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Sample records for 11-year-old girl presented

  1. Motor Competence in 11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedul-Kjelsås, Vigdis; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2013-01-01

    By using the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC), the present study investigated possible gender differences in several tasks of motor competence in children. The sample included 67 Norwegian sixth-grade children (Girls N?=?29; Boys?=?39). Boys' performance exceeds that of girls in ball skills and in one of the balance skills. No differences were…

  2. Enterobius granuloma: an unusual cause of omental mass in an 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Sinan; Ekinci, Saniye; Orhan, Diclehan; Senocak, Mehmet Emin

    2014-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is the only nematode that infects humans. It is one of the most common intestinal parasites. Pinworm commonly infests the terminal ileum and colon, and does not cause severe morbidity unless ectopic infection occurs. However, granulomatous lesions caused by ectopic Enterobius vermicularis infection may lead to unusual clinical symptoms and may be misinterpreted as malignant lesions. Herein, the authors present an 11-year-old girl with pinworm infection who presented with abdominal pain and an omental mass, with special emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment.

  3. A fatal outcome of complicated severe diabetic ketoacidosis in a 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Severinski, Srećko; Butorac Ahel, Ivona; Ovuka, Aleksandar; Verbić, Arijan

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complex metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis and ketonuria. Cerebral edema is the most common rare complication of DKA in children. The objective of the study was to emphasize the importance of careful evaluation and monitoring for signs and symptoms of cerebral edema in all children undergoing treatment for DKA. We present a case of 11-year-old girl with a history of diabetes mellitus type I (T1DM) who presented with severe DKA complicated by hypovolemic shock, cerebral edema and hematemesis. Considering the fact that complications of DKA are rare and require a high index of clinical suspicion, early recognition and treatment are crucial for avoiding permanent damage.

  4. Annular pancreas in an 11-year-old girl: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Suk-Bae

    2017-01-01

    Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare cause of congenital duodenal obstruction that is usually discovered at the neonatal period, but clinical severities can vary over a wide range and definite diagnosis could be delayed until late childhood or adulthood. We report here a case of AP detected in an 11-year-old girl who had a long history of symptoms of partial duodenal obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) study revealed narrowed second portion of duodenum by extrinsic compression, and computed tomography demonstrated complete ring of pancreatic tissue surrounding the second portion of the duodenum. Diamond-shaped duodenoduodenostomy successfully cured the patient, and the postoperative UGI study showed smooth passage through the bypass segment. Although rare, AP should be differentiated in children with unresolved symptoms of partial duodenal obstruction. PMID:28280396

  5. Annular pancreas in an 11-year-old girl: a case report.

    PubMed

    Moon, Suk-Bae

    2017-01-01

    Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare cause of congenital duodenal obstruction that is usually discovered at the neonatal period, but clinical severities can vary over a wide range and definite diagnosis could be delayed until late childhood or adulthood. We report here a case of AP detected in an 11-year-old girl who had a long history of symptoms of partial duodenal obstruction. Upper gastrointestinal (UGI) study revealed narrowed second portion of duodenum by extrinsic compression, and computed tomography demonstrated complete ring of pancreatic tissue surrounding the second portion of the duodenum. Diamond-shaped duodenoduodenostomy successfully cured the patient, and the postoperative UGI study showed smooth passage through the bypass segment. Although rare, AP should be differentiated in children with unresolved symptoms of partial duodenal obstruction.

  6. Trichotillomania: Bizzare Patern of Hair Loss at 11-Year-old Girl.

    PubMed

    Zímová, Jana; Zímová, Pavlína

    2016-06-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) is defined by the Diagnostics and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DMS-IV) as hair loss from a patient`s repetitive self-pulling of hair. The disorder is included under anxiety disorders because it shares some obsessive-compulsive features. Patients have the tendency towards feelings of unattractiveness, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem (1,2). It is a major psychiatric problem, but many patients with this disorder first present to a dermatologist. An 11-year-old girl came to our department with a 2-month history of diffuse hair loss on the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area (Figure 1). She had originally been examined by a pediatrician with the diagnosis of alopecia areata. The patient`s personal history included hay fever and shortsightedness, and she suffered from varicella and mononucleosis. Nobody in the family history suffered from alopecia areata, but her father has male androgenetic alopecia (Norwood/Hamilton MAGA C3F3). The mother noticed that the child had had changeable mood for about 2 months and did not want to communicate with other persons in the family. The family did not have any pet at home. At school, her favorite subjects were Math and Computer Studies. She did not like Physical Education and did not participate in any sport activities during her free time. This was very strange because she was obese (body-mass index (BMI) 24.69). She was sometimes angry with her 13-year-old sister who had better results at school. The girl had suddenly started to wear a blue scarf. The parents did not notice that she pulled out her hair at home. Dermatological examination of the capillitium found a zone of incomplete alopecia in the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area, without inflammation, desquamation, and scaring. Hairs were of variable length (Figure 1). There was a patch of incomplete alopecia above the forehead between two stripes of hair of variable length (Figure 2). The hair pull test was

  7. Increased aggression and activity level in 3- to 11-year-old girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

    PubMed

    Pasterski, Vickie; Hindmarsh, Peter; Geffner, Mitchell; Brook, Charles; Brain, Caroline; Hines, Melissa

    2007-09-01

    Experimental research in a wide range of mammals has documented powerful influences of androgen during early development on brain systems and behaviors that show sex differences. Clinical research in humans suggests similar influences of early androgen concentrations on some behaviors, including childhood play behavior and adult sexual orientation. However, findings have been inconsistent for some other behaviors that show sex differences, including aggression and activity level in children. This inconsistency may reflect small sample sizes and assessment limitations. In the present study, we assessed aggression and activity level in 3- to 11-year-old children with CAH (38 girls, 29 boys) and in their unaffected siblings (25 girls, 21 boys) using a questionnaire that mothers completed to indicate current aggressive behavior and activity level in their children. Data supported the hypotheses that: (1) unaffected boys are more aggressive and active than unaffected girls; (2) girls with CAH are more aggressive and active than their unaffected sisters; and (3) boys with and without CAH are similar to one another in aggression and activity level. These data suggest that early androgens have a masculinizing effect on both aggressive behavior and activity level in girls.

  8. Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese versus Nonobese 8-11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrangelo, M. Alysia; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Rattigan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular fitness between obese and nonobese children. Based on body mass index, 118 were classified as obese (boys [OB] = 62, girls [OG] = 56), while 421 were nonobese (boys [NOB] = 196, girls [NOG] = 225). Cardiovascular fitness was determined by a 1-mile [1.6 km] run/walk (MRW) and estimated peak…

  9. Early puberty in 11-year-old girls: Millennium Cohort Study findings

    PubMed Central

    Zilanawala, Afshin; Sacker, Amanda; Hiatt, Robert; Viner, Russell

    2017-01-01

    Objective Early puberty in girls is linked to some adverse outcomes in adolescence and mid-life. We address two research questions: (1) Are socioeconomic circumstances and ethnicity associated with early onset puberty? (2) Are adiposity and/or psychosocial stress associated with observed associations? Design Longitudinal data on 5839 girls from the UK Millennium Cohort Study were used to estimate associations between ethnicity, family income, adiposity and psychosocial stress with a marker of puberty. Main outcome measure Reported menstruation at age 11 years. Results All quoted ORs are statistically significant. Girls in the poorest income quintile were twice as likely (OR=2.1), and the second poorest quintile nearly twice as likely (OR=1.9) to have begun menstruation compared with girls in the richest income quintile. Estimates were roughly halved on adjustment for Body Mass Index and markers of psychosocial stress (poorest, OR=1.5; second poorest, OR=1.5). Indian girls were over 3 times as likely compared with whites to have started menstruation (OR=3.5) and statistical adjustments did not attenuate estimates. The raised odds of menstruation for Pakistani (OR=1.9), Bangladeshi (OR=3.3) and black African (OR=3.0) girls were attenuated to varying extents, from about a third to a half, on adjustment for income and adiposity. Conclusions In contemporary UK, excess adiposity and psychosocial stress were associated with social inequalities in early puberty, while material disadvantage and adiposity were linked to ethnic inequalities in early puberty among girls. PMID:27672135

  10. Bilateral renal abscess in a previously healthy 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Saduf; Bolt, Roel

    2010-11-01

    Renal abscesses are infrequently encountered in children. We describe a girl diagnosed with bilateral renal abscess. Although ultrasonography and computerised tomography are used to establish the diagnosis, in our case magnetic resonance imaging proved to be a useful additional diagnostic method. Using percutaneous aspiration, we were able to establish the correct diagnosis and identify the causative micro-organism. The patient was successfully treated with a combined intravenous and oral course of antibiotics. In conclusion, renal abscesses can occur in children without a history of reflux or urinary tract infection; this should be kept in mind when evaluating a child with fever. In addition, full recovery can be achieved solely with antibiotics.

  11. Rapid progression to pulmonary arterial hypertension crisis associated with mixed connective tissue disease in an 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Okura, Yuka; Takezaki, Shunichiro; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Ichiro; Ariga, Tadashi

    2013-09-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is rare in pediatric rheumatic diseases. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with MCTD usually progresses gradually and is difficult to note at the asymptomatic phase. We report a 11-year-old girl with MCTD complicated with rapidly progressive PAH. Although PAH was not detected by echocardiogram or chest CT scan at the initial examination, it became clear in 1 year and suddenly came to cardiac arrest during an invasive procedure. She was successfully treated with extracorporeal assist and both vasodilative and immunosuppressive medication. A combination of echocardiogram and plasma BNP levels could be a useful marker for the follow-up of such cases. PAH could develop early in the course of pediatric MCTD and needs attention to unexpected acute exacerbation, especially under emotional stress.

  12. Multiple, delayed post-tonsillectomy bleedings in 11-year-old girl as a result of vascular abnormality and anastomosis. Case report.

    PubMed

    Pucher, Beata; Szydlowski, Jaroslaw; Smoczyk, Wieslaw; Jonczyk-Potoczna, Katarzyna; Grzegorowski, Michal; Korytowska, Aleksandra

    2016-11-01

    Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy are the most common surgical procedures in pediatric otolaryngology. The incidence of primary hemorrhage after tonsillectomy in children ranges from 0.38 to 6%. The prevalence of secondary bleeding occurs in 0.5%-9.3% cases [1]. Authors present a case of an 11-year-old girl who experienced 6 delayed, massive post-tonsillectomy bleedings as a result of presence of vascular malformation and the activation of collateral circulation as a result of the left ECA ligature.

  13. Hunter syndrome in an 11-year old girl on enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase: brain magnetic resonance imaging features and evolution.

    PubMed

    Manara, Renzo; Rampazzo, Angelica; Cananzi, Mara; Salviati, Leonardo; Mardari, Rodica; Drigo, Paola; Tomanin, Rosella; Gasparotto, Nicoletta; Priante, Elena; Scarpa, Maurizio

    2010-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS-II, Hunter disease) is a X-linked recessive disorder. Affected females are extremely rare, mostly due to skewed X chromosome inactivation. A few papers outline MPS-II brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) "gestalt" in males, but neuroradiological reports on females are still lacking. We present an 11-year-old girl affected by the severe form of MPS-II who was followed up over a time span of 8 years, focusing on clinical and brain MRI evolution. In the last 2.5 years, the patient has been treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase (Elaprase™, Shire Human Genetic Therapies AB, Sweden). On brain and cervical MRI examination, abnormalities in our patient did not differ from those detected in male patients: J-shaped pituitary sella, enlargement of perivascular spaces, brain atrophy, mild T2-hyperintensity in the paratrigonal white matter, diffuse platyspondylia, and mild odontoid dysplasia with odontoid cup. Brain atrophy progressed despite ERT introduction, whereas perivascular space enlargement did not change significantly before and after ERT. Cognitive impairment worsened independently from the course of white matter abnormality. Despite a profound knowledge of genetic and biochemical aspects in MPS-II, neuroradiology is still poorly characterized, especially in female patients. Spinal and brain involvement and its natural course and evolution after ERT introduction still need to be clarified.

  14. [A delayed motor production of open chains of linear strokes presented visually in static and dynamic modes: a comparison between 9 to 11 years old children and adults].

    PubMed

    Antonova, A A; Absatova, K A; Korneev, A A; Kurgansky, A V

    2015-01-01

    The production of drawing movements was studied in 29 right-handed children of 9-to-11 years old. The movements were the sequences of horizontal and vertical linear stokes conjoined at right angle (open polygonal chains) referred to throughout the paper as trajectories. The length of a trajectory varied from 4 to 6. The trajectories were presented visually to a subject in static (linedrawing) and dynamic (moving cursor that leaves no trace) modes. The subjects were asked to draw (copy) a trajectory in response to delayed go-signal (short click) as fast as possible without lifting the pen. The production latency time, the average movement duration along a trajectory segment, and overall number of errors committed by a subject during trajectory production were analyzed. A comparison of children's data with similar data in adults (16 subjects) shows the following. First, a substantial reduction in error rate is observed in the age range between 9 and 11 years old for both static and dynamic modes of trajectory presentation, with children of 11 still committing more error than adults. Second, the averaged movement duration shortens with age while the latency time tends to increase. Third, unlike the adults, the children of 9-11 do not show any difference in latency time between static and dynamic modes of visual presentation of trajectories. The difference in trajectory production between adult and children is attributed to the predominant involvement of on-line programming in children and pre-programming in adults.

  15. A comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 9–11 year old British Pakistani and White British girls: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that British children of South Asian origin are less active and more sedentary than White British children. However, little is known about the behaviours underlying low activity levels, nor the familial contexts of active and sedentary behaviours in these groups. Our aim was to test hypotheses about differences between British Pakistani and White British girls using accelerometry and self-reports of key active and sedentary behaviours, and to obtain an understanding of factors affecting these behaviours using parental interviews. Methods Participants were 145 girls (70 White British and 75 British Pakistani) aged 9–11 years and parents of 19 of the girls. Accelerometry data were collected over 4 days and girls provided 24-hour physical activity interviews on 3 of these days. Multilevel linear regression models and generalised linear mixed models tested for ethnic differences in activity, sedentary time, and behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents. Results Compared to White British girls, British Pakistani girls accumulated 102 (95% CI 59, 145) fewer counts per minute and 14 minutes (95% CI 8, 20) less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. British Pakistani girls spent more time (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 14, 42) sedentary. Fewer British Pakistani than White British girls reported participation in organised sports and exercise (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.64) or in outdoor play (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.20, 0.91). Fewer British Pakistani girls travelled actively to school (OR 0.26 95% CI 0.10, 0.71). There was no significant difference in reported screen time (OR 0.88 95% CI 0.45, 1.73). Parental interviews suggested that structural constraints (e.g. busy family schedules) and parental concerns about safety were important influences on activity levels. Conclusions British Pakistani girls were less active than White British girls and were less likely to participate in key active behaviours

  16. [Lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome revealing systemic lupus in an 11-year old girl in a context of clinical and biological emergency].

