related to solar activity such as the total magnetic flux, coronal hole area and sunspots, investigated its long trend evolu- tion over several solar cycles and its possible relationships with interplanetary shocks, sudden storm commencements at earth and cosmic ray variations. Our results stress the physical connection between the solar magnetic flux emergence and the interplan- etary medium dynamics, in particular the importance of coronal hole evolution in the structuring of the heliosphere.

  6. Bayesian Infernce for Indentifying Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, Judit; Turmon, Michael; Mukhtar, Saleem

    1997-01-01

    The solar chromosphere consists of three classes-- plage, network, background -- which contribute differently to ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth. Solar physicists are interested in relating plage area and intensity to UV irradiance, as well as understanding the spatial and temporal evolution of plage shapes.

  7. On the Relationship Between Solar Wind Speed, Geomagnetic Activity, and the Solar Cycle Using Annual Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2008-01-01

    The aa index can be decomposed into two separate components: the leading sporadic component due to solar activity as measured by sunspot number and the residual or recurrent component due to interplanetary disturbances, such as coronal holes. For the interval 1964-2006, a highly statistically important correlation (r = 0.749) is found between annual averages of the aa index and the solar wind speed (especially between the residual component of aa and the solar wind speed, r = 0.865). Because cyclic averages of aa (and the residual component) have trended upward during cycles 11-23, cyclic averages of solar wind speed are inferred to have also trended upward.

  8. Solar Activity, Different Geomagnetic Activity Levels and Acute Myocardial Infarction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Svetla; Jordanova, Malina; Stoilova, Irina; Taseva, Tatiana; Maslarov, Dimitar

    Results on revealing a possible relationship between solar activity (SA) and geomagnetic activity (GMA) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) morbidity are presented. Studies were based on medical data covering the period from 1.12.1995 to 31.12.2004 and concerned daily distribution of patients with AMI diagnose (in total 1192 cases) from Sofia region on the day of admission at the hospital. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to check the significance of GMA intensity effect and the type of geomagnetic storms, those caused by Magnetic Clouds (MC) and by High Speed Solar Wind Streams (HSSWS), on AMI morbidity. Relevant correlation coefficients were calculated. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlation between considered GMA indices and AMI. ANOVA revealed that AMI number was signifi- cantly increased from the day before (-1st) till the day after (+1st) geomagnetic storms with different intensities. Geomagnetic storms caused by MC were related to significant increase of AMI number in comparison with the storms caused by HSSWS. There was a trend for such different effects even on -1st and +1st day.

  9. A comment on the suspected solar neutrino -- solar activity connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that there exists a highly statistically significant (at greater than or equal to 98% level of confidence) relationship between Ar-37 production rate (namely, solar neutrinos) and the Ap geomagnetic index (namely, solar particles), based on the chi-square goodness-of-fit test and correlation analysis, for the interval 1970-1990. While a relationship between the two parameters, indeed, seems to be discernible, the strength of the relationship has been overstated. Instead of being significant at the afore-mentioned level of confidence, the relationship is found to be significant at only greater than or equal to 95% level of confidence, based on Yates' modification to the chi-square test for 2 x 2 contingency tables. Likewise, while correlation analysis yields a value of r = 0.2691, it is important to note that such a value suggests that only about 7% of the variance can be 'explained' by the inferred correlation and that the remaining 93% of the variance must be attributed to other sources.

  10. Recent perspectives in solar physics - Elemental composition, coronal structure and magnetic fields, solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newkirk, G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Elemental abundances in the solar corona are studied. Abundances in the corona, solar wind and solar cosmic rays are compared to those in the photosphere. The variation in silicon and iron abundance in the solar wind as compared to helium is studied. The coronal small and large scale structure is investigated, emphasizing magnetic field activity and examining cosmic ray generation mechanisms. The corona is observed in the X-ray and EUV regions. The nature of coronal transients is discussed with emphasis on solar-wind modulation of galactic cosmic rays. A schematic plan view of the interplanetary magnetic field during sunspot minimum is given showing the presence of magnetic bubbles and their concentration in the region around 4-5 AU by a fast solar wind stream.

  11. DOE Solar Process Heat Program: FY1991 Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, R.

    1992-11-01

    During fiscal year (FY) 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Process Heat Program implemented a Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity. For Program purposes, a prefeasibility study is an engineering assessment that investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a solar system for a specific application for a specific end-user. The study includes an assessment of institutional issues (e.g., financing, availability of insurance, etc.) that impact the feasibility of the proposed solar project. Solar process heat technology covers solar thermal energy systems (utilizing flat plate or concentrating solar Collectors) for water heating, water preheating, cooling/refrigeration, steam generation, ventilation air heating/preheating, etc. for applications in industry, commerce, and government. The studies are selected for funding through a competitive solicitation. For FY 1991, six projects were selected for funding. As of August 31, 1992, three teams had completed their studies. This paper describes the prefeasibility studies activity, presents the results from the study performed by United Solar Technologies, and summarizes the conclusions from the studies that have been completed to date and their implications for the Solar Process Heat Program.

  12. Department of Energy solar process heat program: FY 1991 solar process heat prefeasibility studies activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewett, R.

    1992-11-01

    During fiscal year (FY) 1991, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Process Heat Program implemented a Solar Process Heat Prefeasibility Studies activity. For Program purposes, a prefeasibility study is an engineering assessment that investigates the technical and economic feasibility of a solar system for a specific application for a specific end-user. The study includes an assessment of institutional issues (e.g., financing, availability of insurance, etc.) that impact the feasibility of the proposed solar project. Solar process heat technology covers solar thermal energy systems (utilizing flat plate or concentrating solar collectors) for water heating, water preheating, cooling/refrigeration, steam generation, ventilation air heating/preheating, etc., for applications in industry, commerce, and government. The studies are selected for funding through a competitive solicitation. For FY-91, six projects were selected for funding. As of 31 Aug. 1992, three teams had completed their studies. This paper describes the prefeasibility studies activity, presents the results from the study performed by United Solar Technologies, and summarizes the conclusions from the studies that have been completed to date and their implications for the Solar Process Heat Program.

  13. PERSPECTIVE: Low solar activity is blamed for winter chill over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benestad, Rasmus E.

    2010-06-01

    of long-term high-quality observations from remote sensing platforms. It is nevertheless well known that the temperature in northern Europe is strongly affected by atmospheric circulation. Crooks and Gray (2005) have identified a solar response in a number of atmospheric variables, and Labitske (1987), Labitske and Loon (1988) and Salby and Callagan (2000) provide convincing analyses suggesting that the zonal winds in the stratosphere are influenced by solar activity. Furthermore, Baldwin and Dunkerton (2001) provide a tentative link between the stratosphere and the troposphere. The results of Lockwood et al (2010) fit in with earlier work (Barriopedro et al 2008) and provide further evidence to support the current thinking on solar-terrestrial links. Thus, it is an example of incremental scientific progress rather than a breakthrough or a paradigm shift. References Baldwin M P and Dunkerton T J 2001 Stratospheric harbingers of anomalous weather regimes Science 294 581-4 Barriopedro D, Garcia-Herrera R and Huth R 2008 Solar modulation of Northern Hemisphere winter blocking J. Geophys. Res. 113 D14118 Benestad R E 2005 A review of the solar cycle length estimates Geophys. Res. Lett. 32 L15714 Benestad R E and Schmidt G A 2009 Solar trends and global warming J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 114 D14101 Crook S A and Gray L J 2005 Characterization of the 11-year solar signal using a multiple regression analysis of the ERA-40 dataset J. Climate 18 996-1014 Haigh J D 2003 The effects of solar variability on the Earth's climate Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 361 95-111 Helland-Hansen B and Nansen F 1920 Temperature variations in the North Atlantic ocean and in the atmosphere Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 70 (4) 408 pp Labitzke K 1987 Sunspots, the QBO, and the stratospheric temperature in the North polar region Geophys. Res. Lett. 14 535-7 Labitzke K and van Loon H 1988 Association between the 11-year solar cycle, the QBO, and the atmosphere, I. The troposphere and

  14. The North-South asymmetry of solar activity: A signature of two coupled chaotic oscillators?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, Reik V.

    2010-05-01

    The phase-coherent oscillatory dynamics on the 11-year frequency band (Schwabe cycle) is a common feature in all characteristic observables of solar activity. In this work, a wavelet-based framework [1,2] is applied for studying the mutual phase synchronicity of these oscillations. As a problem of specific scientific interest, the variability recorded on both solar hemispheres is systematically studied. It is demonstrated that time-varying phase shifts between the activity on Northern and Southern hemispheres provides a major contribution to the so-called North-South asymmetry (NSA). The presented results indicate that the NSA observations are consistent with the assumption of a different long-term phase diffusion of two weekly chaotic coupled oscillators, which evolve coherently in time. The obtained quantitative results on the variability of interhemispheric phase shifts are critically compared with the outcome of other studies using complementary methods of time series analysis [3]. The statistical reliability and implications of the derived long-term phase shift variability result are discussed. By using sophisticated methods for time series continuation and extrapolation [4], the recently hypothesised relationship between strong phase asynchrony of hemispheric variability and the occurrence of great minima of solar activity [5] is critically reexamined. References: [1] R. Donner, M. Thiel, A&A 475, L33-L36 (2007) [2] R. Donner, in: Nonlinear Time Series Analysis in the Geosciences (ed. by R.V. Donner and S.M. Barbosa), Springer, Berlin, 2008, pp. 355-386 [3] N.V. Zolotova, D.I. Ponyavin, N. Marwan, J. Kurths, A&A 503, 197-201 (2009) [4] C. Komalapriya, M. Thiel, M.C. Romano, N. Marwan, U. Schwarz, J. Kurths, Phys. Rev. E 78, 066217 (2008) [5] N.V. Zolotova, D.I. Ponyavin, A&A 470, L17-L20 (2007)

  15. The Nitrate Content of Greenland Ice and Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocharov, G. E.; Kudryavtsev, I. V.; Ogurtsov, M. G.; Sonninen, E.; Jungner, H.

    2000-12-01

    Past solar activity is studied based on analysis of data on the nitrate content of Greenland ice in the period from 1576 1991. Hundred-year (over the entire period) and quasi-five-year (in the middle of the 18th century) variations in the nitrate content are detected. These reflect the secular solar-activity cycle and cyclicity in the flare activity of the Sun.

  16. Possible relationships between solar activity and atmospheric constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roosen, R. G.; Angione, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The large body of data on solar variations and atmospheric constituents collected between 1902 and 1953 by the Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution (APO) was examined. Short-term variations in amounts of atmospheric aerosols and water vapor due to seasonal changes, volcanic activity, air pollution, and frontal activity are discussed. Preliminary evidence indicates that increased solar activity is at times associated with a decrease in attenuation due to airborne particulates.

  17. Solar Energy Education. Renewable energy activities for biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    An instructional aid for teachers is presented that will allow biology students the opportunity to learn about renewable energy sources. Some of the school activities include using leaves as collectors of solar energy, solar energy stored in wood, and a fuel value test for green and dry woods. A study of organic wastes as a source of fuel is included. (BCS)

  18. Solar energy education. Renewable energy activities for general science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Renewable energy topics are integrated with the study of general science. The literature is provided in the form of a teaching manual and includes such topics as passive solar homes, siting a home for solar energy, and wind power for the home. Other energy topics are explored through library research activities. (BCS)

  19. Solar-collector manufacturing activity, July through December, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1982-03-01

    Solar thermal collector and solar cell manufacturing activity is both summarized and tabulated. Data are compared for three survey periods (July through December, 1981; January through June, 1981; and July through December, 1980). Annual totals are also provided for the years 1979 through 1981. Data include total producer shipments, end use, market sector, imports and exports. (LEW)

  20. The 3-D solar radioastronomy and the structure of the corona and the solar wind. [solar probes of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, J. L.; Caroubalos, C.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanism causing solar radio bursts (1 and 111) is examined. It is proposed that a nonthermal energy source is responsible for the bursts; nonthermal energy is converted into electromagnetic energy. The advantages are examined for an out-of-the-ecliptic solar probe mission, which is proposed as a means of stereoscopically viewing solar radio bursts, solar magnetic fields, coronal structure, and the solar wind.

  1. A new perspective on solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, K. T.; Bruner, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    A flood of new observations of the solar corona have been made with high spatial resolution, good temporal coverage and resolution, and large linear dynamic range by the Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT) on Yohkoh. These data are changing our fundamental understanding of how solar magnetic fields emerge, interact, and dissipate. This paper reviews some of the results from Yohkoh in the context of earlier results from the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and in comjunction with ground-based optical and radio observations.

  2. Analysis of regression methods for solar activity forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, C. A.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with the potential use of the most recent solar data to project trends in the next few years. Assuming that a mode of solar influence on weather can be identified, advantageous use of that knowledge presumably depends on estimating future solar activity. A frequently used technique for solar cycle predictions is a linear regression procedure along the lines formulated by McNish and Lincoln (1949). The paper presents a sensitivity analysis of the behavior of such regression methods relative to the following aspects: cycle minimum, time into cycle, composition of historical data base, and unnormalized vs. normalized solar cycle data. Comparative solar cycle forecasts for several past cycles are presented as to these aspects of the input data. Implications for the current cycle, No. 21, are also given.

  3. The solar activity by wavelet-based multifractal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruyama, Fumio

    2016-12-01

    The interest in the relation between the solar activity and climate change is increasing. As for the solar activity, a fractal property of the sunspot series was studied by many works. In general, a fractal property was observed in the time series of dynamics of complex systems. The purposes of this study were to investigate the relationship between the sunspot number, solar radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7 cm) and total ozone from a view of multifractality. To detect the changes of multifractality, we examined the multifractal analysis on the time series of the solar activity and total ozone indices. The changes of fractality of the sunspot number and F10.7 cm are very similar. When the sunspot number becomes maximum, the fractality of the F10.7 cm changes from multifractality to monofractality. The changes of fractality of the F10.7 cm and the total ozone are very similar. When the sunspot number becomes maximum, the fractality of the total ozone changes from multifractality to monofractality. A change of fractality of the F10.7 cm and total ozone was observed when the solar activity became maximum. The influence of the solar activity on the total ozone was shown by the wavelet coherence, phase and the similarity of the change of fractality. These findings will contribute to the research of the relationship between the solar activity and climate.

  4. On statistical relationship of solar, geomagnetic and human activities.

    PubMed

    Alania, M V; Gil, A; Modzelewska, R

    2004-01-01

    Data of galactic cosmic rays, solar and geomagnetic activities and solar wind parameters on the one side and car accident events (CAE) in Poland on the other have been analyzed in order to reveal the statistical relationships among them for the period of 1990-2001. Cross correlation and cross spectrum of the galactic cosmic ray intensity, the solar wind (SW) velocity, Kp index of geomagnetic activity and CAE in Poland have been carried out. It is shown that in some epochs of the above-mentioned period there is found a reliable relationship between CAE and solar and geomagnetic activities parameters in the range of the different periodicities, especially, 7 days. The periodicity of 7 days revealed in the data of the CAE has the maximum on Friday without any exception for the minimum and maximum epochs of solar activity. However, the periodicity of 7 days is reliably revealed in other parameters characterizing galactic cosmic rays, SW, solar and geomagnetic activities, especially for the minimum epoch of solar activity. The periodicity of 3.5 days found in the series of CAE data more or less can be completely ascribed to the social effects, while the periodicity of 7 days can be ascribed to the social effect or/to the processes on the Sun, in the interplanetary space and in the Earth's magnetosphere and atmosphere.

  5. Automatic Recognition of Solar Features for Developing Data Driven Prediction Models of Solar Activity and Space Weather

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Aschwanden, M. J. 2005, Physics of the Solar Corona . An Introduction with Problems and Solutions (2nd edition), ed. Aschwanden, M. J. Balasubramaniam, K...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0020 Automatic Recognition of Solar Features for Developing Data Driven Prediction Models of Solar Activity...Automatic Recognition of Solar Features for Developing Data Driven Prediction Models of Solar Activity and Space Weather 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-09

  6. Solar Thermal Propulsion Investigation Activities in NAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahara, Hironori; Shimizu, Morio

    2004-03-01

    We successfully developed the ultra-light single shell paraboloidal concentrators made of a sheet of aluminized or silvered polymer membrane, formed via plastic deformation due to stress relaxation under high temperature condition by means of Straight Formation Method. Furthermore, we improved the precision of the concentrators by taking the elastic deformation of residual stress into consideration, and obtained the best concentration performance equivalent to a highly precise paraboloidal glass mirror. In solar concentration, the diameter of solar focal image via the single shell polymer concentrator is almost equal to that via the glass mirror and they are twice as large as that of the theoretical. The ultra-light single shell polymer concentrators are very useful for the concentrator in solar thermal propulsion system and solar power station in particular, and also promising item for beamed energy propulsion.

  7. Analysis of variability of p-mode parameters in 11 years of IRIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabert, D.; Jiménez-Reyes, S. J.; Fossat, E.; Cacciani, A.; Ehgamberdiev, S.; Gelly, B.; Grec, G.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Khalikov, S.; Lazrek, M.; Pallé, P.; Schmider, F. X.; Tomczyk, S.

    2002-03-01

    11 years of IRIS (the low degree helioseismology network) have been analysed for the study of p-modes parameters variability. The duty cycle of the network data has been improved by the partial gap filling method named "repetitive music". This paper discusses the variations of all p-modes parameters along these 11 years.

  8. Solar wind control of auroral zone geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauer, C. R.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Searls, C.; Kivelson, M. G.

    1981-01-01

    Solar wind magnetosphere energy coupling functions are analyzed using linear prediction filtering with 2.5 minute data. The relationship of auroral zone geomagnetic activity to solar wind power input functions are examined, and a least squares prediction filter, or impulse response function is designed from the data. Computed impulse response functions are observed to have characteristics of a low pass filter with time delay. The AL index is found well related to solar wind energy functions, although the AU index shows a poor relationship. High frequency variations of auroral indices and substorm expansions are not predictable with solar wind information alone, suggesting influence by internal magnetospheric processes. Finally, the epsilon parameter shows a poorer relationship with auroral geomagnetic activity than a power parameter, having a VBs solar wind dependency.

  9. Variability of the Lyman alpha flux with solar activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lean, J.L.; Skumanich, A.

    1983-07-01

    A three-component model of the solar chromosphere, developed from ground based observations of the Ca II K chromospheric emission, is used to calculate the variability of the Lyman alpha flux between 1969 and 1980. The Lyman alpha flux at solar minimum is required in the model and is taken as 2.32 x 10/sup 11/ photons/cm/sup 2//s. This value occurred during 1975 as well as in 1976 near the commencement of solar cycle 21. The model predicts that the Lyman alpha flux increases to as much as 5 x 10/sup 11/ photons/cm/sup 2//s at the maximum of the solar cycle. The ratio of the average fluxes for December 1979 (cycle maximum) and July 1976 (cycle minimum) is 1.9. During solar maximum the 27-day solar rotation is shown to cause the Lyman alpha flux to vary by as much as 40% or as little as 5%. The model also shows that the Lyman alpha flux varies over intermediate time periods of 2 to 3 years, as well as over the 11-year sunspot cycle. We conclude that, unlike the sunspot number and the 10.7-cm radio flux, the Lyman alpha flux had a variability that was approximately the same during each of the past three cycles. Lyman alpha fluxes calculated by the model are consistent with measurements of the Lyman alpha flux made by 11 of a total of 14 rocket experiments conducted during the period 1969--1980. The model explains satisfactorily the absolute magnitude, long-term trends, and the cycle variability seen in the Lyman alpha irradiances by the OSO 5 satellite experiment. The 27-day variability observed by the AE-E satellite experiment is well reproduced. However, the magntidue of the AE-E 1 Lyman alpha irradiances are higher than the model calculations by between 40% and 80%. We suggest that the assumed calibration of the AE-E irradiances is in error.

  10. Observed Helicity of Active Regions in Solar Cycle 21

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagyard, M. J.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Blehm, Z.; Smith, J. E.; Six, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of a study of helicity in solar active regions during the peak of activity in solar cycle 21 from observations with the Marshall Space Flight Center's solar vector magnetograph. Using the force-free parameter alpha as the proxy for helicity, we calculated an average value of alpha for each of 60 active regions from a total of 449 vector magnetograms that were obtained during the period 1980 March to November. The signs of these average values of alpha were correlated with the latitude of the active regions to test the hemispheric rule of helicity that has been proposed for solar magnetic fields: negative helicity predominant in northern latitudes, positive in the southern ones. We have found that of the 60 regions that were observed, 30 obey the hemispheric rule and 30 do not.

  11. Preliminary design activities for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Information on the development of solar heating and cooling systems is presented. The major emphasis is placed on program organization, system size definition, site identification, system approaches, heat pump and equipment design, collector procurement, and other preliminary design activities.

  12. Hierarchical reproductive allocation and allometry within a perennial bunchgrass after 11 years of nutrient addition.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dashuan; Pan, Qingmin; Simmons, Matthew; Chaolu, Hada; Du, Baohong; Bai, Yongfei; Wang, Hong; Han, Xingguo

    2012-01-01

    Bunchgrasses are one of the most important plant functional groups in grassland ecosystems. Reproductive allocation (RA) for a bunchgrass is a hierarchical process; however, how bunchgrasses adjust their RAs along hierarchical levels in response to nutrient addition has never been addressed. Here, utilizing an 11-year nutrient addition experiment, we examined the patterns and variations in RA of Agropyron cristatum at the individual, tiller and spike levels. We evaluated the reproductive allometric relationship at each level by type II regression analysis to determine size-dependent and size-independent effects on plant RA variations. Our results indicate that the proportion of reproductive individuals in A. cristatum increased significantly after 11 years of nutrient addition. Adjustments in RA in A. cristatum were mainly occurred at the individual and tiller levels but not at the spike level. A size-dependent effect was a dominant mechanism underlying the changes in plant RA at both individual and tiller levels. Likewise, the distribution of plant size was markedly changed with large individuals increasing after nutrient addition. Tiller-level RA may be a limiting factor for the adjustment of RA in A. cristatum. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to examine plant responses in terms of reproductive allocation and allometry to nutrient enrichment within a bunchgrass population from a hierarchical view. Our findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying bunchgrass responses in RA to future eutrophication due to human activities. In addition, we developed a hierarchical analysis method for disentangling the mechanisms that lead to variation in RA for perennial bunchgrasses.

  13. Hierarchical Reproductive Allocation and Allometry within a Perennial Bunchgrass after 11 Years of Nutrient Addition

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Dashuan; Pan, Qingmin; Simmons, Matthew; Chaolu, Hada; Du, Baohong; Bai, Yongfei; Wang, Hong; Han, Xingguo

    2012-01-01

    Bunchgrasses are one of the most important plant functional groups in grassland ecosystems. Reproductive allocation (RA) for a bunchgrass is a hierarchical process; however, how bunchgrasses adjust their RAs along hierarchical levels in response to nutrient addition has never been addressed. Here, utilizing an 11-year nutrient addition experiment, we examined the patterns and variations in RA of Agropyron cristatum at the individual, tiller and spike levels. We evaluated the reproductive allometric relationship at each level by type II regression analysis to determine size-dependent and size-independent effects on plant RA variations. Our results indicate that the proportion of reproductive individuals in A. cristatum increased significantly after 11 years of nutrient addition. Adjustments in RA in A. cristatum were mainly occurred at the individual and tiller levels but not at the spike level. A size-dependent effect was a dominant mechanism underlying the changes in plant RA at both individual and tiller levels. Likewise, the distribution of plant size was markedly changed with large individuals increasing after nutrient addition. Tiller-level RA may be a limiting factor for the adjustment of RA in A. cristatum. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to examine plant responses in terms of reproductive allocation and allometry to nutrient enrichment within a bunchgrass population from a hierarchical view. Our findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying bunchgrass responses in RA to future eutrophication due to human activities. In addition, we developed a hierarchical analysis method for disentangling the mechanisms that lead to variation in RA for perennial bunchgrasses. PMID:22984408

  14. Effects of Low Activity Solar Cycle on Orbital Debris Lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cable, Samual B.; Sutton, Eric K.; Lin, chin S.; Liou, J.-C.

    2011-01-01

    Long duration of low solar activity in the last solar minimum has an undesirable consequence of extending the lifetime of orbital debris. The AFRL TacSat-2 satellite decommissioned in 2008 has finally re-entered into the atmosphere on February 5th after more than one year overdue. Concerning its demise we have monitored its orbital decay and monthly forecasted Tacsat-2 re-entry since September 2010 by using the Orbital Element Prediction (OEP) model developed by the AFRL Orbital Drag Environment program. The model combines estimates of future solar activity with neutral density models, drag coefficient models, and an orbit propagator to predict satellite lifetime. We run the OEP model with solar indices forecast by the NASA Marshall Solar Activity Future Estimation model, and neutral density forecast by the MSIS-00 neutral density model. Based on the two line elements in 2010 up to mid September, we estimated at a 50% confidence level TacSat-2's re-entry time to be in early February 2011, which turned out to be in good agreement with Tacsat-2's actual re-entry date. The potential space weather effects of the coming low activity solar cycle on satellite lifetime and orbital debris population are examined. The NASA long-term orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of solar flux on the orbital debris population in the 200-600 km altitude environment. The results are discussed for developing satellite orbital drag application product.

  15. Development of a complex of activity in the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R.; Svestka, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Using Skylab observations of soft solar X-rays, the development of a complex of activity in the solar corona during its whole lifetime of seven solar rotations is studied. The basic components of the activity complex were determined to be permanently interconnected through sets of magnetic field lines, which suggests similar connections also below the photosphere. The visibility of individual loops in these connections, however, was greatly variable and typically shorter than one day. Each brightening of a coronal loop in X-rays seems to be related to a variation in the photospheric magnetic field near its footprint.

  16. Investigation of X-ray and optical solar flare activities during solar cycles 22 and 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimov, L. A.; Belkina, I. L.; Bushueva, T. P.

    2003-02-01

    Daily X-ray flare indices (XFI) for the interval from January 1986 till June 2002 were calculated. The XFI behaviour during solar cycles 22 and 23 was studied. We compare the daily XFI with the daily optical flare indices (OFI) and with the International Relative Sunspot Numbers. The energy emitted by X-ray flares during 77 months of solar cycle 22 is shown to be about five times larger than the analogous value for the present solar cycle. We revealed statistically significant maxima in power spectra of the XFI and OFI. They correspond to periods of 25.5, 36.5, 73, 116, and 150d which presumably are appropriate to characteristic frequencies of the solar flare activity. A hypothesis on an possible effect of Mercury's variable electric charge on the origin of solar flares is proposed and corresponding estimates were made.

  17. Influence of solar activity on red sprites and on vertical coupling in the system stratosphere-mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonev, Peter T.; Velinov, Peter I. Y.

    2016-04-01

    The positive downward propagating streamers of sprites are considered as factors of vertical coupling in middle atmosphere. Sprites are initiated in the lower ionosphere (at 75-85 km) and their streamers propagate in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere where the solar activity (SA) can have significant influence. The problem considered by us is whether sprites are sensitive to the solar activity. Different possible ways of such influence are considered. They concern: i) relations between solar activity and the occurrence of sprite-producing lightning discharges; ii) sensitivity of streamer inception to solar variability; iii) 11-year variations of conductivity in the night-time mesosphere and stratosphere during solar cycle due to modulation of the galactic cosmic ray flux by solar activity, which can lead to changes in sprite-driving electric fields, and therefore, in sprites. Accounting for the effects of sprites on minor constituents (in particular NOx), a link between SA level and the che^mical balance in the mesosphere and stratosphere is considered, as well. With respect to this we study by modeling the response of the sprite-driving electric fields to SA variations with the account to a complex of parameters of sprite-producing lightning discharges and atmospheric conductivity. The lightning-driven electric fields needed for streamer propagation show minor dependence on conductivity changes caused by variations in cosmic ray flux during a solar cycle. The long-term changes in sprite's lower boundary by different parameters of lightning discharges and atmospheric conductivity parameters are estimated. During solar minimum, of the vertical dimension of sprites increases by up to 1.5 km than those during solar maximum. We estimate also the effect of the reduction of conductivity in thunderclouds with respect to the adjacent air. Reduction of cloud conductivity by a factor of 5-10 leads to larger vertical dimension of sprites due to descending of the sprite

  18. Amplifying the Pacific Climate System Response to a Small 11-Year Solar Cycle Forcing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-28

    climatological off-equatorial tropical precipitation maxima in the Pacific, lower the eastern equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures during peaks...with an associated increase in trade wind strength that produces greater equa- torial ocean upwelling and lower equatorial SSTs in the eastern ...Pacific, a signal that was first discovered in observational data (1, 2). The en- hanced subsidence produces fewer clouds in the equatorial eastern Pacific

  19. Observations of hysteresis in solar cycle variations among seven solar activity indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bachmann, Kurt T.; White, Oran R.

    1994-01-01

    We show that smoothed time series of 7 indices of solar activity exhibit significant solar cycle dependent differences in their relative variations during the past 20 years. In some cases these observed hysteresis patterns start to repeat over more than one solar cycle, giving evidence that this is a normal feature of solar variability. Among the indices we study, we find that the hysteresis effects are approximately simple phase shifts, and we quantify these phase shifts in terms of lag times behind the leading index, the International Sunspot Number. Our measured lag times range from less than one month to greater than four months and can be much larger than lag times estimated from short-term variations of these same activity indices during the emergence and decay of major active regions. We argue that hysteresis represents a real delay in the onset and decline of solar activity and is an important clue in the search for physical processes responsible for changing solar emission at various wavelengths.

  20. Active solar heating and cooling information user study

    SciTech Connect

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on active solar heating and cooling (SHAC). An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 19 SHAC groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Representatives of Manufacturers (4 groups), Distributors, Installers, Architects, Builders, Planners, Engineers (2 groups), Representatives of Utilities, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, Building Owners/Managers, and Homeowners (2 groups). The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  1. The risk characteristics of solar and geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolska, Katerina

    2016-04-01

    The main aim of this contribution is a deeper analysis of the influence of solar activity which is expected to have an impact on human health, and therefore on mortality, in particular civilization and degenerative diseases. We have constructed the characteristics that represent the risk of solar and geomagnetic activity on human health on the basis of our previous analysis of association between the daily numbers of death on diseases of the nervous system and diseases of the circulatory system and solar and geomagnetic activity in the Czech Republic during the years 1994 - 2013. We used long period daily time series of numbers of deaths by cause, long period time series of solar activity indices (namely R and F10.7), geomagnetic indicies (Kp planetary index, Dst) and ionospheric parameters (foF2 and TEC). The ionospheric parameters were related to the geographic location of the Czech Republic and adjusted for middle geographic latitudes. The risk characteristics were composed by cluster analysis in time series according to the phases of the solar cycle resp. the seasonal insolation at mid-latitudes or the daily period according to the impact of solar and geomagnetic activity on mortality by cause of death from medical cause groups of death VI. Diseases of the nervous system and IX. Diseases of the circulatory system mortality by 10th Revision of International Classification of Diseases WHO (ICD-10).

  2. Recent contributions to solar activity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuessler, M.

    1980-10-01

    The current status of the theory of photospheric magnetic fields and the solar cycle theory is reviewed. Some new observations concerning the photospheric magnetic fields, the bright X-ray spots, and the ratio of the umbra radius to the penumbra radius are discussed, and their importance for these theories and their further development is examined.

  3. New improved reconstruction of solar activity over 3 millennia: Evidence for distinct solar dynamo modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, Ilya; Kovaltsov, Gennady; Hulot, Gauthier.; Gallet, Yves; Roth, Raphael; Licht, Alexis; Joos, Fortunat; Th, E.; Khokhlov, A.; Kovaltsov, Gennady A.

    The solar magnetic dynamo can operate in distinct modes - a main general mode, a Grand minimum mode corresponding to an inactive Sun, and a possible Grand maximum mode corresponding to an unusually active Sun, as e.g., observed recently. The reality of such mode separation has recently been the subject of much debate, with different theoretical speculations discussed. Here we present the first adjustment-free physical reconstruction of solar activity over the past three millennia, using the latest carbon cycle, (14) C production and archeomagnetic field models. This new improved reconstruction shows that the solar dynamo process indeed switches between different modes, either corresponding to different regimes of the dynamo or to changes in the driving parameters. These results provide important constraints for both dynamo models of Sun-like stars and investigations of possible solar influence on Earth’s climate.

  4. Self-similar signature of the active solar corona within the inertial range of solar-wind turbulence.

    PubMed

    Kiyani, K; Chapman, S C; Hnat, B; Nicol, R M

    2007-05-25

    We quantify the scaling of magnetic energy density in the inertial range of solar-wind turbulence seen in situ at 1 AU with respect to solar activity. At solar maximum, when the coronal magnetic field is dynamic and topologically complex, we find self-similar scaling in the solar wind, whereas at solar minimum, when the coronal fields are more ordered, we find multifractality. This quantifies the solar-wind signature that is of direct coronal origin and distinguishes it from that of local MHD turbulence, with quantitative implications for coronal heating of the solar wind.

  5. Solar Transients Disturbing the Mid Latitude Ionosphere during the High Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Shivangi; Khan, Parvaiz A.; Atulkar, Roshni; Malvi, Bhupendra; Mansoori, Azad Ahmad; Purohit, P. K.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the effect of solar transients on the mid latitude ionosphere during the high solar activity period of solar cycle 23 i.e 2003 and 2004. A mid latitude station, Guangzhou (23.1N, 113.4E) was selected to carry out the investigation. The ionospheric behaviour at the selected station is characterized by considering the critical frequency of F2 layer (foF2) obtained by using the ground based Ionosonde observations. Then we selected two types of solar transients viz. solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). To quantify the effect of solar flares we have considered the X-ray flux (1-8 Å) and EUV flux (26-34nm). Similarly to quantify the effect of CMEs, we have considered the geomagnetic storms, because during high solar activity the geomagnetic storms are caused by CMEs. From our analysis we conclude that during the geomagnetic storms the value of foF2 decreases as compared to quiet days thereby showing a negative effect. On the contrary we found that during solar flares there is sudden and intense increase in foF2. We also performed a correlation analysis to access the magnitude of association between changes in flux values and peak values of Dst during flares and storms with the corresponding changes and peak values of foF2. We found that a strong correlation exists between the enhancements/decrements in foF2 and enhancements in flux values and Dst. We conclude, while geomagnetic activity suppresses ionospheric activity the flares enhance the same.

  6. Investigation of relationships between parameters of solar nano-flares and solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safari, Hossein; Javaherian, Mohsen; Kaki, Bardia

    2016-07-01

    Solar flares are one of the important coronal events which are originated in solar magnetic activity. They release lots of energy during the interstellar medium, right after the trigger. Flare prediction can play main role in avoiding eventual damages on the Earth. Here, to interpret solar large-scale events (e.g., flares), we investigate relationships between small-scale events (nano-flares) and large-scale events (e.g., flares). In our method, by using simulations of nano-flares based on Monte Carlo method, the intensity time series of nano-flares are simulated. Then, the solar full disk images taken at 171 angstrom recorded by SDO/AIA are employed. Some parts of the solar disk (quiet Sun (QS), coronal holes (CHs), and active regions (ARs)) are cropped and the time series of these regions are extracted. To compare the simulated intensity time series of nano-flares with the intensity time series of real data extracted from different parts of the Sun, the artificial neural networks is employed. Therefore, we are able to extract physical parameters of nano-flares like both kick and decay rate lifetime, and the power of their power-law distributions. The procedure of variations in the power value of power-law distributions within QS, CH is similar to AR. Thus, by observing the small part of the Sun, we can follow the procedure of solar activity.

