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Sample records for 11-year-old boy presented

  1. Hypohydrotic ectodermal dysplasia: an unusual presentation and management in an 11-year-old Xhosa boy.

    PubMed

    Sarvan, I; Naidoo, S; Norval, E J

    2000-01-01

    Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is an inherited disorder in which two or more ectodermally derived structures fail to develop, or are abnormal in development. Hypohydrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) or Christ-Siemens-Touraine syndrome, is an X-linked recessive syndrome with an incidence of 1/10,000 to 1/100,000 births. Because of its X-linked inheritance pattern, it is more common in males. HED is characterised by hypohydrosis (diminished perspiration), hypotrichosis (decreased amount of hair) and microdontia (small teeth), hypodontia (lack of development of one or more teeth) or adontia (total lack of tooth development). These patients present diagnostic and treatment challenges because of variable oral manifestations. This report describes an 11-year-old Xhosa boy, who was referred to the University Dental Faculty by his general medical practitioner because of hypodontia. General facial features included: frontal bossing, a depressed nasal bridge, 'butterfly' pattern of eczema over the nasal bridge to the malar process of each cheek, thinned out hair, loss of vertical dimension of face and dry skin. Intra-oral examination revealed hypodontia with peg-shaped anterior teeth and diastemas. Radiological examination revealed no developing permanent teeth or tooth buds. Diagnosis was confirmed by doing a sweat gland count. Management included oral hygiene instruction, fluoride treatments, construction of a partial lower denture and counselling about his condition with particular reference to the danger of hyperthermia and control of allergies. PMID:12608250

  2. Motor Competence in 11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedul-Kjelsås, Vigdis; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2013-01-01

    By using the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC), the present study investigated possible gender differences in several tasks of motor competence in children. The sample included 67 Norwegian sixth-grade children (Girls N?=?29; Boys?=?39). Boys' performance exceeds that of girls in ball skills and in one of the balance skills. No differences…

  3. [Acute bilateral impaired vision with central scotoma in an 11-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Pollithy, S; Ach, T; Schaal, K B; Dithmar, S

    2012-09-01

    This article presents a case of acute bilateral impaired vision and central scotoma in an 11-year-old boy. Looking directly into a laser beam of a laser pointer for only a few seconds can cause retinal damage in the form of lesions of the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptor layer, up to retinal hemorrhage. Patients often complain about impaired vision and a central scotoma of the affected eye. PMID:22740016

  4. Postintubation tracheal stenosis in an 11-year-old boy: a surgical and anaesthetic challenge.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, I M; Walker, R W M; Dearlove, O R

    2002-10-01

    We present a case of postintubation tracheal stenosis in an 11-year-old boy occurring after a relatively short period of intubation. He had been intubated and ventilated in a paediatric intensive care unit after a road traffic accident. Clinical symptoms manifested by oxygen desaturation and wheeziness, finally leading to deterioration of the level of consciousness, occurred a few hours after the first attempt at extubation after 48 h requiring reintubation. Endoscopic examination performed a few weeks later revealed a tracheal stenosis. Consequently, he underwent an initial period of conservative treatment consisting of balloon dilatation and intralesional injection of steroids, followed by a tracheal resection and reconstruction. The anaesthetic management of patients with tracheal stenosis presenting for laryngo-tracheobronchoscopy and balloon dilatation is discussed. PMID:12472713

  5. An 11-year-old boy with pharyngitis and cough: Lemierre syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mação, Patricia; Cancelinha, Candida; Lopes, Paulo; Rodrigues, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    The authors present the case of an 11-year-old boy with pharyngitis, treated with amoxicillin, that worsened on day 7, with cough, high fever and refusal to eat. Lethargy and respiratory distress were noted. Based on radiographic findings of bilateral infiltrates he was diagnosed with pneumonia and started on intravenous ampicillin and erythromycin. Two days later he complained of right-sided neck pain and a palpable mass was identified. An ultrasound showed partial thrombosis of the right internal jugular vein and a lung CT scan revealed multiple septic embolic lesions. Lemierre syndrome was diagnosed, antibiotic treatment adjusted and anticoagulation started. A neck CT-scan showed a large parapharyngeal abscess. His clinical condition improved gradually and after 3 weeks of intravenous antibiotics he was discharged home on oral treatment. This case illustrates the importance of diagnosing Lemierre syndrome in the presence of pharyngitis with localised neck pain and respiratory distress, to prevent potentially fatal complications. PMID:23616317

  6. An 11-year-old boy with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and dengue co-infection.

    PubMed

    Issaranggoon na ayuthaya, Satja; Wangjirapan, Anchalee; Oberdorfer, Peninnah

    2014-01-01

    Malaria and dengue fever are major mosquito-borne public health problems in tropical countries. The authors report a malaria and dengue co-infection in an 11-year-old boy who presented with sustained fever for 10 days. The physical examination revealed a flushed face, injected conjunctivae and left submandibular lymphadenopathy. His peripheral blood smear showed few ring-form trophozoites of Plasmodium falciparum. His blood tests were positive for dengue NS-1 antigen and IgM antibody, and negative for IgG antibody. After the initiation of antimalarial treatment with artesunate and mefloquine, his clinical condition gradually improved. However, he still had low-grade fever that persisted for 6 days. Finally, he recovered well without fluid leakage, shock or severe bleeding. This case report emphasises that early recognition and concomitant treatment of malaria and dengue co-infection in endemic areas can improve clinical outcome and prevent serious complications. PMID:24692379

  7. Toxic interaction between fluvoxamine and sustained release theophylline in an 11-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Sperber, A D

    1991-01-01

    An 11-year-old boy with asthma had been receiving a controlled release theophylline preparation. He was prescribed fluvoxamine for a depressive disorder and within a week complained of severe headaches, tiredness and vomiting. His serum theophylline concentration had increased from 14.2 mg/L (shortly before fluvoxamine was started) to 27.4 mg/L. Fluvoxamine was withdrawn and theophylline concentrations decreased. Clomipramine was substituted for fluvoxamine with no further problems, and a later theophylline concentration was 13.7 mg/L. Competitive inhibition of hepatic microsomal enzymes by fluvoxamine may have been responsible for the elevated theophylline concentrations and toxicity observed in this case. PMID:1793525

  8. The between-day reproducibility of fasting, satiety-related analytes, in 8 to 11year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Rumbold, Penny L S; Green, Benjamin P

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish the between-day reproducibility of fasting plasma GLP-17-36, glucagon, leptin, insulin and glucose, in lean and overweight/obese 8-11year-old boys. A within-group study design was utilised wherein the boys attended two study days, separated by 1week, where a fasting fingertip capillary blood sample was obtained. Deming regression, mean difference, Bland-Altman limits of agreement (LOA) and typical imprecision as a percentage coefficient of variation (CV %), were utilised to assess reproducibility between-days. On a group level, Deming regression detected no evidence of systematic or proportional bias between-days for all of the satiety-related analytes however, only glucose and plasma GLP-17-36 displayed low typical and random imprecision. When analysed according to body composition, good reproducibility was maintained for glucose in the overweight/obese boys and for plasma GLP-17-36, in those with lean body mass. The present findings demonstrate that the measurement of glucose and plasma GLP-17-36 by fingertip capillary sampling on a group level, is reproducible between-days, in 8-11year-old boys. Comparison of blood glucose obtained by fingertip capillary sampling can be made between lean and overweight/obese 8-11year-old boys. Presently, the comparison of fasting plasma GLP-17-36 according to body weight is inappropriate due to high imprecision observed in lean boys between-days. The use of fingertip capillary sampling in the measurement of satiety-related analytes has the potential to provide a better understanding of mechanisms that affect appetite and feeding behaviour in children. PMID:27265877

  9. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma in an 11-year-old boy with type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazerkina, Nadia; Trunin, Yuri; Gorelyshev, Sergey; Golanov, Andrey; Kadashev, Boris; Shishkina, Liudmila; Rotin, Daniil; Karmanov, Maxim; Orlova, Elizabet

    2016-02-01

    Thyrotropinomas (TSHomas) are rare pituitary adenomas, particularly in childhood. We present here the case of an 11-year-old boy with type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS1) and TSHoma which was diagnosed by elevated thyroid - stimulating hormone and thyroid hormones levels without evident clinical signs of hyperthyroidism. He was underwent partial resection of the tumor via transsphenoidal approach and subsequently radiation therapy. Consequently, 1 year after radiotherapy, the patient developed growth hormone deficiency, three and half years after radiation became euthyroid, and five and half years after treatment - hypothyroid. This is the first case of the coexistence of these two rare endocrine diseases in one patient. PMID:26244671

  10. Effect of Ball Mass on Dribble, Pass, and Pass Reception in 9-11-Year-Old Boys' Basketball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Jose L.; Argudo, Francisco M.; Alonso, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of ball mass on dribble, pass, and pass reception in real game situations in 9-11-year-old boys' basketball. Participants were 54 boys identified from six federated teams. The independent variable was ball mass, and dependent variables were number of dribbles, passes, and pass receptions. Three…

  11. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in an 11-year-old boy after a shallow breath-hold dive.

    PubMed

    Laitila, Maija; Eskola, Vesa

    2013-12-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is caused by pulmonary barotrauma due to transiently increased intra-alveolar and intra-bronchial pressure. The most frequent triggers of spontaneous pneumomediastinum in children are asthma and manoeuvres creating forced expiration. It has been rarely associated with breath-hold diving. Chest pain and dyspnoea are the main symptoms, and the diagnosis can be confirmed by chest X-ray. The treatment of choice is oxygen, analgesics and monitoring the patient. The recurrence rate is low. The main differential diagnoses of spontaneous pneumomediastinum are oesophageal perforation and pericarditis. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy with no substantial medical history, who tried to breath-hold in shallow water for as long as possible. After diving, he felt dyspnoea and chest pain. Chest X-ray revealed pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema. The patient was admitted to the PICU for observation and was discharged after two days' follow up. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum in children may be more common than thus far acknowledged. It requires a high index of suspicion and should be considered in all children with acute chest pain. PMID:24510332

  12. Diagnosis and Treatment of Odontogenic Cutaneous Sinus Tracts in an 11-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Liang, Yun; Xiong, Huacui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts (OCSTs) are generally primarily misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated by virtue of their rarity and the absence of dental symptoms. Accurate diagnosis and treatment and the elimination of the source of infection can reduce the incidence of complications and relieve the pain of the patient. In this case report, we present the case of an 11-year-old patient with an apparent abscess but an unobvious draining sinus tract in his left cheek. Intraorally, a glass-ionomer-cement filling on the occlusal surface of the left mandibular first molar (tooth 36) was noted. Radiographic examination revealed a radiopaque mass inside the crown and pulp chamber and an irregular, radiolucent periapical lesion surrounding the distal root apex. He was diagnosed with an OCTS secondary to a periapical abscess of tooth 36. Precise root canal therapy (RCT) and chronic granuloma debridement was performed; 6 months later, the abscess and sinus had healed completely, and the periapical lesion had resolved. Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts are uncommon in the clinic. This case report reminds us of the significance of OCSTs and provides some implications for their diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27196471

  13. Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese versus Nonobese 8-11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrangelo, M. Alysia; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Rattigan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular fitness between obese and nonobese children. Based on body mass index, 118 were classified as obese (boys [OB] = 62, girls [OG] = 56), while 421 were nonobese (boys [NOB] = 196, girls [NOG] = 225). Cardiovascular fitness was determined by a 1-mile [1.6 km] run/walk (MRW) and estimated peak…

  14. [Drowning versus cardiac ischemia: Cardiac arrest of an 11-year-old boy at a swimming lake].

    PubMed

    Födinger, A; Wöss, C; Semsroth, S; Stadlbauer, K H; Wenzel, V

    2015-11-01

    This report describes a case of sudden cardiac arrest and subsequent attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation of an 11-year-old child on the shores of a swimming lake. Reports of eyewitnesses excluded the obviously suspected diagnosis of a drowning accident. The result of the autopsy was sudden cardiac death due to a congenital coronary anomaly (abnormal left coronary artery, ALCA). Favored by vigorous physical activity, this anomaly can lead to malignant arrhythmias because the ectopic coronary artery with its intramural course through the aortic wall is compressed during every systole. This pathology was not known to the boy or his family; in fact he liked sports but had suffered of a syncope once which was not followed up. Without a strong suspicion it is difficult to diagnose a coronary artery anomaly and it is often missed even in college athletes. Tragically, sudden cardiac arrest may be the first symptom of an undiagnosed abnormal coronary artery. Following syncope or chest pain during exercise with a normal electrocardiogram (ECG) cardiac imaging, such as computed tomography (CT) or angiography should be initiated in order to enable surgical repair of an abnormal coronary artery. PMID:26423258

  15. Symbolic Violence, Locality and Social Class: The Educational and Career Aspirations of 10-11-Year-Old Boys in Belfast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Paul; Healy, Julie

    2004-01-01

    This article is based upon a comparative, ethnographic case study of two groups of 10-11-year-old boys--one middle-class, the other working-class--living in Belfast. Drawing upon Bourdieu's related concepts of symbolic violence and habitus, it shows how locality can help to explain the very different educational and career aspirations found…

  16. Diagnosis and Treatment of Odontogenic Cutaneous Sinus Tracts in an 11-Year-Old Boy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Liang, Yun; Xiong, Huacui

    2016-05-01

    Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts (OCSTs) are generally primarily misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated by virtue of their rarity and the absence of dental symptoms. Accurate diagnosis and treatment and the elimination of the source of infection can reduce the incidence of complications and relieve the pain of the patient.In this case report, we present the case of an 11-year-old patient with an apparent abscess but an unobvious draining sinus tract in his left cheek. Intraorally, a glass-ionomer-cement filling on the occlusal surface of the left mandibular first molar (tooth 36) was noted. Radiographic examination revealed a radiopaque mass inside the crown and pulp chamber and an irregular, radiolucent periapical lesion surrounding the distal root apex. He was diagnosed with an OCTS secondary to a periapical abscess of tooth 36. Precise root canal therapy (RCT) and chronic granuloma debridement was performed; 6 months later, the abscess and sinus had healed completely, and the periapical lesion had resolved.Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts are uncommon in the clinic. This case report reminds us of the significance of OCSTs and provides some implications for their diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27196471

  17. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts. PMID:26435259

  18. An 11-year-old girl presenting with chronic knee pain: a case report with diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Maj, M Kamal; Ar, Abdul Halim; Faisal, Syed A; Ahmad, Johan; Das, Srijit

    2010-01-01

    Discoid meniscus is the commonest anatomical aberration of the knee joint, among rare cases such as bilateral separated lateral meniscus, accessory lateral meniscus, partial deficiency of the lateral meniscus and double-layered lateral meniscus. An 11-year-old girl presented with history of chronic pain in her right knee for the last 6 months. The problem disturbed her involvement in the sport activities at school. Clinical examination revealed a clicking sensation on knee extension with lateral joint line tenderness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of her right knee showed torn posterior horn of lateral meniscus. Arthroscopy examination revealed a discoid meniscus with absence posterior horn. Posterior horn deficient discoid meniscus is a rare form of a congenital meniscus anomaly. We as clinicians believe that the abnormal shaped meniscus may pose a diagnostic challenge clinically and radiologically. Presentation of this case may be beneficial for orthopaedicians in their daily clinical practice. PMID:21400986

  19. Acquired torticollis due to primary pyomyositis of the paraspinal muscles in an 11-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Ray, S; Iyer, A; Avula, S; Kneen, R

    2016-01-01

    Torticollis is characterised by tilting and rotation of the cervical spine in opposite directions. Causes can be congenital or acquired. Primary pyomyositis is a rare subacute deep bacterial infection of skeletal muscles that typically affects individuals under 20 years of age from tropical countries. Infrequently, pyomyositis occurs in individuals from temperate regions, usually in immunocompromised adults, and this is defined as secondary pyomyositis. We report a case of acquired torticollis due to primary pyomyositis of the paraspinal muscles in a previously healthy boy from the UK. A prolonged course of antibiotics and physiotherapy led to a complete resolution of his illness. We review how to differentiate pyomyositis from focal myositis, a more common inflammatory muscular cause of acquired torticollis. PMID:26994045

  20. Comparison of short-term energy intake and appetite responses to active and seated video gaming, in 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Green, Benjamin P; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Barry, Gillian; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2016-03-28

    The acute effects of active and seated video gaming on energy intake (EI), blood glucose, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-17-36) and subjective appetite (hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness) were examined in 8-11-year-old boys. In a randomised, crossover manner, twenty-two boys completed one 90-min active and one 90-min seated video gaming trial during which food and drinks were provided ad libitum. EI, plasma GLP-17-36, blood glucose and subjective appetite were measured during and following both trials. Time-averaged AUC blood glucose was increased (P=0·037); however, EI was lower during active video gaming (1·63 (sem 0·26) MJ) compared with seated video gaming (2·65 (sem 0·32) MJ) (P=0·000). In a post-gaming test meal 1 h later, there were no significant differences in EI between the active and seated gaming trials. Although estimated energy expenditure was significantly higher during active video gaming, there was still no compensation for the lower EI. At cessation of the trials, relative EI (REI) was significantly lower following active video gaming (2·06 (sem 0·30) MJ) v. seated video gaming (3·34 (sem 0·35) MJ) (P=0·000). No significant differences were detected in time-averaged AUC GLP-17-36 or subjective appetite. At cessation of the active video gaming trial, EI and REI were significantly less than for seated video gaming. In spite of this, the REI established for active video gaming was a considerable amount when considering the total daily estimated average requirement for 8-11-year-old boys in the UK (7·70 MJ). PMID:26817510

  1. Granulomatous enterocolitis secondary to Yersinia in an 11-year-old boy from Puerto Rico, confirmed by PCR: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rohena, Fabian J; Almira-Suárez, M I; González-Keelan, Carmen

    2014-03-01

    We report the case of an 11-year-old boy without any history of systemic illness and who developed fever and chills and experienced a 10 lbs. weight loss 3 weeks prior to admission. Two days before admission, he experienced abdominal pain that became localized to the right lower quadrant within 24 hours. A non-enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a 5 mm, amorphous, hyperdense, right lower quadrant calcification associated with a 9 mm fluid-filled structure. An exploratory laparotomy revealed thickening of the proximal vermiform appendix extending to the cecum, with mesenteric adenopathy. An en-bloc excision of the distal ileum, cecum, mesocolon, and vermiform appendix with an end-to-end ileo-ascending colon anastomosis was performed because of a suspected neoplasm. Pathologic examination of the specimen revealed granulomatous enterocolitis with associated acute suppurative appendicitis and a cecum abscess. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of a paraffin-embedded tissue block confirmed Yersinia enterocolitica DNA in the tissue, pointing to Yersinia as being the etiologic microbe. To our knowledge, this is the first case of yersiniosis to be reported in Puerto Rico. PMID:24665606

  2. Use of an Edwards Sapien S3 valve to replace a dysfunctional mechanical mitral valve in an 11-year old boy: another small step for surgical and interventional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael; Austin, Conal; Bapat, Vinayak; Morgan, Gareth J

    2016-09-01

    An 11-year old boy, with complex left ventricular morphology in the setting of repaired double outlet right ventricle developed progressive mitral regurgitation leading to a repair which failed, necessitating replacement of the valve with a 21 mm St. Jude mechanical prosthesis. He represented 3 weeks later in extremis with signs of severe mitral stenosis. The valve was replaced via a hybrid technique with a 26 mm Edwards Sapien 3 valve mounted on a MEMO 3D annuloplasty ring. One year later, the valve is functioning well with no regurgitation or evidence of an inflow gradient. PMID:26994169

  3. Creating "Buddy Partnerships" with 5- and 11-Year Old-Boys: A Methodological Approach to Conducting Participatory Research with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Rachael; Thompson, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    Building on literature concerning participatory research, this article explores the use of "buddy partnership" as a technique to access the voices of young children. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old boys were paired with 11- to 12-year-old boys, and each dyad was asked to contribute towards the creation of an information DVD that would…

  4. Do descriptive norms related to parents and friends predict fruit and vegetable intake similarly among 11-year-old girls and boys?

    PubMed

    Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Haukkala, Ari; Yngve, Agneta; Thorsdottir, Inga; Roos, Eva

    2016-01-14

    We examined whether there are sex differences in children's fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and in descriptive norms (i.e. perceived FV intake) related to parents and friends. We also studied whether friends' impact is as important as that of parents on children's FV intake. Data from the PRO GREENS project in Finland were obtained from 424 children at the age 11 years at baseline. At baseline, 2009 children filled in a questionnaire about descriptive norms conceptualised as perceived FV intake of their parents and friends. They also filled in a validated FFQ that assessed their FV intake both at baseline and in the follow-up in 2010. The associations were examined with multi-level regression analyses with multi-group comparisons. Girls reported higher perceived FV intake of friends and higher own fruit intake at baseline, compared with boys, and higher vegetable intake both at baseline and in the follow-up. Perceived FV intake of parents and friends was positively associated with both girls' and boys' FV intake in both study years. The impact of perceived fruit intake of the mother was stronger among boys. The change in children's FV intake was affected only by perceived FV intake of father and friends. No large sex differences in descriptive norms were found, but the impact of friends on children's FV intake can generally be considered as important as that of parents. Future interventions could benefit from taking into account friends' impact as role models on children's FV intake. PMID:26450715

  5. Can Break-Dance Break Your Neck? C1/C2 Luxation with a Combined Dens Fracture Without Neurological Deficits in an 11-Year Old Boy After a Break-Dance Performance.

    PubMed

    Petridis, Athanasios K; Kinzel, Adrian; Blaeser, Klaus; Thissen, Joost; Maslehaty, Homajoun; Scholz, Martin

    2015-09-28

    Atlantoaxial dislocation in children is a very rare condition. We present the case of a dislocation happened during a break-dance maneuver. The purpose of this report is describing dangers of break-dancing and discussing the treatment we chose. The patient was followed up until 12 months after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the cervical spine were evaluated. Translaminar fixation of C1/C2 had been performed after manual reposition under X-ray illumination. After a 12-month follow-up, the patient shows a stable condition without neurological dysfunction. He is not allowed to perform any extreme sports. PMID:26664716

  6. Borderline phylloides tumor in an 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Selamzade, M; Gidener, C; Koyuncuoglu, M; Mevsim, A

    1999-07-01

    Phylloides tumor is an uncommon breast tumor in children. Only a few cases have been reported in the literature. A case of borderline phylloides tumor in an 11-year-old girl is described. PMID:10415310

  7. Enterobius granuloma: an unusual cause of omental mass in an 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Sinan; Ekinci, Saniye; Orhan, Diclehan; Senocak, Mehmet Emin

    2014-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is the only nematode that infects humans. It is one of the most common intestinal parasites. Pinworm commonly infests the terminal ileum and colon, and does not cause severe morbidity unless ectopic infection occurs. However, granulomatous lesions caused by ectopic Enterobius vermicularis infection may lead to unusual clinical symptoms and may be misinterpreted as malignant lesions. Herein, the authors present an 11-year-old girl with pinworm infection who presented with abdominal pain and an omental mass, with special emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24911856

  8. Extrapyramidal side-effects of low-dose aripiprazole in an 11-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Partial agonism of D2 and 5-HT1A receptors accounts for the low incidence of extrapyramidal side-effects of aripiprazole. Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) during treatment with therapeutical doses of aripiprazole have been reported in adults and children. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of EPS with low doses (5 mg) have been reported until now. In this article, we present an 11-year-old child who developed EPS on low doses (5 mg) aripiprazole. This case emphasizes the need for careful surveillance for the development of EPS in patients treated even with low doses of aripiprazole. PMID:26933364

  9. Giant appendix or an appendiceal mucocele? Case report of an 11-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Nad, Marta; Kiraly, Adrienn; Bali, Ottilia; Rashed, Adel; Vizsy, Laszlo

    2014-01-01

    We present an 11-year-old male child with an enormous appendix that was regarded as an appendiceal mucocele. The disorder is very rare and usually appears in middle aged patients. It is a clinical diagnosis. It could cause a variety of symptoms, especially, acute appendicitis and unidentified lesion in the right iliac fossa. According to the reasons, it could be just a curiosity without any relevancy or the sign of a malignant lesion with bad prognostic factors. The histopathological findings prove the origin. PMID:25598994

  10. Extrapyramidal side-effects of low-dose aripiprazole in an 11-year-old child

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Partial agonism of D2 and 5-HT1A receptors accounts for the low incidence of extrapyramidal side-effects of aripiprazole. Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) during treatment with therapeutical doses of aripiprazole have been reported in adults and children. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of EPS with low doses (5 mg) have been reported until now. In this article, we present an 11-year-old child who developed EPS on low doses (5 mg) aripiprazole. This case emphasizes the need for careful surveillance for the development of EPS in patients treated even with low doses of aripiprazole. PMID:26933364

  11. Sacrococcygeal fetiform teratoma altman type 1: a rare case report in a 11 year old girl.

    PubMed

    Sood, Neelam; Kamboj, Meenakshi; Chaabra, Maninder

    2013-06-01

    Fetiform teratoma (homunculus) is a rare but distinct entity, characterized by presence of more organoid differentiation than the classical teratoma but not enough to classify as fetus-in-fetu. Presence of rudimentary limbs in presence/absence of axial skeleton is often reported as an important differentiating feature. Sacrococcygeal location has been reported in a few case reports but in neonates only. This is a rare case of sacrococcygeal fetiform teratoma (Altman type 1) in an 11-year-old girl presenting as a gluteal mass. PMID:24426616

  12. Expectations and Levels of Understanding When Using Mobile Phones among 9-11-Year Olds in Wales, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Joanne; Baker, Sally-Ann; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in examining the use of mobile technology among children. The present study extended this literature among a sample of 9-11-year olds in Wales, UK in three ways. First, to examine the level of mobile phone ownership; second, to consider how mobile phones are used, investigate timescales and expectations when communicating…

  13. Reporting accuracy of packed lunch consumption among Danish 11-year-olds differ by gender

    PubMed Central

    Lyng, Nina; Fagt, Sisse; Davidsen, Michael; Hoppe, Camilla; Holstein, Bjørn; Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Background Packed lunch is the dominant lunch format in many countries including Denmark. School lunch is consumed unsupervised, and self-reported recalls are appropriate in the school setting. However, little is known about the accuracy of recalls in relation to packed lunch. Objective To assess the qualitative recall accuracy of self-reported consumption of packed lunch among Danish 11-year-old children in relation to gender and dietary assessment method. Design A cross-sectional dietary recall study of packed lunch consumption. Digital images (DIs) served as an objective reference method to determine food items consumed. Recalls were collected with a lunch recall questionnaire (LRQ) comprising an open-ended recall (OE-Q) and a pre-coded food group prompted recall (PC-Q). Individual interviews (INTs) were conducted successively. The number of food items was identified and accuracy was calculated as match rates (% identified by DIs and reported correctly) and intrusion rates (% not identified by DIs but reported) were determined. Setting and subjects Three Danish public schools from Copenhagen. A total of 114 Danish 11-year-old children, mean (SE) age=11.1 (0.03), and body mass index=18.2 (0.26). Results The reference (DIs) showed that girls consumed a higher number of food items than boys [mean (SE) 5.4 (0.25) vs. 4.6 (0.29) items (p=0.05)]. The number of food items recalled differed between genders with OE-Q recalls (p=0.005) only. Girls’ interview recalls were more accurate than boys’ with higher match rates (p=0.04) and lower intrusion rates (p=0.05). Match rates ranged from 67–90% and intrusion rates ranged from 13–39% with little differences between girls and boys using the OE-Q and PC-Q methods. Conclusion Dietary recall validation studies should not only consider match rates as an account of accuracy. Intrusions contribute to over-reporting in non-validation studies, and future studies should address recall accuracy and inaccuracies in relation to

  14. A fatal outcome of complicated severe diabetic ketoacidosis in a 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Severinski, Srećko; Butorac Ahel, Ivona; Ovuka, Aleksandar; Verbić, Arijan

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complex metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis and ketonuria. Cerebral edema is the most common rare complication of DKA in children. The objective of the study was to emphasize the importance of careful evaluation and monitoring for signs and symptoms of cerebral edema in all children undergoing treatment for DKA. We present a case of 11-year-old girl with a history of diabetes mellitus type I (T1DM) who presented with severe DKA complicated by hypovolemic shock, cerebral edema and hematemesis. Considering the fact that complications of DKA are rare and require a high index of clinical suspicion, early recognition and treatment are crucial for avoiding permanent damage. PMID:27226096

  15. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease in an 11-year-old girl: diagnostic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kano, Gen; Nakamura, Keiko; Sakamoto, Izumi

    2014-02-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare chronic lung disease that is difficult to diagnose due to non-specific clinical findings. Little is known about the pathogenesis of PVOD. Reported herein is the case of an 11-year-old girl who initially presented with 'bat-wing' shadows on chest radiography. This finding, coupled with prominent hemosiderosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, initially led to a misdiagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis. Oral prednisolone dramatically improved signs and symptoms initially, but her condition then gradually deteriorated during maintenance therapy with corticosteroids and other immunosuppressants. PVOD was suspected but not confirmed owing to a lack of hallmark radiographic findings and contraindications for lung biopsy. Three years later, while arranging for lung transplantation, the patient experienced sudden onset of fatal massive pulmonary edema. PVOD was confirmed at autopsy. This case provides insights regarding an unfamiliar presentation of PVOD and may help physicians to avoid diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:24548200

  16. Pneumomediastinum and Pneumopericardium in an 11-Year-Old Rugby Player: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Vanzo, Valentina; Bugin, Samuela; Snijders, Deborah; Bottecchia, Laura; Storer, Veronica; Barbato, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium are rare occurrences in young athletes, but they can result in potentially life-threatening consequences. Background: While involved in a rugby match, an 11-year-old boy received a chest compression by 3 players during a tackle. He continued to play, but 2 hours later, he developed sharp retrosternal chest pain. A chest radiograph and an echocardiograph at the nearest emergency department showed pneumopericardium and pneumomediastinum. Differential Diagnosis: Sternal and rib contusions, rib fractures, heartburn, acute asthma exacerbation, pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, pneumothorax, traumatic tracheal rupture, myocardial infarction, and costochondritis (Tietze syndrome). Treatment: Acetaminophen for pain control. Uniqueness: To our knowledge, this is the only case in the international literature of the simultaneous occurrence of pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium in a child as a consequence of blunt chest trauma during a rugby match. Conclusions: Pneumomediastinum and pneumopericardium may be consequences of rugby blunt chest trauma. Symptoms can appear 1 to 2 hours later, and the conditions may result in serious complications. Immediate admission to the emergency department is required. PMID:23672393

  17. Music listening and cognitive abilities in 10- and 11-year-olds: the blur effect.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Hallam, Susan

    2005-12-01

    The spatial abilities of a large sample of 10 and 11 year olds were tested after they listened to contemporary pop music, music composed by Mozart, or a discussion about the present experiment. After being assigned at random to one of the three listening experiences, each child completed two tests of spatial abilities. Performance on one of the tests (square completion) did not differ as a function of the listening experience, but performance on the other test (paper folding) was superior for children who listened to popular music compared to the other two groups. These findings are consistent with the view that positive benefits of music listening on cognitive abilities are most likely to be evident when the music is enjoyed by the listener. PMID:16597767

  18. Duration, Distance, and Speed Judgments of Two Moving Objects by 4- to 11-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Fumiko

    1996-01-01

    Four- to 11-year-olds made duration, distance, and speed judgments on Piagetian tasks where cars ran on parallel tracks. Among younger children, duration and distance judgments had approximately the same difficulty. Among older children, distance judgments were easier than duration judgments, and symmetry of effects of temporal and spatial…

  19. Developing Number Knowledge: Assessment, Teaching and Intervention with 7-11 Year Olds. Math Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert J.; Ellemor-Collins, David; Tabor, Pamela D.

    2011-01-01

    This fourth book in the Mathematics Recovery series equips teachers with detailed pedagogical knowledge and resources for teaching number to 7 to 11-year olds. Drawing on extensive programs of research, curriculum development, and teacher development, the book offers a coherent, up-to-date approach emphasizing computational fluency and the…

  20. Dermatitis rhabditidosa in an 11-year-old girl: a new cutaneous parasitic disease of man.

    PubMed

    Pasyk, K

    1978-01-01

    Rhabditiform larvae of Rhabditis (Pelodera) strongyloides caused pruritic lesions in an 11-year-old girl, and persisted for 2 1/2 months. Larvae were found in skin scrapings from the child and in the family dog's hair. PMID:564202

  1. Training compliance control yields improved drawing in 5-11year old children with motor difficulties.

    PubMed

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Shire, Katy; Hill, Liam; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2016-08-01

    There are a large number of children with motor difficulties including those that have difficulty producing movements qualitatively well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning without intervention. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. Previously, we tested a limited age range of children and found that training improved performance on the 3D tracing task and that the training transferred to a 2D drawing test. In the present study, school children (5-11years old) with motor difficulties were trained in the 3D tracing task and transfer to a 2D drawing task was tested. We used a cross-over design where half of the children received training on the 3D tracing task during the first training period and the other half of the children received training during the second training period. Given previous results, we predicted that younger children would initially show reduced performance relative to the older children, and that performance at all ages would improve with training. We also predicted that training would transfer to the 2D drawing task. However, the pre-training performance of both younger and older children was equally poor. Nevertheless, post-training performance on the 3D task was dramatically improved for both age groups and the training transferred to the 2D drawing task. Overall, this work contributes to a growing body of literature that demonstrates relatively preserved motor learning in children with motor difficulties and further demonstrates the importance of games in therapeutic interventions. PMID:27219739

  2. Behavioral and ERP evidence of word and pseudoword superiority effects in 7- and 11-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Coch, Donna; Mitra, Priya; George, Elyse

    2012-11-27

    In groups of 7-year-olds and 11-year-olds, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded to briefly presented, masked letter strings that included real word (DARK/PARK), pronounceable pseudoword (DARL/PARL), unpronounceable nonword (RDKA/RPKA), and letter-in-xs (DXXX, PXXX) stimuli in a variant of the Reicher-Wheeler paradigm. Behaviorally, participants decided which of two letters occurred at a given position in each string (here, forced-choice alternatives D and P). Both groups showed evidence of behavioral word (more accurate choices for letters in words than in baseline nonwords or letter-in-xs) and pseudoword (more accurate choices for letters in pseudowords than in baseline nonwords or letter-in-xs) superiority effects. Electrophysiologically, 11-year-olds evidenced superiority effects on P150 and N400 peak amplitude, while 7-year-olds showed effects only on N400 amplitude. These findings suggest that the mechanisms underlying the observed behavioral superiority effects may be lexical in younger children but both sublexical and lexical in older children. These results are consistent with a lengthy developmental time course for automatic sublexical orthographic specialization, extending beyond the age of 11. PMID:23036274

  3. Oral hygiene habits of 11-year-old schoolchildren in 22 European countries and Canada in 1993/1994.

    PubMed

    Kuusela, S; Honkala, E; Kannas, L; Tynjälä, J; Wold, B

    1997-09-01

    This study is part of the Cross-National Survey on Health Behaviour in School-aged Children--a WHO Collaborative Study, which started in 1982. The aim of the study was to describe the oral hygiene habits (toothbrushing and flossing) of 11-year-old schoolchildren in 22 European countries (Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, FInland, France, Germany, Greenland, Hungary, Israel, Latvia, Lithuania, Northern Ireland, Norway, Poland, Russia, Scotland, the Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, and Wales) and Canada. The data were collected from standardized anonymous questionnaires in school classrooms during the 1993-1994 school year. At least 1300 school children, representing the whole country, participated in the study in each country. Oral hygiene habits were analyzed according to gender, age, country, school performance, and family economy. The children brushed most favorably in Sweden, Denmark, German, Austria, and Norway (83-73% brushed twice a day). More-than-once-a-day toothbrushing was especially uncommon (from 26 to 33%) among boys in Finland, Lithuania, Russia, Estonia, and Latvia. Toothbrushing frequency differed significantly according to school performance in Canada, the Czech Republic, Scotland, Poland, Northern Ireland, and Wales and between different socio-economic groups in Northern Ireland, Wales, the Czech Republic, Scotland, Poland, and Russia. Use of dental floss was rare. In general, flossing was less frequent among boys than among girls. Daily flossing was most common among Canadian adolescents (25%). In conclusion, there are considerable differences in toothbrushing frequency among children in European countries. PMID:9294495

  4. Dose estimations for Iranian 11-year-old pediatric phantoms undergoing computed tomography examinations.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, Parisa; Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Rafat-Motavalli, Laleh

    2015-07-01

    In order to establish an organ and effective dose database for Iranian children undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations, in the first step, two Iranian 11-year-old phantoms were constructed from image series obtained from CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Organ and effective doses for these phantoms were calculated for head, chest, abdomen-pelvis and chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP) scans at tube voltages of 80, 100 and 120 kVp, and then they were compared with those of the University of Florida (UF) 11-year-old male phantom. Depth distributions of the organs and the mass of the surrounding tissues located in the beam path, which shield the internal organs, were determined for all phantoms. From the results, it was determined that the main organs of the UF phantom receive smaller doses than the two Iranian phantoms, except for the urinary bladder of the Iranian girl phantom. In addition, the relationship between the anatomical differences and the size of the dose delivered was also investigated and the discrepancies between the results were examined and justified. PMID:25972393

  5. Dose estimations for Iranian 11-year-old pediatric phantoms undergoing computed tomography examinations

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Parisa; Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Rafat-Motavalli, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    In order to establish an organ and effective dose database for Iranian children undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations, in the first step, two Iranian 11-year-old phantoms were constructed from image series obtained from CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Organ and effective doses for these phantoms were calculated for head, chest, abdomen–pelvis and chest–abdomen–pelvis (CAP) scans at tube voltages of 80, 100 and 120 kVp, and then they were compared with those of the University of Florida (UF) 11-year-old male phantom. Depth distributions of the organs and the mass of the surrounding tissues located in the beam path, which shield the internal organs, were determined for all phantoms. From the results, it was determined that the main organs of the UF phantom receive smaller doses than the two Iranian phantoms, except for the urinary bladder of the Iranian girl phantom. In addition, the relationship between the anatomical differences and the size of the dose delivered was also investigated and the discrepancies between the results were examined and justified. PMID:25972393

  6. Echocardiographic Diagnosis of Incidentally Found Left Coronary Artery to Pulmonary Artery Fistula in an 11-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo-Hau; Lin, Chu-Chuan; Weng, Ken-Pen; Wu, Huang-Wei; Chien, Jen-Hung; Huang, Shih-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We report on a healthy 11-year-old girl who presented to our facility with sudden onset of fainting in a strenuous running course. Transthoracic echocardiography at short-axis view showed a diastolic flow into the main pulmonary artery (PA). The diagnosis of left anterior descending artery (LAD) to PA fistula was documented by cardiac computed tomography and catheterization. Interventional therapy of LAD to the main PA fistula was not performed because of no evidence of myocardial ischemia or significant hemodynamic change. Presently, the patient remains asymptomatic. Coronary fistula with an incidence of about 0.1-0.8% is very rare and may be undetected, particularly in pediatric patients without cardiac murmur. We herein describe the diagnostic approach and discuss the current treatment modalities. PMID:27274178

  7. Echocardiographic Diagnosis of Incidentally Found Left Coronary Artery to Pulmonary Artery Fistula in an 11-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Hau; Lin, Chu-Chuan; Weng, Ken-Pen; Wu, Huang-Wei; Chien, Jen-Hung; Huang, Shih-Ming

    2016-05-01

    We report on a healthy 11-year-old girl who presented to our facility with sudden onset of fainting in a strenuous running course. Transthoracic echocardiography at short-axis view showed a diastolic flow into the main pulmonary artery (PA). The diagnosis of left anterior descending artery (LAD) to PA fistula was documented by cardiac computed tomography and catheterization. Interventional therapy of LAD to the main PA fistula was not performed because of no evidence of myocardial ischemia or significant hemodynamic change. Presently, the patient remains asymptomatic. Coronary fistula with an incidence of about 0.1-0.8% is very rare and may be undetected, particularly in pediatric patients without cardiac murmur. We herein describe the diagnostic approach and discuss the current treatment modalities. PMID:27274178

  8. An international comparison of dietary patterns in 9–11-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Mikkilä, V; Vepsäläinen, H; Saloheimo, T; Gonzalez, S A; Meisel, J D; Hu, G; Champagne, C M; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Dietary pattern is defined as a combination of foods and drinks and the frequency of consumption within a population. Dietary patterns are changing on a global level, which may be linked to an increased incidence of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the dietary patterns among 9–11-year-old children living in urban regions in different parts of the world. METHODS: Participants were 7199 children (54% girls), aged 9–11 years, from 12 countries situated in all major world regions. Food consumption was assessed using a 23-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). To identify dietary patterns, principal components analyses (PCA) were carried out using weekly portions as input variables. RESULTS: Both site-specific and pooled PCA resulted in two strong components. Component 1 (‘unhealthy diet pattern') included fast foods, ice cream, fried food, French fries, potato chips, cakes and sugar-sweetened sodas with >0.6 loadings. The loadings for component 2 (‘healthy diet pattern') were slightly weaker with only dark-green vegetables, orange vegetables, vegetables in general, and fruits and berries reaching a >0.6 loading. The site-specific diet pattern scores had very strong correlations with the pattern scores from the pooled data: r=0.82 and 0.94 for components 1 and 2, respectively. CONCULSIONS: The results suggest that the same ‘healthier' and ‘unhealthier' foods tend to be consumed in similar combinations among 9–11-year-old children in different countries, despite variation in food culture, geographical location, ethnic background and economic development. PMID:27152179

  9. Manual control age and sex differences in 4 to 11 year old children.

    PubMed

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J B; Williams, Justin H G; Barber, Sally E; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled 'manual control', whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4-5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10-11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills. PMID

  10. Trichotillomania: Bizzare Patern of Hair Loss at 11-Year-old Girl.

    PubMed

    Zímová, Jana; Zímová, Pavlína

    2016-06-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) is defined by the Diagnostics and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DMS-IV) as hair loss from a patient`s repetitive self-pulling of hair. The disorder is included under anxiety disorders because it shares some obsessive-compulsive features. Patients have the tendency towards feelings of unattractiveness, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem (1,2). It is a major psychiatric problem, but many patients with this disorder first present to a dermatologist. An 11-year-old girl came to our department with a 2-month history of diffuse hair loss on the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area (Figure 1). She had originally been examined by a pediatrician with the diagnosis of alopecia areata. The patient`s personal history included hay fever and shortsightedness, and she suffered from varicella and mononucleosis. Nobody in the family history suffered from alopecia areata, but her father has male androgenetic alopecia (Norwood/Hamilton MAGA C3F3). The mother noticed that the child had had changeable mood for about 2 months and did not want to communicate with other persons in the family. The family did not have any pet at home. At school, her favorite subjects were Math and Computer Studies. She did not like Physical Education and did not participate in any sport activities during her free time. This was very strange because she was obese (body-mass index (BMI) 24.69). She was sometimes angry with her 13-year-old sister who had better results at school. The girl had suddenly started to wear a blue scarf. The parents did not notice that she pulled out her hair at home. Dermatological examination of the capillitium found a zone of incomplete alopecia in the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area, without inflammation, desquamation, and scaring. Hairs were of variable length (Figure 1). There was a patch of incomplete alopecia above the forehead between two stripes of hair of variable length (Figure 2). The hair pull test was

  11. Hydration Deficit in 9- to 11-Year-Old Egyptian Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouda, Zaghloul; Zarea, Mohamed; El-Hennawy, Usama; Viltard, Mélanie; Lepicard, Eve; Hawili, Nasrine; Constant, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Background. Children who drink too little to meet their daily water requirements are likely to become dehydrated, and even mild dehydration can negatively affect health. This is even more important in Middle-Eastern countries where high temperatures increase the risk of dehydration. We assessed morning hydration status in a sample of 519 Egyptian schoolchildren (9-11 years old). Methods. Children completed a questionnaire on breakfast intakes and collected a urine sample after breakfast. Breakfast food and fluid nutritional composition was analyzed and urine osmolality was measured using osmometry. Results. The mean urine osmolality of children was 814 mOsmol/kg: >800 mOsmol/kg (57%) and >1000 mOsmol/kg (24.7%). Furthermore, the results showed that a total water intake of less than 400 mL was associated with a significant higher risk of dehydration. Surprisingly, 63% of the children skipped breakfast. Conclusions. The results showed that a majority of Egyptian schoolchildren arrive at school with a hydration deficit. These results highlight the fact that there is a need to educate schoolchildren about the importance of having a breakfast and adequate hydration. PMID:27335985

  12. Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Vietnamese Children, 6 to 11 Years Old.