    PubMed

    Favier, Rémi; Kheyar, Tassadit; Renolleau, Sylvain; Tabone, Marie Dominique; Favier, Marie; Ulinski, Tim

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome (LAHPS) in an 11 year old girl initially hospitalized for bleeding. The patient presented with petechia, persisting bleeding after tooth extraction performed two days before, nephritic syndrome (renal failure, proteinuria and macroscopic hematuria), severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia. The association of these abnormalities suggested LAHPS secondary to severe systemic lupus. Immediate treatment with fresh frozen plasma and intravenous immunoglobulins (400 mg/kg/5d) was started and followed by steroid (500 mg/d) and cyclophosphamide (800 mg/m(2)) pulse therapy leading to rapid improvement of bleeding, renal involvement and prothrombin levels within 13 days. Lupus diagnosis was confirmed by immunological investigations and renal biopsy. Two early relapses occurred despite adequate treatment. After a follow-up of two years, no further disease activity is noted while the patient is treated only by mycophenolate mofetil (1 200 mg/m(2)/d). LAHPS did not relapse during this follow-up.

  17. Do descriptive norms related to parents and friends predict fruit and vegetable intake similarly among 11-year-old girls and boys?

    PubMed

    Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Haukkala, Ari; Yngve, Agneta; Thorsdottir, Inga; Roos, Eva

    2016-01-14

    We examined whether there are sex differences in children's fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and in descriptive norms (i.e. perceived FV intake) related to parents and friends. We also studied whether friends' impact is as important as that of parents on children's FV intake. Data from the PRO GREENS project in Finland were obtained from 424 children at the age 11 years at baseline. At baseline, 2009 children filled in a questionnaire about descriptive norms conceptualised as perceived FV intake of their parents and friends. They also filled in a validated FFQ that assessed their FV intake both at baseline and in the follow-up in 2010. The associations were examined with multi-level regression analyses with multi-group comparisons. Girls reported higher perceived FV intake of friends and higher own fruit intake at baseline, compared with boys, and higher vegetable intake both at baseline and in the follow-up. Perceived FV intake of parents and friends was positively associated with both girls' and boys' FV intake in both study years. The impact of perceived fruit intake of the mother was stronger among boys. The change in children's FV intake was affected only by perceived FV intake of father and friends. No large sex differences in descriptive norms were found, but the impact of friends on children's FV intake can generally be considered as important as that of parents. Future interventions could benefit from taking into account friends' impact as role models on children's FV intake.

  18. Anaerobic power and muscle strength characteristics of 11 years old elite and non-elite boys and girls from gymnastics, team handball, tennis and swimming.

    PubMed

    Bencke, J; Damsgaard, R; Saekmose, A; Jørgensen, P; Jørgensen, K; Klausen, K

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the possible effects of specificity of training on muscle strength and anaerobic power in children from different sports and at different performance levels in relation to growth and maturation status. Hundred and eighty-four children of both gender participating either in swimming, tennis, team handball or gymnastics were recruited from the best clubs in Denmark. Within each sport, the coach had divided the children into an elite (E) and non-elite (NE) group according to performance level and talent. Tanner stage assessment and body weight and height measurements were performed by a physician. The anaerobic performances were assessed by Wingate tests and jumping performance in squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ) from two heights. Most of the differences between groups in Wingate performance disappeared when the data were normalised to body mass. The gymnasts were the best jumpers and their superiority were increased in the more complex motor coordination tasks like DJ. The results may indicate some influence of training specificity, especially on the more complex motor tasks as DJ and there may be an effect of training before puberty. The performance in the less complex motor tasks like cycling and SJ and CMJ may also be influenced by specific training, but not to the same extent, and heritance may be an important factor for performance in these anaerobic tasks.

  19. Hepatoblastoma in an 11-year-old

    PubMed Central

    Pateva, Irina B.; Egler, Rachel A.; Stearns, Duncan S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Hepatoblastoma is a rare malignancy. Approximately 100 cases are diagnosed yearly in the United States. The highest incidence occurs in infants and in children younger than 5 years. Cases involving patients older than 5 years are very rare. We describe the case of a patient who was diagnosed with hepatoblastoma at an atypical age of presentation for this type of malignancy. We also performed Ovid MEDLINE search for hepatoblastoma and epidemiology reports occurring in children between the ages of 5 and 18 years. In this article we review the epidemiology and summarize case reports published between 1997 and 2012 of patients with hepatoblastoma, who were older than 5 years. Patient concerns and diagnosis: Our patient is an 11 year old boy with stage IV hepatoblastoma with lung and omental metastases at diagnosis. Interventions: The patient received 7 cycles of chemotherapy following the treatment plan of COG protocol AHEP 0731, off study. He also had tumor resection and omentectomy and achieved complete remission. Outcomes: He later had disease recurrence and after undergoing treatment with different modalities, ultimately died of his disease. Review of SEER program data shows that the incidence of hepatoblastoma in children above the age of 5 years is too infrequent to be calculated. Literature review revealed 13 cases of patients diagnosed at age older than 5 years. Most cases were published due to unusual associations and/or complications. There are no obvious unifying characteristics for these cases, although there may be a slight male preponderance and many patients in this selected series presented with elevated Alpha-fetoprotein. Lessons: The reported case is rare, given the very low incidence of hepatoblastoma outside of infancy. A systematic review of characteristics and outcomes for patients older than 5 years who are enrolled in cooperative group hepatoblastoma trials may reveal important information about the epidemiology and tumor

  20. Increased Cross-Gender Identification Independent of Gender Role Behavior in Girls with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Results from a Standardized Assessment of 4- to 11-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Pasterski, Vickie; Zucker, Kenneth J; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Hines, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    While reports showing a link between prenatal androgen exposure and human gender role behavior are consistent and the effects are robust, associations to gender identity or cross-gender identification are less clear. The aim of the current study was to investigate potential cross-gender identification in girls exposed prenatally to high concentrations of androgens due to classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Assessment included two standardized measures and a short parent interview assessing frequency of behavioral features of cross-gender identification as conceptualized in Part A of the diagnostic criteria for gender identity disorder (GID) in the DSM-IV-TR. Next, because existing measures may have conflated gender role behavior with gender identity and because the distinction is potentially informative, we factor analyzed items from the measures which included both gender identity and gender role items to establish the independence of the two constructs. Participants were 43 girls and 38 boys with CAH and 41 unaffected female and 31 unaffected male relatives, aged 4- to 11-years. Girls with CAH had more cross-gender responses than female controls on all three measures of cross-gender identification as well as on a composite measure of gender identity independent of gender role behavior. Furthermore, parent report indicated that 5/39 (12.8 %) of the girls with CAH exhibited cross-gender behavior in all five behavioral domains which comprise the cross-gender identification component of GID compared to 0/105 (0.0 %) of the children in the other three groups combined. These data suggest that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally are more likely to show cross-gender identification than girls without CAH or boys with and without CAH. Our findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure could play a role in gender identity development in healthy children, and may be relevant to gender assignment in cases of prenatal hormone disruption

  1. [Acute bilateral impaired vision with central scotoma in an 11-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Pollithy, S; Ach, T; Schaal, K B; Dithmar, S

    2012-09-01

    This article presents a case of acute bilateral impaired vision and central scotoma in an 11-year-old boy. Looking directly into a laser beam of a laser pointer for only a few seconds can cause retinal damage in the form of lesions of the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptor layer, up to retinal hemorrhage. Patients often complain about impaired vision and a central scotoma of the affected eye.

  2. Dose estimations for Iranian 11-year-old pediatric phantoms undergoing computed tomography examinations.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, Parisa; Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Rafat-Motavalli, Laleh

    2015-07-01

    In order to establish an organ and effective dose database for Iranian children undergoing computed tomography (CT) examinations, in the first step, two Iranian 11-year-old phantoms were constructed from image series obtained from CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Organ and effective doses for these phantoms were calculated for head, chest, abdomen-pelvis and chest-abdomen-pelvis (CAP) scans at tube voltages of 80, 100 and 120 kVp, and then they were compared with those of the University of Florida (UF) 11-year-old male phantom. Depth distributions of the organs and the mass of the surrounding tissues located in the beam path, which shield the internal organs, were determined for all phantoms. From the results, it was determined that the main organs of the UF phantom receive smaller doses than the two Iranian phantoms, except for the urinary bladder of the Iranian girl phantom. In addition, the relationship between the anatomical differences and the size of the dose delivered was also investigated and the discrepancies between the results were examined and justified.

  3. Isolated ileal ganglioneuromatosis in an 11-year-old boy: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Subhashis; Mukherjee, Sanghamitra; Chakraborty, Hema

    2016-01-01

    Ganglioneuromatous proliferation in the gastrointestinal tract is a rare occurrence and is usually associated with specific syndrome complexes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 2B or von Recklinghausen's disease. We report here a case of diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis, presenting as intestinal obstruction and chronic constipation in an 11-year-old boy. Sporadic cases of intestinal ganglioneuromatosis in the absence of any systemic manifestations are a very rare cause of enteric motility disorders in childhood, and we discuss the pathological and clinical significance of this finding. Histopathological identification of this uncommon cause of a common pediatric problem is important since the condition is amenable to surgical treatment.

  4. An international comparison of dietary patterns in 9–11-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Mikkilä, V; Vepsäläinen, H; Saloheimo, T; Gonzalez, S A; Meisel, J D; Hu, G; Champagne, C M; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Dietary pattern is defined as a combination of foods and drinks and the frequency of consumption within a population. Dietary patterns are changing on a global level, which may be linked to an increased incidence of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the dietary patterns among 9–11-year-old children living in urban regions in different parts of the world. METHODS: Participants were 7199 children (54% girls), aged 9–11 years, from 12 countries situated in all major world regions. Food consumption was assessed using a 23-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). To identify dietary patterns, principal components analyses (PCA) were carried out using weekly portions as input variables. RESULTS: Both site-specific and pooled PCA resulted in two strong components. Component 1 (‘unhealthy diet pattern') included fast foods, ice cream, fried food, French fries, potato chips, cakes and sugar-sweetened sodas with >0.6 loadings. The loadings for component 2 (‘healthy diet pattern') were slightly weaker with only dark-green vegetables, orange vegetables, vegetables in general, and fruits and berries reaching a >0.6 loading. The site-specific diet pattern scores had very strong correlations with the pattern scores from the pooled data: r=0.82 and 0.94 for components 1 and 2, respectively. CONCULSIONS: The results suggest that the same ‘healthier' and ‘unhealthier' foods tend to be consumed in similar combinations among 9–11-year-old children in different countries, despite variation in food culture, geographical location, ethnic background and economic development. PMID:27152179

  5. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome: A Rare Case Report of a 11-Year-Old Child

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Sandeep; Chauhan, Yashwant; Jain, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an autosomal dominant trait caused due to mutations in the patched tumor suppressor gene (PTCH) gene found on the long arm of chromosome 9. The syndrome is characterized by the presence of odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs), basal cell carcinomas, and skeletal malformations. Early diagnosis of the syndrome can be done by pedodontist as OKC is one of the early manifestations of the syndrome. Early diagnosis and treatment is important for long-term prognosis of the syndrome by reducing the severity of cutaneous carcinomas and deformities due to jaw cyst. The present case describes an 11-year-old patient with some typical features of NBCCS, which were diagnosed through its oral and maxillofacial manifestations. This case emphasizes the importance of pedodontist in early recognition of the syndrome. How to cite this article Tandon S, Chauhan Y, Sharma M, Jain M. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome: A Rare Case Report of a 11-Year-Old Child. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):264-268. PMID:27843260

  6. Expectations and Levels of Understanding When Using Mobile Phones among 9-11-Year Olds in Wales, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Joanne; Baker, Sally-Ann; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in examining the use of mobile technology among children. The present study extended this literature among a sample of 9-11-year olds in Wales, UK in three ways. First, to examine the level of mobile phone ownership; second, to consider how mobile phones are used, investigate timescales and expectations when communicating…

  7. Weight status associations with physical activity intensity and physical self-perceptions in 10- to 11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Fairclough, Stuart J; Boddy, Lynne M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth

    2012-02-01

    The study examined associations between children's weight status, physical activity intensity, and physical self-perceptions. Data were obtained from 409 children (224 girls) aged 10-11 years categorized as normal-weight or overweight/obese. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometry, and children completed the Physical Self-Perception Profile. After controlling for the effects of age, maturation, and socioeconomic status vigorous physical activity was significantly associated with normal-weight status among boys (OR = 1.13, p = .01) and girls (OR = 1.13, p = .03). Normal-weight status was significantly associated with perceived Physical Condition (Boys: OR = 5.05, p = .008; Girls: OR = 2.50, p = .08), and Body Attractiveness (Boys: OR = 4.44, p = .007; Girls: OR = 2.56, p = .02). Weight status of 10-11 year old children was significantly associated with time spent in vigorous physical activity and self-perceptions of Body Attractiveness and Physical Condition.

  8. Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome: A Rare Case Report of a 11-Year-Old Child.

    PubMed

    Tandon, Sandeep; Chauhan, Yashwant; Sharma, Meenakshi; Jain, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an autosomal dominant trait caused due to mutations in the patched tumor suppressor gene (PTCH) gene found on the long arm of chromosome 9. The syndrome is characterized by the presence of odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs), basal cell carcinomas, and skeletal malformations. Early diagnosis of the syndrome can be done by pedodontist as OKC is one of the early manifestations of the syndrome. Early diagnosis and treatment is important for long-term prognosis of the syndrome by reducing the severity of cutaneous carcinomas and deformities due to jaw cyst. The present case describes an 11-year-old patient with some typical features of NBCCS, which were diagnosed through its oral and maxillofacial manifestations. This case emphasizes the importance of pedodontist in early recognition of the syndrome.

  9. Music listening and cognitive abilities in 10- and 11-year-olds: the blur effect.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Hallam, Susan

    2005-12-01

    The spatial abilities of a large sample of 10 and 11 year olds were tested after they listened to contemporary pop music, music composed by Mozart, or a discussion about the present experiment. After being assigned at random to one of the three listening experiences, each child completed two tests of spatial abilities. Performance on one of the tests (square completion) did not differ as a function of the listening experience, but performance on the other test (paper folding) was superior for children who listened to popular music compared to the other two groups. These findings are consistent with the view that positive benefits of music listening on cognitive abilities are most likely to be evident when the music is enjoyed by the listener.

  10. An Investigation into Understanding of Geological Time among 10- and 11-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trend, Roger

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the understanding of British children (N=189) of geologic time as they participate in related activities. Indicates that 10- and 11-year-old children lack a clear chronology of geologic events. Contains 22 references. (DDR)

  11. Long-acting Injectable Risperidone Use in an 11-Years-Old Bipolar Child

    PubMed Central

    KARAKOÇ DEMİRKAYA, Sevcan; ZOROĞLU, Süleyman Salih

    2016-01-01

    Early-onset bipolar disorder is difficult for child psychiatrists in terms of both diagnosis and treatment. The proper diagnostic evaluation is negatively impacted by the atypical clinical manifestation and rapid cycling pattern of the disease, together with common comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder. In addition to poor insight, nonadherence to treatment, poor family coping skills, and insufficient child psychiatric inpatient units make clinicians unsuccessful in following up and treating such patients. Risperidone is a commonly used atypical antipsychotic it has been approved for the treatment of manic and mixed episodes of bipolar disorder even in 10–17-year-old patients, and it is commonly used. It has a long-acting injectable formulation. Studies on its long-acting form in younger children are limited. In this case presentation, the diagnostic procedure in an 11-year old child with bipolar disorder will be presented. Long-acting injectable risperidone use in the case of nonadherence to treatment and observed side effects will be discussed. PMID:28360814

  12. Long-acting Injectable Risperidone Use in an 11-Years-Old Bipolar Child.

    PubMed

    Karakoç Demirkaya, Sevcan; Zoroğlu, Süleyman Salih

    2016-12-01

    Early-onset bipolar disorder is difficult for child psychiatrists in terms of both diagnosis and treatment. The proper diagnostic evaluation is negatively impacted by the atypical clinical manifestation and rapid cycling pattern of the disease, together with common comorbidity with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and anxiety disorder. In addition to poor insight, nonadherence to treatment, poor family coping skills, and insufficient child psychiatric inpatient units make clinicians unsuccessful in following up and treating such patients. Risperidone is a commonly used atypical antipsychotic it has been approved for the treatment of manic and mixed episodes of bipolar disorder even in 10-17-year-old patients, and it is commonly used. It has a long-acting injectable formulation. Studies on its long-acting form in younger children are limited. In this case presentation, the diagnostic procedure in an 11-year old child with bipolar disorder will be presented. Long-acting injectable risperidone use in the case of nonadherence to treatment and observed side effects will be discussed.