  7. THE MAGNETIC CLASSIFICATION OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS 1992–2015

    SciTech Connect

    Jaeggli, S. A.; Norton, A. A.

    2016-03-20

    The purpose of this Letter is to address a blindspot in our knowledge of solar active region (AR) statistics. To the best of our knowledge, there are no published results showing the variation of the Mount Wilson magnetic classifications as a function of solar cycle based on modern observations. We show statistics for all ARs reported in the daily Solar Region Summary from 1992 January 1 to 2015 December 31. We find that the α and β class ARs (including all sub-groups, e.g., βγ, βδ) make up fractions of approximately 20% and 80% of the sample, respectively. This fraction is relatively constant during high levels of activity; however, an increase in the α fraction to about 35% and and a decrease in the β fraction to about 65% can be seen near each solar minimum and are statistically significant at the 2σ level. Over 30% of all ARs observed during the years of solar maxima were appended with the classifications γ and/or δ, while these classifications account for only a fraction of a percent during the years near the solar minima. This variation in the AR types indicates that the formation of complex ARs may be due to the pileup of frequent emergence of magnetic flux during solar maximum, rather than the emergence of complex, monolithic flux structures.

  8. An 11-year follow-up study of neonatal-onset, bath-induced alternating hemiplegia of childhood in twins.

    PubMed

    Incorpora, Gemma; Pavone, Piero; Polizzi, Agata; Cocuzza, Mariadonatella; Privitera, Michael; Pavone, Lorenzo; Ruggieri, Martino

    2012-05-01

    The authors previously reported on the initial manifestations in a set of female twins, who presented soon after birth with bath-induced paroxysmal events each time they were immersed in a warm water bath. These episodes progressively ceased by the age of 36 months, replaced by paroxysmal episodes of alternating hemiplegia unrelated to water immersion. By age 4 years, the twins developed the classic features of alternating hemiplegia of childhood. Clinical outcomes at the age of 11 years are now reported. Standard and video-electroencephalograms showed a large, slow background activity followed by lower amplitude waves without focal abnormalities or other abnormal findings. This represents the first report on (a) alternating hemiplegia of childhood started with bath-induced paroxysmal episodes; (b) this condition in monozygotic twins; and (c) an 11-year follow-up study in which the twins continue to experience episodes of alternating hemiplegia in the setting of baseline cognitive impairment without epileptic episodes.

  9. General overview of the solar activity effects on the lower ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danilov, A. D.

    1989-01-01

    Solar activity influences the ionospheric D region. That influence manifests itself both in the form of various solar induced disturbances and in the form of the D region dependence on solar activity parameters (UV-flux, interplanetary magnetic field, solar wind etc.) in quiet conditions. Relationship between solar activity and meteorological control of the D region behavior is considered in detail and examples of strong variations of aeronomical parameters due to solar or meteorological events are given.

  10. Microbial solar cells: applying photosynthetic and electrochemically active organisms.

    PubMed

    Strik, David P B T B; Timmers, Ruud A; Helder, Marjolein; Steinbusch, Kirsten J J; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2011-01-01

    Microbial solar cells (MSCs) are recently developed technologies that utilize solar energy to produce electricity or chemicals. MSCs use photoautotrophic microorganisms or higher plants to harvest solar energy, and use electrochemically active microorganisms in the bioelectrochemical system to generate electrical current. Here, we review the principles and performance of various MSCs in an effort to identify the most promising systems, as well as the bottlenecks and potential solutions, for "real-life" MSC applications. We present an outlook on future applications based on the intrinsic advantages of MSCs, specifically highlighting how these living energy systems can facilitate the development of an electricity-producing green roof.

  11. Physical mechanisms of solar activity effects in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebel, A.

    1989-01-01

    A great variety of physical mechanisms of possibly solar induced variations in the middle atmosphere has been discussed in the literature during the last decades. The views which have been put forward are often controversial in their physical consequences. The reason may be the complexity and non-linearity of the atmospheric response to comparatively weak forcing resulting from solar activity. Therefore this review focuses on aspects which seem to indicate nonlinear processes in the development of solar induced variations. Results from observations and numerical simulations are discussed.

  12. Influence of solar activity on fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis. [statistical correlation between solar flare and blood coagulation indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchenko, V. I.

    1974-01-01

    During periods of high solar activity fibrinolysis and fibrinogenolysis are increased. A direct correlative relationship is established between the indices of fibrinolysis, fibrinogenolysis and solar flares which were recorded two days before the blood was collected for analysis.

  13. Possible relationships between solar activity and meteorological phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandeen, W. R. (Editor); Maran, S. P. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    A symposium was conducted in which the following questions were discussed: (1) the evidence concerning possible relationships between solar activity and meteorological phenomena; (2) plausible physical mechanisms to explain these relationships; and (3) kinds of critical measurements needed to determine the nature of solar/meteorological relationships and/or the mechanisms to explain them, and which of these measurements can be accomplished best from space.

  14. Study of solar activity and cosmic ray modulation during solar cycle 24 in comparison to previous solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, V. K.; Mishra, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    Based on the monthly data of sunspot numbers (SSN), sunspot area of full disc (SSA) and cosmic ray intensity (CRI) observed by neutron monitors (NM) located at Oulu (Cut off Rigidity = 0.8 GV) and Moscow (Cut off Rigidity = 2.3 GV), the trend of solar activity variation and cosmic ray modulation has been studied during the cycles 23 & 24. The SSN have maintained its minimum level exceptionally for a long period (July 2008-Aug. 2009) of time. The intensity of galactic cosmic rays measured by ground based detectors is the highest ever recorded by Oulu NM since April 1964 during the recent solar minimum. Furthermore, the maximum value of SSN is found to be very low in the present cycle in comparison to previous solar cycles (19-23). The correlation coefficient between SSN and CRI without and with time-lag as well as regression analysis during the solar cycle 24 (Jan. 2008-Dec. 2015) has been estimated and compared with previous solar cycle. Based on the maximum value of correlation coefficient, the time-lag during present solar cycle is found to be 4 and 10 months for both the stations, while it is 13-14 months during cycle 23. The behaviour of running cross correlation function has also been examined during present solar cycle and it is found that it attains its maximum value -0.8 to -0.9 for a long duration in comparison to previous cycles. The variation of SSN and SSA has also been compared and found that they are highly correlated to each other (r > .92) for both the cycles. In the light of exceptional behaviour of solar cycle 24, the trend of cosmic ray modulation has been discussed and compared with earlier cycles.

  15. Solar activity: The Sun as an X-ray star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.

    1981-01-01

    The existence and constant activity of the Sun's outer atmosphere are thought to be due to the continual emergence of magnetic fields from the Solar interior and the stressing of these fields at or near the surface layers of the Sun. The structure and activity of the corona are thus symptomatic of the underlying magnetic dynamo and the existence of an outer turbulent convective zone on the Sun. A sufficient condition for the existence of coronal activity on other stars would be the existence of a magnetic dynamo and an outer convective zone. The theoretical relationship between magnetic fields and coronal activity can be tested by Solar observations, for which the individual loop structures can be resolved. A number of parameters however, which enter into the alternative theoretical formulations remain fixed in all Solar observations. To determine whether these are truly parameters of the theory observations need to be extended to nearby stars on which suitable conditions may occur.

  16. Short-term changes in solar oscillation frequencies and solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, M. F.; Libbrecht, K. G.; Kuhn, J. R.; Murray, N.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the frequencies of solar rho-mode oscillations change significantly over periods as short as one month. These changes correlate significantly with variations in the strength of surface solar activity as measured by the average, over the sun's visible surface, of the magnitude of the line-of-sight magnetic field component from magnetograms. The frequency and mean magnetic variations are found to obey a linear relationship. It is seen that the mean frequency shift at any time depends on the history of solar activity over an interval of, at most, several months prior to the measurement and conclude that the dominant mechanism of the frequency shift is correlated with surface magnetic activity.

  17. Forecast for solar cycle 23 activity: a progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    2001-08-01

    At the 25th International Cosmic Ray Conference (ICRC) at Durban, South Africa, I announced the discovery of a three cycle quasi-periodicity in the ion chamber data string assembled by me, for the 1937 to 1994 period (Conf. Pap., v. 2, p. 109, 1997). It corresponded in time with a similar quasi-periodicity observed in the dataset for the planetary index Ap. At the 26th ICRC at Salt Lake City, UT, I reported on our analysis of the Ap data to forecast the amplitude of solar cycle 23 activity (Conf. Pap., v. 2, pl. 260, 1999). I predicted that cycle 23 will be moderate (a la cycle 17), notwithstanding the early exuberant forecasts of some solar astronomers that cycle 23, "may be one of the greatest cycles in recent times, if not the greatest." Sunspot number data up to April 2001 indicate that our forecast appears to be right on the mark. We review the solar, interplanetary and geophysical data and describe the important lessons learned from this experience. 1. Introduction Ohl (1971) was the first to realize that Sun may be sending us a subliminal message as to its intent for its activity (Sunspot Numbers, SSN) in the next cycle. He posited that the message was embedded in the geomagnetic activity (given by sum Kp). Schatten at al (1978) suggested that Ohl hypothesis could be understood on the basis of the model proposed by Babcock (1961) who suggested that the high latitude solar poloidal fields, near a minimum, emerge as the toroidal fields on opposite sides of the solar equator. This is known as the Solar Dynamo Model. One can speculate that the precursor poloidal solar field is entrained in the high speed solar wind streams (HSSWS) from the coronal holes which are observed at Earth's orbit during the descending phase of the previous cycle. The interaction

  18. Relation Between Myocardial Infarction Deaths and Solar Activity in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Sandoval, R.

    2002-05-01

    We study the daily incidence of myocardial infarction deaths in Mexico for 4 years (1996-99) with a total of 129 917 cases in all the country, collected at the General Directorate of Epidemiology (National Ministry of Health). We divided the cases by sex and age and perform two kinds of analysis. First, we did an spectral analysis using the Maximum Entropy Method, considering the complete period, and minimum and maximum epochs of solar activity. The results show that the most persistent periodicity at higher frequencies in the myocardial infarction death occurrence is that of seven days. Considering the solar cycle phases, we found that during solar minimum times some frequencies are not detectable compared with solar maximum epochs, particularly that of seven days. Biological rhythms close to seven days, the circaseptans, are in general thought to be only the result of the social organization of life. However, this cannot be the only explanation, because the 7-days periodicity has been encountered in lower organisms not related with our rhythms of life. Thus, it has been proposed that biological rhythms could be evolutionary adaptations to environmental conditions, particularly, solar activity. In the second analysis we compared two solar activity-related phenomena: the Forbush decreases of cosmic rays and the geomagnetic index Ap for various levels of geomagnetic perturbations. The results show that during decreases of cosmic ray fluxes, for most cases there is a higher average myocardial infarction deaths occurrence, compared with the average incidence in days of no decreases. For geomagnetic activity we find the same situation in most cases. Furthermore, this behavior is more pronounced as the level of the perturbation increases and in times of maximum solar activity.

  19. Development of Solar Activity Cycle 24: Some Comments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    Our forecast for the development phase of the solar cycle 23 turned out to be right on the mark; one of the very few to have acquired this status out of nearly 40 forecasts made for cycle 23. This is the first time in the 400 year history of the sunspot observations that a forecast was made for a solar cycle, it was defended against a severe peer criticism and came out true. We review the details of our actual forcast and how they fared as the events unfolded during cycle 23. We then consider the present status of the solar wind, the geomagnetic planetary indices, and the recovery of the galactic cosmic rays from cycle 23 modulation. Next, we draw inferences as to what to expect for the development phase of solar cycle 24. We are aware that several forecasts have already been made for the development of solar cycle 24 activity. They cover all possible scenarios, ranging from the most active to the quietest ever cycle. Clearly, some of these forecasts are unlikely to materialize. We discuss emerging details of the physical link between the observations and the workings of the solar dynamo.

  20. Engineering principles and concepts for active solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunn, B. D.; Carlisle, N.; Franta, G.; Kolar, W.

    1987-07-01

    This publication is a much refined and updated version of a solar design handbook originally prepared in 1978 to accompany a series of week-long courses conducted in support of the Solar Federal Buildings Program. The 1978 material was published in 1981 as the Solar Design Workbook (SERI/SP-62-308). This current document represents the culmination of an eight-year effort to compile a comprehensive state-of-the-art reference and instructional tool for practicing design professionals, architects, and engineers. It is intended to cover all phases of the design and installation of active solar energy systems for buildings. Although it contains many design guidelines, the emphasis is on providing sufficient knowledge of how these systems work to allow an engineer or architect to make well-informed decisions. It is aimed primarily at commercial building applications, but most of the material is also applicable to residential buildings.

  1. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  2. Some problems in coupling solar activity to meteorological phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a theory of coupling of solar activity to meteorological phenomena is hindered by the difficulties of devising a mechanism that can modify the behavior of the troposphere while employing only a negligible amount of energy compared with the energy necessary to drive the normal meteorological system, and determining how such a mechanism can effectively couple some relevant magnetospheric process into the troposphere in such a way as to influence the weather. A clue to the nature of the interaction between the weather and solar activity might be provided by the fact that most solar activity undergoes a definite 11-yr cycle, and meteorological phenomena undergo either no closely correlated variation, an 11-yr variation, or a 22-yr variation.

  3. Wavelet analysis of the singular spectral reconstructed time series to study the imprints of solar-ENSO-geomagnetic activity on Indian climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmi Sunkara, Sri; Krishna Tiwari, Rama

    2016-09-01

    To study the imprints of the solar-ENSO-geomagnetic activity on the Indian subcontinent, we have applied singular spectral analysis (SSA) and wavelet analysis to the tree-ring temperature variability record from the Western Himalayas. Other data used in the present study are the solar sunspot number (SSN), geomagnetic indices (aa index), and the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) for the common time period of 1876-2000. Both SSA and wavelet spectral analyses reveal the presence of 5-7-year short-term ENSO variations and the 11-year solar cycle, indicating the possible combined influences of solar-geomagnetic activities and ENSO on the Indian temperature. Another prominent signal corresponding to 33-year periodicity in the tree-ring record suggests the Sun-temperature variability link probably induced by changes in the basic state of the Earth's atmosphere. In order to complement the above findings, we performed a wavelet analysis of SSA reconstructed time series, which agrees well with our earlier results and increases the signal-to-noise ratio, thereby showing the strong influence of solar-geomagnetic activity and ENSO throughout the entire period. The solar flares are considered responsible for causing the atmospheric circulation patterns. The net effect of solar-geomagnetic processes on the temperature record might suggest counteracting influences on shorter (about 5-6-year) and longer (about 11-12-year) timescales. The present analyses suggest that the influence of solar activities on the Indian temperature variability operates in part indirectly through coupling of ENSO on multilateral timescales. The analyses, hence, provide credible evidence of teleconnections of tropical Pacific climatic variability and Indian climate ranging from inter-annual to decadal timescales and also suggest the possible role of exogenic triggering in reorganizing the global Earth-ocean-atmospheric systems.

  4. Multi-scale statistical analysis of coronal solar activity

    DOE PAGES

    Gamborino, Diana; del-Castillo-Negrete, Diego; Martinell, Julio J.

    2016-07-08

    Multi-filter images from the solar corona are used to obtain temperature maps that are analyzed using techniques based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) in order to extract dynamical and structural information at various scales. Exploring active regions before and after a solar flare and comparing them with quiet regions, we show that the multi-scale behavior presents distinct statistical properties for each case that can be used to characterize the level of activity in a region. Information about the nature of heat transport is also to be extracted from the analysis.

  5. DASL-Data and Activities for Solar Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harrison P.; Henney, Carl; Hill, Frank; Gearen, Michael; Pompca, Stephen; Stagg, Travis; Stefaniak, Linda; Walker, Connie

    2004-01-01

    DASL-Data and Activities for Solar Learning Data and Activities for Solar Learning (DASL) provides a classroom learning environment based on a twenty-five year record of solar magnetograms from the National Solar Observatory (NSO) at Kitt Peak, AZ. The data, together with image processing software for Macs or PCs, can be used to learn basic facts about the Sun and astronomy at the middle school level. At the high school level, students can study properties of the Sun's magnetic cycle with classroom exercises emphasizing data and error analysis and can participate in a new scientific study, Research in Active Solar Longitudes (RASL), in collaboration with classrooms throughout the country and scientists at NSO and NASA. We present a half-day course to train teachers in the scientific content of the project and its classroom use. We will provide a compact disc with the data and software and will demonstrate software installation and use, classroom exercises, and participation in RASL with computer projection.

  6. The Solar System Ballet: A Kinesthetic Spatial Astronomy Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyer, Inge; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.; Astronomy, Center; Education ResearchCAPER, Physics

    2011-05-01

    The Solar System Ballet was developed in order for students of all ages to learn about the planets, their motions, their distances, and their individual characteristics. To teach people about the structure of our Solar System can be revealing and rewarding, for students and teachers. Little ones (and some bigger ones, too) often cannot yet grasp theoretical and spatial ideas purely with their minds. Showing a video is better, but being able to learn with their bodies, essentially being what they learn about, will help them understand and remember difficult concepts much more easily. There are three segments to this activity, which can be done together or separately, depending on time limits and age of the students. Part one involves a short introductory discussion about what students know about the planets. Then students will act out the orbital motions of the planets (and also moons for the older ones) while holding a physical model. During the second phase we look at the structure of the Solar System as well as the relative distances of the planets from the Sun, first by sketching it on paper, then by recreating a scaled version in the class room. Again the students act out the parts of the Solar System bodies with their models. The third segment concentrates on recreating historical measurements of Earth-Moon-Sun system. The Solar System Ballet activity is suitable for grades K-12+ as well as general public informal learning activities.

  7. SOLAR SPECTRAL IRRADIANCE, SOLAR ACTIVITY, AND THE NEAR-ULTRA-VIOLET

    SciTech Connect

    Fontenla, J. M.; Stancil, P. C.; Landi, E. E-mail: stancil@physast.uga.edu

    2015-08-20

    The previous calculations of the Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) by the Solar Radiation Physical Modeling, version 2 system, are updated in this work by including new molecular photodissociation cross-sections of important species, and many more levels and lines in its treatment of non-LTE radiative transfer. The current calculations including the new molecular photodissociation opacities produce a reduced over-ionizaton of heavy elements in the lower chromosphere and solve the problems with prior studies of the UV SSI in the wavelength range 160–400 nm and now reproduce the available observations with much greater accuracy. Calculations and observations of the near-UV at 0.1 nm resolution and higher are compared. The current set of physical models includes four quiet-Sun and five active-region components, from which radiance is computed for ten observing angles. These radiances are combined with images of the solar disk to obtain the SSI and Total Solar Irradiance and their variations. The computed SSI is compared with measurements from space at several nm resolution and agreement is found within the accuracy level of these measurements. An important result is that the near-UV SSI increase with solar activity is significant for the photodissociation of ozone in the terrestrial atmosphere because a number of highly variable upper chromospheric lines overlap the ozone Hartley band.

  8. An influence of solar activity on latitudinal distribution of atmospheric ozone and temperature in 2-D radiative-photochemical model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyominov, I. G.

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of the 2-D radiative-photochemical model of the ozone layer at heights 0 to 60 km in the Northern Hemisphere there are revealed and analyzed in detail the characteristic features of the season-altitude-latitude variations of ozone and temperature due to changes of the solar flux during the 11 year cycle, electron and proton precipitations.

  9. Solar Active Longitudes from Kodaikanal White-light Digitized Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Sudip; Chatterjee, Subhamoy; Banerjee, Dipankar

    2017-01-01

    The study of solar active longitudes has generated great interest in recent years. In this work we have used a unique, continuous sunspot data series obtained from the Kodaikanal observatory and revisited the problem. An analysis of the data shows a persistent presence of active longitudes during the whole 90 years of data. We compared two well-studied analysis methods and presented their results. The separation between the two most active longitudes is found be roughly 180° for the majority of time. Additionally, we also find a comparatively weaker presence of separations at 90° and 270°. The migration pattern of these active longitudes as revealed by our data is found to be consistent with the solar differential rotation curve. We also study the periodicities in the active longitudes and found two dominant periods of ≈1.3 and ≈2.2 years. These periods, also found in other solar proxies, indicate their relation with the global solar dynamo mechanism.

  10. Indonesia Stratosphere and Troposphere Response to Solar Activity Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinambela, Wilson; Muh, La Ode; Musafar, K.; Sutastio, Heri

    2000-10-01

    Tropospheric and stratospheric response of Indonesia to the solar activity was analyzed based on the stratospheric total ozone concentrations above Watukosek station (07,6 deg S, 112,5 deg E) from 1979 to 1992, and tropospheric temperature at tropopause geopotential height, 500 mBar, 700 mbar above Cengkareng - Jakarta station (06 deg) 07 min 37 sec S, 106 deg 39 min 28 sec E) from 1986 to 1992, and ground surface air temperature above Polonia Median (03 deg 34 sec N, 98 deg 41 min E) and Kemayoran - Jakarta station (06 deg 09 min S 106 deg 51 min E) from 1979 - 1989. By using the moving average analysis of monthly average this tropospheric and stratospheric variable, were found that the behavior of the time series of the stratospheric ozone concentration, tropospheric temperature at geopotential height tropopause, 500 mBar, 700 mBar and ground surface air temperature above Indonesia showed a tendency to vary with a period of about 22 - 32 months. This is so - called " Quasi Biennial" (Q B 0). The behavior of the relative sunspot numbers and / or F 10,7 Cm solar radio flux as the measure of the solar activity also showed a tendency to vary Quasi - Biennially with a period about 27 - 30 months which was superimposed to the eleven - year solar cycle variations. The source of the variations was predicted from the inside of the sun, since the experiment showed that the neutrino flux from the sun varies with a period almost equal to the Quasi - Biennial variations of the solar activity. The Quasi - Biennial variations of the solar activity seems produce a similar variations on the earth atmospheric phenomena such as the stratospheric total ozone concentrations, mean tropospheric temperature at geopotential tropopause height, 500 mBar, 700 mBar, and mean ground surface air temperature above Indonesia.

  11. Relations of latitudinal characteristics of sunspot groups to the 11-year cycle amplitude at different phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miletskii, E. V.; Ivanov, V. G.

    2016-12-01

    Using sunspot data for cycles 12 to 23, we have investigated relations of some latitude characteristics of sunspot groups to the 11-year cycle amplitude at different phases. We have revealed a high correlation (with correlation coefficients >0.9) between the middle latitude of sunspot groups at phases of rise, maximum, and decay, on the one hand, and the amplitude of the corresponding cycle, on the other hand. We have shown that the maxima of the velocity of the motion of the sunspot formation zone to the equator have a special physical meaning: the rise phase of the 11-year cycle is characterized by significant correlations between the cycle amplitude and the maximum for the lowest boundary, and the cycle decay phase is characterized by the same maximum for the highest boundary. We have built equations allowing one to determine the amplitude of the 11-year cycle on the basis of data on the given latitudinal characteristics of sunspots groups.

  12. The reconstruction of solar activity in the context of solar dynamo modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoloff, D.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss problems of interpretation of sunspot data for use in solar dynamo modelling. The variety of the current sunspot reconstructions of archival data creates substantial difficulties for such an endeavour. We suggest a possible strategy to avoid these problems. The point is that we have to accept the possibility of several solar activity reconstructions that are contradictory in detail, and have to compare several possible reconstructions with dynamo models. The point is that a given reconstruction may not cover all the time interval of interest because this reconstruction requires information unavailable at earlier or later times.

  13. Long-Range Solar Activity Predictions: A Reprieve from Cycle #24's Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richon, K.; Schatten, K.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the field of long-range solar activity predictions and provide an outlook into future solar activity. Orbital predictions for satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) depend strongly on exospheric densities. Solar activity forecasting is important in this regard, as the solar ultra-violet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiations inflate the upper atmospheric layers of the Earth, forming the exosphere in which satellites orbit. Rather than concentrate on statistical, or numerical methods, we utilize a class of techniques (precursor methods) which is founded in physical theory. The geomagnetic precursor method was originally developed by the Russian geophysicist, Ohl, using geomagnetic observations to predict future solar activity. It was later extended to solar observations, and placed within the context of physical theory, namely the workings of the Sun s Babcock dynamo. We later expanded the prediction methods with a SOlar Dynamo Amplitude (SODA) index. The SODA index is a measure of the buried solar magnetic flux, using toroidal and poloidal field components. It allows one to predict future solar activity during any phase of the solar cycle, whereas previously, one was restricted to making predictions only at solar minimum. We are encouraged that solar cycle #23's behavior fell closely along our predicted curve, peaking near 192, comparable to the Schatten, Myers and Sofia (1996) forecast of 182+/-30. Cycle #23 extends from 1996 through approximately 2006 or 2007, with cycle #24 starting thereafter. We discuss the current forecast of solar cycle #24, (2006-2016), with a predicted smoothed F10.7 radio flux of 142+/-28 (1-sigma errors). This, we believe, represents a reprieve, in terms of reduced fuel costs, etc., for new satellites to be launched or old satellites (requiring reboosting) which have been placed in LEO. By monitoring the Sun s most deeply rooted magnetic fields; long-range solar activity can be predicted. Although a degree of uncertainty

  14. E region electric field dependence of the solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denardini, C. M.; Moro, J.; Resende, L. C. A.; Chen, S. S.; Schuch, N. J.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2015-10-01

    We have being studying the zonal and vertical E region electric field components inferred from the Doppler shifts of type 2 echoes (gradient drift irregularities) detected with the 50 MHz backscatter coherent radar set at São Luis, Brazil (SLZ, 2.3°S, 44.2°W) during the solar cycle 24. In this report we present the dependence of the vertical and zonal components of this electric field with the solar activity, based on the solar flux F10.7. For this study we consider the geomagnetically quiet days only (Kp ≤ 3+). A magnetic field-aligned-integrated conductivity model was developed for proving the conductivities, using the IRI-2007, the MISIS-2000, and the IGRF-11 models as input parameters for ionosphere, neutral atmosphere, and Earth magnetic field, respectively. The ion-neutron collision frequencies of all the species are combined through the momentum transfer collision frequency equation. The mean zonal component of the electric field, which normally ranged from 0.19 to 0.35 mV/m between the 8 and 18 h (LT) in the Brazilian sector, show a small dependency with the solar activity. Whereas the mean vertical component of the electric field, which normally ranges from 4.65 to 10.12 mV/m, highlights the more pronounced dependency of the solar flux.

  15. Statistical analysis of solar energetic particle events and related solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierckxsens, Mark; Patsou, Ioanna; Tziotziou, Kostas; Marsh, Michael; Lygeros, Nik; Crosby, Norma; Dalla, Silvia; Malandraki, Olga

    2013-04-01

    The FP7 COMESEP (COronal Mass Ejections and Solar Energetic Particles: forecasting the space weather impact) project is developing tools for forecasting geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP) radiation storms. Here we present preliminary results on a statistical analysis of SEP events and their parent solar activity during Solar Cycle 23. The work aims to identify correlations between solar events and SEP events relevant for space weather, as well as to quantify SEP event probabilities for use within the COMESEP alert system. The data sample covers the SOHO era and is based on the SEPEM reference event list [http://dev.sepem.oma.be/]. Events are subdivided if separate enhancements are observed in higher energy channels as defined for the list of Cane et al (2010). Energetic Storm Particle (ESP) enhancements during these events are identified by associating ESP-like increases in the proton channels with shocks detected in ACE and WIND data. Their contribution has been estimated and subtracted from the proton fluxes. Relationships are investigated between solar flare parameters such as X-ray intensity and heliographic location on the one hand, and the probability of occurrence and strength of energetic proton flux increases on the other hand. The same exercise is performed using the velocity and width of coronal mass ejections to examine their SEP productiveness. Relationships between solar event characteristics and SEP event spectral indices and fluences are also studied, as well as enhancements in heavy ion fluxes measured by the SIS instrument on board the ACE spacecraft during the same event periods. This work has received funding from the European Commission FP7 Project COMESEP (263252).

  16. GLOBAL DYNAMICS OF SUBSURFACE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jouve, L.; Brun, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of a magnetic loop evolving in either a convectively stable or unstable rotating shell. The magnetic loop is introduced into the shell in such a way that it is buoyant only in a certain portion in longitude, thus creating an {Omega}-loop. Due to the action of magnetic buoyancy, the loop rises and develops asymmetries between its leading and following legs, creating emerging bipolar regions whose characteristics are similar to those of observed spots at the solar surface. In particular, we self-consistently reproduce the creation of tongues around the spot polarities, which can be strongly affected by convection. We further emphasize the presence of ring-shaped magnetic structures around our simulated emerging regions, which we call 'magnetic necklace' and which were seen in a number of observations without being reported as of today. We show that those necklaces are markers of vorticity generation at the periphery and below the rising magnetic loop. We also find that the asymmetry between the two legs of the loop is crucially dependent on the initial magnetic field strength. The tilt angle of the emerging regions is also studied in the stable and unstable cases and seems to be affected both by the convective motions and the presence of a differential rotation in the convective cases.

  17. A solar cycle timing predictor - The latitude of active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A 'Spoerer butterfly' method is used to examine solar cycle 22. It is shown from the latitude of active regions that the cycle can now be expected to peak near November 1989 + or - 8 months, basically near the latter half of 1989.

  18. Stratospheric condensation nuclei variations may relate to solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, D. J.; Rosen, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of increases of stratospheric condensation nuclei suggest a photo-initiated sulphuric acid vapour formation process in spring in polar regions. It is proposed that the sulphuric acid rapidly forms condensation nuclei through attachment to negatively charged multi-ion complexes and that the process may be modulated through variations in solar activity.

  19. Modeling of the atmospheric response to a strong decrease of the solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozanov, Eugene V.; Egorova, Tatiana A.; Shapiro, Alexander I.; Schmutz, Werner K.

    2012-07-01

    We estimate the consequences of a potential strong decrease of the solar activity using the model simulations of the future driven by pure anthropogenic forcing as well as its combination with different solar activity related factors: total solar irradiance, spectral solar irradiance, energetic electron precipitation, solar protons and galactic cosmic rays. The comparison of the model simulations shows that introduced strong decrease of solar activity can lead to some delay of the ozone recovery and partially compensate greenhouse warming acting in the direction opposite to anthropogenic effects. The model results also show that all considered solar forcings are important in different atmospheric layers and geographical regions. However, in the global scale the solar irradiance variability can be considered as the most important solar forcing. The obtained results constitute probably the upper limit of the possible solar influence. Development of the better constrained set of future solar forcings is necessary to address the problem of future climate and ozone layer with more confidence.

  20. Intermittency of the Solar Magnetic Field and Solar Magnetic Activity Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibalova, A. S.; Obridko, V. N.; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2017-03-01

    Small-scale solar magnetic fields demonstrate features of fractal intermittent behavior, which requires quantification. For this purpose we investigate how the observational estimate of the solar magnetic flux density B depends on resolution D in order to obtain the scaling ln BD = - k ln D +a in a reasonably wide range. The quantity k demonstrates cyclic variations typical of a solar activity cycle. In addition, k depends on the magnetic flux density, i.e. the ratio of the magnetic flux to the area over which the flux is calculated, at a given instant. The quantity a demonstrates some cyclic variation, but it is much weaker than in the case of k. The scaling obtained generalizes previous scalings found for the particular cycle phases. The scaling is typical of fractal structures. In our opinion, the results obtained trace small-scale action in the solar convective zone and its coexistence with the conventional large-scale solar dynamo based on differential rotation and mirror-asymmetric convection.

  1. A Solar Station for Education and Research on Solar Activity at a National University in Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitsuka, J. K.

    2006-11-01

    pepe@geo.igp.gob.pe Beginning in 1937, the Carnegie Institution of Washington made active regional observations with a spectro-helioscope at the Huancayo Observatory. In 1957, during the celebration of the International Geophysical Year Mutsumi Ishitsuka arrived at the Geophysical Institute of Peru and restarted solar observations from the Huancayo Observatory. Almost 69 years have passed and many contributions for the geophysical and solar sciences have been made. Now the Instituto Geofisico del Peru (IGP), in cooperation with the Faculty of Sciences of the Universidad Nacional San Luis Gonzaga de Ica (UNICA), and with the support of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, are planning to construct a solar station refurbishing a coelostat that worked for many years at the Huancayo Observatory. A 15 cm refractor telescope is already installed at the university, for the observation of sunspots. A solar Flare Monitor Telescope (FMT) from Hida Observatory of Kyoto University could be sent to Peru and installed at the solar station at UNICA. As the refurbished coelostat, FMT will become a good tool to improve education and research in sciences.

  2. An astro-comb calibrated solar telescope to study solar activity and search for the radial velocity signature of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, David; HARPS-N Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We recently demonstrated sub-m/s sensitivity in measuring the radial velocity (RV) between the Earth and Sun using a simple solar telescope feeding the HARPS-N spectrograph at the Italian National Telescope, which is calibrated with a laser frequency comb calibrator optimized for calibrating high resolution spectrographs and referred to as an astro-comb. We are using the solar telescope to characterize the effects of stellar (solar) RV jitter due to activity on the solar surface over the course of many hours every clear day. With the help of solar satellites such as the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), we are characterizing the correlation between observed RV and detailed imaging of the solar photosphere. We plan to use these tools to mitigate the effects of stellar jitter with the goal of the detection of Venus from its solar RV signature, thus showing the potential of the RV technique to detect true Earth-twins.

  3. Quasi-biennial modulation of solar neutrino flux: connections with solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchio, A.; Laurenza, M.; D'alessi, L.; Carbone, V.; Storini, M.

    2011-12-01

    A quasi-biennial periodicity has been recently found (Vecchio et al., 2010) in the solar neutrino flux, as detected at the Homestake experiment, as well as in the flux of solar energetic protons, by means of the Empirical Modes Decomposition technique. Moreover, both fluxes have been found to be significantly correlated at the quasi-biennial timescale, thus supporting the hypothesis of a connection between solar neutrinos and solar activity. The origin of this connection is investigated, by modeling how the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect (the process for which the well-known neutrino flavor oscillations are modified in passing through the material) could be influenced by matter fluctuations. As proposed by Burgess et al., 2004, by introducing a background magnetic field in the helioseismic model, density fluctuations can be excited in the radiative zone by the resonance between helioseismic g-modes and Alfvén waves. In particular, with reasonable values of the background magnetic field (10-100 kG), the distance between resonant layers could be of the same order of neutrino oscillation length. We study the effect over this distance of a background magnetic field which is variable with a ~2 yr period, in agreement with typical variations of solar activity. Our findings suggest that the quasi-biennial modulation of the neutrino flux is theoretically possible as a consequence of the magnetic field variations in the solar interior. A. Vecchio, M. Laurenza, V. Carbone, M. Storini, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 709, L1-L5 (2010). C. Burgess, N. S. Dzhalilov, T. I. Rashba, V., B.Semikoz, J. W. F. Valle, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 348, 609-624 (2004).