    PubMed

    Le Nguyen Bao, Khanh; Tran Thuy, Nga; Nguyen Huu, Chinh; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In a population sample of 385 children, 6 to 11 years old, venous blood parameters-hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, red blood cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)-were determined to get insight into the iron status. The prevalence of anemia was 11.4%; 5.6% had iron deficiency (ID), whereas 0.4% had ID anemia. Correction for inflammation based on CRP and AGP did not markedly change the overall prevalence of ID and ID anemia. Stunted children had lower Hb and ferritin values compared with nonstunted children, and thin children had lower values compared with normal-weight or overweight and obese children. Many nonanemic children had alert values for RBC, MCV, MCH, and MCHC. It is concluded that although the prevalence of anemia is of the magnitude of a mild public health problem, the iron status of many nonanemic children is borderline, as indicated by a high number of children with low values for red blood cytology. PMID:27052301

  13. Successful treatment of florid cutaneous warts with intravenous cidofovir in an 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Caitriona; Fitzgerald, Deborah; Clayton, Timothy M; Irvine, Alan D

    2008-01-01

    Cutaneous warts, commonly seen in children and the immunosuppressed are socially distressing and are often resistant to traditional treatments. Here, we report an 11-year-old girl with bilateral florid verrucous lesions on her hands, feet and chin, which were refractory to a number of standard treatments including cryotherapy, cantharidin preparations, topical salicylic acid, surgical debulking techniques, oral Cimetidine, and topical and intralesional Cidofovir. As the disfiguring lesions had a marked adverse effect on her quality of life, a trial of IV Cidofovir was instituted. We administered five cycles of IV Cidofovir with a 1-week interval between the first and second treatment, followed by 2-week intervals thereafter. This regime was well tolerated and we report dramatic resolution of the lesions with persistent clearance 6 months after completion of the fifth infusion. Resolution of recalcitrant warts with IV Cidofovir has been reported in a limited number of cases. Our experience supports its efficacy in this setting, and to the best of our knowledge this is the first report of successful treatment of cutaneous warts with IV Cidofovir in a pediatric case. PMID:18577053

  14. Facial reconstruction of an 11-year-old female resident of 430 BC Athens.

    PubMed

    Papagrigorakis, Manolis J; Synodinos, Philippos N; Antoniadis, Aristomenis; Maravelakis, Emmanuel; Toulas, Panagiotis; Nilsson, Oscar; Baziotopoulou-Valavani, Effie

    2011-01-01

    Although modern standards of ideal proportions and facial esthetics are based mostly on observations of human faces as depicted in Classical Greek masterpieces of art, the real faces of ordinary ancient Greeks have, until now, remained elusive and subject to the imagination. Objective forensic techniques of facial reconstruction have never been applied before, because human skeletal material from Classical Greece has been extremely scarce, since most decent burials of that time required cremation. Here, the authors show stage by stage the facial reconstruction of an 11-year-old girl whose skull was unearthed in excellent condition from a mass grave with victims of the Plague that struck Athens of 430 bc. The original skull was replicated via three-dimensional modeling and rapid prototyping techniques. The reconstruction followed the Manchester method, laying the facial tissues from the surface of the skull outward by using depth-marker pegs as thickness guides. The shape, size, and position of the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth were determined according to features of the underlying skeletal tissues, whereas the hairstyle followed the fashion of the time. This is the first case of facial reconstruction of a layperson residing in Athens of the Golden Age of Pericles. It is ironic, however, that this unfortunate girl who lived such a short life in ancient Athens, will now, 2500 years later, have the chance to travel and be universally recognizable in a world much bigger than anybody in ancient Athens could have ever imagined. PMID:20936971

  15. Schoolyard physical activity of 6–11 year old children assessed by GPS and accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Children’s current physical activity levels are disturbingly low when compared to recommended levels. This may be changed by intervening in the school environment. However, at present, it is unclear to what extent schoolyard physical activity contributes towards reaching the daily physical activity guideline. The aim of this study was to examine how long and at what intensity children are physically active at the schoolyard during different time segments of the day. Moreover, the contribution of schoolyard physical activity towards achieving the recommended guideline for daily physical activity was investigated. Methods Children (n=76) between the age of 6–11 years were recruited in six different schools in five cities (>70.000 residents) in the Netherlands. During the weekdays of a regular school week, childrens’ physical activity and location were measured with ActiGraph accelerometers and Travelrecorder GPS receivers. Data was collected from December 2008 to April 2009. From the data, the amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on and outside the schoolyard was established. Moreover, the percentage of MVPA on the schoolyard was compared between the following segments of the day: pre-school, school, school recess, lunch break and post-school. Differences between boys and girls were compared using linear and logistic mixed-effects models. Results On average, children spent 40.1 minutes/day on the schoolyard. During this time, boys were more active on the schoolyard, with 27.3% of their time spent as MVPA compared to 16.7% among girls (OR=2.11 [95% CI 1.54 - 2.90]). The children were most active on the schoolyard during school recess, during which boys recorded 39.5% and girls recorded 23.4% of the time as MVPA (OR=2.55 [95% CI: 1.69 - 3.85]). Although children were only present at the schoolyard for 6.1% of the total reported time, this time contributed towards 17.5% and 16.8% of boys’ and girls’ minutes of MVPA. Conclusions On

  16. Acute pancreatitis secondary to hyperlipidemia in an 11-year-old girl: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bălănescu, NR; Topor, L; Ulici, A; Djendov, FB

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of an 11-year-old female with acute pancreatitis, and review the literature highlighting the presenting symptoms and signs, laboratory tests, and investigational tools that helped in the establishment of a correct diagnosis. First, the patient presented to a regional hospital reporting abdominal pain, vomiting and liquid stool. She was admitted with the diagnosis of acute surgical abdomen and underwent surgery. Upon admission in our department, laboratory findings showed high values for total lipids = 2600 mg/dL and triglycerides 1200 mg/dL. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a pancreas with a small enlargement of the head (19 mm), and with a heterogeneous structure of the parenchyma. Abdominal computed tomography showed small left pleural collection and a high-dimensioned pancreas, particularly at the head, with heterogeneous structure, and peripancreatic collections. The patient was treated by fasting, gastric decompression by nasogastric tube, and intravenous antibiotherapy followed by antialgic and antispasticity treatment. Time of the patient’s first feeding was after the 7th day of hospitalization. The patient was discharged in a very good condition after 22 days of hospitalization. PMID:23599811

  17. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9-11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9-11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of -1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=-1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development. PMID:27152184

  18. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9–11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development

    PubMed Central

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9–11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of −1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=−1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development. PMID:27152184

  19. Dental status and orthodontic treatment needs of an 11-year-old female resident of Athens, 430 BC.

    PubMed

    Papagrigorakis, Manolis J; Synodinos, Philippos N; Baziotopoulou-Valavani, Effie

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the skeletal and dental features of "Myrtis", an 11-year-old female resident of ancient Athens back in 430 BC. Her skeleton was unearthed in an archaeological excavation of a mass burial pit located in the outskirts of Kerameikos' ancient cemetery of Athens. "Myrtis" is believed to have been one of the numerous hapless victims of the Plague of Athens. Her skull was found in relatively intact condition bearing her complete dentition corresponding to the mixed dentition stage. A complete dental and orthodontic diagnosis of Myrtis was conducted based on clinical examination, study of panoramic radiographs, and lateral cephalometric analysis of her skull. No significant dental pathology was reported pertaining to deciduous or permanent teeth of "Myrtis". A Class II skeletal and dental malocclusion was observed. The ectopic labial eruption of the maxillary canines mesially to their retained deciduous predecessors, the ectopic distally directed eruption of a lower first premolar, and a unilaterally missing lower third molar were among the most interesting dental findings reported. PMID:18193954

  20. Internet Use and Psychological Well-Being among 10-Year-Old and 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Paula; Lloyd, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 2009 Kids' Life and Times Survey, involving 3657 children aged 10 or 11 years old in Northern Ireland. The survey indicated high levels of use of Internet applications, including social-networking sites and online games. Using the KIDSCREEN-27 instrument, the data indicate that the use of social-networking sites and…

  1. Comparative Analysis of Musical Abilities of 11-Year-Olds from Slovenia and the Island of Martinique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerman, Janez; Pretnar, Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the study is the comparison between the musical abilities of 11-year-old children on the island of Martinique and in Slovenia, and finding out to what extent their development of musical abilities is influenced by musical and cultural family background, music school attendance, choral singing and playing orchestral instruments. Our…

  2. Testing Effectiveness of a Community-Based Aggression Management Program for Children 7 to 11 Years Old and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipman, Ellen L.; Boyle, Michael H.; Cunningham, Charles; Kenny, Meghan; Sniderman, Carrie; Duku, Eric; Mills, Brenda; Evans, Peter; Waymouth, Marjorie

    2006-01-01

    Objective: There are few well-evaluated uncomplicated community-based interventions for childhood aggression. The authors assess the impact of a community-based anger management group on child aggressive behaviors, using a randomized, controlled trial (RCT). Method: Families with children 7 to 11 years old were recruited through advertisements and…

  3. Predictors of Meeting Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Recommendations in 9-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Jimikaye; De Witt, Peter; McNally, Janise; Siegfried, Scott; Hill, James O; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Childhood obesity represents a significant public health problem. This study examined physical activity and nutrition behaviours and attitudes of 9-11-year-olds, and factors influencing these behaviours. Design: Study participants recorded pedometer steps for 7 days and completed physical activity enjoyment, food attitudes and food…

  4. An Evaluation of Computerised Essay Marking for National Curriculum Assessment in the UK for 11-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Dougal

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison of human and computer marking of approximately 600 essays produced by 11-year-olds in the UK. Each essay script was scored by three human markers. Scripts were also scored by the "e-rater" program. There was a good agreement between human and machine marking. Scripts with highly discrepant scores were flagged and…

  5. Evaluation of Low-Cost, Objective Instruments for Assessing Physical Activity in 10-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Teresa L.; Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McClain, James J.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2011-01-01

    This study compared step counts detected by four, low-cost, objective, physical-activity-assessment instruments and evaluated their ability to detect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to the ActiGraph accelerometer (AG). Thirty-six 10-11-year-old children wore the NL-1000, Yamax Digiwalker SW 200, Omron HJ-151, and Walk4Life…

  6. Assessment of bully/victim problems in 8 to 11 year-olds.

    PubMed

    Austin, S; Joseph, S

    1996-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop two six-item self-report scales (the Bullying-Behaviour Scale and the Peer-Victimisation Scale) to assess bully-victim problems at school. These scales were designed so that they could be immersed within the Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC: Harter, 1985) thus reducing the saliency of the items. Internal reliability of both scales was found to be satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83 and 0.82 respectively). Data are reported on the association between scores on both scales and scores on the SPPC and the Birleson Depression Inventory (Birleson, 1981) with 425 children (204 boys and 221 girls) ranging from 8 to 11 years (mean = 9.2 years). Forty-six per cent of the children were classified as bullies, victims, or both: 22 per cent were classified as victims only, 15 per cent as bully/victims, and 9 per cent as bullies only. PMID:9008423

  7. When an 11-Year Old Wants To Take His Own Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Jan Rice

    1997-01-01

    An elementary school librarian relates her experience talking a fifth grade boy out of committing suicide. Raises the question of librarian-student confidentiality in assembling a crisis management team. Argues that the school library should be a refuge, a place to get books and information, and love. (PEN)

  8. Developmental pathways of language and social communication problems in 9-11 year olds: unpicking the heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Roy, P; Chiat, S

    2014-10-01

    This paper addressed relations between language, social communication and behaviour, and their trajectories, in a sample of 9-11-year-olds (n=91) who had been referred to clinical services with concerns about language as pre-schoolers. Children were first assessed at 2½-4 years, and again 18 months later. Results revealed increasing differentiation of profiles across time. By 9-11 years, 11% of the sample had social communication deficits, 27% language impairment, 20% both, and 42% neither. The size of group differences on key language and social communication measures was striking (2-3 standard deviations). Social communication deficits included autistic mannerisms and were associated with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBDs); in contrast, language impairment was associated with hyperactivity only. Children with both language and social communication problems had the most severe difficulties on all measures. These distinct school-age profiles emerged gradually. Investigation of developmental trajectories revealed that the three impaired groups did not differ significantly on language or SEBD measures when the children were first seen. Only low performance on the Early Sociocognitive Battery, a new measure of social responsiveness, joint attention and symbolic understanding, differentiated the children with and without social communication problems at 9-11 years. These findings suggest that some children who first present with language delay or difficulties have undetected Autism Spectrum Disorders which may or may not be accompanied by language impairment in the longer term. This new evidence of developmental trajectories starting in the preschool years throws further light on the nature of social communication and language problems in school-age children, relations between language impairment and SEBDs, and on the nature of early language development. PMID:25005063

  9. Writing Attainment in 9- to 11-Year-Olds: Some Differences between Girls and Boys in Two Genres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Roger; Burrell, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Gender differences in the imaginative narrative and persuasive description writing of a sample of Year 5 (9- to 10-year-old) children were investigated using a standardised test and a repeat design, with the same tasks being undertaken a year later. The texts were analysed using test guidelines and genre-specific rating scales derived from the…

  10. The Resources and Strategies that 10--11-Year-Old Boys Use to Construct Masculinities in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Jon

    2004-01-01

    The data in this article come from an ethnographic exploration into the construction of masculinities in three junior schools in the UK between 1998 and 1999. The author argues that the construction and performance of masculinity is inextricably linked to the acquisition of status within the school peer group, and he delineates the specific series…

  11. An 11-year-old boy with silico-tuberculosis attributable to secondary exposure to sandstone mining in central India.

    PubMed

    Murlidhar, V

    2015-01-01

    Silicosis from secondary exposure is not often reported. This is the first such report of a child with possible silicosis attributable to secondary exposure to sandstone mining in India. Silicosis from secondary exposure has been reported in the gem polishing and slate pencil manufacturing industries in India; however, the stone-mining industry is severely under-researched. No preventive measures have been instituted in the stone-mining industry and children are exposed to respirable silica dust when their mothers take them to their work places. Poverty and lack of accessibility to modern medical facilities promote malnutrition and tuberculosis, two known co-morbid conditions. Stone mining, an export-oriented industry, produces billions of dollars of foreign currency every year. Although there is legislation to protect workers from exploitation, employers disregard the law and the state turns a blind eye by not implementing proper enforcement mechanisms. Silicosis from environmental exposure affects the entire community that lives in stone-mining areas. PMID:26106174

  12. Representation and performance: reproduction of form and quality of movement in dance by eight- and 11-year-old novices.

    PubMed

    Cadopi, M; Chatillon, J F; Baldy, R

    1995-05-01

    This study examined the effects of age on the cognitive representations in modelling. A total of 48 eight- and 11-year-olds were asked to watch a dancer performing a ballet sequence of three steps in order to reproduce it. They were able to see the film as many times as they wanted. All subjects were novices to dance. Both quantitative (number of observations required to learn the sequence, number of steps executed) and qualitative (form and quality of the performance) factors were assessed. The results indicated an effect of age on the number of requested observations and on the number of subjects able to perform the entire movement series. The mean form scores did not differ significantly between the two groups, but the mean quality score was higher for the 11-year-olds. We also noted a great heterogeneity in the performances. The results are discussed in terms of the role of cognitive and motor factors in observational learning by age and of the possibilities that cognitive representations offer for coding the different properties of movement. PMID:7795942

  13. Korean 4- to 11-Year-Old Student Conceptions of Heat and Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paik, Seoung-Hey; Cho, Boo-Kyung; Go, Young-Mi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to shed light on the conceptions that young students have of heat and temperature, concepts that are both important in school science curricula and closely related to daily life. The subjects of the study were students from a rural district in South Korea and they ranged in age from 4 to 11 years. Interviews were…

  14. Blue Sky Below My Feet: Daycamp & After School Programs--9 to 11 Year Olds. Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual presents a 10-day lesson plan for day camp and after-school program leaders. The activities and experiments described in the manual focus on nutrition and space exploration. Topics covered by the lesson plan and specific projects include: (1) gravity; (2) food spoilage; (3) model rocket building and launching; (4) the basic food…

  15. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries. PMID:18995850

  16. Licence to be active: parental concerns and 10–11-year-old children's ability to be independently physically active

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; Thompson, Janice L.; Page, Angie S.; Brockman, Rowan; Cartwright, Kim; Fox, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical activity independent of adult supervision is an important component of youth physical activity. This study examined parental attitudes to independent activity, factors that limit licence to be independently active and parental strategies to facilitate independent activity. Methods In-depth phone interviews were conducted with 24 parents (4 males) of 10–11-year-old children recruited from six primary schools in Bristol. Results Parents perceived that a lack of appropriate spaces in which to be active, safety, traffic, the proximity of friends and older children affected children's ability to be independently physically active. The final year of primary school was perceived as a period when children should be afforded increased licence. Parents managed physical activity licence by placing time limits on activity, restricting activity to close to home, only allowing activity in groups or under adult supervision. Conclusions Strategies are needed to build children's licence to be independently active; this could be achieved by developing parental self-efficacy to allow children to be active and developing structures such as safe routes to parks and safer play areas. Future programmes could make use of traffic-calming programmes as catalysts for safe independent physical activity. PMID:19505927

  17. Quinine sensitivity influences the acceptance of sea-buckthorn and grapefruit juices in 9- to 11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Hartvig, Ditte; Hausner, Helene; Wendin, Karin; Bredie, Wender L P

    2014-03-01

    The acceptance of novel foods by children is related to a number of factors, and differences in taste sensitivity may form some specific challenges. High sensitivity might be a barrier to the acceptance of sour/bitter products by children. This study investigated the effect of sensitivity to bitter, sour, sweet, and salty tastes on the acceptance of Nordic juices in 9- to 11-year-old children. A total of 328 children were subjected to two taste sensitivity tests for quinine, citric acid, sucrose, and NaCl. Their acceptance of six juices (carrot, rosehip, sea-buckthorn, lingonberry, grapefruit, and aronia) was measured. Bitter sensitivity was found to be significantly correlated to the intake of the sweet sea-buckthorn and lingonberry juices; the most bitter-sensitive children exhibited the highest intake of these juices. The opposite relationship was found for bitter sensitivity and the intake of the bitter grapefruit juice. Sour, sweet, and salt sensitivities did not affect the intake of any of the juices. Liking scores were not affected by sensitivity. In conclusion, bitter sensitivity appears to influence food intake in children to a greater extent than sour, sweet, or salt sensitivity. Bitter-sensitive children exhibited a reduced intake of grapefruit juice and a higher intake of sucrose-sweetened juices. Thus, bitter sensitivity might be a challenge in the acceptance of certain bitter foods. PMID:24291404

  18. Four minutes of in-class high-intensity interval activity improves selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jasmin K; Le Mare, Lucy; Gurd, Brendon J

    2015-03-01

    The amount of time allocated to physical activity in schools is declining. Time-efficient physical activity solutions that demonstrate their impact on academic achievement-related outcomes are needed to prioritize physical activity within the school curricula. "FUNtervals" are 4-min, high-intensity interval activities that use whole-body actions to complement a storyline. The purpose of this study was to (i) explore whether FUNtervals can improve selective attention, an executive function posited to be essential for learning and academic success; and (ii) examine whether this relationship is predicted by students' classroom off-task behaviour. Seven grade 3-5 classes (n = 88) were exposed to a single-group, repeated cross-over design where each student's selective attention was compared between no-activity and FUNtervals days. In week 1, students were familiarized with the d2 test of attention and FUNterval activities, and baseline off-task behaviour was observed. In both weeks 2 and 3 students completed the d2 test of attention following either a FUNterval break or a no-activity break. The order of these breaks was randomized and counterbalanced between weeks. Neither motor nor passive off-task behaviour predicted changes in selective attention following FUNtervals; however, a weak relationship was observed for verbal off-task behaviour and improvements in d2 test performance. More importantly, students made fewer errors during the d2 test following FUNtervals. In supporting the priority of physical activity inclusion within schools, FUNtervals, a time efficient and easily implemented physical activity break, can improve selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds. PMID:25675352

  19. E-cigarette use and intentions to smoke among 10-11-year-old never-smokers in Wales

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Graham F; Littlecott, Hannah J; Moore, Laurence; Ahmed, Nilufar; Holliday, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Background E-cigarettes are seen by some as offering harm reduction potential, where used effectively as smoking cessation devices. However, there is emerging international evidence of growing use among young people, amid concerns that this may increase tobacco uptake. Few UK studies examine the prevalence of e-cigarette use in non-smoking children or associations with intentions to smoke. Methods A cross-sectional survey of year 6 (10–11-year-old) children in Wales. Approximately 1500 children completed questions on e-cigarette use, parental and peer smoking, and intentions to smoke. Logistic regression analyses among never smoking children, adjusted for school-level clustering, examined associations of smoking norms with e-cigarette use, and of e-cigarette use with intentions to smoke tobacco within the next 2 years. Results Approximately 6% of year 6 children, including 5% of never smokers, reported having used an e-cigarette. By comparison to children whose parents neither smoked nor used e-cigarettes, children were most likely to have used an e-cigarette if parents used both tobacco and e-cigarettes (OR=3.40; 95% CI 1.73 to 6.69). Having used an e-cigarette was associated with intentions to smoke (OR=3.21; 95% CI 1.66 to 6.23). While few children reported that they would smoke in 2 years’ time, children who had used an e-cigarette were less likely to report that they definitely would not smoke tobacco in 2 years’ time and were more likely to say that they might. Conclusions E-cigarettes represent a new form of childhood experimentation with nicotine. Findings are consistent with a hypothesis that children use e-cigarettes to imitate parental and peer smoking behaviours, and that e-cigarette use is associated with weaker antismoking intentions. PMID:25535293

  20. Pyogenic granuloma underlying cutaneous horn in a young boy.

    PubMed

    Nair, Pragya A; Kota, Rahul Krishna S; Pilani, Abhisheik P

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous horn is an elongated, keratinous projection that usually occurs over the sun-exposed areas. It is a clinical diagnosis and may overlie any benign, premalignant, or malignant conditions. Treatment includes wide surgical excision with careful histological examination to exclude a focus of malignancy. An unusual case of a pyogenic granuloma presenting as cutaneous horn on the lower lip in an 11-year-old boy is presented here. PMID:27057494

  1. Pyogenic granuloma underlying cutaneous horn in a young boy

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A.; Kota, Rahul Krishna S.; Pilani, Abhisheik P.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous horn is an elongated, keratinous projection that usually occurs over the sun-exposed areas. It is a clinical diagnosis and may overlie any benign, premalignant, or malignant conditions. Treatment includes wide surgical excision with careful histological examination to exclude a focus of malignancy. An unusual case of a pyogenic granuloma presenting as cutaneous horn on the lower lip in an 11-year-old boy is presented here. PMID:27057494

  2. Familiarity with and affective responses to foods in 8-11-year-old children. The role of food neophobia and parental education.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Sari; Oerlemans, Patty; Tuorila, Hely

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated whether the familiarity with and affective responses to foods are predicted by the individual trait food neophobia and by parental education in school children. The cross-sectional data collection involved children (N=208, 8- and 11-year-old) from Helsinki, and their parents. A questionnaire assessing children's food neophobia with Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), and familiarity with and affective responses to 36 foods was completed by parents. Children with low FNS were familiar with a larger number of foods than those with high FNS. High FNS was associated with low pleasantness assessment of most food groups, including cheese, fruit/vegetables, fish, starch/cereals, and ethnic/exotic. Children of well educated parents had tasted a larger number of foods, thus displaying lower behavioral neophobia, and had lower FNS scores than children of less educated parents. Both low FNS scores and high parental education predicted the number of tasted foods. Parental education was not associated with pleasantness ratings (exception: cheese). To conclude, high food neophobia lowers the pleasantness ratings of foods, and parental education moderates behavioral neophobia. PMID:22326884

  3. Hunter syndrome in an 11-year old girl on enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase: brain magnetic resonance imaging features and evolution.

    PubMed

    Manara, Renzo; Rampazzo, Angelica; Cananzi, Mara; Salviati, Leonardo; Mardari, Rodica; Drigo, Paola; Tomanin, Rosella; Gasparotto, Nicoletta; Priante, Elena; Scarpa, Maurizio

    2010-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS-II, Hunter disease) is a X-linked recessive disorder. Affected females are extremely rare, mostly due to skewed X chromosome inactivation. A few papers outline MPS-II brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) "gestalt" in males, but neuroradiological reports on females are still lacking. We present an 11-year-old girl affected by the severe form of MPS-II who was followed up over a time span of 8 years, focusing on clinical and brain MRI evolution. In the last 2.5 years, the patient has been treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase (Elaprase™, Shire Human Genetic Therapies AB, Sweden). On brain and cervical MRI examination, abnormalities in our patient did not differ from those detected in male patients: J-shaped pituitary sella, enlargement of perivascular spaces, brain atrophy, mild T2-hyperintensity in the paratrigonal white matter, diffuse platyspondylia, and mild odontoid dysplasia with odontoid cup. Brain atrophy progressed despite ERT introduction, whereas perivascular space enlargement did not change significantly before and after ERT. Cognitive impairment worsened independently from the course of white matter abnormality. Despite a profound knowledge of genetic and biochemical aspects in MPS-II, neuroradiology is still poorly characterized, especially in female patients. Spinal and brain involvement and its natural course and evolution after ERT introduction still need to be clarified. PMID:20052546

  4. High-intensity interval training improves VO(2peak), maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9-11-year-old swimmers.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-11-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9-11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000 m time (T(100 m) and T(2,000 m)), VO(2peak) and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (Lac(max)). In a 5-week crossover study, 26 competitive swimmers with a mean (SD) age of 11.5 ± 1.4 years performed a training period of HIIT and HVT. Competition (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.48) and T(2,000 m) (P = 0.04; effect size = 0.21) performance increased following HIIT. No changes were found in T(100 m) (P = 0.20). Lac(max) increased following HIIT (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.43) and decreased after HVT (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.51). VO(2peak) increased following both interventions (P < 0.05; effect sizes = 0.46-0.57). The increases in competition performance, T(2,000 m), Lac(max) and VO(2peak) following HIIT were achieved in significantly less training time (~2 h/week). PMID:20683609

  5. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  6. Mental Calculation Methods Used by 11-Year-Olds in Different Attainment Bands: A Reanalysis of Data from the 1987 APU Survey in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxman, Derek; Beishuizen, Meindert

    2002-01-01

    Reanalyzes data obtained in 1987 on mental calculation strategies used by 11-year-olds in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Classifies mental strategies developed in the past decade in international research. Compares frequency and effectiveness of the strategies used by pupils of different levels of attainment. Discusses basic arithmetic…

  7. Anthropometric Characteristics, Physical Fitness and Motor Coordination of 9 to 11 Year Old Children Participating in a Wide Range of Sports

    PubMed Central

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Hartman, Esther; Willemse, Bas; Philippaerts, Renaat; Visscher, Chris; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent 9 to 11 year old children participating in a specific sport already exhibit a specific anthropometric, physical fitness and motor coordination profile, in line with the requirements of that particular sport. In addition, the profiles in children with a different training volume were compared and possible differences in training hours per week between children from a low, moderate, and high level of physical fitness and motor coordination were investigated. Methods and Results Data of 620 children, 347 boys and 273 girls, who participated in the Flemish Sports Compass were used. Only the primary sport of each child was considered and six groups of sports (Ball sports, Dance, Gymnastics, Martial arts, Racquet sports and Swimming) were formed based on common characteristics. Measurements consisted of 17 tests. Independent T-tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests revealed few differences between the groups of sports and the discriminant analyses with the moderate and low active group did not show any significant results (p > .05). However, when discriminating among the high active children, a 85.2 % correct classification between six groups of sports was found (Wilks’ Λ = .137 and p < .001). Finally, children performing under average on the tests spent significantly fewer hours in sport per week (2.50 ± 1.84 hours) compared to the children performing best (3.25 ± 2.60 hours) (p = .016) and the children performing above average (2.90 ± 1.96 hours) (p = .029) on physical fitness and motor coordination. Discussion The study showed that in general, children at a young age do not exhibit sport-specific characteristics, except in children with a high training volume. It is possible that on the one hand, children have not spent enough time yet in their sport to develop sport-specific qualities. On the other hand, it could be possible that they do not take individual qualities into account when choosing a sport

  8. Cumulative high doses of inhaled formoterol have less systemic effects in asthmatic children 6–11 years-old than cumulative high doses of inhaled terbutaline

    PubMed Central

    Kaae, Rikke; Agertoft, Lone; Pedersen, Sören; Nordvall, S Lennart; Pedroletti, Christophe; Bengtsson, Thomas; Johannes-Hellberg, Ingegerd; Rosenborg, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate high dose tolerability and relative systemic dose potency between inhaled clinically equipotent dose increments of formoterol and terbutaline in children. Methods Twenty boys and girls (6–11 years-old) with asthma and normal ECGs were studied. Ten doses of formoterol (Oxis®) 4.5 µg (F4.5) or terbutaline (Bricanyl®) 500 µg (T500) were inhaled cumulatively via a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler®) over 1 h (three patients) or 2.5 h (17 patients) and compared to a day of no treatment, in a randomised, double-blind (active treatments only), crossover trial. Blood pressure (BP), ECG, plasma potassium, glucose, lactate, and adverse events were monitored up to 10 h to assess tolerability and relative systemic dose potency. Results Formoterol and terbutaline had significant β2-adrenergic effects on most outcomes. Apart from the effect on systolic BP, QRS duration and PR interval, the systemic effects were significantly more pronounced with terbutaline than with formoterol. Thus, mean minimum plasma potassium, was suppressed from 3.56 (95% confidence interval, CI: 3.48–3.65) mmol l−1 on the day of no treatment to 2.98 (CI: 2.90–3.08) after 10 × F4.5 and 2.70 (CI: 2.61–2.78) mmol l−1 after 10 × T500, and maximum Q-Tc (heart rate corrected Q-T interval [Bazett's formula]) was prolonged from 429 (CI: 422–435) ms on the day of no treatment, to 455 (CI: 448–462) ms after 10 × F4.5 and 470 (CI: 463–476) ms after 10 × T500. Estimates of relative dose potency indicated that F4.5 µg had the same systemic activity as the clinically less effective dose of 250 µg terbutaline. The duration of systemic effects differed marginally between treatments. Spontaneously reported adverse events (most frequently tremor) were fewer with formoterol (78% of the children) than with terbutaline (95%). A serious adverse event occurred after inhalation of 45 µg formoterol over the 1 h dosing time, that prompted the extension of dosing time to 2.5 h

  9. Predicting gender differences in liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among 11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Haukkala, Ari; Yngve, Agneta; Thorsdottir, Inga; Roos, Eva

    2015-12-01

    We studied the factors that predict liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among schoolchildren. Additionally, we examined if there were gender differences in the predictors that explain the hypothesized higher scores in liking vegetables and preferences among girls. The data from the PRO GREENS project included 424 Finnish children (response rate 77%) aged 11 to 12. The children completed validated measures about social and environmental factors related to their liking for vegetables and preferences both at baseline 2009 and follow-up 2010. The associations were examined with regression and mediation analyses. The strongest predictors of both girls' and boys' liking and preferences were higher levels of eating vegetables together with the family, previous vegetable intake and a lower level of perceived barriers. Liking was additionally predicted by a lower level of parental demand that their child should eat vegetables. Girls reported higher levels of liking and preferences in the follow-up. This gender difference was mainly explained by girls' lower level of perceived barriers related to vegetable intake and girls' higher previous vegetable intake. Interventions that aim to increase the low vegetable intake among boys by increasing their liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables could benefit from targeting perceived barriers, namely boys' perception and values concerning the consumption of vegetables. PMID:26206174

  10. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-01

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. PMID:22863660

  11. Sensory Discrimination, Working Memory and Intelligence in 9-Year-Old and 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelke, Annik E.; Troche, Stefan J.; Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Wagner, Felicitas L.; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    More than a century ago, Galton and Spearman suggested that there was a functional relationship between sensory discrimination ability and intelligence. Studies have since been able to confirm a close relationship between general discrimination ability (GDA) and IQ. The aim of the present study was to assess whether this strong relationship…

  12. Regulation of Brain Activity in the Fusiform Face and Parahippocampal Place Areas in 7-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuontela, Virve; Jiang, Ping; Tokariev, Maksym; Savolainen, Petri; Ma, YuanYe; Aronen, Eeva T.; Fontell, Tuija; Liiri, Tiina; Ahlstrom, Matti; Salonen, Oili; Carlson, Synnove

    2013-01-01

    Developmental studies have demonstrated that cognitive processes such as attention, suppression of interference and memory develop throughout childhood and adolescence. However, little is currently known about the development of top-down control mechanisms and their influence on cognitive performance. In the present study, we used functional…

  13. The Influence of Cartoon Character Advertising on Fruit and Vegetable Preferences of 9- to 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezbaruah, Nandita; Brunt, Ardith

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study is to determine the influence of cartoon characters in preferences of fruit and vegetables among children. Methods: A 10-item survey was used in this cross-sectional study to determine the factors that influence a child's likelihood of eating fruits and vegetables. Seven factors influencing consumption of…

  14. Data on subglottal pressure and SPL at varied vocal loudness and pitch in 8- to 11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    McAllister, A; Sundberg, J

    1998-06-01

    Phonation threshold pressure has been defined as the minimum subglottal pressure to generate phonation. Previous research has indicated that children may habitually employ higher subglottal pressures than adults. In the present investigation sound pressure level (SPL) and subglottal pressures at different pitch levels were measured at and above phonation threshold in nine children. Phonation threshold values were scattered in reasonable agreement with Titzes' prediction, although a discrepancy was noted regarding the frequency dependence in some voices. At normal conversational loudness and loudest level of phonation the children's Ps values were between two to four and four to eight times the predicted threshold values, respectively. At normal conversational loudness and habitual pitch subglottal pressures were lower than those previously observed for children, but similar to those found for female adults. The SPL in softest and loudest phonation were somewhat lower as compared to previous phonetogram data for children and for female adults. At normal loudness and habitual pitch the SPL values were similar to those of female adults. For a doubling of Ps mean SPL increased by 10.5 dB on the average. PMID:9649072

  15. Active school transport and weekday physical activity in 9–11-year-old children from 12 countries

    PubMed Central

    Denstel, K D; Broyles, S T; Larouche, R; Sarmiento, O L; Barreira, T V; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Active school transport (AST) may increase the time that children spend in physical activity (PA). This study examined relationships between AST and weekday moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity (LPA), sedentary time (SED) and total activity during naturally organized time periods (daily, before school, during school and after school) in a sample of children from 12 countries. METHODS: The sample included 6224 children aged 9–11 years. PA and sedentary time were objectively measured using Actigraph accelerometers. AST was self-reported by participants. Multilevel generalized linear and logistic regression statistical models were used to determine associations between PA, SED and AST across and within study sites. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, highest parental educational attainment, BMI z-score and accelerometer wear time, children who engaged in AST accumulated significantly more weekday MVPA during all studied time periods and significantly less time in LPA before school compared with children who used motorized transport to school. AST was unrelated to time spent in sedentary behaviors. Across all study sites, AST was associated with 6.0 min (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7–7.3; P<0.0001) more of weekday MVPA; however, there was some evidence that this differed across study sites (P for interaction=0.06). Significant positive associations were identified within 7 of 12 study sites, with differences ranging from 4.6 min (95% CI: 0.3–8.9; P=0.04, in Canada) to 10.2 min (95% CI: 5.9–14.4; P<0.0001, in Brazil) more of daily MVPA among children who engaged in AST compared with motorized transport. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that AST was associated with children spending more time engaged in MVPA throughout the day and less time in LPA before school. AST represents a good behavioral target to increase levels of PA in children. PMID:27152177

  16. Dental fluorosis and nutritional status of 6- to 11-year-old children living in rural areas of Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Correia Sampaio, F; Ramm von der Fehr, F; Arneberg, P; Petrucci Gigante, D; Hatløy, A

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutritional status and dental fluorosis in areas with fluoride in the drinking water in Paraíba, Brazil. Rural villages of comparable low socio-economic status and stable water fluoride levels were selected. Lifelong residents (6-11 years old, n = 650) were examined for nutritional status (height-for-age index; WHO methods) and dental fluorosis of central incisors and first molars (TF index). The sample was divided into three groups according to fluoride levels in the drinking water: low (below 0.7 ppm F, n = 164), medium (between 0.7 and 1.0 ppm F, n = 360) and high (above 1.0 ppm F, n = 126). Dental fluorosis was observed in 30.5, 61.1 and 71.4% of the children in these F groups, respectively. The prevalence was significantly related to the water F concentrations (chi2 = 59.93, d. f. = 2, p<0.001). The severity of dental fluorosis ranged from TF 1 to 3 in the low F group and up to 7 in the others. Malnutrition prevalence was approximately 20% in all F groups, but was unrelated to dental fluorosis. The fairly high prevalence of dental fluorosis observed suggests that other factors may be operating. PMID:9831782

  17. Long-term effect of neonatal endotracheal intubation on palatal form and symmetry in 8-11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Macey-Dare, L V; Moles, D R; Evans, R D; Nixon, F

    1999-12-01

    Premature and low birth weight infants often require neonatal oral intubation for resuscitation and to relieve respiratory distress. The endotracheal tube exerts pressure on the developing palate, which can result in palatal groove formation, a high-arched palate, and palatal asymmetry. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether such intubation can have a long-term effect on palatal form and symmetry. Arch widths, palatal widths, and palatal depths were measured from the study casts of 43, 8-11-year-old previously intubated premature and low birth weight children using a reflex microscope, with a fixed rectangular Cartesian co-ordinate system, and compared with a group of non-intubated gender- and age-matched controls. Significant differences were found between the intubated and non-intubated children. The intubated children had significantly narrower palatal widths posteriorly (P < or = 0.001), steeper palatal vaults anteriorly (P < or = 0.01), and exhibited a directional palatal width asymmetry with the left side of the palate measuring consistently wider than the right. These differences did not, however, appear to be affected by the length of intubation. Therefore, it is concluded that an oral endotracheal tube might exert excess force on the developing alveolus anteriorly with the tube being displaced to the right of the palate posteriorly leading to a steep anterior palatal vault and a left-sided palatal asymmetry, which can persist until the age of 11 years of age. PMID:10665200