  13. Duration, Distance, and Speed Judgments of Two Moving Objects by 4- to 11-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Fumiko

    1996-01-01

    Four- to 11-year-olds made duration, distance, and speed judgments on Piagetian tasks where cars ran on parallel tracks. Among younger children, duration and distance judgments had approximately the same difficulty. Among older children, distance judgments were easier than duration judgments, and symmetry of effects of temporal and spatial…

  14. Developing Number Knowledge: Assessment, Teaching and Intervention with 7-11 Year Olds. Math Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert J.; Ellemor-Collins, David; Tabor, Pamela D.

    2011-01-01

    This fourth book in the Mathematics Recovery series equips teachers with detailed pedagogical knowledge and resources for teaching number to 7 to 11-year olds. Drawing on extensive programs of research, curriculum development, and teacher development, the book offers a coherent, up-to-date approach emphasizing computational fluency and the…

  15. Manipulative and antisocial behavior in an 11-year-old boy with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Boes, Aaron D; Grafft, Amanda; Espe-Pfeifer, Patricia; Rowe, Jeffrey; Stein, Martin T

    2012-05-01

    Brian is an 11-year-old boy who presented to the emergency room with suicidal ideation and hearing voices. In the preceding weeks, he had escalating symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and bipolar disorder. His medical history was notable for complex partial epilepsy with onset at age 4 that had been well controlled with divalproate. He had several mental health diagnoses by various practitioners including oppositional defiant disorder, ADHD, and bipolar disorder. Brian's family and social history was notable for the absence of identifiable risk factors for seizures or psychiatric problems. Over the course of a week-long psychiatric hospitalization, his complaints of depression and hearing voices seemed incongruent with his behavior. His parents endorsed a long history of Brian manipulating family and friends, such as conning his friends into stealing money and giving it to him. There was increasing suspicion that Brian was contriving his presenting symptoms for secondary gains. When his parents visited, he consistently bargained for prized items such as a long sought after cell phone and his own bedroom to improve his mood. His prior diagnoses (ADHD, a mood disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder) did not capture what seemed to be his core problem--an ability and willingness to manipulate others for his own self-serving purposes. Three months later, he was seen in the pediatric neurology clinic for increased seizure frequency. In the interim, he had several very serious altercations including setting fire to his family church, an attempted break-in-and-entry, assaulting his principal and resisting the arresting officer, and a malicious planned attack on his father where he struck him in the head with a crescent wrench "in cold blood, without any emotion."

  16. Training compliance control yields improved drawing in 5-11year old children with motor difficulties.

    PubMed

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Shire, Katy; Hill, Liam; Mon-Williams, Mark; Bingham, Geoffrey P

    2016-08-01

    There are a large number of children with motor difficulties including those that have difficulty producing movements qualitatively well enough to improve in perceptuo-motor learning without intervention. We have developed a training method that supports active movement generation to allow improvement in a 3D tracing task requiring good compliance control. Previously, we tested a limited age range of children and found that training improved performance on the 3D tracing task and that the training transferred to a 2D drawing test. In the present study, school children (5-11years old) with motor difficulties were trained in the 3D tracing task and transfer to a 2D drawing task was tested. We used a cross-over design where half of the children received training on the 3D tracing task during the first training period and the other half of the children received training during the second training period. Given previous results, we predicted that younger children would initially show reduced performance relative to the older children, and that performance at all ages would improve with training. We also predicted that training would transfer to the 2D drawing task. However, the pre-training performance of both younger and older children was equally poor. Nevertheless, post-training performance on the 3D task was dramatically improved for both age groups and the training transferred to the 2D drawing task. Overall, this work contributes to a growing body of literature that demonstrates relatively preserved motor learning in children with motor difficulties and further demonstrates the importance of games in therapeutic interventions.

  17. Blood lead levels of 4-11-year-old Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban children.

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Pokras, O; Pirkle, J; Chavez, G; Gunter, E

    1990-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to estimate arithmetic mean blood lead and percent with elevated blood lead [25 micrograms per deciliter (micrograms per dl) or greater] for 4-11-year-old Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban children. The sample size was 1,390 for Mexican American children, 397 for Puerto Rican children, and 114 for Cuban children. Puerto Rican children had the highest mean blood lead levels (11.5 micrograms per dl), followed by Mexican American children (10.4 micrograms per dl) and Cuban children (8.6 micrograms per dl, P less than .05). Puerto Rican children had the highest percent with elevated blood lead (2.7 percent); 1.6 percent of Mexican American children had elevated blood lead; less than 1 percent (0.9 percent) of the Cuban children had elevated blood lead (P less than .05). Mexican American girls had a lower mean blood lead level than did boys: 9.7 micrograms per dl versus 11.0 micrograms per dl (P less than .05). For both Puerto Rican and Mexican American children, younger age indicated a higher risk of having elevated blood lead levels. Mexican American children who lived in poverty had higher mean blood lead levels than did Mexican American children who did not live in poverty--11.6 micrograms per dl versus 9.6 micrograms per dl (P less than .05). Despite advances in primary prevention of lead toxicity in children during the past 10 years, many Hispanic children are at risk of lead toxicity. Approximately 19,000 Mexican American 4-11-year-old children living in the Southwest and approximately 8,000 Puerto Rican children living in the New York City area had elevated blood lead levels (greater than or equal to 25 micrograms per dl) during 1982-84. PMID:2116641

  18. Brain abscess secondary to a dental infection in an 11-year-old child: case report.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Christine E; Nguyen, Trang D

    2012-01-01

    A primary molar dental abscess was implicated as the cause of a brain abscess in an 11-year-old boy. This case report describes the neurological signs and symptoms, and acute management of a brain abscess in a child. A brain abscess is provisionally diagnosed from the patient's medical history, as well as the presence of signs and symptoms such as fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, focal neurological deficit, altered mentation, speech alterations, papillary edema, and neck stiffness or seizures. A definitive diagnosis of brain abscess is confirmed through imaging. The dental source of infection is identified by the exclusion of more probable foci such as the ears, heart, lungs, eyes or sinuses.

  19. Biodegradable poly-L-lactide-co-glycolide copolymer pin fixation of a traumatic patellar osteochondral fragment in an 11-year-old child: A novel surgical approach

    PubMed Central

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Serlo, Willy

    2017-01-01

    Treating displaced patellar bone fractures in growing children remains a challenge for orthopedic surgeons. Removal of loose bone fragments may prolong healing time and result in early onset osteoarthrosis. Therefore, primary fixation of osteochondral fragments is preferred. Metallic pin and screw implants are typically used for fixation, as there is little evidence available regarding the use of modern biodegradable implants in traumatic patellar fractures of a premature skeleton. The present report describes a novel operative technique using headless poly-L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) pins in treating an 11-year-old girl with a patellar fracture from a cycling injury. The surgical technique of this procedure is described in detail in the current report. Excellent subjective outcomes were achieved from this surgery, with superb bone healing according to follow-up radiographic and computerized tomography scans. In conclusion, the results of this case indicate that, similarly to osteochondritis, intra-articular osteochondral fractures in children may be fixed using biodegradable PLGA pins. Randomized clinical trials should be performed to confirm this finding and evaluate the use of PLGA pins as a treatment for adolescent osteochondral fractures. PMID:28123496

  20. Infective endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism following scorpion sting envenoming in an 11-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Vellasamy; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Bethou, Adhisivam; Deepak Barathi, S

    2014-05-01

    Scorpion sting is one of the common paediatric toxicological problems encountered in southern India. This rural emergency often results in an autonomic storm causing peripheral circulatory failure and/or congestive cardiac failure, leading to pulmonary oedema. A rare case of scorpion sting envenoming in an 11-year-old boy that led to local cellulitis, dyspnoea and congestive heart failure is presented. This was followed by a persistent high-grade fever which lasted for more than 2 weeks and was complicated by fatal Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism. Although infective endocarditis has been reported occasionally in adults following scorpion sting, this is the first case of infective endocarditis in a native valve in a child following scorpion sting. The literature is reviewed and the mechanisms for this association are discussed.

  1. Associations between sleeping habits and food consumption patterns among 10-11-year-old children in Finland.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Lisa; Ray, Carola; Roos, Eva

    2009-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity among children is of special concern. Inverse associations between sleep length and overweight have been found in children. Short sleeping hours result in hormonal changes, which increase perceived hunger and appetite. This could affect food intake, and consequently lead to overweight. The aim is to find out whether there is an association between adequate sleep and food consumption among 10-11-year-old school children in Finland. One thousand two hundred and sixty-five children (response rate 79 %), aged 9-11, from thirty-one schools filled in a questionnaire about their health behaviour. Inadequate sleep was measured as short sleeping hours during school nights and weekend nights, difficulties in waking up in the morning and tiredness during the day. Food consumption patterns were measured by two consumption indices, energy-rich foods and nutrient-dense foods, based on a short FFQ (sixteen items). Inadequate sleep is associated with food consumption patterns. Boys with shorter sleep duration during school nights, and who were felt tired during the day, were more likely to consume energy-rich foods. Girls with shorter sleep duration during school nights consumed more likely energy-rich foods and less likely nutrient-dense foods. Adjusting for physical activity and screen time weakened the explored associations. The associations with energy-rich foods were stronger for boys than for girls. Sleeping habits are associated with food consumption patterns. Shorter sleep duration during school nights in school children is associated with higher consumption of energy-rich foods.

  2. Musculoskeletal complaints among 11-year-old children and associated factors: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hulsegge, Gerben; van Oostrom, Sandra H; Picavet, H Susan J; Twisk, Jos W R; Postma, Dirkje S; Kerkhof, Marjan; Smit, Henriëtte A; Wijga, Alet H

    2011-10-15

    Musculoskeletal complaints (MSC) are common among children, often persist into adolescence, and increase the risk of MSC in adulthood. Knowledge regarding determinants of MSC among children is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MSC at age 11 years and to examine associations with sociodemographic factors, growth and development factors, mental health, tiredness, and lifestyle. Data from a Netherlands birth cohort study, the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) Study (n = 2,638), were used (1996-2009). MSC were defined as complaints about the back, an upper extremity, a lower extremity, or any of these sites. Logistic regression analyses using a forward stepwise procedure were performed on multiply imputed data. The 1-year period prevalences of back, upper extremity, and lower extremity complaints that lasted at least 1 month were 2.8%, 4.8%, and 10.9%, respectively. Only poorer mental health was consistently associated with all 3 types of complaints. Poorer mental health, daytime tiredness, early pubertal development, being physically active at age 11 years, and weight-for-height z score were associated with having any MSC. This study showed that MSC, especially lower extremity complaints, are common among 11-year old-children and that only poorer mental health status is associated with MSC at all anatomic sites.

  3. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Alters Cortisol Stress Reactivity in 11 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Lin, Richard; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Objective Determine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal environmental adversity on salivary cortisol stress reactivity in school aged children. Study design Subjects included 743 11 year old children (n=320 cocaine exposed; 423 comparison) followed since birth in a longitudinal prospective multisite study. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol at baseline and after a standardized procedure to induce psychological stress. Children were divided into those who showed an increase in cortisol from baseline to post stress and those who showed a decrease or blunted cortisol response. Covariates measured included site, birthweight, maternal pre and postnatal use of alcohol, tobacco or marijuana, social class, changes in caretakers, maternal depression and psychological symptoms, domestic and community violence, child abuse and quality of the home. Results With adjustment for confounding variables, cortisol reactivity to stress was more likely to be blunted in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Cocaine exposed children exposed to domestic violence showed the strongest effects. Conclusion The combination of prenatal cocaine exposure and an adverse postnatal environment could down regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) resulting in the blunted cortisol response to stress possibly increasing risk for later psychopathology and adult disease. PMID:20400094

  4. Regulation of brain activity in the fusiform face and parahippocampal place areas in 7-11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Vuontela, Virve; Jiang, Ping; Tokariev, Maksym; Savolainen, Petri; Ma, Yuanye; Aronen, Eeva T; Fontell, Tuija; Liiri, Tiina; Ahlström, Matti; Salonen, Oili; Carlson, Synnöve

    2013-03-01

    Developmental studies have demonstrated that cognitive processes such as attention, suppression of interference and memory develop throughout childhood and adolescence. However, little is currently known about the development of top-down control mechanisms and their influence on cognitive performance. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate modulation of activity in the ventral visual cortex in healthy 7-11-year-old children and young adults. The participants performed tasks that required attention to either face (Fs task) or scene (Sf task) images while trying to ignore distracting scene or face images, respectively. A face-selective area in the fusiform gyrus (fusiform face area, FFA) and an area responding preferentially to scene images in the parahippocampal gyrus (parahippocampal place area, PPA) were defined using functional localizers. Children responded slower and less accurately in the tasks than adults. In children, the right FFA was less selective to face images and regulation of activity between the Fs and Sf tasks was weaker compared to adults. In the PPA, selectivity to scenes and regulation of activity, there according to the task demands were comparable between children and adults. During the tasks, children activated prefrontal cortical areas including the middle (MFG) and superior (SFG) frontal gyrus more than adults. Functional connectivity between the right FFA and left MFG was stronger in adults than children in the Fs task. Children, on the other hand, had stronger functional connectivity than adults in the Sf task between the right FFA and right PPA and between right MFG and medial SFG. There were no group differences in the functional connectivity between the PPA and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Together the results suggest that, in 7-11-year-old children, the FFA is still immature, whereas the selectivity to scenes and regulation of activity in the PPA is comparable to adults. The results also

  5. Differences in fruit and vegetable intake and their determinants among 11-year-old schoolchildren between 2003 and 2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in children in the Netherlands is much lower than recommended. Recurrent appraisal of intake levels is important for detecting changes in intake over time and to inform future interventions and policies. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in fruit and vegetable intake, and whether these could be explained by differences in potential determinants of FV intake in 11-year-old Dutch schoolchildren, by comparing two school samples assessed in 2003 and 2009. Methods For 1105 children of the Pro Children study in 2003 and 577 children of the Pro Greens study in 2009 complete data on intake and behavioural determinants were available. The self-administered questionnaire included questions on children's ethnicity, usual fruit and vegetable intake, mother's educational level, and important potential determinants of fruit and vegetable intake. Multiple regression analysis was applied to test for differences in intake and determinants between study samples. Mediation analyses were used to investigate whether the potential mediators explained the differences in intake between the two samples. Results In 2009, more children complied with the World Health Organization recommendation of 400 g fruit and vegetables per day (17.0%) than in 2003 (11.8%, p = 0.004). Fruit consumption was significantly higher in the sample of 2009 than in the sample of 2003 (difference = 23.8 (95%CI: 8.1; 39.5) grams/day). This difference was mainly explained by a difference in the parental demand regarding their child's intake (23.6%), followed by the child's knowledge of the fruit recommendation (14.2%) and parental facilitation of consumption (18.5%). Vegetable intake was lower in the 2009 sample than in the 2003 sample (12.3 (95%CI -21.0; -3.6). This difference could not be explained by the assessed mediators. Conclusions The findings indicate that fruit intake among 11-year-olds improved somewhat between 2003 and 2009. Vegetable