  4. Connection between solar activity cycles and grand minima generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecchio, A.; Lepreti, F.; Laurenza, M.; Alberti, T.; Carbone, V.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: The revised dataset of sunspot and group numbers (released by WDC-SILSO) and the sunspot number reconstruction based on dendrochronologically dated radiocarbon concentrations have been analyzed to provide a deeper characterization of the solar activity main periodicities and to investigate the role of the Gleissberg and Suess cycles in the grand minima occurrence. Methods: Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) has been used to isolate the time behavior of the different solar activity periodicities. A general consistency among the results from all the analyzed datasets verifies the reliability of the EMD approach. Results: The analysis on the revised sunspot data indicates that the highest energy content is associated with the Schwabe cycle. In correspondence with the grand minima (Maunder and Dalton), the frequency of this cycle changes to longer timescales of 14 yr. The Gleissberg and Suess cycles, with timescales of 60-120 yr and 200-300 yr, respectively, represent the most energetic contribution to sunspot number reconstruction records and are both found to be characterized by multiple scales of oscillation. The grand minima generation and the origin of the two expected distinct types of grand minima, Maunder and longer Spörer-like, are naturally explained through the EMD approach. We found that the grand minima sequence is produced by the coupling between Gleissberg and Suess cycles, the latter being responsible for the most intense and longest Spörer-like minima (with typical duration longer than 80 yr). Finally, we identified a non-solar component, characterized by a very long scale oscillation of 7000 yr, and the Hallstatt cycle ( 2000 yr), likely due to the solar activity. Conclusions: These results provide new observational constraints on the properties of the solar cycle periodicities, the grand minima generation, and thus the long-term behavior of the solar dynamo.

  5. Cosmic rays, solar activity, magnetic coupling, and lightning incidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, J. T. A.

    1984-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented and described that unifies the complex influence of several factors on spatial and temporal variation of lightning incidence. These factors include the cosmic radiation, solar activity, and coupling between geomagnetic and interplanetary (solar wind) magnetic fields. Atmospheric electrical conductivity in the 10 km region was shown to be the crucial parameter altered by these factors. The theory reconciles several large scale studies of lightning incidence previously misinterpreted or considered contradictory. The model predicts additional strong effects on variations in lightning incidence, but only small effects on the morphology and rate of thunderstorm development.

  6. MSFC solar activity predictions for satellite orbital lifetime estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuler, H. C.; Lundquist, C. A.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1979-01-01

    The procedure to predict solar activity indexes for use in upper atmosphere density models is given together with an example of the performance. The prediction procedure employs a least square linear regression model to generate the predicted smoothed vinculum R sub 13 and geomagnetic vinculum A sub p(13) values. Linear regression equations are then employed to compute corresponding vinculum F sub 10.7(13) solar flux values from the predicted vinculum R sub 13 values. The output is issued principally for satellite orbital lifetime estimations.

  7. Interplanetary proton flux and solar wind conditions for different solar activities interacting with spacecraft and astronauts in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejat, Cyrus

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to determine the interplanetary proton flux and solar wind conditions by using data from several satellites such as Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) in particular GOES 9, GOES 11, GOES 12, GOES 13, and Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) to determine proton flux in different solar wind conditions. The data from above satellites were used to determine space weather conditions in which the goals are to evaluate proton fluxes for four periods of solar cycle activity: a solar cycle 23/24 minimum (2008), close to a solar cycle 22/23 minimum (1997), with intermediate activity (2011) and for about maximum activity for the cycle 23 (2003), to compare data of two period of solar cycle in 2003 and 2008 (Max vs. Min), to compare data of two period of solar cycle in 1997 and 2008 (Min vs. Min), to compare soft X-ray flux from SOHO with proton 1-10 MeV flux from GOES 9 for strong flare in 1997. To conclude the above evaluations are being used to determine the interaction between the space weather conditions and the following consequences of these conditions important for astronautics and everyday human activity: 1- Satellite and Spacecraft charging, 2-Dangerous conditions for onboard electronics and astronauts during strong solar flare events, and 3- Total Electron Content (TEC), Global Positioning System (GPS), and radio communication problems related to solar activity.

  8. An Alternative Measure of Solar Activity from Detailed Sunspot Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraközy, J.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    2016-11-01

    The sunspot number is analyzed by using detailed sunspot data, including aspects of observability, sunspot sizes, and proper identification of sunspot groups as discrete entities of solar activity. The tests show that in addition to the subjective factors there are also objective causes of the ambiguities in the series of sunspot numbers. To introduce an alternative solar-activity measure, the physical meaning of the sunspot number has to be reconsidered. It contains two components whose numbers are governed by different physical mechanisms and this is one source of the ambiguity. This article suggests an activity index, which is the amount of emerged magnetic flux. The only long-term proxy measure is the detailed sunspot-area dataset with proper calibration to the magnetic flux. The Debrecen sunspot databases provide an appropriate source for the establishment of the suggested activity index.

  9. Photospheric Magnetic Free Energy Density of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongqi

    2016-12-01

    We present the photospheric energy density of magnetic fields in two solar active regions (one of them recurrent) inferred from observational vector magnetograms, and compare it with other available differently defined energy parameters of magnetic fields in the photosphere. We analyze the magnetic fields in Active Regions NOAA 6580-6619-6659 and 11158. The quantity 1/4π{B}n\\cdot{B}p is an important energy parameter that reflects the contribution of magnetic shear to the difference between the potential (Bp) and the non-potential magnetic field (Bn), and also the contribution to the free magnetic energy near the magnetic neutral lines in the active regions. It is found that the photospheric mean magnetic energy density shows clear changes before the powerful solar flares in Active Region NOAA 11158, which is consistent with the change in magnetic fields in the flaring lower atmosphere.

  10. Periodic 18.6-year and cyclic 11-year induced drought and flood in northeastern China and some global implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Robert Guinn; Fairbridge, Rhodes W.

    The general patterns of climatic evolution in China during the Holocene are reviewed, and following the postglacial eustatic rise of sea-level and the institution of the East Asian Monsoon, the systems and principal fluctuations are found to be concordant with those operating elsewhere in the globe. China's unique wealth of written history provides an abundance of proxy data on the climatic record and that record now furnishes a basis for analysing both long-term and short-term fluctuations, as well as sunspot behavior, that together provide an insight into extraterrestrial forcing. Recent Chinese work suggests a solar forcing, but our own studies suggest rather that a lunar tidal component, reinforced at times by the solar element may prove more important. Analysis of a drought-flood index for Peking (Beijing) in northeastern China since A.D. 1470 supports evidence (Hameed et al., 1983) for both periodic lunar nodal 18.6-year and solar cyclic 11-year induced drought-flood in the region. The nodal term exhibits bistable phasing with respect to epochs of tidal maxima (for our century epochs occurred at 1917.5, 1936.1, 1954.7 and 1973.3), a phenomenon previously found in drought-flood proxy data for South America (Currie, 1983), India (Currie, 1984a), North America (Currie, 1984d), and Africa (Hameed and Currie, 1985; Currie and Hameed, 1985). Solar cycle epochs of drought-flood are tabulated for the past two centuries, and compared with those from North America and Africa.

  11. Earth Radiation Budget Satellite extraterrestrial solar constant measurements - 1986-1987 increasing trend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Michael A.; Natarajan, Sudha M.; Edmonds, William L.; Mecherikunnel, Ann T.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1988-01-01

    From June 1986 through Nov 1987, the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) pyrheliometric measurements indicated that the solar constant was increasing approximately +0.02 percent per year. Earlier ERBS measurements indicated that the solar constant was declining approximately -0.03 percent per year during the 1984 through mid-1986 period. Since mid-1986 represents the beginning of solar cycle 22, it is believed that the reversal in the long-term solar constant trend may be linked to increased solar activity associated with the beginning of the 11-year sunspot cycle. The typical value of the solar constant was found to be 1365 Wm-2.

  12. Training compliance control yields improved drawing in 5-11year old children with motor difficulties.

    PubMed

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Shire, Katy; Hill, Liam; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2016-08-01

    There are a large number of children with motor difficulties including those that have difficulty producing movements qualitatively well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning without intervention. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. Previously, we tested a limited age range of children and found that training improved performance on the 3D tracing task and that the training transferred to a 2D drawing test. In the present study, school children (5-11years old) with motor difficulties were trained in the 3D tracing task and transfer to a 2D drawing task was tested. We used a cross-over design where half of the children received training on the 3D tracing task during the first training period and the other half of the children received training during the second training period. Given previous results, we predicted that younger children would initially show reduced performance relative to the older children, and that performance at all ages would improve with training. We also predicted that training would transfer to the 2D drawing task. However, the pre-training performance of both younger and older children was equally poor. Nevertheless, post-training performance on the 3D task was dramatically improved for both age groups and the training transferred to the 2D drawing task. Overall, this work contributes to a growing body of literature that demonstrates relatively preserved motor learning in children with motor difficulties and further demonstrates the importance of games in therapeutic interventions.

  13. Using the SDO Atmospheric Imaging Assembly to Study Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemen, James

    2014-01-01

    The Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) is one of the instruments on board NASA’s flagship Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission that was launched in February 2010. AIA achieves 1.5 arcsec spatial resolution of the entire solar corona with 12-second temporal resolution in seven extreme ultraviolet (EUV) band passes centered on specific lines: Fe XVIII (94 Å), Fe VIII, XXI (131 Å), Fe IX (171 Å), Fe XII, XXIV (193 Å), Fe XIV (211 Å), He II (304 Å) and Fe XVI (335 Å) one band pass observes C IV (near 1600 Å). In the past 3 years AIA has produced over 77M images and 1,200 Tbytes of data that have challenged and clarified our understanding of the solar corona, specifically how the solar magnetic field drives coronal evolution on various scales. Multi-temperature, low-noise, full-Sun observations have captured solar eruptions and flares, coronal field oscillations (in loops and filaments), fast-mode waves (up to 2,000 km/s), plasma instabilities, and a rare view of comet interactions with the corona. Comparison with data from other instruments, such as SDO EUV Variability Experiment (EVE), and with numerical models, provides the ability to develop a comprehensive understanding of solar activity and evolution. And the comparison of the information-rich spatial content of the AIA observations with EVE spectra is instructive for similar studies of stellar targets. The NASA heliophysics open-data policy enables wide-scale participation by the international community. As the time base of AIA observations and magnetic data obtained from the companion SDO Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) increases to a good fraction of the solar dynamo cycle time scale, we anticipate that the value of the SDO data will be similarly magnified. We present highlights that have been gleaned from this already exceptional mission. http://sdowww.lmsal.com

  14. No link between the solar activity cycle and the diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dame, L.; Cugnet, D.

    We do not understand the physical mechanisms responsible for the solar irradiance cycle. Measurements of small variations in the solar diameter could have been a critical probe of the Sun 's interior stratification, telling us how and where the solar luminosity is gated or stored. We have reanalyzed the 7 years of filtregrams data (150 000 photograms and magnetograms) of the SOHO/MDI experiment. We used the maximum possible sampling compatible with full frame recording, carefully avoiding any suspicious filtregram. Going further than the previous analysis of 2 years of data by Emilio et al. (Ap. J. 543,1007, 2000), we better corrected for changes in optical aberrations and, along Turmon et al. (Ap. J., 568, 396, 2002), we reduced radius measurement errors by identifying active regions and avoiding radius measurements herein. We found that, within the limit of our noise level uncertainties (2 mas), the solar diameter could be constant over the half cycle investigated. Our results confirm the recent reanalysis of the 7 years of MDI data made by Antia (Ap. J. 590, 567, 2003), with a completely different method since using the ultra-precise frequency variation of the f-modes (fundamental modes linked to the diameter). He found (carefully removing the yearly Earth induced variations and avoiding the SOHO data gap of 1999) that the diameter is constant over the half solar cycle (radius variation are less than 0.6 km, 0.8 mas - nothing over noise level). Along Antia, we can conclude that: "If a careful analysis is performed, then it turns out that there is no evidence for any variation in the solar radius." There were no theoretical reasons for large solar radius variations and there is no observational evidence for them with consistent space observations. If changes exit, they are to be very small.

  15. Static and Dynamic Modeling of a Solar Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2007-09-01

    Recent hydrostatic simulations of solar active regions have shown that it is possible to reproduce both the total intensity and the general morphology of the high-temperature emission observed at soft X-ray wavelengths using static heating models. These static models, however, cannot account for the lower temperature emission. In addition, there is ample observational evidence that the solar corona is highly variable, indicating a significant role for dynamical processes in coronal heating. Because they are computationally demanding, full hydrodynamic simulations of solar active regions have not been considered previously. In this paper we make first application of an impulsive heating model to the simulation of an entire active region, AR 8156 observed on 1998 February 16. We model this region by coupling potential field extrapolations to full solutions of the time-dependent hydrodynamic loop equations. To make the problem more tractable we begin with a static heating model that reproduces the emission observed in four different Yohkoh Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) filters and consider impulsive heating scenarios that yield time-averaged SXT intensities that are consistent with the static case. We find that it is possible to reproduce the total observed soft X-ray emission in all of the SXT filters with a dynamical heating model, indicating that nanoflare heating is consistent with the observational properties of the high-temperature solar corona. At EUV wavelengths the simulated emission shows more coronal loops, but the agreement between the simulation and the observation is still not acceptable.

  16. Major geomagnetic storm due to solar activity (2006-2013).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Bhupendra Kumar

    Major geomagnetic storm due to solar activity (2006-2013). Bhupendra Kumar Tiwari Department of Physics, A.P.S.University, Rewa(M.P.) Email: - btiwtari70@yahoo.com mobile 09424981974 Abstract- The geospace environment is dominated by disturbances created by the sun, it is observed that coronal mass ejection (CME) and solar flare events are the causal link to solar activity that produces geomagnetic storm (GMS).CMEs are large scale magneto-plasma structures that erupt from the sun and propagate through the interplanetary medium with speeds ranging from only a few km/s to as large as 4000 km/s. When the interplanetary magnetic field associated with CMEs impinges upon the earth’s magnetosphere and reconnect occur geomagnetic storm. Based on the observation from SOHO/LASCO spacecraft for solar activity and WDC for geomagnetism Kyoto for geomagnetic storm events are characterized by the disturbance storm time (Dst) index during the period 2006-2013. We consider here only intense geomagnetic storm Dst <-100nT, are 12 during 2006-2013.Geomagnetic storm with maximum Dst< -155nT occurred on Dec15, 2006 associated with halo CME with Kp-index 8+ and also verify that halo CME is the main cause to produce large geomagnetic storms.

  17. Background magnetic fields during last three cycles of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andryeyeva, O. A.; Stepanian, N. N.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes our studies of evolution of the solar magnetic field with different sign and field strength in the range from -100 G to 100 G. The structure and evolution of large-scale magnetic fields on the Sun during the last 3 cycles of solar activity is investigated using magnetograph data from the Kitt Peak Solar Observatory. This analysis reveals two groups of the large-scale magnetic fields evolving differently during the cycles. The first group is represented by relatively weak background fields, and is best observed in the range of 3-10 Gauss. The second group is represented by stronger fields of 75-100 Gauss. The spatial and temporal properties of these groups are described and compared with the total magnetic flux. It is shown that the anomalous behaviour of the total flux during the last cycle can be found only in the second group

  18. Overview of solar detoxification activities in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Mehos, M; Williams, T; Turchi, C

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories, has been investigating a process that uses solar energy to destroy hazardous wastes in air and water. The process, photocatalytic oxidation, uses ultraviolet light in conjunction with the semiconductor titanium dioxide to generate highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. Early research and development activities have demonstrated that photocatalysis may be cost effective for some applications. The Department of Energy is currently working to establish a commercial industry that uses solar energy to destroy hazardous wastes in air, water, and soil. To achieve this objective, NREL and Sandia are bringing together environmental firms, solar manufacturers, and organizations that have waste or remediation problems.

  19. Photometric observations of the energetics of small solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.K.; Chapman, G.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The energetics of small solar active regions was investigated using for the analysis the photometric solar images taken from July 29 to September 6, 1984 with the San Fernando Observatory's 28-cm vacuum telescope, vacuum spectroheliograph, and dual 512 element Reticon linear diode arrays. Ten small newly formed regions were observed, whose entire sunspot evolution apparently occurred within the observed disk crossing. Seven of these showed a net energy excess of a few times 10 to the 33th ergs during this time. These results are discussed in connection with the 0.1 percent decline in solar irradiance observed by the SMM/ACRIM and Nimbus 7/ERB radiometers between 1980 and 1986. 35 refs.

  20. Can El Nino Amplify the Solar Forcing of Climate?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzmaikin, A.

    1999-01-01

    ENSO (El Nino and the Southern Oscillation) is considered as a stochastic driver that excites the atmospheric anomaly states, such as Pacific North American pattern. This can make the 11 year solar activity forcing feasible to climate through stochastic resonance -- a phenomenon that amplifies a weak input to a nonlinear bistable system by the assistance of noise.

  1. Depth of origin of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1984-01-01

    Observations show that the individual bipolar magnetic regions on the sun remain confined during their decay phase, with much of the magnetic field pulling back under the surface, in reverse of the earlier emergence. This suggests that the magnetic field is held on a short rein by subsurface forces, for otherwise the region would decay entirely by dispersing across the face of the sun. With the simple assumption that the fields at the surface are controlled from well-defined anchor points at a depth h, it is possible to relate the length l of the bipolar region at the surface to the depth h, with h about equal to l. The observed dimensions l about equal to 100,000 km for normal active regions, and l about equal to 10,000 km for the ephemeral active regions, indicate comparable depths of origin. More detailed observational studies of the active regions may be expected to shed further light on the problem.

  2. Data Assimilation Approach for Forecast of Solar Activity Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitiashvili, Irina N.

    2016-11-01

    Numerous attempts to predict future solar cycles are mostly based on empirical relations derived from observations of previous cycles, and they yield a wide range of predicted strengths and durations of the cycles. Results obtained with current dynamo models also deviate strongly from each other, thus raising questions about criteria to quantify the reliability of such predictions. The primary difficulties in modeling future solar activity are shortcomings of both the dynamo models and observations that do not allow us to determine the current and past states of the global solar magnetic structure and its dynamics. Data assimilation is a relatively new approach to develop physics-based predictions and estimate their uncertainties in situations where the physical properties of a system are not well-known. This paper presents an application of the ensemble Kalman filter method for modeling and prediction of solar cycles through use of a low-order nonlinear dynamo model that includes the essential physics and can describe general properties of the sunspot cycles. Despite the simplicity of this model, the data assimilation approach provides reasonable estimates for the strengths of future solar cycles. In particular, the prediction of Cycle 24 calculated and published in 2008 is so far holding up quite well. In this paper, I will present my first attempt to predict Cycle 25 using the data assimilation approach, and discuss the uncertainties of that prediction.

  3. Psychiatric Disorders in Extremely Preterm Children: Longitudinal Finding at Age 11 Years in the EPICure Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Hollis, Chris; Kochhar, Puja; Hennessy, Enid; Wolke, Dieter; Marlow, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for psychiatric disorders in extremely preterm children. Method: All babies born less than 26 weeks gestation in the United Kingdom and Ireland from March through December 1995 were recruited to the EPICure Study. Of 307 survivors at 11 years of age, 219 (71%) were assessed alongside 153…

  4. Duration, Distance, and Speed Judgments of Two Moving Objects by 4- to 11-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Fumiko

    1996-01-01

    Four- to 11-year-olds made duration, distance, and speed judgments on Piagetian tasks where cars ran on parallel tracks. Among younger children, duration and distance judgments had approximately the same difficulty. Among older children, distance judgments were easier than duration judgments, and symmetry of effects of temporal and spatial…

  5. Easy Growth Experiment on Peas Stimulates Interest in Biology for 10-11 Year Old Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    How do we support the enthusiasm children show for biology in school? Unfortunately, lack of exciting practical work and boring biology lessons seem to make science less popular. As a senior lecturer in plant physiology at Karlstad University I have simplified experiments intended for students at university and then tested them on 10-11 year old…

  6. Swift J1753.5-0127 is heading to quiescence after an 11-year outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, David M.; AlMannaei, Aisha; Qasim, Ahlam Al; Shaw, A. W.; Charles, P. A.; Lewis, Fraser

    2016-11-01

    The black hole candidate X-ray binary Swift J1753.5-0127 began an outburst in June 2005 (ATel #546). After an initial outburst peak, the source settled into a hard state, and was persistent for the next 11 years.

  7. Korean 4- to 11-Year-Old Student Conceptions of Heat and Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paik, Seoung-Hey; Cho, Boo-Kyung; Go, Young-Mi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to shed light on the conceptions that young students have of heat and temperature, concepts that are both important in school science curricula and closely related to daily life. The subjects of the study were students from a rural district in South Korea and they ranged in age from 4 to 11 years. Interviews were…

  8. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children 6 through 11 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Similarly, among children in middle childhood (age 6 through 11 years), 45 percent live in…

  9. Developing Number Knowledge: Assessment, Teaching and Intervention with 7-11 Year Olds. Math Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert J.; Ellemor-Collins, David; Tabor, Pamela D.

    2011-01-01

    This fourth book in the Mathematics Recovery series equips teachers with detailed pedagogical knowledge and resources for teaching number to 7 to 11-year olds. Drawing on extensive programs of research, curriculum development, and teacher development, the book offers a coherent, up-to-date approach emphasizing computational fluency and the…

  10. Race and Ethnicity: An 11-Year Content Analysis of "Counseling and Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Caroline A.; Bowen, Nikol V.; Butler, J. Yasmine; Shavers, Marjorie C.

    2013-01-01

    Using the Dimensions of Personal Identity Model proposed by Arredondo and Glauner (as cited in Arredondo et al., 1996), the authors reviewed the last 11 years of the Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling's journal, "Counseling and Values", specifically regarding the "A" dimensions of race and ethnicity. Twenty-five…

  11. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Guidance for Health Children Ages 2 to 11 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical acti...

  12. Study of seismic activity during the ascending and descending phases of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukma, Indriani; Abidin, Zamri Zainal

    2016-12-01

    The study of the solar cycle and geomagnetic index associated with the seismic activity from the year 1901 to the end of 2015 has been done for an area that covers the majority of China and its bordering countries. Data of sunspot number, solar wind speed, daily storm time index and earthquake number are collected from NOAA, NASA, WDC, OMNI and USGS databases and websites. The earthquakes are classified into small (M < 5) and large (M ≥ 5) magnitudes (in Richter scale). We investigated the variation of earthquake activities with the geomagnetic storm index due to the solar wind. We focused on their variation in the ascending and descending phases of solar cycle. From our study, we conclude that there is a correlation between the phases' geomagnetic index and solar wind speed. We have also suggested that there is a certain degree of correlation between solar activity and seismicity in these phases. For every solar cycle, we find that there is a trend for earthquakes to occur in greater numbers during the descending phase. This can be explained by the increment in the solar wind speed and geomagnetic storm index during this phase.

  13. Periodic (18.6-year) and cyclic (11-year) induced drought and flood in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Robert Guinn

    1984-08-01

    Analysis of 102 reent tree-ring chronologies confirms earlier evidence for 18.6-year tidal drought/flood induction (Currie, 1981d, 1984b) and led to discovery of 11-year solar cycle induced drought/flood for western North America. Bistable phasing in terms of geography is found with epohs of maximum in lunar nodal 18.6-year drought in western Canada out of phase with those in the western United States and northern Mexico the past two centuries. Solar drought/flood induction provides one mechanism that appears to have modulated the intensity of nodal drought/flood induction in the latter region, most recently at epoch 1936.1. The above results were confirmed by analysis of yet more voluminous data, and they le to discovery of an example of bistable phasing with respect to time in western Canada during the 17th century. The implications for agriculture of such phenomena, which occur worldwide (Currie, 1984c), are surveyed.

  14. Magnetic modulation of solar luminosity by photospheric activity

    SciTech Connect

    Foukal, P.; Lean, J.

    1988-05-01

    The behavior of slow changes in solar irradiance S is studied using measurements obtained with radiometers on the SMM and Nimbus 7 spacecraft. The general downtrend in the radiometer readings is examined by removing the influence of sunspot blocking and comparing the residual irradiance variations with changes in facular and network radiation as indicated by the He I 10830 and CaK indices. The time-integrated sunspot and facular contributions to irradiance variation and its implications for active region energetics are considered. The magnetic activity modulation of S over solar cycle 21 from daily data on sunspot blocking and the He I index are simulated, and this simulated irradiance variation is compared to radiometry since 1978. Other recent evidence for an irradiance modulation by magnetic activity is discussed. 38 references.

  15. Magnetic modulation of solar luminosity by photospheric activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, P.; Lean, J.

    1988-01-01

    The behavior of slow changes in solar irradiance S is studied using measurements obtained with radiometers on the SMM and Nimbus 7 spacecraft. The general downtrend in the radiometer readings is examined by removing the influence of sunspot blocking and comparing the residual irradiance variations with changes in facular and network radiation as indicated by the He I 10830 and CaK indices. The time-integrated sunspot and facular contributions to irradiance variation and its implications for active region energetics are considered. The magnetic activity modulation of S over solar cycle 21 from daily data on sunspot blocking and the He I index are simulated, and this simulated irradiance variation is compared to radiometry since 1978. Other recent evidence for an irradiance modulation by magnetic activity is discussed.

  16. Density and Temperature Measurements in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Harry P.; Winebarger, Amy R.

    2003-10-01

    We present electron density and temperature measurements from an active region observed above the limb with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation spectrometer on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Density-sensitive line ratios from Si VIII and S X indicate densities greater than 108 cm-3 as high as 200" (or 145 Mm) above the limb. At these heights, static, uniformly heated loop models predict densities close to 107 cm-3. Differential emission measure analysis shows that the observed plasma is nearly isothermal with a mean temperature of about 1.5 MK and a dispersion of about 0.2 MK. Both the differential emission measure and the Si XI/Si VIII line ratios indicate only small variations in the temperature at the heights observed. These measurements confirm recent observations from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer of ``overdense'' plasma at temperatures near 1 MK in solar active regions. Time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations suggest that impulsive heating models can account for the large densities, but they have a difficult time reproducing the narrow range of observed temperatures. The observations of overdense, nearly isothermal plasma in the solar corona provide a significant challenge to theories of coronal heating.

  17. Long-term persistence of solar activity. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Feynman, Joan; Robinson, Paul

    1994-01-01

    The solar irradiance has been found to change by 0.1% over the recent solar cycle. A change of irradiance of about 0.5% is required to effect the Earth's climate. How frequently can a variation of this size be expected? We examine the question of the persistence of non-periodic variations in solar activity. The Huerst exponent, which characterizes the persistence of a time series (Mandelbrot and Wallis, 1969), is evaluated for the series of C-14 data for the time interval from about 6000 BC to 1950 AD (Stuiver and Pearson, 1986). We find a constant Huerst exponent, suggesting that solar activity in the frequency range of from 100 to 3000 years includes an important continuum component in addition to the well-known periodic variations. The value we calculate, H approximately equal to 0.8, is significantly larger than the value of 0.5 that would correspond to variations produced by a white-noise process. This value is in good agreement with the results for the monthly sunspot data reported elsewhere, indicating that the physics that produces the continuum is a correlated random process (Ruzmaikin et al., 1992), and that is is the same type of process over a wide range of time interval lengths. We conclude that the time period over which an irradiance change of 0.5% can be expected to occur is significantly shorter than that which would be expected for variations produced by a white-noise process.

  18. Summary of solar activity observed at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory: 1980-1983. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, K.; Fisher, R.; Garcia, C.; Yasukawa, E.

    1983-11-01

    The following technical note summarizes solar activity observed during the first four years operation of the experiment systems of the Coronal Dynamics Project, which are located at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory. This short report has been produced with the general aim of providing users of Mauna Loa observations with a summary of data for specific events. So that this table might be as useful as possible, a comprehensive review of three sources was performed. The plain language logs, identified as the so-called observer's logs, the now-discontinued activity logs, and the prominence monitor quality control logs were the sources from which the information in the following tables was obtained. It is expected that this review will be of particular use to those investigators who intend to use both the K-coronameter data base and the SMM Coronagraph-Polarimeter data for the study of coronal transient events.

  19. Solar Activity and its Impact on Earth's Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    The Sun's activity is now approaching an expected 2006 minimum, following the dramatic maximum of Solar Cycle 23, that included events such as the 2001 "Bastille Day" Coronal Mass Ejection, and the record-setting Oct-Nov 2003 solar flares, with their associated sunspots and variations in Total Solar Irradiance, or TSI. On Nov 4,2003 the largest X-ray flare ever detected (X-28) was observed in detail. We discuss recent satellite measurements of TSI by ACRIM 2 and 3 and Virgo, and new precision observations of TSI and SSI (Solar Spectral Irradiance) from the SORCE mission, that launched on January 25,2003. TSI variations recorded during the June 8,2004 transit of Venus show the unprecedented precision of the SORCE Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) instrument, the first of its kind to employ phase-sensitive detection. The SORCE spectral instruments, XPS, Solstice, and SIM, record the Sun's changes over a wide range of wavelengths, from 1 to more than 2000 nanometers, for the first time covering the peak of the solar spectrum, including spectral components that provide energy inputs to key components of the climate system - ultraviolet (UV) into the upper atmospheric ozone layer, infrared (IR) into the lower atmosphere and clouds, and Visible into the Oceans and biosphere. Succeeding satellite missions are planned to monitor both TSI and SSI through Cycle 24. We summarize current ideas about decadal and longer solar variability, and associated potential impacts on Earth's climate on time scales from decades to centuries, especially highlighting the role of feedbacks in the climate system.

  20. Solar optics-based active panel for solar energy storage and disinfection of greywater.

    PubMed

    Lee, W; Song, J; Son, J H; Gutierrez, M P; Kang, T; Kim, D; Lee, L P

    2016-09-01

    Smart city and innovative building strategies are becoming increasingly more necessary because advancing a sustainable building system is regarded as a promising solution to overcome the depleting water and energy. However, current sustainable building systems mainly focus on energy saving and miss a holistic integration of water regeneration and energy generation. Here, we present a theoretical study of a solar optics-based active panel (SOAP) that enables both solar energy storage and photothermal disinfection of greywater simultaneously. Solar collector efficiency of energy storage and disinfection rate of greywater have been investigated. Due to the light focusing by microlens, the solar collector efficiency is enhanced from 25% to 65%, compared to that without the microlens. The simulation of greywater sterilization shows that 100% disinfection can be accomplished by our SOAP for different types of bacteria including Escherichia coli. Numerical simulation reveals that our SOAP as a lab-on-a-wall system can resolve the water and energy problem in future sustainable building systems.

  1. Wavelet analysis of the singular spectral reconstructed time series to study the imprints of Solar-ENSO-Geomagnetic activity on Indian climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sri Lakshmi, S.; Tiwari, R. K.

    2015-09-01

    In order to study the imprints of solar-ENSO-geomagnetic activity on the Indian Subcontinent, we have applied the Singular Spectral Analysis (SSA) and wavelet analysis to the tree ring temperature variability record from the western Himalayas. The data used in the present study are the Solar Sunspot Number (SSN), Geomagnetic Indices (aa Index), Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and tree ring temperature record from western Himalayas (WH), for the period of 1876-2000. The SSA and wavelet spectra reveal the presence of 5 years short term ENSO variations to 11 year solar cycle indicating the influence of both the solar-geomagnetic and ENSO imprints in the tree ring data. The presence of 33-year cycle periodicity suggests the Sun-temperature variability probably involving the induced changes in the basic state of the atmosphere. Our wavelet analysis for the SSA reconstructed time series agrees with our previous results and also enhance the amplitude of the signals by removing the noise and showing a strong influence of solar-geomagnetic and ENSO patterns throughout the record. The solar flares are considered to be responsible for cause in the circulation patterns in the atmosphere. The net effect of solar-geomagnetic processes on temperature record thus appears to be the result of counteracting influences on shorter (about 5-6 years) and longer (about 11-12 years) time scales. The present analysis thus suggests that the influence of solar processes on Indian temperature variability operates in part indirectly through ENSO, but on more than one time scale. The analyses hence provides credible evidence for teleconnections of tropical pacific climatic variability with Indian climate ranging from interannual-decadal time scales and also demonstrate the possible role of exogenic triggering in reorganizing the global earth-ocean-atmospheric systems.

  2. Online educative activities for solar ultraviolet radiation based on measurements of cloud amount and solar exposures.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A V; Downs, N; Turner, J; Amar, A

    2016-09-01

    A set of online activities for children and the community that are based on an integrated real-time solar UV and cloud measurement system are described. These activities use the functionality of the internet to provide an educative tool for school children and the public on the influence of cloud and the angle of the sun above the horizon on the global erythemal UV or sunburning UV, the diffuse erythemal UV, the global UVA (320-400nm) and the vitamin D effective UV. Additionally, the units of UV exposure and UV irradiance are investigated, along with the meaning and calculation of the UV index (UVI). This research will help ensure that children and the general public are better informed about sun safety by improving their personal understanding of the daily and the atmospheric factors that influence solar UV radiation and the solar UV exposures of the various wavebands in the natural environment. The activities may correct common misconceptions of children and the public about UV irradiances and exposure, utilising the widespread reach of the internet to increase the public's awareness of the factors influencing UV irradiances and exposures in order to provide clear information for minimizing UV exposure, while maintaining healthy, outdoor lifestyles.

  3. Simulation of Long-term Changes in the Surface Ozone and Aerosol Concentrations Based on the Solar Activity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris; Antokhin, Pavel; Arshinov, Mikhail; Belan, Sergey; Slyadneva, Tatyana; Tolmachev, Gennadii

    2010-05-01

    Based on the long-term data obtained during previous studies we have found an interrelationship the surface ozone and aerosol content with solar activity. Variation of the concentration of both these atmospheric components have a period close to 11 years that has a 2(3)-year phase lag with respect to solar activity. Analyzing possible causes of such behaviour we discarded hypotheses of the anthropogenic origin of the trend and post-volcanic influence of El Chichon and Penatubo eruptions. It turned out, that variation of aerosol number concentration correlates with atmospheric circulation forms (W, E, and C), which are governed by solar activity. Then we analysed sequentially an ozone mechanism and variations of incoming ultraviolet radiation to determine possible causes of this phenomenon. As a result we found an intermediate process, which consists in the influence of increasing UV radiation on plants. At the beginning of UV radiation increase it is observed suppression of the vegetation. After 1- or 2-year adaptation period its productivity becomes stronger that leads to the emission of additional amount of ozone and aerosol precursors. This hypothesis has been verified using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and gave good results. Prediction of the long-term changes in the surface ozone and aerosol concentrations has been done based on this hypothesis. This work was funded by Presidium of RAS (Program No. 16), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No 5), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No 08-05-92499), and Federal Agency for Science and Innovation (State Contract № 02.518.11.7153).

  4. Can we understand time scales of solar activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremliovsky, M. N.

    1994-05-01

    The dynamo theory of the solar cycle faces numerous difficulties in regard to an explanation of the observed behavior of sunspot activity. In particular, there is an essential irregularity in the sequence of 11(22)-year cycles. In this paper we want to show how the complicated long-term evolution of solar activity can be understood within the framework of a simple model demonstrating low-dimensional chaotic behavior. According to this description we are able to give a definition for the periods of low activity (Global Minima), to describe how the transition to (from) a Global Minimum occurs and to show the role of the 11(22)-year cycle and its phase catastrophe. The explanations of the origin of the Gleissberg cycle and thousand-year variations of solar activity are given. In summary, the independence of the proposed scenario from the particular choice of model is shown. Thus one can formulate dynamics in the language of generalized instabilities which can aid the search for the underlying physical processes.