  18. N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (paracetamol) in urine samples of 6-11-year-old Danish school children and their mothers.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jeanette K S; Modick, Hendrik; Mørck, Thit A; Jensen, Janne F; Nielsen, Flemming; Koch, Holger M; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate an association between the use of paracetamol during pregnancy and reproductive disorders in male offspring. Furthermore, N-acetyl-4-aminophenol (NAAP, paracetamol) has been shown to be ubiquitously excreted in urine samples of the general population. To investigate the internal body burden of the Danish population to NAAP for the first time, 288 morning urine samples from 6- to 11-year-old Danish school children and their mothers were analyzed for NAAP. NAAP was measurable in all mothers and all of the children except for one child. Results showed that there is a ubiquitous body burden of NAAP in Danish mothers and children even when paracetamol analgesics have not been used recently. Hence, several unknown sources of NAAP/paracetamol exposure have to exist. We found an association in NAAP excretion between the mothers and their children which could indicate common lifestyle related exposure (e.g. via food or indoor air sources). However, we did not detect any association between lifestyle data from questionnaires and levels of NAAP excretion in this study. The knowledge about possible sources of exposure leading to this omnipresent paracetamol excretion is limited and further investigation is wanted. PMID:25127489

  19. The Position of Lingula as an Index for Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Injection in 7-11-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Ezoddini Ardakani, Fatemeh; Bahrololoumi, Zahra; Zangouie Booshehri, Maryam; Navab Azam, Alireza; Ayatollahi, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Inferior alveolar nerve block injection is one of the common intra oral anesthetic techniques, with a failure rate of 15-20%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the position of the lingula as an index for this injection. Materials and methods Thirty eight panoramic radiographs of 7–11 year old patients were analyzed and the distance between the lingula index and occlusal plane was measured. Then, lower alveolar nerve block injection was performed on 88 children. Finally, a visual analogue scale was used to measure the rate of pain in the patients. Results This distance increased with age and in children younger than nine years is −0.45 mm on the right side and −0.95 mm on the left side. This distance in children older than 9 years is −0.23 mm on the right side and 0.47 mm on the left side. The success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block injection based on lingual index were 49% on the right side and 53.8% on the left side. Conclusion As the lingual index has various positions and its distance from the occlusal plane increases with age, it is not an appropriate landmark for inferior alveolar nerve block injection. PMID:22991596

  20. Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Myopia and Ocular Biometry in 10- and 11-Year-Old Children: The Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G.; Nightingale, Claire M.; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Ethnic differences in childhood prevalence of myopia have not been well characterized in the United Kingdom. In this study, ethnic differences in refractive status and ocular biometry were examined in a multiethnic sample of British children. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study of 10- and 11-year-old school children of South Asian, black African Caribbean, and white European ethnic origin. Vision, open-field autorefraction (without cycloplegia), and ocular biometry were measured in each eye. Myopia was defined as spherical equivalent refraction of −0.50 D with unaided vision of 20/30 or worse (in one or both eyes). Ethnic differences in the prevalence of myopia were examined by using logistic regression, and multiple linear regression was used for ethnic differences in ocular biometry. All models were adjusted for age, sex, and clustering within school. Results. Data were available for 1179 children. The prevalence of myopia was 25.2%, 10.0%, and 3.4%, respectively, in the South Asian, black African Caribbean, and white European children. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of myopia compared with the white European children were 8.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.0 to 19.4) in the South Asian and 3.2 (95% CI, 1.4 to 7.2) in black African Caribbean children. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of myopia were largely accounted for by ethnic differences in axial length. The South Asian and black African Caribbean children had longer axial lengths (0.44 mm; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.57 mm and 0.30 mm; 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.44 mm, respectively). Conclusions. Among British children exposed to the same schooling environment, the South Asians had the highest prevalence of myopia, followed by the black African Caribbeans compared with the white Europeans. A quarter of British South Asian children were myopic, which is strongly related to increased axial length. PMID:20631242

  1. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity. PMID:24892903

  2. The Effects of Group Play Therapy on Self-Concept Among 7 to 11 Year-Old Children Suffering From Thalassemia Major

    PubMed Central

    Tomaj, Ome Kolsoum; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Taraneh; Borim Nejad, Leili; Dastoorpoor, Maryam; Ghasemi, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background Children suffering from thalassemia have higher levels of depression and lower levels of self-concept. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine if group play therapy could significantly increase self-concept among children with thalassemia major ages 7 to 11 years old in teaching hospitals of Golestan province, Iran, in 2012. Patients and Methods In this randomized, controlled clinical trial, 60 children with thalassemia major were randomly assigned to intervention (30 children) and control (30 children) groups. The intervention included eight 45 to 60 minute sessions during four weeks, during which the intervention group received group play therapy. The control group received no interventions. Self-concept was measured three times using the Piers-Harris children’s self-concept scale: before, immediately after, and a month after the intervention. Results For the intervention group, results showed that the mean self-concept score was significantly higher at the second point in time compared to the baseline (P < 0.001), going from 60.539 to 69.908. Likewise, comparing the first and third time points, the mean score significantly increased and reached 70.611 (P < 0.001). Furthermore, changes in the mean score from the second to the third time point, though non-significant (P = 0.509), followed the trend, going from 69.908 to 70.611. For the control group, comparing the first, second, and third time points did not result in any significant change in the mean score (P > 0.05). Conclusions The results showed that group play therapy improves self-concept in children suffering from thalassemia major. PMID:27275402

  3. Association between home and school food environments and dietary patterns among 9–11-year-old children in 12 countries

    PubMed Central

    Vepsäläinen, H; Mikkilä, V; Erkkola, M; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the roles of home and school environments on dietary patterns among children from 12 countries differing widely in geographic region and levels of human and economic development. Methods: The sample included a total of 6685 (54% girls) 9–11-year-old children. Parents/guardians reported the availability of certain foods in the home, and trained researchers performed school audits recording the availability of foods for sale at schools. Foods were then divided into wholesome (nutrient-dense) and empty-calorie (nutrient-poor) foods and scored according to their availability. Children reported if their school provided school lunch and how many times during the last week they had eaten meals prepared away from home and school. Via principal components analysis, data-driven dietary pattern scores were calculated from food frequency questionnaires. Multilevel models were used to study the associations between home and school food environments (wholesome and empty-calorie foods) and dietary patterns (healthy and unhealthy diet pattern scores). Results: For low unhealthy diet pattern scores, low availability of empty-calorie foods at home was found to be more important than high availability of wholesome foods. More meals eaten outside home and school were associated with the higher unhealthy diet pattern scores. The availability of wholesome foods at home was positively associated with the healthy diet pattern scores. Food availability at school was not associated with the dietary patterns. Conclusions: In this sample, the home food environment was more significant than the school food environment in predicting the dietary patterns. The availability of empty-calorie foods was associated with the unhealthy dietary pattern even when the availability of wholesome foods at home was high. Meals prepared away from home contributed to the unhealthy dietary pattern. Therefore, parents should be encouraged to limit the availability of empty

  4. Association of recent exposure to ambient metals on fractional exhaled nitric oxide in 9-11 year old inner-city children.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Maria José; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Divjan, Adnan; Chillrud, Steven N; Hoepner, Lori; Zhang, Hanjie; Ridder, Robert; Perera, Frederica P; Miller, Rachel L

    2014-08-31

    Exposure to ambient metals in urban environments has been associated with wheeze, and emergency room visits and hospitalizations due to respiratory illness. However, the effect of ambient metals exposure on airway inflammation, and how these associations may be modified by seroatopy, has not been determined. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a reliable proxy marker of airway inflammation. We hypothesized that recent ambient concentrations of Ni, V, Zn and Fe would be associated differentially with proximal and distal fractions of exhaled NO, and that these associations would be modified by seroatopy. As part of the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH) birth cohort study, 9-11 year old children (n=192) were evaluated. Ambient measures of Ni, V, Zn and Fe were obtained from a local central monitoring site and averaged over 9 days based on three 24h measures every third day. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) samples were obtained at constant flows of 50 (FENO50), 83 and 100mL/s, and used to determine surrogate measures for proximal (JNO) and alveolar (Calv) inflammation. Seroatopy was determined by specific IgE at age 7. Data were analyzed using multivariable linear regression. Ambient V and Fe concentrations were associated positively with FENO50 (p=0.018, p=0.027). Ambient Fe was associated positively with JNO (p=0.017). Ambient Ni and V concentrations were associated positively with Calv (p=0.004, p=0.018, respectively). A stronger association of Ni concentrations with Calv was observed among the children with seroatopy. These results suggest that ambient metals are associated differentially with different fractions of FENO production, and this relationship may be modified by seroatopy. PMID:24878380

  5. Vitamin D status is associated with cardiometabolic markers in 8-11-year-old children, independently of body fat and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Damsgaard, Camilla T

    2015-11-28

    Vitamin D status has been associated with cardiometabolic markers even in children, but the associations may be confounded by fat mass and physical activity behaviour. This study investigated associations between vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk profile, as well as the impact of fat mass and physical activity in Danish 8-11-year-old children, using baseline data from 782 children participating in the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study. We assessed vitamin D status as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and measured blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, homoeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, plasma lipids, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and physical activity by 7 d accelerometry during August-November. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Each 10 mmol/l 25(OH)D increase was associated with lower diastolic blood pressure (-0·3 mmHg, 95 % CI -0·6, -0·0) (P=0·02), total cholesterol (-0·07 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·10, -0·05), LDL-cholesterol (-0·05 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·08, -0·03), TAG (-0·02 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·03, -0·01) (P≤0·001 for all lipids) and lower metabolic syndrome (MetS) score (P=0·01). Adjustment for fat mass index did not change the associations, but the association with blood pressure became borderline significant after adjustment for physical activity (P=0·06). In conclusion, vitamin D status was negatively associated with blood pressure, plasma lipids and a MetS score in Danish school children with low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and apart from blood pressure the associations were independent of body fat and physical activity. The potential underlying cause-effect relationship and possible long-term implications should be investigated in randomised controlled trials. PMID:26382732

  6. "I'm on it 24/7 at the moment": A qualitative examination of multi-screen viewing behaviours among UK 10-11 year olds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Screen-viewing has been associated with increased body mass, increased risk of metabolic syndrome and lower psychological well-being among children and adolescents. There is a shortage of information about the nature of contemporary screen-viewing amongst children especially given the rapid advances in screen-viewing equipment technology and their widespread availability. Anecdotal evidence suggests that large numbers of children embrace the multi-functionality of current devices to engage in multiple forms of screen-viewing at the same time. In this paper we used qualitative methods to assess the nature and extent of multiple forms of screen-viewing in UK children. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 10-11 year old children (n = 63) who were recruited from five primary schools in Bristol, UK. Topics included the types of screen-viewing in which the participants engaged; whether the participants ever engaged in more than one form of screen-viewing at any time and if so the nature of this multiple viewing; reasons for engaging in multi-screen-viewing; the room within the house where multi-screen-viewing took place and the reasons for selecting that room. All focus groups were transcribed verbatim, anonymised and thematically analysed. Results Multi-screen viewing was a common behaviour. Although multi-screen viewing often involved watching TV, TV viewing was often the background behaviour with attention focussed towards a laptop, handheld device or smart-phone. There were three main reasons for engaging in multi-screen viewing: 1) tempering impatience that was associated with a programme loading; 2) multi-screen facilitated filtering out unwanted content such as advertisements; and 3) multi-screen viewing was perceived to be enjoyable. Multi-screen viewing occurred either in the child's bedroom or in the main living area of the home. There was considerable variability in the level and timing of viewing and this appeared to be a function of whether

  7. Hyperthyroidism Presenting With Pathologic Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Sarezky, Margaret D.; Corwin, Daniel J.; Harrison, Victor S.; Jacobstein, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that thyroid hormone directly stimulates bone resorption in in vitro organ culture, and in adults excess thyroid hormone is associated with decreased bone mineral density. There are limited data in children regarding the effect of hyperthyroidism on bone metabolism and even fewer instances in the literature of hyperthyroidism presenting with bone demineralization and fracture. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy with undiagnosed hyperthyroidism presenting with fractures and osteoporosis. This case emphasizes the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis when a patient presents with a pathologic fracture. PMID:26746406

  8. Dr. von Braun Visits Huntsville Boys Club

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Dr. von Braun, Director of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and chairman of this year's United Givers Fund (UGF) drive at MSFC, takes time out from the problems of sending a man to the Moon to talk baseball with 11-year-old Randy Smith at the Huntsville Boys Club.

  9. The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise B; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Lauritzen, Lotte; Michaelsen, Kim F; Egelund, Niels

    2015-04-28

    It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794). The d2 test of attention, the Learning Rating Scale (LRS) and standard tests on reading and mathematics proficiency were administered at baseline and at the end of each study period. Intervention effects were evaluated using hierarchical mixed models. The school meal intervention did not influence concentration performance (CP; primary outcome, n 693) or processing speed; however, the decrease in error percentage was 0·18 points smaller (P<0·001) in the intervention period than in the control period (medians: baseline 2·03%; intervention 1·46%; control 1·37%). In contrast, the intervention increased reading speed (0·7 sentence, P=0·009) and the number of correct sentences (1·8 sentences, P<0·001), which corresponded to 11 and 25%, respectively, of the effect of one school year. The percentage of correct sentences also improved (P<0·001), indicating that the number correct improved relatively more than reading speed. There was no effect on overall math performance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention. These findings are worth examining in future trials. PMID:25791747

  10. Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8-11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Laursen, Rikke P; Ritz, Christian; Hjorth, Mads F; Lauritzen, Lotte; Sørensen, Louise B; Petersen, Rikke A; Andersen, Malene R; Stender, Steen; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Mølgaard, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2014-12-14

    An increasing number of children are exhibiting features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) including abdominal fatness, hypertension, adverse lipid profile and insulin resistance. Healthy eating practices during school hours may improve the cardiometabolic profile, but there is a lack of evidence. In the present study, the effect of provision of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on a MetS score (primary outcome) and on individual cardiometabolic markers and body composition (secondary outcomes) was investigated in 834 Danish school children. The study was carried out as a cluster-randomised, controlled, non-blinded, cross-over trial at nine schools. Children aged 8-11 years received freshly prepared school lunch and snacks or usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months. Dietary intake, physical activity, cardiometabolic markers and body composition were measured at baseline and after each dietary period. The school meals did not affect the MetS score (P= 1.00). However, it was found that mean arterial pressure was reduced by 0.4 (95% CI 0.0, 0.8) mmHg (P= 0.04), fasting total cholesterol concentrations by 0.05 (95% CI 0.02, 0.08) mmol/l (P= 0.001), HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00, 0.03) mmol/l, TAG concentrations by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00, 0.04) mmol/l (both P< 0.05), and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance by 0.10 (95% CI 0.04, 0.16) points (P= 0.001) compared with the control diet in the intention-to-treat analyses. Waist circumference increased 0.5 (95% CI 0.3, 0.7) cm (P< 0.001), but BMI z-score remained unaffected. Complete-case analyses and analyses adjusted for household educational level, pubertal status and physical activity confirmed the results. In conclusion, the school meals did not affect the MetS score in 8-11-year-olds, as small improvements in blood pressure, TAG concentrations and insulin resistance were counterbalanced by slight undesired effects on waist circumference and HDL

  11. Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid in Whole Blood Are Differentially and Sex-Specifically Associated with Cardiometabolic Risk Markers in 8–11-Year-Old Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Eidner, Maj B.; Stark, Ken D.; Hjorth, Mads F.; Sjödin, Anders; Andersen, Malene R.; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cardiovascular risk markers in adults. These effects may differ between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20∶5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22∶6n-3), but we lack evidence in children. Using baseline data from the OPUS School Meal Study we 1) investigated associations between EPA and DHA in whole blood and early cardiometabolic risk markers in 713 children aged 8–11 years and 2) explored potential mediation through waist circumference and physical activity and potential dietary confounding. We collected data on parental education, pubertal stage, 7-day dietary records, physical activity by accelerometry and measured anthropometry, blood pressure, and heart rate. Blood samples were analyzed for whole blood fatty acid composition, cholesterols, triacylglycerol, insulin resistance by the homeostatic model of assessment (HOMA-IR), and inflammatory markers. Whole blood EPA was associated with a 2.7 mmHg (95% CI 0.4; 5.1) higher diastolic blood pressure per weight% EPA, but only in boys. Heart rate was negatively associated with both EPA and DHA status (P = 0.02 and P = 0.002, respectively). Whole blood EPA was negatively associated with triacylglycerol (P = 0.003) and positively with total cholesterol, low density and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and HDL:triacylglycerol (all P<0.01) whereas DHA was negatively associated with insulin and HOMA-IR (P = 0.003) and tended to be negatively associated with a metabolic syndrome-score (P = 0.05). Adjustment for waist circumference and physical activity did not change the associations. The association between DHA and HOMA-IR was attenuated but remained after adjustment for fiber intake and none of the other associations were confounded by dietary fat, protein, fiber or energy intake. This study showed that EPA status was negatively associated with triacylglycerol and positively with cholesterols whereas DHA was negatively associated with

  12. Case Report: "Purely" Psychiatric Presentation of Multiple Sclerosis in an Adolescent Boy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treadwell-Deering, Diane; Evankovich, Karen; Lotze, Tim

    2007-01-01

    We present the case of a 14-year-old Hispanic boy with a 6-month history of a psychotic disorder necessitating several hospitalizations who was incidentally found to have multiple sclerosis with no physical findings. Neuropsychological assessment has revealed impairments in word-finding, bilateral fine motor skills, and attention. Imaging and…

  13. Promoting the Acceptance of Sexual Diversity in a Class of Fifth Grade Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Eleanor T.

    2008-01-01

    A systemic approach was used to modify school climate in a study involving a boy with stereotypically feminine behaviors. School psychology students held a series of group counseling sessions on alternate weeks with a class of four 11-year-old fifth grade boys to promote the acceptance of diversity. At the beginning of the school year, a great…

  14. The Effects of Biofeedback and Relaxation Training on Memory Tasks among Hyperactive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study examined the effects of biofeedback and relaxation training on memory tasks among 48 hyperactive boys (9-11 years old). Relaxation training in combination with biofeedback was useful in helping the boys achieve better muscle relaxation and perform better on a paired-associate memory task than did a control group. (Author/CB)

  15. Television viewing and food intake during television viewing in normal-weight, overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear if children of different weight status differ in their nutritional habits while watching television. The objective of the present paper was to determine if children who are overweight or obese differ in their frequency of consumption of six food items while watching television compared with their normal-weight counterparts. A cross-sectional study of 550 children (57·1 % female; mean age = 10 years) from Ottawa, Canada was conducted. Children's weight status was categorised using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-points. Questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching per day and the frequency of consumption of six types of foods while watching television. Overweight/obese children watched more television per day than normal-weight children (3·3 v. 2·7 h, respectively; P = 0·001). Obese children consumed fast food and fruits/vegetables more frequently while watching television than normal-weight or overweight children (P < 0·05). Children who watched more than 4 h of television per d had higher odds (OR 3·21; 95% CI 1·14, 9·03; P = 0·03) of being obese, independent of several covariates, but not independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The finding that both television watching and the frequency of consumption of some food items during television watching are higher in children who are obese is concerning. While the nature of the present study does not allow for the determination of causal pathways, future research should investigate these weight-status differences to identify potential areas of intervention. PMID:26090104

  16. [Lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome revealing systemic lupus in an 11-year old girl in a context of clinical and biological emergency].

    PubMed

    Favier, Rémi; Kheyar, Tassadit; Renolleau, Sylvain; Tabone, Marie Dominique; Favier, Marie; Ulinski, Tim

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome (LAHPS) in an 11 year old girl initially hospitalized for bleeding. The patient presented with petechia, persisting bleeding after tooth extraction performed two days before, nephritic syndrome (renal failure, proteinuria and macroscopic hematuria), severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia. The association of these abnormalities suggested LAHPS secondary to severe systemic lupus. Immediate treatment with fresh frozen plasma and intravenous immunoglobulins (400 mg/kg/5d) was started and followed by steroid (500 mg/d) and cyclophosphamide (800 mg/m(2)) pulse therapy leading to rapid improvement of bleeding, renal involvement and prothrombin levels within 13 days. Lupus diagnosis was confirmed by immunological investigations and renal biopsy. Two early relapses occurred despite adequate treatment. After a follow-up of two years, no further disease activity is noted while the patient is treated only by mycophenolate mofetil (1 200 mg/m(2)/d). LAHPS did not relapse during this follow-up. PMID:22484537

  17. Pott puffy tumor in a 4-year-old boy presenting in status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Strony, Robert J; Dula, David

    2007-11-01

    Pott puffy tumor is an osteomyelitis of the frontal bone with the development of a subperiosteal abscess manifesting as a puffy swelling of the forehead or scalp. It is believed to occur as a complication of frontal sinusitis. The modern antibiotic era has made it a rarely encountered entity. This case describes a 4-year-old boy who presented in status epilepticus secondary to Pott puffy tumor. PMID:18007214

  18. Gastric adenocarcinoma presenting with thromboembolism in a 13-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Wendy L M

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal pain is a frequent complaint in the pediatric emergency department. A 13-year-old boy presented with complaints of abdominal pain, hematemesis, headache, and leg pain. Further investigation revealed an advanced-stage gastric adenocarcinoma with multiple thromboembolism including the greater saphenous vein and nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. This case points out the challenges of diagnosing this rare condition and treating the primary tumor and thromboembolism in the setting of both hypercoagulable state and gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:25738239

  19. "If You Don't Kiss Me, You're Dumped": Boys, Boyfriends and Heterosexualized Masculinities in the Primary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renold, Emma

    2003-01-01

    An ethnographic study of 10-11 year-old boys' construction of gender and sexual identities illustrates the complex and contradictory aspects of heterosexuality. The study suggests how boys define their heterosexualities through projections of fantasies, imagined futures, misogynistic objectification of females, and homophobic performances.…

  20. A selective IgA deficiency in a boy who presented recurrent parotitis

    PubMed Central

    Patıroglu, T.; Duman, L.

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent parotitis is a non-obstructive, non-suppurative inflammatory disease which is characterized by unilateral or bilateral parotid gland swelling attacks. It is also known as juvenile recurrent parotitis. Although the etiology is unknown, congenital malformations of the ductus, genetic predisposition, infections, allergies, autoimmune diseases, and some immune deficiencies are blamed. Here, we present a case report of recurrent parotitis with selective immunoglobulin A deficiency in a six-year-old boy. The patient was presented to us with a new episode of swelling of left parotid region. In the last 2 years, the patient suffered from recurrent parotitis which lasted for approximately 5 days in ten individual episodes. PMID:24883201

  1. Granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) presenting as colo-colic intussusception in a 16-year-old boy: an unusual presentation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh; Chawla, Inderjit; Singh, Vishwajeet; Singh, Karnail

    2014-01-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with intestinal obstruction with left lumbar mass. On evaluation with ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced CT of abdomen he was found to have left colo-colic intussusception. On exploratory laparotomy he was found to have invagination of necrosed distal transverse colon and splenic flexure with omentum into descending colon with enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes for which left hemicolectomy was performed. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry was suggestive of submucosal infiltration by immature myeloid precursors with few metamyelocytes and occasional eosinophils and the cells showed cytoplasmic granular positivity with myeloperoxidase stain suggestive of granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma—extra-medullary manifestation of acute myeloid leukaemia). Our patient received three cycles of cytarabine+daunorubicin chemotherapy in the postoperative period and is doing well at 12 months of follow-up. Granulocytic sarcoma (chloroma) presenting as colo-colic intussusception is very rare and has not been reported in literature so far. PMID:25150243

  2. The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ): a unidimensional item response theory and categorical data factor analysis of self-report ratings from a community sample of 7-through 11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Carla; Goodyer, Ian M; Croudace, Tim J

    2006-06-01

    Item response theory (IRT) and categorical data factor analysis (CDFA) are complementary methods for the analysis of the psychometric properties of psychiatric measures that purport to measure latent constructs. These methods have been applied to relatively few child and adolescent measures. We provide the first combined IRT and CDFA analysis of a clinical measure (the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire--SMFQ) in a community sample of 7-through 11-year-old children. Both latent variable models supported the internal construct validity of a single underlying continuum of severity of depressive symptoms. SMFQ items discriminated well at the more severe end of the depressive latent trait. Item performance was not affected by age, although age correlated significantly with latent SMFQ scores suggesting that symptom severity increased within the age period of 7-11. These results extend existing psychometric studies of the SMFQ and confirm its scaling properties as a potential dimensional measure of symptom severity of childhood depression in community samples. PMID:16649000

  3. A Boy with a Mild Case of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome with Above Average Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacassie, Yves; Bobadilla, Olga; Cambias, Ron D., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of an 11-year-old boy who represents the only documented case of an individual with Cornelia de Lange syndrome who also has above average cognitive functioning. Major diagnostic criteria for de Lange syndrome and comparisons with other severe and mild cases are discussed. (Author/CR)

  4. Developmental transitions in presentations of externalizing problems among boys and girls at risk for child maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    VILLODAS, MIGUEL T.; LITROWNIK, ALAN J.; THOMPSON, RICHARD; JONES, DEBORAH; ROESCH, SCOTT C.; HUSSEY, JON M.; BLOCK, STEPHANIE; ENGLISH, DIANA J.; DUBOWITZ, HOWARD

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of children’s maltreatment experiences on the emergence of externalizing problem presentations among children during different developmental periods. The sample included 788 youth and their caregivers who participated in a multisite, prospective study of youth at-risk for maltreatment. Externalizing problems were assessed at ages 4, 8, and 12, and symptoms and diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder were assessed at age 14, during interviews with youth and caregivers. Information about maltreatment allegations was coded from official records. Latent transition analysis identified three groups of youth with similar presentations of externalizing problems (“well adjusted,” “hyperactive/oppositional,” and “aggressive/rule-breaking”) and transitions between groups from ages 4, 8, and 12. A “defiant/deceitful” group also emerged at age 12. Girls were generally more likely to present as well adjusted than boys. Children with recent physical abuse allegations had an increased risk for aggressive/rule-breaking presentations during the preschool and preadolescent years, while children with sexual abuse or neglect allegations had lower probabilities of having well-adjusted presentations during middle childhood. These findings indicate that persistently severe aggressive conduct problems, which are related to the most concerning outcomes, can be identified early, particularly among neglected and physically and sexually abused children. PMID:25045912

  5. The reliability and validity of a short food frequency questionnaire among 9–11-year olds: a multinational study on three middle-income and high-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Saloheimo, T; González, S A; Erkkola, M; Milauskas, D M; Meisel, J D; Champagne, C M; Tudor-Locke, C; Sarmiento, O; Katzmarzyk, P T; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a food frequency questionnaire with 23 food groups (I-FFQ) among a sample of 9–11-year-old children from three different countries that differ on economical development and income distribution, and to assess differences between country sites. Furthermore, we assessed factors associated with I-FFQ's performance. Methods: This was an ancillary study of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment. Reliability (n=321) and validity (n=282) components of this study had the same participants. Participation rates were 95% and 70%, respectively. Participants completed two I-FFQs with a mean interval of 4.9 weeks to assess reliability. A 3-day pre-coded food diary (PFD) was used as the reference method in the validity analyses. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, intraclass correlation coefficients and cross-classifications were used to assess the reliability of I-FFQ. Spearman correlation coefficients, percentage difference and cross-classifications were used to assess the validity of I-FFQ. A logistic regression model was used to assess the relation of selected variables with the estimate of validity. Analyses based on information in the PFDs were performed to assess how participants interpreted food groups. Results: Reliability correlation coefficients ranged from 0.37 to 0.78 and gross misclassification for all food groups was <5%. Validity correlation coefficients were below 0.5 for 22/23 food groups, and they differed among country sites. For validity, gross misclassification was <5% for 22/23 food groups. Over- or underestimation did not appear for 19/23 food groups. Logistic regression showed that country of participation and parental education were associated (P⩽0.05) with the validity of I-FFQ. Analyses of children's interpretation of food groups suggested that the meaning of most food groups was understood by the children. Conclusion: I-FFQ is a

  6. Atypical presentation of perforated peptic ulcer disease in a 12-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Mbarushimana, Simon; Morris-Stiff, Gareth; Thomas, George

    2014-01-01

    A 12-year-old boy was referred to the surgical unit with 4 h history of severe lower abdominal pain and bilious vomiting. No other symptoms were reported and there was no significant medical or family history. Examination revealed tenderness in the lower abdomen, in particular the left iliac fossa. His white cell count was elevated at 19.6×109/L, with a predominant neutrophilia of 15.8×109/L and a C reactive protein of <0.3 mg/L. An abdominal X-ray revealed intraperitoneal gas and a chest X-ray identified free air under both hemidiaphragms. Subsequent diagnostic laparoscopy identified a perforated duodenal ulcer that was repaired by means of an omental patch. The case illustrates that although uncommon, alternate diagnoses must be borne in mind in children presenting with lower abdominal pain and diagnostic laparoscopy is a useful tool in children with visceral perforation as it avoids treatment delays and exposure to excess radiation. PMID:24973349

  7. Altering the function of commands presented to boys with oppositional and hyperactive behavior

    PubMed Central

    Danforth, Jeffrey S.

    2002-01-01

    Mentalistic and behavioral analyses of noncompliance among children with hyperactive behavior are contrasted. Then, a behavioral training program for 3 boys with behavior characteristic of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder is described. The child-focused training was conducted in conjunction with parent training. In an effort to increase the rate of compliance, the child-training program was designed to alter the function of parent commands by teaching the boys to verbalize rules about parent commands and consequences in the context of observing parent—child role-plays. Training was conducted within a multiple baseline design across children. Direct observation of mother—child interactions, telephone interviews, and standardized rating scales showed that training resulted in clinically significant reductions in noncompliance and improved parenting behavior. A 6-month follow-up revealed stable outcomes. PMID:22477227

  8. The present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Gahtany, Abdulrahman Mohammed

    The purpose of this study was to describe the present status of geography education in boys' intermediate schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia as perceived by geography teachers and supervisors; that is, to investigate the objectives, content, methods of teaching, tools and resources that are available and used in classrooms, evaluation techniques, and problems encountered in the teaching of geography. To collect data from this representative sample population, a questionnaire was developed by the researcher specifically for this study. Questionnaire data was collected from 19 social studies supervisors and 213 geography teachers. Percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations were computed for each questionnaire item. Chi Square tests were applied to determine if any significant differences could be identified between the observed and expected responses of supervisors and teachers. Major findings of the study indicated that both supervisors and teachers tend to strongly support the identified geography objectives. Most teachers and supervisors also indicated that the current geography curriculum contains enough information about Saudi Arabia, the Arabic world, and the Islamic world. In addition, the also indicated that geography content promotes a sense of patriotism and cultural pride. Responses indicated that educators see deficiencies in the content: it does not focus sufficiently on current events nor on developing student skills such as research and technical skills like drawing maps. Lecture and discussion are the most commonly used strategies in the teaching of geography. Field trips, role-playing, scientific competitions, scientific games, solving problems, and individual learning are less commonly used. Teaching tools most commonly used are wall maps and earth globes, whereas the use of geographical transparencies, models, and instruments is not common. Most of the teachers do lot use computers in their teaching. Evaluation techniques depend

  9. DOCK8 deficiency in a boy who presented with a giant aortic aneurysm between aortic root and iliac bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Patıroğlu, Türkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Doğan, Mehmet Sait; Üzüm, Kazım

    2016-06-01

    Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) deficiency is an autosomal recessive, inherited form of hyper-immunoglobulin E (hyper-IgE) syndrome, characterized by persistent cutaneous viral infections, elevated IgE, eosinophilia, and allergic manifestations. The case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with giant aortic aneurysm between the aortic root and iliac bifurcation is described in the present report. Aortic aneurysm of this size has not yet been reported. PMID:27372622

  10. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome presenting with glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Kanegane, Hirokazu; Vilela, Maria Marluce dos Santos; Wang, Yue; Futatani, Takeshi; Matsukura, Hiroyoshi; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2003-05-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is characterized clinically by chronic non-malignant lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity and is caused by a genetic defect in programmed cell death (apoptosis). Most patients with ALPS have heterozygous mutations in the Fas gene. We describe an 11-year-old Brazilian boy with hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, hemolytic anemia, and hypergammaglobulinemia since early infancy. T cell lines from the patient were defective in Fas-mediated apoptosis. He was diagnosed as having ALPS and found to have a novel Fas gene mutation (IVS4+1G>A). In addition, he presented with glomerulonephritis in infancy. An aunt and uncle who had the same Fas mutations also had histories of glomerulonephritis. Although glomerulonephritis is common in Fas-deficient mice, it is infrequent in human ALPS. Corticosteroid therapy ameliorated the glomerulonephritis in our patient, as well as his lymphoproliferation, anemia, and hypergammaglobulinemia. This study suggests that glomerulonephritis is one of the characteristic features of ALPS. PMID:12736807

  11. Correlates of Total Sedentary Time and Screen Time in 9–11 Year-Old Children around the World: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Allana G.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Church, Timothy S.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Harrington, Deirdre M.; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previously, studies examining correlates of sedentary behavior have been limited by small sample size, restricted geographic area, and little socio-cultural variability. Further, few studies have examined correlates of total sedentary time (SED) and screen time (ST) in the same population. This study aimed to investigate correlates of SED and ST in children around the world. Methods The sample included 5,844 children (45.6% boys, mean age = 10.4 years) from study sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Child- and parent-reported behavioral, household, and neighborhood characteristics and directly measured anthropometric and accelerometer data were obtained. Twenty-one potential correlates of SED and ST were examined using multilevel models, adjusting for sex, age, and highest parental education, with school and study site as random effects. Variables that were moderately associated with SED and/or ST in univariate analyses (p<0.10) were included in the final models. Variables that remained significant in the final models (p<0.05) were considered correlates of SED and/or ST. Results Children averaged 8.6 hours of daily SED, and 54.2% of children failed to meet ST guidelines. In all study sites, boys reported higher ST, were less likely to meet ST guidelines, and had higher BMI z-scores than girls. In 9 of 12 sites, girls engaged in significantly more SED than boys. Common correlates of higher SED and ST included poor weight status, not meeting physical activity guidelines, and having a TV or a computer in the bedroom. Conclusions In this global sample many common correlates of SED and ST were identified, some of which are easily modifiable (e.g., removing TV from the bedroom), and others that may require more intense behavioral interventions (e.g., increasing physical activity). Future work should incorporate these findings into the development of

  12. Increased Cross-Gender Identification Independent of Gender Role Behavior in Girls with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Results from a Standardized Assessment of 4- to 11-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Pasterski, Vickie; Zucker, Kenneth J; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Hines, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    While reports showing a link between prenatal androgen exposure and human gender role behavior are consistent and the effects are robust, associations to gender identity or cross-gender identification are less clear. The aim of the current study was to investigate potential cross-gender identification in girls exposed prenatally to high concentrations of androgens due to classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Assessment included two standardized measures and a short parent interview assessing frequency of behavioral features of cross-gender identification as conceptualized in Part A of the diagnostic criteria for gender identity disorder (GID) in the DSM-IV-TR. Next, because existing measures may have conflated gender role behavior with gender identity and because the distinction is potentially informative, we factor analyzed items from the measures which included both gender identity and gender role items to establish the independence of the two constructs. Participants were 43 girls and 38 boys with CAH and 41 unaffected female and 31 unaffected male relatives, aged 4- to 11-years. Girls with CAH had more cross-gender responses than female controls on all three measures of cross-gender identification as well as on a composite measure of gender identity independent of gender role behavior. Furthermore, parent report indicated that 5/39 (12.8 %) of the girls with CAH exhibited cross-gender behavior in all five behavioral domains which comprise the cross-gender identification component of GID compared to 0/105 (0.0 %) of the children in the other three groups combined. These data suggest that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally are more likely to show cross-gender identification than girls without CAH or boys with and without CAH. Our findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure could play a role in gender identity development in healthy children, and may be relevant to gender assignment in cases of prenatal hormone disruption

  13. Development in a 46 XX boy with positive SRY gene.

    PubMed

    Rego, A; Margarit, E; Estivill, X; Regal, M; García-Mayor, R V

    1996-01-01

    We present the case of an 11 year-old boy, who asked for medical attention due to obesity and assumed underdeveloped external genitalia. He did not have genital anomalies, penile length was 5.3 cm, testicular volume 2 ml and pubic hair Tanner stage 1. His bone age was normal for chronological age. Endocrinological study showed normal results for his age. Karyotype revealed a 46 XX pattern. MRI of external genitalia showed bilateral scrotal testes which were normal in diameter for his age. The check of his historical growth chart and follow-up revealed normal growth with spontaneous pubertal development. However, hormonal studies showed progressive increase of FSH levels, indicative of failure of germinal epithelium. The presence of Y sequences, including SRY gene, was demonstrated by PCR. Our observation is in agreement with the view that 46 XX male subjects diagnosed at peripubertal age with the SRY gene in the genome have a good prognosis regarding growth and development, but the principal problem of these patients is infertility. PMID:9004179

  14. Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts in 8-year-old boy: A case report and literature review of a rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Babar; Riaz, Muhammad; Bari, Muhammad Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts are very rare with only a few reports in the literature detailing diagnostic workup, medical management, surgical techniques, possible complications, and outcomes. Case Description: We present the case of an 8-year-old boy who presented with progressively worsening headaches, vomiting, and intermittent fever since 20 days. Diagnostic workup was performed, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple intracranial cysts predominantly in the right frontal region with significant mass effect. A total of 19 intracranial cysts were removed surgically, and the child recovered uneventfully. Conclusions: Neurosurgeons should keep hydatidosis in the list of differentials when evaluating patients with cystic diseases of the brain. Although the removal of such cysts is challenging, outcomes are excellent when cysts are evacuated without rupture and patients show complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:26257983

  15. Tall stature as presenting symptom in a girl with triple X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Liebezeit, B U; Rohrer, T R; Singer, H; Doerr, H G

    2003-02-01

    An 11 year-old girl presented with 47,XXX karyotype. Our report emphasizes the fact that triple X syndrome has also to be considered in girls presenting with tall stature that is not explained by parental heights. PMID:12713263

  16. Traumatic penile amputation in a 15-year-old boy presenting late in northwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Musa, Muhammad Ujudud; Abdulmajid, Umar Farouk; Mashi, Sharfuddeen Abbas; Yunusa, Bashir

    2016-08-01

    Traumatic penile amputation is a serious urological emergency, although rare whenever it happens, there is a need to refer the patient early to urologist within 24 h, with the stump wrapped in saline; unfortunately, our patient presented late and as such could not benefit from penile reimplantation. PMID:27525085

  17. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the new Nordic diet and on packed lunches: a randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Anne V; Lassen, Anne D; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Christensen, Lene M; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare total food intake, total and relative edible plate waste and self-reported food likings between school lunch based on the new Nordic diet (NND) and packed lunch from home. In two 3-month periods in a cluster-randomised controlled unblinded cross-over study 3rd- and 4th-grade children (n 187) from two municipal schools received lunch meals based on NND principles and their usual packed lunch (control). Food intake and plate waste (n 1558) were calculated after weighing lunch plates before and after the meal for five consecutive days and self-reported likings (n 905) assessed by a web-based questionnaire. Average food intake was 6 % higher for the NND period compared with the packed lunch period. The quantity of NND intake varied with the menu (P < 0·0001) and was positively associated with self-reported likings. The edible plate waste was 88 (sd 80) g for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P < 0·0001), with more waste on soup days (36 %) and vegetarian days (23 %) compared with the packed lunch period. Self-reported likings were negatively associated with percentage plate waste (P < 0·0001). The study suggests that portion sizes need to be considered in new school meal programmes. New strategies with focus on reduction of plate waste, children's likings and nutritious school meals are crucial from both a nutritional, economic and environmental point of view. PMID:26097703

  18. A Rare and Unusual Case of Burkitt's Lymphoma Presenting with a Prostate Mass in a 12-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, N.; Babyn, P.; Kinloch, M.; Sinha, R.