  6. Schoolyard physical activity of 6–11 year old children assessed by GPS and accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Children’s current physical activity levels are disturbingly low when compared to recommended levels. This may be changed by intervening in the school environment. However, at present, it is unclear to what extent schoolyard physical activity contributes towards reaching the daily physical activity guideline. The aim of this study was to examine how long and at what intensity children are physically active at the schoolyard during different time segments of the day. Moreover, the contribution of schoolyard physical activity towards achieving the recommended guideline for daily physical activity was investigated. Methods Children (n=76) between the age of 6–11 years were recruited in six different schools in five cities (>70.000 residents) in the Netherlands. During the weekdays of a regular school week, childrens’ physical activity and location were measured with ActiGraph accelerometers and Travelrecorder GPS receivers. Data was collected from December 2008 to April 2009. From the data, the amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on and outside the schoolyard was established. Moreover, the percentage of MVPA on the schoolyard was compared between the following segments of the day: pre-school, school, school recess, lunch break and post-school. Differences between boys and girls were compared using linear and logistic mixed-effects models. Results On average, children spent 40.1 minutes/day on the schoolyard. During this time, boys were more active on the schoolyard, with 27.3% of their time spent as MVPA compared to 16.7% among girls (OR=2.11 [95% CI 1.54 - 2.90]). The children were most active on the schoolyard during school recess, during which boys recorded 39.5% and girls recorded 23.4% of the time as MVPA (OR=2.55 [95% CI: 1.69 - 3.85]). Although children were only present at the schoolyard for 6.1% of the total reported time, this time contributed towards 17.5% and 16.8% of boys’ and girls’ minutes of MVPA. Conclusions On

  7. Norms for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in 6- to 11-year-old children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shu, B C; Tien, A Y; Lung, F W; Chang, Y Y

    2000-08-01

    The main aims of this study were to develop norms for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in 6- to 11-year-old children in Taiwan; to explore the effect of sex, age, birth order, number of siblings, and parental education on WCST performance in 6- to 11-year-old children; and to make a comparison of WCST performance between children in Taiwan and the USA. The results of this comparison of developmental norms of school children in Taiwan and the United States may facilitate the WCST as a clinical or research instrument in combination with other test procedures to assess aspects of cognitive and neuropsychological functioning of school children.

  8. An Evaluation of Computerised Essay Marking for National Curriculum Assessment in the UK for 11-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Dougal

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports a comparison of human and computer marking of approximately 600 essays produced by 11-year-olds in the UK. Each essay script was scored by three human markers. Scripts were also scored by the "e-rater" program. There was a good agreement between human and machine marking. Scripts with highly discrepant scores were…

  9. Predictors of Meeting Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Recommendations in 9-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Jimikaye; De Witt, Peter; McNally, Janise; Siegfried, Scott; Hill, James O; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Childhood obesity represents a significant public health problem. This study examined physical activity and nutrition behaviours and attitudes of 9-11-year-olds, and factors influencing these behaviours. Design: Study participants recorded pedometer steps for 7 days and completed physical activity enjoyment, food attitudes and food…

  10. Comparative Analysis of Musical Abilities of 11-Year-Olds from Slovenia and the Island of Martinique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerman, Janez; Pretnar, Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the study is the comparison between the musical abilities of 11-year-old children on the island of Martinique and in Slovenia, and finding out to what extent their development of musical abilities is influenced by musical and cultural family background, music school attendance, choral singing and playing orchestral instruments. Our…

  11. Internet Use and Psychological Well-Being among 10-Year-Old and 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Paula; Lloyd, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 2009 Kids' Life and Times Survey, involving 3657 children aged 10 or 11 years old in Northern Ireland. The survey indicated high levels of use of Internet applications, including social-networking sites and online games. Using the KIDSCREEN-27 instrument, the data indicate that the use of social-networking sites and…

  12. Effect of Ball Mass on Dribble, Pass, and Pass Reception in 9-11-Year-Old Boys' Basketball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Jose L.; Argudo, Francisco M.; Alonso, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of ball mass on dribble, pass, and pass reception in real game situations in 9-11-year-old boys' basketball. Participants were 54 boys identified from six federated teams. The independent variable was ball mass, and dependent variables were number of dribbles, passes, and pass receptions. Three…

  13. Evaluation of Low-Cost, Objective Instruments for Assessing Physical Activity in 10-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Teresa L.; Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McClain, James J.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2011-01-01

    This study compared step counts detected by four, low-cost, objective, physical-activity-assessment instruments and evaluated their ability to detect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to the ActiGraph accelerometer (AG). Thirty-six 10-11-year-old children wore the NL-1000, Yamax Digiwalker SW 200, Omron HJ-151, and Walk4Life…

  14. Using Authentic Picture Books and Illustrated Books to Improve L2 Writing among 11-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birketveit, Anna; Rimmereide, Hege Emma

    2017-01-01

    The case study investigates what impact extensive reading of authentic picture books/illustrated books had on the learners' writing skills in a Norwegian EFL (English as a foreign language) classroom of 11-year-olds. Furthermore, the study also looks into the importance the pictures/illustrations had for the learners and what type of picture-text…

  15. Developmental pathways of language and social communication problems in 9-11 year olds: unpicking the heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Roy, P; Chiat, S

    2014-10-01

    This paper addressed relations between language, social communication and behaviour, and their trajectories, in a sample of 9-11-year-olds (n=91) who had been referred to clinical services with concerns about language as pre-schoolers. Children were first assessed at 2½-4 years, and again 18 months later. Results revealed increasing differentiation of profiles across time. By 9-11 years, 11% of the sample had social communication deficits, 27% language impairment, 20% both, and 42% neither. The size of group differences on key language and social communication measures was striking (2-3 standard deviations). Social communication deficits included autistic mannerisms and were associated with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBDs); in contrast, language impairment was associated with hyperactivity only. Children with both language and social communication problems had the most severe difficulties on all measures. These distinct school-age profiles emerged gradually. Investigation of developmental trajectories revealed that the three impaired groups did not differ significantly on language or SEBD measures when the children were first seen. Only low performance on the Early Sociocognitive Battery, a new measure of social responsiveness, joint attention and symbolic understanding, differentiated the children with and without social communication problems at 9-11 years. These findings suggest that some children who first present with language delay or difficulties have undetected Autism Spectrum Disorders which may or may not be accompanied by language impairment in the longer term. This new evidence of developmental trajectories starting in the preschool years throws further light on the nature of social communication and language problems in school-age children, relations between language impairment and SEBDs, and on the nature of early language development.

  16. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9–11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development

    PubMed Central

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9–11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of −1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=−1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development. PMID:27152184

  17. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9-11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9-11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of -1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=-1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development.

  18. Association between obesity and asthma in 4-11 year old children in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Munoz, J; Chinn, S; Rona, R

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—There is evidence of a positive association between asthma and obesity in adults and in children. We investigated, in a large sample of English and Scottish primary school children, whether there is a consistent association between fatness and asthma symptoms in Britain.
METHODS—A cross sectional analysis was made of 18 218 children aged 4-11 years who participated in the 1993 or 1994 surveys of the National Study of Health and Growth (NSHG). Children belonged either to English or Scottish representative samples, or an English inner city sample. Asthma attacks in the previous year, occasional wheeze, or persistent wheeze were the symptoms used in the analysis. Body mass index (BMI) and the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds converted to standard deviation scores (SDS) were used to assess levels of fatness.
RESULTS—A total of 14 908 children (81.8%) were included in the analysis. In the multiple logistic analysis BMI and asthma (asthma attacks or wheeze) were associated in the representative sample (OR for the comparison of the 10th and 90th centiles of BMI 1.28,95% CI 1.11 to 1.48), but sum of skinfolds was unrelated to asthma symptoms in most analyses. The association between asthma and BMI was stronger in girls than in boys in the inner city sample, but less convincingly in the representative sample.
CONCLUSIONS—Levels of obesity are associated with asthma symptoms regardless of ethnicity. The association is more consistent for BMI than for sum of skinfolds, partly because obese children are more advanced in their maturation than other children. There is some evidence that, as in adults, the association is stronger in girls than in boys, but only in the multiethnic inner city sample.

 PMID:11209102

  19. Effect of motor abilities on performing the Hvar folk dance cicilion in 11-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Srhoj, Lj

    2002-12-01

    A battery of 21 motor tests as predictor variables and evaluation of motor performance of cicilion, a Croatian folk dance from the island of Hvar as a criterion variable, were used in a sample of 101 female fifth-grade students aged 11 years. Regression analysis showed the changed group of motor variables to be a good predictor of success in performing the cicilion folk dance with multiple correlation of 0.63. The flexibility variable of astride trunk bending forwards and frequency variable of hand tapping had greatest impact on the criterion. A considerable favorable impact was also recorded for the variables for assessment of rhythmic coordination, balance, agility on ground, and repetitive strength of the trunk.

  20. Writing Attainment in 9- to 11-Year-Olds: Some Differences between Girls and Boys in Two Genres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Roger; Burrell, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Gender differences in the imaginative narrative and persuasive description writing of a sample of Year 5 (9- to 10-year-old) children were investigated using a standardised test and a repeat design, with the same tasks being undertaken a year later. The texts were analysed using test guidelines and genre-specific rating scales derived from the…

  1. Korean 4- to 11-Year-Old Student Conceptions of Heat and Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paik, Seoung-Hey; Cho, Boo-Kyung; Go, Young-Mi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to shed light on the conceptions that young students have of heat and temperature, concepts that are both important in school science curricula and closely related to daily life. The subjects of the study were students from a rural district in South Korea and they ranged in age from 4 to 11 years. Interviews were…

  2. Blue Sky Below My Feet: Daycamp & After School Programs--9 to 11 Year Olds. Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual presents a 10-day lesson plan for day camp and after-school program leaders. The activities and experiments described in the manual focus on nutrition and space exploration. Topics covered by the lesson plan and specific projects include: (1) gravity; (2) food spoilage; (3) model rocket building and launching; (4) the basic food…

  3. Intraductal fibroadenoma under the nipple in an 11-year-old female.

    PubMed

    Hayano, Fumiko; Yamada, Sohsuke; Nakano, Shigeo; Watanabe, Teruo; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Koga, Sunao

    2014-02-10

    Recently, Chung et al. have reported the detailed clinicopathological features of an extremely rare case sharing similar histopathological characteristics with fibroadenomas, phyllodes tumours, intraductal papillomas or ductal adenomas, given the name of intraductal fibroadenomatosis, as an unusual variant of intracanalicular fibroadenoma. Herein we demonstrated a very unusual case of intraductal fibroadenoma of the breast with admixture of components of intracanalicular type fibroadenoma or benign phyllodes tumour and a smaller amount of intraductal papilloma, occupying the one duct and some adjacent ductules, presenting as a well-demarcated nodule.

  4. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  5. Quinine sensitivity influences the acceptance of sea-buckthorn and grapefruit juices in 9- to 11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Hartvig, Ditte; Hausner, Helene; Wendin, Karin; Bredie, Wender L P

    2014-03-01

    The acceptance of novel foods by children is related to a number of factors, and differences in taste sensitivity may form some specific challenges. High sensitivity might be a barrier to the acceptance of sour/bitter products by children. This study investigated the effect of sensitivity to bitter, sour, sweet, and salty tastes on the acceptance of Nordic juices in 9- to 11-year-old children. A total of 328 children were subjected to two taste sensitivity tests for quinine, citric acid, sucrose, and NaCl. Their acceptance of six juices (carrot, rosehip, sea-buckthorn, lingonberry, grapefruit, and aronia) was measured. Bitter sensitivity was found to be significantly correlated to the intake of the sweet sea-buckthorn and lingonberry juices; the most bitter-sensitive children exhibited the highest intake of these juices. The opposite relationship was found for bitter sensitivity and the intake of the bitter grapefruit juice. Sour, sweet, and salt sensitivities did not affect the intake of any of the juices. Liking scores were not affected by sensitivity. In conclusion, bitter sensitivity appears to influence food intake in children to a greater extent than sour, sweet, or salt sensitivity. Bitter-sensitive children exhibited a reduced intake of grapefruit juice and a higher intake of sucrose-sweetened juices. Thus, bitter sensitivity might be a challenge in the acceptance of certain bitter foods.

  6. Narcissism, self-esteem, and conduct problems: evidence from a British community sample of 7-11 year olds.

    PubMed

    Ha, Carolyn; Petersen, Nancy; Sharp, Carla

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the current report was to investigate the relationship between narcissism, self-esteem and conduct problems in a British community sample of pre-adolescent and young adolescent children (n = 659; 7-11 year olds). We demonstrated that narcissism is associated with conduct problems, but no evidence for an interaction between low self-esteem and high narcissism in the prediction of conduct problems was found. Whilst low self-esteem was associated with teacher-reported (but not parent-reported) conduct problems at the bivariate level of analyses, multi-variate analyses showed that self-esteem yielded no significant effects, neither independently, nor in interaction with narcissism for either parent- or teacher reported conduct problems. However, self-esteem was predictive of self-reported conduct problems at both the bivariate and multivariate level of analysis, possibly due to shared method variance. The findings suggest an important role for narcissism for conduct problems in children as young as seven years old.

  7. Association between home and school food environments and dietary patterns among 9–11-year-old children in 12 countries

    PubMed Central

    Vepsäläinen, H; Mikkilä, V; Erkkola, M; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the roles of home and school environments on dietary patterns among children from 12 countries differing widely in geographic region and levels of human and economic development. Methods: The sample included a total of 6685 (54% girls) 9–11-year-old children. Parents/guardians reported the availability of certain foods in the home, and trained researchers performed school audits recording the availability of foods for sale at schools. Foods were then divided into wholesome (nutrient-dense) and empty-calorie (nutrient-poor) foods and scored according to their availability. Children reported if their school provided school lunch and how many times during the last week they had eaten meals prepared away from home and school. Via principal components analysis, data-driven dietary pattern scores were calculated from food frequency questionnaires. Multilevel models were used to study the associations between home and school food environments (wholesome and empty-calorie foods) and dietary patterns (healthy and unhealthy diet pattern scores). Results: For low unhealthy diet pattern scores, low availability of empty-calorie foods at home was found to be more important than high availability of wholesome foods. More meals eaten outside home and school were associated with the higher unhealthy diet pattern scores. The availability of wholesome foods at home was positively associated with the healthy diet pattern scores. Food availability at school was not associated with the dietary patterns. Conclusions: In this sample, the home food environment was more significant than the school food environment in predicting the dietary patterns. The availability of empty-calorie foods was associated with the unhealthy dietary pattern even when the availability of wholesome foods at home was high. Meals prepared away from home contributed to the unhealthy dietary pattern. Therefore, parents should be encouraged to limit the availability of empty

  8. Four minutes of in-class high-intensity interval activity improves selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jasmin K; Le Mare, Lucy; Gurd, Brendon J

    2015-03-01

    The amount of time allocated to physical activity in schools is declining. Time-efficient physical activity solutions that demonstrate their impact on academic achievement-related outcomes are needed to prioritize physical activity within the school curricula. "FUNtervals" are 4-min, high-intensity interval activities that use whole-body actions to complement a storyline. The purpose of this study was to (i) explore whether FUNtervals can improve selective attention, an executive function posited to be essential for learning and academic success; and (ii) examine whether this relationship is predicted by students' classroom off-task behaviour. Seven grade 3-5 classes (n = 88) were exposed to a single-group, repeated cross-over design where each student's selective attention was compared between no-activity and FUNtervals days. In week 1, students were familiarized with the d2 test of attention and FUNterval activities, and baseline off-task behaviour was observed. In both weeks 2 and 3 students completed the d2 test of attention following either a FUNterval break or a no-activity break. The order of these breaks was randomized and counterbalanced between weeks. Neither motor nor passive off-task behaviour predicted changes in selective attention following FUNtervals; however, a weak relationship was observed for verbal off-task behaviour and improvements in d2 test performance. More importantly, students made fewer errors during the d2 test following FUNtervals. In supporting the priority of physical activity inclusion within schools, FUNtervals, a time efficient and easily implemented physical activity break, can improve selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.