  5. Solar activity influence on air temperature regimes in caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoeva, Penka; Mikhalev, Alexander; Stoev, Alexey

    Cave atmospheres are generally included in the processes that happen in the external atmosphere as circulation of the cave air is connected with the most general circulation of the air in the earth’s atmosphere. Such isolated volumes as the air of caves are also influenced by the variations of solar activity. We discuss cave air temperature response to climate and solar and geomagnetic activity for four show caves in Bulgaria studied for a period of 46 years (1968 - 2013). Everyday noon measurements in Ledenika, Saeva dupka, Snezhanka and Uhlovitsa cave have been used. Temperatures of the air in the zone of constant temperatures (ZCT) are compared with surface temperatures recorded at meteorological stations situated near about the caves - in the towns of Vratsa, Lovech, Peshtera and Smolyan, respectively. For comparison, The Hansen cave, Middle cave and Timpanogos cave from the Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah, USA situated nearly at the same latitude have also been examined. Our study shows that the correlation between cave air temperature time series and sunspot number is better than that between the cave air temperature and Apmax indices; that t°ZCT is rather connected with the first peak in geomagnetic activity, which is associated with transient solar activity (CMEs) than with the second one, which is higher and connected with the recurrent high speed streams from coronal holes. Air temperatures of all examined show caves, except the Ledenika cave, which is ice cave show decreasing trends. On the contrary, measurements at the meteorological stations show increasing trends in the surface air temperatures. The trend is decreasing for the Timpanogos cave system, USA. The conclusion is that surface temperature trends depend on the climatic zone, in which the cave is situated, and there is no apparent relation between temperatures inside and outside the caves. We consider possible mechanism of solar cosmic rays influence on the air temperatures in caves

  6. Time distribution of the precipitable water vapor in central Saudi Arabia and its relationship to solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrabi, A. H.; Al Dajani, H. M.

    2014-04-01

    Water vapor is the most important greenhouse gas. It plays a major role in the dynamics of atmospheric circulation, radiation exchange within the atmosphere, and climate variability. Knowledge of the distribution of water vapor is important for understanding climate change and global warming. In this study, radiosonde data from 1985 to 2012 were used to examine the monthly, interannual, and annual variations and trends of precipitable water vapor (PWV) in central Saudi Arabia in the city of Riyadh (24° 43‧N; 46° 40‧E, 764 m a.s.l.). The results revealed a clear seasonal cycle of PWV with a maximum during the summer months (June-August) and a minimum during the winter (December-February). This variation follows the mean monthly variation of air temperature. The PWV displays considerable variability at the interannual scale. We could not attribute the variations to the air temperature because no relationship was found between the two variables when the interannual variations were examined. Study of the annual variations of the PWV showed cyclic variations with a period of approximately 10-11 years. The two maximums and minimums were in 1996 and 2007 and 1989 and 2000, respectively. The results showed that the annual PWV values are anticorrelated with solar activity, represented by sunspot number, during solar cycles 22 and 23. The physical mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. This finding is preliminary, and future investigations are recommended.

  7. Periodicities in the occurrence of aurora as indicators of solar variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nian-Zu, D.; Mei-Dong, C.; Zhen-Jin, Z.; Mendillo, M.

    1983-01-01

    A compilation of records of the aurora observed in China from the Time of the Legends (2000 - 3000 B.C.) to the mid-18th century has been used to infer the frequencies and strengths of solar activity prior to modern times. A merging of this analysis with auroral and solar activity patterns during the last 200 years provides basically continuous information about solar activity during the last 2000 years. The results show periodicities in solar activity that contain average components with a long period (approx. 412 years), three middle periods (approx. 38 years, approx. 77 years, and approx. 130 years), and the well known short period (approx. 11 years).

  8. GRAND MINIMA AND NORTH-SOUTH ASYMMETRY OF SOLAR ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Olemskoy, S. V.; Kitchatinov, L. L.

    2013-11-01

    A solar-type dynamo model in a spherical shell is developed with allowance for random dependence of the poloidal field generation mechanism on time and latitude. The model shows repeatable epochs of a strongly decreased amplitude of magnetic cycles similar to the Maunder minimum of solar activity. Random dependence of dynamo parameters on latitude breaks the equatorial symmetry of generated fields. The model shows the correlation of the occurrence of grand minima with deviations in the dynamo field from dipolar parity. An increased north-south asymmetry of magnetic activity can, therefore, be an indicator of transitions to grand minima. Qualitative interpretation of this correlation is suggested. Statistics of grand minima in the model are close to the Poisson random process, indicating that the onset of a grand minimum is statistically independent of preceding minima.

  9. Prediction of solar activity from solar background magnetic field variations in cycles 21-23

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, Simon J.; Zharkov, Sergei I.; Zharkova, Valentina V. E-mail: s.zharkov@hull.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive spectral analysis of both the solar background magnetic field (SBMF) in cycles 21-23 and the sunspot magnetic field in cycle 23 reported in our recent paper showed the presence of two principal components (PCs) of SBMF having opposite polarity, e.g., originating in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively. Over a duration of one solar cycle, both waves are found to travel with an increasing phase shift toward the northern hemisphere in odd cycles 21 and 23 and to the southern hemisphere in even cycle 22. These waves were linked to solar dynamo waves assumed to form in different layers of the solar interior. In this paper, for the first time, the PCs of SBMF in cycles 21-23 are analyzed with the symbolic regression technique using Hamiltonian principles, allowing us to uncover the underlying mathematical laws governing these complex waves in the SBMF presented by PCs and to extrapolate these PCs to cycles 24-26. The PCs predicted for cycle 24 very closely fit (with an accuracy better than 98%) the PCs derived from the SBMF observations in this cycle. This approach also predicts a strong reduction of the SBMF in cycles 25 and 26 and, thus, a reduction of the resulting solar activity. This decrease is accompanied by an increasing phase shift between the two predicted PCs (magnetic waves) in cycle 25 leading to their full separation into the opposite hemispheres in cycle 26. The variations of the modulus summary of the two PCs in SBMF reveals a remarkable resemblance to the average number of sunspots in cycles 21-24 and to predictions of reduced sunspot numbers compared to cycle 24: 80% in cycle 25 and 40% in cycle 26.

  10. SOLAR ROTATION RATE DURING THE CYCLE 24 MINIMUM IN ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Antia, H. M.; Basu, Sarbani E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.ed

    2010-09-01

    The minimum of solar cycle 24 is significantly different from most other minima in terms of its duration as well as its abnormally low levels of activity. Using available helioseismic data that cover epochs from the minimum of cycle 23 to now, we study the differences in the nature of the solar rotation between the minima of cycles 23 and 24. We find that there are significant differences between the rotation rates during the two minima. There are differences in the zonal-flow pattern too. We find that the band of fast rotating region close to the equator bifurcated around 2005 and recombined by 2008. This behavior is different from that during the cycle 23 minimum. By autocorrelating the zonal-flow pattern with a time shift, we find that in terms of solar dynamics, solar cycle 23 lasted for a period of 11.7 years, consistent with the result of Howe et al. (2009). The autocorrelation coefficient also confirms that the zonal-flow pattern penetrates through the convection zone.

  11. Forecasting the Peak of the Present Solar Activity Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Rabab; Marzouk, Beshir

    2016-07-01

    Solar forecasting of the level of sun Activity is very important subject for all space programs. Most predictions are based on the physical conditions prevailing at or before the solar cycle minimum preceding the maximum in question. Our aim is to predict the maximum peak of cycle 24 using precursor techniques in particular those using spotless event, geomagnetic aa min. index and solar flux F10.7. Also prediction of exact date of the maximum (Tr) is taken in consideration. A study of variation over previous spotless event for cycles 7-23 and that for even cycles (8-22) are carried out for the prediction. Linear correlation between RM and spotless event around the preceding minimum gives RM24t = 101.9with rise time Tr = 4.5 Y. For the even cycles RM24e = 108.3 with rise time Tr = 3.9 Y. Based on the average aa min. index for the year of sunspot minimum cycles (13 - 23), we estimate the expected amplitude for cycle 24 to be RMaa = 116.5 for both the total and even cycles. Application of the data of solar flux F10.7 which cover only cycles (19-23) was taken in consideration and gives predicted maximum amplitude R24 10.7 = 146, which are over estimation. Our result indicating a somewhat weaker cycle 24 as compared to cycles 21-23.

  12. Dayside Auroral Activity During Solar Maximum and Minimum Periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawie, M.; Fasel, G. J.; Flicker, J.; Angelo, A.; Bender, S.; Alyami, M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Sigernes, F.; Lorentzen, D. A.; Green, D.

    2014-12-01

    It is well documented that the dayside auroral oval shifts equatorward when the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) Bz-component turns southward [Burch, 1973; Akasofu, 1977; Horwitz and Akasofu, 1977; Sandholt et al., 1986, 1988]. During these periods of oval expansion dayside transients are observed to move away from the poleward edge of the auroral oval and drift poleward. These poleward-moving auroral forms are believed to be ionospheric signatures of dayside merging. The dayside auroral oval usually begins to contract when the interplanetary magnetic field turns sharply northward, Bz>0. Eighteen years of meridian scanning photometer (MSP) data from the Kjell Henriksen Observatory in Longyearbyen, Norway are analyzed. During the boreal winter the Sun is several degrees below the horizon. This permits optical observations throughout the daytime period. The MSP Data is selected two hours before and after local noon in Longyearbeyn. Solar wind data (solar wind pressure and speed, along with the IMF Bx, By, Bz components) are collected for each interval and combined with the MSP observations. This data is then separated using solar maximum and minimum periods. Auroral activity (oval expansions and contractions along with the frequency and number of poleward-moving auroral forms) is documented for both solar maximum and minimum periods.

  13. Automatic Recognition of Solar Features for Developing Data Driven Prediction Models of Solar Activity and Space Weather

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-06

    Ephemeral Brightening,” 2nd ATST – East Workshop In Solar Physics: Magnetic Fields From The Photosphere To The Corona , Washington D.C., Mar 2012. [6...AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2012-0133 TR-2012-0133 AUTOMATIC RECOGNITION OF SOLAR FEATURES FOR DEVELOPING DATA DRIVEN PREDICTION MODELS OF... SOLAR ACTIVITY AND SPACE WEATHER Jason Jackiewicz New Mexico State University Department of Astronomy PO Box 30001, MSC 4500 Las

  14. FLUOR HANFORD (FH) MAKES CLEANUP A REALITY IN NEARLY 11 YEARS AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER, M.S.

    2007-05-24

    For nearly 11 years, Fluor Hanford has been busy cleaning up the legacy of nuclear weapons production at one of the Department of Energy's (DOE'S) major sites in the United States. As prime nuclear waste cleanup contractor at the vast Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state, Fluor Hanford has changed the face of cleanup. Fluor beginning on October 1, 1996, Hanford Site cleanup was primarily a ''paper exercise.'' The Tri-Party Agreement, officially called the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order - the edict governing cleanup among the DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington state - was just seven years old. Milestones mandated in the agreement up until then had required mainly waste characterization, reporting, and planning, with actual waste remediation activities off in the future. Real work, accessing waste ''in the field'' - or more literally in huge underground tanks, decaying spent fuel POO{approx}{approx}S, groundwater, hundreds of contaminated facilities, solid waste burial grounds, and liquid waste disposal sites -began in earnest under Fluor Hanford. The fruits of labors initiated, completed and/or underway by Fluor Hanford can today be seen across the site. Spent nuclear fuel is buttoned up in secure, dry containers stored away from regional water resources, reactive plutonium scraps are packaged in approved containers, transuranic (TRU) solid waste is being retrieved from burial trenches and shipped offsite for permanent disposal, contaminated facilities are being demolished, contaminated groundwater is being pumped out of aquifers at record rates, and many other inventive solutions are being applied to Hanford's most intransigent nuclear wastes. (TRU) waste contains more than 100 nanocuries per gram, and contains isotopes higher than uranium on the Periodic Table of the Elements. (A nanocurie is one-billionth of a curie.) At the same time, Fluor Hanford has dramatically improved safety records, and cost

  15. [Acute bilateral impaired vision with central scotoma in an 11-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Pollithy, S; Ach, T; Schaal, K B; Dithmar, S

    2012-09-01

    This article presents a case of acute bilateral impaired vision and central scotoma in an 11-year-old boy. Looking directly into a laser beam of a laser pointer for only a few seconds can cause retinal damage in the form of lesions of the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptor layer, up to retinal hemorrhage. Patients often complain about impaired vision and a central scotoma of the affected eye.

  16. The transmission of tuberculosis in schools involving children 3 to 11 years of age.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jonathan R; Mason, Brendan W; Paranjothy, Shantini; Palmer, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the risk of tuberculosis transmission from children. We reviewed the published literature on the transmission of tuberculosis during outbreaks involving children 3 to 11 years of age and report that transmission rates among close contacts in school outbreaks are on average higher (weighted average 69.8% vs. 39.3%) if the index case is a child than an adult.

  17. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Very Large Array observations at 20 cm wavelength can detect the hot coronal plasma previously observed at soft x ray wavelengths. Thermal cyclotron line emission was detected at the apex of coronal loops where the magnetic field strength is relatively constant. Detailed comparison of simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Satellite and VLA data indicate that physical parameters such as electron temperature, electron density, and magnetic field strength can be obtained, but that some coronal loops remain invisible in either spectral domain. The unprecedent spatial resolution of the VLA at 20 cm wavelength showed that the precursor, impulsive, and post-flare components of solar bursts originate in nearby, but separate loops or systems of loops.. In some cases preburst heating and magnetic changes are observed from loops tens of minutes prior to the impulsive phase. Comparisons with soft x ray images and spectra and with hard x ray data specify the magnetic field strength and emission mechanism of flaring coronal loops. At the longer 91 cm wavelength, the VLA detected extensive emission interpreted as a hot 10(exp 5) K interface between cool, dense H alpha filaments and the surrounding hotter, rarefield corona. Observations at 91 cm also provide evidence for time-correlated bursts in active regions on opposite sides of the solar equator; they are attributed to flare triggering by relativistic particles that move along large-scale, otherwise-invisible, magnetic conduits that link active regions in opposite hemispheres of the Sun.

  18. Twist of Magnetic Fields in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongqi; Bao, Shudong; Kuzanyan, Kirill M.

    2002-05-01

    We study the twist properties of photospheric magnetic fields in solar active regions using magnetographic data on 422 active regions obtained at the Huairou Solar Observing Station in 1988 1997. We calculate the mean twist (force-free field αf) of the active regions and compare it with the mean current-helicity density of these same active regions, h c =B ∥·(∇×B)∥. The latitude and longitude distributions and time dependence of these quantities is analyzed. These parameters represent two different tracers of the α effect in dynamo theory, so we might expect them to possess similar properties. However, apart from differences in their definitions, they also display differences associated with the technique used to recalculate the magnetographic data and with their different physical meanings. The distributions of the mean αf and h c both show hemispherical asymmetry—negative (positive) values in the northern (southern) hemisphere—although this tendency is stronger for h c. One reason for these differences may be the averaging procedure, when twists of opposite sign in regions with weak fields make a small contribution to the mean current-helicity density. Such transequatorial regularity is in agreement with the expectations of dynamo theory. In some active regions, the average αf and h c do not obey this transequatorial rule. As a whole, the mean twist of the magnetic fields αf of active regions does not vary significantly with the solar cycle. Active regions that do not follow the general behavior for αf do not show any appreciable tendency to cluster at certain longitudes, in contrast to results for h c noted in previous studies. We analyze similarities and differences in the distributions of these two quantities. We conclude that using only one of these tracers, such as αf, to search for signatures of the α effect can have disadvantages, which should be taken into account in future studies.

  19. Active other worlds in the Solar System and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forget, François

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decades, space exploration has moved planetology from the field of astronomy to the disciplines of geosciences. A fleet of spacecrafts have discovered and study tens of worlds in our solar system and beyond. Everywhere, we have been surprised by the diversity and the vigour of the geophysical activity, from volcanic eruptions to plasma waves... Every scientists present at EGU could -and should- be interested in the extraterrestrial processes that are discovered and analyzed elsewhere. In our solar system, a variety of clouds and fluid dynamical phenomena can be studied in six terrestrial atmospheres and on four giant planets. Active glaciers are found on Mars and Pluto. Rivers and lakes have sculpted the surface of Titan and Mars. Sometime, we can even study geophysical activity with no equivalent on our planet: ice caps made of frozen atmosphere that erupt in geysers, hazes formed by organic polymers which can completely shroud a moon, etc. We study these active worlds because we are curious and wish to understand our universe and our origins. However, more than ever, two specific motivations drive solar system geosciences in 2016: Firstly, as we become more and more familiar with the other worlds around us, we can use them to better understand our own planet. Throughout the solar system, we can access to data that are simply not available on the Earth, or study active processes that are subtle on Earth but of greater importance elsewhere, so that we can better understand them. Many geophysical concepts and tools developed for the Earth can also be tested on other planets. For instance the numerical Climate Models used to assess Earth's future climate change are applied to other planets. Much is learned from such experiments. Secondly, the time has come to generalize the fundamental lessons that we have learned from the examples in the solar system (including the Earth) to address the countless scientific questions that are -and will be- raised by

  20. NASDA activities in space solar power system research, development and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuda, Sumio; Yamamoto, Yasunari; Uesugi, Masato

    1993-01-01

    NASDA activities in solar cell research, development, and applications are described. First, current technologies for space solar cells such as Si, GaAs, and InP are reviewed. Second, future space solar cell technologies intended to be used on satellites of 21st century are discussed. Next, the flight data of solar cell monitor on ETS-V is shown. Finally, establishing the universal space solar cell calibration system is proposed.

  1. A new simple dynamo model for solar activity cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoi, Nobumitsu; Schmitt, Dieter

    2015-04-01

    The solar magnetic activity cycle has been investigated in an elaborated manner with several types of dynamo models [1]. In most of the current mean-field approaches, the inhomogeneity of the large-scale flow is treated as an essential ingredient in the mean magnetic field equation whereas it is completely neglected in the turbulence equation. In this work, a new simple model for the solar activity cycle is proposed. The present model differs from the previous ones mainly in two points. First, in addition to the helicity coefficient α, we consider a term related to the cross helicity, which represents the effect of the inhomogeneous mean flow, in the turbulent electromotive force [2, 3]. Second, this transport coefficient (γ) is not treated as an adjustable parameter, but the evolution equation for γ is simultaneously solved. The basic scenario for the solar activity cycle in this approach is as follows: The toroidal field is induced by the toroidal rotation in mediation by the turbulent cross helicity. Then due to the α or helicity effect, the poloidal field is generated from the toroidal field. The poloidal field induced by the α effect produces a turbulent cross helicity whose sign is opposite to the original one (negative cross-helicity production). The cross helicity with this opposite sign induces a reversed toroidal field. Results of the eigenvalue analysis of the model equations are shown, which confirm the above scenario. References [1] Charbonneau, Living Rev. Solar Phys. 7, 3 (2010). [2] Yoshizawa, A. Phys. Fluids B 2, 1589 (1990). [3] Yokoi, N. Geophys. Astrophys. Fluid Dyn. 107, 114 (2013).

  2. The dynamic evolution of active-region-scale magnetic flux tubes in the turbulent solar convective envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Maria Ann

    2014-12-01

    The Sun exhibits cyclic properties of its large-scale magnetic field on the order of sigma22 years, with a ˜11 year frequency of sunspot occurrence. These sunspots, or active regions, are the centers of magnetically driven phenomena such as flares and coronal mass ejections. Volatile solar magnetic events directed toward the Earth pose a threat to human activities and our increasingly technological society. As such, the origin and nature of solar magnetic flux emergence is a topic of global concern. Sunspots are observable manifestations of solar magnetic fields, thus providing a photospheric link to the deep-seated dynamo mechanism. However, the manner by which bundles of magnetic field, or flux tubes, traverse the convection zone to eventual emergence at the solar surface is not well understood. To provide a connection between dynamo-generated magnetic fields and sunspots, I have performed simulations of magnetic flux emergence through the bulk of a turbulent, solar convective envelope by employing a thin flux tube model subject to interaction with flows taken from a hydrodynamic convection simulation computed through the Anelastic Spherical Harmonic (ASH) code. The convective velocity field interacts with the flux tube through the drag force it experiences as it traverses through the convecting medium. Through performing these simulations, much insight has been gained about the influence of turbulent solar-like convection on the flux emergence process and resulting active region properties. I find that the dynamic evolution of flux tubes change from convection dominated to magnetic buoyancy dominated as the initial field strength of the flux tubes increases from 15 kG to 100 kG. Additionally, active-region-scale flux tubes of 40 kG and greater exhibit properties similar to those of active regions on the Sun, such as: tilt angles, rotation rates, and morphological asymmetries. The joint effect of the Coriolis force and helical motions present in convective

  3. [Can solar/geomagnetic activity restrict the occurrence of some shellfish poisoning outbreaks? The example of PSP caused by Gymnodinium catenatum at the Atlantic Portuguese coast].

    PubMed

    Vale, P

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic outbreaks of accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in mussels attributed to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms displayed several of the highest inter-annual maxima coincidental with minima of the 11-year solar sunspot number (SSN) cycle. The monthly distribution of PSP was associated with low levels of the solar radio flux, a more quantitative approach than SSN for fluctuations in solar activity. A comparison between monthly distribution of PSP and other common biotoxins (okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins) demonstrated that only PSP was significantly associated with low levels of radio flux (p < 0.01). PSP occurrence suggests a prior decline in solar activity could be required to act as a trigger, in a similar manner to a photoperiodic signal. The seasonal frequency increased towards autumn during the study period, which might be related to the progressive atmospheric cut-off of deleterious radiation associated with the seasonal change in solar declination, and might play an additional role in seasonal signal-triggering. PSP distribution was also associated with low levels of the geomagnetic index Aa. A comparison between monthly distribution of PSP and other common biotoxins, also demonstrated that only PSP was significantly associated with low levels of the Aa index (p < 0.01). In some years of SSN minima no significant PSP-outbreaks in mussels were detected. This was attributed to a steady rise in geomagnetic activity that could disrupt the triggering signal. Global distribution patterns show that hotspots for G. catenatum blooms are regions with deficient crustal magnetic anomalies. In addition to the variable magnetic field mostly of solar origin, static fields related to magnetized rocks in the crust and upper mantle might play a role in restricting worldwide geographic distribution.

  4. Solar-terrestrial effect controls seismic activity to a large extent (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duma, G.

    2010-12-01

    Several observational results and corresponding publications in the 20 century indicate that earthquakes in many regions happen systematically in dependence on the time of day and on the season as well. In the recent decade, studies on this topic have also been intensively performed at the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG), Vienna. Any natural effect on Earth which systematically appears at certain hours of the day or at a special season can solely be caused by a solar or lunar influence. And actually, statistic results on seismic activity reveal a correlation with the solar cycles. Examples of this seismic performance are shown. To gain more clarity about these effects, the three-hour magnetic index Kp, which characterizes the magnetic field disturbances, mainly caused by the solar particle radiation, the solar wind, was correlated with the seismic energy released by earthquakes over decades. Kp is determined from magnetic records of 13 observatories worldwide and continuously published by ISGI, France. It is demonstrated that a highly significant correlation between the geomagnetic index Kp and the annual seismic energy release in regions at latitudes between 35 and 60° N exists. Three regions of continental size were investigated, using the USGS (PDE) earthquake catalogue data. In the period 1974-2009 the Kp cycle periods range between 9 and 12 years, somewhat different to the sunspot number cycles of 11 years. Seismicity follows the Kp cycles with high coincidence. A detailed analysis of this correlation for N-America reveals, that the sum of released energy by earthquakes per year changes by a factor up to 100 with Kp. It is shown that during years of high Kp there happen e.g. 1 event M7, 4 events M6 and 30 events M5 per year, instead of only 10 events M5 in years with lowest Kp. Almost the same relation appears in other regions of continental size, with the same significance. The seismicity in S-America clearly follows the Kp cycles

  5. Correlations of magnetospheric ion composition with geomagnetic and solar activity

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.T.; Balsiger, H.; Geiss, J.

    1982-11-01

    A large ion composition data set consisting of 1-month averages has been assembled for the energy per charge range 0.9--15.9 keV/e. It includes 48 months of data taken by the Ion Composition Experiments on the ESA/GEOS 1 and 2 satellites at or near geostationary orbit. Data were obtained during the rising and maximum phases of the current solar cycle from May 1977 through November 1981 inclusive. Five ion species are routinely identifiable: H/sup +/, He/sup + +/, He/sup +/, O/sup + +/, and O/sup +/, above a limiting density approx.10/sup -3/ ions cm/sup -3/. Ion densities exhibit a number of very striking statistical correlations with one another and with both Kp and solar EUV as measured by F/sub 10.7/. One principal result is that increases in the densities of magnetospheric He/sup +/, O/sup + +/, and O/sup +/ are observed that are apparently due entirely to increased solar EUV fluxes associated with the ring phase of the current solar cycle. There is a marked rise in O/sup +/ density by a factor of approx.8 with increasing geomagnetic activity, but no correpsonding increase in either He/sup +/ or O/sup + +/ and only a small increase in H/sup +/. The He/sup + +//H/sup +/ ratio is found to be remarkably constant at roughly-equal0.01. Contrary to ion density results, little or no variation is found in mean energy. These observations are interpreted in terms of the composition and dynamics of two sources of magnetospheric plasma: the solar wind and the high-latitude topside ionosphere.

  6. Solar EUV Variability from FISM and SDO/EVE During Solar Minimum, Active, and Flaring Time Periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    The Living With a Star (LWS) Focus Science Team has identified three periods of different solar activity levels for which they will be determining the Earth's Ionosphere and Thermosphere response. Not only will the team be comparing individual models (e.g. FLIP, T1MEGCM, GLOW) outcome driven by the various levels of solar activity, but the models themselves will also be compared. These models all rely on the input solar EUV (0.1 -190 nm) irradiance to drive the variability. The Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) and the EUV Variability Experiment (EVE) onboard provide the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) provide the most accurate quantification of these irradiances. Presented and discussed are how much the solar EUV irradiance changes during these three scenarios, both as a function of activity and wavelength.

  7. A Practical Application of Microcomputers to Control an Active Solar System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, David S.; Warren, William

    1984-01-01

    Describes the design and implementation of a microcomputer-based model active solar heating system. Includes discussions of: (1) the active solar components (solar collector, heat exchanger, pump, and fan necessary to provide forced air heating); (2) software components; and (3) hardware components (in the form of sensors and actuators). (JN)

  8. Exploiting the Magnetic Origin of Solar Activity in Forecasting Thermospheric Density Variations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Exploiting the Magnetic Origin of Solar Activity in Forecasting Thermospheric Density Variations Harry Warren Naval Research Laboratory, Space...Science Division, Washington, DC John Emmert Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington, DC Abstract A detailed understanding of solar ...drag. Current operational models rely on forecasts of proxies for solar activity based on autoregression. The forecasts from these models generally

  9. Triennial Report 2006-2009. Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Commission 10 deals with solar activity in all of its forms, ranging from the smallest nanoflares to the largest coronal mass ejections. This report reviews scientific progress over the roughly two-year period ending in the middle of 2008. This has been an exciting time in solar physics, highlighted by the launches of the Hinode and STEREO missions late in 2006. The report is reasonably comprehensive, though it is far from exhaustive. Limited space prevents the inclusion of many significant results. The report is divided into following sections: Photosphere and Chromosphere; Transition Region; Corona and Coronal Heating; Coronal Jets; Flares; Coronal Mass Ejection Initiation; Global Coronal Waves and Shocks; Coronal Dimming; The Link Between Low Coronal CME signatures and Magnetic Clouds; Coronal Mass Ejections in the Heliosphere; and Coronal Mass Ejections and Space Weather. Primary authorship is indicated at the beginning of each section.

  10. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Active Region NOAA 7154

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, M. E.; Nitta, N. V.; Frank. Z. A.; Dame, L.; Suematsu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    We report on observations of a solar active region in May 1992 by the Solar Plasma Diagnostic Experiment (SPDE) in coordination with the Yohkoh satellite (producing soft X-ray images) and ground-based observatories (producing photospheric magnetograms and various filtergrams including those at the CN 3883 A line). The main focus is a study of the physical conditions of hot (T is approximately greater than 3 MK) coronal loops at their foot-points. The coronal part of the loops is fuzzy but what appear to be their footpoints in the transition region down to the photosphere are compact. Despite the morphological similarities, the footpoint emission at 10(exp 5) K is not quantitatively correlated with that at approximately 300 km above the tau (sub 5000) = 1 level, suggesting that the heat transport and therefore magnetic field topology in the intermediate layer is complicated. High resolution imaging observations with continuous temperature coverage are crucially needed.

  11. The Role of Magnetic Reconnection in Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, Spiro; DeVore, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    The central challenge in solar/heliospheric physics is to understand how the emergence and transport of magnetic flux at the photosphere drives the structure and dynamics that we observe in the corona and heliosphere. This presentation focuses on the role of magnetic reconnection in determining solar/heliospheric activity. We demonstrate that two generic properties of the photospheric magnetic and velocity fields are responsible for the ubiquitous reconnection in the corona. First, the photospheric velocities are complex, which leads to the injection of energy and helicity into the coronal magnetic fields and to the efficient, formation of small-scale structure. Second, the flux distribution at the photosphere is multi-polar, which implies that topological discontinuities and, consequently, current sheets, must be present in the coronal magnetic field. We: present numerical simulations showing that photospherically-driven reconnection is responsible for the heating and dynamics of coronal plasma, and for the topology of the coronal/heliospheric magnetic field.

  12. DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Török, T.; Titov, V. S.; Mikić, Z.; Leake, J. E.; Archontis, V.; Linton, M. G.; Dalmasse, K.; Aulanier, G.; Kliem, B.

    2014-02-10

    There has been a long-standing debate on the question of whether or not electric currents in solar active regions are neutralized. That is, whether or not the main (or direct) coronal currents connecting the active region polarities are surrounded by shielding (or return) currents of equal total value and opposite direction. Both theory and observations are not yet fully conclusive regarding this question, and numerical simulations have, surprisingly, barely been used to address it. Here we quantify the evolution of electric currents during the formation of a bipolar active region by considering a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the emergence of a sub-photospheric, current-neutralized magnetic flux rope into the solar atmosphere. We find that a strong deviation from current neutralization develops simultaneously with the onset of significant flux emergence into the corona, accompanied by the development of substantial magnetic shear along the active region's polarity inversion line. After the region has formed and flux emergence has ceased, the strong magnetic fields in the region's center are connected solely by direct currents, and the total direct current is several times larger than the total return current. These results suggest that active regions, the main sources of coronal mass ejections and flares, are born with substantial net currents, in agreement with recent observations. Furthermore, they support eruption models that employ pre-eruption magnetic fields containing such currents.

  13. A new 10Be record recovered from an Antarctic ice core: validity and limitations to record the solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, Mélanie; Bard, Edouard; Aster Team

    2015-04-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides provide the only possibility to document solar activity over millennia. Carbon-14 (14C) and beryllium-10 (10Be) records are retrieved from tree rings and ice cores, respectively. Recently, 14C records have also proven to be reliable to detect two large Solar Proton Events (SPE) (Miyake et al., Nature, 2012, Miyake et al., Nat. Commun., 2013) that occurred in 774-775 A.D. and in 993-994 A.D.. The origin of these events is still under debate but it opens new perspectives for the interpretation of 10Be ice core records. We present a new 10Be record from an ice core from Dome C (Antarctica) covering the last millennium. The chronology of this new ice core has been established by matching volcanic events on the WAIS Divide ice core (WDC06A) that is the best dated record in Antarctica over the Holocene (Sigl et al., JGR, 2013, Sigl et al., Nat. Clim. Change, 2014). The five minima of solar activity (Oort, Wolf, Spörer, Maunder and Dalton) are detected and characterized by a 10Be concentration increase of ca. 20% above average in agreement with previous studies of ice cores drilled at South Pole and Dome Fuji in Antarctica (Bard et al., EPSL, 1997; Horiuchi et al., Quat. Geochrono., 2008) and at NGRIP and Dye3 in Greenland (Berggren et al., GRL, 2009). The high resolution, on the order of a year, allows the detection of the 11-year solar cycle. Sulfate concentration, a proxy for volcanic eruptions, has also been measured in the very same samples, allowing a precise comparison of both 10Be and sulfate profiles. We confirm the systematic relationship between stratospheric eruptions and 10Be concentration increases, first evidenced by observations of the stratospheric volcanic eruptions of Agung in 1963 and Pinatubo in 1991 (Baroni et al., GCA, 2011). This relationship is due to an increase in 10Be deposition linked to the role played by the sedimentation of volcanic aerosols. In the light of these new elements, we will discuss the limitations and

  14. Comparison of Solar Active Region Complexity Andgeomagnetic Activity from 1996 TO 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanskanen, E. I.; Nikbakhsh, S.; Perez-Suarez, D.; Hackman, T.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the influence of magnetic complexity of solar Active Regions (ARs)on geomagnetic activity from 1996 to 2014. Sunspots are visual indicators of ARswhere the solar magnetic field is disturbed. We have used International, American,Space Environment Service Center (SESC) and Space Weather Prediction Center(SWPC) sunspot numbers to examine ARs. Major manifestations of solar magneticactivity, such as flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), are associated withARs. For this study we chose the Mount Wilson scheme. It classifies ARs in terms oftheir magnetic topology from the least complex (?) to the most complex one ( ?).Several cases have been found where the more complex structures produce strongerflares and CMEs than the less complex ones. We have a list of identified substormsavailable with different phases and their durations. This will be compared to ourmagnetic complexity data to analyse the effects of active region magnetic complexityto the magnetic activity on the vicinity of the Earth.

  15. Magnetic Properties of Solar Active Regions That Govern Large Solar Flares and Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toriumi, Shin; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Harra, Louise K.; Hudson, Hugh; Nagashima, Kaori

    2017-01-01

    Solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), especially the larger ones, emanate from active regions (ARs). With the aim of understanding the magnetic properties that govern such flares and eruptions, we systematically survey all flare events with Geostationary Orbiting Environmental Satellite levels of ≥M5.0 within 45° from disk center between 2010 May and 2016 April. These criteria lead to a total of 51 flares from 29 ARs, for which we analyze the observational data obtained by the Solar Dynamics Observatory. More than 80% of the 29 ARs are found to exhibit δ-sunspots, and at least three ARs violate Hale’s polarity rule. The flare durations are approximately proportional to the distance between the two flare ribbons, to the total magnetic flux inside the ribbons, and to the ribbon area. From our study, one of the parameters that clearly determine whether a given flare event is CME-eruptive or not is the ribbon area normalized by the sunspot area, which may indicate that the structural relationship between the flaring region and the entire AR controls CME productivity. AR characterization shows that even X-class events do not require δ-sunspots or strong-field, high-gradient polarity inversion lines. An investigation of historical observational data suggests the possibility that the largest solar ARs, with magnetic flux of 2 × 1023 Mx, might be able to produce “superflares” with energies of the order of 1034 erg. The proportionality between the flare durations and magnetic energies is consistent with stellar flare observations, suggesting a common physical background for solar and stellar flares.

  16. Nonlinear techniques for forecasting solar activity directly from its time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashrafi, S.; Roszman, L.; Cooley, J.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical techniques for constructing nonlinear predictive models to forecast solar flux directly from its time series are presented. This approach makes it possible to extract dynamical invariants of our system without reference to any underlying solar physics. We consider the dynamical evolution of solar activity in a reconstructed phase space that captures the attractor (strange), given a procedure for constructing a predictor of future solar activity, and discuss extraction of dynamical invariants such as Lyapunov exponents and attractor dimension.