    2014-01-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is the most frequent subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in childhood. Radiographic findings are protean and can often overlap with other neoplastic and nonneoplastic processes. We present an unusual case of Burkitt's lymphoma in a 12-year-old boy presenting with a one-week history of urinary retention, dysuria, and “tailbone pain,” as well as a 4-week history of jaw pain, initially treated as a dental abscess. On dental radiography, the patient was found to have resorption of alveolar bone adjacent to the lower first molars bilaterally, in keeping with “floating teeth,” classically associated with Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Additionally, a large, eccentric, prostatic mass was noted, prompting the inclusion of rhabdomyosarcoma on the differential diagnosis, with subsequent definitive diagnosis of Burkitt's lymphoma on tissue and bone marrow biopsy. This case highlights the imaging overlap of these childhood neoplasms with an unusual lymphomatous prostate mass. It is important that the radiologists and pediatricians be aware of this potential overlap and the unusual presentation of Burkitt's lymphoma. PMID:24955275

  19. Hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor presenting in an 8-year-old boy: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hussaini, Hussa; Azouz, Haya; Abu-Zaid, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic inflammatory pseudotumors are uncommon benign lesions. Accurately diagnosing hepatic inflammatory pseudotumor can be very challenging because the clinical presentation and radiological appearances are nonspecific and cannot be certainly distinguished from malignant neoplastic processes. Herein, we present a case of hepatic IPT in an 8-year-old boy who presented to clinic with a 3-mo history of a tender hepatic mass, fever of unknown origin, and 9-kg weight loss. The physical examination was notable for tender hepatomegaly. Laboratory investigations were notable for a normal hepatic profile and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein. A T2-attenuated magnetic resonance imaging scan of the abdomen showed a 4.7 cm × 4.7 cm × 6.6 cm, contrast-enhancing, hyper-intense, well-defined lesion involving the right hepatic lobe. In view of the unremitting symptoms, tender hepatomegaly, thrombosed right hepatic vein, nonspecific radiological findings, and high suspicion of a deep-seated underlying infection or malignancy, a right hepatic lobectomy was recommended. Microscopically, the hepatic lesion exhibited a mixture of inflammatory cells (histiocytes, plasma cells, mature lymphocytes, and occasional multinucleated giant cells) in a background of dense fibrous tissue. Immunohistochemically, the cells stained negative for SMA, ALK-1, CD-21 and CD-23, diffusely positive for CD-68, and focally positive for IgG4. The final histopathological diagnosis was consistent with hepatic IPT. At the postoperative 4-mo follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic without radiological evidence of recurrence. PMID:26229415

  20. A unique presentation, and management, of acute urinary retention in a young boy with underlying vesicoureteral reflux.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag; Modgil, Vaibhav; Luscombe, Christopher; Liu, Samson

    2013-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) affects ∼1% of children. We present an unusual case of urinary retention secondary to an obstructing urethral stone, underlying reflux, and its management. A 7-year-old boy presenting with acute urinary retention had a palpable penile shaft swelling and patent urethral meatus on examination. Cysto-urethroscopy with a 6.6Fr ureteroscope, due to unavailability of paediatric instruments, revealed an obstructing calculus impacted in the navicular fossa. This was laser fragmented and extracted. Cystoscopy revealed multiple bladder calculi with a patulous right ureteric orifice. Post-operative investigations revealed a small, scarred right kidney (ultrasound), bilateral ureteric reflux (micturating-cystourethrogram), 4 cm by 0.8 cm right ureteric calculus (CT-KUB) and 4% right split renal function (DMSA). Right laparoscopic nephroureterectomy was subsequently performed. Our case highlights the variety with which VUR can present and the effectiveness of a ureteroscope in an emergency setting as an alternative to a paediatric cystoscope to visualize the urethra and the bladder. PMID:24963900

  1. Investigating Persuasive Writing by 9-11 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Roger; Burrell, Andrew; Homer, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Within research into children's persuasive writing, relatively little work has been done on the writing of advertisements, how such writing develops in the primary school years and the textual features that help to secure this development. Framed within rhetoric, writing and linguistics, an exploratory study was undertaken in which a standardised…

  2. T-cell sinonasal lymphoma presenting as acute orbit with extraocular muscle infiltration.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Antonio Augusto V; Leite, Lívio Viana de Oliveira; Chahud, Fernando; Neder, Luciano; Tone, Luiz Gonzaga; Valera, Elvis Terci; Elias, Jorge

    2004-11-01

    We describe a rare case of sinonasal T-cell lymphoma in an 11-year-old boy who presented with a right acute orbit characterized by proptosis, eyelid edema and erythema, limitation of eye movements, and excruciating pain on the right side of his face. Orbital computed tomography showed progressive right extraocular muscle enlargement. One biopsy specimen showed extensive tissue necrosis and an infiltrate of atypical cells with pleomorphic nuclei within the walls of blood vessels. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that these cells were positive for leucocyte common antigen (CD45), CD3 cytoplasmic, CD45RO, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase and negative for CD20, CD57, CD56, CD99 and Epstein-Barr virus. Chemotherapy for T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma was initiated, but the patient's status deteriorated and the child died of respiratory insufficiency, sepsis, and central nervous system infection. PMID:15599254

  3. Unsuspected glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency presenting as symptomatic methemoglobinemia with severe hemolysis after fava bean ingestion in a 6-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Odièvre, Marie-Hélène; Danékova, Névéna; Mesples, Bettina; Chemouny, Myriam; Couque, Nathalie; Parez, Nathalie; Ducrocq, Rolande; Elion, Jacques

    2011-05-01

    We report the occurrence of symptomatic methemoglobinemia in a previously healthy boy, who presented with severe acute hemolysis after fava bean ingestion. The methemoglobinemia revealed a previously unrecognized glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. We discuss the pathophysiology of severe methemoglobinemia when associated with acute hemolysis, favism, and the common African G6PD A-variant [G6PD, VAL68MET, ASN126ASP]. In conclusion, screening for G6PD deficiency must be considered in symptomatic methemoglobinemia, especially in young boys, when associated with intravascular hemolysis. PMID:21479984

  4. Boys and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores key gender differences in motivation from a quantitative perspective and presents findings from a qualitative study into boys' perceptions of motivating teachers and motivating pedagogy. Data collected from 3773 high school students suggest that girls score significantly higher than boys in their belief in the value of school,…

  5. [Mid-aortic syndrome in 2-year old boy presenting with severe left ventricular dysfunction; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Kouichi; Shinohara, Gen; Nomura, Koji

    2014-08-01

    Mid aortic syndrome is uncommon acquired or congenital condition characterized by segmental narrowing of the abdominal or distal descending thoracic aorta. If left untreated, it result in life threatening complications. We described the case of 2-year-old boy admitted to our hospital for hypertension and heart failure. Diagnosis of mid aortic syndrome was made with severe stenosis in distal descending aorta. With consideration of growth, we avoided bypass grafting and implantation with prothesic graft. For severe adhesion, we performed patch aortoplasty with 0.4 mm expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) patch. Postoperative course was unevetful. His blood pressure and left ventricular function was normalized. He was discharged on the 20st day after the surgery. PMID:25135414

  6. [Chronic cytomegalovirus infection that present specific clinical course--a case of a boy with common variable immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    Wada, Y; Sato, T; Kitajima, H; Kubo, M

    1995-04-01

    We describe an 8-year-old boy with CVID and chronic CMV infection. Although at onset he was diagnosed as IgA deficiency, 4 years after his clinical manifestations because compatible to CVID. During his clinical course he had suffered from various disorders as follows; AIHA, interstitial pneumonia, hemophagocytic syndrome, chronic gastroenterocolitis and so forth. At the age of 8 the PCR of CMV-DNA of biopsy specimen from colon, lung and bone marrow were confirmed to be positive. Hematological examinations revealed abnormal cellular immunity such as decreased CD 4/8 ratio with increased HLA- DR+ CD 8+ T cell, decrease of absolute blood lymphocytes count and reduced response of lymphocytes to blastogenetic agents. These findings brought us to diagnose him as having CVID complicated with chronic CMV infection. This case gives us some impact to speculate what role CMV infection plays in CVID, Whose etiology is unknown. PMID:7553061

  7. Diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in a young boy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Guan-Fook, Ng; Hayati, Abd Aziz; Raja-Azmi, Mohd Noor; Liza-Sharmini, Ahmad Tajudin; Wan-Hazabbah, Wan Hitam; Zunaina, Embong

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis in a young boy with no clinical visualization of nematode. The diagnosis was made based on clinical findings and detection of Toxocara immunoglobulin G by Western blot test. An 11-year-old Malay boy presented with progressive blurring of vision in the left eye for a duration of 1 year. It was associated with intermittent floaters. Visual acuity in the left eye was 6/45 and improved to 6/24 with pinhole. There was positive relative afferent pupillary defect, impaired color vision, and presence of red desaturation in the left eye. There were occasional cells in the anterior chamber with no conjunctiva injection. Posterior segment examination revealed mild-to-moderate vitritis and generalized pigmentary changes of the retina with attenuated vessels. The optic disk was slightly hyperemic with mild edema. There was presence of multiple, focal, gray-white subretinal lesions at the inferior part of the retina. Full blood picture results showed eosinophilia with detection of Toxocara immunoglobulin G by Western blot test. Investigations for other infective causes and connective tissue diseases were negative. The diagnosis of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis secondary to Toxocara was made based on clinical findings and laboratory results. He was treated with oral albendazole 400 mg daily for 5 days and oral prednisolone 1 mg/kg with tapering doses over 6 weeks. At 1 month follow-up, the inflammation had reduced, and multiple, focal, gray-white subretinal lesions were resolved; however there was no improvement of vision. PMID:22536041

  8. Breast carcinoma in a boy with metastatic axillary lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Aamir A; Ngwangki, Lodu S; Taha, Osman

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to highlight the clinicopathological features, diagnosis, management and prognosis of rare childhood breast cancer. We herein report a case of slowly growing, locally advanced secretory carcinoma of the breast in an 11-year-old boy with metastatic axillary lymph nodes, 12 of them were totally replaced by the tumor cells. No evidence of distant metastases was detected. Modified radical mastectomy with axillary clearance was done, with uneventful postoperative course. On searching the Sudan medical literature, no previous report of similar case was found. In conclusion, breast carcinoma, though a rare entity, yet should be borne in mind if a firm breast lump was found in a child. Fine needle aspiration cytology is effective to start with as a diagnostic tool.

  9. Successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a boy with X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis deficiency presenting with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ming-Yan; Guo, Xia; Sun, Shu-Wen; Li, Qiang; Zhu, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficiency, also known as X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2 (XLP2), is a rare inherited primary immunodeficiency resulting from the XIAP (also known as BIRC4) mutation. XIAP deficiency is mainly associated with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) phenotypes, and genetic testing is crucial in diagnosing this syndrome. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently the only successful strategy for the treatment of this disease; however, a limited number of studies has been published concerning the outcomes of allogeneic HSCT in patients with XIAP deficiency. The present study reported a successful allogeneic HSCT performed to treat XIAP deficiency in a Chinese boy presenting with HLH. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were performed to confirm the diagnosis of XIAP deficiency, and allogeneic HSCT was performed. Genetic tests revealed a two-nucleotide deletion (c.1021_1022delAA) in the patient, which was inherited from his mother, and resulted in frameshift mutation and premature stop codon (p.N341fsX348); this is considered to be a disease-causing mutation. The XIAP deficiency patient underwent allogeneic HSCT, receiving busulfan-containing reduced intensity myeloablative conditioning regimen, with a good intermediate follow-up result obtained. Therefore, genetic testing is essential to confirm the diagnosis of XIAP deficiency and detect the carrier of mutation. The present case study may promote the investigation of allogeneic HSCT in patients with XIAP deficiency. PMID:27602064

  10. Car Hits Boy on Bicycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present the fascinating reconstruction of an accident where a car hit a boy riding his bicycle. The boy dramatically flew several metres through the air after the collision and was injured, but made a swift and complete recovery from the accident with no long-term after-effects. Students are challenged to determine the speed of…

  11. Boys Will Be "Boys": Variability in Boys' Experiences of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokal, Laura; Katz, Herb; Adkins, Matthew; Gladu, Andrea; Jackson-Davis, Khalie; Kussin, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Sixty-nine grade 2 boys participated in a study of the effects of book genre and sex of reading model on boys' (a) view of reading as feminine, (b) intrinsic motivation toward reading, (c) interest in reading, and (d) attitude to reading. Differential effects occurred in boys based on whether they liked or disliked reading and whether they viewed…

  12. Effect of Visual Field Presentation on Action Planning (Estimating Reach) in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl; Cordova, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors examined the effects of target information presented in different visual fields (lower, upper, central) on estimates of reach via use of motor imagery in children (5-11 years old) and young adults. Results indicated an advantage for estimating reach movements for targets placed in lower visual field (LoVF), with all…

  13. Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8-11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke Agnete; Egelund, Niels; Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Stark, Ken D; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim Fleisher; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-11-28

    Fe and n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) have both been associated with cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in well-nourished school-aged children. In the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, the 3-month intervention increased reading performance, inattention, impulsivity and dietary intake of fish and Fe. This study investigated whether the intervention influenced n-3 LCPUFA and Fe status and, if so, explored how these changes correlated with the changes in cognitive performance. The study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial comparing school meals with packed lunch (control). At baseline and after each treatment, we measured serum ferritin, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA and Hb, and performance in reading, mathematics and d2-test of attention. Data were analysed using mixed models (n 726) and principal component analysis of test performances (n 644), which showed two main patterns: 'school performance' and 'reading comprehension'. The latter indicated that children with good reading comprehension were also more inattentive and impulsive (i.e. higher d2-test error%). The intervention improved 'school performance' (P=0·015), 'reading comprehension' (P=0·043) and EPA+DHA status 0·21 (95% CI 0·15, 0·27) w/w % (P<0·001), but it did not affect serum ferritin or Hb. At baseline, having small Fe stores was associated with poorer 'school performance' in girls, but with better 'reading comprehension' in both boys and girls. Both baseline EPA+DHA status and the intervention-induced increase in EPA+DHA status was positively associated with 'school performance', suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA could potentially explain approximately 20 % of the intervention effect. These exploratory associations indicate that increased fish intake might explain some of the increase in reading performance and inattention in the study. PMID:26359192

  14. Operation Sun Beam, Shot Small Boy. Project Officer's report - Project 6. 9. Correlation of present and previous electric-field measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Reno; Fowles, H.M.

    1985-09-01

    On most previous nuclear detonations, signatures and quantitative measurements of the electric-field signals associated with the detonations was obtained at distances such that normal radiation field characteristics apply. On Small Boy, measurements were made from stations located much closer in, such as to be inside, on the boundary of and just outside the limits of the ionized sphere created by the nuclear burst. The electric-field characteristics in these regions were unknown. In the hope of providing continuity from the region of the unknown into the reasonably well-understood region of the radiation field, this project was requested to make the typical radiation-field type of measurement that had been made on previous detonations. This report covers the signature characteristics and quantitative measurements of the electric-field signal from Small Boy as seen from outside the immediate region of theoretical generating mechanism.

  15. A Study of Attitudes in an All Boys' School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tickner, Anne-Marie

    This study examined the effect of single-sex schooling on the academic and social development of boys. An extensive literature review presents the conflicting results of studies of various issues related to single-sex education. Subjects of the present study were 39 boys in a fourth grade class at a boys school and 23 boys in a fourth grade class…

  16. Puberty in boys

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000650.htm Puberty in boys To use the sharing features on this page, ... body changes, when you develop from being a boy to a man. Learn what changes to expect ...

  17. Male patients presenting with rapidly progressive puberty associated with malignant tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Jung; Ko, A Ra; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Chae, Hyun Wook; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2016-01-01

    In males, precocious puberty (PP) is defined as the development of secondary sexual characteristics before age 9 years. PP is usually idiopathic; though, organic abnormalities including tumors are more frequently found in male patients with PP. However, advanced puberty in male also can be an important clinical manifestation in tumors. We report 2 cases of rapidly progressive puberty in males, each associated with a germ-cell tumor. First, an 11-year-old boy presented with mild fever and weight loss for 1 month. Physical examination revealed a pubertal stage of G3P3 with 10-mL testes. Investigations revealed advanced bone age (16 years) with elevated basal luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels. An anterior mediastinal tumor was identified by chest radiography and computed tomography, and elevated α-fetoprotein (AFP) and β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) levels were noted. Histopathologic analysis confirmed a yolk-sac tumor. Second, a 12-year-old boy presented with diplopia, polydipsia, and polyuria for 4 months. Physical examination revealed a pubertal stage of G3P3 with 8-mL testes. Bone age was advanced (16 years) and laboratory tests indicated panhypopituitarism with elevated testosterone level. A mixed germ-cell tumor was diagnosed with elevated AFP and β-hCG levels. Of course, these patients also have other symptoms of suspecting tumors, however, rapidly progressive puberty can be the more earlier screening sign of tumors. Therefore, in male patients with accelerated or advanced puberty, malignancy should be considered, with evaluation of tumor markers. In addition, advanced puberty in male should be recognized more widely as a unique sign of neoplasm. PMID:27104181

  18. The Mythical "Boy Crisis"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husain, Muna; Millimet, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The popular press has put forth the idea that the US educational system is experiencing a "boy crisis," where boys are losing ground to girls across multiple dimensions. Here, we analyze these claims in the context of math and reading achievement during early primary school. We reach two conclusions. First, white boys outperform white girls in…

  19. Bring Back the Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr-Chellman, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Boy culture is out of sync with school culture. There are several reasons for this, including zero tolerance policies that are too often taken to extremes, the lack of male teachers, and the compression of the curriculum. What's more, boy culture is not socially accepted, and boys quickly come to feel that they are not good at school. For many…

  20. Supporting Boys as Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafini, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The challenges associated with boys and reading are focused on such factors as society's lack of focus on literacy skills, parents failings to inspire reading in boys, and internal motivational factors rather than looking at the environments created for reading in and out of school. In this column, several ideas for helping boys develop a…

  1. Raising Better Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada, Geoffrey

    2000-01-01

    The author of "Reaching Up For Manhood" discusses troubling social/environmental conditions confronting boys. Raising better boys requires caring adults, safer risk-taking situations, positive reinforcement, and role models. Parents should monitor boys' media exposure, provide moral education, broaden their cultural and natural-world experiences,…

  2. The Wolf Boy

    PubMed Central

    Leckman, James F.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2005-01-01

    An adolescent boy presented with episodic wolf-like aggressive behaviors, for which his rural community planned an exorcism. Admission to a tertiary care hospital revealed an adolescent suffering an array of severe psychiatric symptoms, which best fit the diagnosis of reactive attachment disorder (RAD). The differential diagnosis included delusional disorder, mood problems, anxiety, schizophrenia, and “feral child” syndrome. Nosology and pathophysiology as well as pharmacological and psychosocial treatments are discussed. We highlight the importance of early life events in determining mental health risk and resiliency. PMID:21120097

  3. Asperger's syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Carol M.

    1987-01-01

    A case report is presented of an 11-year-old boy who has been diagnosed as having Asperger's syndrome. There follows a review of the clinical features, course, prognosis and management of this condition. PMID:2453672

  4. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 in a boy with t(14q14q) associated with a paternal t(13q14q)

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, D.J.; Waye, J.S.; Whelan, D.T.

    1994-09-01

    An 11-year-old boy was referred for chromosomal analysis because of precocious development and behavioral problems suggestive of the fragile X syndrome. The cytogenetic fragile X studies were normal, but a routine GTG-banded karyotype revealed an abnormal male karyotype with a Robertsonian translocation between the two chromosome 14`s: 46,XY,t(14q14q). Paternal karyotyping revealed another abnormal karyotype: 46,XY,t(13q14q). A brother had the same karyotype as the father; the mother was deceased. In order to determine if the apparently balanced t(14q14q) in the proband might be the cause of the clinical findings, molecular analysis of the origin of the chromosome 14`s was initiated. Southern blotting and hybridization with D4S13 showed that the proband had two copies of one maternal allele which was shared by his brother. The brother`s second allele corresponded to one of the paternal alleles; the proband had no alleles from the father. Analysis of four other VNTRs demonstrated the probability of paternity to be greater than 99%. Thus, the t(14q14q) was most likely composed of two maternal chromosome 14`s. Further characterization of the t(14q14q) by dinucleotide repeat polymorphic markers is in progress to determine whether it has arisen from maternal isodisomy or heterodisomy. Several cases of uniparental disomy for chromosome 14 have been reported recently. Paternal disomy appears to be associated with more severe congenital anomalies and mental retardation, whereas maternal disomy may be associated with premature puberty and minimal intellectual impairment. The origin of the t(14q14q) in the present case may be related to the paternal translocation, as the segregation of the t(13q14q) in meiosis could lead to sperm that are nullisomic for chromosome 14.

  5. Easy Growth Experiment on Peas Stimulates Interest in Biology for 10-11 Year Old Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    How do we support the enthusiasm children show for biology in school? Unfortunately, lack of exciting practical work and boring biology lessons seem to make science less popular. As a senior lecturer in plant physiology at Karlstad University I have simplified experiments intended for students at university and then tested them on 10-11 year old…

  6. Psychostimulant and Other Effects of Caffeine in 9- to 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heatherley, Susan V.; Hancock, Katie M. F.; Rogers, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent research on adults suggests that "beneficial" psychostimulant effects of caffeine are found only in the context of caffeine deprivation; that is, caffeine improves psychomotor and cognitive performance in habitual caffeine consumers following caffeine withdrawal. Furthermore, no net benefit is gained because performance is…

  7. Dientamoeba fragilis prevalence coincides with gastrointestinal symptoms in children less than 11 years old in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ögren, J; Dienus, O; Löfgren, S; Einemo, I-M; Iveroth, P; Matussek, A

    2015-10-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a protozoan with a debated role in gastrointestinal (GI) disease. Although correlated to GI symptoms, no virulence factors have been described. In this study, we evaluated the cause of GI symptoms in children at two schools, with children aged 1 to 10 years, in the county of Jönköping, Sweden. D. fragilis infection correlated to GI symptoms in children and Enterobius vermicularis correlated to D. fragilis infection. PMID:26173693

  8. Individual, family, and neighborhood correlates of independent mobility among 7 to 11-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ian; Ferrao, Thomas; King, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Independent mobility refers to the freedom that children have to move around their neighborhood without adult supervision. It is related to their physical activity and health. We examined the intrapersonal, family, and neighborhood correlates of independent mobility within children. Methods. 497 American parents of 6.9-11.9 year olds completed a survey (November, 2014) that assessed their child's independent mobility range, several intrapersonal characteristics of their child (gender, age, race, etc.), several characteristics of their family (family structure, socioeconomic status, parental physical activity, etc.), and their perceptions of the safety of their neighborhood (18 questions reduced to 4 components). Associations were determined using ordinal logistic regression. Results. Children's age, parent's perception that their neighborhood is safe for children, and parent's fear of neighborhood crime were the independent correlates of independent mobility. Compared to 6.9-7.9 year olds, the odds ratio (95% CI) for increasing independent mobility were 2.31 (1.47-3.64) in 8.0-9.9 year olds and 3.38 (2.13-5.36) in 10.0-11.9 year olds. Compared to children whose parents who did not perceive that their neighborhood was safe for children, the odds ratio for increasing independent mobility was 4.24 (2.68-6.70) for children whose parents perceived their neighborhood was safe for children. Compared to children whose parents had the lowest fear of neighborhood crime, the odds ratio for increasing independent mobility was 0.41 (0.27-0.62) for children whose parents had the highest fear of crime. Conclusions. Children's independent mobility was associated with their age, their parent's perception that their neighborhood was safe for children, and their parent's fear of crime. PMID:26844195

  9. The Attitude of 11-Year-Old Pupils toward People of Other Races.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kattmann, Ulrich

    1979-01-01

    A semantic differential scale was used to detect racial prejudice before and after teaching a course developed to convey the concept "human" as consisting of many races. The course improved attitudes toward Blacks and Chinese, but little change was noted in the German children's attitudes toward Germans. (CP)

  10. Discriminating patterns of emotions in 10- and 11-year-old children's anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, S H; Izard, C E

    1986-10-01

    In a study of the emotions involved in children's anxiety and depression, children and teachers completed inventories assessing the children's emotions, anxiety level, and depression level. The results of the study indicated that distinct patterns of emotion variables are involved in these two syndromes, and these patterns confirm the hypotheses based on differential emotions theory. An attempt to predict future depression was successful when based on the children's self-reported emotions but not when based on the teachers' ratings of the children's emotions. In part, the failure of the latter may have been due to the high stability (Time 1-Time 2 correlation) of the depression measure over the 4-month interval. PMID:3783429

  11. Meaning-Making with Colour in Multimodal Texts: An 11-Year-Old Student's Purposeful "Doing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Colour, a visual element of art and design, is a semiotic mode that is used strategically by sign-makers to communicate meaning. Understanding the meaning-making potential of colour can enhance students' understanding, appreciation, interpretation and composition of multimodal texts. This article features a case study of Anya, an 11-year-old…

  12. Individual, family, and neighborhood correlates of independent mobility among 7 to 11-year-olds

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Ian; Ferrao, Thomas; King, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Independent mobility refers to the freedom that children have to move around their neighborhood without adult supervision. It is related to their physical activity and health. We examined the intrapersonal, family, and neighborhood correlates of independent mobility within children. Methods. 497 American parents of 6.9–11.9 year olds completed a survey (November, 2014) that assessed their child's independent mobility range, several intrapersonal characteristics of their child (gender, age, race, etc.), several characteristics of their family (family structure, socioeconomic status, parental physical activity, etc.), and their perceptions of the safety of their neighborhood (18 questions reduced to 4 components). Associations were determined using ordinal logistic regression. Results. Children's age, parent's perception that their neighborhood is safe for children, and parent's fear of neighborhood crime were the independent correlates of independent mobility. Compared to 6.9–7.9 year olds, the odds ratio (95% CI) for increasing independent mobility were 2.31 (1.47–3.64) in 8.0–9.9 year olds and 3.38 (2.13–5.36) in 10.0–11.9 year olds. Compared to children whose parents who did not perceive that their neighborhood was safe for children, the odds ratio for increasing independent mobility was 4.24 (2.68–6.70) for children whose parents perceived their neighborhood was safe for children. Compared to children whose parents had the lowest fear of neighborhood crime, the odds ratio for increasing independent mobility was 0.41 (0.27–0.62) for children whose parents had the highest fear of crime. Conclusions. Children's independent mobility was associated with their age, their parent's perception that their neighborhood was safe for children, and their parent's fear of crime. PMID:26844195

  13. Identifying Prosodic Contrasts in Utterances Produced by 4-, 7-, and 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rupal; Brayton, Julie T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Acquisition of prosodic control appears to evolve across development with younger children relying on durational cues and older children utilizing a broader spectrum of cues including fundamental frequency, intensity, and duration. This study aimed to determine whether unfamiliar listeners could identify prosodic contrasts produced by 4-,…

  14. Effect of the Great Activity Programme on healthy lifestyle behaviours in 7-11 year olds.

    PubMed

    Morris, John G; Gorely, Trish; Sedgwick, Matthew J; Nevill, Alan; Nevill, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity and dietary variables. In total 378 children (177 intervention, 201 control; age 9.75 ± 0.82 years (mean ± s)) took part in the 7-month intervention comprising: preparation for and participation in 3 highlight events (a dance festival, a walking event and a running event); an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; and vacation activity planners. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers), endurance fitness and dietary variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for data analysis. The increase in physical activity was greater in the intervention group than the control group (steps: 1049 vs 632 daily steps each month; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) total: 4.6 min · day(-1) · month(-1) vs 1.3 min · day(-1) · month(-1); MVPA bouts: 5.4 min · day(-1) · month(-1) vs 2.6 min · day(-1) · month(-1); all P < 0.05). The increase in multi-stage fitness test distance was greater for intervention participants (46 vs 29 m · month(-1) of intervention, group × month interaction, P < 0.05). There were no differences between groups in dietary variables, body composition, knowledge of healthy lifestyles or psychological variables. Thus an intervention centred around highlight events and including relatively few additional resources can impact positively on the objectively measured physical activity of children. PMID:23656302

  15. Enthusing the next Generation: A Biology Curriculum for 3-11 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael

    2006-01-01

    There is much that is healthy in school science in the UK but recent years have seen a worrying decline in the numbers choosing to study physical sciences after the age of 16. In an attempt to ensure that this doesn't also happen to the biological sciences, the Biosciences Federation set up a working group to explore how more young people might be…

  16. Motor Coordination Dynamics Underlying Graphic Motion in 7- to 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danna, Jeremy; Enderli, Fabienne; Athenes, Sylvie; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Using concepts and tools of a dynamical system approach in order to understand motor coordination underlying graphomotor skills, the aim of the current study was to establish whether the basic coordination dynamics found in adults is already established in children at elementary school, when handwriting is trained and eventually acquired. In the…

  17. Do We Really Have a "Boy Crisis"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins-Gough, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the findings of "The Evidence Suggests Otherwise: The Truth About Boys and Girls," a report conducted by Education Sector senior policy analyst Sara Mead. This report examines trends in achievement and education attainment and concludes that the recent surge of concern about boys' academic performance has been…

  18. Turn Your Boys into Readers!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allyn, Pam

    2011-01-01

    Girls outscore boys in reading proficiency levels; the gender gap is startling and concerning. The myth that boys won't read or that it's not "cool" for boys to love reading plays a big part in how these low levels come to be. Low expectations from teachers, and an assumption that boys prefer physical activity, mean that boys often don't find…

  19. National Boy Scout Jamboree

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This video looks at a NASA sponsored exhibit at the National Boy Scout Jamboree in Fredricksburg, VA. Boy Scouts are shown interacting with NASA researchers and astronauts and touring mockups of Space Station Freedom and Apollo 11. NASA's program to encourage the researchers of tomorrow is detailed.

  20. Boys and Girls Apart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Ramona M.; Orr, Donald R.

    This paper reports on a study to see whether girls in middle school who took tests separately from boys did better than when they were tested together. A mathematics attitude and anxiety instrument was administered as part of the study to determine if either had any effect on test performance. Results indicate that boys were more anxious than…

  1. Eskimo Boy Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Byron

    "Eskimo Boy Today" provides the reader with an account of what it is like to be a young Eskimo boy living in Barrow, Alaska, today. Accounts of his life at school depict the typical curriculum and learning activities, while accounts of his home life depict typical foods, clothing, and housing. The natural resources and their relationship to the…

  2. Boy Trouble: Rhetorical Framing of Boys' Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Jordan J.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines discourse in the United States used to socially construct an "underachieving boys" moral panic. Employing discourse analysis I examine the adversarial rhetoric of claims-makers and the frames they deploy to undermine alternative and conflicting accounts (of females as disadvantaged) and to forestall any challenges to the…

  3. Ethmoid mucocele presenting as an orbital mass.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Maria Carmen G; Schmidt, Richard J

    2008-12-01

    This is a case of an 11-year-old male with an ethmoid sinus mucocele who presented to our emergency department with an orbital mass. This mucocele was most likely related to an ipsilateral orbital subperiosteal abscess that required endoscopic drainage 9 years ago. Mucoceles are mucus-filled, epithelial-lined sacs that slowly develop in the paranasal sinuses when sinus drainage is obstructed by inflammatory processes, trauma, or prior surgery. They are rare in children and should be suspected in patients with progressive headache or orbital complaints. PMID:19092564

  4. [13-Year old boy with abdominal pain].

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Irene; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; van de Poll, Marcel C G

    2012-01-01

    A 13-year old boy presents with pain in the lower right abdomen, showing clinical signs of appendicitis. During McBurney' incision an appendix sana was seen. Histologic examination showed penetrating enterobiasis. This was treated with mebendazol. PMID:22551758

  5. Puberty in boys

    MedlinePlus

    ... boys will have it. You will also get erections more often. An erection is when your penis becomes bigger, hard, and stands out from your body. Erections can happen at any time. This is normal. ...

  6. Teaching Boys: A Relational Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raider-Roth, Miriam B.; Albert, Marta K.; Bircann-Barkey, Ingrid; Gidseg, Eric; Murray, Terry

    2008-01-01

    Focus of Study: This article investigates how teachers' relationships with boys can be central in bolstering boys' resilience and connection to their work in schools. Specifically, we examine how teachers understand the ways that their relationships with boys shape their teaching practice as well as their understandings of boys' learning in…

  7. A boy with sudden headache.

    PubMed

    Norbedo, Stefania; Naviglio, Samuele; Murru, Flora Maria; Cavallin, Roberta; Giurici, Nagua; Rabusin, Marco; Barbi, Egidio

    2014-03-01

    Headache is a common presenting complaint in pediatric emergency departments. The goal of emergent evaluation is to identify those children with potentially life-threatening conditions. We present the case of an adolescent boy presenting with headache and hypertension who was diagnosed with a catecholamine-secreting abdominal paraganglioma. Genetic testing eventually led to the diagnosis of SDHB-related hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma syndrome. Alarm features ("red flags") in children presenting with headache are reviewed, as well as the main features of paragangliomas and the indications for genetic testing. PMID:24589807

  8. Little Boy replication: justification and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reconstruction of the Little Boy weapon allowed experiments to evaluate yield, leakage measurements for comparison with calculations, and phenomenological measurements to evaluate various in-situ dosimeters. The reconstructed weapon was operated at sustained delayed critical at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility. The present experiments provide a wealth of information to benchmark calculations and demonstrate that the 1965 measurements on the Ichiban assembly (a spherical mockup of Little Boy) were in error.

  9. Little Boy replication: justification and construction

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A reconstruction of the Little Boy weapon allowed experiments to evaluate yield, leakage measurements for comparison with calculations, and phenomenological measurements to evaluate various in-situ dosimeters. The reconstructed weapon was operated at sustained delayed critical at the Los Alamos Critical Assembly Facility. The present experiments provide a wealth of information to benchmark calculations and demonstrate that the 1965 measurements on the Ichiban assembly (a spherical mockup of Little Boy) were in error. 5 references, 2 figures.

  10. Ataxia with Vitamin E Deficiency May Present with Cervical Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Andrew E.; Vargas, Wendy; Pearson, Toni S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is an autosomal recessive disorder that usually presents with ataxia, areflexia, and proprioceptive and vibratory sensory loss. Dystonia has been reported rarely. Case Report An 11-year-old female presented with dystonic head tremor and cervical and bilateral arm dystonia. Her 14-year-old older brother had dystonic head tremor and generalized dystonia. One year later, the brother developed dysarthria, limb dysmetria, and gait ataxia. Compound heterozygous mutations in TTPA were detected, confirming the diagnosis of AVED. Discussion AVED may present with dystonia rather than ataxia, and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of progressive dystonia. PMID:27274910

  11. Of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, much has been written about threats to boys' and girls' healthy participation in dance. This Viewpoints essay considers some of the causes and proposed remedies, which focus almost exclusively on the roles and responsibilities of dance educators and administrators. I suggest that what is missing from recent research,…

  12. How Boys Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurian, Michael; Stevens, Kathy

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors talk about the state of boyhood in education and explain the idea that not all elements of the brain--especially not gender--are plastic. They discuss the mismatch between boys and conventional education and how gender "really" happens in the brain and describe the three biological stages in which human nature…

  13. Boys in Primary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowles, Don; Langhelt, Syd

    This study was concerned with implementing guidelines from studies of the differences between boys and girls in school-related behaviors to test the contribution made to educational goals by considering gender of the learner. The basic strategy was to consider tested sex differences in behavior and to use these as a basis for developing classroom…

  14. Molecular cytogenetic characterisation of a mosaic add(12)(p13.3) with an inv dup(3)(q26.31 → qter) detected in an autistic boy

    PubMed Central

    Carreira, Isabel M; Melo, Joana B; Rodrigues, Carlos; Backx, Liesbeth; Vermeesch, Joris; Weise, Anja; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Oliveira, Guiomar; Matoso, Eunice

    2009-01-01

    Background Inverted duplications (inv dup) of a terminal chromosome region are a particular subset of rearrangements that often results in partial tetrasomy or partial trisomy when accompanied by a deleted chromosome. Associated mosaicism could be the consequence of a post-zygotic event or could result from the correction of a trisomic conception. Tetrasomies of distal segments of the chromosome 3q are rare genetic events and their phenotypic manifestations are diverse. To our knowledge, there are only 12 cases reported with partial 3q tetrasomy. Generally, individuals with this genomic imbalance present mild to severe developmental delay, facial dysmorphisms and skin pigmentary disorders. Results We present the results of the molecular cytogenetic characterization of an unbalanced mosaic karyotype consisting of mos 46,XY,add(12)(p13.3) [56]/46,XY [44] in a previously described 11 years old autistic boy, re-evaluated at adult age. The employment of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and multicolor banding (MCB) techniques identified the extra material on 12p to be derived from chromosome 3, defining the additional material on 12p as an inv dup(3)(qter → q26.3::q26.3 → qter). Subsequently, array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) confirmed the breakpoint at 3q26.31, defining the extra material with a length of 24.92 Mb to be between 174.37 and 199.29 Mb. Conclusion This is the thirteenth reported case of inversion-duplication 3q, being the first one described as an inv dup translocated onto a non-homologous chromosome. The mosaic terminal inv dup(3q) observed could be the result of two proposed alternative mechanisms. The most striking feature of this case is the autistic behavior of the proband, a characteristic not shared by any other patient with tetrasomy for 3q26.31 → 3qter. The present work further illustrates the advantages of the use of an integrative cytogenetic strategy, composed both by conventional and molecular techniques, on

  15. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Now Corporation for National and Community Service and Boys & Girls Clubs of America partner with Google to help ... Military Youth Arianna Skinner Receives Top Honor from Boys & Girls Clubs of America JB MDL- Fort Dix Youth ...

  16. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  17. Relational Strengths in Adolescent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Judy

    There has been a resurgence of interest in boys' relationships and boys' development which seems to respond, at least in part, to findings about the centrality and protective power of relationships in girls' development. However, few empirical studies have sought to learn from boys about their experiences, and, in particular, the ways in which…

  18. Boys' Literacy: Negotiating the Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Wayne; Singh, Michael; Zhao, Dacheng

    2009-01-01

    The issue of boys' literacy has been explicitly named as "dangerous territory"--difficult to negotiate in terms of the validity of "failure" rhetoric, the stereotyping of boys' abilities and interests and the intersection of gender with factors such as class and geographical location. In this article, we address the issue of boys' literacy through…

  19. Raising Boys' Achievement in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Kevan, Ed.

    This book offers insights into the range of strategies and good practice being used to raise the achievement of boys. Case studies by school-based practitioners suggest ideas and measures to address the issue of achievement by boys. The contributions are: (1) "Why the Likely Lads Lag Behind" (Kevan Bleach); (2) "Helping Boys Do Better in Their…

  20. Sexually abused boys.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, M A

    1987-01-01

    Male victims of child sexual abuse have received inadequate attention in the literature. This article is a retrospective review of the reports of 189 boys evaluated during 1983-85. This population was younger than those previously reported. Comparison to an age- and race-matched group of girl victims seen during the same period revealed many similarities in patterns of disclosure and perpetrator characteristics. The acts perpetrated against the boys included a wide array of invasive acts at all ages, but sodomy was more frequently reported in the older victims. Abnormal anogenital findings were seen more often in younger children, but the findings were often nonspecific. An examiner experienced with young children and infants is essential. PMID:3594283

  1. Leadership in Boys' Education: 16 Case Studies from Public and Private, Rural and Urban, Primary and Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard, Ed.; Hartman, Deborah, Ed.; Browne, Rollo, Ed.

    Concern about boys' education in Australia and New Zealand led to the Leadership in Boys' Education Conference in May 1999. This book contains edited conference presentations focusing on boys' educational needs. The book also presents case studies related to academic achievement, school structure, discipline and bullying, broadening boys' options,…

  2. The maintenance of regional dialects: a matter of gender? Boys, but not girls, use local varieties in relation to their friends' nativeness and local identity.

    PubMed

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Martin, Nathael; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The linguistic diversity enduring beyond institutional pressures and social prejudices against non-standard dialects questions the social forces influencing language maintenance across generations and how children contribute to this process. Children encounter multi-dialectal interactions in their early environment, and increasing evidence shows that the acquisition of sociolinguistic variation is not a side issue but an inherent part of the general acquisition process. Despite these recent advances in sociolinguistic acquisition, children's sociolinguistic uses remain under-studied in relation to peer social networks and the ability to use dialect for identity purposes. Our study focused on a grammatical sociolinguistic variable consisting of the alternation between a regional and a standard variant of the third person object pronoun in French. The regional variant is a remnant of the Francoprovençal language and its usage by adults is strongly associated with local identity in the French Alps. We described, using questionnaires, the social networks of 117 10-11 year-old girls and boys living in the same restricted rural area. Thirteen native target children (7 girls and 6 boys) were selected from the sample, as well as 39 same-sex friends chosen according to their place of birth (native vs. non-native) and the duration of their friendship with the targets (number of years they have known each other). The target children were recorded during spontaneous dyadic conversations during free play at school with each category of friends. Target boys, but not girls, used the regional variant significantly more frequently with their long-term native friends than with their non-native friends. This adjustment mirrored their partners' uses. Moreover, with long-term native friends, boys used the regional variant twice as frequently as girls. Boys appeared thus as key actors in the maintenance and the diffusion of regional cues in local social networks. PMID:25400617

  3. The maintenance of regional dialects: a matter of gender? Boys, but not girls, use local varieties in relation to their friends' nativeness and local identity

    PubMed Central

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Martin, Nathael; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The linguistic diversity enduring beyond institutional pressures and social prejudices against non-standard dialects questions the social forces influencing language maintenance across generations and how children contribute to this process. Children encounter multi-dialectal interactions in their early environment, and increasing evidence shows that the acquisition of sociolinguistic variation is not a side issue but an inherent part of the general acquisition process. Despite these recent advances in sociolinguistic acquisition, children's sociolinguistic uses remain under-studied in relation to peer social networks and the ability to use dialect for identity purposes. Our study focused on a grammatical sociolinguistic variable consisting of the alternation between a regional and a standard variant of the third person object pronoun in French. The regional variant is a remnant of the Francoprovençal language and its usage by adults is strongly associated with local identity in the French Alps. We described, using questionnaires, the social networks of 117 10–11 year-old girls and boys living in the same restricted rural area. Thirteen native target children (7 girls and 6 boys) were selected from the sample, as well as 39 same-sex friends chosen according to their place of birth (native vs. non-native) and the duration of their friendship with the targets (number of years they have known each other). The target children were recorded during spontaneous dyadic conversations during free play at school with each category of friends. Target boys, but not girls, used the regional variant significantly more frequently with their long-term native friends than with their non-native friends. This adjustment mirrored their partners' uses. Moreover, with long-term native friends, boys used the regional variant twice as frequently as girls. Boys appeared thus as key actors in the maintenance and the diffusion of regional cues in local social networks. PMID:25400617

  4. Psychophysiological Correlates of Developmental Changes in Healthy and Autistic Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weismüller, Benjamin; Thienel, Renate; Youlden, Anne-Marie; Fulham, Ross; Koch, Michael; Schall, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated neurodevelopmental changes in sound processing by recording mismatch negativity (MMN) in response to various degrees of sound complexity in 18 mildly to moderately autistic versus 15 healthy boys aged between 6 and 15 years. Autistic boys presented with lower IQ and poor performance on a range of executive and social…

  5. An Interview with Alex Sanchez, Author of "Rainbow Boys."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emert, Toby

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with Alex Sanchez. Notes that his book "Rainbow Boys" has been called the "best gay youth book of the year." Notes that "Rainbow Boys" chronicles the lives of three high school seniors who struggle to manage their issues about sexual identity and coming out to themselves, to each other, and to the world. (SG)

  6. Multiple salivary mucoceles in a young boy.

    PubMed

    Porter, S R; Scully, C; Kainth, B; Ward-Booth, P

    1998-06-01

    A rare case of multiple mucoceles in a 4-year-old boy is reported. The patients presented with multiple sessile swellings on his lower lip, with no obvious local aetiology. The patient was otherwise well. The lesions were excised surgically and histopathological examination confirmed the lesions to be extravasation-type mucoceles. The article includes a brief review of mucoceles. PMID:9728101

  7. Empathy in Boys with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Wied, Minet; Goudena, Paul P.; Matthys, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Background: The present study examined empathy in 8- to 12-year-old clinically referred boys with disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) (n = 25) and age-matched normal controls (n = 24). Method: Situational empathy was assessed by children's emotional and cognitive responses to six empathy-inducing vignettes (displaying sadness, anger or happiness).…

  8. Gender Dysphoria and Sexual Abuse: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Kenneth J.; Kuksis, Myra

    1990-01-01

    A case report is presented in which an 11-year-old boy's desire to be a girl and to have his penis removed are shown to follow the initiation of sexual contact by his older brother. The boy's early history of moderate femininity may have made him vulnerable to gender identity conflict. (JDD)

  9. Parenting a Child of Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoof, Katharene Kaufman

    1993-01-01

    Presents interviews with two mothers of depressed children. Interviews mother of 11-year-old boy diagnosed with depressive disorder at age 8, who is receiving treatment for her own depressive disorder. Also interviews mother of 12-year-old boy who was interviewed himself in previous article. Mothers describe the difficulties they face in parenting…

  10. Boys Are People Too: Boys and Reading, Truth and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Rosemary

    2005-01-01

    This article summarizes some of the recent research on boys and reading that has been primarily conducted in Australia but is also available online to international readers. The research makes it clear that many boys are still reading, but competing claims on their busy lives easily sidetrack them from making reading their main activity. Educators…

  11. The Politics of Policy in Boys' Education: Getting Boys "Right"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver-Hightower, Marcus B.