  9. Concentrations of Bisphenol A and Seven Other Phenols in Pooled Sera from 3–11 Year Old Children: 2001–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Wong, Lee-Yang; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns exist regarding children’s exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and other phenols because of the higher sensitivity, compared to adults, of children’s developing organs to endocrine disruptors. Several studies reported the urinary concentrations of these phenols in children, but data on levels of these compounds in children’s serum are limited. We present here the total (free plus conjugated) and free concentrations of BPA and seven other phenols in 24 pooled serum samples prepared from individual specimens collected from 936 children 3–11 years old who participated in the 2001–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We detected benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5- dichlorophenol, and three parabens in at least 60% of the pools suggesting children’s exposure to these compounds or their precursors. Conjugated phenols were the major species. However, although many previous studies have shown widespread detection of BPA in children’s urine, we only detected total or free BPA in 3 and 2 pooled serum samples, respectively, at concentrations of 0.1–0.2 µg/L. The non-persistent nature of BPA and the phenols examined and the likely episodic nature of the exposures to these compounds (or their precursors) suggest that for general population biomonitoring of these non-persistent phenols, urine, not serum or plasma, is the preferred matrix. PMID:23102149

  10. High-intensity interval training improves VO(2peak), maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9-11-year-old swimmers.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-11-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9-11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000 m time (T(100 m) and T(2,000 m)), VO(2peak) and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (Lac(max)). In a 5-week crossover study, 26 competitive swimmers with a mean (SD) age of 11.5 ± 1.4 years performed a training period of HIIT and HVT. Competition (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.48) and T(2,000 m) (P = 0.04; effect size = 0.21) performance increased following HIIT. No changes were found in T(100 m) (P = 0.20). Lac(max) increased following HIIT (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.43) and decreased after HVT (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.51). VO(2peak) increased following both interventions (P < 0.05; effect sizes = 0.46-0.57). The increases in competition performance, T(2,000 m), Lac(max) and VO(2peak) following HIIT were achieved in significantly less training time (~2 h/week).

  11. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts.

  12. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  13. Predicting gender differences in liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among 11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Haukkala, Ari; Yngve, Agneta; Thorsdottir, Inga; Roos, Eva

    2015-12-01

    We studied the factors that predict liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among schoolchildren. Additionally, we examined if there were gender differences in the predictors that explain the hypothesized higher scores in liking vegetables and preferences among girls. The data from the PRO GREENS project included 424 Finnish children (response rate 77%) aged 11 to 12. The children completed validated measures about social and environmental factors related to their liking for vegetables and preferences both at baseline 2009 and follow-up 2010. The associations were examined with regression and mediation analyses. The strongest predictors of both girls' and boys' liking and preferences were higher levels of eating vegetables together with the family, previous vegetable intake and a lower level of perceived barriers. Liking was additionally predicted by a lower level of parental demand that their child should eat vegetables. Girls reported higher levels of liking and preferences in the follow-up. This gender difference was mainly explained by girls' lower level of perceived barriers related to vegetable intake and girls' higher previous vegetable intake. Interventions that aim to increase the low vegetable intake among boys by increasing their liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables could benefit from targeting perceived barriers, namely boys' perception and values concerning the consumption of vegetables.

  14. Anthropometric Characteristics, Physical Fitness and Motor Coordination of 9 to 11 Year Old Children Participating in a Wide Range of Sports

    PubMed Central

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Hartman, Esther; Willemse, Bas; Philippaerts, Renaat; Visscher, Chris; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent 9 to 11 year old children participating in a specific sport already exhibit a specific anthropometric, physical fitness and motor coordination profile, in line with the requirements of that particular sport. In addition, the profiles in children with a different training volume were compared and possible differences in training hours per week between children from a low, moderate, and high level of physical fitness and motor coordination were investigated. Methods and Results Data of 620 children, 347 boys and 273 girls, who participated in the Flemish Sports Compass were used. Only the primary sport of each child was considered and six groups of sports (Ball sports, Dance, Gymnastics, Martial arts, Racquet sports and Swimming) were formed based on common characteristics. Measurements consisted of 17 tests. Independent T-tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests revealed few differences between the groups of sports and the discriminant analyses with the moderate and low active group did not show any significant results (p > .05). However, when discriminating among the high active children, a 85.2 % correct classification between six groups of sports was found (Wilks’ Λ = .137 and p < .001). Finally, children performing under average on the tests spent significantly fewer hours in sport per week (2.50 ± 1.84 hours) compared to the children performing best (3.25 ± 2.60 hours) (p = .016) and the children performing above average (2.90 ± 1.96 hours) (p = .029) on physical fitness and motor coordination. Discussion The study showed that in general, children at a young age do not exhibit sport-specific characteristics, except in children with a high training volume. It is possible that on the one hand, children have not spent enough time yet in their sport to develop sport-specific qualities. On the other hand, it could be possible that they do not take individual qualities into account when choosing a sport

  15. Effects of Acoustic Complexity on Processing Sound Intensity in 10- to 11-Year-Old Children: Evidence From Cortical Auditory Evoked Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Dinces, Elizabeth; Sussman, Elyse

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis The environmental complexity that sounds are presented in, as well as the stimulus presentation rate, influences how sound intensity is centrally encoded with differences between children and adults. Study Design Cortical auditory evoked potential (CAEP) comparison study in children and adults examining two stimulus rates and three different stimulus contexts. Methods Twelve 10 and 11 year olds and 11 adults were studied in two experiments examining the CAEP to a 1-KHz, 50-ms tone. A Slow-Rate experiment at 750-ms stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) compared the CAEPs of 78 dB to 86 dB SPL in 2 complexity conditions. A Fast-Rate experiment was performed at 125 ms SOA with the same conditions plus an additional complexity condition. Repeated measures and mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine the latency and amplitude of the CAEP components. Results CAEP amplitudes and latencies were significantly affected by rate, intensity, and age with complexity interacting in multiple mixed-mode ANOVAs. P1 was the only CAEP component present at the Fast Rate. There were main effects of rate, age, and stimulus intensity level on the CAEP amplitudes and latencies. Maturational differences were seen in the interactions of intensity with complexity for the different CAEP components. Conclusions Complexity of the sound environment was reflected in the relative amplitude of the CAEPs evoked by sound intensity. The effect of stimulus intensity depended on the complexity of the surrounding environment. Effects of the surrounding sounds were different in children than in adults. PMID:21792970

  16. Relationship between Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity in 9-11 Years Old Children in a Multi-National Study.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Broyles, Stephanie T; Champagne, Catherine M; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei

    2016-11-30

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9-11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD). Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049), but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002) and %BF (p = 0.0001). Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs.

  17. Relationship between Soft Drink Consumption and Obesity in 9–11 Years Old Children in a Multi-National Study

    PubMed Central

    Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maia, Jose; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tremblay, Mark S.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between regular (sugar containing) and diet (artificially sweetened) soft drink consumption and obesity in children from 12 countries ranging in levels of economic and human development. The sample included 6162 children aged 9–11 years. Information on soft drink consumption was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire. Percentage body fat (%BF) was estimated by bio-electrical impedance analysis, body mass index (BMI) z-scores were computed using World Health Organization reference data, and obesity was defined as a BMI > +2 standard deviations (SD). Multi-level models were used to investigate trends in BMI z-scores, %BF and obesity across categories of soft drink consumption. Age, sex, study site, parental education and physical activity were included as covariates. There was a significant linear trend in BMI z-scores across categories of consumption of regular soft drinks in boys (p = 0.049), but not in girls; there were no significant trends in %BF or obesity observed in either boys or girls. There was no significant linear trend across categories of diet soft drink consumption in boys, but there was a graded, positive association in girls for BMI z-score (p = 0.0002) and %BF (p = 0.0001). Further research is required to explore these associations using longitudinal research designs. PMID:27916866

  18. Pelvis width associated with bone mass distribution at the proximal femur in children 10-11 years old.

    PubMed

    Cardadeiro, Graça; Baptista, Fátima; Janz, Kathleen F; Rodrigues, Luís A; Sardinha, Luís B

    2014-03-01

    Differences in skeletal geometry may generate different patterns of mechanical loading to bone. Impact and muscle loading during physical activity have been shown to influence skeletal geometry. The purpose of this study was to compare geometric measures of the pelvis and proximal femur (PF) of young children and to analyze the contribution and potential interaction of these geometric measures with physical activity on PF bone mass distribution. Participants were 149 girls and 145 boys, aged 10-11 years. Total body and left hip DXA scans were used to derive pelvic and PF geometric measures and PF bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck (FN), trochanter (TR), and intertrochanter (IT). These subregions were used to represent bone mass distribution via three BMD ratios: FN:PF, TR:PF, and IT:PF. Physical activity was objectively measured using accelerometry, and maturity was estimated as the years of distance from peak height velocity. When compared to boys, girls had a wider pelvic diameter and greater interacetabular distances (p < 0.001), lower BMD at FN, TR, and IT (p < 0.05), and higher TR:PF (p < 0.001). After controlling for maturity, body height, and lean body mass, the interacetabular distance in girls explained 21.1 % (β = 0.713, p < 0.001) in TR:PF and 2.9 % (β = -0.179, p = 0.031) in the IT:PF. Neck-shaft angle explained 5.6 % (β = -0.265, p = 0.001) of the IT:PF and 3.1 % (β = 0.194, p = 0.018) of the FN:PF. In boys, FN axis length explained 2.9 % (β = 0.195, p = 0.040) of TR:PF. There was no main effect of physical activity or interaction effect with pelvic geometry in explaining BMD differences among the subregions of the PF. Even before sexual dimorphism, girls have a wider pelvis than boys, which accounted for proportionally greater BMD of the TR than other subregions of the PF.

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-07

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes.

  20. Regulation of Brain Activity in the Fusiform Face and Parahippocampal Place Areas in 7-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuontela, Virve; Jiang, Ping; Tokariev, Maksym; Savolainen, Petri; Ma, YuanYe; Aronen, Eeva T.; Fontell, Tuija; Liiri, Tiina; Ahlstrom, Matti; Salonen, Oili; Carlson, Synnove

    2013-01-01

    Developmental studies have demonstrated that cognitive processes such as attention, suppression of interference and memory develop throughout childhood and adolescence. However, little is currently known about the development of top-down control mechanisms and their influence on cognitive performance. In the present study, we used functional…

  1. The Influence of Cartoon Character Advertising on Fruit and Vegetable Preferences of 9- to 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezbaruah, Nandita; Brunt, Ardith

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study is to determine the influence of cartoon characters in preferences of fruit and vegetables among children. Methods: A 10-item survey was used in this cross-sectional study to determine the factors that influence a child's likelihood of eating fruits and vegetables. Seven factors influencing consumption of…

  2. Active school transport and weekday physical activity in 9–11-year-old children from 12 countries

    PubMed Central

    Denstel, K D; Broyles, S T; Larouche, R; Sarmiento, O L; Barreira, T V; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Active school transport (AST) may increase the time that children spend in physical activity (PA). This study examined relationships between AST and weekday moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity (LPA), sedentary time (SED) and total activity during naturally organized time periods (daily, before school, during school and after school) in a sample of children from 12 countries. METHODS: The sample included 6224 children aged 9–11 years. PA and sedentary time were objectively measured using Actigraph accelerometers. AST was self-reported by participants. Multilevel generalized linear and logistic regression statistical models were used to determine associations between PA, SED and AST across and within study sites. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, highest parental educational attainment, BMI z-score and accelerometer wear time, children who engaged in AST accumulated significantly more weekday MVPA during all studied time periods and significantly less time in LPA before school compared with children who used motorized transport to school. AST was unrelated to time spent in sedentary behaviors. Across all study sites, AST was associated with 6.0 min (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7–7.3; P<0.0001) more of weekday MVPA; however, there was some evidence that this differed across study sites (P for interaction=0.06). Significant positive associations were identified within 7 of 12 study sites, with differences ranging from 4.6 min (95% CI: 0.3–8.9; P=0.04, in Canada) to 10.2 min (95% CI: 5.9–14.4; P<0.0001, in Brazil) more of daily MVPA among children who engaged in AST compared with motorized transport. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that AST was associated with children spending more time engaged in MVPA throughout the day and less time in LPA before school. AST represents a good behavioral target to increase levels of PA in children. PMID:27152177

  3. Perceptual Learning of Intonation Contour Categories in Adults and 9- to 11-Year-Old Children: Adults Are More Narrow-Minded.

    PubMed

    Kapatsinski, Vsevolod; Olejarczuk, Paul; Redford, Melissa A

    2017-03-01

    We report on rapid perceptual learning of intonation contour categories in adults and 9- to 11-year-old children. Intonation contours are temporally extended patterns, whose perception requires temporal integration and therefore poses significant working memory challenges. Both children and adults form relatively abstract representations of intonation contours: Previously encountered and novel exemplars are categorized together equally often, as long as distance from the prototype is controlled. However, age-related differences in categorization performance also exist. Given the same experience, adults form narrower categories than children. In addition, adults pay more attention to the end of the contour, while children appear to pay equal attention to the beginning and the end. The age range we examine appears to capture the tail-end of the developmental trajectory for learning intonation contour categories: There is a continuous effect of age on category breadth within the child group, but the oldest children (older than 10;3) are adult-like.

  4. DRESS-syndrome on sulfasalazine and naproxen treatment for juvenile idiopathic arthritis and reactivation of human herpevirus 6 in an 11-year-old Caucasian boy.

    PubMed

    Piñana, E; Lei, S H; Merino, R; Melgosa, M; De La Vega, R; Gonzales-Obeso, E; Ramírez, E; Borobia, A; Carcas, A

    2010-06-01

    DRESS-syndrome (Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) is a severe drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome characterized by diffuse maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, multivisceral involvement, eosinophilia and atypical lymphocytes with a mortality rate of 10-40% (Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, 1, 250). It is described in adults treated with aromatic antiepileptics and less frequently with sulphonamides, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Clinics in Dermatology, 23, 171; Pediatrics, 108, 485). We report on an 11-year-old Caucasian boy hospitalized with a skin eruption, lymphadenopathy, acute hepatitis, renal tubular involvement, haematological abnormalities and human-herpevirus-6 reactivation, treated with sulfasalazine and naproxen for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). This is the first report in children with rheumatic disease and highlights the possibility of sulfasalazine and naproxen-induced-DRESS-syndrome in children with JIA.