  17. Nonlinear techniques for forecasting solar activity directly from its time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashrafi, S.; Roszman, L.; Cooley, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents numerical techniques for constructing nonlinear predictive models to forecast solar flux directly from its time series. This approach makes it possible to extract dynamical in variants of our system without reference to any underlying solar physics. We consider the dynamical evolution of solar activity in a reconstructed phase space that captures the attractor (strange), give a procedure for constructing a predictor of future solar activity, and discuss extraction of dynamical invariants such as Lyapunov exponents and attractor dimension.

  18. Predictions of the onset of mini ice age in the 25th solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-07-01

    Predictions of the ir-regularty in the 11 year heartbeat of the sun due to asyncronous of the two layered dynamo effect would result in mini ice age as in the Maunder minimum.The onset of this event is expected in the begining of 25th solar cycle and would go to its maximum in the 26th solar cycle.The minimum temperature is expected in 2028 due to the fall of solar activity by 60 % termed as solar hibernation.The predictions are based on the observations obtained by the Royal Greenwich observatory since 1874. Keywords: Dynamo effect,munder minimum,Solar hybernation

  19. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Beth N; Hayes, Dayle

    2014-08-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, maintain healthy weights, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. Rapid increases in the prevalence of childhood obesity during the 1980s and 1990s focused attention on young children's overconsumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and lack of physical activity. While recent data suggest a stabilization of obesity rates, several public health concerns remain. These include the most effective ways to promote healthy weights, the number of children living in food insecurity, the under-consumption of key nutrients, and the early development of diet-related risks for chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This Position Paper reviews what children 2 to 11 years old in the United States are reportedly eating, explores trends in food and nutrient intakes, and examines the impact of federal nutrition programs on child nutrition. Current dietary recommendations and guidelines for physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of life-long healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into positive, practical health messages. Specific recommendations and sources of science-based nutrition messages to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for food and nutrition practitioners.

  20. Continuous plasma outflows from the edge of a solar active region as a possible source of solar wind.

    PubMed

    Sakao, Taro; Kano, Ryouhei; Narukage, Noriyuki; Kotoku, Jun'ichi; Bando, Takamasa; Deluca, Edward E; Lundquist, Loraine L; Tsuneta, Saku; Harra, Louise K; Katsukawa, Yukio; Kubo, Masahito; Hara, Hirohisa; Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Shimojo, Masumi; Bookbinder, Jay A; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly E; Su, Yingna; Shibasaki, Kiyoto; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Nakatani, Ichiro

    2007-12-07

    The Sun continuously expels a huge amount of ionized material into interplanetary space as the solar wind. Despite its influence on the heliospheric environment, the origin of the solar wind has yet to be well identified. In this paper, we report Hinode X-ray Telescope observations of a solar active region. At the edge of the active region, located adjacent to a coronal hole, a pattern of continuous outflow of soft-x-ray-emitting plasmas was identified emanating along apparently open magnetic field lines and into the upper corona. Estimates of temperature and density for the outflowing plasmas suggest a mass loss rate that amounts to approximately 1/4 of the total mass loss rate of the solar wind. These outflows may be indicative of one of the solar wind sources at the Sun.

  1. Determination of the Rotation Periods of Solar Active Longitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyusnina, L. A.

    2010-02-01

    There are two types of active longitudes (ALs) in terms of the distribution of sunspot areas: long-lived and intra-cyclic ALs. The rotation period of the long-lived ALs has been determined by a new method in this paper. The method is based on the property of ALs to be maintained over several cycles of solar activity. The daily values of sunspot areas for 1878 - 2005 are analyzed. It is shown that the AL positions remain almost constant over a period of about ten cycles, from cycle 13 to cycle 22. The rotation period was found to be 27.965 days during this period. The dispersion in AL positions is about 26° from cycle to cycle, which is half of the dispersion observed in the Carrington system. The ALs in the growth phase of the activity cycle are more stable and pronounced. The excess in solar activity in the ALs over adjacent longitudinal intervals is about 12 - 14%. It is shown that only one long-lived AL can be observed at one time on the Sun, as a rule.

  2. Solar Physics at Evergreen: Solar Dynamo and Chromospheric MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zita, E. J.; Maxwell, J.; Song, N.; Dikpati, M.

    2006-12-01

    We describe our five year old solar physics research program at The Evergreen State College. Famed for its cloudy skies, the Pacific Northwest is an ideal location for theoretical and remote solar physics research activities. Why does the Sun's magnetic field flip polarity every 11 years or so? How does this contribute to the magnetic storms Earth experiences when the Sun's field reverses? Why is the temperature in the Sun's upper atmosphere millions of degrees higher than the Sun's surface temperature? How do magnetic waves transport energy in the Sun’s chromosphere and the Earth’s atmosphere? How does solar variability affect climate change? Faculty and undergraduates investigate questions such as these in collaboration with the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder. We will describe successful student research projects, logistics of remote computing, and our current physics investigations into (1) the solar dynamo and (2) chromospheric magnetohydrodynamics.

  3. Argonne Solar Energy Program annual report. Summary of solar program activities for fiscal year 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The R and D work done at Argonne National Laboratory on solar energy technologies during the period October 1, 1978 to September 30, 1979 is described. Technical areas included in the ANL solar program are solar energy collection, heating and cooling, thermal energy storage, ocean thermal energy conversion, photovoltaics, biomass conversion, satellite power systems, and solar liquid-metal MHD power systems.

  4. Evaluation of long term solar activity effects on GPS derived TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoori, Azad A.; Khan, Parvaiz A.; Ahmad, Rafi; Atulkar, Roshni; M, Aslam A.; Bhardwaj, Shivangi; Malvi, Bhupendra; Purohit, P. K.; Gwal, A. K.

    2016-10-01

    The solar activity hence the solar radiance follows a long term periodic variability with eleven years periodicity, known as solar cycle. This drives the long term variability of the ionosphere. In the present problem we investigate the long term behaviour of the ionosphere with the eleven year cyclic solar activity. Under the present study we characterize the ionospheric variability by Total Electron Content (TEC) using measurements made by Global Positioning System (GPS) and solar cycle variability by various solar activity indices. We make use of five solar activity indices viz. sunspot number (Rz), solar radio Flux (F10.7 cm), EUV Flux (26-34 nm), flare index and CME occurrences. The long term variability of these solar activity indices were then compared and correlated with the variability of ionospheric TEC, at a mid latitude station, Usuda (36.13N, 138.36E), of Japan, during the solar cycle 23 and ascending phase of cycle 24. From our study, we found that long term changes in the ionospheric TEC vary synchronously with corresponding changes in the solar activity indices. The correlation analysis shows that all the solar activity indices exhibit a very strong correlation with TEC (R =0.76 -0.99). Moreover the correlation between the two is stronger in the descending phase of the solar cycle. The correlation is found to be remarkably strongest during the deep minimum of the solar cycle 24 i.e. between 2007- 2009. Also we noticed a hysteresis effect exists with solar radio flux (F10.7 cm) and solar EUV flux (26-34 nm). This effect is absent with other parameters.

  5. An international comparison of dietary patterns in 9–11-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Mikkilä, V; Vepsäläinen, H; Saloheimo, T; Gonzalez, S A; Meisel, J D; Hu, G; Champagne, C M; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Dietary pattern is defined as a combination of foods and drinks and the frequency of consumption within a population. Dietary patterns are changing on a global level, which may be linked to an increased incidence of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the dietary patterns among 9–11-year-old children living in urban regions in different parts of the world. METHODS: Participants were 7199 children (54% girls), aged 9–11 years, from 12 countries situated in all major world regions. Food consumption was assessed using a 23-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). To identify dietary patterns, principal components analyses (PCA) were carried out using weekly portions as input variables. RESULTS: Both site-specific and pooled PCA resulted in two strong components. Component 1 (‘unhealthy diet pattern') included fast foods, ice cream, fried food, French fries, potato chips, cakes and sugar-sweetened sodas with >0.6 loadings. The loadings for component 2 (‘healthy diet pattern') were slightly weaker with only dark-green vegetables, orange vegetables, vegetables in general, and fruits and berries reaching a >0.6 loading. The site-specific diet pattern scores had very strong correlations with the pattern scores from the pooled data: r=0.82 and 0.94 for components 1 and 2, respectively. CONCULSIONS: The results suggest that the same ‘healthier' and ‘unhealthier' foods tend to be consumed in similar combinations among 9–11-year-old children in different countries, despite variation in food culture, geographical location, ethnic background and economic development. PMID:27152179

  6. Dexa Body Composition Assessment in 10-11 Year Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Doodeman, H. J.; Struijf, E.; Houdijk, A. P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a growing health problem associated with metabolic derangements and cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence links the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) to these obesity related health risks in adults. Childhood obesity is associated with a lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease and poses a serious challenge to future health care. In children, there is much less data on the prevalence and gender differences of visceral obesity than in adults. This study aims to provide reference values for VAT in children 10–11 years of age. Methods In a cross-sectional study performed in the north western part of theNetherlands, healthy children of 10–11 years of age, were recruited from primary schools. Anthropometric data consisting of height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and BMI were measured. Body composition was measured using DXA, providing measures for bone mineral content, total fat mass (TFM), lean body mass (LBM) and VAT. Results 217 children were eligible for this study. Girls appeared to have a greater TFM (31.4% vs 27.5% of total body weight (TBW); P < .01) but lower VAT (0.3% vs 0.5% of TBW;P < .01) than boys, whereas boys had higher LBM (65.4% vs 69.3% TBW;P < .01). Median VAT area (cm2) was 41.1 for boys and 22.4 for girls (P < .01). Moderate to strong correlations were found for WC and BMI with VAT (boys: r = .664 and r = .630; Girls r = .699 and r = .546 respectively all P < .001). Discussion This study shows gender specific differences in VAT percentiles in healthy non-obese 10–11 year old children as measured by DXA that may serve as reference values in children. Independent of BMI and WC, girls tend to have more TFM but less VAT and LBM than boys. PMID:27788168

  7. THE ORIGIN OF NET ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dalmasse, K.; Kliem, B.; Török, T.

    2015-09-01

    There is a recurring question in solar physics regarding whether or not electric currents are neutralized in active regions (ARs). This question was recently revisited using three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations of magnetic flux emergence into the solar atmosphere. Such simulations showed that flux emergence can generate a substantial net current in ARs. Other sources of AR currents are photospheric horizontal flows. Our aim is to determine the conditions for the occurrence of net versus neutralized currents with this second mechanism. Using 3D MHD simulations, we systematically impose line-tied, quasi-static, photospheric twisting and shearing motions to a bipolar potential magnetic field. We find that such flows: (1) produce both direct and return currents, (2) induce very weak compression currents—not observed in 2.5D—in the ambient field present in the close vicinity of the current-carrying field, and (3) can generate force-free magnetic fields with a net current. We demonstrate that neutralized currents are in general produced only in the absence of magnetic shear at the photospheric polarity inversion line—a special condition that is rarely observed. We conclude that  photospheric flows, as magnetic flux emergence, can build up net currents in the solar atmosphere, in agreement with recent observations. These results thus provide support for eruption models based on pre-eruption magnetic fields that possess a net coronal current.

  8. The midlatitude ionospheric response to fluctuations in solar activity under low geomagnetic activity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendito, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    The ionospheric response, which is the sensitivity and delay of the electron content to the 270 day fluctuations of solar radiation has been theoretically analyzed. In the context of the present work the sensitivity is defined as the magnitude of the electron content fluctuation for a given change in solar flux, and the delay is defined as the timeshift of the response of the electron content to fluctuations in solar flux. Both the model in which the action of neutral winds on the F-2 layer is disregarded and that in which the wind effect is included as part of a positive feedback mechanism, are studied. It is shown that the neutral winds play a dominant role in the mentioned ionospheric response. The computed delays decrease with increasing solar activity in both models.

  9. Brain abscess secondary to a dental infection in an 11-year-old child: case report.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Christine E; Nguyen, Trang D

    2012-01-01

    A primary molar dental abscess was implicated as the cause of a brain abscess in an 11-year-old boy. This case report describes the neurological signs and symptoms, and acute management of a brain abscess in a child. A brain abscess is provisionally diagnosed from the patient's medical history, as well as the presence of signs and symptoms such as fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, focal neurological deficit, altered mentation, speech alterations, papillary edema, and neck stiffness or seizures. A definitive diagnosis of brain abscess is confirmed through imaging. The dental source of infection is identified by the exclusion of more probable foci such as the ears, heart, lungs, eyes or sinuses.

  10. Enterobius granuloma: an unusual cause of omental mass in an 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Sinan; Ekinci, Saniye; Orhan, Diclehan; Senocak, Mehmet Emin

    2014-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is the only nematode that infects humans. It is one of the most common intestinal parasites. Pinworm commonly infests the terminal ileum and colon, and does not cause severe morbidity unless ectopic infection occurs. However, granulomatous lesions caused by ectopic Enterobius vermicularis infection may lead to unusual clinical symptoms and may be misinterpreted as malignant lesions. Herein, the authors present an 11-year-old girl with pinworm infection who presented with abdominal pain and an omental mass, with special emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Isolated ileal ganglioneuromatosis in an 11-year-old boy: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Subhashis; Mukherjee, Sanghamitra; Chakraborty, Hema

    2016-01-01

    Ganglioneuromatous proliferation in the gastrointestinal tract is a rare occurrence and is usually associated with specific syndrome complexes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 2B or von Recklinghausen's disease. We report here a case of diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis, presenting as intestinal obstruction and chronic constipation in an 11-year-old boy. Sporadic cases of intestinal ganglioneuromatosis in the absence of any systemic manifestations are a very rare cause of enteric motility disorders in childhood, and we discuss the pathological and clinical significance of this finding. Histopathological identification of this uncommon cause of a common pediatric problem is important since the condition is amenable to surgical treatment.

  12. Solar activity around AD 775 from aurorae and radiocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Neuhäuser, D. L.

    2015-04-01

    A large variation in 14C around AD 775 has been considered to be caused by one or more solar super-flares within one year. We critically review all known aurora reports from Europe as well as the Near, Middle, and Far East from AD 731 to 825 and find 39 likely true aurorae plus four more potential aurorae and 24 other reports about halos, meteors, thunderstorms etc., which were previously misinterpreted as aurorae or misdated; we assign probabilities for all events according to five aurora criteria. We find very likely true aurorae in AD 743, 745, 762, 765, 772, 773, 793, 796, 807, and 817. There were two aurorae in the early 770s observed near Amida (now Diyarbak\\i r in Turkey near the Turkish-Syrian border), which were not only red, but also green-yellow - being at a relatively low geomagnetic latitude, they indicate a relatively strong solar storm. However, it cannot be argued that those aurorae (geomagnetic latitude 43 to 50°, considering five different reconstructions of the geomagnetic pole) could be connected to one or more solar super-flares causing the 14C increase around AD 775: There are several reports about low- to mid-latitude aurorae at 32 to 44° geomagnetic latitude in China and Iraq; some of them were likely observed (quasi-)simultaneously in two of three areas (Europe, Byzantium/Arabia, East Asia), one lasted several nights, and some indicate a particularly strong geomagnetic storm (red colour and dynamics), namely in AD 745, 762, 793, 807, and 817 - always without 14C peaks. We use 39 likely true aurorae as well as historic reports about sunspots together with the radiocarbon content from tree rings to reconstruct the solar activity: From AD {˜ 733} to {˜ 823}, we see at least nine Schwabe cycles; instead of one of those cycles, there could be two short, weak cycles - reflecting the rapid increase to a high 14C level since AD 775, which lies at the end of a strong cycle. In order to show the end of the dearth of naked-eye sunspots, we

  13. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelling of solar active phenomena via numerical methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1988-01-01

    Numerical ideal MHD models for the study of solar active phenomena are summarized. Particular attention is given to the following physical phenomena: (1) local heating of a coronal loop in an isothermal and stratified atmosphere, and (2) the coronal dynamic responses due to magnetic field movement. The results suggest that local heating of a magnetic loop will lead to the enhancement of the density of the neighboring loops through MHD wave compression. It is noted that field lines can be pinched off and may form a self-contained magnetized plasma blob that may move outward into interplanetary space.

  14. The onset of the solar active cycle 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in being able to predict the main characteristics of a solar activity cycle (SAC). One would like to know, for instance, how large the amplitude (R sub m) of a cycle is likely to be, i.e., the annual mean of the sunspot numbers at the maximum of SAC. Also, how long a cycle is likely to last, i.e., its period. It would also be interesting to be able to predict the details, like how steep the ascending phase of a cycle is likely to be. Questions like these are of practical importance to NASA in planning the launch schedule for the low altitude, expensive spacecrafts like the Hubble Space Telescope, the Space Station, etc. Also, one has to choose a proper orbit, so that once launched the threat of an atmospheric drag on the spacecraft is properly taken into account. Cosmic ray data seem to indicate that solar activity cycle 22 will surpass SAC 21 in activity. The value of R sub m for SAC 22 may approach that of SAC 19. It would be interesting to see whether this prediction is borne out. Researchers are greatly encouraged to proceed with the development of a comprehensive prediction model which includes information provided by cosmic ray data.

  15. Grand minima of solar activity and sociodynamics of culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirsky, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Indices of creative productivity introduced by C. Murrey were used to verify S. Ertel's conclusion about a global increase in creative productivity during the prolonged minimum of solar activity in 1640-1710. It was found that these indices for mathematicians, philosophers, and scientists increase in the Maunder era by factor of 1.6 in comparison with intervals of the same length before and after the minimum. A similar effect was obtained for mathematicians and philosophers for five earlier equitype minima in total (an increase by a factor of 1.9). The regularity that is revealed is confirmed by the fact that the most important achievements of high-ranking mathematicians and philosophers during the whole time period (2300 years) considered in this study fall on epochs of reduced levels of solar activity. The rise in the probability of the generation of rational ideas during grand minima is reflected also in the fact that they precede the appearance of written language and farming. Ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic fields appear to serve as a physical agent stimulating the activity of the brain's left hemisphere during the epochs of minima.

  16. Understanding Activity Cycles of Solar Type Stars with Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovar, Guadalupe; Montet, Benjamin; Johnson, John A.

    2017-01-01

    As the era of exploring new worlds and systems advances we seek to answer the question: How common is our Sun? There is considerable evidence about the recurring activity cycles of our Sun but very little is known about the activity cycles of other stars. By calibrating the full frame images from the original Kepler mission that were taken once a month over the course of four years, we are able to do relative photometry on roughly 5 million stars. By building a model of the pixel response function we were able to achieve 0.8% precision photometry. We identify 50,000 solar type stars based on magnitude, surface gravity, and temperature cuts. We observe the relative increase and decrease in brightness of the stars indicating signs of activity cycles similar to our Sun. We continue to explore how a data driven pixel response function model could improve our precision to 0.1% photometry measurements.

  17. Wind climatology of Toronto based on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis 1 data and its potential relation to solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanic, Djordje; Hangan, Horia; Ćurić, Mladjen

    2016-12-01

    This study represents a comprehensive analysis of the wind climatology for the Toronto area based on the daily National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis 1 data extracted for the period 1948-2014. The research is focused on investigating wind speed and wind direction distributions, long-term wind trends, and low-frequency wind spectrum. The results are given at the sigma-995 level. Westerlies are active in about 50% of the time in year. The strongest winds are coming in from 240° direction and the windiest seasons are winter and fall, followed by spring. A trend analysis shows that statistically significant and positive wind speed trends are present for both the omnidirectional mean annual wind speeds as well as for the winds associated with the most prevailing wind directions. Winter and fall winds had positive trends whereas negative wind speed trends in the summer and spring seasons are negligible. The spectral analysis of wind speed time series shows three distinguished peaks: (1) 2-4.5 days, (2) yearly, and (3) 11-year peak. The lowest frequency peak in the wind speed spectra is linked to the solar activity through the cross-correlation analysis and the relationship is discussed in details.

  18. Evidence of solar activity and El Niño signals in tree rings of Araucaria araucana and A. angustifolia in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perone, A.; Lombardi, F.; Marchetti, M.; Tognetti, R.; Lasserre, B.

    2016-10-01

    Tree rings reveal climatic variations through years, but also the effect of solar activity in influencing the climate on a large scale. In order to investigate the role of solar cycles on climatic variability and to analyse their influences on tree growth, we focused on tree-ring chronologies of Araucaria angustifolia and Araucaria araucana in four study areas: Irati and Curitiba in Brazil, Caviahue in Chile, and Tolhuaca in Argentina. We obtained an average tree-ring chronology of 218, 117, 439, and 849 years for these areas, respectively. Particularly, the older chronologies also included the period of the Maunder and Dalton minima. To identify periodicities and trends observable in tree growth, the time series were analysed using spectral, wavelet and cross-wavelet techniques. Analysis based on the Multitaper method of annual growth rates identified 2 cycles with periodicities of 11 (Schwebe cycle) and 5.5 years (second harmonic of Schwebe cycle). In the Chilean and Argentinian sites, significant agreement between the time series of tree rings and the 11-year solar cycle was found during the periods of maximum solar activity. Results also showed oscillation with periods of 2-7 years, probably induced by local environmental variations, and possibly also related to the El-Niño events. Moreover, the Morlet complex wavelet analysis was applied to study the most relevant variability factors affecting tree-ring time series. Finally, we applied the cross-wavelet spectral analysis to evaluate the time lags between tree-ring and sunspot-number time series, as well as for the interaction between tree rings, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and temperature and precipitation. Trees sampled in Chile and Argentina showed more evident responses of fluctuations in tree-ring time series to the variations of short and long periodicities in comparison with the Brazilian ones. These results provided new evidence on the solar activity-climate pattern-tree ring connections over

  19. Preliminary prediction of the 25-thTH solar cycle parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pishkalo, M.

    2014-12-01

    Solar activity varies with a period of about 11 years. The solar activity variations cause changes in the interplanetary and near-Earth space. The whole space weather is mainly controlled by the solar activity. Changes in space weather affect the operation of space-borne and ground-based technological systems such as manned space flights, aero-navigation and space navigation, radars, high-frequency radio communication, GPS navigation, ground power lines. The solar activity variations influence living organisms and the climate on Earth. That is why it is important to know the level of solar activity in a solar cycle in advance. Current solar activity is near the maximum of solar cycle 24. Maximal monthly sunspot number was 102.8 in February 2014 and smoothed one was 75.4 in November 2013 (preliminary). Taking it into account and using correlation relations and regression equations from (Pishkalo, 2014: Solar Phys., vol. 289, 1815) we can estimate duration of solar cycle 24 and then predict parameters of solar cycle 25. Precursors in our calculations are the estimated duration of solar cycle 24 and sunspot number at the end of the cycle. We found that minimum and maximum of solar cycle 25 in monthly sunspot numbers will amount to 5 in April–June of 2020 and 105–110 in October–December of 2024, respectively. Solar cycle 25 will be stronger than the current cycle 24. No very deep drop in solar activity similar to Dalton or Maunder minimums was predicted.

  20. Eruptions that Drive Coronal Jets in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Akiyama, Sachiko; Yashiro, Seiji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2016-01-01

    Solar coronal jets are common in both coronal holes and in active regions (e.g., Shibata et al. 1992, Shimojo et al. 1996, Cirtain et al. 2007. Savcheva et al. 2007). Recently, Sterling et al. (2015), using data from Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA, found that coronal jets originating in polar coronal holes result from the eruption of small-scale filaments (minifilaments). The jet bright point (JBP) seen in X-rays and hotter EUV channels off to one side of the base of the jet's spire develops at the location where the minifilament erupts, consistent with the JBPs being miniature versions of typical solar flares that occur in the wake of large-scale filament eruptions. Here we consider whether active region coronal jets also result from the same minifilament-eruption mechanism, or whether they instead result from a different mechanism (e.g. Yokoyama & Shibata 1995). We present observations of an on-disk active region (NOAA AR 11513) that produced numerous jets on 2012 June 30, using data from SDO/AIA and HMI, and from GOES/SXI. We find that several of these active region jets also originate with eruptions of miniature filaments (size scale 20'') emanating from small-scale magnetic neutral lines of the region. This demonstrates that active region coronal jets are indeed frequently driven by minifilament eruptions. Other jets from the active region were also consistent with their drivers being minifilament eruptions, but we could not confirm this because the onsets of those jets were hidden from our view. This work was supported by funding from NASA/LWS, NASA/HGI, and Hinode. A full report of this study appears in Sterling et al. (2016).

  1. Er:YAG laser ablation: 5-11 years prospective study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    2005-03-01

    The Er:YAG laser at 2940 nm has been proposed for use in dental cavity preparation and removal of carious enamel and dentin. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of the Er:YAG laser ablation in treating dental caries after a period from 5 to 11 years. For this study, 133 cavities were chosen, and for their reparation of it the three restorative materials were used. Baseline examination was made in the following intervals: one week, 1 year, and from 5 to 11 years after cavity preparation and placement of filling material. Clinical assessments were carried out in accordance with the US Public Health Service System. The follow-up included: the marginal ridge, marginal adaptation, anatomic form, caries, color match, cavo surface margin discoloration, surface smoothness, and postoperative sensitivity. Er:YAG laser ablation is an excellent method for treating frontal teeth, i.e., incisors, canines, premolars, and initial occlusal caries of molars. However, visual control of non-contact therapy is necessary. Er:YAG laser ablation is safe, and it strongly reduces pain. The laser treatment markedly decreases the unpleasant sound and vibration.

  2. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome: A Rare Case Report of a 11-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Sandeep; Chauhan, Yashwant; Jain, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an autosomal dominant trait caused due to mutations in the patched tumor suppressor gene (PTCH) gene found on the long arm of chromosome 9. The syndrome is characterized by the presence of odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs), basal cell carcinomas, and skeletal malformations. Early diagnosis of the syndrome can be done by pedodontist as OKC is one of the early manifestations of the syndrome. Early diagnosis and treatment is important for long-term prognosis of the syndrome by reducing the severity of cutaneous carcinomas and deformities due to jaw cyst. The present case describes an 11-year-old patient with some typical features of NBCCS, which were diagnosed through its oral and maxillofacial manifestations. This case emphasizes the importance of pedodontist in early recognition of the syndrome. How to cite this article Tandon S, Chauhan Y, Sharma M, Jain M. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome: A Rare Case Report of a 11-Year-Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):264-268. PMID:27843260

  3. Memory T cell responses targeting the SARS coronavirus persist up to 11 years post-infection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Oi-Wing; Chia, Adeline; Tan, Anthony T; Jadi, Ramesh S; Leong, Hoe Nam; Bertoletti, Antonio; Tan, Yee-Joo

    2016-04-12

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly contagious infectious disease which first emerged in late 2002, caused by a then novel human coronavirus, SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV). The virus is believed to have originated from bats and transmitted to human through intermediate animals such as civet cats. The re-emergence of SARS-CoV remains a valid concern due to the continual persistence of zoonotic SARS-CoVs and SARS-like CoVs (SL-CoVs) in bat reservoirs. In this study, the screening for the presence of SARS-specific T cells in a cohort of three SARS-recovered individuals at 9 and 11 years post-infection was carried out, and all memory T cell responses detected target the SARS-CoV structural proteins. Two CD8(+) T cell responses targeting the SARS-CoV membrane (M) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins were characterized by determining their HLA restriction and minimal T cell epitope regions. Furthermore, these responses were found to persist up to 11 years post-infection. An absence of cross-reactivity of these CD8(+) T cell responses against the newly-emerged Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was also demonstrated. The knowledge of the persistence of SARS-specific celullar immunity targeting the viral structural proteins in SARS-recovered individuals is important in the design and development of SARS vaccines, which are currently unavailable.

  4. Dose estimations for Iranian 11-year-old pediatric phantoms undergoing computed tomography examinations.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, Parisa; Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Rafat-Motavalli, Laleh

    2015-07-01

    In order to establish an organ and effective dose database for Iranian children undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations, in the first step, two Iranian 11-year-old phantoms were constructed from image series obtained from CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Organ and effective doses for these phantoms were calculated for head, chest, abdomen-pelvis and chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP) scans at tube voltages of 80, 100 and 120 kVp, and then they were compared with those of the University of Florida (UF) 11-year-old male phantom. Depth distributions of the organs and the mass of the surrounding tissues located in the beam path, which shield the internal organs, were determined for all phantoms. From the results, it was determined that the main organs of the UF phantom receive smaller doses than the two Iranian phantoms, except for the urinary bladder of the Iranian girl phantom. In addition, the relationship between the anatomical differences and the size of the dose delivered was also investigated and the discrepancies between the results were examined and justified.

  5. A case of dissociative fugue and general amnesia with an 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Helmes, Edward; Brown, Julie-May; Elliott, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Dissociative fugue refers to loss of personal identity, often with the associated loss of memories of events (general amnesia). Here we report on the psychological assessment of a 54-year-old woman with loss of identity and memories of 33 years of her life attributed to dissociative fugue, along with a follow-up 11 years later. Significant levels of personal injury and stress preceded the onset of the amnesia. A detailed neuropsychological assessment was completed at a university psychology clinic, with a follow-up assessment there about 11 years later with an intent to determine whether changes in her cognitive status were associated with better recall of her life and with her emotional state. Psychomotor slowing and low scores on measures of attention and both verbal and visual memory were present initially, along with significant psychological distress associated with the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder. Although memories of her life had not returned by follow-up, distress had abated and memory test scores had improved. The passage of time and a better emotional state did not lead to recovery of lost memories. Contrary to expectations, performance on tests of executive functions was good on both occasions. Multiple stressful events are attributed as having a role in maintaining the loss of memories.

  6. Direct and indirect solar signature on global ozone content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Maitra, Animesh; Saha, Upal

    Solar activities affecting the Earth’s climate, traditionally measured by the number of sunspots (SSN), shows a periodic variation of 8-11 years. The solar radiation is a major component which drives the atmospheric circulation and thus induces global ozone variability in different parts of the earth. Total ozone varies strongly with latitude over the globe and with solar activity, with the largest values occurring at middle and high latitudes during all seasons. A critical analysis is done to study the direct and indirect effects of solar activity on the total ozone content (TOC) and tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) over urban metropolitan location, Kolkata (22°32'N, 88°20'E), along with 30⁰N and 30⁰S and 0⁰(equator) during the period 1979-2012. It has been focused through our study that the solar parameters have positive correlations with TOC whereas TOR is not much linked with solar activity. The positive correlations with SSN and TOC are valid for all the cases of 30⁰N and 30⁰S, equator (0⁰) and Kolkata region. But it has been observed that no association is found to occur with TOR and SSN. The wavelet spectrum of the signal variation due to Sunspot Number (SSN), Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and Mg II Index (proxy for solar UV radiation) show peaks corresponding to 11-year cycle of the solar parameters. The TOC, taken from TOMS satellite, also shows a clear 11-year solar signal in all the region. But the spectral analysis show a random signal variation, including a 11-year signal at 30⁰S. At Kolkata, a significant positive correlation is obtained between TOC and SSN as also shown by wavelet spectral analysis. The TOR, taken from calibrated GOME and OMI/AURA satellite data analysis, show no positive 11-year signal feedback at all regions, except 30⁰S. A clear positive 11-year solar signal is found to be observed over this tropical southern hemisphere. The sea-surface temperature (SST), taken from NOAA Optimum Interpolation 1⁰x 1⁰ NCEP

  7. The Mars Gravity Field After 11 Years of Continuous Tracking Data from Mars Odyssey and MRO Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, A.; Goossens, S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Mazarico, E.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2014-07-01

    The Mars Odyssey and MRO missions have provided more than 11 years of continuous tracking data of spacecraft in orbit. We will present the Mars static and seasonal gravity field from 11 years (2002-2012) of Mars Odyssey and MRO tracking data.

  8. UV solar irradiance low during recent solar minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-10-01

    Solar irradiance, which varies with the 11-year solar cycle and on longer time scales, can affect temperatures and winds in the atmosphere, influencing Earth's climate. As the Sun currently wakes up from a period of low sunspot activity, researchers want to know how irradiance during the recent solar minimum compares to historical levels. In addition to understanding the total received power, it is important to know how various spectral bands behave, in particular, the ultraviolet, which causes heating and winds in the stratosphere. Lockwood analyzed solar ultraviolet spectral irradiance data from May 2003 to August 2005 from both the Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM) instrument on board the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) and the Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instrument on the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) satellite. Using several different methods to intercalibrate the data, he developed a data composite that can be used to determine differences between the recent solar minimum and previous minima. The author found that solar irradiance during the recent sunspot minimum has been especially low. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, doi:10.1029/2010JD014746, 2011)

  9. Solar System Puzzle Kit: An Activity for Earth and Space Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla B.

    This Solar System Puzzle Kit for grades 5-8, allows students to create an eight-cube paper puzzle of the solar system and may be duplicated for classroom use or used as a take home activity for children and parents. By assembling the puzzle, hand-coloring the bodies of the solar system, and viewing the puzzle's 12 sides, students can reinforce…

  10. Solar Energy Education. Social studies: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Solar energy information is made available to students through classroom instruction by way of the Solar Energy Education teaching manuals. In this manual solar energy, as well as other energy sources like wind power, is introduced by performing school activities in the area of social studies. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  11. Effects of solar cycle 24 activity on WAAS navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta-Barua, Seebany; Walter, Todd; Bust, Gary S.; Wanner, William

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of geomagnetic activity of solar cycle 24 from 2011 through mid-2013 on the Federal Aviation Administration's Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) navigation service in the U.S., to identify (a) major impacts and their severity compared with the previous cycle and (b) effects in new service regions of North America added since last solar cycle. We examine two cases: a storm that reduced service coverage for several hours and ionospheric scintillation that led to anomalous receiver tracking. Using the 24-25 October 2011 storm as an example, we examine WAAS operational system coverage for the conterminous U.S. (CONUS). The WAAS algorithm upgrade to ionospheric estimation, in effect since late 2011, is able to mitigate the daytime coverage loss but not the nighttime loss. We correlate WAAS availability to maps of the storm plasma generated with the data assimilative model Ionospheric Data Assimilation 4-D, which show a local nighttime corotating persistent plume of plasma extending from Florida across central CONUS. We study the effect of scintillation on 9 October 2012 on the WAAS reference station at Fairbanks, Alaska. Data from a nearby scintillation monitor in Gakona and all-sky imaging of aurora at Poker Flat corroborate the event. Anomalous receiver processing triggered by scintillation reduces accuracy at Fairbanks for a few minutes. Users experiencing similar effects would have their confidence bounds inflated, possibly trading off service continuity for safety. The activity to date in solar cycle 24 has had minor effects on WAAS service coverage, mainly occurring in Alaska and Canada.

  12. Solar and terrestrial physics. [effects of solar activities on earth environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The effects of solar radiation on the near space and biomental earth, the upper atmosphere, and the magnetosphere are discussed. Data obtained from the OSO satellites pertaining to the solar cycle variation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation are analyzed. The effects of solar cycle variation of the characteristics of the solar wind are examined. The fluid mechanics of shock waves and the specific relationship to the characteristics of solar shock waves are investigated. The solar and corpuscular heating of the upper atmosphere is reported based on the findings of the AEROS and NATE experiments. Seasonal variations of the upper atmosphere composition are plotted based on OGO-6 mass spectrometer data.