    2008-01-01

    This book explores boy-focused education policy and how different educators struggle to implement or resist it in their schools. Weaver-Hightower examines masculinity politics in Australia and the United States, mapping how these politics create panic over raising and educating boys the "Right" way. Contextualizing this policy with movements for…

  12. Bicycle Education, A New Dimension in 4-H Programs for 8-11 Year Olds: Designed into Three Teaching Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borst, William H.

    The three teaching units in this packet are designed to help children ages 8 to 11 enjoy, utilize, and safely ride bicycles by mastering skills and knowledge pertaining to their bicycles, their driving ability, and the traffic system. Unit I is concerned with the bicycle and its parts, various kinds of bicycles, and proper size and maintenance.…

  13. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  14. Photoletter to the editor: Response of linear porokeratosis to photodynamic therapy in an 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Colmenero, Cristina; Ruiz-Villaverde, Ricardo; Martínez-García, Eliseo; Aneiros-Fernández, José; Tercedor-Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-12-31

    Porokeratoses are a group of different entities that belong to the skin keratinization disorders. From the histological point of view the main and common characteristic of these disorders is the presence of compact parakeratotic columns known as cornoid lamellae. All varieties should be carefully treated and followed-up because of the risk of developing malignant epithelial tumors. We report the successful response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) in a pediatric patient diagnosed with linear porokeratosis. PMID:26848323

  15. School related factors and 1yr change in physical activity amongst 9–11 year old English schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Activity levels are known to decline with age and there is growing evidence of associations between the school environment and physical activity. In this study we investigated how objectively measured one-year changes in physical activity may be associated with school-related factors in 9- to 10-year-old British children. Methods Data were analysed from 839 children attending 89 schools in the SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity, and Eating behaviours: Environmental Determinants in Young People) study. Outcomes variables were one year changes in objectively measured sedentary, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, with baseline measures taken when the children were 9–10 years old. School characteristics hypothesised to be associated with change in physical activity were identified from questionnaires, grounds audits, and computer mapping. Associations were examined using simple and multivariable multilevel regression models for both school (9 am – 3 pm) and travel (8–9 am and 3–4 pm) time. Results Significant associations during school time included the length of the morning break which was found to be supportive of moderate (β coefficient: 0.68 [p: 0.003]) and vigorous (β coefficient: 0.52 [p: 0.002]) activities and helps to prevent adverse changes in sedentary time (β coefficient: -2.52 [p: 0.001]). During travel time, positive associations were found between the presence of safe places to cross roads around the school and changes in moderate (β coefficient: 0.83 [p:0.022]) and vigorous (β coefficient: 0.56 [p:0.001]) activity, as well as sedentary time (β coefficient: -1.61 [p:0.005]). Conclusion This study suggests that having longer morning school breaks and providing road safety features such as cycling infrastructure, a crossing guard, and safe places for children to cross the road may have a role to play in supporting the maintenance of moderate and vigorous activity behaviours, and preventing the development of sedentary behaviours in children. PMID:23276280

  16. Validation of a Group-Administered Pictorial Dietary Recall with 9- to 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Victoria; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Auld, Garry; Romaniello, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Determine validity of Day in the Life Questionnaire-Colorado (DILQ-CO) as a dietary assessment tool for classroom-administered use. Methods: Agreement between DILQ-CO responses and weighed plate waste measured in 125 fourth-grade students in 2 low-income schools. Validity assessed by comparing reported school lunch items and portion…

  17. The Effects of Playground Markings on the Physical Self-Perceptions of 10-11-Year-Old School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crust, Lee; McKenna, Jim; Spence, Jon; Thomas, Catherine; Evans, Donna; Bishop, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Significant proportions of school children in the UK do not meet the minimum recommended daily requirements of 60-min moderate-intensity physical activity. Beyond taught classes, playtimes offer the opportunity for children to play and be physically active. Painted markings are one recent addition to school playgrounds that are…

  18. Serving Boys through Readers' Advisory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Based on more than twenty years' experience working to get boys interested in reading, the author now offers his first readers' advisory volume. With an emphasis on nonfiction and the boy-friendly categories of genre fiction, the work offers a wealth of material including: (1) Suggestions for how to booktalk one-on-one as well as in large groups;…

  19. ERS Focus On: Educating Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This issue of "Focus On" examines where boys are underachieving and some possible reasons for their under-achievement, including biological and environmental factors. It also offers strategies that teachers can employ in their classrooms in order to address the educational needs of boys. Books in Brief; Web Resources; and Related ERS Resources are…

  20. The psychoeducational profile of boys with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rovet, J; Netley, C; Keenan, M; Bailey, J; Stewart, D

    1996-03-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) affects about 1 in 900 males due to an extra X chromosome. Although there are no obvious physical features associated with childhood KS, many boys demonstrate a cognitive deficit in verbal processing. The first section of this article integrates the extant literature on intelligence and achievement outcomes in boys with KS. The second section presents our findings from a 20-year study involving one of the largest unselected cohorts of boys with KS. We followed 36 boys with KS and 33 sibling controls from 6 until 20 years of age. Boys with KS are shown to demonstrate a verbal cognitive deficit and significant underachievement in reading and spelling, as well as in arithmetic. These problems, which are evident from early school years, increase with age such that by late adolescence, boys with KS are four to five grade levels behind. In addition, we also found that they were most likely to have a generalized type of learning disability, with very few boys indicating a pure reading or pure arithmetic problem. They also showed deficits in written language skills and acquisition of knowledge-based subject material were also problematic. Despite significant underachievement and frequent grade failure, many boys with KS had completed high school, and a few were also pursuing postsecondary educations. The discussion section examines how their language-based disability affects comprehension and learning, leading to underachievement. PMID:8820203

  1. Cavernous hemangioma presenting as a right adnexal mass in a child.

    PubMed

    Correa-Rivas, María S; Colón-González, Gloria; Lugo-Vicente, Humberto

    2003-09-01

    This is the case of an 11-year-old girl who presented with a right adnexal mass and vague abdominal symptoms since seven months prior to her hospital admission for surgery. CT-scan and sonographic images were those of a benign lesion, probably ovarian torsion or infarction. Serum tumoral markers were normal. A right salpingo-oophorectomy and appendectomy were performed. Pathology examination revealed a cavernous hemangioma of the ovary. The clinicopathologic presentation of this unusual benign ovarian tumor is discussed. PMID:14619460

  2. Boys' and Girls' Motivations for Refraining from Prompting Friends to Talk about Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.; Robert, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Girls' and boys' peer relationships are thought to have unique strengths and weaknesses. However, developmentalists have done a better job of identifying strengths of girls' friendships than boys' friendships. The present research was aimed at better understanding boys' friendship strengths. The study focused on the frequency with which youth (N =…

  3. 5 A DAY ACHIEVEMENT BADGE FOR AFRICAN AMERICAN BOY SCOUTS: PILOT OUTCOME RESULTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Boy Scouts are an important channel to complement school-based programs to enable boys to eat more fruit, 100% juice, and vegetables (FJV) for chronic disease prevention. The "5 a Day Achievement Badge" program was presented on a pilot study basis to African-American Boy Scout troops in Houston. Tro...

  4. Questioning Masculinities: Interrogating Boys' Capacities for Self-Problematization in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehler, Michael; Martino, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    In drawing on selected interviews with adolescent boys from both Australia and North America, we present an analysis of boys' own capacities for interrogating gender normalisation in their school lives. We set this analysis against a critique of the public media debates about boys' education, which continue to be fuelled by a moral panic about the…

  5. Variations in the Pattern of Pubertal Changes in Boys

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, W. A.; Tanner, J. M.

    1970-01-01

    Mixed longitudinal data on the physical changes at puberty in 228 normal boys are presented together with normal standards for stages of genital and pubic hair development. The genitalia began to develop between the ages 9½ years and 13½ years in 95% of boys (mean = 11.6 ± 0.09) and reached maturity at ages varying between 13 and 17 (mean = 14.9 ± 1.10). The age at which pubic hair first appeared was not accurately determined, but its development through the later stages was studied. It reached the equivalent of an adult female distribution at a mean age of 15.2 ± 0.01 years. On average the genitalia reached the adult stage 3.0 years after they first began to develop; but some boys completed this development in as little as 1.8 years while others took as much as 4.7 years. Some boys complete the whole process in less time than others take to go from Stage G2 to Stage G3. The genitalia begin to develop before pubic hair is visible in photographs in practically all boys. The 41 boys in whom it could be studied reached their maximum rate of growth (peak height velocity) at a mean age of 14.1 ± 0.14 years. Very few boys (about 5%) reached peak height velocity before their genitalia were in Stage 4 and over 20% did not do so until their genitalia were adult. Peak height velocity is reached, on the average, nearly 2 years later in boys than in girls, but the boys' genitalia begin to develop only about 6 months later than the girls' breasts. Pubic hair appears about 1½ years later in boys than in girls. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5440182

  6. Gamma-ray dosimetry measurements of the Little Boy replica

    SciTech Connect

    Plassmann, E.A.; Pederson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    We present the current status of our gamma-ray dosimetry results for the Little Boy replica. Both Geiger-Mueller and thermoluminescent detectors were used in the measurements. Future work is needed to test assumptions made in data analysis.

  7. Concerns Boys Have about Puberty

    MedlinePlus

    ... a normal part of the growth process. Wet Dreams Boys may wake up in the morning to ... in their pajama pants and sheets. These " wet dreams ," or nocturnal emissions, are caused by an ejaculation, ...

  8. For Boys: Trouble "Down There"

    MedlinePlus

    ... re a boy, you probably already know your penis and scrotum are sensitive. Why? And more important, ... have grown up calling it something else, but penis (say: PEE-niss) is the official word for ...

  9. Empathy in Boys with Gender Identity Disorder: A Comparison to Externalizing Clinical Control Boys and Community Control Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen-Anderson, Allison F. H.; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Bradley, Susan J.; Zucker, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The construct of empathy was examined in 20 boys with gender identity disorder (GID), 20 clinical control boys with externalizing disorders (ECC), 20 community control boys (NCB), and 20 community control girls (NCG). The mean age of the children was 6.86 years (range = 4-8 years). It was hypothesized that boys with GID would show…

  10. The acrocallosal syndrome in a Turkish boy.

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, M; Caliskan, M; Oğur, G; Ozmen, M; Dolunay, G; Apak, S

    1990-01-01

    A 6 month old Turkish boy with the acrocallosal syndrome is reported. The patient, born to consanguineous, healthy parents, presented with macrocephaly, a prominent forehead, hypertelorism, polydactyly of the fingers and toes, severe motor and mental retardation, hypotonia, and absence of the corpus callosum. The mode of inheritance is discussed and our case is compared with previously reported cases of the syndrome. Images PMID:2308155

  11. Migrant Worker: A Boy from the Rio Grande Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt-Goldsmith, Diane

    Ricky is an 11-year-old migrant worker. During the summer, he travels with his family from their home in Rio Grande City, Texas, to farms farther north. There they spend 10-12 hours a day in the hot sun picking fruit and vegetables and packing the harvest for market. Ricky is not protected by the federal laws that govern the hours, wages, and…

  12. Guest Editorial: Are We Shortchanging Boys?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardle, Francis

    1991-01-01

    Discusses the failure of early childhood education to meet the needs of boys. Describes developmental differences between boys and girls, and teacher attitudes towards boys. Suggests actions relating to environment, teacher training, hiring, evaluation, and activities that will meet the needs of boys. Lists characteristics of good early childhood…

  13. Sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy Rosai-Dorfman disease: a unique case presentation.

    PubMed

    Kaltman, Jordan M; Best, Steven P; McClure, Shawn A

    2011-12-01

    Rosai and Dorfman first described sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (SHML) in 1969 with an article detailing 4 cases in which they differentiated this disease entity from the grouping of diseases categorized as histiocytosis X, where it was previously classified. Also known as Rosai-Dorfman disease (RDD), it is clinically characterized as massive, painless, bilateral, symmetric cervical lymphadenopathy, with fever and leukocytosis. An 11-year-old African American boy was referred to our clinic for extraction of a severely decayed tooth #30 and evaluation of a large right-sided neck mass. Initially, the patient had been seen by his general dentist who had diagnosed the mass as an odontogenic abscess. After 2 courses of different antibiotics, no changes in the mass were noted. Subsequently, the patient was sent to the emergency department where CT revealed multiple right-sided neck masses with the largest measuring 4 × 2 cm. The patient underwent an incisional biopsy by otolaryngology and a diagnosis of necrotic lymph tissue was made. Upon our examination, the carious tooth #30 was felt to be an incidental finding and fine-needle aspiration cytology of the largest mass was performed in 2 places. This also provided a diagnosis of necrotic lymph tissue. In concert with the patient and his mother, the decision was made to excise the mass because of psychosocial concerns. A massive right-sided lymph node attached to the submandibular gland was found and excised without complication. Histologic examination with S-100 stain confirmed a diagnosis of RDD. The patient healed well following surgery and has experienced no further lymphadenopathy. This case presentation and review of the literature is unique, as the patient presented with unilateral cervical lymphadenopathy only. Open biopsy and 2 fine-needle aspirations all returned as necrotic lymph tissue. Obtaining the correct diagnosis was additionally hampered by coincidental dental pathology on the

  14. Discourse Skills of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne; Martin, Gary E.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Harris, Adrianne A.; Foreman, Jamila; Nelson, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the conversational discourse skills of boys who have fragile X syndrome with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with those of boys with Down syndrome and boys who are typically developing. Method: Participants were boys who have fragile X syndrome with (n = 26) and without (n = 28) ASD, boys with Down syndrome…

  15. Gender identity disorder in a five-year-old boy.

    PubMed Central

    Herman, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    Markedly effeminate behavior in a young boy is a source of concern and confusion for parents, teachers, and the child. It also represents a therapeutic dilemma for the child psychiatrist. The case of a five-year-old boy with gender identity disorder of childhood is presented and the literature on hypotheses of etiology, treatment, and long-term follow-up is reviewed. The ethical and philosophical questions posed by such a case are discussed. PMID:6880245

  16. Masculinities and Resistance: High School Boys (Un)doing Boy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehler, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    In Australia, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom there has been a resurgence in attention directed at boys and schooling. The media and public discourse describes it as a burgeoning moral panic. Mainly grounded in public concerns about achievement levels and violence in schools, the response has been to develop quick fixes and…

  17. Neutron dosimetry of the Little Boy device

    SciTech Connect

    Pederson, R.A.; Plassmann, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Neutron dose rates at several angular locations and at distances out to 0.5 mile have been measured during critical operation of the Little Boy replica. We used modified remmetes and thermoluminescent dosimetry techniques for the measurements. The present status of our analysis is presented including estimates of the neutron-dose-relaxation length in air and the variation of the neutron-to-gamma-ray dose ratio with distance from the replica. These results are preliminary and are subject to detector calibration measurements.

  18. Toys for Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Many people in our society distinguish between girls and boys toys. A physical science toy collector shares her experience at a fast food restaurant when she was asked "Do you want a girl toy?" Her response was, "What's the difference?" (ZWH)

  19. "Good Morning Boys and Girls"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2005-01-01

    It happens every day across the nation: Teachers welcome their students to class by saying, "Good morning, boys and girls." It is one of countless ways teachers highlight gender with their speech and behavior. Unfortunately, teachers' use of gender to label students and organize the classroom can have negative consequences. New research in the…

  20. How Schools Discriminate against Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuinness, Diane

    1979-01-01

    Biological differences between the sexes in motor, sensory, and some intellectual abilities are reviewed. The skills that lead to early success in school draw on female talents; as a result, boys are often labeled hyperactive. Journal availability: Human Nature, Inc., Subscriptions Department, P.O. Box 10702, Des Moines, Iowa 50340; single copy…

  1. Physical Development of Hyperactive Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Rob; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Anthropometric data collected on groups of 7-year-old New Zealand boys, identified as hyperactive-only, aggressive-hyperactive, aggressive-only and nonaggressive/nonhyperactive did not confirm the hypothesis that hyperactive-only Ss would show delayed maturation. However, hyperactive-only Ss were significantly more lean than Ss in other groups.…

  2. The Trouble with "Rainbow Boys"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Few pieces of GLBTQ fiction have received the popular and scholarly acclaim awarded to Alex Sanchez's "Rainbow Boys" series. Although "problem novels" are rarely taken seriously as literature, the books--the first novel in particular--have joined the few pieces of GLBTQ literature incorporated into educational discourse and curriculum. In this…

  3. A conservative approach in a child with haematuria after accidental rectal impalement trauma

    PubMed Central

    Schijns, Josephine; Plötz, Frans Berend

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of an 11-year-old boy with haematuria after traumatic rectal insertion of a sharp metal stick. It demonstrates that an expectative management with close observation can be considered in patients with rectal impalement trauma presenting with haematuria and stable vital parameters without significant injury on abdominal ultrasound. PMID:26612125

  4. Achievement in Boys' Schools 2010-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Cathy; Berg, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This report explores the achievement of school leavers from state and state-integrated boys' schools. The analysis from 2010 to 2012 shows school leavers from state boys' schools had higher qualifications than their male counterparts who attended state co-educational schools. The research was carried out for the Association of Boys' Schools of New…

  5. Exploring the "Boy Crisis" in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappon, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The issue of the "boy gap" or "boy crisis" in education has been the subject of increasing attention across a number of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Given the importance of this issue and the need to better understand the situation in boys' education, this report draws on material and data from a review…

  6. Little boy black and blue.

    PubMed

    Greene, Amanda E; Roosevelt, Genie E; Grubenhoff, Joseph A; Klein, Ulrich

    2011-08-01

    Tooth decay is common in US children, especially for children in low-income families. More than half of second-grade children have cavities. Therefore, root canal procedures are becoming more common in children. We report a case of a 2-year-old boy with a rare complication of a root canal procedure secondary to sodium hypochlorite toxicity. Sodium hypochlorite, a commonly used root canal irrigant, and its toxicity are reviewed. PMID:21822090

  7. Using the "Write Talk-nology" with Patrik.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Karen A.; Koppenhaver, David A.

    1998-01-01

    A case study is presented of an 11-year-old boy with multiple disabilities who uses DynaVox, a voice-output communication device with a touch screen display, in an inclusive classroom. The article discusses how to find the right technology for children with disabilities by evaluating the level of the text, instruction, and classroom. (CR)

  8. Developmental Consistencies in Children's Socio-Moral Knowledge: Justice Reasoning and Altruistic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blotner, Roberta; Bearison, David J.

    This study examined the relationship between moral reasoning and altruistic behavior in 120 boys, 4- to 11-years old. Subjects were administered Damon's Positive- Justice Interview, and were presented helping and sharing tasks under five behavioral conditions corresponding to Damon's justice levels. Findings supported cognitive- developmental…

  9. Handedness and Intellectual Achievement: An Even-Handed Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corballis, Michael C.; Hattie, John; Fletcher, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from a large-scale study of 11-year olds in Britain suggests that ambidextrous individuals may be disadvantaged in tests of verbal, nonverbal, reading, and mathematical skills relative to right- and left-handers, but this basic finding was not replicated in another study of younger boys in Germany. Here, we present data based on a…

  10. Case of a congenital urethral duplication being unmasked following circumcision for balanitis xerotica obliterans.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Matthew; Woodward, Mark; Lambert, Anthony

    2010-07-01

    We present the case of an 11-year-old boy diagnosed with an Effmann Type II A1 urethral duplication after routine circumcision for balanitis xerotica obliterans (BXO). We discuss the pathophysiology, investigation and management both of BXO and urethral duplication. PMID:20529516

  11. Two Cases of Omental Torsion Mimicking Acute Appendicitis

    PubMed Central

    Liaqat, Naeem; Dar, Sajid Hameed; Sandhu, Asif Iqbal; Nayyer, Sajid

    2014-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is often simulated by other entities like mesenteric adenitis, worm infestation, Meckel’s diverticulitis, urinary tract infection and rarely omental torsion. We report two cases, a 6 year old boy and an 11 year old girl, who presented with symptoms and signs of acute appendicitis but upon exploration turned out to be omental torsion. PMID:24834389

  12. Weak Radial Artery Pulse

    PubMed Central

    Venugopalan, Poothirikovil; Sivakumar, Puthuval; Ardley, Robert G.; Oates, Crispian

    2012-01-01

    We present an 11year-old boy with a weak right radial pulse, and describe the successful application of vascular ultrasound to identify the ulnar artery dominance and a thin right radial artery with below normal Doppler flow velocity that could explain the discrepancy. The implications of identifying this anomaly are discussed. PMID:22375269

  13. Decision Making about Children with Psychotic Symptoms: Using the Best Evidence in Choosing a Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Philip; Rapoport, Judith L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents Peter, an 11-year-old boy, with brief self-limited hallucinations and persecutory ideation (if not frank delusions) on a background of a gradual deterioration in overall functioning. Affective symptoms are not prominent, and there is little to suggest an organic contribution. This raises the possibility that he has, or is on…

  14. Isolated posterior dislocation of the radial head without fracture of the ulna in a child.

    PubMed

    Wouters, E; Fortems, Y; Mulier, E; Stuyck, J; Fabry, G

    1993-01-01

    An isolated posterior dislocation of the radial head is a rare injury. We present a case report on an 11-year-old boy with a traumatic posterior radial head dislocation without fracture or bending of the ulna. The diagnosis can be difficult and should be supported with good radiographic images, since clinically the injury can be missed or misdiagnosed. PMID:8484316

  15. Less Is More: Inpatient Management of a Child with Complex Pharmacotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochvil, Christopher J.; Varley, Christopher; Cummins, Thomas K.; Martin, Andres

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a case of an 11-year-old boy who was admitted to an acute inpatient psychiatric setting because of a recent exacerbation of physical aggression, accompanied by long-standing problems with verbal aggression, irritability, dysphoria, and sleep disturbance. His family history was notable for domestic violence, substance abuse by…

  16. The Absent Father: Gender Identity Considerations for Art Therapists Working with Adolescent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haeseler, Martha

    1996-01-01

    Recent research has shown that boys from father-absent homes exhibit greater feminine role identification, delinquency, mental disorders, poor academic performance, and poor self-esteem. This article presents case studies that demonstrate crises of masculine identification for adolescent boys whose lives lack either a present father or male…

  17. Bilateral optic neuritis in a boy - More than the eyes.

    PubMed

    Loh, M A; Alex Khoo, P C; Chong, M F

    2016-04-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a rare disorder in children with variable presentation. We report a 7-year-old boy who presented with bilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis and responded very well to treatment. He was also positive for aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibodies, which is part of an emerging endophenotype within autoimmune neurological disorders in childhood. PMID:27326949

  18. Influence of Industrial Environments on the Development of Respiratory Systems and Morphofunctional Features in Preadolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Dziubek, Wioletta; Ignasiak, Zofia; Rozek, Krystyna

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the differences between levels of selected structural and functional features of boys 11–13 years in age from regions with varying levels of air pollution, including an industrial and rural region. The sample consisted of 213 boys from the industrial region and 98 from the rural region. Somatic, respiratory parameters and motor abilities were evaluated in both groups. The analysis of respiratory parameters revealed significantly better development of respiratory systems in boys from the rural region. Additionally, motor abilities were also better developed in boys from the rural region. PMID:23486548

  19. CHILD syndrome in a boy

    SciTech Connect

    Happle, R.; Effendy, I., Megahed, M.; Orlow, S.J.; Kuester, W. |

    1996-03-15

    CHILD syndrome (congential hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) occurs, as a rule, exclusively in girls because of the underlying X-linked gene exerts a lethal effect on male embryos. In this report the characteristic manifestations of CHILD syndrome are described in a 2-year-old boy with a normal chromosome constitution 46,XY. This exceptional case is best explained by the assumption of an early somatic mutation and thus compatible with the concept of X-linked dominant male-lethal inheritance of this trait. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  20. The Experience and Expression of Homesickness in Preadolescent and Adolescent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, Christopher A.

    1995-01-01

    Investigated homesickness in boys ages 8 through 16. Results indicated that homesickness was prevalent and varied in intensity, was experienced as a combination of depression and anxiety, was presented most often as internalizing behavior, and was more typical for younger boys. The most-homesick became increasingly so during the separation,…

  1. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! A Guide for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurian, Michael; Henley, Patricia

    This book focuses on brain-based research to explore why boys and girls learn differently and how educators and parents can use that information to create the ultimate early childhood, elementary, or secondary classroom for both boys and girls. Part 1 of the book presents research findings from three primary points of view: (1) neurological and…

  2. Emotional Intelligence and Social Responsibility of Boy Students in Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Jabari, Kamran; K, Rajeswari

    2014-01-01

    The present study has been undertaken to know the relationship between emotional intelligence and social responsibility of boy students in middle school using correlation. Survey method was adopted for the study. Data were collected from 100 boy students studying in Miandoab City of Iran during the academic year, 2012-13 who were selected…

  3. Alchemy and Aberrant Behaviour: A Jungian Approach to Working with Boys with Behaviour Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Alchemy is an ancient philosophy on which the two modern day sciences of chemistry and analytical psychology are grounded. In education in New South Wales (NSW) at the present time, the behaviour of boys is of increasing concern to schools, to teachers, to parents and to society at large as evidenced by the over-representation of boys in school…

  4. Streetsmart Schoolsmart: Urban Poverty and the Education of Adolescent Boys. Multicultural Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Vigil, James Diego

    2012-01-01

    In "Streetsmart Schoolsmart", two respected scholars present original research on youth gangs and school success to explain why some boys become disengaged and join gangs while others do not. Chapters vividly describe how urban boys from different ethnic backgrounds (Asian, African American, and Latino) approach schooling and identify the…

  5. Teaching Boys: Towards a Theory of Gender-Relevant Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristol, Travis J.

    2015-01-01

    This article calls attention to the social and educational challenges facing boys and men around the world. Next, it highlights how the outcomes for males of African descent across the Americas, in particular the USA, are especially troubling. Moreover, a critique is presented about the recruitment campaigns that see increasing the number of Black…

  6. Differences between Boys and Girls in Extracurricular Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batz, Katrin; Wittler, Sebastian; Wilde, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Only few psychological differences between the sexes can be proven empirically. Presented here is a study about learning in the extracurricular environment of a zoological garden during a school excursion with particular regard to the differences between boys and girls. In the main focus are, hereby, motivational and cognitive levels of the…

  7. Oceanography. Boy Scouts of America Merit Badge Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boy Scouts of America, Irving, TX.

    Presented are various activities and projects intended to help Boy Scouts earn a merit badge in oceanography. Each project and/or activity is related to a requirement (objective) found in a list at the beginning of the booklet. Topic areas and/or related activities and projects include: (1) nature of oceanography (naming oceanography branches,…

  8. PE Is Not for Me: When Boys' Masculinities Are Threatened

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tischler, Amy; McCaughtry, Nate

    2011-01-01

    This study used hegemonic masculinity theory to examine the intersection of masculinities and school physical education from the perspectives of boys who embodied masculinities that were marginalized. Over a 13-week period using present-focused, student-centered, qualitative methodological approaches, we observed, interviewed, and worked in small…

  9. Osteosarcoma in a sixteen-month old boy.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S; Sundari, M N; Masir, N

    1999-06-01

    We report a case of a sixteen-month old boy with osteosarcoma of the left humerus. To the best of our knowledge this is the youngest case reported in Malaysia. This case illustrates that osteosarcoma although rare does occur in a very young child. The child died six weeks after presentation due to disseminated disease. PMID:10972039

  10. Boys and Girls Clubs in Public Housing. Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Carl E.; And Others

    This report presents findings and recommendations resulting from the evaluation of programs implemented in 15 cities by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America. These programs were implemented to distribute variations on the "Weed and Seed" program and its provision of crime and drug prevention programs. The overall goal of Weed and Seed was to form…

  11. Establishing Five Derived Mands in Three Adolescent Boys with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Carol; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2010-01-01

    Three 14-year-old boys with diagnoses of autism learned to mand for the delivery or removal of tokens by presenting nonsense syllables (A[subscript 1-5], respectively). A match-to-sample procedure was used t o establish conditional discriminations between the 5 A stimuli and 5 B stimuli and between the B stimuli and 5 C stimuli. Subsequently, each…

  12. Framing black boys: parent, teacher, and student narratives of the academic lives of black boys.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Stephanie J; Ross, Latisha; Lozada, Fantasy T; Williams, Amber; Gale, Adrian; Kurtz-Costes, Beth

    2014-01-01

    The discourse on Black boys tends to suggest that Black boys are in complete peril. We begin with evidence that Black boys are excelling in certain contexts (i.e., in certain states, in certain schools, and in certain courses). We then discuss the ways in which the narratives used by parents, teachers, and Black boys themselves may serve to further reinforce views that Black boys are beyond hope. Research on Black parents suggests that they tend to view their sons as vulnerable and have lower expectations for sons than for daughters. Studies of teachers show that they tend to view Black boys as unteachable, as social problems, and as scary. Research on Black boys shows that they are sometimes complicit in supporting these narratives by engaging in negative or ste reotypical behavior. We also include recent research that includes counter-narratives of Black boys. We end with suggestions for future research. PMID:25345000

  13. Growing Boys: Implementing a Boys' Empowerment Group in an Afterschool Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Georgia; Charmaraman, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The process of establishing a healthy male identity can be difficult for many boys. The limited definitions of masculinity available to boys and men are generally characterized by competition, repression of fear and emotion, and physical and emotional strength. Boys of color and those of lower economic status tend to encounter even fewer healthy…

  14. To Be a Boy, To Be a Reader: Engaging Teen and Preteen Boys in Active Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brozo, William G.

    When it comes to reading, teen and preteen boys are the most difficult students. This book addresses the growing concern among middle and high school teachers about boys' lack of literacy growth and independent reading. The book makes the case that boys are in the greatest need of help with literacy instruction and stresses the importance of…

  15. Boys' Music? School Context and Middle-School Boys' Musical Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennetts, Kathleen Scott

    2013-01-01

    This article focusses primarily on the findings relating to the musical participation of boys in one Melbourne school. As part of a project that investigated boys' attitudes and participation at fifty-one schools, several contextual features were identified that set "Balton Boys" High School' apart from other participating…

  16. "In the Eye of the Beholder...": Girls', Boys' and Teachers' Perceptions of Boys' Aggression to Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Laurence; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    Because children and young teenagers usually associate in same-sex groups, psychological research concerned with adolescent aggression has often concentrated on within-sex relationships. However, during adolescence, boys and girls increasingly interact socially. This paper reports a study of boy-to-girl aggression as perceived by girls, boys and…

  17. Dyskeratosis congenita in a Nigerian boy.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Aliyu; Halima, Kabir

    2014-03-01

    Dyskeratosis congenita is a rare hereditary disease. It mainly affects males and manifest between 5 years and 12 years. Its classic manifestation consists of skin pigmentary changes, nail dystrophy, oral leukoplakia, bone marrow failure and predisposition to malignany. We report the case of a 9-year-old boy who presented with hyperpigmentation of the skin, palms and soles, leukoplakia of the tongue, dystrophy of the nails, epiphoria and recurrent epistaxis with gum bleeding. Full blood count showed pancytopenia and bone marrow biopsy showed hypocellular marrow with no abnormal cells. He was transfused with pack red blood cells, platelets concentrate and was commenced on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis and anabolic steroid. He is currently on follow-up in the paediatric clinic. PMID:24791055

  18. Girls and Boys Like to Read and Write Different Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merisuo-Storm, Tuula

    2006-01-01

    This study explored girls' and boys' (aged 10-11) attitudes towards reading and writing. Girls enjoyed reading significantly more than boys. Boys liked mostly comics and humorous books; adventure books were girls' favourites. Poetry did not appeal to pupils. Many boys did not enjoy typical school texts. Most pupils, especially boys, did not like…

  19. Are Boys Discriminated in Swedish High Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Hoglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading. We rigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is…

  20. Role Calls for Boys & Girls Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou

    2013-01-01

    The New Hampshire Alliance of Boys & Girls Clubs has come a long way since the inception of the state's first Club in Manchester more than 100 years ago. The goal of the Boys & Girls Clubs of America is to provide youth with programs and services that allow them to realize their full potential as productive members of society. State and federal…

  1. More Boys Wanted in Upstate New York

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Matt

    2010-01-01

    In spite of the popularity of TV shows like "American Idol" and "Glee," it can still be hard to convince boys that singing is cool. Therefore, choir directors who would like more boys to join their groups have their work cut out for them. Erin Belanger, music teacher at Stockbridge Valley central School in Munnsville, New York is a case in point.…

  2. Concern Over Gender Gaps Shifting to Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2006-01-01

    After years of efforts aimed at boosting girls' achievement in science and mathematics, researchers, writers, and educators are now expressing alarm about the plight of boys. Even boys themselves have jumped into the debate. In December 2006, Doug Anglin, a 17-year-old senior at Milton High School in Milton, Massachusetts, filed a federal civil…

  3. Failing Boys? Issues in Gender and Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Debbie, Ed.; Elwood, Jannette, Ed.; Hey, Valerie, Ed.; Maw, Janet, Ed.