  5. Determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 11-year-old schoolchildren in a country of traditionally low fruit and vegetable consumption

    PubMed Central

    Kristjansdottir, Asa G; Thorsdottir, Inga; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Due, Pernille; Wind, Marianne; Klepp, Knut-Inge

    2006-01-01

    Background Fruit and vegetable consumption is traditionally low in Iceland. The results of the Pro Children cross-Europe survey showed that the consumption was lowest among children in Iceland. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of fruit and vegetable intake among 11-year-old schoolchildren in Iceland. Methods A cross-sectional survey was performed in Iceland in the autumn of 2003 as a part of the Pro Children cross-Europe survey. The survey was designed to provide information on actual consumption levels of vegetables and fruits by 11-year-old school children and to assess potential determinants of consumption patterns. A total of 1235 Icelandic children (89%) from 32 randomly chosen schools participated. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed to determine the explained variance of the children's fruit and vegetable intake. In these analyses socio-demographic background variables were entered as a first block, perceived physical-environmental variables as a second block, perceived socio-environmental variables as a third block and personal variables as a fourth block. Results 64% of the children ate fruit less than once a day, and 61% ate vegetables less than once a day. Respectively, 31% and 39% of the variance in children's fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the determinants studied. About 7% and 13% of the variance in fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the perceived physical-environmental determinants, mainly by availability at home. About 18% and 16% of the variance in fruit and vegetable intake was explained by the personal determinants. For both fruit and vegetable intake, the significant personal determinants were preferences, liking, knowledge of recommendations and self-efficacy. Conclusion Interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake among children should aim at both environmental factors such as greater availability of fruit and vegetables, and personal factors as self-efficacy and knowledge levels

  6. Comparison of short-term energy intake and appetite responses to active and seated video gaming, in 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Green, Benjamin P; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Barry, Gillian; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2016-03-28

    The acute effects of active and seated video gaming on energy intake (EI), blood glucose, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-17-36) and subjective appetite (hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness) were examined in 8-11-year-old boys. In a randomised, crossover manner, twenty-two boys completed one 90-min active and one 90-min seated video gaming trial during which food and drinks were provided ad libitum. EI, plasma GLP-17-36, blood glucose and subjective appetite were measured during and following both trials. Time-averaged AUC blood glucose was increased (P=0·037); however, EI was lower during active video gaming (1·63 (sem 0·26) MJ) compared with seated video gaming (2·65 (sem 0·32) MJ) (P=0·000). In a post-gaming test meal 1 h later, there were no significant differences in EI between the active and seated gaming trials. Although estimated energy expenditure was significantly higher during active video gaming, there was still no compensation for the lower EI. At cessation of the trials, relative EI (REI) was significantly lower following active video gaming (2·06 (sem 0·30) MJ) v. seated video gaming (3·34 (sem 0·35) MJ) (P=0·000). No significant differences were detected in time-averaged AUC GLP-17-36 or subjective appetite. At cessation of the active video gaming trial, EI and REI were significantly less than for seated video gaming. In spite of this, the REI established for active video gaming was a considerable amount when considering the total daily estimated average requirement for 8-11-year-old boys in the UK (7·70 MJ).

  7. Juvenile dermatomyositis in a Nigerian girl.

    PubMed

    Adelowo, Olufemi; Nwankwo, Madu; Olaosebikan, Hakeem

    2014-04-04

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease occurring in children less than 16 years old. It is part of a heterogeneous group of muscle diseases called idiopathic Iiflammatory myopathies. It had previously been reported in black Africans resident in UK. However, there is no documented case reported from Africa. The index sign of heliotrope rashes is often difficult to visualise in the black skin. An 11-year-old Nigerian girl presenting with clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of juvenile dermatomyositis is presented here. It is hoped that this case will heighten the index of suspicion of this condition among medical practitioners in Africa.

  8. The Position of Lingula as an Index for Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Injection in 7-11-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Ezoddini Ardakani, Fatemeh; Bahrololoumi, Zahra; Zangouie Booshehri, Maryam; Navab Azam, Alireza; Ayatollahi, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Inferior alveolar nerve block injection is one of the common intra oral anesthetic techniques, with a failure rate of 15-20%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the position of the lingula as an index for this injection. Materials and methods Thirty eight panoramic radiographs of 7–11 year old patients were analyzed and the distance between the lingula index and occlusal plane was measured. Then, lower alveolar nerve block injection was performed on 88 children. Finally, a visual analogue scale was used to measure the rate of pain in the patients. Results This distance increased with age and in children younger than nine years is −0.45 mm on the right side and −0.95 mm on the left side. This distance in children older than 9 years is −0.23 mm on the right side and 0.47 mm on the left side. The success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block injection based on lingual index were 49% on the right side and 53.8% on the left side. Conclusion As the lingual index has various positions and its distance from the occlusal plane increases with age, it is not an appropriate landmark for inferior alveolar nerve block injection. PMID:22991596

  9. Evaluating the spatial distribution of pollutants and associated maintenance requirements in an 11 year-old bioretention cell in urban Charlotte, NC.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey P; Hunt, William F

    2016-12-15

    Bioretention cells (BRCs) are an increasingly popular Stormwater Control Measure used to mitigate the hydrologic and water quality impacts of urbanization. Previous BRC research has demonstrated a strong capacity for pollutant removal; however, long-term sequestration of pollutants within soil media can elevate concentrations to levels fostering environmental and human health risks. Soil media samples were collected from an 11 year-old BRC in Charlotte, NC, and analyzed for the accumulation and spatial distribution of zinc, copper, and phosphorus. Pollutant distribution varied significantly with respect to depth and ordinate distance from the BRC inlet. Zinc concentrations (0.9-228.6 mg kg(-1) soil) exceeded environmental thresholds and phosphorus concentrations (5.1-173.3 mg kg(-1) soil) increased from initial levels by a factor of seven; however, notable accumulation was restricted to the BRC forebay. Maximum zinc and copper concentrations in soil media did not exceed 1% of mandatory cleanup levels and with regular maintenance of the forebay, the effective life of BRC media should exceed the life of the developments they treat.

  10. Dental fluorosis and nutritional status of 6- to 11-year-old children living in rural areas of Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Correia Sampaio, F; Ramm von der Fehr, F; Arneberg, P; Petrucci Gigante, D; Hatløy, A

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutritional status and dental fluorosis in areas with fluoride in the drinking water in Paraíba, Brazil. Rural villages of comparable low socio-economic status and stable water fluoride levels were selected. Lifelong residents (6-11 years old, n = 650) were examined for nutritional status (height-for-age index; WHO methods) and dental fluorosis of central incisors and first molars (TF index). The sample was divided into three groups according to fluoride levels in the drinking water: low (below 0.7 ppm F, n = 164), medium (between 0.7 and 1.0 ppm F, n = 360) and high (above 1.0 ppm F, n = 126). Dental fluorosis was observed in 30.5, 61.1 and 71.4% of the children in these F groups, respectively. The prevalence was significantly related to the water F concentrations (chi2 = 59.93, d. f. = 2, p<0.001). The severity of dental fluorosis ranged from TF 1 to 3 in the low F group and up to 7 in the others. Malnutrition prevalence was approximately 20% in all F groups, but was unrelated to dental fluorosis. The fairly high prevalence of dental fluorosis observed suggests that other factors may be operating.

  11. A Monte Carlo study on quantifying the amount of dose reduction by shielding the superficial organs of an Iranian 11-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Parisa; Hoseinian-Azghadi, Elie; Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Rafat-Motavalli, Laleh

    2016-01-01

    A method for minimizing organ dose during computed tomography examinations is the use of shielding to protect superficial organs. There are some scientific reports that usage of shielding technique reduces the surface dose to patients with no appreciable loss in diagnostic quality. Therefore, in this Monte Carlo study based on the phantom of a 11-year-old Iranian boy, the effect of using an optimized shield on dose reduction to body organs was quantified. Based on the impact of shield on image quality, lead shields with thicknesses of 0.2 and 0.4 mm were considered for organs exposed directly and indirectly in the scan range, respectively. The results showed that there is 50%–62% reduction in amounts of dose for organs located fully or partly in the scan range at different tube voltages and modeling the true location of all organs in human anatomy, especially the ones located at the border of the scan, range affects the results up to 49%. PMID:28144117

  12. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity profile of a two-dose combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in 1-11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Roberton, D; Marshall, H; Nolan, T M; Sokal, E; Díez-Domingo, J; Flodmark, C-E; Rombo, L; Lewald, G; Flor, J de la; Casanovas, J M; Verdaguer, J; Marés, J; Esso, D Van; Dieussaert, I; Stoffel, M

    2005-10-17

    This study was conducted to compare the reactogenicity, immunogenicity and safety of a combined two-dose (0, 6 months) hepatitis A and B vaccine (720ELU HAV, 20 mcg HBsAg) with the established three-dose (0, 1 and 6 months) hepatitis A and B vaccine (360ELU HAV, 10 mcg HBsAg). A total of 511 children aged 1-11 years who had not previously received a hepatitis A or B vaccine were enrolled in the study. Both vaccines were well tolerated, and were shown to be safe and immunogenic. The analysis, stratified according to two age groups (1-5 year and 6-11-year-old children) demonstrated that the reactogenicity profile of the two-dose schedule was at least as good as that of the established schedule. Both vaccines and schedules provided at least 98% seroprotection against hepatitis B and 100% seroconversion against hepatitis A, 1 month after the end of the vaccination course (Month 7).

  13. The Effects of Group Play Therapy on Self-Concept Among 7 to 11 Year-Old Children Suffering From Thalassemia Major

    PubMed Central

    Tomaj, Ome Kolsoum; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Taraneh; Borim Nejad, Leili; Dastoorpoor, Maryam; Ghasemi, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background Children suffering from thalassemia have higher levels of depression and lower levels of self-concept. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine if group play therapy could significantly increase self-concept among children with thalassemia major ages 7 to 11 years old in teaching hospitals of Golestan province, Iran, in 2012. Patients and Methods In this randomized, controlled clinical trial, 60 children with thalassemia major were randomly assigned to intervention (30 children) and control (30 children) groups. The intervention included eight 45 to 60 minute sessions during four weeks, during which the intervention group received group play therapy. The control group received no interventions. Self-concept was measured three times using the Piers-Harris children’s self-concept scale: before, immediately after, and a month after the intervention. Results For the intervention group, results showed that the mean self-concept score was significantly higher at the second point in time compared to the baseline (P < 0.001), going from 60.539 to 69.908. Likewise, comparing the first and third time points, the mean score significantly increased and reached 70.611 (P < 0.001). Furthermore, changes in the mean score from the second to the third time point, though non-significant (P = 0.509), followed the trend, going from 69.908 to 70.611. For the control group, comparing the first, second, and third time points did not result in any significant change in the mean score (P > 0.05). Conclusions The results showed that group play therapy improves self-concept in children suffering from thalassemia major. PMID:27275402

  14. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity.

  15. Vitamin D status is associated with cardiometabolic markers in 8-11-year-old children, independently of body fat and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Sørensen, Louise B; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Krarup, Henrik; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Mølgaard, Christian; Damsgaard, Camilla T

    2015-11-28

    Vitamin D status has been associated with cardiometabolic markers even in children, but the associations may be confounded by fat mass and physical activity behaviour. This study investigated associations between vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk profile, as well as the impact of fat mass and physical activity in Danish 8-11-year-old children, using baseline data from 782 children participating in the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study. We assessed vitamin D status as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and measured blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, homoeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, plasma lipids, inflammatory markers, anthropometry and fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and physical activity by 7 d accelerometry during August-November. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 60·8 (sd 18·7) nmol/l. Each 10 mmol/l 25(OH)D increase was associated with lower diastolic blood pressure (-0·3 mmHg, 95 % CI -0·6, -0·0) (P=0·02), total cholesterol (-0·07 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·10, -0·05), LDL-cholesterol (-0·05 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·08, -0·03), TAG (-0·02 mmol/l, 95 % CI -0·03, -0·01) (P≤0·001 for all lipids) and lower metabolic syndrome (MetS) score (P=0·01). Adjustment for fat mass index did not change the associations, but the association with blood pressure became borderline significant after adjustment for physical activity (P=0·06). In conclusion, vitamin D status was negatively associated with blood pressure, plasma lipids and a MetS score in Danish school children with low prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and apart from blood pressure the associations were independent of body fat and physical activity. The potential underlying cause-effect relationship and possible long-term implications should be investigated in randomised controlled trials.

  16. Tomboys and Girly-Girls: Embodied Femininities in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how 9-11-year-old children, particularly girls, co-construct tomboy and girly-girl identities as oppositional positions. The paper sits within a theoretical framework in which I understand individual and collective masculinities and femininities as ways of "doing man/woman" or "doing boy/girl" that are…

  17. Lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis in an adolescent girl presenting as mycetoma.

    PubMed

    Tilak, Ragini; Kumari, Varsha; Bansal, Manish; Sharma, Taniya; Pandey, Shyam Sunder

    2012-09-01

    A 13-year-old girl presented with multiple painless purulent ulcers with raised borders on the medial aspect of the sole of her right foot associated with inguinal lymphadenopathy for the past 4 years. There was history of local trauma at the site prior to the formation of ulcers. There were no other significant associated signs or symptoms. The patient was initially treated with multiple antibiotics with minimal improvement. Fungal cultures of biopsy specimens demonstrated the presence of colonies of Sporothrix schenckii thus confirming the diagnosis of sporotrichosis. Oral itraconazole at the dose of 100 mg twice daily was initiated with marked response at 4 weeks. This case demonstrated a rare morphological presentation of the lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis as mycetoma. The possible diagnosis of sporotrichosis should be kept in mind in such a clinical presentation not responding to antibiotics. Cutaneous sporotrichosis should be diagnosed and treated as early as possible because untreated cases may disseminate to cause visceral involvement with fatal outcome in immunocompromised patients.

  18. Determining anthropometric variables as a tool in the preparation of furniture and designs of interior spaces: the case of children 6 to 11 years old of Vicosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, Sharinna Venturim; Mafra, Simone Caldas Tavares; Antônio, Carlos Emílio Barbosa; Filho, Jugurta Lisboa; Vidigal Guimarães, Elza Maria; da Silva, Vania Eugênia; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José

    2012-01-01

    The adequacy of facilities and the individual securities in their different age groups is importance to ensure greater functionality to them, allowing full development of daily activities. For this to occur more efficiently it is necessary the use of ergonomics which can ensure more comfort and safety for end users of products and spaces. The present study aimed to measure body dimensions of a representative sample of children aged 6 to 11 years old, children of graduate and pos graduate students, faculty and staff of the Federal University of Vicosa and also residents of the city of Vicosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, coming from different municipalities of State of Minas Gerais, to organize a database that will provide the furniture industry, anthropometric variables more appropriate to design products for both the leisure activities, and for the school sector. To realize this research we used the methodology proposed by the authors Panero and Zelnik, based on samples distributed in six age groups, and providing a measurement of 10 variables. By applying the methodology to the field was possible to compare the observed data, with the tables of the aforementioned authors. The main results revealed a significant variation of the 10 variables analyzed, and it is believed that this variation could lead to possible flaws in the designs of products that use the data from these authors. The completion of the study provided data on Vicosa considered more appropriate for the design of products and environments for the population of the study, considering age and region, of Brazil (State of Minas Gerais) and it is believed that the future may expand to the Brazilian population, with the progress of study of this nature.