  13. Spring-fall asymmetry of substorm strength, geomagnetic activity and solar wind: Implications for semiannual variation and solar hemispheric asymmetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mursula, K.; Tanskanen, E.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the seasonal variation of substorms, geomagnetic activity and their solar wind drivers in 1993-2008. The number of substorms and substorm mean duration depict an annual variation with maxima in Winter and Summer, respectively, reflecting the annual change of the local ionosphere. In contradiction, substorm mean amplitude, substorm total efficiency and global geomagnetic activity show a dominant annual variation, with equinoctial maxima alternating between Spring in solar cycle 22 and Fall in cycle 23. The largest annual variations were found in 1994 and 2003, in the declining phase of the two cycles when high-speed streams dominate the solar wind. A similar, large annual variation is found in the solar wind driver of substorms and geomagnetic activity, which implies that the annual variation of substorm strength, substorm efficiency and geomagnetic activity is not due to ionospheric conditions but to a hemispherically asymmetric distribution of solar wind which varies from one cycle to another. Our results imply that the overall semiannual variation in global geomagnetic activity has been seriously overestimated, and is largely an artifact of the dominant annual variation with maxima alternating between Spring and Fall. The results also suggest an intimate connection between the asymmetry of solar magnetic fields and some of the largest geomagnetic disturbances, offering interesting new pathways for forecasting disturbances with a longer lead time to the future. Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Spring-fall asymmetry of substorm strength, geomagnetic activity and solar wind: Implications for semiannual variation and solar hemispheric asymmetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marsula, K.; Tanskanen, E.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the seasonal variation of substorms, geomagnetic activity and their solar wind drivers in 1993–2008. The number of substorms and substorm mean duration depict an annual variation with maxima in Winter and Summer, respectively, reflecting the annual change of the local ionosphere. In contradiction, substorm mean amplitude, substorm total efficiency and global geomagnetic activity show a dominant annual variation, with equinoctial maxima alternating between Spring in solar cycle 22 and Fall in cycle 23. The largest annual variations were found in 1994 and 2003, in the declining phase of the two cycles when high-speed streams dominate the solar wind. A similar, large annual variation is found in the solar wind driver of substorms and geomagnetic activity, which implies that the annual variation of substorm strength, substorm efficiency and geomagnetic activity is not due to ionospheric conditions but to a hemispherically asymmetric distribution of solar wind which varies from one cycle to another. Our results imply that the overall semiannual variation in global geomagnetic activity has been seriously overestimated, and is largely an artifact of the dominant annual variation with maxima alternating between Spring and Fall. The results also suggest an intimate connection between the asymmetry of solar magnetic fields and some of the largest geomagnetic disturbances, offering interesting new pathways for forecasting disturbances with a longer lead time to the future.

  15. ACTIVITY ANALYSES FOR SOLAR-TYPE STARS OBSERVED WITH KEPLER. I. PROXIES OF MAGNETIC ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    He, Han; Wang, Huaning; Yun, Duo

    2015-11-15

    Light curves of solar-type stars often show gradual fluctuations due to rotational modulation by magnetic features (starspots and faculae) on stellar surfaces. Two quantitative measures of modulated light curves are employed as the proxies of magnetic activity for solar-type stars observed with Kepler telescope. The first is named autocorrelation index i{sub AC}, which describes the degree of periodicity of the light curve; the second is the effective fluctuation range of the light curve R{sub eff}, which reflects the depth of rotational modulation. The two measures are complementary and depict different aspects of magnetic activities on solar-type stars. By using the two proxies i{sub AC} and R{sub eff}, we analyzed activity properties of two carefully selected solar-type stars observed with Kepler (Kepler ID: 9766237 and 10864581), which have distinct rotational periods (14.7 versus 6.0 days). We also applied the two measures to the Sun for a comparative study. The result shows that both the measures can reveal cyclic activity variations (referred to as i{sub AC}-cycle and R{sub eff}-cycle) on the two Kepler stars and the Sun. For the Kepler star with the faster rotation rate, i{sub AC}-cycle and R{sub eff}-cycle are in the same phase, while for the Sun (slower rotator), they are in the opposite phase. By comparing the solar light curve with simultaneous photospheric magnetograms, it is identified that the magnetic feature that causes the periodic light curve during solar minima is the faculae of the enhanced network region, which can also be a candidate of magnetic features that dominate the periodic light curves on the two Kepler stars.

  16. Near-Earth Solar Wind Flows and Related Geomagnetic Activity During more than Four Solar Cycles (1963-2011)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Ian G.; Cane, Hilary V.

    2012-01-01

    In past studies, we classified the near-Earth solar wind into three basic flow types based on inspection of solar wind plasma and magnetic field parameters in the OMNI database and additional data (e.g., geomagnetic indices, energetic particle, and cosmic ray observations). These flow types are: (1) High-speed streams associated with coronal holes at the Sun, (2) Slow, interstream solar wind, and (3) Transient flows originating with coronal mass ejections at the Sun, including interplanetary coronal mass ejections and the associated upstream shocks and post-shock regions. The solar wind classification in these previous studies commenced with observations in 1972. In the present study, as well as updating this classification to the end of 2011, we have extended the classification back to 1963, the beginning of near-Earth solar wind observations, thereby encompassing the complete solar cycles 20 to 23 and the ascending phase of cycle 24. We discuss the cycle-to-cycle variations in near-Earth solar wind structures and l1e related geomagnetic activity over more than four solar cycles, updating some of the results of our earlier studies.

  17. Characteristics of the 23 Cycle of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, Tamara

    The aim of the present study is to search for special features of the 23-d cycle of solar activity. We present results of our analysis of spectra of sunspot number W for the time intervals of spaced measurements 1964-1997 and 1996-2005 and of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF), the solar wind velocity (V) calculated on the basis of measurements near the Earth's orbit for the period 1964-1997. A method of non-linear spectral analysis named by us the Method of Global Minimum (MGM) is used. MGM allows self-consistentidentification of trends from data and non-stationary sinusoids and estimation of statistical significance of spectral components. The IMF and W spectra for the period 1964-1997 both show the solar cycle at T=10.8 yr and its higher harmonics. But spectrum of sunspot number W for the period 1996-2005 (time interval of the 23-d cycle) has not spectral component at T=10.8 yr (at confidence statistical level 95%); however, this spectrum has higher harmonics of the 10.8-yr cycle (such as sinusoid with T=146.2 day). The most powerful spectral line from the spectrum (1996-2005) has period T=16.56 yr. We show that tide forces of the planets can be a cause of periodical changes in the analyzed data. Periods of perturbed tide forces of external planets and their higher harmonics (connected with motion of the Sun relative to the mass center of the solar system) are detected in the spectra. In particular, all periods from the spectrum of W for the period 1996-2005 can be interpreted as periods of perturbed tide force of a system: Sun - a pair Jupiter-Uranus: T=16.56 yr is period of perturbed tide force of pair Jupiter-Uranus (1st planet determines shift of mass center of the Sun relative to the mass center of a system the Sunthe 1st planet; the 2nd planet determines perturbed tide force acting on the Sun). The fact that spectrum of W for the period 1996-2005 has the most power spectral components at T=16.56 and T=1.83 yr (9 harmonics of the 16.56-yr cycle

  18. High resolution studies of complex solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Na

    Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are energetic events, which can even impact the near-Earth environment and are the principal source of space weather. Most of them originate in solar active regions. The most violent events are produced in sunspots with a complex magnetic field topology. Studying their morphology and dynamics is helpful in understanding the energy accumulation and release mechanisms for flares and CMEs, which are intriguing problems in solar physics. The study of complex active regions is based on high-resolution observations from space missions and new instruments at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). Adaptive optics (AO) in combination with image restoration techniques (speckle masking imaging) can achieve improved image quality and a spatial resolution (about 100 km on the solar surface) close to the diffraction limit of BBSO's 65 cm vacuum telescope. Dopplergrams obtained with a two-dimensional imaging spectrometer combined with horizontal flow maps derived with Local Correlation Tracking (LCT) provide precise measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field in sunspots. Magnetic field measurements from ground- and space-based instruments complement these data. At the outset of this study, the evolution and morphology of a typical round sunspot are described in some detail. The sunspot was followed from disk center to the limb, thus providing some insight into the geometry of the magnetic flux system. Having established a benchmark for a stable sunspot, the attention is turned to changes of the sunspot structure associated with flares and CMEs. Rapid penumbral decay and the strengthening of sunspot umbrae are manifestations of photospheric magnetic field changes after a flare. These sudden intensity changes are interpreted as a result of magnetic reconnection during the flare, which causes the magnetic field lines to be turned from more inclined to more vertical. Strong photospheric shear flows along the flaring magnetic

  19. Characterization of local self-similarity and criticality in the solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R. R.; Vats, H. O.; Ramos, F. M.; Zanandrea, A.; Rodrigues Neto, C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Bolzan, M. J. A.; Rempel, E. L.; Brito, R. C.; Vijaykumar, N. L.; Sawant, H. S.

    From solar radio burst data we computed wavelet transforms and frequency distribution for investigation of self-similar temporal variability and power-laws, as the fundamental conditions for characterization of dynamical criticality (self or forced) in the solar active regions. The main result indicates that, as for the global activity, the local coronal magnetic field, in millisecond time scales, can be in a critical state where the dynamics of solar active regions works as avalanches of many small intermittent particle acceleration events.

  20. Possible Relationship of the Solar Activity and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Trejo, J. I.; Cervantes, F.; Real-Ramírez, C. A.; Hoyos-Reyes, L. F.; Miranda-Tello, R.; Area de Sistemas Computacionales

    2013-05-01

    Several authors have recently argued that there is a relationship between solar activity and big earthquakes. This work compares Dst index fluctuations along 2012 and 2013, with the earthquake activity near La Paz, Baja California, Mexico. The earthquakes measurements at this place were divided according its deep focus. It was observed that the frequency of the deeper earthquakes increases shortly after considerable fluctuations in the Dst index are registered. We assume that the number of deep earthquakes increases because the interaction of the tectonic plate below that place and the tectonic plates in contact with it increases. This work also shows that the frequency of shallowest minor and light earthquakes increases shortly before a strongest earthquake takes place in the vicinity.

  1. Detectability of active triangulation range finder: a solar irradiance approach.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huizhe; Gao, Jason; Bui, Viet Phuong; Liu, Zhengtong; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Peh, Li-Shiuan; Png, Ching Eng

    2016-06-27

    Active triangulation range finders are widely used in a variety of applications such as robotics and assistive technologies. The power of the laser source should be carefully selected in order to satisfy detectability and still remain eye-safe. In this paper, we present a systematic approach to assess the detectability of an active triangulation range finder in an outdoor environment. For the first time, we accurately quantify the background noise of a laser system due to solar irradiance by coupling the Perez all-weather sky model and ray tracing techniques. The model is validated with measurements with a modeling error of less than 14.0%. Being highly generic and sufficiently flexible, the proposed model serves as a guide to define a laser system for any geographical location and microclimate.

  2. Coronal abundances in solar active regions measured by the Solar Maximum Mission flat crystal spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.; Strong, Keith T.

    1992-01-01

    High resolution soft X-ray spectra acquired by the Flat Crystal Spectrometer (FCS) on solar Maximum Mission provide an excellent data base to study the relative abundances of O, Ne, Mg, and Fe in solar active regions. The FCS data show significant variability for all combinations of these elements. The largest variation occurs for Fe:Ne, which shows region to region changes of up to a factor of 7, and frequent factor of 2 variations in day to day samples of a given region. The atomic data and the ionization balance calculations used to interpret the line ratios affect the actual abundance values obtained, but have little effect on the magnitude of the total range of variation inferred. Resonance scattering of Fe XVII could cause a systematic offset in the abundances determined, but cannot be responsbile for the bulk of the observed variability. While abundance variability complicates the derivation of plasma parameters from spectroscopic measurements, it should offer exciting new clues to the processes which form and heat the corona.

  3. Chromospheric and photospheric evolution of an extremely active solar region in solar cycle 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna-Lawlor, S. M. P.

    1981-01-01

    a comprehensive investigation was made of phenomena attending the disk passage, July 7 to 21, 1959, of active solar center HAO-59Q. At the photospheric level that comprised an aggregate of groups of sunspots of which one group, Mt. Wilson 14284, showed all the attributes deemed typical of solar regions associated with the production of major flares. A special characteristic of 59Q was its capability to eject dark material. Part of this material remained trapped in the strong magnetic fields above group 14284 where it formed a system of interrelated arches, the legs of which passed through components of the bright chromospheric network of the plage and were rooted in various underlying umbrae. Two apparently diffeent kinds of flare were identified in 59Q; namely, prominence flares (which comprised brightenings within part of the suspended dark prominence) and plage flares (which comprised brightenings within part of the chromospheric network). Prominence flares were of three varieties described as 'impact', 'stationary' and 'moving' prominence flares. Plage flares were accompanied in 3 percent of cases by Type III bursts. These latter radio events indicate the associated passage through the corona of energetic electrons in the approximate energy range 10 to 100 keV. At least 87.5 percent, and probably all, impulsive brightenings in 59Q began directly above minor spots, many of which satellites to major umbrae. Stationary and moving prominence flares were individually triggered at sites beneath which magnetic changes occurred within intervals which included each flare's flash phase.

  4. Parker Lecture - Prominences: the key to understanding solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpen, Judith T.

    2011-05-01

    Prominences are spectacular manifestations of both quiescent and eruptive solar activity. The largest examples can be seen with the naked eye during eclipses, making prominences among the first solar features to be described and catalogued. Steady improvements in temporal and spatial resolution from both ground- and space-based instruments have led us to recognize how complex and dynamic these majestic structures really are. Their distinguishing characteristics - cool knots and threads suspended in the hot corona, alignment along inversion lines in the photospheric magnetic field within highly sheared filament channels, and a tendency to disappear through eruption - offer vital clues as to their origin and dynamic evolution. Interpreting these clues has proven to be contentious, however, leading to fundamentally different models that address the basic questions: What is the magnetic structure supporting prominences, and how does so much cool, dense plasma appear in the corona? Despite centuries of increasingly detailed observations, the magnetic and plasma structures in prominences are poorly known. Routine measurements of the vector magnetic field in and around prominences have become possible only recently, while long-term monitoring of the underlying filament-channel formation process remains scarce. The process responsible for prominence mass is equally difficult to establish, although we have long known that the chromosphere is the only plausible source. As I will discuss, however, the motions and locations of prominence material can be used to trace the coronal field, thus defining the magnetic origins of solar eruptions. A combination of observations, theory, and numerical modeling must be used to determine whether any of the competing theories accurately represents the physics of prominences. I will discuss the criteria for a successful prominence model, compare the leading models, and present in detail one promising, comprehensive scenario for prominence

  5. The influence of solar active region evolution on solar wind streams, coronal hole boundaries and geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, R. E.; Dodson-Prince, H. W.; Hedeman, E. R.; Roelof, E. C.

    Solar and interplanetary data are examined, taking into account the identification of the heliographic longitudes of the coronal source regions of high speed solar wind (SW) streams by Nolte and Roelof (1973). Nolte and Roelof have 'mapped' the velocities measured near earth back to the sun using the approximation of constant radial velocity. The 'Carrington carpet' for rotations 1597-1616 is shown in a graph. Coronal sources of high speed streams appear in the form of solid black areas. The contours of the stream sources are laid on 'evolutionary charts' of solar active region histories for the Southern and Northern Hemispheres. Questions regarding the interplay of active regions and solar wind are investigated, giving attention to developments during the years 1973, 1974, and 1975.

  6. Annular pancreas in an 11-year-old girl: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Suk-Bae

    2017-01-01

    Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare cause of congenital duodenal obstruction that is usually discovered at the neonatal period, but clinical severities can vary over a wide range and definite diagnosis could be delayed until late childhood or adulthood. We report here a case of AP detected in an 11-year-old girl who had a long history of symptoms of partial duodenal obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) study revealed narrowed second portion of duodenum by extrinsic compression, and computed tomography demonstrated complete ring of pancreatic tissue surrounding the second portion of the duodenum. Diamond-shaped duodenoduodenostomy successfully cured the patient, and the postoperative UGI study showed smooth passage through the bypass segment. Although rare, AP should be differentiated in children with unresolved symptoms of partial duodenal obstruction. PMID:28280396

  7. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome: A Rare Case Report of a 11-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Sandeep; Chauhan, Yashwant; Sharma, Meenakshi; Jain, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an autosomal dominant trait caused due to mutations in the patched tumor suppressor gene (PTCH) gene found on the long arm of chromosome 9. The syndrome is characterized by the presence of odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs), basal cell carcinomas, and skeletal malformations. Early diagnosis of the syndrome can be done by pedodontist as OKC is one of the early manifestations of the syndrome. Early diagnosis and treatment is important for long-term prognosis of the syndrome by reducing the severity of cutaneous carcinomas and deformities due to jaw cyst. The present case describes an 11-year-old patient with some typical features of NBCCS, which were diagnosed through its oral and maxillofacial manifestations. This case emphasizes the importance of pedodontist in early recognition of the syndrome.

  8. The 11 year history of starspots on V1149 Ori = HD 37824

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Douglas S.; Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Barksdale, William S.

    1991-01-01

    All available radial-velocity measures, published and unpublished, yield an improved period and a new (assumed circular) solution. The period is 53.58 d +/- 0.02 d, and conjunction (K1 giant in front) was at 2 444 325.93 +/- 0.12 d. Eleven years of V-band photometry, published and unpublished, between 1978-1979 and 1989-1990 are analyzed. Eighteen data groups are fit with a two-spot light-curve-modeling technique. Six spots existing sometime during the 11 years are identified, and the 4-percent range of their rotation periods is used to estimate a differential rotation coefficient of k = 0.08 +/- 0.02. Observed lifetimes of those six spots are consistent with times calculated on the assumption that large spots are disrupted by the shear of differential rotation. The two best observed spots each lasted about five years.

  9. A fatal outcome of complicated severe diabetic ketoacidosis in a 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Severinski, Srećko; Butorac Ahel, Ivona; Ovuka, Aleksandar; Verbić, Arijan

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complex metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis and ketonuria. Cerebral edema is the most common rare complication of DKA in children. The objective of the study was to emphasize the importance of careful evaluation and monitoring for signs and symptoms of cerebral edema in all children undergoing treatment for DKA. We present a case of 11-year-old girl with a history of diabetes mellitus type I (T1DM) who presented with severe DKA complicated by hypovolemic shock, cerebral edema and hematemesis. Considering the fact that complications of DKA are rare and require a high index of clinical suspicion, early recognition and treatment are crucial for avoiding permanent damage.

  10. Music listening and cognitive abilities in 10- and 11-year-olds: the blur effect.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Hallam, Susan

    2005-12-01

    The spatial abilities of a large sample of 10 and 11 year olds were tested after they listened to contemporary pop music, music composed by Mozart, or a discussion about the present experiment. After being assigned at random to one of the three listening experiences, each child completed two tests of spatial abilities. Performance on one of the tests (square completion) did not differ as a function of the listening experience, but performance on the other test (paper folding) was superior for children who listened to popular music compared to the other two groups. These findings are consistent with the view that positive benefits of music listening on cognitive abilities are most likely to be evident when the music is enjoyed by the listener.

  11. Annular pancreas in an 11-year-old girl: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moon, Suk-Bae

    2017-01-01

    Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare cause of congenital duodenal obstruction that is usually discovered at the neonatal period, but clinical severities can vary over a wide range and definite diagnosis could be delayed until late childhood or adulthood. We report here a case of AP detected in an 11-year-old girl who had a long history of symptoms of partial duodenal obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) study revealed narrowed second portion of duodenum by extrinsic compression, and computed tomography demonstrated complete ring of pancreatic tissue surrounding the second portion of the duodenum. Diamond-shaped duodenoduodenostomy successfully cured the patient, and the postoperative UGI study showed smooth passage through the bypass segment. Although rare, AP should be differentiated in children with unresolved symptoms of partial duodenal obstruction.

  12. An 11-year and 10-month-old girl with purpura and chest pain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei-Hsuan; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Lu, Meng-Yao; Yang, Yao-Hsu

    2014-10-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALToma) is a type of B-cell lymphoma. Case reports of childhood thymic MALToma and its association with vasculitis are rarely found in the related literature. Herein, we present a report of an 11-year and 10-month-old girl who was initially diagnosed with cutaneous vasculitis characterized by nonthrombocytopenic palpable purpura, positive antinuclear antibody and anti-SSA (Ro) antibody. Eight months later, a thymic mediastinal mass was found. Surgical excision was performed and results of pathological analysis revealed an extranodal marginal zone CD20(+) B-cell MALToma. Benign response to the chemotherapeutic regimen of Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster group NHL-BFM 90 R2 without relapse was noted in 2 years of follow-up. For the first time, our case demonstrated some clinical evidence of the association between vasculitis and childhood MALToma.

  13. Recurrence of thymoma after 11 years presenting as diffuse pleural thickening.

    PubMed

    Köksal, Deniz; Bayiz, Hülya; Gülgösteren, Mahmut; Başay, Nihal; Mutluay, Neslihan; Boyacı, Ebru; Berktaş, Bahadır; Çakır, Ebru; Berkoğlu, Mine

    2012-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of dyspnea, weight loss, and pleuritic chest pain. He had environmental asbest exposure from birth to 12 years-old. Past medical history revealed maximal thymectomy operation and adjuvant radiotherapy with the diagnosis of minimally invasive lymphocytic thymoma 11 years ago. Thorax computerized tomography demonstrated a circumferential pleural thickening encasing the entire left lung and pleural effusion. VATS-pleural biopsy revealed the diagnosis invasive tymoma, Type B1, stage IVA. In conclusion, the diagnosis of invasive thymoma must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of diffuse pleural lesions. The recurrence of thymomas may be as long as 10 years after complete resection.

  14. Solar energy for a community recreation center

    SciTech Connect

    Libman, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    A 58,000 ft/sup 2/ recreation center in Shenandoah, Georgia is described. Rooftop solar collectors and reflectors serve as a basis for the active solar heating and cooling systems. The recreation center clearly demonstrates the technical feasibility of solar application in a recreation setting; economically, however, results are shown to be mixed. Although effective in the heating mode, solar cooling is considered as questionable in terms of a reasonable payoff period. A computer model predicts a payoff period of 11 years based on 1977 energy prices. The design and construction costs of the solar heating and cooling system ($726,000) was 90% financed by ERDA. A hockey-size ice rink and a gymnasium plus locker rooms and meeting rooms comprised the major part of the floor space. Problems encountered and operation of the facility are described. (MJJ)

  15. Magnetic-field variations and solar flare activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'eva, I. Yu.; Shakhovskaya, A. N.; Livshits, M. A.; Knyazeva, I. S.

    2012-11-01

    Solar filtergrams obtained at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory at the center and wings of the H α line are used to study variations in filaments, in particular, in arch filament systems (AFSs). These are considered as an indicator of emerging new magnetic flux, providing information about the spatial locations of magnetic-field elements. Magnetic-field maps for the active region NOAA 10030 are analyzed as an example. A method developed earlier for detecting elements of emerging flux using SOHO/MDI magnetograms indicates a close link between the increase in flare activity in theNOAA 10030 group during July 14-18, 2002 and variations in the topological disconnectedness of the magnetograms. Moreover, variations in the flare activity one day before a flare event are correlated with variations in the topological complexity of the field (the Euler characteristic) in regions with high field strengths (more than 700 G). Analysis of multi-wavelength polarization observations on the RATAN-600 radio telescope during July 13-17, 2002 indicate dominance of the radio emission above the central spot associated with the increase in flare activity. In addition to the flare site near the large spot in the group, numerous weak flares developed along an extended local neutral line, far from the central line of the large-scale field. The statistical characteristics of the magnetic-field maps analyzed were determined, and show flare activity of both types, i.e., localized in spot penumbras and above the neutral line of the field.

  16. Babcock-Leighton solar dynamo: the role of downward pumping and the equatorward propagation of activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Cameron, Robert

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the role of downward magnetic pumping near the surface using a kinematic Babcock-Leighton model. We find that the pumping causes the poloidal field to become predominately radial in the near-surface shear layer. This allows the negative radial shear in the near-surface layer to effectively act on the radial field to produce a toroidal field. Consequently, we observe a clear equatorward migration of the toroidal field at low latitudes even when there is no meridional flow in the deep CZ. We show a case where the period of a dynamo wave solution is approximately 11 years. Flux transport models are also shown with periods close to 11 years. Both the dynamo wave and flux transport dynamo are thus able to reproduce some of the observed features of solar cycle. The main difference between the two types of dynamo is the value of $\\alpha$ required to produce dynamo action. In both types of dynamo, the surface meridional flow helps to advect and build the polar field in high latitudes, while in flux transport dynamo the equatorward flow near the bottom of CZ advects toroidal field to cause the equatorward migration in butterfly wings and this advection makes the dynamo easier by transporting strong toroidal field to low latitudes where $\\alpha$ effect works. Another conclusion of our study is that the magnetic pumping suppresses the diffusion of fields through the photospheric surface which helps to achieve the 11-year dynamo cycle at a moderately larger value of magnetic diffusivity than has previously been used.

  17. Solar activity effects on the equatorial thermosphere temperature profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arduini, C.; Laneve, G.; Nobile, L.

    In this paper we present the effects of solar activity on the temperature profiles of the equatorial thermosphere as derived from the neutral density data collected by the San Marco 5 (SM5) satellite. This satellite flew during the increasing part of the solar cycle 22 (1988). It had a quasi-equatorial orbit, with inclination lower than 3 deg. The range of measurements, from April to December, allows the inference of seasonal and diurnal effects on the temperature profiles. The density data are collected every second along arcs of orbit lasting up to 50 minutes. The analysis of these densities has been already partially presented and provided evidence for several interesting features, in particular the vertical structure of the diurnal harmonic content and its seasonal variations. The temperatures derived from the same data set provide a useful complement to this picture. The SM5 satellite carried on board 5 instruments for studying the equatorial ionosphere and thermosphere, among them, the Drag Balance Instrument (DBI) for measuring the neutral density and the Ion Drift Meter and Potential Retarding Analyzer (IVI) that allow the evaluation of ions concentration, velocity and temperature. It is possible, therefore, to compare the neutral temperature derived from the neutral density data with the ion temperature given by the IVI.

  18. SIMULATION OF THE FORMATION OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, M. C. M.; Title, A. M.; Rempel, M.; Schuessler, M.

    2010-09-01

    We present a radiative magnetohydrodynamics simulation of the formation of an active region (AR) on the solar surface. The simulation models the rise of a buoyant magnetic flux bundle from a depth of 7.5 Mm in the convection zone up into the solar photosphere. The rise of the magnetic plasma in the convection zone is accompanied by predominantly horizontal expansion. Such an expansion leads to a scaling relation between the plasma density and the magnetic field strength such that B {proportional_to} rhov{sup 1/2}. The emergence of magnetic flux into the photosphere appears as a complex magnetic pattern, which results from the interaction of the rising magnetic field with the turbulent convective flows. Small-scale magnetic elements at the surface first appear, followed by their gradual coalescence into larger magnetic concentrations, which eventually results in the formation of a pair of opposite polarity spots. Although the mean flow pattern in the vicinity of the developing spots is directed radially outward, correlations between the magnetic field and velocity field fluctuations allow the spots to accumulate flux. Such correlations result from the Lorentz-force-driven, counterstreaming motion of opposite polarity fragments. The formation of the simulated AR is accompanied by transient light bridges between umbrae and umbral dots. Together with recent sunspot modeling, this work highlights the common magnetoconvective origin of umbral dots, light bridges, and penumbral filaments.

  19. Statistical pecularities of 24th cycle of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimenko, V.; Lozitsky, V.

    2016-06-01

    Current 24th cycle of solar activity is anomalous if following aspects: 1) it had non-monotonous phase of grown, and on different times of this phase it demonstrated peculiarities of both middle and weak cycle, 2) peak of cycle was two-top, and second top was higher than first on about 15 units of averages Wolf's number (in old classification) that is maximum value for all previous cycles, and 3) temporal interval between first and second maximums of cycle was 26 months that is second value from all 24 cycles. As to index of integral distribution of sunspot diameters, it was found earlier that this index α, in the average, equals about 6.0 for 7 previous cycles, in diameter range 50–90 Mm. New statistical analysis based on data for 2010–2015 allows to conclude that for 24th cycle α ≈ 5.8. Thus, dispersion of diameters of sunspots in 24th cycle is typical for majority of solar cycles.

  20. Solar Influence on Future Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenovic, Pavle; Stenke, Andrea; Rozanov, Eugene; Peter, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Global warming is one of the main threats to mankind. There is growing evidence that anthropogenic greenhouse gases have become the dominant factor, however natural factors such as solar variability cannot be neglected. Sun is a variable star; its activity varies in regular 11-years solar cycles. Longer periods of decreased solar activity are called Grand Solar Minima, which have stronger impact on terrestrial climate. Another natural factor related with solar activity are energetic particles. They can ionize neutral molecules in upper atmosphere and produce NOx and HOx which deplete ozone. We investigate the effect of proposed Grand Solar Minimum in 21st and 22nd century on terrestrial climate and ozone layer. The simulations are performed with different solar forcing scenarios for period of 200 years (2000-2200) using global chemistry-climate model coupled with ocean model (SOCOL-MPIOM). We also deal with problem of representation of middle range energy electrons (30-300 keV) in the model and investigation of their influence on climate.

  1. Monitoring Solar Activity Trends With a Simple Sunspotter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, K.

    2013-11-01

    With the Sun now in solar maximum, solar observations are a timely means to interest students and the general public in astronomy in general and variable stars in particular. The commercially produced Sunspotter is a solar projection system that allows for safer solar observations by several individuals simultaneously. Educational uses for the Sunspotter are reviewed, and the ability of the instrument to track trends in the sunspot cycle (compared to a standard telescope and the American Relative Sunspot Number (Ra)) is examined.

  2. Trichotillomania: Bizzare Patern of Hair Loss at 11-Year-old Girl.

    PubMed

    Zímová, Jana; Zímová, Pavlína

    2016-06-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) is defined by the Diagnostics and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DMS-IV) as hair loss from a patient`s repetitive self-pulling of hair. The disorder is included under anxiety disorders because it shares some obsessive-compulsive features. Patients have the tendency towards feelings of unattractiveness, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem (1,2). It is a major psychiatric problem, but many patients with this disorder first present to a dermatologist. An 11-year-old girl came to our department with a 2-month history of diffuse hair loss on the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area (Figure 1). She had originally been examined by a pediatrician with the diagnosis of alopecia areata. The patient`s personal history included hay fever and shortsightedness, and she suffered from varicella and mononucleosis. Nobody in the family history suffered from alopecia areata, but her father has male androgenetic alopecia (Norwood/Hamilton MAGA C3F3). The mother noticed that the child had had changeable mood for about 2 months and did not want to communicate with other persons in the family. The family did not have any pet at home. At school, her favorite subjects were Math and Computer Studies. She did not like Physical Education and did not participate in any sport activities during her free time. This was very strange because she was obese (body-mass index (BMI) 24.69). She was sometimes angry with her 13-year-old sister who had better results at school. The girl had suddenly started to wear a blue scarf. The parents did not notice that she pulled out her hair at home. Dermatological examination of the capillitium found a zone of incomplete alopecia in the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area, without inflammation, desquamation, and scaring. Hairs were of variable length (Figure 1). There was a patch of incomplete alopecia above the forehead between two stripes of hair of variable length (Figure 2). The hair pull test was

  3. A Forecast of Reduced Solar Activity and Its Implications for NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth; Franz, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The "Solar Dynamo" method of solar activity forecasting is reviewed. Known generically as a 'precursor" method, insofar as it uses observations which precede solar activity generation, this method now uses the Solar Dynamo Amplitude (SODA) Index to estimate future long-term solar activity. The peak amplitude of the next solar cycle (#24), is estimated at roughly 124 in terms of smoothed F10.7 Radio Flux and 74 in terms of the older, more traditional smoothed international or Zurich Sunspot number (Ri or Rz). These values are significantly smaller than the amplitudes of recent solar cycles. Levels of activity stay large for about four years near the peak in smoothed activity, which is estimated to occur near the 2012 timeflame. Confidence is added to the prediction of low activity by numerous examinations of the Sun s weakened polar field. Direct measurements are obtained by the Mount Wilson Solar Observatory and the Wilcox Solar Observatory. Further support is obtained by examining the Sun s polar faculae (bright features), the shape of coronal soft X-ray "holes," and the shape of the "source surface" - a calculated coronal feature which maps the large scale structure of the Sun s field. These features do not show the characteristics of well-formed polar coronal holes associated with typical solar minima. They show stunted polar field levels, which are thought to result in stunted levels of solar activity during solar cycle #24. The reduced levels of solar activity would have concomitant effects upon the space environment in which satellites orbit. In particular, the largest influences would affect orbit determination of satellites in LEO (Low Earth Orbit), based upon the altered thermospheric and exospheric densities. A decrease in solar activity would result in smaller satellite decay rates, as well as fewer large solar events that can destroy satellite electronic functions. Other effects of reduced solar activity upon the space environment include enhanced

  4. Solar activity cycle and the incidence of foetal chromosome abnormalities detected at prenatal diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Gabrielle J.; Stoupel, Eliahu G.; Barkai, Gad; Chaki, Rina; Legum, Cyril; Fejgin, Moshe D.; Shohat, Mordechai

    1995-06-01

    We studied 2001 foetuses during the period of minimal solar activity of solar cycle 21 and 2265 foetuses during the period of maximal solar activity of solar cycle 22, in all women aged 37 years and over who underwent free prenatal diagnosis in four hospitals in the greater Tel Aviv area. There were no significant differences in the total incidence of chromosomal abnormalities or of trisomy between the two periods (2.15% and 1.8% versus 2.34% and 2.12%, respectively). However, the trend of excessive incidence of chromosomal abnormalities in the period of maximal solar activity suggests that a prospective study in a large population would be required to rule out any possible effect of extreme solar activity.

  5. Inferred flows of electric currents in solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Y. J.; Hong, Q. F.; Hagyard, M. J.; Deloach, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques to identify sources of major current systems in active regions and their channels of flow are explored. Measured photospheric vector magnetic fields together with high resolution white light and H-alpha photographs provide the data base to derive the current systems in the photosphere and chromosphere of a solar active region. Simple mathematical constructions of active region fields and currents are used to interpret these data under the assumptions that the fields in the lower atmosphere (below 200 km) may not be force free but those in the chromosphere and higher are. The results obtained for the complex active region AR 2372 are: (1) Spots exhibiting significant spiral structure in the penumbral filaments were the source of vertical currents at the photospheric surface; (2) Magnetic neutral lines where the transverse magnetic field was strongly sheared were channels along which a strong current system flowed; (3) The inferred current systems produced a neutral sheet and oppositely-flowing currents in the area of the magnetic delta configuration that was the site of flaring.

  6. Effects of Space Weather on Biomedical Parameters during the Solar Activity Cycles 23-24.

    PubMed

    Ragul'skaya, M V; Rudenchik, E A; Chibisov, S M; Gromozova, E N

    2015-06-01

    The results of long-term (1998-2012) biomedical monitoring of the biotropic effects of space weather are discussed. A drastic change in statistical distribution parameters in the middle of 2005 was revealed that did not conform to usual sinusoidal distribution of the biomedical data reflecting changes in the number of solar spots over a solar activity cycle. The dynamics of space weather of 2001-2012 is analyzed. The authors hypothesize that the actual change in statistical distributions corresponds to the adaptation reaction of the biosphere to nonstandard geophysical characteristics of the 24th solar activity cycle and the probable long-term decrease in solar activity up to 2067.

  7. SIGN SINGULARITY AND FLARES IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 11158

    SciTech Connect

    Sorriso-Valvo, L.; De Vita, G.; Kazachenko, M. D.; Krucker, S.; Welsch, B. T.; Fisher, G. H.; Primavera, L.; Servidio, S.; Lepreti, F.; Carbone, V.; Vecchio, A.