    Issues surrounding boys'"underachievement" have been at the center of public debate about education and the raising of standards in recent years. Media and political responses to the "problem of boys" have tended to be simplistic, partial, and owe more to quick fixes than investigation and research. This book provides a detailed, nuanced case…

  4. Developmental Pathways in Boys' Disruptive Delinquent Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Barbara Tatem; Loeber, Rolf; Keenan, Kate; DeLamatre, Mary

    1997-01-01

    Boys may follow various developmental pathways that lead to increasingly disruptive and delinquent behavior. To most parents, teachers, youth workers, mental health professionals, and juvenile justice practitioners, the development of disruptive and delinquent behavior in boys may appear erratic and unpredictable. This bulletin summarizes…

  5. Using Special Education to Destroy Black Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Asks whether special education is designed to keep African-American boys out of the mainstream of education and also looks at questions of a passive conspiracy to destroy African-American males and the role of racism. Discusses special education legislation, and argues that African-American boys are not being adequately educated. (JB)

  6. Adolescent Boys' Friendships and Peer Group Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Judy Y.

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent boys perceive their male peer group culture--and their socialization toward masculine norms emphasized within this culture--as negatively influencing their abilities to develop close male friendships. Boys who manage to develop close, male friendships, however, draw strength from these relationships to resist the social pressures of…

  7. Boy Scouts, School Policies and the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    The Boy Scouts of America's anti-gay and anti-atheist youth policies are forcing school districts to reconsider sponsoring troops and allowing meetings on campus. To most school boards, banning Boy Scouts organizations seems unthinkable. The meeting-space question boils down to existence of anti-discrimination policies. (MLH)

  8. Misreading Masculinity: Boys, Literacy, and Popular Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newkirk, Thomas

    This book takes an up-close and personal look at elementary school boys and their relationship to sports, movies, video games, and other avenues of popular culture. The book views these media not as enemies of literacy, but as resources "for" literacy. It contains a series of interviews with young boys and girls who describe the pleasure they take…

  9. Comparing matching ability, spatial memory, and ideational fluency in boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Young, G D; Wilson, J F

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine whether girls and boys show patterns of problem-solving ability similar to those attributed by Kimura in 1992 to women and men, respectively. Subjects were 28 girls and 24 boys, aged 5-11 years, who were tested individually on matching ability, spatial memory, and ideational fluency, tasks on which women reportedly outperform men. No significant gender differences in these problem-solving abilities were found. On ideational fluency, the youngest girls were seven times more likely than young boys to give whimsical responses, but older girls were then times less likely than older boys to give whimsical responses. These results suggest that the patterns of visuospatial problem-solving abilities that Kimura ascribed to women and men are not present in preadolescent girls and boys. PMID:7870488

  10. Generalized anxiety disorder in a nonclinical sample of children: Symptom presentation and predictors of impairment

    PubMed Central

    Layne, Ann E.; Bernat, Debra H.; Victor, Andrea M.; Bernstein, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    Presentation of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a nonclinical sample of children (7–11 years old) and factors that predict overall impairment were examined. Symptom presentation was compared in children with GAD (n = 49) and anxious children without GAD (n = 42). Children with GAD endorsed significantly more worries, greater intensity of worries, and more DSM-IV associated symptoms than anxious children without GAD. Eighty-six percent of children with GAD had a comorbid diagnosis with 4% having a depressive disorder. Number of associated symptoms was most predictive of GAD impairment based on child perspective and intensity of worry was most predictive based on clinician perspective. Overall, findings from the current study are consistent with reports based on clinical samples. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for GAD were supported, with the exception that children with GAD typically present with several associated symptoms, rather than only one. PMID:18815006

  11. Case presentation and images of a lingual osseous choristoma in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Stanford, James K; Spencer, James C; Reed, J Mark

    2015-01-01

    Since its original description in 1913, fewer than 100 lingual osseous choristomas have been reported in the literature; thus, prevalence is unknown. We describe a case of an 11 year old male who was seen in consultation after an incidental left posterior tongue mass was discovered on exam. The patient's presentation of an asymptomatic, hard, pedunculate posterior tongue lesion is typical; however, if one is to believe the proposed congenital remnant theory in regards to the etiology of this benign tumor, it is curious that no mention was made of a lesion of the tongue on prior evaluations by his pediatrician or on the otolaryngologic examinations performed 3 and 6 years prior to the most recent presentation. Included with the case description are interesting radiographs, intra-operative photos, gross specimen photo and microscopic images. PMID:26545466

  12. A Sporadic Case of Ichthyosis Curth Macklin: Rare Presentation of a Rare Disease.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Sharad; Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Agarwal, Nidheesh

    2015-01-01

    Ichthyosis hystrix is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis, characterized by persistent spiny hyperkeratotic scales which cover a significant part of the skin surface. Based on the pattern of distribution, five clinical variants namely Brocq type, Lambert type, Curth-Macklin type, Rheydt type and Bδfverstedt type have been described. We report the case of an 11-year-old male child with spiny, hyperkeratotic scales all over the body since birth with sparing of scalp and central part of the face. Palmoplantar keratoderma was also present. These clinical features are suggestive of Ichthyosis Curth Macklin, which has been typically described in families. However, family history was negative in our patient. The case is being reported on account of rarity of the disease, that too with a very rare sporadic presentation. PMID:26538731

  13. A Sporadic Case of Ichthyosis Curth Macklin: Rare Presentation of a Rare Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Sharad; Agarwal, Uma Shankar; Agarwal, Nidheesh

    2015-01-01

    Ichthyosis hystrix is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis, characterized by persistent spiny hyperkeratotic scales which cover a significant part of the skin surface. Based on the pattern of distribution, five clinical variants namely Brocq type, Lambert type, Curth-Macklin type, Rheydt type and Bδfverstedt type have been described. We report the case of an 11-year-old male child with spiny, hyperkeratotic scales all over the body since birth with sparing of scalp and central part of the face. Palmoplantar keratoderma was also present. These clinical features are suggestive of Ichthyosis Curth Macklin, which has been typically described in families. However, family history was negative in our patient. The case is being reported on account of rarity of the disease, that too with a very rare sporadic presentation. PMID:26538731

  14. Efficacy of "talking books" for a group of reading disabled boys.

    PubMed

    Abelson, A G; Petersen, M

    1983-10-01

    No significant differences in proficiency of reading-listening comprehension among 24 reading-disabled boys in Grades 4, 5, and 6 were noted after hearing "talking book," taped stories, and teacher-read presentations. PMID:6634340

  15. The Reading Lives of 8 to 11-Year-Olds 2005-2013: An Evidence Paper for the Read On. Get On. Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This report focuses on children aged 8 to 11 and their enjoyment of reading, reading behaviour, and attitudes toward reading. It synthesises information from surveys that have been conducted since 2005, but most heavily exploits data from the fourth annual literacy survey conducted in November/December 2013 in which 10,946 8 to 11-year-olds…

  16. Childhood in Crisis? Perceptions of 7-11-Year-Olds on Being a Child and the Implications for Education's Well-Being Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Notions of a good childhood are inextricably linked with well-being. Both concepts are central to a contentious debate about the quality of childhood in the UK, which is partly situated within the "childhood in crisis" discourse which opponents claim is overstated. This study contributes to the debate by hearing the voices of children as…

  17. The enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program: The relationship between internalizing symptoms and family functioning in children aged 9–11 years old

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Patricia; Rooney, Rosanna M.; Kane, Robert T.; Hassan, Sharinaz; Nesa, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The family context plays a critical role in the health of the child. This was the first study to examine the usefulness of the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device (FAD-GF) in assessing family functioning and its relationship to internalizing symptoms in school-aged children aged between 9 and 11 years of age. Eight hundred and forty-seven year 4 and 5 students from 13 schools (607 intervention students, and 240 control students) participated in the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS) – a universal school-based program targeting internalizing symptoms. Students rated how ‘healthy’ they perceived their family to be at pre-test and at 6-months follow-up. Although some aspects of validity and reliability could be improved, results indicated that perceptions of family functioning at pre-test were predictive of internalizing symptoms at the 6-months follow-up. The FAD-GF therefore showed promise as a potential measure of family functioning for children as young as 9 years old. Regardless of children’s pre-test levels of perceived family functioning, no intervention effects were found on the anxiety and depression scales; this finding suggests that child perceptions of family functioning may act as a general protective factor against internalizing symptomology. PMID:25983698

  18. Child overweight, associated psychopathology, and social functioning: a French school-based survey in 6- to 11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Pitrou, Isabelle; Shojaei, Taraneh; Wazana, Ashley; Gilbert, Fabien; Kovess-Masféty, Viviane

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of child overweight in a regional sample of primary school-aged children, and to examine the relationships among child overweight, psychopathology, and social functioning. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 in 100 primary schools of a large French region, with 2,341 children aged 6-11 randomly selected. Child weight and height, lifestyle variables (leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), watching television (TV), playing video games), and socioeconomic characteristics were collected in parent-administered questionnaires. Child psychopathology outcomes were assessed using child- and parent-reported instruments (Dominic Interactive (DI) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)). Overweight and obesity were estimated according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) definition. Response rates to the parent questionnaire and DI were 57.4 and 95.1%, respectively. Final sample size was 1,030 children. According to the IOTF, 17.3% of the children were overweight, of whom 3.3% were obese. In univariate analysis, correlates of overweight were low parental education, low monthly income, Disadvantaged School Areas (DSAs), self-reported generalized anxiety, parent-reported conduct disorders, emotional problems, and peer difficulties. High monthly income was less frequently associated with overweight. In multivariate analysis, parent-reported peer difficulties (odds ratio (OR) = 2.06; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-3.35) and DSAs (1.88; 1.03-3.44) were independent factors significantly associated with child overweight. There was a trend of being overweight with elevated TV times (P for trend = 0.02). The psychosocial burden of excess weight appears to be significant even in young children. Findings should be considered for preventing strategies and public health interventions. School-based overweight prevention programs should be implemented first in disadvantaged areas together with information about weight stigmatization and discrimination. PMID:19713951

  19. Changes in Commitment to Physical Activity among 8-to-11-Year-Old Girls Participating in a Curriculum-Based Running Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita; Zhang, Yan; Thompson, Sharon H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite findings that support physical activity (PA) as an effective means of improving health and quality of life, PA levels among girls tend to decline with age. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess changes pertaining to PA commitment following a curriculum-based running program designed for 3rd-to-5th-grade girls.…

  20. Relationships between Parental Education and Overweight with Childhood Overweight and Physical Activity in 9–11 Year Old Children: Results from a 12-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, Stella K.; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Church, Timothy S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children has serious implications for morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood. Various parental factors are associated with childhood overweight and physical activity. The objective of this paper was to investigate relationships between parental education or overweight, and (i) child overweight, (ii) child physical activity, and (iii) explore household coexistence of overweight, in a large international sample. Methods Data were collected from 4752 children (9–11 years) as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment in 12 countries around the world. Physical activity of participating children was assessed by accelerometry, and body weight directly measured. Questionnaires were used to collect parents’ education level, weight, and height. Results Maternal and paternal overweight were positively associated with child overweight. Higher household coexistence of parent-child overweight was observed among overweight children compared to the total sample. There was a positive relationship between maternal education and child overweight in Colombia 1.90 (1.23–2.94) [odds ratio (confidence interval)] and Kenya 4.80 (2.21–10.43), and a negative relationship between paternal education and child overweight in Brazil 0.55 (0.33–0.92) and the USA 0.54 (0.33–0.88). Maternal education was negatively associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines in Colombia 0.53 (0.33–0.85), Kenya 0.35 (0.19–0.63), and Portugal 0.54 (0.31–0.96). Conclusions Results are aligned with previous studies showing positive associations between parental and child overweight in all countries, and positive relationships between parental education and child overweight or negative associations between parental education and child physical activity in lower economic status countries. Relationships between maternal and paternal education and child weight status and physical activity appear to be related to the developmental stage of different countries. Given these varied relationships, it is crucial to further explore familial factors when investigating child overweight and physical activity. PMID:27557132

  1. A longitudinal study of semantic grouping strategy use in 6-11-year-old children: investigating developmental phases, the role of working memory, and strategy transfer.

    PubMed

    Schleepen, Tamara M J; Jonkman, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    This two-cohort longitudinal study on the development of the semantic grouping strategy had three goals. First, the authors examined if 6-7-year-olds are nonstrategic before becoming strategic after prompting at 8-9 years of age, and if 8-9-year-olds are prompted strategic before spontaneous strategy use at 10-11 years of age. Children 6-7 and 8-9 years old performed two sort-recall tasks (one without and one with a grouping prompt) at two time points separated 1.5 years from each other. Second, the authors investigated whether short-term or working memory capacity at time point 1 predicted recall in children who did or did not use the semantic grouping strategy 1.5 years later. Third, the authors investigated whether prompted strategic children and children who used the strategy spontaneously differed in strategy transfer to a new task. Developmental results confirmed previous cross-sectional results, but in a longitudinal two-cohort study 6-7-year-olds were nonstrategic, and became prompted strategic around 8-9 years of age, followed by spontaneous strategy use at age 10-11 years. The authors found that memory capacity was not predictive of later use of the strategy. New findings were that prompted strategic children were as equally able as spontaneously strategic children to transfer the strategy to a new task, albeit with smaller recall benefits. PMID:25375863

  2. Assessing 10- to 11-Year-Old Children's Performance and Misconceptions in Number Sense Using a Four-Tier Diagnostic Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Der-Ching; Lin, Yung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Number sense is a key topic in mathematics education, and the identification of children's misconceptions about number is, therefore, important. Information about students' serious misconceptions can be quite significant for teachers, allowing them to change their teaching plans to help children overcome these misconceptions. In…

  3. Cerebral palsy in a total population of 4–11 year olds in southern Sweden. Prevalence and distribution according to different CP classification systems

    PubMed Central

    Westbom, Lena; Hagglund, Gunnar; Nordmark, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cerebral palsy (CP) as well as to characterize the CP population, its participation in a secondary prevention programme (CPUP) and to validate the CPUP database. Methods The study population was born 1990–1997 and resident in Skåne/Blekinge on Jan 1st 2002. Multiple sources were used. Irrespective of earlier diagnoses, neuropaediatrician and other professional medical records were evaluated for all children at the child habilitation units. The CPUP database and diagnosis registers at hospital departments were searched for children with CP or psychomotor retardation, whose records were then evaluated. To enhance early prevention, CP/probable CP was searched for also in children below four years of age born 1998–2001. Results The prevalence of CP was 2.4/1,000 (95% CI 2.1–2.6) in children 4–11 years of age born in Sweden, excluding post-neonatally acquired CP. Children born abroad had a higher prevalence of CP with more severe functional limitations. In the total population, the prevalence of CP was 2.7/1,000 (95% CI 2.4–3.0) and 48% were GMFCS-level I (the mildest limitation of gross motor function). One third of the children with CP, who were born or had moved into the area after a previous study in 1998, were not in the CPUP database. The subtype classification in the CPUP database was adjusted in the case of every fifth child aged 4–7 years not previously reviewed. Conclusion The prevalence of CP and the subtype distribution did not differ from that reported in other studies, although the proportion of mild CP tended to be higher. The availability of a second opinion about the classification of CP/CP subtypes is necessary in order to keep a CP register valid, as well as an active search for undiagnosed CP among children with other impairments. PMID:18053264

  4. Double burden of undernutrition and overnutrition in Vietnam in 2011: results of the SEANUTS study in 0·5-11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Le Nguyen, Bao Khanh; Le Thi, Hop; Nguyen Do, Van Anh; Tran Thuy, Nga; Nguyen Huu, Chinh; Thanh Do, Tran; Deurenberg, Paul; Khouw, Ilse

    2013-09-01

    The Vietnamese South East Asian Nutrition Survey (SEANUTS), a cross-sectional study, was undertaken to assess the nutritional status in a nationally representative sample of children aged 0·5-11·9 years. A multi-stage cluster-randomised sampling method was used to recruit 2872 children. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemistry involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using a 24 h recall questionnaire, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Vietnamese RDA. In children aged < 5 years, approximately 14% were stunted, 8·6% underweight and 4·4% thin. A higher prevalence of stunting (15·6%) and underweight (22·2%) was observed in school-aged children. Undernutrition was more prevalent in rural areas than in urban areas. In contrast, almost 29% of the urban children were either overweight or obese when compared with 4% of the overweight children and 1·6% of the obese children in rural areas. A higher percentage of children in the age group 0·5-1·9 years and residing in rural areas had low Hb levels than those in the age group 2·0-5·9 years and residing in urban areas. In children aged 6-11 years, a small percentage had low Hb (11-14%) and vitamin A (5-10%) levels, but almost half the children (48-53%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Food consumption data indicated that the children did not meet the RDA for energy, protein, Fe, vitamin A, vitamin B1 and vitamin C. Results from the SEANUTS highlight the double burden of malnutrition in Vietnam. Information from the SEANUTS can serve as an input for targeted policy development, planning and development of nutrition programmes. PMID:24016766

  5. Children's Subjective Emotional Reactivity to Affective Pictures: Gender Differences and Their Antisocial Correlates in an Unselected Sample of 7-11-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Carla; Van Goozen, Stephanie; Goodyer, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Background: Differential responses in terms of gender and antisocial behaviour in emotional reactivity to affective pictures using the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) have been demonstrated in adult and adolescent samples. Moreover, a quadratic relationship between the arousal (intensity) and valence (degree of unpleasantness) has…

  6. Protecting the Development of 5-11-Year-Olds from the Impacts of Early Disadvantage: The Role of Primary School Academic Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam; Hall, James; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not more effective schools can successfully mitigate the impacts of early disadvantage upon educational attainment remains uncertain. We investigated 2,664 children aged 6-11 years and measured their academic skills in English and maths along with self-regulation at 6, 7, and 11. Experiencing multiple disadvantages before age 5 strongly…

  7. An open randomised study of autoinflation in 4- to 11-year-old school children with otitis media with effusion in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Ian; Vennik, Jane; Harnden, Anthony; Voysey, Merryn; Perera, Rafael; Breen, Maria; Bradley, Brendan; Kelly, Sadie; Yao, Guiqing; Raftery, James; Mant, David; Little, Paul

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a very common problem in primary care, but one that lacks an evidence-based non-surgical treatment. OBJECTIVE To determine the clinical effectiveness of nasal balloon autoinflation for the treatment of OME in children. DESIGN A pragmatic, two-arm, open randomised controlled trial. SETTING Forty-three general practices from 17 UK primary care trusts recruited between January 2012 and February 2013. PARTICIPANTS School children aged 4-11 years with a history of OME symptoms or related concerns in the previous 3 months, and a type B tympanogram, diagnostic of a middle ear effusion, in one or both ears. INTERVENTION Three hundred and twenty children were randomised, 160 to each group, using independent web-based computer-generated randomisation (with minimisation based on age, sex and baseline severity of OME) to either nasal balloon autoinflation performed three times per day for 1-3 months plus usual care, or usual care alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The proportion of children demonstrating clearance of middle ear fluid in at least one ear (with normal tympanograms) at 1 and 3 months, assessed blind to treatment. An ear-related measure of quality of life (QoL) [a 14-point questionnaire on the impact of OME (OMQ-14)], weekly diary recorded symptoms, compliance and adverse events were all secondary outcomes. RESULTS At 1 month, the proportion of children with normal tympanograms was 47.3% (62/131) in those allocated to autoinflation and 35.6% (47/132) in those receiving usual care [adjusted relative risk (RR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99 to 1.88]. At 3 months, the proportions were 49.6% (62/125) and 38.3% (46/120), respectively (adjusted RR 1.37, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.83; number needed to treat = 9). The change in OMQ-14 also favoured the intervention arm (adjusted global score difference -0.42; p = 0.001). Reported compliance was good: 89% in the first month and 80% in months 2 and 3. Adverse events included otalgia in 4% of treated children compared with 1% in the control group. Minor nosebleeds (14% vs. 15%) and respiratory tract infections (18% vs. 13%) were noted. CONCLUSION We found the use of autoinflation in young children with OME to be feasible in primary care and effective in both clearing effusions and improving child and parent ear-related QoL and symptoms. This method has scope to be used more widely. Further research is needed for very young children, and to inform prudent use in different health settings. PMID:26377389

  8. Sex, Intelligence and Educational Achievement in a National Cohort of over 175,000 11-Year-Old Schoolchildren in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Catherine M.; Fernandes, Cres; Smith, Pauline; Visscher, Peter M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    General cognitive ability ("g") does not explain sex differences in academic test performance by the end of compulsory education. Instead, individual differences in specific reasoning abilities, after removing the effects of "g," may contribute to the observed gender gaps. Associations between general or specific cognitive abilities, sex, and…

  9. A comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 9–11 year old British Pakistani and White British girls: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that British children of South Asian origin are less active and more sedentary than White British children. However, little is known about the behaviours underlying low activity levels, nor the familial contexts of active and sedentary behaviours in these groups. Our aim was to test hypotheses about differences between British Pakistani and White British girls using accelerometry and self-reports of key active and sedentary behaviours, and to obtain an understanding of factors affecting these behaviours using parental interviews. Methods Participants were 145 girls (70 White British and 75 British Pakistani) aged 9–11 years and parents of 19 of the girls. Accelerometry data were collected over 4 days and girls provided 24-hour physical activity interviews on 3 of these days. Multilevel linear regression models and generalised linear mixed models tested for ethnic differences in activity, sedentary time, and behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents. Results Compared to White British girls, British Pakistani girls accumulated 102 (95% CI 59, 145) fewer counts per minute and 14 minutes (95% CI 8, 20) less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. British Pakistani girls spent more time (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 14, 42) sedentary. Fewer British Pakistani than White British girls reported participation in organised sports and exercise (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.64) or in outdoor play (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.20, 0.91). Fewer British Pakistani girls travelled actively to school (OR 0.26 95% CI 0.10, 0.71). There was no significant difference in reported screen time (OR 0.88 95% CI 0.45, 1.73). Parental interviews suggested that structural constraints (e.g. busy family schedules) and parental concerns about safety were important influences on activity levels. Conclusions British Pakistani girls were less active than White British girls and were less likely to participate in key active behaviours. Sedentary time was higher in British Pakistani girls but reported screen-time did not differ, suggesting that British Pakistani girls engaged more than White British girls in other sedentary behaviours. Interviews highlighted some differences between the groups in structural constraints on activity, as well as many shared constraints. PMID:24912651

  10. Cryptorchidism in boys with posterior urethral valves.

    PubMed

    Krueger, R P; Hardy, B E; Churchill, B M

    1980-07-01

    A review of 207 male children with poterior urethral valves revealed an over-all incidence of cryptorchidism of 12 per cent. This association of cryptorchidism in boys with posterior urethral valves has not been described previously. PMID:6106069

  11. Depression in Diagnostic Subtypes of Delinquent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashani, Javad H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Delinquent boys (18 percent of 120) were found to be depressed when DSM III criteria for Major Depressive Disorder were utilized. Results indicated the prevalence of depression was not significantly more frequent among socialized, undersocialized, aggressive or nonaggressive subtypes. (Author)

  12. Boys and Girls: Join the Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou; Wool, Michael; McKenzie, Mary Alice

    2012-01-01

    Boys & Girls Clubs of America count 4,000 community-based clubs serving more than 4 million young people through membership and community outreach. They provide a safe place to spend time during non-school hours and the summer as an alternative to the streets or being home alone--a place to play, have fun and learn. Boys & Girls Clubs began in New…

  13. Burkitt's lymphoma in a young Brazilian boy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cláudio M; Lopes, Ana Paula M; Meneghini, Alexandre J; Silva, Geisa B L; Monteiro, Mariana C; Botelho, Tessa de L

    2010-06-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is not an uncommon malignancy in the paediatric population. It is a high-grade non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma which may present as endemic, sporadic and human immunodeficiency-associated subtypes. The African, or endemic, variant usually involves the maxilla and other facial bones while head and neck manifestations in sporadic Burkitt's lymphoma are rare. We described a case of oral Burkitt's lymphoma involving the right jaw in a 4-year-old boy. The patient presented with a rapidly-enlarging swelling of one month duration, toothache-like pain and radiographical appearance of 'floating teeth' in the right mandible. Incisional biopsy revealed small round tumour cells with scarce cytoplasm and multiple small nuclei interspersed by phagocytic macrophages. The tumour cells were immunopositivity for CD20 and CD10, expressed weak positivity for CD3, negative for CD5 and showed > 90% positivity for Ki-67. Tumour remission was achieved with six cycles of chemotherapy with the CHOP regime. PMID:20614728

  14. Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides in a 10-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Manzur, A; Zaidi, S T H

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) presenting with hypopigmented lesions is an uncommon clinical variant of the disease, usually described in dark-skinned patients. We report a case of hypopigmented CTCL in a 10-year-old boy. The disease has responded favorably to narrowband UVB therapy. This case illustrates the importance of clinical suspicion for mycosis fungoides in patients with widespread hypopigmentation. PMID:17083901

  15. 'Body image is for girls': a qualitative study of boys' body image.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Duane A; Tiggemann, Marika

    2006-07-01

    Although a considerable and informative literature on boys' body image is beginning to emerge, this literature has been guided strongly by theorizing about female body image. The present study aimed to gain access to boys' own ideas and terminology regarding their body image. The participants (aged 14 to 16 years) said that they are satisfied with their appearance, but some conceded their physical appearance to be more important than they like to admit. Boys do not believe that the mass media influences their body image and said they do not talk about body image because it is a feminine or gay issue. PMID:16769736

  16. Finiteness Marking in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Audra M.; Rice, Mabel L.; Warren, Steven F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The current study investigated finiteness marking (e.g., he walk "s", he walk "ed") in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS); the boys were grouped based on receptive vocabulary (i.e., borderline, impaired). Method: Twenty-one boys with the full mutation of fragile X, between the ages of 8 and 16 years participated. The boys completed probes…

  17. Relational Strategies to Engage Boys: The Need for Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Some boys thrive in school; many do not. There is a growing consensus that many boys' scholastic performance is failing to keep up with the new knowledge economy. As troubling as this trend in boys' scholastic performance may be generally, school troubles are neither universal nor normative. The intriguing fact is that some boys in most schools…

  18. The appeal of violent video games to lower educated aggressive adolescent boys from two countries.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, Jeroen S; Bushman, Brad J; Konijn, Elly A

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effect of individual differences on appeal and use of video games. Participants were 299 adolescent boys from lower and higher secondary schools in the Netherlands and Belgium. In general, boys were most attracted to violent video games. Boys that scored higher in trait aggressiveness and lower in empathy were especially attracted to violent games and spent more time playing video games than did boys lower in trait aggressiveness. Lower educated boys showed more appreciation for both violent and nonviolent games and spent more time playing them than did higher educated boys. The present study showed that aggressive and less empathic boys were most attracted to violent games. The fact that heavy users of violent games show less empathy and higher aggressiveness suggests the possibility of desensitization. Other studies have shown that playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy. These results combined suggest the possibility of a violence cycle. Aggressive individuals are attracted to violent games. Playing violent games increases aggressiveness and decreases empathy, which in turn leads to increased appreciation and use of violent games. PMID:17034335

  19. Overcoming the Obstacle Course: Teenage Boys and Reading; Boy Books, Girl Books: Should We Re-Organize Our School Library Collections?; Guys and Reading; Where the Boys Are...; From "Boys' Life" to "Thrasher": Boys and Magazines; Connecting with Boys at Lunch: A Success Story; Motivating Boys as Beginning Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Patrick; Fiorelli, Dawn Cartwright; Doiron, Ray; Scieszka, Jon; Haupt, Allison; Cox, Ruth E.; Martin, Robie; Dahlhauser, Julie

    2003-01-01

    Includes seven articles that discuss overcoming obstacles to getting teenage boys to read. Highlights include what teacher-librarians can do; what boys see as obstacles; material selection; collection organization; gender issues; learning differences; magazines; lunchtime book discussion groups; motivating boys as beginning readers; and popular…

  20. [Case presentation in small animal medicine].

    PubMed

    Gfeller, G; Reusch, C

    1998-01-01

    A 11 year old female spayed Jack Russel Terrier was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis. After successful initial treatment metabolic control deteriorated although insulin dosage was increased. Cushing's syndrome was diagnosed and treatment with Lysodren was started. As a result blood glucose concentrations decreased. The difficulty to diagnose Cushing's syndrome in some diabetic dogs is discussed. PMID:9757786

  1. Play Preference and Play Performance in Normal Boys and Boys with Sensory Integrative Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Jane M.; Bundy, Anita C.

    1989-01-01

    The Preschool Play Scale (PPS) and the Preschool Play Materials Preference Inventory were administered to 35 normal preschool boys and 31 with sensory integrative dysfunction (SID). Results indicated no differences in regard to play preference, lower scores for SID boys on the PPS, and no relationship between performance and preference for SID…

  2. Boys Only: One Co-Educational Primary School's Experience of a Classroom for Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    Concern over retention of boys as well as poor academic performance and behaviour, in a New Zealand co-educational primary school, led the school to trial, a "boys-only class". This case study reports interview and questionnaire commentary obtained at the beginning and end of the year from the principal, the teacher, pupils and parents, to…

  3. Two Boy Scout Troops: The Impact of the Troop Culture on What Boys Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinkwin, Anne; Kleinfeld, Judith

    Troop ideology as defined by the scoutmaster and other involved adults radically altered the learning experiences of boys in two Boy Scout troops, even though both adhered to the official program. Using observation and interviews, researchers studied all aspects of the troops over 7 months. One troop, whose scoutmaster was benevolent and…

  4. Successful Boys and Literacy: Are "Literate Boys" Challenging or Repackaging Hegemonic Masculinity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Christine; Francis, Becky

    2011-01-01

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress statistics show that boys are underachieving in literacy compared to girls. Attempts to redress the problem in various Global North countries and particularly Australia and the United Kingdom have failed to make any impact. However, there are boys who are doing well in literacy. The aim of this…

  5. Effortful Control in Typically Developing Boys and in Boys with ADHD or Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samyn, Vicky; Roeyers, Herbert; Bijttebier, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased interest in the role of effortful control (EC) in developmental disorders, few studies have focused on EC in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and no study so far has directly compared children with ASD and children with ADHD. A first aim of this study was to investigate whether typically developing (TD) boys, boys with ADHD and…

  6. Genital injuries in boys and abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, C J; Osman, J

    2007-01-01

    Aims To describe a cohort of boys with genital injuries in whom child abuse was suspected. Methods Boys with genital injury (penile and/or scrotal) and referred to paediatricians in Leeds, population 750 000, with concerns regarding possible abuse from 1983 to 2003 were identified from medical reports. Results 86 boys (average age 62.7 months, median age 48 months) were referred between 1983 and 2003. The injury was judged inflicted in 63, unexplained, suspicious or inconsistent with the history given in 17 and accidental in six. The number of discrete injuries ranged from one in 57, two in 15, three in 12, to more than three in two cases. Genital injuries included burns in seven boys, bruises in 27, incised wounds, lacerations or scars in 39, and other traumatic lesions in 27. Non‐genital findings included anal findings in 28, >10 bruises in 17, fractures in three, burns in 12, mouth injuries in four, brain and retinal haemorrhages in one, and poor nourishment or underweight in 14. The categories of abuse were physical (eight), sexual (19), both physical and sexual (eight), physical and neglect (four), and physical, sexual and neglect (one). The category of abuse was unspecified in 39 children. Conclusions Genital injury in boys may be the result of abuse which may be physical or sexual in nature. PMID:17376938

  7. Unilateral striae distensae affecting the right axilla in a 16-year-old boy: brief report.

    PubMed

    Alshaiji, Jasem M; Handler, Marc Z; Schwartzfarb, Elissa; Izakovic, Jan; Schachner, Lawrence A

    2014-01-01

    Striae distensae or stretch marks are a common skin condition that occurs frequently in association with adolescent growth spurts and pregnancy. They are characterized by linear symmetrical asymptomatic smooth bands of atrophic-appearing skin on the thighs, buttocks, and breasts in girls and on the shoulders, outer thighs, and lumbosacral areas in boys. We present a rare case of unilateral striae distensae affecting the right axilla in a 16-year-old boy. PMID:23072309

  8. Reducing Aggressive Behavior in Boys with a Social Cognitive Group Treatment: Results of a Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Manen, Teun G.; Prins, Pier J.M.; Emmelkamp, Paul M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a social cognitive intervention program for Dutch aggressive boys and to compare it with a social skills training and a waitlist control group. Method: A randomized, controlled treatment outcome study with 97 aggressive boys (aged 9-13 years) was presented. An 11 session group treatment, a social…

  9. Association of a Monoamine Oxidase-A Gene Promoter Polymorphism with ADHD and Anxiety in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roohi, Jasmin; DeVincent, Carla J.; Hatchwell, Eli; Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) functional polymorphism in the promoter region of the MAO-A gene and severity of ADHD and anxiety in boys with ASD. Parents and teachers completed a DSM-IV-referenced rating scale for 5- to 14-year-old boys with ASD (n = 43). Planned…

  10. Disruptive Behaviour in School, Personality Characteristics, and Heart Rate (HR) Levels in 7- to 9-Year-Old Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maliphant, Rodney; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents results of study of British elementary school boys aged seven to nine, comparing disruptive behavior to heart rate. Distinguishes this study from earlier ones that found relationship between low base heart rates and low reactivity to mild stress among high school boys. Reports that this study disproves prediction that results would be…

  11. Changes in At-Risk Boys' Intrinsic Motivation toward Physical Activity: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jiling; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron E.; Su, Xiaoxia; Juzaily, Nasnoor

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is an important predictor of children's physical activity participation. The present 3-year longitudinal study examined changes in IM toward physical activity among a group of at-risk boys (N = 92) at a summer sports camp. Results showed the boys were intrinsically motivated in their first camp year, but their IM levels…

  12. Time Trends in Medically Serious Suicide-Related Behaviours in Boys and Girls

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Anne E; Lu, Hong; Skinner, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether emergency department (ED) presentations for suicide-related behaviours (SRBs) in boys and girls were identified as more clinically acute in the ED in the period after the regulatory warnings against prescribing antidepressants and during the global economic recession, and to characterize the medical severity of SRBs among boys and girls to aid surveillance activities. Method: Among Ontario boys and girls (aged 12 to 17 years) presenting to the ED with an incident (index) ED SRB event between fiscal years (FYs) 2002 to 2010, we compared the number of high (compared with lower) acuity events in FYs 2005 to 2010 to those in FYs 2002 to 2004. We described the SRB method by its acuity and tested the linearity of varying trends in the SRB method in boys and girls. Results: In both boys and girls, high acuity events were 50% greater after FY 2004 than before, regardless of subsequent admission, and most common among boys and girls who self-poisoned. In girls, opposing linear trends before and after FY 2004 were observed in the proportion of self-poisonings and cut (or) pierce SRB methods. Throughout the study period, there was a linear decline in the proportion of boys presenting to the ED with other methods. Conclusions: The previously reported increase in hospital admissions after the warnings and during the recession is unlikely artifactual. An equivalent increase in high acuity events was also evident among those not subsequently admitted. The reasons for varying responses in boys and girls by SRB method warrant further study. PMID:25565689

  13. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys: a worthwhile minor surgical procedure?

    PubMed

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike; Thorup, Jorgen; Hutson, John; Heloury, Yves

    2016-03-01

    No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure. For example, the use of immunohistochemical markers such as OCT/3-4, TSPY, Kit ligand (SCF) and ALPP (PLAP) has considerably facilitated the detection of germ cell tumour precursors, such as carcinoma in situ and/or gonadoblastoma. These markers are very important for evaluating malignancy risk in undervirilized patients with 46,XY disorders of sexual development. Testicular histology is also of considerable value in the prediction of both fertility potential and risk of cancer in individuals with undescended testes, particularly those with intraabdominal undescended testes. New possibilities for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys is a minor procedure that can provide valuable information for predicting the risk of malignancy and fertility, and might be useful in fertility preservation in the near future. PMID:26787392

  14. Effect of exercise on postprandial endothelial function in adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, Matthew J; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E; Tolfrey, Keith; Nevill, Alan; Barrett, Laura A

    2013-07-28

    The ingestion of high-fat meals induces a state of endothelial dysfunction in adults. This dysfunction is attenuated by prior exercise. The response of young people to these nutritional and physiological stressors has not been established. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if a bout of moderate-intensity exercise influenced endothelial function (as indicated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD)) following the ingestion of a high-fat breakfast and lunch in adolescent boys (aged 12·6-14·3 years). Two, 2 d main trials (control and exercise) were completed by thirteen adolescent boys in a counter-balanced, cross-over design. Participants were inactive on day 1 of the control trial, but completed 60 min of walking at 60 % peak oxygen uptake in the exercise trial. On day 2, endothelial function was assessed via FMD prior to, and following, ingestion of a high-fat breakfast and lunch. There was no difference in fasting FMD between the control and exercise trial (P= 0·449). In the control trial, FMD was reduced by 32 % following consumption of the high-fat breakfast and by 24 % following lunch. In the exercise trial, the corresponding reductions were 6 and 10 %, respectively (main effect trial, P= 0·002). These results demonstrate that moderate-intensity exercise can attenuate the decline in FMD seen following the consumption of high-fat meals in adolescent boys. PMID:23218136

  15. "Totem and Taboo" in a latency boy.

    PubMed

    Elkisch, P

    1979-01-01

    Against the background of Freud's "Totem and Taboo" the case of a seven-year-old boy is discusses, focusing on his identification with a cat. Guided by Freud's dialectic thinking and his discussion of the phenomena of patriarchy and matriarchy, one is led to contemplate the totemism of a matriarchally oriented boy. The attempt to understand this child's pathology is based upon the concept of the specificity of a developmental phase. In the light of anthropological data, clinical phenomena are evaluated ontogenetically, in analogy with the recapitulation hypothesis. PMID:489885

  16. Linking parental socialization to interpersonal protective processes, academic self-presentation, and expectations among rural African American youth.

    PubMed

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H; Miller, Shannon J; Chen, Yi-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Data obtained from 2 waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families with an 11-year-old preadolescent were used to examine pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth self-presentation, academic expectations, and academic anticipation. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization were linked with youth expectations for and anticipation of academic success through youth self-pride, which included racial identity and self-esteem, and through academic self-presentation. The results highlight the need to disaggregate racial and ethnic socialization to attain a better understanding of the ways in which these parenting domains uniquely forecast youth self-pride and academic orientation. PMID:19209975

  17. Linking Parental Socialization to Interpersonal Protective Processes, Academic Self-Presentation, and Expectations among Rural African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Shannon J.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2008-01-01

    Data obtained from two waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families, with an 11-year-old preadolescent, were examined to test pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth's self-presentation and academic expectation and anticipation through the enhancement of youth self-pride. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization was linked with youth's expectation and anticipation for academic success, through youth self-pride, including racial identity and self-esteem, and academic self-presentation. The results highlight the need to disaggregate racial and ethnic socialization in order to better understand how these parenting domains uniquely forecast youth self-pride, as well as their orientation to education and academic success. PMID:19209975

  18. A Boy's Alternative to Bodice-Rippers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucher, Katherine T.; Manning, M. Lee

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the genre of fantasy novels, noting its popularity with adolescent readers (especially boys). Notes sources helpful to teachers and school librarians, and lists a few personal favorite fantasy novels. Offers a brief note on whether the Harry Potter books can be considered young adult literature. (SR)

  19. The Neuropsychological Status of Adolescent Delinquent Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, P. H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The neuropsychological status and neuromotor performance of adolescent boys from lower-middle-class social environments who were detained as juvenile delinquents were compared to those of nondelinquent lower- and upper-middle-class controls. Principal aims were to investigate relationships between delinquency and learning disabilities,…

  20. Woodland Biology for Hundreds of Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Margaret

    1982-01-01

    Describes outdoor biology activities in a woodland area at a private boys school in England. Activities included studies of areas within the woods, winter trips, and wood and pond animals. Includes comments on preparing for and teaching the activities. (Author/JN)

  1. TEACHERS' INTERACTIONS WITH BOYS AND WITH GIRLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FELDMAN, DAVID H.; SEARS, PAULINE S.

    AN EXAMINATION WAS MADE OF THE TEACHERS' PART IN THE DEVELOPMENTAL TASKS OF CHILDREN IN ADOPTING AND MAINTAINING A SEX-ROLE THAT WILL HELP THEM REACH A SENSE OF REAL IDENTITY. ANSWERS WERE SOUGHT FOR TWO QUESTIONS--(1) DO TEACHERS REACT DIFFERENTLY TO BOYS AND GIRLS, AND (2) IF SO, WHAT EFFECT MAY THIS HAVE ON THE INTELLECTUAL AND SOCIAL…

  2. Interpersonal Coping among Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Roos, Thomas; Desman, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigate self-reported coping with interpersonal stressors among boys with and without ADHD in two studies and provide initial evidence for effects of different subgroups of ADHD on coping in Study 2. Method: In Study 1, 20 Austrian adolescents with ADHD were compared to 20 healthy controls. In Study 2, 44 German children…

  3. With Boys and Girls in Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurian, Michael; Stevens, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    New positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI technologies, which allow looking inside the brains, show that the brains of boys and girls differ both structurally and functionally that profoundly affect the human learning. These gender differences in the brain are corroborated in males and females throughout the world and do not differ…

  4. Language in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Yonata; Gottesman, Riki; Borochowitz, Zvi; Frydman, Moshe; Sagi, Michal

    2006-01-01

    The current paper reports of language production in 15 Hebrew-speaking boys, aged 9;0-13;0, with fully methylated, non-mosaic fragile X syndrome and no concomitant diagnosis of autism. Contrary to expectations, seven children were non-verbal. Language production in the verbal children was studied in free conversations and in context-bound speech.…

  5. A Young Boy Grows Away from Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoladore, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This article illustrates a little boy's journey from autistic-like symptoms into more adaptive ways of coping with trauma and separation. Drawing from the psychoanalytic literature on autism and trauma, it discusses how traumatic events in the first two years of life may cause a child to withdraw from social relationships and cause developmental…

  6. "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son": A Memoir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Reta Ugena

    2010-01-01

    "Mama's Boy; Preacher's Son" is Kevin Jennings's autobiographical account of growing up gay in the Southern United States. In his memoir, Jennings shares formative experiences relating to his impoverished childhood and his career as teacher and social activist. His rich description of the influence of family relationships on his personal and…

  7. Gene Therapy for "Bubble Boy" Disease.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Jonathan

    2016-07-14

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency results in the accumulation of toxic metabolites that destroy the immune system, causing severe combined immunodeficiency (ADA-SCID), often referred to as the "bubble boy" disease. Strimvelis is a European Medicines Agency approved gene therapy for ADA-SCID patients without a suitable bone marrow donor. PMID:27419862

  8. Preadolescent Girls' and Boys' Virtual MUD Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…

  9. Manifestations of Namibian Boy's Underachievement in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimba, Roderick F.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the 2012 grade 10 and grade 12 Namibian examination data indicate that girls received higher grades than boys across the then 13 education regions (Educational Management Information System, EMIS, 2012). University of Namibia graduation statistics for the period of 2002 to 2012 revealed that the institution consistently produced…

  10. Early Generalized Overgrowth in Boys With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Campbell, Daniel; Chen, Lisha; Shic, Frederick; Klin, Ami; Chang, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Context Multiple studies have reported an overgrowth in head circumference (HC) in the first year of life in autism. However, it is unclear whether this phenomenon is independent of overall body growth and whether it is associated with specific social or cognitive features. Objectives To examine the trajectory of early HC growth in autism compared with control groups; to assess whether HC growth in autism is independent of height and weight growth during infancy; and to examine HC growth from birth to 24 months in relationship to social, verbal, cognitive, and adaptive functioning levels. Design Retrospective study. Setting A specialized university-based clinic. Participants Boys diagnosed as having autistic disorder (n=64), pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (n=34), global developmental delay (n=13), and other developmental problems (n=18) and typically developing boys (n=55). Main Outcome Measures Age-related changes in HC, height, and weight between birth and age 24 months; measures of social, verbal, and cognitive functioning at age 2 years. Results Compared with typically developing controls, boys with autism were significantly longer by age 4.8 months, had a larger HC by age 9.5 months, and weighed more by age 11.4 months (P=.05 for all). None of the other clinical groups showed a similar overgrowth pattern. Boys with autism who were in the top 10% of overall physical size in infancy exhibited greater severity of social deficits (P=.009) and lower adaptive functioning (P=.03). Conclusions Boys with autism experienced accelerated HC growth in the first year of life. However, this phenomenon reflected a generalized process affecting other morphologic features, including height and weight. The study highlights the importance of studying factors that influence not only neuronal development but also skeletal growth in autism. PMID:21969460

  11. Boy-lovers and their influence on boys: distorted research and anecdotal observations.

    PubMed

    Brongersma, E

    1990-01-01

    A wide experience with boy-lovers has convinced the author that one can often learn more about them from reading some excellent novels than from so-called scientific studies. All too often research is unreliable because (1) it assumes pedosexual activity is a positive indicator of pedophilia; (2) no distinction is drawn between pseudo-pedophiles and real pedophiles; (3) no difference is recognized between boys and girls as partners; and (4) it is highly distorted by bias. Representative samples for research cannot be drawn from members of boy-love organizations. The incidence of violence is very low in pedophile contacts with boys. The influence can be strong in lasting relationships; it can be either wholesome or unwholesome. Within a relationship, sex is usually only a secondary element, although it can be important in sexual instruction and education. The impact of the law, the hostility of parents and the problem of the partners' inequality are discussed. PMID:2086629

  12. Boys May Be Boys, but Do They Have to Read and Write that Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bronwyn T.

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author, a mother of twin boys in middle school, shares excerpts from her sons' writings which she thinks are too violent and action oriented. She marvels at their knack for pacing, detail, and metaphor, but in the back of her mind she wonders what the content will make readers think of them as a boy and of her as a parent. She…

  13. Gene Therapy May Offer Hope for 'Bubble Boy' Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Gene Therapy May Offer Hope for 'Bubble Boy' Disease Preliminary research tries new approach to rebuild ... therapy shows preliminary promise against so-called "Bubble Boy" disease, researchers report. A small, early-stage trial ...

  14. Behavior Woes Hamper Boys More Than Girls in School

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159512.html Behavior Woes Hamper Boys More Than Girls in School: ... 22, 2016 WEDNESDAY, June 22, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Behavior problems are more likely to hold boys back ...

  15. Pregnancy Problems More Likely with Baby Boys, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... that nourishes the developing fetus, is different in boys and girls. "The placenta is critical for pregnancy success, and ... vary based on whether they are carrying a boy or a girl, the researchers said. The study was published online ...

  16. Weight Loss Surgery May Boost Good Cholesterol in Obese Boys

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery May Boost Good Cholesterol in Obese Boys Small study showed surgery also improved protective effects ... Weight loss surgery could help severely obese teenage boys reduce their risk for heart disease by increasing ...