  19. The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise B; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Lauritzen, Lotte; Michaelsen, Kim F; Egelund, Niels

    2015-04-28

    It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794). The d2 test of attention, the Learning Rating Scale (LRS) and standard tests on reading and mathematics proficiency were administered at baseline and at the end of each study period. Intervention effects were evaluated using hierarchical mixed models. The school meal intervention did not influence concentration performance (CP; primary outcome, n 693) or processing speed; however, the decrease in error percentage was 0·18 points smaller (P<0·001) in the intervention period than in the control period (medians: baseline 2·03%; intervention 1·46%; control 1·37%). In contrast, the intervention increased reading speed (0·7 sentence, P=0·009) and the number of correct sentences (1·8 sentences, P<0·001), which corresponded to 11 and 25%, respectively, of the effect of one school year. The percentage of correct sentences also improved (P<0·001), indicating that the number correct improved relatively more than reading speed. There was no effect on overall math performance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention. These findings are worth examining in future trials.

  20. Provision of healthy school meals does not affect the metabolic syndrome score in 8-11-year-old children, but reduces cardiometabolic risk markers despite increasing waist circumference.

    PubMed

    Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Laursen, Rikke P; Ritz, Christian; Hjorth, Mads F; Lauritzen, Lotte; Sørensen, Louise B; Petersen, Rikke A; Andersen, Malene R; Stender, Steen; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Mølgaard, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2014-12-14

    An increasing number of children are exhibiting features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) including abdominal fatness, hypertension, adverse lipid profile and insulin resistance. Healthy eating practices during school hours may improve the cardiometabolic profile, but there is a lack of evidence. In the present study, the effect of provision of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on a MetS score (primary outcome) and on individual cardiometabolic markers and body composition (secondary outcomes) was investigated in 834 Danish school children. The study was carried out as a cluster-randomised, controlled, non-blinded, cross-over trial at nine schools. Children aged 8-11 years received freshly prepared school lunch and snacks or usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months. Dietary intake, physical activity, cardiometabolic markers and body composition were measured at baseline and after each dietary period. The school meals did not affect the MetS score (P= 1.00). However, it was found that mean arterial pressure was reduced by 0.4 (95% CI 0.0, 0.8) mmHg (P= 0.04), fasting total cholesterol concentrations by 0.05 (95% CI 0.02, 0.08) mmol/l (P= 0.001), HDL-cholesterol concentrations by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00, 0.03) mmol/l, TAG concentrations by 0.02 (95% CI 0.00, 0.04) mmol/l (both P< 0.05), and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance by 0.10 (95% CI 0.04, 0.16) points (P= 0.001) compared with the control diet in the intention-to-treat analyses. Waist circumference increased 0.5 (95% CI 0.3, 0.7) cm (P< 0.001), but BMI z-score remained unaffected. Complete-case analyses and analyses adjusted for household educational level, pubertal status and physical activity confirmed the results. In conclusion, the school meals did not affect the MetS score in 8-11-year-olds, as small improvements in blood pressure, TAG concentrations and insulin resistance were counterbalanced by slight undesired effects on waist circumference and HDL

  1. Prevesical Calcification and Hydronephrosis in a Girl Treated for Vesicoureteral Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Kuipers, Sarah; van der Horst, Eric H. J. R.; Verbeke, Jonathan I. M. L.; Bökenkamp, Arend

    2016-01-01

    The endoscopic STING procedure using Deflux is a common and minimal invasive treatment for vesicoureteral reflux. Herein we present the case of an 11-year-old girl with loin pain and de novo hydronephrosis and megaureter on the left. Ultrasound and plain abdominal X-ray demonstrated a calcification at the ureterovesical junction. She had been treated with Deflux injections 5 years before. The clinical quiz addresses the differential diagnosis, workup, and pathogenesis of calcifications at the ureterovesical junction following endoscopic reflux therapy. PMID:27408905

  2. Moving from Reader Response to Critical Reading: Developing 10-11-Year-Olds' Ability as Analytical Readers of Literary Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    This article presents aspects of a research study into how a group of ten- and eleven-year-old students (in 5th Grade in Sydney, Australia) were apprenticed to view a literary text from critical reading positions. These ways of reading were an alternative to their more typical reader response interpretations of texts. The article contrasts…

  3. Television viewing and food intake during television viewing in normal-weight, overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear if children of different weight status differ in their nutritional habits while watching television. The objective of the present paper was to determine if children who are overweight or obese differ in their frequency of consumption of six food items while watching television compared with their normal-weight counterparts. A cross-sectional study of 550 children (57·1 % female; mean age = 10 years) from Ottawa, Canada was conducted. Children's weight status was categorised using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-points. Questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching per day and the frequency of consumption of six types of foods while watching television. Overweight/obese children watched more television per day than normal-weight children (3·3 v. 2·7 h, respectively; P = 0·001). Obese children consumed fast food and fruits/vegetables more frequently while watching television than normal-weight or overweight children (P < 0·05). Children who watched more than 4 h of television per d had higher odds (OR 3·21; 95% CI 1·14, 9·03; P = 0·03) of being obese, independent of several covariates, but not independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The finding that both television watching and the frequency of consumption of some food items during television watching are higher in children who are obese is concerning. While the nature of the present study does not allow for the determination of causal pathways, future research should investigate these weight-status differences to identify potential areas of intervention.

  4. Severe vulvovaginitis as a presenting problem of type 2 diabetes in adolescent girls: a case series.

    PubMed

    Curran, Jacqueline; Hayward, Jenette; Sellers, Elizabeth; Dean, Heather

    2011-04-01

    This article describes the presentation of 4 adolescent girls who sought medical attention for severe vulvovaginitis and were subsequently found to have type 2 diabetes. Symptomatic vulvovaginitis is rare in adolescent girls, and its presence should alert health care providers to test for underlying hyperglycemia. These 4 girls represent 8.5% of the females with new-onset type 2 diabetes during a 3-year period (2007-2009). The 4 cases fulfilled the current Canadian Diabetes Association screening criteria for type 2 diabetes in youth, yet none of these girls had been screened. These cases highlight the need for better awareness of screening criteria for type 2 diabetes in adolescents. Consideration should be given in clinical practice guidelines to including the presence of unusual or severe infections as a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in youth.

  5. Reconstruction of a large calvarial traumatic defect using a custom-made porous hydroxyapatite implant covered by a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap in an 11-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Morice, Anne; Kolb, Frédéric; Picard, Arnaud; Kadlub, Natacha; Puget, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of complex skull defects requires collaboration between neurosurgeons and plastic surgeons to choose the most appropriate procedure, especially in growing children. The authors describe herein the reconstruction of an extensive traumatic bone and soft tissue defect of the cranial vault in an 11-year-old boy. The size of the defect, quality of the tissues, and patient's initial condition required a 2-stage approach. Ten months after an initial emergency procedure in which lacerated bone and soft tissue were excised, reconstruction was performed. The bone defect, situated on the left frontoparietal region, was 85 cm(2) and was filled by a custom-made porous hydroxyapatite implant. The quality of the overlying soft tissue did not allow the use of classic local and locoregional coverage techniques. A free latissimus dorsi muscle flap branched on the contralateral superficial temporal pedicle was used and left for secondary healing to take advantage of scar retraction and to minimize alopecia. Stable well-vascularized implant coverage as well as an esthetically pleasing skull shape was achieved. Results in this case suggest that concomitant reconstruction of large calvarial defects by cranioplasty with a custom-made hydroxyapatite implant covered by a free latissimus dorsi muscle flap is a safe and efficient procedure in children, provided that there is no underlying infection of the operative site.

  6. Spinal epidural abscess in a young girl without risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mantadakis, Elpis; Birbilis, Theodosios; Michailidis, Lambros; Souftas, Vasileios; Chatzimichael, Athanassios

    2011-07-01

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare infection associated with well-established risk factors mainly in adults. We describe an 11-year-old girl without any known risk factors who presented with fever and localized spinal tenderness in the lumbar area and was diagnosed with spinal MRI as suffering from a posterior SEA extending between T11 and L4. She was successfully managed with sequential intravenous and oral antibiotics along with minimally invasive surgery without laminectomy. Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was the responsible pathogen isolated at surgery. Immediate institution of antibiotics, spinal MRI, and well-timed neurosurgical consultation are mandatory for a favorable outcome in cases of SEA in children.

  7. The reliability and validity of a short food frequency questionnaire among 9–11-year olds: a multinational study on three middle-income and high-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Saloheimo, T; González, S A; Erkkola, M; Milauskas, D M; Meisel, J D; Champagne, C M; Tudor-Locke, C; Sarmiento, O; Katzmarzyk, P T; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a food frequency questionnaire with 23 food groups (I-FFQ) among a sample of 9–11-year-old children from three different countries that differ on economical development and income distribution, and to assess differences between country sites. Furthermore, we assessed factors associated with I-FFQ's performance. Methods: This was an ancillary study of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment. Reliability (n=321) and validity (n=282) components of this study had the same participants. Participation rates were 95% and 70%, respectively. Participants completed two I-FFQs with a mean interval of 4.9 weeks to assess reliability. A 3-day pre-coded food diary (PFD) was used as the reference method in the validity analyses. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, intraclass correlation coefficients and cross-classifications were used to assess the reliability of I-FFQ. Spearman correlation coefficients, percentage difference and cross-classifications were used to assess the validity of I-FFQ. A logistic regression model was used to assess the relation of selected variables with the estimate of validity. Analyses based on information in the PFDs were performed to assess how participants interpreted food groups. Results: Reliability correlation coefficients ranged from 0.37 to 0.78 and gross misclassification for all food groups was <5%. Validity correlation coefficients were below 0.5 for 22/23 food groups, and they differed among country sites. For validity, gross misclassification was <5% for 22/23 food groups. Over- or underestimation did not appear for 19/23 food groups. Logistic regression showed that country of participation and parental education were associated (P⩽0.05) with the validity of I-FFQ. Analyses of children's interpretation of food groups suggested that the meaning of most food groups was understood by the children. Conclusion: I-FFQ is a

  8. A rare benign renal tumour presenting as polycythaemia in a teenage girl.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, S; Fitzpatrick, J M; McGuire, B; O'Malley, K J; Shaw, C; Fabre, A

    2010-04-01

    We present the case of a 15-year-old girl who presented with polycythemia. CT abdomen revealed an enhancing mass in the upper pole of her left kidney with features suggestive of renal cell carcinoma. She underwent a laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. Histology demonstrated a well circumscribed, focally encapsulated, round blue cell tumour showing areas of microcalcifications and numerous psammoma bodies. Imunostaining showed diffuse positive staining for CD 57. This was consistent with a diagnosis of metanephric adenoma a rare benign epithelial renal tumour.

  9. Bi-atrial myxomas presenting as recurrent pulmonary emboli in a girl.

    PubMed Central

    Hanly, J.; de Buitleir, M.; Shaw, K.; Maurer, B.; FitzGerald, M. X.

    1984-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl whose sole presenting features were symptoms of pulmonary embolism, was found to have bi-atrial myxomas. The diagnosis was made preoperatively, and the patient had a successful outcome following elective surgery. The absence of other features such as systemic embolism, atrioventricular valvular obstruction, fever and constitutional symptoms makes this a most unusual case. Right atrial myxoma should be considered in any patient presenting with pulmonary embolism for which there is no obvious source. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6709549

  10. Antiphospholipid syndrome in a young Nigerian girl presenting with gangrenous toes.

    PubMed

    Anakwue, Raphael Chinedu; Chijioke, Chioli; Mbah, Anthony; Onuh, Augustine; Okwara, Christian

    2013-10-23

    We report on a 21-year-old Nigerian girl with toe gangrene, which is one of the most unlikely forms of presentation of antiphospholipid syndrome among Africans. The essence of this case report is to raise awareness that, although antiphospholipid syndrome typically presents in Africans in association with a pregnancy-related event or a neuropathology, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all African patients with unexplained vasculitis. A high index of suspicion and early treatment will prevent toe amputations and reduce mortality rates.

  11. "Balancing Acts": Elementary School Girls' Negotiations of Femininity, Achievement, and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Osborne, Jonathan; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy

    2012-01-01

    There is international concern over persistent low rates of participation in postcompulsory science--especially the physical sciences--within which there is a notable underrepresentation of girls/women. This paper draws on data collected from a survey of more than 9,000 10/11-year-old pupils and 170 interviews (with 92 children and 78 parents)…

  12. The story of a girl with weeping blood: Childhood depression with a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Varalakshmi, B; Doshi, V Vimal; Sivalingam, D; Nambi, Shanthi

    2015-01-01

    Ms. V, a 10-year-old girl was referred to Child Psychiatry Department with complaints of bleeding from eyes for last 3 months. Bleeding was spontaneous, recurrent, painless, and self-limited. History revealed significant Psychological stressors, Temperamental Difficulties and Conflicts with Mother. Mental status examination revealed Depression in Ms. V. During hospital stay, Ms. V developed repeated bleeding episodes. The presence of hemoglobin is confirmed in the bleeding sample. Hematologic investigations and computed tomography brain were normal. Ms. V was started on Sertraline, Propranolol, and Clonazepam. Both Ms. V and her Mother were psycho-educated about the nature of the illness. Ms. V was discharged and under follow-up. This case is reported for the rarity of presentation (bleeding from Eyes) of a childhood Depression.

  13. Pallister Killian syndrome: unusual significant postnatal overgrowth in a girl with otherwise typical presentation.

    PubMed

    Frković, Sanda Huljev; Durisević, Ivana Tonković; Trcić, Ruzica Lasan; Sarnavka, Vladimir; Gornik, Kristina Crkvenac; Muzinić, Dubravka; Letica, Ljiljana; Barić, Ivo; Begović, Davor

    2010-03-01

    Pallister Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by tetrasomy of the short arm of chromosome 12, revealed usually in mosaic distribution of an extra i (12) (p10) chromosome in fibroblasts. The syndrome presents with a recognizable pattern of findings including pigmentary skin changes, coarse face, high forehead, sparse anterior scalp hair, hypertelorism, seizures and progressive psychomotor developmental delay. It was first described independently by Pallister in 1977 and by Killian and Teschler-Nikola in 1981. We report a case of 21 month old girl with PKS and significant overgrowth. Cytogenetic analysis was performed using the GTG banding technique. The karyotype of cultured lymphocytes was normal. The karyotype from skin fibroblasts was established as mosaic tetrasomy of 12p 47,XX,+i (12) (p10)/46,XX. The origin of the extra marker chromosome was determinated by fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome 12 specific DNA probes confirming that supernumerary marker is chromosome i (12p) in 68% of cells. Despite the excessive postnatal growth we found low serum growth hormone levels and reduced response to pharmacological stimulation test. This is also the first report of a postnatal patient in our country.

  14. Mixed connective tissue disease presenting with progressive scleroderma symptoms in a 10-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Latuśkiewicz-Potemska, Joanna; Zygmunt, Agnieszka; Biernacka-Zielińska, Małgorzata; Stańczyk, Jerzy; Smolewska, Elżbieta

    2013-10-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a systemic inflammatory disease affecting connective tissue with the underlying autoimmunological mechanism. The core of MCTD is an appearance of symptoms of several other inflammatory diseases of connective tissue - systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic scleroderma, poly- or dermatomyositis, rheumatoid arthritis at the same time, accompanied by a high level of anti-ribonucleoprotein antibodies (anti-U1RNP). The disease was described more than 40 years ago by Sharp et al. During recent years, many efforts to better understand clinical and serological features of MCTD have been made. Diagnosis of MCTD can be difficult. Obligatory international diagnostic criteria are required to be fulfilled. Several versions of such criteria have been proposed, but the most widely used one was described by Kasukawa. There is no consensus about treatment - a choice of drugs depends on symptoms. We present a case of a 10-year-old girl with sclerodactyly and trophic damages of fingers accompanied by symptoms of Raynaud's phenomenon. After an almost 2-year course of the disease, a diagnosis of MCTD has been established.