    2015-03-01

    Solar Active Region NOAA 11158 has hosted a number of strong flares, including one X2.2 event. The complexity of current density and current helicity are studied through cancellation analysis of their sign-singular measure, which features power-law scaling. Spectral analysis is also performed, revealing the presence of two separate scaling ranges with different spectral index. The time evolution of parameters is discussed. Sudden changes of the cancellation exponents at the time of large flares and the presence of correlation with Extreme-Ultra-Violet and X-ray flux suggest that eruption of large flares can be linked to the small-scale properties of the current structures.

  8. Minimum extreme temperature in the gulf of mexico: is there a connection with solar activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravilla, D.; Mendoza, B.; Jauregui, E.

    Minimum extreme temperature ( MET) series from several meteorological stations of the Gulf of Mexico are spectrally analyzed using the Maximum Entrophy Method. We obtained periodicities similar to those found in the sunspot number, the magnetic solar cycle, comic ray fluxes and geomagnetic activity which are modulated by solar activity. We suggested that the solar signal is perhaps present in the MET record of this region of Mexico.

  9. Semi-annual Sq-variation in solar activity cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnoy, V.; Malosiev, T.

    The peculiarities of semi-annual variation in solar activity cycle have been studied. The data from observatories having long observational series and located in different latitude zones were used. The following observatories were selected: Huancayo (magnetic equator), from 1922 to 1959; Apia (low latitudes), from 1912 to 1961; Moscow (middle latitudes), from 1947 to 1965. Based on the hourly values of H-components, the average monthly diurnal amplitudes (a difference between midday and midnight values), according to five international quiet days, were computed. Obtained results were compared with R (relative sunspot numbers) in the ranges of 0-30R, 40-100R, and 140-190R. It was shown, that the amplitude of semi-annual variation increases with R, from minimum to maximum values, on average by 45%. At equatorial Huancayo observatory, the semi-annual Sq(H)-variation appears especially clearly: its maximums take place at periods of equinoxes (March-April, September-October), and minimums -- at periods of solstices (June-July, December-January). At low (Apia observatory) and middle (Moscow observatory) latitudes, the character of semi-annual variation is somewhat different: it appears during the periods of equinoxes, but considerably less than at equator. Besides, with the growth of R, semi-annual variation appears against a background of annual variation, in the form of second peaks (maximum in June). At observatories located in low and middle latitudes, second peaks become more appreciable with an increase of R (March-April and September-October). During the periods of low solar activity, they are insignificant. This work has been carried out with the support from International Scientific and Technology Center (Project #KR-214).

  10. Relationship between solar activities and thunderstorm activities in the Beijing area and the northeast region of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhuang, Hong C.; Lu, Xi C.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis of the relationship between the IMF section boundary crossing, solar flares, the sunspot 11 year cycle variation and the thunderstorm index is given, using the superposition epoch method, for data from more than 13,000 thunderstorms from 10 meteorological stations in the Beijing area and the Northeast region during 1957 to 1978. The results show that for some years a correlation exists between the thunderstorm index and the positive IMF section boundary crossing. The thunderstorm index increases obviously within three days near the crossing and on the seventh day after the crossing. The influence of the crossing on thunderstorms is stronger in the first half year than the latter half year. For different classes of solar flares, the influences are not equally obvious. The solar flares which appeared on the west side, especially in the western region (from 0 to 30 deg) have the most obvious influence. There is no discernible correlation between the thunderstorm index and the sunspot eleven-year cycle.

  11. The effect of solar activity on the evolution of solar wind parameters during the rise of the 24th cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rod'kin, D. G.; Shugay, Yu. S.; Slemzin, V. A.; Veselovskii, I. S.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of parameters of the near-Earth solar wind (SW) and the effect of solar activity on the parameters of three SW components (fast SW from large-scale coronal holes (CHs); slow SW from active regions, streamers, and other sources; and transient flows related to sporadic solar activity) at the beginning of the 24th solar cycle (2009-2011) are analyzed. It is demonstrated that temperaturedependent parameters of ionic composition (C+6/C+5 and O+7/O+6) of the transient SW component in the profound minimum of solar activity in 2009 were correlated with the variation of the rate of weak (type C and weaker) flares. This verifies the presence of a hot component associated with these flares in the SW. The variations in the velocity and the kinetic temperature of fast SW from CHs with an increase in activity are more pronounced in the bulk of the high-speed stream, and the variations of O+7/O+6 and Fe/O ratios and the magnitude of the interplanetary magnetic field are the most prominent in the region of interaction between fast and slow SW streams. The analysis reveals that a value of O+7/O+6 = 0.1 serves as the criterion to distinguish between fast SW streams and interplanetary coronal mass ejections in the 2009 activity minimum. This value is lower than the one (0.145) determined earlier based on the data on the 23rd cycle (Zhao et al., 2009). Therefore, the distinguishing criterion is not an absolute one and depends on the solar activity level.

  12. Endothelial Dysfunction and Blood Viscosity Inpatients with Unstable Angina in Different Periods of a Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parshina, S. S.; Tokaeva, L. K.; Dolgova, E. M.; Afanas'yeva, T. N.; Strelnikova, O. A.

    The origin of hemorheologic and endothelial defects in patients with unstable angina (comparing with healthy persons) is determined by a solar activity period: the blood viscosity increases in a period of high solar activity in the vessels of small, medium and macro diameters, a local decompensate dysfunction of small vessels endothelium had been fixed (microcirculation area). In the period of a low solar activity there is an increase of a blood viscosity in vessels of all diameters, generalized subcompensated endothelial dysfunction is developed (on the background of the III phase blood clotting activating). In the period of a high solar activity a higher blood viscosity had been fixed, comparing with the period of a low solar activity.

  13. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: relationship to solar activity in the United States, 1988-2010.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Weil, Robert J

    2014-07-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a common condition treated by neurosurgeons. The inherent variability in the incidence and presentation of ruptured cerebral aneurysms has been investigated in association with seasonality, circadian rhythm, lunar cycle, and climate factors. We aimed to identify an association between solar activity (solar flux and sunspots) and the incidence of aneurysmal SAH, all of which appear to behave in periodic fashions over long time periods. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) provided longitudinal, retrospective data on patients hospitalized with SAH in the United States, from 1988 to 2010, who underwent aneurysmal clipping or coiling. Solar activity and SAH incidence data were modeled with the cosinor methodology and a 10-year periodic cycle length. The NIS database contained 32,281 matching hospitalizations from 1988 to 2010. The acrophase (time point in the cycle of highest amplitude) for solar flux and for sunspots were coincident. The acrophase for aneurysmal SAH incidence was out of phase with solar activity determined by non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Aneurysmal SAH incidence peaks appear to be delayed behind solar activity peaks by 64 months (95% CI; 56-73 months) when using a modeled 10-year periodic cycle. Solar activity (solar flux and sunspots) appears to be associated with the incidence of aneurysmal SAH. As solar activity reaches a relative maximum, the incidence of aneurysmal SAH reaches a relative minimum. These observations may help identify future trends in aneurysmal SAH on a population basis.

  14. Solar technology assessment project. Volume 3: Active space heating and hot water supply with solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaki, S.; Loef, G. O. G.

    1981-04-01

    Several types of solar water heaters are described and assessed. These include thermosiphon water heaters and pump circulation water heaters. Auxiliary water heating is briefly discussed, and new and retrofit systems are compared. Liquid-based space heating systems and solar air heaters are described and assessed, auxiliary space heating are discussed, and new and retrofit solar space heating systems are compared. The status of flat plate collectors, evacuated tube collectors, and thermal storage systems is examined. Systems improvements, reliability, durability and maintenance are discussed. The economic assessment of space and water heating systems includes a comparison of new systems costs with conventional fuels, and sales history and projections. The variety of participants in the solar industry and users of solar heat is discussed, and various incentives and barriers to solar heating are examined. Several policy implications are discussed, and specific government actions are recommended.

  15. Background Sizes of the Solar and Interplanetary Active Phenomena Physical Characteristics in Conditions of the Deep and Prolonged Solar Minimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishkov, Vitaly

    The last phase of a minimum begun in May, 2005. Since January, 2009 the solar cycle 24 has begun, and its development goes normal rate, without surprises. In this minimum, side by side with the periods of very high flare activity (IX 2005 and XII 2006 -+5.5 and +6.6 years after a maximum) which on flare potential occupy 4 and 20 place among the most flare-active regions for the last 4 cycles . The Sun within 772 days (on February.2010) was sunspotless. Last three years of a minimum phase give the chance to estimate and analyse the solar active phenomena in the conditions of the lesser generation of solar magnetic fields. It has led to significant falling of an interplanetary magnetic field background level that has in turn predetermined 20

  16. Solar flare acceleration of solar wind: influence of active region magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Lundstedt, H; Wilcox, J M; Scherrer, P H

    1981-06-26

    The direction of the photospheric magnetic field at the site of a solar flare is a good predictor of whether the flare will accelerate solar wind plasma. If the field has a southward component, high-speed solar wind plasma is usually observed near the earth about 4 days later. If the field has a northward component, such high-speed solar wind is almost never observed. Southward-field flares may then be expected to have much larger terrestrial effects than northward flares.

  17. A Survey of Nanoflare Properties in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viall, N. M.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate coronal heating using a systematic technique to analyze the properties of nanoflares in active regions (AR). Our technique computes cooling times, or time-lags, on a pixel-by-pixel basis using data taken with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Our technique has the advantage that it allows us to analyze all of the coronal AR emission, including the so-called diffuse emission. We recently presented results using this time-lag analysis on NOAA AR 11082 (Viall & Klimchuk 2012) and found that the majority of the pixels contained cooling plasma along their line of sight, consistent with impulsive coronal nanoflare heating. Additionally, our results showed that the nanoflare energy is stronger in the AR core and weaker in the active region periphery. Are these results representative of the nanoflare properties exhibited in the majority of ARs, or is AR 11082 unique? Here we present the time-lag results for a survey of ARs and show that these nanoflare patterns are born out in other active regions, for a range of ages, magnetic complexity, and total unsigned magnetic flux. Other aspects of the nanoflare properties, however, turn out to be dependent on certain AR characteristics.

  18. Solar Energy Education. Humanities: activities and teacher's guide. Field test edition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Activities are outlined to introduce students to information on solar energy while performing ordinary classroom work. In this teaching manual solar energy is integrated with the humanities. The activities include such things as stories, newspapers, writing assignments, and art and musical presentations all filled with energy related terms. An energy glossary is provided. (BCS)

  19. Relationships between solar activity and climate change. [sunspot cycle effects on lower atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, W. O.

    1974-01-01

    Recurrent droughts are related to the double sunspot cycle. It is suggested that high solar activity generally increases meridional circulations and blocking patterns at high and intermediate latitudes, especially in winter. This effect is related to the sudden formation of cirrus clouds during strong geomagnetic activity that originates in the solar corpuscular emission.

  20. Long-acting Injectable Risperidone Use in an 11-Years-Old Bipolar Child

    PubMed Central

    KARAKOÇ DEMİRKAYA, Sevcan; ZOROĞLU, Süleyman Salih

    2016-01-01

    Early-onset bipolar disorder is difficult for child psychiatrists in terms of both diagnosis and treatment. The proper diagnostic evaluation is negatively impacted by the atypical clinical manifestation and rapid cycling pattern of the disease, together with common comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder. In addition to poor insight, nonadherence to treatment, poor family coping skills, and insufficient child psychiatric inpatient units make clinicians unsuccessful in following up and treating such patients. Risperidone is a commonly used atypical antipsychotic it has been approved for the treatment of manic and mixed episodes of bipolar disorder even in 10–17-year-old patients, and it is commonly used. It has a long-acting injectable formulation. Studies on its long-acting form in younger children are limited. In this case presentation, the diagnostic procedure in an 11-year old child with bipolar disorder will be presented. Long-acting injectable risperidone use in the case of nonadherence to treatment and observed side effects will be discussed. PMID:28360814

  1. Basic Information Processing Abilities at 11 years Account for Deficits in IQ Associated with Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2011-07-01

    Although it is well established that preterms as a group do poorly relative to their full-term peers on tests of global cognitive functioning, the basis for this relative deficiency is less understood. The present paper examines preterm deficits in core cognitive abilities and determines their role in mediating preterm/full-term differences in IQ. The performance of 11-year-old children born preterm (birth weight <1750g) and their full-term controls were compared on a large battery of 15 tasks, covering four basic cognitive domains -- memory, attention, speed of processing and representational competence. The validity of these four domains was established using latent variables and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Preterms showed pervasive deficits within and across domains. Additionally, preterm deficits in IQ were completely mediated by these four cognitive domains in a structural equation model involving a cascade from elementary abilities (attention and speed), to more complex abilities (memory and representational competence), to IQ. The similarity of findings to those obtained with this cohort in infancy and toddlerhood suggest that preterm deficits persist - across time, across task, and from the non-verbal to the verbal period.

  2. Upward movement of plutonium to surface sediments during an 11-year field study.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, D I; Demirkanli, D I; Molz, F J; Beals, D M; Cadieux, J R; Halverson, J E

    2010-05-01

    An 11-year lysimeter study was established to monitor the movement of Pu through vadose zone sediments. Sediment Pu concentrations as a function of depth indicated that some Pu moved upward from the buried source material. Subsequent numerical modeling suggested that the upward movement was largely the result of invading grasses taking up the Pu and translocating it upward. The objective of this study was to determine if the Pu of surface sediments originated from atmosphere fallout or from the buried lysimeter source material (weapons-grade Pu), providing additional evidence that plants were involved in the upward migration of Pu. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu and (242)Pu/(239)Pu atomic fraction ratios of the lysimeter surface sediments, as determined by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectroscopy (TIMS), were 0.063 and 0.00045, respectively; consistent with the signatures of the weapons-grade Pu. Our numerical simulations indicate that because plants create a large water flux, small concentrations over multiple years may result in a measurable accumulation of Pu on the ground surface. These results may have implications on the conceptual model for calculating risk associated with long-term stewardship and monitored natural attenuation management of Pu contaminated subsurface and surface sediments.

  3. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932

    PubMed Central

    Shenkin, S; Starr, J; Pattie, A; Rush, M; Whalley, L; Deary, I; PHARAOH, E. P.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.
METHODS—Retrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932.Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital in 1921. Moray House Test scores from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 were traced on 449of these children.
RESULTS—Mean score on Moray House Test increased from 30.6 at a birth weight of <2500 g to 44.7 at 4001-4500 g, after correcting for gestational age, maternal age, parity, social class, and legitimacy of birth. Multiple regression showed that 15.6% of the variance in Moray House Test score is contributed by a combination of social class (6.6%), birth weight (3.8%), child's exact age (2.4%), maternal parity (2.0%), and illegitimacy (1.5%). Structural equation modelling confirmed the independent contribution from each of these variables in predicting cognitive ability. A model in which birth weight acted as a mediator of social class had poor fit statistics.
CONCLUSION—In this 1921 birth cohort, social class and birth weight have independent effects on cognitive function at age 11. Future research will relate these childhood data to health and cognition in old age.

 PMID:11517097

  4. Microbiological monitoring of air quality in a university canteen: an 11-year report.

    PubMed

    Osimani, A; Aquilanti, L; Tavoletti, S; Clementi, F

    2013-06-01

    Over the past decade, an increased tendency to consume meals at dining facilities outside the home has been highlighted; moreover, meals supplied in food businesses have been involved in many foodborne disease outbreaks. Therefore, microbial air contamination in food processing facilities could be a concern and an increase of microbial loads could represent a risk factor, especially for the potential contamination of foods due to undesirable spoiling and pathogenic bacteria. In this paper, the results of an 11-year microbiological monitoring of air quality in a university canteen are reported. The study, which started in the year 2000, was performed within a hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan implementation of a canteen that produces about 1,000 meals a day in order to verify the effectiveness of corrective actions on the indoor air quality. The primary food preparation room, the kitchen, and three cold rooms underwent air sampling by using a calibrated impaction sampler. Our investigation detected a general and progressive improvement in the air quality of the canteen since the beginning of the study, thus suggesting the appropriateness of the corrective action undertaken during the HACCP implementation program.

  5. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Alters Cortisol Stress Reactivity in 11 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Lin, Richard; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Objective Determine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal environmental adversity on salivary cortisol stress reactivity in school aged children. Study design Subjects included 743 11 year old children (n=320 cocaine exposed; 423 comparison) followed since birth in a longitudinal prospective multisite study. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol at baseline and after a standardized procedure to induce psychological stress. Children were divided into those who showed an increase in cortisol from baseline to post stress and those who showed a decrease or blunted cortisol response. Covariates measured included site, birthweight, maternal pre and postnatal use of alcohol, tobacco or marijuana, social class, changes in caretakers, maternal depression and psychological symptoms, domestic and community violence, child abuse and quality of the home. Results With adjustment for confounding variables, cortisol reactivity to stress was more likely to be blunted in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Cocaine exposed children exposed to domestic violence showed the strongest effects. Conclusion The combination of prenatal cocaine exposure and an adverse postnatal environment could down regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) resulting in the blunted cortisol response to stress possibly increasing risk for later psychopathology and adult disease. PMID:20400094

  6. Long-acting Injectable Risperidone Use in an 11-Years-Old Bipolar Child.

    PubMed

    Karakoç Demirkaya, Sevcan; Zoroğlu, Süleyman Salih

    2016-12-01

    Early-onset bipolar disorder is difficult for child psychiatrists in terms of both diagnosis and treatment. The proper diagnostic evaluation is negatively impacted by the atypical clinical manifestation and rapid cycling pattern of the disease, together with common comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder. In addition to poor insight, nonadherence to treatment, poor family coping skills, and insufficient child psychiatric inpatient units make clinicians unsuccessful in following up and treating such patients. Risperidone is a commonly used atypical antipsychotic it has been approved for the treatment of manic and mixed episodes of bipolar disorder even in 10-17-year-old patients, and it is commonly used. It has a long-acting injectable formulation. Studies on its long-acting form in younger children are limited. In this case presentation, the diagnostic procedure in an 11-year old child with bipolar disorder will be presented. Long-acting injectable risperidone use in the case of nonadherence to treatment and observed side effects will be discussed.

  7. An analysis of solar-cycle temporal relationships among activity indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, K. T.; Maymani, H.; Nautiyal, K.; te Velde, V.

    2004-01-01

    Differences in the time development of solar activity indices are an important clue in the search for physical processes responsible for changing solar emission at various wavelengths. In this paper we describe our investigation of temporal relationships among two space-based indices, Lyman-α 121.6 nm emission (Lα) and the Mg II 280 nm core-to-wing ratio, and four ground-based indices - the 10.7 cm flux (F10), the He I 1083 nm equivalent width, the Ca II K 393.4 nm emission index, and the International Sunspot Number (ISN). We provide scatterplots of index pairs passed through a 2-year Gaussian filter during each available solar cycle, and we approximate the temporal relationships quantitatively as overall temporal offsets with uncertainties. We reconcile our findings with qualitative ideas concerning the variation of solar emissions with solar activity. Since the F10 and ISN time series are longer than four complete solar cycles, we are able to evaluate the reproducibility of temporal offsets over multiple solar cycles. The chief motivation for our work is to improve solar indicator analysis by providing a method of seeing and analyzing temporal relationships clearly and easily. We believe that future physical models of magnetic activity and spectral emissions in the solar chromosphere and transition region may make quantitative predictions of temporal relationships among full-disk solar indices for comparison with analyses such as ours.

  8. Activity of processes on the visible surfaces of Solar System bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    We consider the physical processes on the surfaces of Solar System bodies, which lead to visible changes in their reflective characteristics. It is shown that each body in the Solar system has a set of chemical elements and their compounds, converting of which indicates significant activity in such a significant temperature change range from 700 K (for Mercury) to 30 K for Pluto. That is, all objects in the Solar system show a significant activity. However, they are very individual for the list and the type of the processes that take place on each body in the Solar system.

  9. A Study of Solar Magnetic Fields Below the Surface, at the Surface, and in the Solar Atmosphere - Understanding the Cause of Major Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintzoglou, Georgios

    2016-05-01

    The fundamental processes regarding the origin, emergence and evolution of solar magnetic fields as well as the generation of solar activity are largely unknown or remain controversial. In this dissertation, multiple important issues regarding solar magnetism and activities are addressed, based on advanced observations obtained by the AIA and HMI instruments aboard the SDO spacecraft.This dissertation addresses the 3D magnetic structure of complex emerging Active Regions (ARs). In ARs the photospheric fields might show all aspects of complexity, from simple bipolar regions to extremely complex multipolar surface magnetic distributions. Here, we introduce a novel technique to infer the subphotospheric configuration of emerging magnetic flux tubes forming ARs on the surface. Using advanced 3D visualization tools with this technique on a complex flare and CME productive AR, we found that the magnetic flux tubes forming the complex AR may originate from a single progenitor flux tube in the SCZ. The complexity can be explained as a result of vertical and horizontal bifurcations that occurred on the progenitor flux tube.In addition, this dissertation proposes a new scenario on the origin of major solar activity. When more than one flux tubes are in close proximity to each other while they break through the photospheric surface, collision and shearing may occur as they emerge. Once this collisional shearing occurs between nonconjugated sunspots (opposite polarities not belonging to the same bipole), major solar activity is triggered. The collision and shearing occur due to the natural separation of polarities in emerging bipoles. In this continuous collision, more poloidal flux is added to the system effectively creating an expanding MFR into the corona, accompanied by filament formation above the PIL together with flare activity and CMEs. Our results reject two popular scenarios on the possible cause of solar eruptions (1) shearing motion between conjugate polarities, (2

  10. A developmental increase in allostatic load from ages 3 to 11 years is associated with increased schizotypal personality at age 23 years.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Melissa; Raine, Adrian; Gao, Yu; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2011-11-01

    Although allostatic load has been investigated in mood and anxiety disorders, no prior study has investigated developmental change in allostatic load as a precursor to schizotypal personality. This study employed a multilevel developmental framework to examine whether the development of increased allostatic load, as indicated by impaired sympathetic nervous system habituation from ages 3 to 11 years, predisposes to schizotypal personality at age 23 years. Electrodermal activity to six aversive tones was recorded in 995 subjects at age 3 years and again at 11 years. Habituation slopes at both ages were used to create groups who showed a developmental increase in habituation (decreased allostatic load), and those who showed a developmental decrease in habituation (increased allostatic load). Children who showed a developmental increase in allostatic load from ages 3 to 11 years had higher levels of schizotypal personality at 23 years. A breakdown of total schizotypy scores demonstrated specificity of findings to cognitive-perceptual features of schizotypy. Findings are the first to document a developmental abnormality in allostasis in relation to adult schizotypal personality. The relative failure to develop normal habituation to repeated stressors throughout childhood is hypothesized to result in an accumulation of allostatic load and consequently increased positive symptom schizotypy in adulthood.

  11. Solar effects on circulation types over Europe: an analysis based on a large number of classifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, R.; Cahynová, M.; Kyselý, J.

    2010-09-01

    Recently, effects of the 11-year solar cycle on various aspects of tropospheric circulation in the Northern Hemisphere in winter have been recognized. One of our previous studies showed a significant solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types from the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue. Here, we use a large collection of varied classifications of circulation patterns, defined over central Europe, assembled within the COST733 Action "Harmonization and Applications of Weather Types Classifications for European Regions" to detect the solar effect on the frequency of synoptic types. The advantage of this multi-classification approach is that peculiarities or biases present in any single classification (catalogue) that might influence the detected solar signal are eliminated once a large ensemble of classifications is used. We divide winter months (December to March) into three groups according to the mean monthly solar activity, quantified by the solar 10.7 cm flux. The three groups correspond to the minima of the 11-year solar cycle, a moderate solar activity, and solar maxima. Within each group, frequencies of occurrence of individual circulation types are calculated. Differences in the occurrence of individual classes between solar activity groups indicate the presence of a solar activity effect on atmospheric circulation over Europe. Statistical significance of these differences is estimated by a block resampling method. An enhanced frequency under solar minima and a reduced frequency under solar maxima are observed almost exclusively for the types with easterly flow over central Europe. On the other hand, a reduced frequency under solar minima and an enhanced frequency under solar maxima are found for the types with westerly flow over central Europe. The research is supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences, project A300420805, and by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic, contract OC115.

  12. Investigation of solar active regions at high resolution by balloon flights of the solar optical universal polarimeter, definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.; Topka, Kenneth P.

    1992-01-01

    The definition phase of a scientific study of active regions on the sun by balloon flight of a former Spacelab instrument, the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter (SOUP) is described. SOUP is an optical telescope with image stabilization, tunable filter and various cameras. After the flight phase of the program was cancelled due to budgetary problems, scientific and engineering studies relevant to future balloon experiments of this type were completed. High resolution observations of the sun were obtained using SOUP components at the Swedish Solar Observatory in the Canary Islands. These were analyzed and published in studies of solar magnetic fields and active regions. In addition, testing of low-voltage piezoelectric transducers was performed, which showed they were appropriate for use in image stabilization on a balloon.

  13. Helium Line Formation and Abundance in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauas, P. J. D.; Andretta, V.; Falchi, A.; Falciani, R.; Teriaca, L.; Cauzzi, G.

    2005-01-01

    An observing campaign (SOHO JOP 139), coordinated between ground-based and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) instruments, has been planned to obtain simultaneous spectroheliograms of the same active region in several spectral lines. The chromospheric lines Ca II K, Hα, and Na I D, as well as He I 10830, 5876, 584, and He II 304 Å lines have been observed. The EUV radiation in the range λ<500 Å and in the range 260<λ<340 Å has also been measured at the same time. These simultaneous observations allow us to build semiempirical models of the chromosphere and low transition region of an active region, taking into account the estimated total number of photoionizing photons impinging on the target active region and their spectral distribution. We obtained a model that matches very well all the observed line profiles, using a standard value for the He abundance ([He]=0.1) and a modified distribution of microturbulence. For this model we study the influence of the coronal radiation on the computed helium lines. We find that, even in an active region, the incident coronal radiation has a limited effect on the UV He lines, while it is of fundamental importance for the D3 and 10830 Å lines. Finally, we build two more models, assuming values of He abundance [He]=0.07 and 1.5, only in the region where temperatures are >1×104 K. This region, between the chromosphere and transition region, has been indicated as a good candidate for processes that might be responsible for strong variations of [He]. The set of our observables can still be well reproduced in both cases, changing the atmospheric structure mainly in the low transition region. This implies that, to choose between different values of [He], it is necessary to constrain the transition region with different observables, independent of the He lines.

  14. Relationship between Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity in 9-11 Years Old Children in a Multi-National Study.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Broyles, Stephanie T; Champagne, Catherine M; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9-11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD). Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049), but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002) and %BF (p = 0.0001). Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs.

  15. Skin donors and human skin allografts: evaluation of an 11-year practice and discard in a referral tissue bank.

    PubMed

    Gaucher, Sonia; Khaznadar, Zena; Gourevitch, Jean-Claude; Jarraya, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    The Saint Louis hospital tissue bank provides skin allografts to pediatric and adult burn units in the Paris area. The aim of this study was to analyze our activity during the last 11 years focusing on the reasons for skin discard. Skin is procured solely from the back of the body, which is divided into 10 zones that are harvested and processed separately. This retrospective study included all skin donors harvested between June 2002 and June 2013, representing a total of 336 donors and 2770 zones. The donors were multiorgan heart-beating donors in 91 % of cases (n = 307). The main reason for discarding harvested skin was microbial contamination, detected in 99 donors (29 %). Most contaminants were of low pathogenicity. Other reasons for discard included positive serologic tests for 2 donors [17 zones (0.61 %)], unsuitable physical skin characteristics for 3 zones (0.11 %), the donor's medical history for 53 zones (1.91 %), and technical issues with processing or distribution for 61 zones (2.2 %). In our experience, microbial contamination continues to be the main reason for discarding potential skin allografts. However, discards are limited by separate harvesting and processing of multiple zones in each donor.

  16. Relationship between Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity in 9–11 Years Old Children in a Multi-National Study

    PubMed Central

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9–11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD). Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049), but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002) and %BF (p = 0.0001). Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs. PMID:27916866

  17. Two Types of Coronal Bright Points in the 24-th Cycle of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherdanov, Chori T.; Minenko, Ekaterina P.; Tillaboev, A. M.; Sattarov, Isroil

    We applied an automatic program for identification of coronal bright points (CBPs) to the data obtained by SOHO/EIT observations taken at the wavelength 195 Å, in the time interval from the end of the 23rd to the early 24th solar cycle. We studied the total number of CBPs and its variations at the beginning of the given cycle of solar activity, so that the development of the solar activity could be predicted with the use of CBPs. For a primary reference point for the 24th solar cycle, we took the emergence of a high-latitude sunspot with the reversed polarity, which appeared in January, 2008. We show that the observed number of CBPs reaches the highest point around the minimum of the solar activity, which in turn may result from the effect of visibility. The minimum solar activity at this time provides the opportunity to register the number of CBPs with the highest accuracy, with its uniform latitudinal distribution. We also study the properties of CBPs in a new 24th cycle of solar activity. It is shown that variations in the cyclic curve of the number of coronal bright points associated with variations in the solar activity, for the latitudes of the quiet Sun to be anticorrelation characteristic changes in the number CBPs to the solar activity, and the observational data are for the regions of active formations on the Sun almost identical on character on the equatorial latitude, but this have lightly expressed character in high-latitude zone. To explain the cyclic curves of variation in the number of coronal bright points in connection with the solar cycle in different latitudinal zones, we suggest a hypothesis of the existence of two types of coronal bright points: those associated with the quiet corona and those related to active formations.

  18. Overview of the Temperature Response in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere to Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beig, Gufran; Scheer, Juergen; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Keckhut, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The natural variability in the terrestrial mesosphere needs to be known to correctly quantify global change. The response of the thermal structure to solar activity variations is an important factor. Some of the earlier studies highly overestimated the mesospheric solar response. Modeling of the mesospheric temperature response to solar activity has evolved in recent years, and measurement techniques as well as the amount of data have improved. Recent investigations revealed much smaller solar signatures and in some case no significant solar signal at all. However, not much effort has been made to synthesize the results available so far. This article presents an overview of the energy budget of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) and an up-to-date status of solar response in temperature structure based on recently available observational data. An objective evaluation of the data sets is attempted and important factors of uncertainty are discussed.

  19. Association between obesity and asthma in 4-11 year old children in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Munoz, J; Chinn, S; Rona, R

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—There is evidence of a positive association between asthma and obesity in adults and in children. We investigated, in a large sample of English and Scottish primary school children, whether there is a consistent association between fatness and asthma symptoms in Britain.
METHODS—A cross sectional analysis was made of 18 218 children aged 4-11 years who participated in the 1993 or 1994 surveys of the National Study of Health and Growth (NSHG). Children belonged either to English or Scottish representative samples, or an English inner city sample. Asthma attacks in the previous year, occasional wheeze, or persistent wheeze were the symptoms used in the analysis. Body mass index (BMI) and the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds converted to standard deviation scores (SDS) were used to assess levels of fatness.
RESULTS—A total of 14 908 children (81.8%) were included in the analysis. In the multiple logistic analysis BMI and asthma (asthma attacks or wheeze) were associated in the representative sample (OR for the comparison of the 10th and 90th centiles of BMI 1.28,95% CI 1.11 to 1.48), but sum of skinfolds was unrelated to asthma symptoms in most analyses. The association between asthma and BMI was stronger in girls than in boys in the inner city sample, but less convincingly in the representative sample.
CONCLUSIONS—Levels of obesity are associated with asthma symptoms regardless of ethnicity. The association is more consistent for BMI than for sum of skinfolds, partly because obese children are more advanced in their maturation than other children. There is some evidence that, as in adults, the association is stronger in girls than in boys, but only in the multiethnic inner city sample.

 PMID:11209102

  20. Impact of Clinical Pharmacist on the Pediatric Intensive Care Practice: An 11-Year Tertiary Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, Heidi M.; Fryer, Karen R.; Graner, Kevin K.; Arteaga, Grace M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With increasing complexity of critical care medicine comes an increasing need for multidisciplinary involvement in care. In many institutions, pharmacists are an integral part of this team, but long-term data on the interventions performed by pharmacists and their effects on patient care and outcomes are limited. We aimed to describe the role of pediatric clinical pharmacists in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) practice. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of pharmacy interventions in the PICU at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, from 2003-2013, with a distinct period of increased pharmacist presence in the PICU from 2008 onward. We compared demographic and outcome data on patients who did and who did not have pharmacy interventions during 2 periods (2003–2007 and 2008–2013). RESULTS: We identified 27,773 total interventions by pharmacists during the 11-year period, of which 79.8% were accepted by the clinical team. These interventions were made on 10,963 unique PICU admissions and prevented 5867 order entry errors. Pharmacists' interventions increased year over year, including a significant change in 2008. Patients who required pharmacy involvement were younger, sicker, and had longer intensive care unit, hospital, and ventilator duration. Average central line infections and central line entry rates decreased significantly over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Increased pharmacist presence in the PICU is associated with increased interventions and prevention of adverse drug events. Pharmacist participation during rounds and order entry substantially improved the care of critically sick children and should be encouraged. PMID:26380569

  1. Fertility of testicular cancer patients after anticancer treatment--experience of 11 years.

    PubMed

    Molnár, Z; Berta, E; Benyó, M; Póka, R; Kassai, Z; Flaskó, T; Jakab, A; Bodor, M

    2014-06-01

    Testicular cancer affects men mostly in their reproductive age with a cure rate over 90%. Preserved fertility is one of the main concerns of the survivors. To further elucidate the question of fertility after anticancer treatment for testicular cancer, we performed a survey among patients who underwent sperm cryopreservation procedure in our department. A structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on demography, anticancer treatment, histological type of cancer, family planning intentions and fertility prior to and after treatment. During a period of 11 years 86 men underwent semen cryopreservation before starting chemo-or radiotherapy. Fifty-nine of them consented to participate in the study. The average length of follow up was 4.6 +/- 3.8 years. In case of 11.9% of the patients their banked sperm was used, which led to live birth in 57% of the couples. The partners of 6 patients became pregnant after in vitro fertilization (IVF) resulting in 4 live births and 2 miscarriages. The spontaneous pregnancy rate was 22%. Spontaneous pregnancy occurred in 13 partners resulting in 18 pregnancies followed by 12 live births, 2 artificial abortions and 4 miscarriages. We could not prove any association between preserved fertility and anticancer treatment or the histological type of the cancer. In conclusion, although spontaneous pregnancy rate is remarkably high after anticancer treatment for testicular cancer, the risk of infertility after receiving gonadotoxic treatment cannot be predicted. Cryopreservation is a safe and effective method to preserve fertility in these cases. As a result we strongly recommend discussing the advantages of semen cryopreservation with all patients awaiting treatment for testicular cancer.