  17. Research in Review. Kindness and Compassion: Convincing the Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosa, Bill

    1988-01-01

    Discusses research which states that girls' attitudes about animals are generally more humane than boys'. Suggests practical implications from the research. Lists resources which may be helpful to boys. (CW)

  18. Testicular epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Çakıroglu, Basri; Sönmez, Nurettin Cem; Sinanoğlu, Orhun; Ateş, Lora; Aksoy, Süleyman Hilmi; Özcan, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a benign, non-teratomatous tumour. It is often possible to make the diagnosis pre-operatively, combining typical sonographic features with normal biochemical tumour markers. The accurate pre-operative diagnosis will allow for testis-sparing surgery and prevent unnecessary orchiectomy. An 11-year-old boy with testicular epidermoid cyst who presented with pain in testis was presented in this report. PMID:25659561

  19. A Book Club Sheds Light on Boys and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weih, Timothy G.

    2008-01-01

    This article is about a book club for middle school boys. The idea of a book club for boys came from the author's concern about what he had been hearing and reading about boys falling behind in their reading abilities. The purpose of establishing the club was to discover from the boys themselves what could be done to support them in their reading.…

  20. Relationships Play Primary Role in Boys' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert. Michael; Hawley. Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a pantheon of literature and popular panic pointing toward the academic ascent of girls and the decline of boys. On the contrary, the reality is different: Boys are learning and succeeding in many places. Two studies find that the places where boys excel have several common characteristics, including teachers who relate to the boys…

  1. Gendered Practices in the Education of Gifted Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Barbara A.; Vuyk, M. Alexandra; Rea, Chistopher

    2012-01-01

    Gifted girls and gifted boys are more alike than they are different, although researchers remain fascinated with sex differences. Small differences between gifted boys and girls in achievements, interests, careers, and relationships can become exaggerated through gendered educational practices. Kindergarten "red-shirting" of boys and the denial of…

  2. A Stereotype Threat Account of Boys' Academic Underachievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Bonny L.; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged…

  3. Memory Skills of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Peter A.; Schaaf, Jennifer M.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Mirrett, Penny; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple aspects of memory were examined in 42 boys with fragile X syndrome and a comparison group of 42 typically developing boys matched on MA. Working memory, incidental memory, and deliberate memory were assessed with a battery that included both free-recall and recognition tasks. Findings indicated that boys with fragile X syndrome performed…

  4. Memory for Object Locations in Boys with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reck, Sarah G.; Hund, Alycia M.; Landau, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether 7- to 12-year-old boys with ADHD, relative to non-ADHD age-mates, exhibit greater difficulty learning and remembering object locations. The second purpose was to examine the functional utility of mnemonic strategies, specifically speech-to-self, used by boys with and without ADHD. Method: Boys with and without ADHD…

  5. Boys' Friendships during Adolescence: Intimacy, Desire, and Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Niobe

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal, mixed method research on friendships, conducted over the past two decades with Black, Latino, Asian, and European American boys, reveals three themes: (1) the importance for boys of being able to share their secrets with their close friends; (2) the importance of close friendships for boys' mental health; and (3) the loss of but…

  6. "Boys Don't Do Dance, Do They?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the Warwick Arts Centre launched the "Boys Dancing" project through the formation of the West Midlands Boys Dance Alliance. Aimed exclusively at boys and young men, the project has offered a range of performance-making opportunities with male professionals including Liam Steel (DV8, Stan Won't Dance) and David McKenna (Beingfrank Physical…

  7. The Mutilated Boy and the Press: A Rumor Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lee

    Responsible editors avoid printing falsehoods, but the public sometimes demands that rumors be covered in the press. One example of such rumors and the way editors deal with them is the "Mutilated Boy." The "Mutilated Boy" rumor has been circulating for decades and involves a brutal attack upon a small boy in a public rest room. The "crime" is…

  8. Receptive Vocabulary, Expressive Vocabulary, and Speech Production of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome in Comparison to Boys with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne; Price, Johanna; Barnes, Elizabeth; Nelson, Lauren; Burchinal, Margaret; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Moskowitz, Lauren; Edwards, Anne; Malkin, Cheryl; Anderson, Kathleen; Misenheimer, Jan; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    Boys with fragile X syndrome with (n = 49) and without (n = 33) characteristics of autism spectrum disorder, boys with Down syndrome (39), and typically developing boys (n = 41) were compared on standardized measures of receptive vocabulary, expressive vocabulary, and speech administered annually over 4 years. Three major findings emerged. Boys…

  9. Raising Boys: Why Boys Are Different and How To Help Them Become Happy and Well-Balanced Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddulph, Steve

    Noting that by 15 years of age, boys are three times more likely than girls to die from all causes combined, but especially from accidents, violence, and suicide, this book suggests that boys have special needs and offers suggestions for effective parenting. Chapter 1, "What Is It with Boys?," provides an overview. Chapter 2, "The Three Stages of…

  10. The Boy Problem: Many Boys Think School Is Stupid and Reading Stinks--Is There a Remedy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sax, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    The gender issue is relevant to classroom learning in more ways than one. Increasingly in the United States, young boys are saying that school is stupid and they do not like to read. This phenomenon cuts across all demographic groups: it affects affluent white boys in the suburbs no less than it affects black boys in low-income neighborhoods. In…

  11. Astronomy at Torquay Boys' Grammar School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, David; Lintott, Chris

    1996-10-01

    TBGS Observatory is owned and run by Torquay Boys' Grammar School in South Devon. The school itself encompasses a wide curriculum from sports to academic studies, ranging from the arts to humanities and science. Due to a high interest from pupils and staff the school has a special focus upon Astronomy. Resulting from this TBGS owns one of the largest, best equipped school observatories in the UK. It is now a minor centre for research and studies at GCSE and higher levels.

  12. An ocular motility conundrum.

    PubMed

    McElnea, Elizabeth Margaret; Stephenson, Kirk; Lanigan, Bernie; Flitcroft, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Two siblings, an 11-year-old boy and a 7-year-old girl presented with bilateral symmetrical ptosis and limited eye movements. Having already been reviewed on a number of occasions by a variety of specialists in multiple hospital settings a diagnosis of their ocular motility disorder had remained elusive. We describe their cases, outline the differential diagnosis and review the investigations performed which were influential in finally making a diagnosis. PMID:25349186

  13. Successful Treatment of Subretinal Neovascularization with Intravitreal Ranibizumab in a Child with Optic Nerve Head Drusen.

    PubMed

    Gregory-Evans, Kevin; Rai, Poornima; Patterson, Julian

    2009-08-21

    An 11-year-old boy presented with visual acuity reduced to 20/100 in his left eye. Investigations revealed optic disc drusen associated with a minimally classic choroidal neovascular membrane. The patient underwent a 3-month course of intravitreal ranibizumab. Six months of follow-up revealed remarkable visual acuity improvement to 20/20 and complete resolution of exudative maculopathy. PMID:20842978

  14. Burkitt leukemia with numb chin syndrome and cavernous sinus involvement.

    PubMed

    Seixas, Daniela Vasconcelos; Lobo, Ana Luísa; Farinha, Nuno Jorge; Cavadas, Laurentina; Campos, Maria Manuel; Ayres-Basto, Margarida; Pimenta, Maria Teresa Lavandeira

    2006-05-01

    Cavernous sinus syndrome is a rare event. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas, are one possible cause. Neurological presentation of these lymphomas is also exceptional. We report the case of an 11-year-old boy that developed a right third cranial nerve palsy and numbness in the distribution of the right mental nerve, with normal CSF, and enlargement of cavernous sinus on the same side, who was diagnosed Burkitt leukemia. PMID:16621630

  15. Proton MR spectroscopy in herpes simplex encephalitis: Assessment of neuronal loss

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, D.K.; Sargentoni, J.; Peden, C.J.; Bell, J.D.; Cox, I.J.; Coutts, G.A.; Baudouin, C.; Newman, C.G. )

    1990-05-01

    We present here the case of an 11-year-old boy with herpes simplex encephalitis diagnosed on the basis of clinical features, serology, and response to acyclovir, who relapsed after 3 weeks of therapy. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) of the brain, at 8 and 16 weeks after the onset of symptoms, showed abnormalities, most prominently a reduction in the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio. The role of 1H MRS in assessing disease activity is discussed.

  16. A stereotype threat account of boys' academic underachievement.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Bonny L; Sutton, Robbie M

    2013-01-01

    Three studies examined the role of stereotype threat in boys' academic underachievement. Study 1 (children aged 4-10, n = 238) showed that girls from age 4 years and boys from age 7 years believed, and thought adults believed, that boys are academically inferior to girls. Study 2 manipulated stereotype threat, informing children aged 7-8 years (n = 162) that boys tend to do worse than girls at school. This manipulation hindered boys' performance on a reading, writing, and math test, but did not affect girls' performance. Study 3 counteracted stereotype threat, informing children aged 6-9 years (n = 184) that boys and girls were expected to perform similarly. This improved the performance of boys and did not affect that of girls. PMID:23402479

  17. Treating verbal working memory in a boy with intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    Orsolini, Margherita; Melogno, Sergio; Latini, Nausica; Penge, Roberta; Conforti, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The present case study investigates the effects of a cognitive training of verbal working memory that was proposed for Davide, a 14-year-old boy diagnosed with mild intellectual disability. The program stimulated attention, inhibition, switching, and the ability to engage either in verbal dual tasks or in producing inferences after the content of a short passage had been encoded in episodic memory. Key elements in our program included (1) core training of target cognitive mechanisms; (2) guided practice emphasizing concrete strategies to engage in exercises; and (3) a variable amount of adult support. The study explored whether such a complex program produced “near transfer” effects on an untrained dual task assessing verbal working memory and whether effects on this and other target cognitive mechanisms (i.e., attention, inhibition, and switching) were long-lasting and produced “far transfer” effects on cognitive flexibility. The effects of the intervention program were investigated with a research design consisting of four subsequent phases lasting 8 or 10 weeks, each preceded and followed by testing. There was a control condition (phase 1) in which the boy received, at home, a stimulation focused on the visuospatial domain. Subsequently, there were three experimental training phases, in which stimulation in the verbal domain was first focused on attention and inhibition (phase 2a), then on switching and simple working memory tasks (phase 2b), then on complex working memory tasks (phase 3). A battery of neuropsychological tests was administered before and after each training phase and 7 months after the conclusion of the intervention. The main finding was that Davide changed from being incapable of addressing the dual task request of the listening span test in the initial assessment to performing close to the normal limits of a 13-year-old boy in the follow-up assessment with this test, when he was 15 years old. PMID:26284014

  18. Histology of Testicular Biopsies Obtained for an Experimental Fertility Preservation Protocol in Boys with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pietzak, Eugene J.; Tasian, Gregory E.; Tasian, Sarah K.; Brinster, Ralph L.; Carlson, Claire; Ginsberg, Jill P.; Kolon, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cryopreservation of testicular tissue with subsequent re-implantation after therapy has fertility perseveration potential for pre-pubertal boys with childhood cancer. We present the histology and the feasibility of testicular tissue procurement for this novel approach. Patients and Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of boys at significant risk for treatment-associated gonadotoxicity who were eligible for an experimental research protocol between 2008 and 2011. Open testicular biopsy was performed while they were anesthetized for another treatment related procedure. Half of the specimen was reserved for cryopreservation, while the other half was used for research purposes. Semi-thin sections of the biopsy specimens were evaluated for histological features and compared to age-adjusted reference values. Results Of the 34 boys who underwent biopsy between March 2008 and October 2011, 29 had solid tumors and 5 underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for benign disease. Of these, 27 had adequate tissue for histologic analysis. The median age of the boys was 8.7 years (IQR=2.2 – 11.5 years). All children had either normal (81.5%) or increased (18.5%) numbers of normal germ cells per tubules for their age. However, 18.5% (5/27) of boys had no evidence of Adult dark (Ad) spermatogonia, and 56% (9/16) of boys had no evidence of primary spermatocytes on biopsy, that would be expected for their age norms. These findings are suggestive of abnormal germ cell maturation. Conclusion The preliminary histologic findings of abnormal spermatogenesis maturation in testes of pre-pubertal boys with cancer warrants further investigation. PMID:26032139

  19. HIV risks among gay- and non-gay-identified migrant money boys in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Wong, F Y; Huang, Z J; He, N; Smith, B D; Ding, Y; Fu, C; Young, D

    2008-02-01

    Men having sex with men (MSM) now account for 7% of all HIV/AIDS cases in China and there is growing awareness that internal rural-to-urban migration might shift the HIV epidemic within China by broadening social and sexual mixing. About 70% of HIV/AIDS infections are among rural residents, of whom 80% are males and 60% aged 16-29. This young, male, rural-to-urban migrant population has been identified as the 'tipping point' for the AIDS epidemic in China. A subgroup of these migrants is the 'money boy' population, i.e. those who engage in same-sex transactional sex for economic survival. However, the literature addressing money boys is very limited. The present study aims to elucidate factors for preventing substance abuse and HIV among two types of money boys 'gay-identified' and 'non-gay-identified' living in the Shanghai metropolitan area. This work is conceptually underpinned by Chng et al.'s (2003) tripartite model, which postulates that risk behaviors (e.g. substance abuse) engaged in by transient or non-native individuals are often shaped and regulated by factors in the home environment, migration experience and current environment. Results reveal gay and non-gay money boys were not significantly different in age, income, marriage status and education. Both groups shared similar patterns of substance use. Both groups had high self-reported depressive symptoms and low HIV knowledge. However, sexual orientation differentially predicted HIV testing, with gay money boys more likely to be tested for HIV. Non-gay money boys showed fewer sexual risks. HIV prevention targeting MSM (including money boys) within rapidly changing China is discussed, as are methodologies and outreach strategies most effective for particular subgroups of MSM. PMID:18293125

  20. Why, Mrs. Robinson? The seduction of teenage boys by women in classic films.

    PubMed

    Colarusso, Calvin A

    2014-09-01

    Utilizing three classic films, and psychoanalytic developmental theory, this paper explores the conscious and unconscious reasons why older women become sexually involved with teenage boys. After a presentation of aspects of young adult and midlife female development and a psychodynamic explanation for the developmental similarities between adolescence and menopause, each of the three films is summarized. The dynamics behind the women's behavior, as presented in the films, are discussed. The third section of the paper discusses similarities and differences among the three women and the negative effects on the boys' development. PMID:25117782

  1. Antiretroviral treatment induced catatonia in 16-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Lingeswaran, Anand

    2014-01-01

    We present a 16-year-old boy, who had presented to us with catatonic features of mutism, withdrawal, passive negativism, grimacing, gesturing, echopraxia, and excitement of 5 days duration while taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) for a period of 2 years. He had history of birth asphyxia and acquired HIV infection from his father when the same syringe and needle was used on both of them in a medical setting where the father and son had consulted for treatment of pyrexia of unknown origin. He was the eldest of a three children family in which the biologic father had acquired HIV through extramarital sexual contact with HIV-infected sex workers but was unaware of his HIV positive status till our patient, the 16-year-old was admitted and treated for pulmonary tuberculosis at 14 years of age. The boy's mother had only acquired HIV after having three children with the HIV-positive husband, thus leaving the other two children HIV negative. The catatonia completely resolved within 2 days after the ART was withheld, and risperidone 1 mg twice a day was prescribed. This case highlights the risks of ART and breach of universal precautions. PMID:25624940

  2. Tor: Case Study of a Boy with Autism between the Age of Three and Eight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, C Reuterskiold; Nettelbladt, U.

    2005-01-01

    Longitudinal data are presented on a boy between the ages of three and eight. At age three he received a diagnosis of language impairment and at age six a diagnosis of high-functioning autism. Results are presented from extensive assessments at four points in time, including interviews with his mother and teachers. The results indicate that the…

  3. X-linked creatine transporter defect: A report on two unrelated boys with a severe clinical phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Anselm, I. M.; Alkuraya, F. S.; Salomons, G. S.; Jakobs, C.; Fulton, A. B.; Mazumdar, M.; Rivkin, M.; Frye, R.; Poussaint, T. Young; Marsden, D.

    2008-01-01

    Summary We report two unrelated boys with the X-linked creatine transporter defect (CRTR) and clinical features more severe than those previously described with this disorder. These two boys presented at ages 12 and 30 months with severe mental retardation, absent speech development, hypotonia, myopathy and extra-pyramidal movement disorder. One boy has seizures and some dysmorphic features; he also has evidence of an oxidative phosphorylation defect. They both had classical absence of creatine peak on brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In one, however, this critical finding was overlooked in the initial interpretation and was discovered upon subsequent review of the MRS. PMID:16601897

  4. HPA axis function predicts development of working memory in boys with FXS.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Jessica F; Hahn, Laura J; Hooper, Stephen R; Hatton, Deborah; Roberts, Jane E

    2016-02-01

    The present study examines verbal working memory over time in boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS) compared to nonverbal mental-age (NVMA) matched, typically developing (TD) boys. Concomitantly, the relationship between cortisol-a physiological marker for stress-and verbal working memory performance over time is examined to understand the role of physiological mechanisms in cognitive development in FXS. Participants were assessed between one and three times over a 2-year time frame using two verbal working memory tests that differ in complexity: memory for words and auditory working memory with salivary cortisol collected at the beginning and end of each assessment. Multilevel modeling results indicate specific deficits over time on the memory for words task in boys with FXS compared to TD controls that is exacerbated by elevated baseline cortisol. Similar increasing rates of growth over time were observed for boys with FXS and TD controls on the more complex auditory working memory task, but only boys with FXS displayed an association of increased baseline cortisol and lower performance. This study highlights the benefit of investigations of how dynamic biological and cognitive factors interact and influence cognitive development over time. PMID:26760450

  5. Circumcision of preschool boys in Baghdad, Iraq: prevalence, current practice and complications.

    PubMed

    Naji, Hussein; Mustafa, Rajaa

    2013-03-01

    Circumcision is probably one of the most ancient surgical operations and has been performed more than any other operation. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of circumcision in preschool boys and to present an overview of the current practices and complications in Baghdad, Iraq. A statistical survey was conducted at the Central Teaching Hospital for Children in Baghdad, Iraq during the period April 2003 to October 2004. The survey consisted of structured interviews with the accompanying parents while waiting for their children's routine appointments. A total of 4000 boys were included. 2443 (61%) were circumcised and the prevalence of circumcision increased from 18% at 6 months of age to reach 92% at 6 years. Only 180 (7.4%) boys had a medical reason while the rest were circumcised for religious reasons. Parents were the only determinant in deciding the time and place of religious circumcision. Circumcision was performed by a doctor in 732 (30%) boys, by a nurse in 1276 (52%) and by a traditional circumciser in 435 (18%). Post-operative complications were encountered in 209 (8.5%) boys. Circumcision is an important surgical procedure that should be performed by trained medical staff in medical institutions. Circumcision performed by medical professionals caused significantly less complications. PMID:23377888

  6. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially affects stress responses in girls and boys: Associations with future substance use

    PubMed Central

    CHAPLIN, TARA M.; VISCONTI, KARI JEANNE; MOLFESE, PETER J.; SUSMAN, ELIZABETH J.; KLEIN, LAURA COUSINO; SINHA, RAJITA; MAYES, LINDA C.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal cocaine exposure may affect developing stress response systems in youth, potentially creating risk for substance use in adolescence. Further, pathways from prenatal risk to future substance use may differ for girls versus boys. The present longitudinal study examined multiple biobehavioral measures, including heart rate, blood pressure, emotion, and salivary cortisol and salivary alpha amylase (sAA), in response to a stressor in 193 low-income 14- to 17-year-olds, half of whom were prenatally cocaine exposed (PCE). Youth’s lifetime substance use was assessed with self-report, interview, and urine toxicology/breathalyzer at Time 1 and at Time 2 (6–12 months later). PCExGender interactions were found predicting anxiety, anger, and sadness responses to the stressor, with PCE girls showing heightened responses as compared to PCE boys on these indicators. Stress Response × Gender interactions were found predicting Time 2 substance use in youth (controlling for Time 1 use) for sAA and sadness; for girls, heightened sadness responses predicted substance use, but for boys, dampened sAA responses predicted substance use. Findings suggest distinct biobehavioral stress response risk profiles for boys and girls, with heightened arousal for girls and blunted arousal for boys associated with prenatal risk and future substance use outcomes. PMID:25036298

  7. Sociocultural influences and body change strategies in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status.

    PubMed

    Almenara, Carlos A; Fauquet, Jordi; López-Guimerà, Gemma; Pàmias-Massana, Montserrat; Sánchez-Carracedo, David

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association between sociocultural influences to attain an ideal body and body change strategies (BCS) in Spanish adolescent boys of different weight status. A total of 594 Spanish boys (M=13.94 years, SD=0.20) participated. Measures included in the study were weight status according to body mass index (BMI), sociocultural influences (perceived pressures to attain an ideal body, general internalization of an ideal body, internalization of an athletic-ideal body), BCS to lose/control weight (dieting, healthy and unhealthy weight-control behaviors), and BCS to gain weight and muscles. Underweight boys engaged more frequently in weight-gain behaviors. Overweight boys reported higher levels of perceived sociocultural pressures and general internalization compared to normal-weight boys, and were more likely to be engaged in BCS to lose/control weight compared with the other weight-status groups. There were no differences between groups in terms of internalization of an athletic-ideal body and BCS to increase muscles. Future research and prevention programs should consider male-specific behaviors and weight-status differences. PMID:25261810

  8. Nutritional adequacy of boys in orphanages.

    PubMed

    Khan, S; Sankhla, A; Dashora, P K

    1996-03-01

    In India, nutritionists gathered information on dietary intake, measured the diet, and calculated nutritional composition of the diet of 118 boys, 4-12 years old, living in all the orphanages in Udaipur, to determine the adequacy of their diet. The orphans consumed inadequate amounts of all food stuffs. For example, the boys consumed 76.2-91.5% of recommended intake for cereals, 30% for pulses, less than 50% for milk, and 30-45% for fats and oils. They consumed almost no leafy vegetables (0/75 g for 4-6 year olds; 1.5/75 g for 7-9 year olds; and 0.8/100 g for 10-12 year olds), but they consumed more than the recommended intake of other vegetables. The orphans were not provided fruits, meat, fish, or eggs. Only those 4-6 years old had adequate intake of protein. Energy and calcium intakes were significantly low in all age groups (p 0.01, except for calcium intake in 4-6 year olds [p 0.05]). In all age groups, phosphorous intake was adequate while iron intake was significantly lower than the recommended daily intake (p 0.01). Beta-carotene intake was insufficient in all age groups (p 0.01). In fact, beta-carotene intake in 7-9 year olds did not even reach 20% of the recommended daily intake. Only the 4-6 year olds had adequate intake of niacin. Vitamin C intake was 30% of recommended levels. These findings show that these school age orphans had inadequate intake of almost all nutrients due to a daily diet limited in cereals, pulses, milk and milk products, leafy vegetable, fats and oils, and sugar. The orphanages should include seasonal green vegetables and other low-cost nutritious foods in the diet of orphan boys. PMID:8772844

  9. Media use and school achievement--boys at risk?

    PubMed

    Mössle, Thomas; Kleimann, Matthias; Rehbein, Florian; Pfeiffer, Christian

    2010-09-01

    In work done at the German Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony (KFN) various methods have been used to investigate how specific inappropriate media usage patterns affect academic performance in children and adolescents. The findings are paralleled by current international research indicating a negative relationship between these two variables. Based on a cross-sectional survey of 5,529 fourth grade students and a longitudinal panel study with 1,157 primary schoolchildren, a key finding can be demonstrated: the more time students spend on consuming media and the more violent its contents are, the worse are their marks at school, even when controlling for vital factors such as family, educational, or immigrant background. In particular, boys who gender-specifically are better equipped with electronic media devices, who partially have extensive media usage times and who strongly prefer violent media content, are at the risk of showing poor school performance. In fact, a decrease in academic performance of boys can be observed in German school statistics. By presenting first results of a school-based intervention programme, a promising approach to the reduction of detrimental effects of electronic media use on school performance is introduced. PMID:20849041

  10. Boys and girls who reason well mathematically.

    PubMed

    Stanley, J C

    1993-01-01

    Since 1971 the Study of Mathematically Precocious Youth (SMPY) at Johns Hopkins University has pioneered in discovery of and provision of educational help for 12-year-old boys and girls who reason better mathematically than 99% of other 12-year-olds. SMPY originated widespread searches for such youths and special academic classes for them outside the regular school system. A regional talent search, verbal as well as mathematical, now covers all 50 states of the USA, and many varied residential summer programmes are offered across the country. These have provided educational facilitation for many thousands, and have encouraged greater curricular flexibility in schools and better articulation of in-school with out-of-school learning experiences. From the first talent search conducted by SMPY in 1972, it became obvious that boys tend to score considerably higher than girls on the College Board Scholastic Aptitude Test-Mathematical (SAT-M), a test intended mainly for college-bound 17- and 18-year-olds. This difference was reported in 1974 but attracted little attention until a controversial report in 1980 stimulated research on sex differences in various aspects of mathematics. Here I describe a study of sex differences over 10 years on 14 College Board high school achievement tests, which are taken (three usually) by bright 17- and 18-year-olds seeking admission to the USA's selective colleges and universities. Among the high scores on the European history test the ratio of males to females was greatest, 6:1. The next most sex-differentiating test was physics, 2.9:1, followed by elementary-level mathematics (mainly algebra and geometry), 2.5:1. Other ratios favouring males were, in 1991, chemistry (2.4:1), American history (2.1:1), biology (1.8:1), precalculus mathematics (1.6:1), Latin (1.6:1), French (1.4:1), modern Hebrew (1.1:1) and German (1.02:1). Tests in which more females were high scorers were literature (1.26:1), English composition (1.05:1) and Spanish (1

  11. Phallic construction in prepubertal and adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, D A; Jordan, G H; Devine, C J; Winslow, B H; Schlossberg, S M

    1993-06-01

    During the last 10 years we performed microsurgical phallic reconstruction in 7 prepubertal and 4 adolescent boys. Indications for surgery included post-traumatic amputation, circumcision accident, developmental anomalies and micropenis. In addition, we performed phalloplasty on 5 other patients 18 to 24 years old. Total phallic reconstruction consisted of 1-stage microsurgical tissue transfers that included urethral reconstruction, coaptation of erogenous nerves, aesthetic refinement and, in some cases, scrotal reconstruction. All postpubertal patients recovered erogenous sensibility in the reconstructed phallus and the ability to masturbate. Surgical indications, techniques and results are discussed. PMID:8501802

  12. [Observations of play and verbal behavior of boys with fragile X syndrome in early childhood].

    PubMed

    Sarimski, K

    1999-08-01

    Reports on development and behaviour in boys with fragile-X syndrome support the idea of a characteristic behavioural phenotype in this special population. Preliminary results are presented for 10 boys with fragile-X syndrome in early childhood. Severe mental handicaps and communicative abnormalities are observed less frequently than was expected on the basis of results reported for school-age children or adults. Boys with fragile-X syndrome show goal-directed and cooperative play behaviours in a Montessori play session, but less persistence and organisation than children with normal development or a mental handicap of heterogeneous origin. Results confirmed these behavioural differences as characteristic aspects of a "behavioural phenotype" in children who already in early childhood have fragile-X syndrome. PMID:10478436

  13. Serum Ferritin Is Inversely Correlated with Testosterone in Boys and Young Male Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Kuo-Ching; Chang, Chun-Chao; Chiou, Hung-Yi; Chang, Jung-Su

    2015-01-01

    Objective The transition from childhood to teenaged years is associated with increased testosterone and a decreased iron status. It is not clear whether higher testosterone levels cause the decreased iron status, and to what extent, obesity-related inflammation influences the iron-testosterone relationship. The aim of the present study was to examine relationships of testosterone, iron status, and anti-/proinflammatory cytokines in relation to nutritional status in boys and young adolescent Taiwanese males. Methods In total, 137 boys aged 7~13 yr were included. Parameters for obesity, the iron status, testosterone, and inflammatory markers were evaluated. Results Overweight and obese (ow/obese) boys had higher mean serum testosterone, interleukin (IL)-1β, and nitric oxide (NO) levels compared to their normal-weight counterparts (all p<0.05). Mean serum ferritin was slightly higher in ow/obese boys compared to normal-weight boys, but this did not reach statistical significance. A multiple linear regression showed that serum ferritin (β = -0.7470, p = 0.003) was inversely correlated with testosterone, while serum IL-10 (β = 0.3475, p = 0.009) was positively associated with testosterone after adjusting for covariates. When normal-weight boys were separately assessed from ow/obesity boys, the association between testosterone and serum ferritin became stronger (β = -0.9628, p<0.0001), but the association between testosterone and IL-10 became non-significant (β = 0.1140, p = 0.4065) after adjusting for covariates. In ow/obese boys, only IL-10 was weakly associated with serum testosterone (β = 0.6444, p = 0.051) after adjusting for age. Conclusions Testosterone and serum ferritin are intrinsically interrelated but this relationship is weaker in ow/obese boys after adjusting for age. PMID:26646112

  14. Strategies to Engage Men and Boys in Violence Prevention: A Global Organizational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Juliana; Casey, Erin; Edleson, Jeffrey L; Tolman, Richard M; Walsh, Tova B; Kimball, Ericka

    2015-11-01

    This study presents descriptive findings from in-depth interviews with 29 representatives of organizations in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America that engage men and boys in preventing gender-based violence. In particular, the findings suggest that strategies are responsive to the specific cultural, economic, and contextual concerns of the local community, with nuanced messages and appropriate messengers. In addition, respondents reported key principles informing their organizational strategies to deepen men and boys' engagement. Attention is also paid to respondents' caution about the risks of framing of engagement practices as separate from both women's organizations and women and girls themselves. PMID:26202155

  15. The Trouble with Boys: Observations about Boys' Post-Secondary Aspirations, Attendance and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. Howard

    2012-01-01

    Boys have a slight advantage in the number of live births in the US (about 101:100), so, all things being equal, it is reasonable to assume that they would populate institutions at about the same rate as girls. However, institutions are social structures, and in social systems all things are almost "never" equal, so, clearly, there are other…

  16. Boys, Books, and Boredom: A Case of Three High School Boys and Their Encounters with Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarroub, Loukia K.; Pernicek, Todd

    2016-01-01

    We examine the literacy gender gap through the documented experiences of 3 representative high schools boys and their teacher--how they view themselves as students, their dispositions toward schooling and education, and their engagement with literacy--as a way to further understand how literacy teachers can better work with them. We offer a case…

  17. Raising and Educating Healthy Boys: A Report on the Growing Crisis in Boys' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froschl, Merle, Comp.; Sprung, Barbara, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    Raising and educating healthy boys is an area of increasing concern among educators, child development experts, and parents nationwide. It was the focus of an invitational meeting convened by the Educational Equity Center at the Academy for Educational Development (EEC/AED) in November 2004. The meeting brought together a national group of…

  18. Both Boys and Girls Are More Scared of Boys Than of Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Leslie R.

    Explored were feelings of envy, warmth, and fear that children experience toward boys and girls engaged in same-gender role, cross-gender role, and gender-role-neutral behaviors. A total of 120 children participated in the study: 60 first and second graders, and 60 fifth and sixth graders, with equal numbers of males and females in each grade.…

  19. The Boys in Schools Bulletin: Practical Initiatives Addressing Boys' Needs, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard, Ed.; Browne, Rollo, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document is comprised of volume 2 of a quarterly bulletin for educators in Australia providing a practical focus to improving boys' schooling. The April 1999 issue focuses on the role of school executives, or administrators, on supporting educational initiatives. This issue includes articles describing the development of a program-based…

  20. Art, Boys, and the Boy Scout Movement: Lord Baden-Powell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, F. Graeme; Dancer, Andrea A.

    2007-01-01

    Robert Stephenson Smyth Baden-Powell (1857-1941), founder of the Boy Scout Movement in 1907, was a British military hero during the Boer War. Within an ethos and era of empire-building, athleticism, soldier-heroes and the pursuit of "manliness," Baden-Powell valued the arts and adapted his artistic skill to his wartime and Scouting activities. His…

  1. When Boys Won't Be Boys: Discussing Gender with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Hannah; Katch, Jane

    2010-01-01

    In this Voices Inside Schools essay, Hannah Katch and Jane Katch reflect on gender roles and how they are enacted in the classroom. When Timothy, a student in Jane's kindergarten class, refuses to count himself as one of the boys during a math lesson, Jane begins a conversation about social constructions of gender with her daughter, Hannah.…

  2. "Boys Will Be Boys": What Do Early Childhood Teachers Have to Do with It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhana, Deevia

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the ways in which a selected group of early childhood teachers in grades one and two, located in a predominantly white middle-class context in Durban, South Africa ascribe meaning to young boys they teach. The study finds that early childhood teachers are bearers of masculinity and incorporate taken-for-granted assumptions of…

  3. Improving Literacy Outcomes for Years 5-8 Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a small action research project carried out by a Special Education Needs Coordinator (SENCO) in a small rural, full primary school in New Zealand. It focused on improving the literacy outcomes for Years 5-8 boys in the school by way of a boys'-only writing group. Results show that the boys'-only learning group had a positive…

  4. Bone Density in Peripubertal Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeyer, Ann M.; Gates, Amy; Ferrone, Christine; Lee, Hang; Misra, Madhusmita

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether bone mineral density (BMD) is lower in boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than controls, and also assessed variables that may affect BMD in ASD. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 18 boys with ASD and 19 controls 8-14 years old. Boys with ASD had lower BMD Z-scores at the spine, hip and…

  5. Evaluating Boy Scout Geology Education, A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintz, R. S.; Thomson, B.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated geology knowledge acquisition by Boy Scouts through use of the Boy Scout Geology Merit Handbook. In this study, boys engaged in hands-on interactive learning following the requirements set forth in the Geology Merit Badge Handbook. The purposes of this study were to determine the amount of geology content knowledge engendered in adolescent males through the use of the Geology Merit Badge Handbook published by the Boy Scouts of America; to determine if single sex, activity oriented, free-choice learning programs can be effective in promoting knowledge development in young males; and to determine if boys participating in the Scouting program believed their participation helped them succeed in school. Members of a local Boy Scout Troop between the ages of 11 and 18 were invited to participate in a Geology Merit Badge program. Boys who did not already possess the badge were allowed to self-select participation. The boys' content knowledge of geology, rocks, and minerals was pre- and post-tested. Boys were interviewed about their school and Scouting experiences; whether they believed their Scouting experiences and work in Merit Badges contributed to their success in school. Contributing educational theories included single-sex education, informal education with free-choice learning, learning styles, hands-on activities, and the social cognitive theory concept of self-efficacy. Boys who completed this study seemed to possess a greater knowledge of geology than they obtained in school. If boys who complete the Boy Scout Geology Merit Badge receive additional geological training, their field experiences and knowledge acquired through this learning experience will be beneficial, and a basis for continued scaffolding of geologic knowledge.

  6. Understanding Phonological Memory Deficits in Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Dissociation of Short-Term Storage and Articulatory Rehearsal Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolden, Jennifer; Rapport, Mark D.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Sarver, Dustin E.; Kofler, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study dissociated and examined the two primary components of the phonological working memory subsystem--the short-term store and articulatory rehearsal mechanism--in boys with ADHD (n = 18) relative to typically developing boys (n = 15). Word lists of increasing length (2, 4, and 6 words per trial) were presented to and recalled by…

  7. Assessing Does Not Mean Threatening: The Purpose of Assessment as a Key Determinant of Girls' and Boys' Performance in a Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souchal, Carine; Toczek, Marie-Christine; Darnon, Céline; Smeding, Annique; Butera, Fabrizio; Martinot, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Is it possible to reach performance equality between boys and girls in a science class? Given the stereotypes targeting their groups in scientific domains, diagnostic contexts generally lower girls' performance and non-diagnostic contexts may harm boys' performance. Aim: The present study tested the effectiveness of a…

  8. A Voice-Detecting Sensor and a Scanning Keyboard Emulator to Support Word Writing by Two Boys with Extensive Motor Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Green, Vanessa; Chiapparino, Claudia; Stasolla, Fabrizio; Oliva, Doretta

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed the use of a voice-detecting sensor interfaced with a scanning keyboard emulator to allow two boys with extensive motor disabilities to write. Specifically, the study (a) compared the effects of the voice-detecting sensor with those of a familiar pressure sensor on the boys' writing time, (b) checked which of the sensors…

  9. Boys to Men: Entertainment Media. Messages about Masculinity: A National Poll of Children, Focus Groups, and Content Analysis of Entertainment Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz-Knowles, Katharine; Li-Vollmer, Meredith; Chen, Perry; Harris, Tarana; Haufler, Adrienne; Lapp, Joan; Miller, Patti

    Boys are especially active users of media, and researchers have suggested that the cumulative impact of media, such as television, movies, and music videos, may make them some of the most influential forces in boys' lives. This report presents the findings of a national poll of 1,200 young people (ages 10 to 17) and focus groups in which boys…

  10. Sentence Comprehension in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kover, Sara T.; Haebig, Eileen; Oakes, Ashley; McDuffie, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Previous research suggests that language comprehension might be particularly impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but this profile has been only broadly characterized. The current study examined sentence comprehension in school-age boys with ASD, including a subgroup with intellectual disability, with particular attention to errors that might differentiate between lexically and syntactically based difficulties. Method Participants were boys with ASD (n = 45; ages 4 – 11 years) and younger typically developing boys (n = 45; ages 2 – 6 years). Comprehension was assessed with the Test for Reception of Grammar-2 (TROG-2). Error types were analyzed for a subset of items. Results Boys with ASD did not differ from younger typically developing boys matched on receptive vocabulary in overall sentence comprehension on the TROG-2 or the number of lexical errors committed. In contrast, the subgroup of boys with ASD and intellectual disability (n = 16) had poorer overall performance and committed more lexical errors than younger typically developing boys matched on nonverbal cognition. Conclusions On average, comprehension is delayed in school-age boys with ASD, but not beyond receptive vocabulary expectations. Boys with ASD and intellectual disability, however, have a weakness in sentence comprehension beyond nonverbal cognitive-expectations. PMID:24687049

  11. "In Far Cathay": Representations of China in "The Boy's Own Paper", 1879-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shih-Wen

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers how "knowledge" of China was presented for Victorian and Edwardian children in "The Boy's Own Paper" ("BOP") between 1879 and 1914. It considers how genre affects the representation of China in the "BOP" by comparing travel narratives and adventure stories. First, it focuses on non-fiction about China, examining the rhetorical…

  12. Gendered Subjective Theologies: Dutch Teenage Girls and Boys on the Role of Religion in Their Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ter Avest, Ina; Jozsa, Dan-Paul; Knauth, Thorsten

    2010-01-01

    In this article about the Dutch contribution to the REDCo sub-project on the role of gender, related to religion in/and school, the authors present the characteristics in the answers girls and boys, respectively gave to their questionnaires. Qualitative as well as quantitative methods were used in this research project. The research findings show…

  13. Grades Four and Eight Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of Girls' and Boys' Writing Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelley

    2000-01-01

    Presents teacher and student responses that show a privileging of girls' writing over boys' writing. Finds that girls' writing was viewed as more detailed, descriptive, and showing greater conformity to writing conventions. Indicates a need for conversations that question an emphasis on conformity in writing and that explore ways to nurture…

  14. The Skinny on Body Dissatisfaction: A Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Presnell, Katherine; Martinez, Erin; Stice, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The present study tested whether theoretically derived risk factors predicted increases in body dissatisfaction and whether gender moderated these relations with data from a longitudinal study of 428 adolescent girls and boys because few prospective studies have examined these aims, despite evidence that body dissatisfaction increases risk for…

  15. Dysfunctional Parenting Behaviors and Parenting Stress among Mothers of Aggressive Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation examined the relationship between dysfunctional parenting and parenting stress in a sample of 54 mothers of aggressive boys in Singapore. Overall dysfunctional parenting at Time 1 significantly predicted Time 2 maternal parenting stress in two subdomains of unrewarding mother-child interactions and poor attachment, over…

  16. Choice of Romantic, Violent, and Scary Fairy-Tale Books by Preschool Girls and Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins-Standley, Tracy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied story selection by preschoolers, ages 2 through 4. Presented children with three sets of books, each set consisting of three books depicting protagonists in romantic, violent, or scary stories; titles were read aloud to reinforce content. Found that with age, girls showed a growing preference for romantic stories, while boys showed a…

  17. Language Development in a 3-Year-Old Boy with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkin, Keith; Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2007-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder which has widespread developmental consequences including motor, cognitive and language delay. Previous research on PWS children has focused primarily on phonological development and dysfluency. In the present study, the lexical development of a boy with PWS was investigated in a series of 18 play…

  18. Gendered Literacy Experiences: The Effects of Expectation and Opportunity for Boys' and Girls' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    The research reported in this article intends to contribute to an understanding of how out-of-school literacies can influence the present and future learning of adolescents. Evidence suggests that students, boys particularly, are becoming literate in many ways through out-of-school activities (e.g., video games, Internet browsing, chatrooms), but…

  19. A boy with a tight skin: Borrelia-associated early-onset morphea.

    PubMed

    Verberkt, Roos M; Janssen, Matthijs; Wesseling, Judit

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of a 16-year-old boy with morphea caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. We re-emphasise an immunohistochemical method, focus floating microscopy (FFM), to detect Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes in tissue sections. Focus floating microscopy (FFM) proved to be more sensitive than polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nearly equally specific. PMID:24093617

  20. Surgical excision of hypothalamic hamartoma in a twenty months old boy with precocious puberty

    PubMed Central

    Ghanta, Rajesh K.; Koti, Kalyan; Kongara, Srikanth; Meher, Gautham E.

    2011-01-01

    A twenty months old boy presented to our department with true precocious puberty due to hypothalamic hamartoma. Total surgical excision of pedunculated hypothalamic hamartoma was done successfully by the pterional trans-sylvian approach as he could not afford medical management. Patient had uneventful post-operative course with normalization of serum testosterone levels and regression of secondary sexual characters. PMID:22029036

  1. "'Lad" Research, the Reproduction of Stereotypes? Ethnographic Dilemmas When Researching Boys from Working-Class Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosvall, Per-Åke

    2015-01-01

    Previous research presented in this journal and elsewhere has suggested that vocational education is highly gender segregated and it is the heavy industrial sectors such as industry, vehicle and construction programmes that mainly attract boys with an anti-school attitude who are not interested in academic school work. However, there are good…

  2. Transported to Van Diemen's Land: The Boys of the "Frances Charlotte" (1832) and "Lord Goderich" (1841).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    The logs of two ships transporting juvenile convicts from Great Britain to Australia in the early nineteenth century have been transcribed. Data on the backgrounds of the boys and height data are presented and analyzed. Comparisons are made with ninteenth- and twentieth-century data sets. (Author/RH)

  3. Teaching Boys, Developing Fine Men Conference (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, August 21-22, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcastle Univ., Callaghan (Australia). Family Action Centre.

    This report contains the proceedings of a conference convened to build on the work of those pioneering better teaching and learning techniques for boys. Teachers at the conference were asked to present their schools' experiences in a case study format to maximize the learning and discussion among participants. The report begins with a schedule of…

  4. Common Sense Parenting of Toddlers and Preschoolers. A Girls and Boys Town Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bridget A.; York, Steven M.

    Based on the view that parents need to balance nurturing behaviors that demonstrate love and affection with the discipline that children need in order to learn and thrive, this book presents the Common Sense Parenting program from Girls and Boys Town as adapted for parents of toddlers and preschoolers. Offering logical techniques and foundations…

  5. Bringing Up Boys: A Parenting Manual for Sole Mothers Raising Sons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jo

    This manual for parent educators presents the "Bringing Up Boys" program, a series of group sessions designed for sole mothers raising sons up to age 12. Mothers raising sons without a father's input face a range of concerns. Participants are encouraged to share ideas and experiences in a supportive, non-judgmental environment. The program's focus…

  6. Patella fracture in a boy with bilateral inferior pole bipartite patellae.

    PubMed

    Peek, A C; Barry, M

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a 12 year old boy who had bilateral inferior pole fragment (Saupe type 1) bipartite patellae, and who sustained a traumatic separation through the right patella while playing basket ball, the left remaining asymptomatic. We have reviewed and discussed the previously published literature and case reports. PMID:22436328

  7. Adolescent Boys' Grooming Product Use and Perceived Health Risks: An Exploration of Parental Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Jacob, John; Baier, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate parental influence on adolescent boys' use and risk-perceptions of using appearance-related products. Design: Using appearance-enhancing products can present a health threat to adolescents, as these products are not only applied to the body, but can also be ingested. Adolescents may look to their parents for information…

  8. Understanding Bullying: Using Role-Play with 12-Year-Old Boys in Cyprus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaloyirou, Chrystalla; Lindsay, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the use of role-play in order to investigate bullies' intentions, feelings and perceptions through identification and projection. The study was conducted with nine 12-year-old boys that presented high levels of bullying behaviour, according to their teachers and peers, from three state primary schools in Nicosia, Cyprus,…

  9. Lost Boys. Why Our Sons Turn Violent and How We Can Save Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James

    1999-01-01

    Presents four conclusions about why boys turn violent and how parents and teachers can save them: violence prevention is everybody's business; education for parents and teachers is crucial; child abuse prevention is the cornerstone of preventing lethal youth violence; and detoxifying the social environment of children and youth is essential to…

  10. Adolescent Boys' and Girls' Views of Fatherhood in the Context of the Changing Women's Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakka, Despina; Deliyanni-Kouimtzi, Vassiliki

    2006-01-01

    The present study aims at exploring how Greek adolescents understand the notion of fatherhood. One hundred and ten pupils (64 boys and 46 girls), who attended four high schools of the area of Thessaloniki, Greece, participated in the study; they were aged from 14- to 16-years. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data were selected…

  11. Economic, Social and Embodied Cultural Capitals as Shapers and Predictors of Boys' Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockfelt, Shawanda

    2016-01-01

    The author presents the result of a quantitative survey as a part of a larger mixed-methods study conducted across two case study schools in urban Jamaica. It focuses on Black Caribbean boys' levels of educational aspirations in relation to their economic, social, and embodied cultural capital. The study utilizes Bourdieu's notions of capital,…

  12. The Relationship Between Social Behavior and Emergent Literacy Among Preschool Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctoroff, Greta L.; Greer, Joseph A.; Arnold, David H.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate relationships between social behaviors and emergent literacy among young children, and sex differences in these relationships. Participants were 123 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse preschoolers (63 girls, 60 boys). Social behaviors were observed in classrooms, and emergent literacy…

  13. Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a young boy from rural part of Northern India.

    PubMed

    Mane, Pratibha; Sangwan, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta (H. diminuta) is primarily a parasite of rats and mice. Humans are infected by eating meal contaminated with these arthropods. This infection is not seen commonly in Indian population. We present here a case report of infection with H. diminuta in a young boy from a rural area of the North India. PMID:27453865

  14. Taste perception and sensory sensitivity: Relationship to feeding problems in boys with Barth Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Stacey; Kreider, Consuelo M.; Meeley, Lauren E.; Bendixen, Roxanna M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Feeding problems are common in boys with Barth syndrome and may contribute to the population’s propensity for growth delay and muscle weakness. The purpose of this study was to quantify and describe these feeding issues and examine altered taste perception and sensory sensitivity as contributing factors. Methodology A cross-sectional, two-group comparison design was used to examine feeding preferences and behaviors, chemical taste perception, and sensory sensitivities in fifty boys with (n=24) and without (n=26) Barth ages 4–17 years. Taste perception was measured using chemical test strips saturated with phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and sodium benzoate (NaB). Feeding problems were documented by parents using a Food Inventory, while sensory sensitivities were recorded using a Short Sensory Profile. Results Boys with Barth differed significantly from typical peers with regards to problem feeding behaviors. For boys with Barth, food refusal and food selectivity were identified as being present in 50% the sample, while 70% of had identified problems related to gagging or swallowing foods. About half of all Barth families noted that their child’s eating habits did not match the family’s and that separate meals were often prepared. As demonstrated in previous research, about 50% of boys with Barth demonstrated probable or definite differences in taste/smell sensitivity, which was significantly higher than controls. On tests of chemical taste perception, boys with Barth were significantly more likely to be supertasters to PTC and non-tasters to NaB. Taster-status did not directly relate to the presence of feeding problems, however, taste/smell sensitivity did significantly relate to food selectivity by type and texture. Conclusions Results indicate feeding problems in at least 50–70% of boys with Barth syndrome, and suggest that behaviors are often present before 6 months of age. Differences in taste perception may influence dietary choices in boys with

  15. Low AMY1 Gene Copy Number Is Associated with Increased Body Mass Index in Prepubertal Boys

    PubMed Central

    Verginelli, Fabio; De Lellis, Laura; Capelli, Cristian; Verzilli, Delfina; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika; Cama, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 60 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with Body Mass Index (BMI). Additional genetic variants, such as copy number variations (CNV), have also been investigated in relation to BMI. Recently, the highly polymorphic CNV in the salivary amylase (AMY1) gene, encoding an enzyme implicated in the first step of starch digestion, has been associated with obesity in adults and children. We assessed the potential association between AMY1 copy number and a wide range of BMI in a population of Italian school-children. Methods 744 children (354 boys, 390 girls, mean age (±SD): 8.4±1.4years) underwent anthropometric assessments (height, weight) and collection of saliva samples for DNA extraction. AMY1 copies were evaluated by quantitative PCR. Results A significant increase of BMI z-score by decreasing AMY1 copy number was observed in boys (β: -0.117, p = 0.033), but not in girls. Similarly, waist circumference (β: -0.155, p = 0.003, adjusted for age) was negatively influenced by AMY1 copy number in boys. Boys with 8 or more AMY1 copy numbers presented a significant lower BMI z-score (p = 0.04) and waist circumference (p = 0.01) when compared to boys with less than 8 copy numbers. Conclusions In this pediatric-only, population-based study, a lower AMY1 copy number emerged to be associated with increased BMI in boys. These data confirm previous findings from adult studies and support a potential role of a higher copy number of the salivary AMY1 gene in protecting from excess weight gain. PMID:27149670

  16. The changing sexual attitudes of boys in Poland.

    PubMed

    Lew-starowicz, Z

    1990-12-01

    Until relatively recently, boys in Poland, especially in rural areas, were encouraged to have sex before marriage, while girls were expected to remain virgin until their wedding day or at least until they were engaged to be married. Many boys therefore had sex with girls they did not intend to marry, and abstained from sex with the women they hoped to have as wives. That arrangement was accepted by both boys' parents and boys' prospective wives. Women's emancipation, migration, and changing gender roles during the 1970s, however, affected sexual attitudes and behaviors. Girls grew more sexually active and the importance of virginity decreased. Tensions between the sexes subsequently increased as folk and romantic models were replaced by the partnership model and greater adherence to Catholic sexual ethics. The increased tension is readily seen via the growing number of boys with sexual problems. Approximately 90% of boys masturbate, generally without guilt. Almost 50% of 17 year old boys in Poland have had intimate sexual contact. It is common for boys' first act of sexual intercourse to occur after consuming alcohol and generally without the use of contraception. During first sexual contacts and throughout their premarital period, 40% of boys practice coitus interruptus and 38% use no method of contraception at all. An inability among the majority of boys to find willing sex partners after their first sexual intercourse causes them by necessity to not continue having sex immediately after initiation and also to engage in sex with other boys and men. The author notes that alcohol consumption among boys prior to having sex may be their way of overcoming the fear of women, and that some boys expect their female partners to be maternal. Contraception is not widely used because methods are not well known or rejected often for religious reasons. Many young people get married as a result of unplanned premarital pregnancy. Perceiving no common threat from HIV/AIDS due to

  17. Collateral Damage and Critical Turning Points: Public Health Implications of HPV Vaccine News Coverage for Boys and Men in 2011.

    PubMed

    Krakow, Melinda; Rogers, Brian

    2016-09-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officially expanded approval of the Gardasil vaccine to include human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination for boys and men, and in 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a formal recommendation for routine vaccination for this population. Despite these efforts, HPV vaccination rates for boys and men continue to fall short of public health targets. While news was breaking about the benefits of the HPV vaccine for boys and men, public attention shifted as a result of political debates concerning the vaccine. This study examines a pivotal time period for public health in which the vaccine became officially recommended for boys and men and at the same time became the center of political controversies in the lead-up to the 2012 presidential campaign. The current study extends previous research and presents a content analysis of newspaper articles (N = 154) about the HPV vaccine for the year 2011. Results indicate that the lack of comprehensive coverage of HPV and the HPV vaccine found in previous studies continued in this year. Results shed light on key political events that may have functioned to overshadow the recommendation of the HPV vaccine for boys and men. The implications of this pattern of news coverage can inform public health efforts to address low rates of HPV vaccination uptake among boys and men in present day. PMID:26799666

  18. [Circumscript myositis ossificans in a four-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Cabello García, D; Rodríguez Fernández, A; Gómez Río, M; Moreno, M J; Rebollo Aguirre, A C; Martín Castro, A; Llamas Elvira, J M

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of a 4 year old boy with no previous personal or family history of interest, who attended the Paediatric Department of our hospital after a physical examination revealed a painful induration in the left arm which had increased in size; imaging tests were consistent with a calcified mass in soft tissues, without cortical involvement, suspected of being malignant. Two-phase bone scintigraphy was requested in which a soft tissue lesion, not suggestive of malignancy, was detected. The biopsy was negative for malignant cells. However, in view of the progressive increase in size of the lesion, FDG positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) was performed, showing a hypermetabolic mass consistent with malignancy in the left arm, for which the patient underwent surgery for suspected possible parosteal osteosarcoma. PMID:18817666

  19. [Herpangina and erythema multiforme in a three-year boy].

    PubMed

    Brzeziński, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The dentist can be confronted with a vesiculobullous lesion of the oral mucosa are a symptoms of herpes infection (herpangina) of throat. Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are a major cause of herpangina. Herpangina is an acute viral infection caused by certain viruses Coxsackie, is spread by respiratory droplets. The infection is mainly encountered in young children. Oral lesions rarely more than 7 days; treatment is symptomatic. Viral throat infections may accompany various skin rashes, such as erythema multiforme (which can also occur without any connection with a viral infection). At work was presented a case of 3-year-old boy with herpes symptoms of sore throat and mild forms of erythema multiforme. PMID:24455841

  20. Mystery case: a young boy with myoclonic jerks.

    PubMed

    Musleh, Camelia; Marcuse, Lara; Fields, Madeline

    2013-10-29

    A 16-year-old right-handed boy presented for consultation for recent development of seizures. He is the product of a normal pregnancy and delivery without a history of developmental delay, head trauma, or family history of epilepsy. A year and a half prior to our consultation, the patient noted that his hand would suddenly jerk across the page while writing in his morning classes. Stress would exacerbate the jerks. Six months later, after staying up late the previous night, the patient awoke early and began to play on the computer when both of his hands suddenly jerked multiple times. He then fell over and began seizing. His mother witnessed tonic contraction of his body followed by clonic activity. He was brought by ambulance to the nearest hospital where a CT head was reported normal. PMID:24166967

  1. Recurrent headache in a five year old boy.

    PubMed

    Saini, Lokesh; Kumar, Ranjith M; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop; Gulati, Sheffali

    2016-01-01

    Headache is infrequent in early childhood. Headache and neurological deficits associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytosis (HaNDL), a variant of migraine, is a rare disorder. A 5-year-old boy presented with recurrent episodes of headache for 6 months. Each episode lasted for a week and in the current episode, he was symptomatic for 3 days. All the episodes were associated with paresthesias and CSF lymplocytosis with normal protein and sugar. There was history of migraine in his family. His magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain with contrast with magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and venography were normal. Work-up for relevant causes of infection and vasculitis were negative. His symptoms subsided on oral antimigraine prophylaxis and he has been on remission for last 8 months. HaNDL should be considered in relevant clinical scenarios, as it prevents unnecessary investigations, therapy, and hospitalization. PMID:27011651

  2. Aggressive-antisocial boys develop into physically strong young men

    PubMed Central

    Isen, Joshua D.; McGue, Matthew K.; Iacono, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Young men with superior upper-body strength typically show a greater proclivity for physical aggression. The traditional interpretation is that young men calibrate their attitudes and behaviors to their physical formidability. Physical strength is thus viewed as a causal antecedent of aggressive behavior. The present study is the first to examine this phenomenon within a developmental framework. We demonstrate that males' antisocial tendencies temporally precede their physical formidability. We capitalize on the fact that physical strength is a male secondary sex characteristic. In two longitudinal cohorts of children, we estimate adolescent change in upper-body strength using the “slope” parameter from a latent growth model. Boys, but not girls, with greater antisocial tendencies in childhood attained larger increases in physical strength between the ages of 11 and 17. These results support sexual selection theory, indicating an adaptive congruence between male-typical behavioral dispositions and subsequent physical masculinization during puberty. PMID:25717041

  3. An Adolescent Boy with Comorbid Anorexia Nervosa and Hashimoto Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Pehlivantürk Kızılkan, Melis; Kanbur, Nuray; Akgül, Sinem; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer

    2016-03-01

    Low triiodothyronine syndrome is a physiological adaptation encountered in anorexia nervosa (AN) and generally improves with sufficient weight gain. However, when a primary thyroid pathology accompanies AN, both the evaluation of thyroid hormone levels and the management of the co-morbid disease become more challenging. Hashimoto thyroiditis could complicate the management of AN by causing hyper- or hypothyroidism. AN could also negatively affect the treatment of Hashimoto thyroiditis by altering body weight and metabolic rate, as well as by causing drug non-compliance. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with comorbid AN restrictive sub-type and Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this case report, we aimed to draw attention to the challenges that could be encountered in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with AN when accompanied by Hashimoto thyroiditis. PMID:26757948

  4. An Adolescent Boy with Comorbid Anorexia Nervosa and Hashimoto Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Pehlivantürk Kızılkan, Melis; Kanbur, Nuray; Akgül, Sinem; Alikaşifoğlu, Ayfer

    2016-01-01

    Low triiodothyronine syndrome is a physiological adaptation encountered in anorexia nervosa (AN) and generally improves with sufficient weight gain. However, when a primary thyroid pathology accompanies AN, both the evaluation of thyroid hormone levels and the management of the co-morbid disease become more challenging. Hashimoto thyroiditis could complicate the management of AN by causing hyper- or hypothyroidism. AN could also negatively affect the treatment of Hashimoto thyroiditis by altering body weight and metabolic rate, as well as by causing drug non-compliance. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with comorbid AN restrictive sub-type and Hashimoto thyroiditis. In this case report, we aimed to draw attention to the challenges that could be encountered in the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with AN when accompanied by Hashimoto thyroiditis. PMID:26757948

  5. The Boy Scouts of America: Slowly Changing.

    PubMed

    Pynes, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    The Boy Scouts of America National Executive Board (BSA) recently changed its longstanding policy of excluding gay youth up to the age of 18. Gay participants of its coed Venturing program would be allowed to be members until the age of 21. However, lesbians and homosexuals are still not permitted to be troop leaders. This article discusses the evolution of the change in BSA's policy, discusses the timeline of other proposals in regard to BSA's acceptance of gay youth, and suggests that changes in public opinion and the reaction of BSAs stakeholders lead to changes in the BSA policy. The BSA made a change to become more compatible with the environment in which it operates. PMID:26244484

  6. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    SciTech Connect

    Fucic, A.; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L.; Aerts, D.; Biot, P.; Katsonouri, A.; Cerna, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Castano, A.; Rudnai, P.; Gutleb, A.; Ligocka, D.; Lupsa, I-R.; Berglund, M.; Horvat, M.; Halzlova, K.; Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G.; Hadjipanayis, A.; Krskova, A.; and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  7. A Comparison of Phonological Skill of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome and Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne; Long, Steven H.; Malkin, Cheryl; Barnes, Elizabeth; Skinner, Martie; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Anderson, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared the phonological accuracy and patterns of sound change of boys with fragile X syndrome, boys with Down syndrome, and typically developing mental-age-matched boys. Participants were 50 boys with fragile X syndrome, ages 3 to 14 years; 32 boys with Down syndrome, ages 4 to 13 years; and 33 typically developing…

  8. Helping Muslim Boys Succeed: The Case for History Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Matthew L. N.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that Muslim boys have become the "New Folk Devils" of British education, who are characterised by resistance to formal education, especially at secondary level, and under-achievement. Since the 1990s, British Muslim boys would appear to have become increasingly alienated from compulsory schooling, especially in…

  9. The Child Behavior Profile: I. Boys Aged 6-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achenbach, Thomas M.

    1978-01-01

    Reports standardization of the Child Behavior Checklist for boys aged 6-11. Analysis of CBCLs of disturbed boys yielded behavior problem scales labeled schizoid, depressed, uncommunicative, obsessive-compulsive, somatic complaints, social withdrawal, hyperactive, aggressive, and delinquent. Second-order factors are Internalizing and Externalizing.…

  10. Visual Motor Short Term Memory in Educationally Subnormal Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugden, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    This investigation attempted to describe the developmental sequence of visual motor short term memory in mentally handicapped boys (mental ages 6, 9, and 12) during conditions of rest and interpolated activity, and to explore their use of spontaneous rehearsal strategies. Results are compared with those for normal boys. (Author/SJL)

  11. The "Boy Turn" in Research on Gender and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver-Hightower, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    Although the majority of research in gender and education has rightly focused on girls, recent research in the United States and elsewhere has focused much more on the learning, social outcomes, and schooling experiences of boys. This "boy turn" has produced a large corpus of theoretically oriented and practice-oriented research alongside popular…

  12. Adolescent Girls' and Boys' Perceptions of Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Agneta; Brunnberg, Elinor; Eriksson, Charli

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study are to analyse the concept of mental health from the perspective of adolescent girls and boys and to describe what adolescent girls and boys regard as important determinants of mental health. Interviews with 48 children, 13 and 16 years old, in Sweden were held individually or in focus groups. The adolescents perceived…

  13. Motor Fitness of Mentally Retarded Boys to National Age Norms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brace, D. K.

    The study compared the physical fitness of 65 mentally retarded boys (mean age 14-years, mean IQ 60) at Austin (Texas) State School with national age scales for boys of the same chronological ages on the American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation Youth Fitness Test, which measures strength, speed, agility, power,…

  14. Contributions and Implications of the Medford, Oregon, Boys' Growth Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. H.

    The overall and long-range purposes of the Medford Boys' Growth Study are: (1) to construct physical and motor growth curves and growth acceleration curves of boys seven to 18 years old; (2) to relate these traits to physiological maturity, physique type, nutritional status, socio-personal adjustment, interests, and scholastic aptitude and…

  15. Do Boys Need Different Remedial Reading Instruction from Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limbrick, Lisa; Wheldall, Kevin; Madelaine, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Recent inquiries into the underachievement of boys in reading have called into question whether they require different forms of reading instruction from girls. A number of reading programs and initiatives have been developed to address this issue, including programs based on increasing boys' motivation, improving behaviour, embracing the use of…

  16. Behavior Woes Hamper Boys More Than Girls in School

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159512.html Behavior Woes Hamper Boys More Than Girls in School: Study They were more likely to ... When I compared 4- and 5-year-old boys and girls who had the same levels of behavior problems -- ...

  17. Four Hundred Losers: Delinquent Boys in High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlstrom, Winston M.; Havighurst, Robert J.

    Reported is a longitudinal study of socially maladjusted boys in Kansas City, Missouri. Inner city seventh grade boys, identified as socially and educationally maladjusted, were divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group participated in a work-study program beginning in the eighth grade, receiving special classroom work…

  18. Reaching Boys: An International Study of Effective Teaching Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Michael; Hawley, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Despite a continuing stream of concern on the part of researchers, demographers, and cultural pundits about a crisis in boys' social development and schooling, surprisingly little attention has been paid to what is perhaps the richest pool of data: current, observable teaching practices that clearly work with boys. In schools of all types in all…

  19. The Problem of Boys' Literacy Underachievement: Raising Some Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Anne; Kehler, Michael; Martino, Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Boys' literacy underachievement continues to garner significant attention and has been identified by journalists, educational policymakers, and scholars in the field as the cause for much concern. It has been established that boys perform less well than girls on literacy benchmark or standardized tests. According to the National Assessment of…

  20. Science Education in the Boy Scouts of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintz, Rachel Sterneman

    2009-01-01

    This study of science education in the Boy Scouts of America focused on males with Boy Scout experience. The mixed-methods study topics included: merit badge standards compared with National Science Education Standards, Scout responses to open-ended survey questions, the learning styles of Scouts, a quantitative assessment of science content…

  1. Crafts, Boys, Ernest Thompson Seton, and the Woodcraft Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalmers, F. Graeme; Dancer, Andrea A.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines early influences on art education for boys (Chalmers & Dancer, 2007) in areas traditionally labeled as crafts. Under review is the work of Ernest Thompson Seton, artist, naturalist, storyteller, author, philosopher, crusader for and supporter of indigenous American Indian ways of knowing, and a co-founder of the Boy Scouts of…

  2. Closing the Achievement Gap between Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finley, Helen

    2011-01-01

    The critical role of accountability on schools has intensified the need to understand the impact of intervention strategies and best practices on literacy. Of particular concern is the underachievement of boys and identifying the learning differences between boys and girls. Examined in this quantitative study were the strategies and practices…

  3. The Mutual Influence of Parenting and Boys' Externalizing Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula J.; Colder, Craig R.; Lochman, John E.; Wells, Karen C.

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the mutual influence of parenting and boys' externalizing behavior from 4th to 8th grade, how these relationships change as children develop, and the stability of parenting and child behavior in a sample of 122 boys. Child behavior predicted poor parental monitoring at 6th and 7th grade and inconsistent discipline at all…

  4. Boys' Educational "Underachievement" in the Caribbean: Interpreting the "Problem"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobbett, Mary; Younger, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Education ministries in the Caribbean countries have directed considerable attention over the last decade to "solving" the "problem" of boys' underachievement. Rather than considering such interventions, our central concern in this paper is to revisit debates about the interpretation of the issue, to explore whether boys' underachievement is…

  5. Failing Boys! Beyond Crisis, Moral Panic and Limiting Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    For some time now, school boards, Ministries of Education, and the popular media have been expressing concerns about failing boys and how best to meet their needs, framing these concerns in terms of a crisis in which boys are the "new disadvantaged". This perspective does not provide an accurate representation of the problem and, in fact, detracts…

  6. Boyz to Men? Teaching to Restore Black Boys' Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladson Billings, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Many schools see teaching African American boys as a daunting challenge. However, in many schools the primary focus of Black male children's educational experience is maintaining order and discipline rather than student learning and academic achievement. By the time Black boys reach the 3rd or 4th grade their teachers and other school personnel no…

  7. Developmental Trajectories of Girls' and Boys' Delinquency and Associated Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepler, Debra J.; Jiang, Depeng; Craig, Wendy M.; Connolly, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Developmental trajectories in delinquency through adolescence were studied along with family and peer relationship problems. Drawing from eight waves of data over seven years, we conducted trajectory analyses with a sample of 746 students (402 girls; 344 boys). Analyzing girls and boys together, a five-class model emerged: 60% of the adolescents…

  8. Rehearsing Masculinity: Challenging the "Boy Code" in Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug

    2007-01-01

    Dance education experiences of boys and male youth are investigated in terms of dominant constructions of contemporary Western masculinity and the potential limitations these hegemonic discourses may place on male participation. Recent research on boys and male youth in dance, although limited, suggests prevailing social stigma, heteronormative…

  9. Mothering, Fathering, and Externalizing Behavior in Toddler Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Junger, Marianne; van Aken, Chantal; Dekovic, Maja; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reported maternal and paternal support, psychological control, and spanking on externalizing behavior of toddler boys. Questionnaires were administered to both parents of 104 two-parent families with a 3-year-old son. Both maternal and paternal psychological control was related to boys' externalizing behavior.…

  10. Assertive Behavior and Likeability in Elementary School Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojnilower, Daniel A.; Gross, Alan M.

    1984-01-01

    The social impact of assertive versus nonassertive behavior in fourth- and fifth-grade boys was investigated. Subjects viewed and evaluated eight videotaped scenes of different ten-year-old male models responding assertively or nonassertively to given situations. Results suggest that assertive behavior is valued by elementary school boys. (RDN)

  11. Reading and Phonological Skills in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klusek, Jessica; Hunt, Anna W.; Mirrett, Penny L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Roberts, Jane E.; Bailey, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    Although reading skills are critical for the success of individuals with intellectual disabilities, literacy has received little attention in fragile X syndrome (FXS). This study examined the literacy profile of FXS. Boys with FXS (n = 51; mean age 10.2 years) and mental age-matched boys with typical development (n = 35) participated in…

  12. Boys, Girls, and "Two Cultures" of Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winer, Abby C.; Phillips, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined differences in the quality of child care experienced by toddler boys and girls. Boys were more likely to be in lower-quality child care than girls, assessed with both setting-level measures and observations of caregiver-child interaction. A possible explanatory mechanism for the gender differences is suggested by evidence that…

  13. Parental Behavior Toward Boys and Girls of Preschool Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckhoff, Eva; And Others

    1961-01-01

    Research on the acquisition of sex roles in the United States has indicated a tendency for parents to treat girls less harshly than boys and for fathers to treat girls with more special warmth than they do boys. Eighteen children and their parents were interviewed and observed in Oslo, Norway, as part of a longitudinal study of parental influence…

  14. Is Anxiety in Young Boys the New Normal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogel, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    As a psychologist of 35 years, Wendy Mogel discusses what she has discovered to be the new trend behind anxiety in young boys. Through hours of probing and pondering, neither hyperparenting nor early trauma (what one might think were logical causes of a young boy's anxiety) is the key to understanding this new trend. She explains that many…

  15. Critical Literacy Learning through Video Games: Adolescent Boys' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Kathy; Madill, Leanna

    2007-01-01

    The rapidly growing phenomenon of video games, along with learning that takes place through video game play, have raised concerns about the negative impact such games are reputed to have on youth, particularly boys. However, there is a disconnect between the discourse that suggests that boys are failing in learning literacy skills, and the…

  16. About Boys' Schools: A Progressive Case for an Ancient Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    Defends the value of boys' schools, noting lack of objective data to support a negative appraisal of them. There is an inherent maleness that cannot be alienated from boys and men without a fundamental loss of their humanity. Schools must take the responsibility for conveying how to become a man. (SM)

  17. Gender Identity Conflict in Young Boys following Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, William H.

    1985-01-01

    Three boys, aged 4-7, wanted to be feminine and dressed in women's clothes following a difficult divorce with custody and visitation strife. In brief psychotherapy, gender seemed related to issues of loss and aggression. On followup, all three were symptomatically improved. Gender disturbance symptom in boys may come about as regressive reaction…

  18. Effective Approaches to Motivate and Engage Reluctant Boys in Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate the reasons why elementary-aged boys often lack motivation in literacy and to provide teachers with useful approaches to engage reluctant boys in reading and writing. Following a comprehensive search of multiple university data base search engines, the author critically evaluated 21 peer-reviewed…

  19. Boys' Underachievement in Education. An Exploration in Selected Commonwealth Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jha, Jyotsna, Kelleher, Fatimah

    2006-01-01

    Gender disparity in education has usually been experienced as disadvantaging girls. Although this continues to be the case in many places, the phenomenon of boys' underachievement--both in terms of participation and performance--has also become an issue in a number of countries. This book reviews the research on boys' underachievement and presents…

  20. Do Girls and Boys need Different Electronic Books?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikk, Jaan; Luik, Piret

    2005-01-01

    Many researchers have found differences in the ways in which boys and girls use computers, but there has been no systematic investigation into what types of electronic textbook are good for girls and which are good for boys. This paper describes an experimental investigation in which 35 units from electronic textbooks on mathematics, history,…

  1. There Is the Hope: Abused Boys Finding God through Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Frank, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The author, a narrative arts educator, was teaching an after-school drama program to 11 abused boys in a residential treatment center. The program promised them the opportunity to tell and stage their own story. The author began by sharing a story about an abused boy he befriended in seminary who ended up killing himself. The following week, he…

  2. Superhero Toys and Boys' Physically Active and Imaginative Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Amy; Howe, Nina

    2006-01-01

    The influence of superhero versus nonsuperhero toys on boys' physically active and imaginative play was studied in 29 dyads (n = 58 middle-class preschool boys; M age = 54.95 mos, SD = 5.28 mos). Each dyad participated in two play sessions: 1) superhero toys (media related) and 2) nonsuperhero (nonmedia related) toys. Dyads were observed for the…

  3. Boy Story: Do You Really Want Guys in Your Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Helen

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how to transform a down-on-its-luck library into an irresistible place for boys. She suggests to begin with vision, energy, and a lot of hard work. Based on the author's 30-plus years of experience working with students, she knows boys respond well to a scholarly environment. In fact, it is one of the ways…

  4. Canal Town Boys: Poor White Males and Domestic Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Examines domestic violence embedded within the lives of poor, white, urban middle school boys, describing observations and interviews conducted with 18 boys in their bilingual school, on neighborhood streets, and in the community center. Suggests that by not disrupting their violent attitudes and tendencies, the institutions around which their…

  5. Adolescent Street Boy Urchins and Vocational Training in Northern Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2009-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, over 80% of the unskilled and uneducated adolescent street boys, or "Almajiris", are from the ethnic Hausa-Fulani tribes. They depend on street begging and menial jobs for daily survival. In dealing with the situation, state vocational centers were established as the Millennium Hope Project (MHP) to provide the boys with…

  6. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  7. Are You Helping Boys Outperform Girls in Math?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, David; Casanova, Ursula

    1987-01-01

    A study of fourth and fifth grade classes suggests that competitive math activities give boys an advantage where cooperative math activities generally give girls an advantage. Suggestions to help teachers balance their teaching methods to decrease disparities between boys and girls are made. (MT)

  8. Handbook of Counseling Boys and Adolescent Males: A Practitioner's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Arthur M., Ed.; Kiselica, Mark S., Ed.

    This book serves as both a scholarly and practical guide for teachers, school psychologists, and parents on helping boys and adolescent males grow up. It provides practitioners with a comprehensive handbook on understanding and responding to the developmental, cultural, and special concerns of boys and adolescent males. It attempts to provide…

  9. Connecting Boys with Books 2: Closing the Reading Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In his hugely successful "Connecting Boys with Books" (2003), the author delved into the problem that reading skills of pre-adolescent boys lag behind those of girls in the same age group. In this companion book, Sullivan digs even deeper, melding his own experiences as an activist with perspectives gleaned from other industry experts to help…

  10. Final height in boys with untreated constitutional delay in growth and puberty.

    PubMed Central

    Crowne, E C; Shalet, S M; Wallace, W H; Eminson, D M; Price, D A

    1990-01-01

    To determine the natural history and psychological impact of the growth pattern in boys with constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP), 43 boys presenting with short stature due to CDGP were followed up to final height. At presentation mean (SD) chronological age was 14.0 (1.9) years, bone age delay 2.7 (1.0) years, standing height standard deviation score (SDS) -3.4 (0.6), and predicted adult height SDS -1.3 (0.7). Final adult height SDS was -1.6 (0.9), measured at 21.2 (2.6) years. There was no significant difference between final height and predicted adult height, but there was a significant difference between final height and measured mid-parental height. Psychological questionnaires showed no significant difference in self esteem, marital, or employment state between the CDGP group and a control group. There was no correlation between self esteem and final height, but 25 felt their growth delay had affected their success either at school, work, or socially and 20 would rather have had treatment to advance their growth spurt. This study supports the more frequent use of active medical treatment to advance growth in boys with CDGP, and shows that although boys with CDGP reach their predicted heights, this is short for their families. PMID:2248500

  11. Gender differences in primary and secondary education: Are girls really outperforming boys?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driessen, Geert; van Langen, Annemarie

    2013-06-01

    A moral panic has broken out in several countries after recent studies showed that girls were outperforming boys in education. Commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Education, the present study examines the position of boys and girls in Dutch primary education and in the first phase of secondary education over the past ten to fifteen years. On the basis of several national and international large-scale databases, the authors examined whether one can indeed speak of a gender gap, at the expense of boys. Three domains were investigated, namely cognitive competencies, non-cognitive competencies, and school career features. The results as expressed in effect sizes show that there are hardly any differences with regard to language and mathematics proficiency. However, the position of boys in terms of educational level and attitudes and behaviour is much more unfavourable than that of girls. Girls, on the other hand, score more unfavourably with regard to sector and subject choice. While the present situation in general does not differ very much from that of a decade ago, it is difficult to predict in what way the balances might shift in the years to come.

  12. Creating developmentally auspicious school environments for African American boys.

    PubMed

    Barbarin, Oscar A; Chinn, Lisa; Wright, Yamanda F

    2014-01-01

    African American (AA) boys face serious barriers to academic success, many of which are uncommon--or absent--in the lives of AA girls, other children of color, and European American children. In this chapter, we identify nine critical challenges to the successful education of AA boys and review possible solutions. In addition, we evaluate one particular reform, public single-sex schooling, as a possible solution to the challenges facing AA boys. Considering the evidence, we argue that recent efforts to expand the existence of public single-sex schools are rarely grounded in empirical findings. Given the lack of compelling evidence and the high stakes for AA boys, we call for more rigorous evaluations of the outcomes of sex-segregated programs that specifically target AA boys. PMID:25345001

  13. Can disruptive boys be helped to become competent?

    PubMed

    Tremblay, R E; McCord, J; Boileau, H; Charlebois, P; Gagnon, C; Le Blanc, M; Larivée, S

    1991-05-01

    The Montréal Longitudinal Study of Disruptive Boys, an experimental study, was designed to understand boys who were considered disruptive in kindergarten. One part of the study involved assessing effects of a preventive treatment program carried out during the boys' early years in primary school. This paper reports on the outcome of the randomized treatment experiment 3 years after treatments ended. Disruptive boys were randomly allocated to a treated group and two nontreated groups. Treatment consisted of parent training and training of boys for social skills, fantasy play and television viewing. Results suggest that the treatment program had some positive effects. Some of the improvements were not evident immediately after treatment ended. PMID:1852848

  14. Physical attractiveness of boys with gender identity disorder.

    PubMed

    Zucker, K J; Wild, J; Bradley, S J; Lowry, C B

    1993-02-01

    University students blind to group status rated boys with gender identity disorder and clinical control boys regarding their physical attractiveness. Ratings were made of the face and upper torso from photographs taken at the time of clinical assessment (mean age, 8.1 years). On all five adjectives (attractive, beautiful, cute, handsome, and pretty), boys with gender identity disorder were judged to be more attractive than were the clinical control boys. Attractiveness correlated with extent of behavioral femininity in the clinical control group, but not in the group of boys with gender identity disorder. The extent to which the group differences in attractiveness were due to objective, structural differences in facial attractiveness vs. socially created, or subjective, processes is discussed. PMID:8435037

  15. Peer influence on adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this research is to understand peer influence on adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors and their risk perception of these behaviors; 155 adolescent boys, average age 14.3, participated in the study. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests revealed that adolescent boys engaged in many types of behaviors, although they perceived some of them as unhealthy. When compared with adolescent boys who showed low peer influence, those with high peer influence engaged in the following behaviors more frequently: sunbathing, using tanning booths, waxing skin, and spa treatments. The findings suggest a need for further investigation regarding the motivation for and impediments to adolescent boys' appearance management behaviors. PMID:20432614

  16. Behavioural Differences Between Online Sexual Groomers Approaching Boys and Girls.

    PubMed

    van Gijn-Grosvenor, Evianne L; Lamb, Michael E

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on the behavior of convicted offenders who had approached profiles of boys and girls online for offline sexual encounters. A detailed coding scheme was designed to code and analyze offenders' grooming behaviors in transcripts of conversational interactions between convicted offenders and 52 volunteer workers purporting to be girls and 49 volunteer workers who masqueraded as boys. Behavioral differences and commonalities associated with the gender of the groomed child decoys were examined. Results showed that offenders approaching boys were significantly older and pretended to be younger than offenders approaching girls. When compared to offenders grooming boy decoys, offenders grooming girl decoys typically built more rapport, were less sexually explicit, and approached sexual topics carefully and indirectly. Offenders also used more strategies to conceal contact with girls than with boys. PMID:27472510

  17. The Relationship of Repetitive Behavior and Sensory Behavior to Parenting Stress in Mothers of Boys with Autism and Mothers of Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Lolita Lisa

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between repetitive behaviors and sensory behavior to the parenting stress of mothers of boys with fragile X syndrome and mothers of boys with autism. Participants consisted of two groups: 51 mothers with boys diagnosed with fragile X syndrome (M = 71.3, SD = 56.5) and 30 mothers with boys diagnosed with…

  18. The development of the effect of peer monitoring on generosity differs among elementary school-age boys and girls

    PubMed Central

    Takagishi, Haruto; Fujii, Takayuki; Koizumi, Michiko; Schug, Joanna; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Kameshima, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of peer monitoring on generosity in boys and girls aged 6–12 years. A total of 120 elementary school students played a one-shot dictator game (DG) with and without peer monitoring by classmates. Children decided how to divide 10 chocolates between themselves and a classmate either in a condition in which their allocations were visible to their peers, or in private. While the effect of peer monitoring on the allocation amount in the DG was clearly present in boys, it was not observed in girls. Furthermore, the effect of peer monitoring in boys appeared at the age of 9 years. These results suggest that the motivation to draw peers’ attention plays a stronger role for older boys than for girls or younger boys. The potential roles of higher-order theory of mind, social roles, and emergence of secondary sex characteristics on the influence of peer monitoring on generosity shown by boys are discussed. PMID:26175707

  19. No Boy Left Behind: The Impact of Boy-Friendly Strategies on the Gender Writing Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Janet Lee

    2012-01-01

    A study of the implementation of boy-friendly strategies for teaching writing was conducted in order to determine if the strategies would improve the writing achievement of fifth grade boys, thereby narrowing the gender achievement gap in writing. The strategies were categorized in four modalities: self-efficacy, perception/attitude, performance,…

  20. Nightblindness-associated transient tonic downgaze (NATTD) in infant boys with chin-up head posture.

    PubMed

    Simonsz, H J; Florijn, R J; van Minderhout, H M; Bergen, A A B; Kamermans, M

    2009-01-01

    Eleven infant boys presented with chin-up head posture, tonic downgaze and, on attempted upgaze, large-amplitude upward saccades with deceleration during the slow phase downward. The gaze-evoked upward saccades disappeared at the age of 2 or 3 years. In addition, they had high-frequency, small-amplitude horizontal pendular nystagmus that remained. Among these infant boys were 2 pairs of maternally related half-brothers, 2 cousins, and 2 siblings. Visual acuity ranged from 0.1 to 0.6, ERG-amplitudes (both A- and B-wave) were reduced, and severe myopia was found in 5 cases. Eight boys had CACNA1F mutations, and 1 boy had a NYX mutation, compatible with incomplete or complete congenital stationary nightblindness (iCSNB or cCSNB), respectively. This points to a defective synapse between the rod and the ON-bipolar cell causing the motility disorder: CACNA1F is located on the rod side of this synapse, whereas NYX is located on the side of the ON-bipolar cell. The coexistence of horizontal and vertical nystagmus has been previously described in dark-reared cats. PMID:20001510