  2. Regeneration of a Coastal Pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) Forest 11 Years after Thinning, Niigata, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jiaojun; Gonda, Yutaka; Yu, Lizhong; Li, Fengqin; Yan, Qiaoling; Sun, Yirong

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of thinning intensity on wind vulnerability and regeneration in a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii) forest, thinning with intensities of 20%, 30% and 50% was conducted in December 1997; there was an unthinned treatment as the control (total 8 stands). We re-measured the permanent sites to assess the regeneration characteristics 11 years after thinning. In the 50% thinned stand, seedlings aged from 2 to 10 years exhibited the highest pine seedling density and growth. The age composition ranged from 1–3 years with densities of 9.9 and 5.1 seedlings m−2 in 30% and 20% thinned stands; only 1-year-old seedlings with a density of 6.1 seedlings m−2 in the unthinned stand. Similar trends were found for the regeneration of broadleaved species such as Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus serrulata. We speculate that the canopy openness and moss coverage contributed to the regeneration success in the 50% thinned stand, while the higher litter depth and lack of soil moisture induced the regeneration failure in the unthinned stand. The stands thinned at 20% or 30% were less favourable for pine regeneration than the stands thinned at 50%. Therefore, thinning with less than 30% canopy openness (20% and 30% thinned stands) should be avoided, and thinning at higher than 30% canopy openness (50% thinned stand, approximately 1500 stems ha−1 at ages 40–50 years) is suggested for increasing regeneration in the coastal pine forest. The implications of thinning-based silviculture in the coastal pine forest management are also discussed. The ongoing development of the broadleaved seedlings calls for further observations. PMID:23091632

  3. Early puberty in 11-year-old girls: Millennium Cohort Study findings

    PubMed Central

    Zilanawala, Afshin; Sacker, Amanda; Hiatt, Robert; Viner, Russell

    2017-01-01

    Objective Early puberty in girls is linked to some adverse outcomes in adolescence and mid-life. We address two research questions: (1) Are socioeconomic circumstances and ethnicity associated with early onset puberty? (2) Are adiposity and/or psychosocial stress associated with observed associations? Design Longitudinal data on 5839 girls from the UK Millennium Cohort Study were used to estimate associations between ethnicity, family income, adiposity and psychosocial stress with a marker of puberty. Main outcome measure Reported menstruation at age 11 years. Results All quoted ORs are statistically significant. Girls in the poorest income quintile were twice as likely (OR=2.1), and the second poorest quintile nearly twice as likely (OR=1.9) to have begun menstruation compared with girls in the richest income quintile. Estimates were roughly halved on adjustment for Body Mass Index and markers of psychosocial stress (poorest, OR=1.5; second poorest, OR=1.5). Indian girls were over 3 times as likely compared with whites to have started menstruation (OR=3.5) and statistical adjustments did not attenuate estimates. The raised odds of menstruation for Pakistani (OR=1.9), Bangladeshi (OR=3.3) and black African (OR=3.0) girls were attenuated to varying extents, from about a third to a half, on adjustment for income and adiposity. Conclusions In contemporary UK, excess adiposity and psychosocial stress were associated with social inequalities in early puberty, while material disadvantage and adiposity were linked to ethnic inequalities in early puberty among girls. PMID:27672135

  4. Manipulative and antisocial behavior in an 11-year-old boy with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Boes, Aaron D; Grafft, Amanda; Espe-Pfeifer, Patricia; Rowe, Jeffrey; Stein, Martin T

    2012-05-01

    Brian is an 11-year-old boy who presented to the emergency room with suicidal ideation and hearing voices. In the preceding weeks, he had escalating symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and bipolar disorder. His medical history was notable for complex partial epilepsy with onset at age 4 that had been well controlled with divalproate. He had several mental health diagnoses by various practitioners including oppositional defiant disorder, ADHD, and bipolar disorder. Brian's family and social history was notable for the absence of identifiable risk factors for seizures or psychiatric problems. Over the course of a week-long psychiatric hospitalization, his complaints of depression and hearing voices seemed incongruent with his behavior. His parents endorsed a long history of Brian manipulating family and friends, such as conning his friends into stealing money and giving it to him. There was increasing suspicion that Brian was contriving his presenting symptoms for secondary gains. When his parents visited, he consistently bargained for prized items such as a long sought after cell phone and his own bedroom to improve his mood. His prior diagnoses (ADHD, a mood disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder) did not capture what seemed to be his core problem--an ability and willingness to manipulate others for his own self-serving purposes. Three months later, he was seen in the pediatric neurology clinic for increased seizure frequency. In the interim, he had several very serious altercations including setting fire to his family church, an attempted break-in-and-entry, assaulting his principal and resisting the arresting officer, and a malicious planned attack on his father where he struck him in the head with a crescent wrench "in cold blood, without any emotion."

  5. Levels of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds among children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-10-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 20 urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, and race/ethnicity among children aged 6-11 years. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was positively associated with the levels of selected metabolites of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, cyanide, and propylene oxide in a dose-response manner. Levels of the selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, toluene, and xylene decreased with increase in age. Levels of 1-bromopropane decreased with number of rooms in the house but the reverse was true for 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Levels of most of the 20 metabolites did not vary with gender. Non-Hispanic white children had higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (DHBMA), N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC), and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) than non-Hispanic black children. Non-Hispanic white children had statistically significantly higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA), trans, trans-Muconic acid (MU), and N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC) than non-Hispanic Asian children but statistically significantly lower levels of N-Acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (BPMA) than non-Hispanic Asian children. Non-Hispanic Asian children had the lowest levels of 13 of the 20 metabolites among four major racial/ethnic groups but highest levels for three metabolites. For selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile-vinyl chloride-ethylene oxide, benzene, 1,3-butadien, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylbenzene-styrene, and toluene, children had statistically significantly higher levels than nonsmoking adults. These results demonstrate how vulnerable children are to being exposed to harmful chemicals like VOCs in their own homes.

  6. Regeneration of a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii Parl.) forest 11 years after thinning, Niigata, Japan.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiaojun; Gonda, Yutaka; Yu, Lizhong; Li, Fengqin; Yan, Qiaoling; Sun, Yirong

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effects of thinning intensity on wind vulnerability and regeneration in a coastal pine (Pinus thunbergii) forest, thinning with intensities of 20%, 30% and 50% was conducted in December 1997; there was an unthinned treatment as the control (total 8 stands). We re-measured the permanent sites to assess the regeneration characteristics 11 years after thinning. In the 50% thinned stand, seedlings aged from 2 to 10 years exhibited the highest pine seedling density and growth. The age composition ranged from 1-3 years with densities of 9.9 and 5.1 seedlings m(-2) in 30% and 20% thinned stands; only 1-year-old seedlings with a density of 6.1 seedlings m(-2) in the unthinned stand. Similar trends were found for the regeneration of broadleaved species such as Robinia pseudoacacia and Prunus serrulata. We speculate that the canopy openness and moss coverage contributed to the regeneration success in the 50% thinned stand, while the higher litter depth and lack of soil moisture induced the regeneration failure in the unthinned stand. The stands thinned at 20% or 30% were less favourable for pine regeneration than the stands thinned at 50%. Therefore, thinning with less than 30% canopy openness (20% and 30% thinned stands) should be avoided, and thinning at higher than 30% canopy openness (50% thinned stand, approximately 1500 stems ha(-1) at ages 40-50 years) is suggested for increasing regeneration in the coastal pine forest. The implications of thinning-based silviculture in the coastal pine forest management are also discussed. The ongoing development of the broadleaved seedlings calls for further observations.

  7. Outline of the Solar System: Activities for elementary students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartsfield, J.; Sellers, M.

    1990-01-01

    An introduction to the solar system for the elementary school student is given. The introduction contains historical background, facts, and pertinent symbols concerning the sun, the nine major planets and their moons, and information about comets and asteroids. Aids to teaching are given, including a solar system crossword puzzle with answers.

  8. Solar and Geomagnetic Activity Relation for the Last two Solar Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilcik, A.; Yiǧit, E.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Ozguc, A.; Rozelot, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    The long-term relationship between solar (sunspot counts in different Zurich sunspot groups, International Sunspot Number (ISSN), solar wind, and X-Ray solar flare index and geomagnetic indices (Ap and Dst) is investigated. Data sets used in this study cover a time period from January 1996 to March 2014. Our main findings are as follows: 1) The best correlation between the sunspot counts and the Ap index are obtained for the large group time series, while the other categories exhibited lower (final and medium) or no correlation at all (small). It is interesting to note that Ap index is delayed by about 13 months relatively to all sunspot count series and ISSN data. 2) The best correlation between the sunspot counts and the Dst index was as well obtained for the large AR time series. The Dst index delays with respect to the large group by about 2 months. 3) The highest correlation between the solar and geomagnetic indices were obtained between the solar wind speed and Ap and Dst indices with zero time delays (r = 0.76, r = 0.52, respectively). 4) The correlation coefficients between the geomagnetic indices (Ap, Dst) and X-Ray solar flare index (r = 0.59, r = -0.48, respectively) are a little higher than the correlation coefficients between these geomagnetic indices and ISSN (r = 0.57, r = -0.43, respectively). 5) The magnitude of all solar and geomagnetic indices (except the solar wind speed) has significantly decreased during the current solar cycle as compared to the same phase of the previous cycle.

  9. Polar low-speed solar wind at the solar activity maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmi, T.; Kojima, M.; Yokobe, A.; Tokumaru, M.; Fujiki, K.; Hakamada, K.

    2001-11-01

    The tomographic analysis of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) showed that low-speed winds (<= 370 kms-1) emanated out from the polar region at the last solar activity maximum. In order to investigate the origin of those low-speed winds, we compared the velocity distribution derived from the IPS tomographic analysis to the magnetic field structure derived from the potential field analysis. We found that the polar low-speed winds appeared for a short period just before and after the disappearance of polar open fields. When the polar coronal hole shrank very small before its disappearance, the coronal polar open field was encircled by large-scale closed loops and became super radially diverging field into the interplanetary space. A low-speed region appeared in this diverging polar magnetic field region. This situation is a condition very similar to the compact low-speed streams associated with equatorial active regions, which were found by Kojima et al. [1999]. After the open field regions had disappeared from the pole, the polar regions were occupied with closed loops. These closed loops were overlapped by the magnetic field which fanned out from the midlatitudes. A low-speed streamer located above these closed loops even after the polar open field had disappeared. The velocities of polar low-speed streams before polar hole disappearance were much lower than those after disappearance. This result suggests that the physical conditions to generate much lower speed streams are closely associated with large expansion from small open field regions encircled by large-scale closed loops. Finally, a reliability of the IPS measurement of polar low-speed wind was examined by simulating synthetic IPS observations in hypothetical model polar streams.

  10. THE EXPANSION OF ACTIVE REGIONS INTO THE EXTENDED SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Huw; Jeska, Lauren; Leonard, Drew

    2013-06-01

    Advanced image processing of Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO) C2 observations reveals the expansion of the active region closed field into the extended corona. The nested closed-loop systems are large, with an apparent latitudinal extent of 50 Degree-Sign , and expanding to heights of at least 12 R{sub Sun }. The expansion speeds are {approx}10 km s{sup -1} in the AIA/SDO field of view, below {approx}20 km s{sup -1} at 2.3 R{sub Sun }, and accelerate linearly to {approx}60 km s{sup -1} at 5 R{sub Sun }. They appear with a frequency of one every {approx}3 hr over a time period of around three days. They are not coronal mass ejections (CMEs) since their gradual expansion is continuous and steady. They are also faint, with an upper limit of 3% of the brightness of background streamers. Extreme ultraviolet images reveal continuous birth and expansion of hot, bright loops from a new active region at the base of the system. The LASCO images show that the loops span a radial fan-like system of streamers, suggesting that they are not propagating within the main coronal streamer structure. The expanding loops brighten at low heights a few hours prior to a CME eruption, and the expansion process is temporarily halted as the closed field system is swept away. Closed magnetic structures from some active regions are not isolated from the extended corona and solar wind, but can expand to large heights in the form of quiescent expanding loops.

  11. Seismic Study of The Solar Interior: Inferences from SOI/MDI Observations during Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzennik, Sylvain G.

    2003-01-01

    The principal investigator describes several types of solar research conducted during the reporting period and gives a statement of work to be performed in the following year. Research conducted during the reporting period includes: exhaustive analysis of observational and instrumental effects that might cause systematic errors in the characterization of high-degree p-modes; study of the structure, asphericity and dynamics of the solar interior from p-mode frequencies and frequency splittings; characterizing the solar rotation; Time-Distance inversion; and developing and using a new peak-fitting method for very long MDI time series at low degrees.

  12. H-alpha synoptic charts of solar activity during the first year of solar cycle 20, October 1964 - August 1965. [Skylab program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintosh, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Solar activity during the period October 28, 1964 through August 27, 1965 is presented in the form of charts for each solar rotation constructed from observations made with the chromospheric H-alpha spectra line. These H-alpha synoptic charts are identical in format and method of construction to those published for the period of Skylab observations. The sunspot minimum marking the start of Solar Cycle 20 occurred in October, 1964; therefore, charts represent solar activity during the first year of this solar cycle.

  13. 9,400 years of cosmic radiation and solar activity from ice cores and tree rings.

    PubMed

    Steinhilber, Friedhelm; Abreu, Jose A; Beer, Jürg; Brunner, Irene; Christl, Marcus; Fischer, Hubertus; Heikkilä, Ulla; Kubik, Peter W; Mann, Mathias; McCracken, Ken G; Miller, Heinrich; Miyahara, Hiroko; Oerter, Hans; Wilhelms, Frank

    2012-04-17

    Understanding the temporal variation of cosmic radiation and solar activity during the Holocene is essential for studies of the solar-terrestrial relationship. Cosmic-ray produced radionuclides, such as (10)Be and (14)C which are stored in polar ice cores and tree rings, offer the unique opportunity to reconstruct the history of cosmic radiation and solar activity over many millennia. Although records from different archives basically agree, they also show some deviations during certain periods. So far most reconstructions were based on only one single radionuclide record, which makes detection and correction of these deviations impossible. Here we combine different (10)Be ice core records from Greenland and Antarctica with the global (14)C tree ring record using principal component analysis. This approach is only possible due to a new high-resolution (10)Be record from Dronning Maud Land obtained within the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica in Antarctica. The new cosmic radiation record enables us to derive total solar irradiance, which is then used as a proxy of solar activity to identify the solar imprint in an Asian climate record. Though generally the agreement between solar forcing and Asian climate is good, there are also periods without any coherence, pointing to other forcings like volcanoes and greenhouse gases and their corresponding feedbacks. The newly derived records have the potential to improve our understanding of the solar dynamics and to quantify the solar influence on climate.

  14. 9,400 years of cosmic radiation and solar activity from ice cores and tree rings

    PubMed Central

    Steinhilber, Friedhelm; Beer, Jürg; Brunner, Irene; Christl, Marcus; Fischer, Hubertus; Heikkilä, Ulla; Kubik, Peter W.; Mann, Mathias; McCracken, Ken G.; Miller, Heinrich; Miyahara, Hiroko; Oerter, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the temporal variation of cosmic radiation and solar activity during the Holocene is essential for studies of the solar-terrestrial relationship. Cosmic-ray produced radionuclides, such as 10Be and 14C which are stored in polar ice cores and tree rings, offer the unique opportunity to reconstruct the history of cosmic radiation and solar activity over many millennia. Although records from different archives basically agree, they also show some deviations during certain periods. So far most reconstructions were based on only one single radionuclide record, which makes detection and correction of these deviations impossible. Here we combine different 10Be ice core records from Greenland and Antarctica with the global 14C tree ring record using principal component analysis. This approach is only possible due to a new high-resolution 10Be record from Dronning Maud Land obtained within the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica in Antarctica. The new cosmic radiation record enables us to derive total solar irradiance, which is then used as a proxy of solar activity to identify the solar imprint in an Asian climate record. Though generally the agreement between solar forcing and Asian climate is good, there are also periods without any coherence, pointing to other forcings like volcanoes and greenhouse gases and their corresponding feedbacks. The newly derived records have the potential to improve our understanding of the solar dynamics and to quantify the solar influence on climate. PMID:22474348

  15. Trends in cell phone use among children in the Danish national birth cohort at ages 7 and 11 years.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Madhuri; Olsen, Jørn; Sigsgaard, Torben; Kheifets, Leeka

    2016-11-01

    We prospectively examined trends in cell phone use among children in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Cell phone use was assessed at ages 7 and 11 years, and we examined use patterns by age, by year of birth, and in relation to specific individual characteristics. There was an increase in cell phone use from age 7 (37%) to 11 years (94%). There was a clear pattern of greater reported cell phone use among children at age 7 years with later birth year, but this trend disappeared at age 11. Girls and those who used phones at age 7 talked more often and for longer durations at age 11 years. Low socio-economic status and later year of birth were associated with voice calls at age 7 but not at age 11 years. At age 11 most used cell phones for texting and gaming more than for voice calls. Further, children who started using cell phones at age 7 years were more likely to be heavy cell phone voice users at age 11 years, making early use a marker for higher cumulative exposure regardless of year of birth. As cell phone technology continues to advance, new use patterns will continue to emerge, and exposure assessment research among children must reflect these trends.

  16. The solar cycle variation of coronal mass ejections and the solar wind mass flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, David F.; Howard, Russell A.

    1994-01-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are an important aspect of coronal physics and a potentially significant contributor to perturbations of the solar wind, such as its mass flux. Sufficient data on CMEs are now available to permit study of their longer-term occurrency patterns. Here we present the results of a study of CME occurrence rates over more than a complete 11-year solar sunspot cycle and a comparison of these rates with those of other activity related to CMEs and with the solar wind particle flux at 1 AU. The study includes an evaluation of correlations to the CME rates, which include instrument duty cycles, visibility functions, mass detection thresholds, and geometrical considerations. The main results are as follows: (1) The frequency of occurrence of CMEs tends to track the solar activity cycle in both amplitude and phase; (2) the CME rates from different instruments, when corrected for both duty cycles and visibility functions, are reasonably consistent; (3) considering only longer-term averages, no one class of solar activity is better correlated with CME rate than any other; (4) the ratio of the annualized CME to solar wind mass flux tends to track the solar cycle; and (5) near solar maximum, CMEs can provide a significant fraction (i.e., approximately equals 15%) of the average mass flux to the near-ecliptic solar wind.

  17. Effect of a school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles in 7–11 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Gorely, Trish; Nevill, Mary E; Morris, John G; Stensel, David J; Nevill, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is recognised as a public health concern within children and interventions to increase physical activity are needed. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, body composition, knowledge, and psychological variables. Method A non-randomised controlled study involving 8 primary schools (4 intervention, 4 control). Participants were 589 children aged 7–11 years. The intervention lasted 10 months and comprised a CD-rom learning and teaching resource for teachers; an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; two highlight physical activity events (1 mile school runs/walks); a local media campaign; and a summer activity wall planner and record. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers) and fruit and vegetable consumption. Secondary outcomes included body mass index, waist circumference, estimated percent body fat, knowledge, psychological variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for the data analysis. Results Relative to children in control schools, those in intervention schools significantly increased their total time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (by 9 minutes/day vs a decrease of 10 minutes/day), their time in MVPA bouts lasting at least one minute (10 minutes/day increase vs no change) and increased daily steps (3059 steps per day increase vs 1527 steps per day increase). A similar pattern of results was seen in a subset of the least active participants at baseline. Older participants in intervention schools showed a significant slowing in the rate of increase in estimated percent body fat, BMI, and waist circumference. There were no differences between groups in fruit and vegetable intake. Extrinsic motivation decreased more in the intervention group. Conclusion The intervention produced positive changes in physical

  18. Distribution of the activity of the Sun during an average solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoreň, J.

    2015-12-01

    The paper offers a look at distribution of solar activity during an average solar cycle. Activity profiles in solar cycles from 13 to 17 and from 18 to 22 were studied based on the relative sunspot numbers. The average values for both groups of cycles were derived after the standardization to the maximum monthly value. Obtained values differed minimally, allowing us to derive a uniform distribution of activity for the entire review period from 1890 to 1996. The derived model of the distribution of activity in an average solar cycle allows us to predict the maximum value of an activity cycle with an advance of approximately 5 years based only on the value obtained in the first year of the cycle. This can be of use for, e.g., the planning of long-term human activities in outer space.

  19. On the statistical relationship between solar activity and spontaneous social processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodkin, M. V.; Kharin, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    The starting times of mass spontaneous social movements have been compared with temporal changes in solar activity (Wolf numbers) and in the Aa index of geomagnetic activity. It is shown that relatively high values of solar and, hence, geomagnetic activity are typical (on average) of a set of years when social cataclysms began. In addition, the relationship between social activity and geomagnetic activity is expressed somewhat more strongly than with solar activity. Heliogeomagnetic activity itself is not, however, the cause of social conflicts, as is evidenced by the weakness of the statistical relationship and the fact that the time intervals of an extremely large number of social conflicts (the decades of the 1800s, 1910s, and 1990s) occur during periods of a reduced mean level of solar and geomagnetic activity. From an averaged statistical model of the solar-geomagnetic influence on social activity and the current status and forecast of the 24th solar cycle, we can assume that heliogeomagnetic factors will contribute to an increased level of sociopolitical activity at least until the end of 2014 and, possibly, a little longer.

  20. Solar attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-08-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control, which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  1. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  2. Determining the solar wind speed above active regions using remote radio-wave observations.

    PubMed

    Bougeret, J L; Fainberg, J; Stone, R G

    1983-11-04

    A new technique has made it possible to measure the velocity of portions of the solar wind during its flow outward from the sun. This analysis utilizes spacecraft (ISEE-3) observations of radio emission generated in regions of the solar wind associated with solar active regions. By tracking the source of these radio waves over periods of days, it is possible to measure the motion of the emission regions. Evidence of solar wind acceleration during this outward flow, consistent with theoretical models, has also been obtained.

  3. F-Chart handbook. Active solar system sizing and economic analysis program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielke, G. W.

    1981-04-01

    The program is applicable to active solar space and service water heating systems that incorporate typical flat-plate solar collectors. The program is based on the F-Chart method of estimating annual system thermal performance. This program uses a standard life-cycle cost analysis methodology to calculate optimum solar system size and present economic performance data. The F-Chart program is designed to be used by anyone interested in, or involved with, solar heating systems. This handbook describes both information input requirements and the resultant thermal and economic analyses.

  4. Determining the solar wind speed above active regions using remote radio-wave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique has made it possible to measure the velocity of portions of the solar wind during its flow outward from the sun. This analysis utilizes spacecraft (ISEE-3) observations of radio emission generated in regions of the solar wind associated with solar active regions. By tracking the source of these radio waves over periods of days, it is possible to measure the motion of the emission regions. Evidence of solar wind acceleration during this outward flow, consistent with theoretical models, has also been obtained.

  5. Investigation of solar active regions at high resolution by balloon flights of the solar optical universal polarimeter, extended definition phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, Theodore D.

    1993-01-01

    Technical studies of the feasibility of balloon flights of the former Spacelab instrument, the Solar Optical Universal Polarimeter, with a modern charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, to study the structure and evolution of solar active regions at high resolution, are reviewed. In particular, different CCD cameras were used at ground-based solar observatories with the SOUP filter, to evaluate their performance and collect high resolution images. High resolution movies of the photosphere and chromosphere were successfully obtained using four different CCD cameras. Some of this data was collected in coordinated observations with the Yohkoh satellite during May-July, 1992, and they are being analyzed scientifically along with simultaneous X-ray observations.

  6. Organic solar cells: an overview focusing on active layer morphology.

    PubMed

    Benanti, Travis L; Venkataraman, D

    2006-01-01

    Solar cells constructed of organic materials are becoming increasingly efficient due to the discovery of the bulk heterojunction concept. This review provides an overview of organic solar cells. Topics covered include: a brief history of organic solar cell development; device construction, definitions, and characteristics; and heterojunction morphology and its relation to device efficiency in conjugated polymer/fullerene systems. The aim of this article is to show that researchers are developing a better understanding of how material structure relates to function and that they are applying this knowledge to build more efficient light-harvesting devices.

  7. Stratospheric Temperature Trends in the 11 Years of AIRS Spectral Radiance Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, F.; Huang, X.; Chen, X.; Guo, H.

    2014-12-01

    The AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) level-1b radiances have been shown to be well calibrated (~0.3K or higher) and have little secular drift (~4mK/year) since its operation started in 2002. Given the rich information contained in the spectral radiances, such impressive instrument performances make AIRS radiances a valuable data set in the study of stratospheric climate. We compile 11 years (Sep 2002- Aug 2013) of AIRS radiances at channels in the CO2 v2 band with weighting functions peaked in the stratosphere. Using a state-of-the-art fast and accurate radiance simulator based on the PCRTM (Principle Component-based Radiative Transfer Model), we also simulate synthetic AIRS radiances at these channels based on two types of inputs: one is simulations by a free-running GFDL AM3 model and the other is ECMWF ERA-interim reanalysis. AIRS lower-stratospheric channels indicate a cooling trend of no more than 0.23 K/decade while its middle-stratospheric channels show a statistically significant cooling trend as large as 0.58 K/decade. Compared with AIRS observations, GFDL AM3 simulations underestimate the cooling trends in the middle-stratospheric channels while overestimate in the lower-stratospheric channels. Further simulations with separately varying CO2 and SST suggest that the change of CO2 alone is responsible for majority of the cooling trend in the middle-stratospheric channels, but the contributions of time-varying CO2 and SST are comparable in the lower-stratospheric channels. In contrast, the synthetic radiances based on ERA-interim reanalysis show statistically significant positive trends in virtually all stratospheric channels. We also compare the zonal-mean trends estimated from observed and synthetic AIRS spectral radiances and climate data records based on multi-decade SSU (Stratospheric Sounding Unit) measurements. Though discrepancies exist in terms of magnitude and seasonality of the cooling, they all show that most cooling occurs in the tropics

  8. Spectral analysis of auroral geomagnetic activity during various solar cycles between 1960 and 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzé, Pieter Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we use wavelets and Lomb-Scargle spectral analysis techniques to investigate the changing pattern of the different harmonics of the 27-day solar rotation period of the AE (auroral electrojet) index during various phases of different solar cycles between 1960 and 2014. Previous investigations have revealed that the solar minimum of cycles 23-24 exhibited strong 13.5- and 9.0-day recurrence in geomagnetic data in comparison to the usual dominant 27.0-day synodic solar rotation period. Daily mean AE indices are utilized to show how several harmonics of the 27-day recurrent period change during every solar cycle subject to a 95 % confidence rule by performing a wavelet analysis of each individual year's AE indices. Results show that particularly during the solar minimum of 23-24 during 2008 the 27-day period is no longer detectable above the 95 % confidence level. During this interval geomagnetic activity is now dominated by the second (13.5-day) and third (9.0-day) harmonics. A Pearson correlation analysis between AE and various spherical harmonic coefficients describing the solar magnetic field during each Carrington rotation period confirms that the solar dynamo has been dominated by an unusual combination of sectorial harmonic structure during 23-24, which can be responsible for the observed anomalously low solar activity. These findings clearly show that, during the unusual low-activity interval of 2008, auroral geomagnetic activity was predominantly driven by high-speed solar wind streams originating from multiple low-latitude coronal holes distributed at regular solar longitude intervals.

  9. New information on solar activity, 1779-1818, from Sir William Herschel's unpublished notebooks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Douglas V.; Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1992-01-01

    Herschel's observations are analyzed in order to determine the level of solar activity for solar cycle 5. It is concluded that solar cycle 5 may have peaked as early as 1801 based upon the average number of groups with a probable secondary maximum in 1804. Depending on the technique adopted, the peak for solar cycle 5 occurred sometime between 1801 and 1804, rather than 1805.2, as commonly assumed. Instead of a solar cycle of 17 yrs, a cycle length of 14 yrs is found. It is also found that the peak yearly mean sunspot number is only about 38 rather than 45, as deduced by Wolf (1855). A technique for making early solar observations homogeneous with modern sunspot observations is proposed.

  10. Program plan for reliability and maintainability in active solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    Specific objectives are as follows: provide all groups that have solar R & M concerns with the information that is available to the program and that can assist in alleviating those concerns; assist the solar energy industry in improving levels of R & M performance in state of the art solar energy systems, components, and materials; assist in the early development of a viable infrastructure for the design, manufacture, installation, and maintenance of reliable, maintainable, and durable solar energy systems; assist in the development of appropriate standards, code provisions, and certification programs relating to the R & M performance of solar energy systems, components, and materials; and develop the information required to support the other activities within the R & M program. These objectives correspond to five areas of action: regulations, research and development, technology transfer, solar industry infrastructure development, and data collection and analysis.

  11. Difference between even and odd 11-year cycles in cosmic ray intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otaola, J. A.; Perez-Enriquez, R.; Valdes-Galicia, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    Cosmic ray data for the period 1946-1984 are used to determine the run of the cosmic ray intensity over three complete solar cycles. The analysis shows a tendency towards a regular alternation of cosmic ray intensity cycles with double and single maxima. Whereas a saddle-like shape is characteristic of even cycles, odd cycles are characterized by a peak-like shape. The importance of this behavior is discussed in terms of different processes influencing cosmic ray transport in the heliosphere.

  12. Improving the performance of solar flare prediction using active longitudes information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Zhang, L.; Wang, H.; Li, L.

    2013-01-01

    Context. Solar flare prediction models normally depend on properties of active regions, such as sunspot area, McIntosh classifications, Mount Wilson classifications, and various measures of the magnetic field. Nevertheless, the positional information of active regions has not been used. Aims: We define a metric, DARAL (distance between active regions and predicted active longitudes), to depict the positional relationship between active regions and predicted active longitudes and add DARAL to our solar flare prediction model to improve its performance. Methods: Combining DARAL with other solar magnetic field parameters, we build a solar flare prediction model with the instance-based learning method, which is a simple and effective algorithm in machine learning. We extracted 70 078 active region instances from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO)/Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) magnetograms containing 1055 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) active regions within 30° of the solar disk center from 1996 to 2007 and used them to train and test the solar flare prediction model. Results: Using four performance measures (true positive rate, true negative rate, true skill statistic, and Heidke skill score), we compare performances of the solar flare prediction model with and without DARAL. True positive rate, true negative rate, true skill statistic, and Heidke skill score increase by 6.7% ± 1.3%, 4.2% ± 0.5%, 10.8% ± 1.4% and 8.7% ± 1.0%, respectively. Conclusions: The comparison indicates that the metric DARAL is beneficial to performances of the solar flare prediction model.

  13. Norms for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in 6- to 11-year-old children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shu, B C; Tien, A Y; Lung, F W; Chang, Y Y

    2000-08-01

    The main aims of this study were to develop norms for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in 6- to 11-year-old children in Taiwan; to explore the effect of sex, age, birth order, number of siblings, and parental education on WCST performance in 6- to 11-year-old children; and to make a comparison of WCST performance between children in Taiwan and the USA. The results of this comparison of developmental norms of school children in Taiwan and the United States may facilitate the WCST as a clinical or research instrument in combination with other test procedures to assess aspects of cognitive and neuropsychological functioning of school children.

  14. Spatial Regularities of Solar Activity Effects in the Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, R. V.

    1984-12-01

    Joint analysis of maps of density variations (or density dispersions) in the troposphere after geomagnetic disturbances and of maps of advection, wind velocity divergence, etc. makes it possible to put forward a concept of solar-induced centres of atmospheric action (SICA). Solar-disturbance transfer and planetary-wave development in the atmosphere are accomplished by means of SICA where the level of baroclinic instability is high. Infrasonic waves are considered as an agent connecting the lower thermosphere and the troposphere.

  15. Multiple, delayed post-tonsillectomy bleedings in 11-year-old girl as a result of vascular abnormality and anastomosis. Case report.

    PubMed

    Pucher, Beata; Szydlowski, Jaroslaw; Smoczyk, Wieslaw; Jonczyk-Potoczna, Katarzyna; Grzegorowski, Michal; Korytowska, Aleksandra

    2016-11-01

    Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy are the most common surgical procedures in pediatric otolaryngology. The incidence of primary hemorrhage after tonsillectomy in children ranges from 0.38 to 6%. The prevalence of secondary bleeding occurs in 0.5%-9.3% cases [1]. Authors present a case of an 11-year-old girl who experienced 6 delayed, massive post-tonsillectomy bleedings as a result of presence of vascular malformation and the activation of collateral circulation as a result of the left ECA ligature.

  16. Solar wind quasi-invariant as a heliospheric index of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainberg, J.; Osherovich, V. A.

    2002-12-01

    Interplanetary magnetic field strength B, solar wind speed v and plasma density ρ all vary with sunspot numbers (SSN). The corresponding correlation coefficients (cc) are not high enough to establish any of these parameters as a close proxy for SSN. In contrast, the solar wind quasi-invariant [QI ≡ (B2/8π)/(ρv2/2)] recently suggested by Osherovich, Fainberg and Stone [1999] has a high cc = 0.98 for the median yearly value for the 28 year period measured in the solar wind near the Earth (1 AU). For the period 1978-1989, Voyager 2 measured B, v and ρ from 2 AU to 27 AU. In this paper we show that in spite of the orders of magnitude change of B and ρ at large heliospheric distances, QI measured by Voyager 2 stayed in the same range and followed SSN similar to QI measured near the Earth and near Venus. These results supply an observational test for any MHD model of the solar wind throughout the heliosphere that attempts to include the effects of solar cycle variability.

  17. Magnitudes and timescales of total solar irradiance variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Greg

    2016-07-01

    The Sun's net radiative output varies on timescales of minutes to gigayears. Direct measurements of the total solar irradiance (TSI) show changes in the spatially- and spectrally-integrated radiant energy on timescales as short as minutes to as long as a solar cycle. Variations of ~0.01% over a few minutes are caused by the ever-present superposition of convection and oscillations with very large solar flares on rare occasion causing slightly-larger measurable signals. On timescales of days to weeks, changing photospheric magnetic activity affects solar brightness at the ~0.1% level. The 11-year solar cycle shows variations of comparable magnitude with irradiances peaking near solar maximum. Secular variations are more difficult to discern, being limited by instrument stability and the relatively short duration of the space-borne record. Historical reconstructions of the Sun's irradiance based on indicators of solar-surface magnetic activity, such as sunspots, faculae, and cosmogenic isotope records, suggest solar brightness changes over decades to millennia, although the magnitudes of these variations have high uncertainties due to the indirect historical records on which they rely. Stellar evolution affects yet longer timescales and is responsible for the greatest solar variabilities. In this manuscript I summarize the Sun's variability magnitudes over different temporal regimes and discuss the irradiance record's relevance for solar and climate studies as well as for detections of exo-solar planets transiting Sun-like stars.

  18. National commercial solar heating and cooling demonstration: purposes, program activities, and implications for future programs

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, R.; Genest, M.; Bryant, B.

    1980-05-01

    The Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974 created a set of activities to demonstrate the potential use of solar heating within a three-year period and of combined solar heating and cooling within a five-year period. This study assesses the Commercial Demonstration Program portion of the activity in terms of its stated goals and objectives. The primary data base was DOE contractor reports on commercial demonstration projects. It was concluded that the program did not provide data to support a positive decision for the immediate construction or purchase of commercial solar systems. However, the program may have contributed to other goals in the subsequent legislation; i.e., research and development information, stimulation of the solar industry, and more informed policy decisions.

  19. A summary of recent activities at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, C. P.

    The United States Department of Energy's National Solar Thermal Test Facility (NSTTF), located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, is the major facility for testing of solar thermal components and systems in the United States. Since originally being constructed as the Central Receiver Test Facility in the late 1970's, its mission has been expanded to include distributed receiver technologies, and it now includes line-focus and point-focus collectors, two solar furnaces, and an engine test facility. In addition, the unique capabilities of the facility have been applied to a wide variety of tests unrelated to solar energy, but using the intense heat from concentrated solar radiation or using the large-scale optical systems at the site. In this paper, current activities at the NSTTF are summarized, with an emphasis on activities that have not been described elsewhere.

  20. The Variation of Solar Fe 14 and Fe 10 Flux over 1.5 Solar Activity Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altrock, Richard C.

    1990-01-01

    A new source of data on th