  15. Correlates of Total Sedentary Time and Screen Time in 9–11 Year-Old Children around the World: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Allana G.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Church, Timothy S.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Harrington, Deirdre M.; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previously, studies examining correlates of sedentary behavior have been limited by small sample size, restricted geographic area, and little socio-cultural variability. Further, few studies have examined correlates of total sedentary time (SED) and screen time (ST) in the same population. This study aimed to investigate correlates of SED and ST in children around the world. Methods The sample included 5,844 children (45.6% boys, mean age = 10.4 years) from study sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Child- and parent-reported behavioral, household, and neighborhood characteristics and directly measured anthropometric and accelerometer data were obtained. Twenty-one potential correlates of SED and ST were examined using multilevel models, adjusting for sex, age, and highest parental education, with school and study site as random effects. Variables that were moderately associated with SED and/or ST in univariate analyses (p<0.10) were included in the final models. Variables that remained significant in the final models (p<0.05) were considered correlates of SED and/or ST. Results Children averaged 8.6 hours of daily SED, and 54.2% of children failed to meet ST guidelines. In all study sites, boys reported higher ST, were less likely to meet ST guidelines, and had higher BMI z-scores than girls. In 9 of 12 sites, girls engaged in significantly more SED than boys. Common correlates of higher SED and ST included poor weight status, not meeting physical activity guidelines, and having a TV or a computer in the bedroom. Conclusions In this global sample many common correlates of SED and ST were identified, some of which are easily modifiable (e.g., removing TV from the bedroom), and others that may require more intense behavioral interventions (e.g., increasing physical activity). Future work should incorporate these findings into the development of

  16. Early Puberty in African-American Girls: Nutrition Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha; Talpade, Salil

    2001-01-01

    Early sexual maturation is associated with many high-risk behaviors and a prediction was made that food consumption may contribute to early onset of puberty. A comparison was made between the eating habits of several generations of African-American women. Girls today were found to consume more calcium, grains, and meat then older women did in…

  17. Supraorbital blowin fracture presenting as an ocular dystopia in a nine-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Nallamothu, Ranganadh; Kallam, Shanmukha Reddy; Gunturu, Srikanth; Singh, Sukumar; Rachalapally, Vijay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A 9-year-old girl was referred to a trauma centre with severe head injury. 3D CT scan revealed depressed fracture involving the frontal bone on the right side, right parietal bone, and right superior orbital margin, right lamina papyracea. The frontal table was managed conservatively and open reduction and internal fixation was done for the supraorbital blow in to correct the ocular dystopia. The clinical course, possible mechanism, and management of the patient are discussed.

  18. Arteriovenous Malformation Underlying a Plexiform Neurofibroma: An Unusual Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Zaheer; Khani, Sepideh; Zare, Javad

    2017-01-01

    Vascular abnormalities associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 are well described in the literature, however, arteriovenous malformation is a very rare finding in neurofibromatosis type 1. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl who presented with a soft mass on the right flank. Provisional diagnosis of plexiform neurofibroma was made on the basis of clinical and histological observations. Because the lesion was warm on palpation, imaging studies were performed to evaluate further and arteriovenous malformation was detected underlying the plexiform neurofibroma. This report emphasizes the importance of careful examination and proper investigations of the plexiform neurofibroma prior to treatment strategies to avoid future complications. The rarity of plexiform neurofibroma in association with arteriovenous malformation at the same site was also highlighted in this report.

  19. Can Break-Dance Break Your Neck? C1/C2 Luxation with a Combined Dens Fracture Without Neurological Deficits in an 11-Year Old Boy After a Break-Dance Performance.

    PubMed

    Petridis, Athanasios K; Kinzel, Adrian; Blaeser, Klaus; Thissen, Joost; Maslehaty, Homajoun; Scholz, Martin

    2015-09-28

    Atlantoaxial dislocation in children is a very rare condition. We present the case of a dislocation happened during a break-dance maneuver. The purpose of this report is describing dangers of break-dancing and discussing the treatment we chose. The patient was followed up until 12 months after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the cervical spine were evaluated. Translaminar fixation of C1/C2 had been performed after manual reposition under X-ray illumination. After a 12-month follow-up, the patient shows a stable condition without neurological dysfunction. He is not allowed to perform any extreme sports.

  20. Can Break-Dance Break Your Neck? C1/C2 Luxation with a Combined Dens Fracture Without Neurological Deficits in an 11-Year Old Boy After a Break-Dance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kinzel, Adrian; Blaeser, Klaus; Thissen, Joost; Maslehaty, Homajoun; Scholz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Atlantoaxial dislocation in children is a very rare condition. We present the case of a dislocation happened during a break-dance maneuver. The purpose of this report is describing dangers of break-dancing and discussing the treatment we chose. The patient was followed up until 12 months after surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography of the cervical spine were evaluated. Translaminar fixation of C1/C2 had been performed after manual reposition under X-ray illumination. After a 12-month follow-up, the patient shows a stable condition without neurological dysfunction. He is not allowed to perform any extreme sports. PMID:26664716

  1. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the new Nordic diet and on packed lunches: a randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Anne V; Lassen, Anne D; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Christensen, Lene M; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare total food intake, total and relative edible plate waste and self-reported food likings between school lunch based on the new Nordic diet (NND) and packed lunch from home. In two 3-month periods in a cluster-randomised controlled unblinded cross-over study 3rd- and 4th-grade children (n 187) from two municipal schools received lunch meals based on NND principles and their usual packed lunch (control). Food intake and plate waste (n 1558) were calculated after weighing lunch plates before and after the meal for five consecutive days and self-reported likings (n 905) assessed by a web-based questionnaire. Average food intake was 6 % higher for the NND period compared with the packed lunch period. The quantity of NND intake varied with the menu (P < 0·0001) and was positively associated with self-reported likings. The edible plate waste was 88 (sd 80) g for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P < 0·0001), with more waste on soup days (36 %) and vegetarian days (23 %) compared with the packed lunch period. Self-reported likings were negatively associated with percentage plate waste (P < 0·0001). The study suggests that portion sizes need to be considered in new school meal programmes. New strategies with focus on reduction of plate waste, children's likings and nutritious school meals are crucial from both a nutritional, economic and environmental point of view.

  2. Acquired myopia in 11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Peckham, C S; Gardiner, P A; Goldstein, H

    1977-02-26

    Children who had acquired myopia by the age of 11 years were identified from a nationally representative sample. There were no overall sex differences in its occurrence but myopia was more common in children from non-manual families than in those from manual families. Short-sighted children were more likely to come from small families and to be of higher birth order than children with normal vision, and these associations held within each social class. At 11 years myopic children showed striking advantages in educational performance over their normal-sighted peers, as judged by tests of reading, arithmetic, and general ability. After adjustments had been made for social background, this age gain still amounted to over one year. Findings obtained at 7 years of age showed that superior educational attainments were already apparent before the onset of myopia. Children with myopia read in their leisure time more often than normally sighted children, but despite the visual impairment, they participated in outdoor sports as often as other children.

  3. Investigating Persuasive Writing by 9-11 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Roger; Burrell, Andrew; Homer, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Within research into children's persuasive writing, relatively little work has been done on the writing of advertisements, how such writing develops in the primary school years and the textual features that help to secure this development. Framed within rhetoric, writing and linguistics, an exploratory study was undertaken in which a standardised…

  4. Menarche? A Case of Abdominal Pain and Vaginal Bleeding in a Preadolescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Riney, Lauren C; Reed, Jennifer L; Kruger, Laura L; Brody, Alan J; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2015-11-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints in the pediatric ED. Because of the broad range of potential diagnoses, it can pose challenges in diagnosis and therapy in the preadolescent girl. An 11-year-old previously healthy girl presented to our pediatric ED with fever, decreased appetite, vaginal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Initial evaluation yielded elevated creatinine levels, leukocytosis with bandemia, elevated inflammatory markers, and urine concerning for a urinary tract infection. She began receiving antibiotics for presumed pyelonephritis and was admitted to the hospital. After worsening respiratory status and continued abdominal pain, a computed tomography scan was obtained and a pelvic foreign body and abscess were identified. Adolescent gynecology was consulted for examination under anesthesia for abscess drainage and foreign body removal. A foreign body in the vagina or uterus can present as vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, dysuria, or hematuria. Because symptoms can be diverse, an intravaginal or uterine foreign body should be considered in the preteen female patient presenting to the ED with abdominal pain.

  5. Gorham-Stout disease presenting with dyspnea and bone pain in a 9-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Davalos, Eric A; Gandhi, Nishant M; Barank, David; Varma, Rajeev K

    2015-01-01

    Gorham-Stout (GS) disease is a rare bone disorder of unknown etiology that is characterized by local proliferation of small vascular or lymphatic channels, resulting in progressive osteolysis and bone resorption. The diagnosis of GS disease is one of exclusion, with radiography and histopathology playing key roles. We describe a 9-year-old girl who presented to us with dyspnea and bone pain. She was found to have a cystic mass of the upper extremity, multiple cystic bone lesions, multiple fractures of different ages, and pleural effusions. We review the radiologic images that helped establish the diagnosis of GS disease.

  6. Clinical Reasoning: a girl presenting with stiffness episodes during sleep, cafe-au-lait spots, and flecked retina.

    PubMed

    Moavero, Romina; Cusmai, Raffaella; Roberti, Maria Cristina; Vigevano, Federico; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-01-29

    A 4-year-old girl who had been born of normal pregnancy and delivery and had an unremarkable family or personal history was referred to a neuropsychiatric department because of the appearance of peculiar nocturnal episodes. Parents described that their child abruptly became stiff during sleep. These episodes usually ranged from 20 to 40 seconds, and after that the child continued to sleep. Initially she presented 1 episode per week, but there was a progressive increase in frequency up to 3 to 4 times per night. The child never presented similar episodes while awake. Her examination revealed some café-au-lait spots, congenital microcephaly (3rd centile) and low stature for the age (10th centile). She did not present any neurologic deficit, but she failed to develop an age-appropriate speech, with a delay in the main language milestones.

  7. Osteopenia is present at an early age and worsens across the life span in girls and women with Rett syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Girls and women with Rett syndrome (RTT) are at increased risk for osteopenia and skeletal fractures. Our objective was to characterize the natural history of bone mineralization in RTT girls and women across their life span and to identify genetic, nutritional, physical, hormonal, or inflammatory ...

  8. Autoimmune polyglandular endocrinopathy and anterior hypophysitis in a 14 year-old girl presenting with delayed puberty.

    PubMed

    Cemeroglu, A P; Böber, E; Dündar, B; Büyükgebiz, A

    2001-01-01

    We report a 14 year-old peripubertal girl who presented at our clinic with the primary complaint of delayed puberty. She was asymptomatic except for vague complaints of fatigue. Physical examination was significant for mucosal hyperpigmentation and lack of secondary sexual characteristics. Laboratory evaluation revealed a morning cortisol concentration of <0.1 microg/dl (normal range [n.r.]: 4.3-22.4 microg/dl) and a simultaneous ACTH concentration of 2 pg/ml (n.r. 25-62 pg/ml); FSH 66.8 IU/l (n.r. for age: 1-12.8 IU/l); LH 41.1 IU/l (n.r. for age: 1-12 IU/l); E2 38 pg/ml (n.r. for age: 7-60 pg/ml). She had a flat cortisol response to an ACTH stimulation test. MRI of the pituitary gland failed to reveal a lesion. Plasma renin activity, thyroid function tests, parathyroid hormone, prolactin, IGF-I, IGFBP-3 concentrations and serum electrolytes were normal. However, her urinary sodium concentration was high. She was diagnosed with autoimmune polyglandular endocrinopathy including ovarian failure, adrenal failure and autoimmune anterior hypophysitis presenting as isolated ACTH deficiency. We emphasize that autoimmune etiology should be considered in the differential diagnosis of delayed puberty and ovarian failure and that the presence of other endocrinopathies should be searched for even in asymptomatic patients.

  9. Pubertal development, physical self-perception, and motivation toward physical activity in girls.

    PubMed

    Labbrozzi, Dina; Robazza, Claudio; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bucci, Ines; Bortoli, Laura

    2013-08-01

    We examined the differences in physical self-perception and motivation toward physical activity in early- and mid-adolescent girls. Body Mass Index (BMI) and pubertal status, assessed by means of the Tanner scale, were collected in 11-year-old (n=74) and 13-year-old girls (n=60). The assessment included six scales from the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale, and the Situational Intrinsic Motivation Scale. Age differences emerged, with older girls showing a poorer physical perception and lower scores in intrinsic motivation and enjoyment of physical activity. In the subsample of 11-year-olds, findings showed that more developed girls reported a poorer physical perception on the scales of body fat, global physical self-concept, and appearance, and a lower score in the PACES positive scale. Results underscore the need to promote interventions aimed at encouraging active lifestyles among children and adolescent girls, in order to prevent overweight prior to pubertal onset.

  10. Kienbock's disease in an eleven-year-old girl. A case report.

    PubMed

    Minami, A; Itoga, H; Kobayashi, M

    1992-01-01

    Kienbock's disease occurs most frequently between 20 and 30 years of age (Gillespie, 1961). The youngest patient with Kienbock's disease in literature written in English is a 10-year-old boy (Nakamura et al., 1990). We report the case of an 11-year-old girl with Kienbock's disease whom we treated with radial shortening. Five months after surgery, radiographs showed signs of rapid disappearance of avascular necrosis of the lunate, and the patient had excellent clinical results. Two years postoperatively no recurrence of avascular necrosis of the lunate has occurred.

  11. Case Presentation of a 23-Month-old Herpes Simplex Virus-infected Girl with Brain and Oesophageal Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Kasiri, Karam-Ali; Khoshdel, Abolfazl

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the most common identifiable cause of serious or life threatening sporadic, endemic encephalitis. Typical HSV encephalitis in patients outside neonatal age is caused by HSV-1. A 23-month-old girl was referred to our hospital with a three-day history of fever, listlessness, slurred speech, and suspicious oesophageal foreign body impaction. Laboratory evaluations showed white blood cell count of 10900 /mm3 with 65% neutrophils. Upper endoscopy revealed diffuse severe ulceration in middle to distal third of oesophagus and no foreign body was found in oesophagus or stomach. Parenteral acyclovir was prescribed for herpes encephalitis in addition to antibiotics for central nervous system infection. Chest X-ray and brain MRI was unremarkable. Lumbar puncture revealed normal protein and glucose with 10 white cell count. She developed a raising liver enzyme tests. Total and direct bilirubin was 1.2 mg/dc and 0.2 mg/dc respectively. Because of neurological symptoms, acyclovir was adopted for our patient from the beginning. The girl did not respond to medication and died after 28 days. Progression of her disease prior to referral appears to contribute to the administered treatment inefficacy. Severe rapid progression of disease prior to referral and potential resistance to acyclovir could cause treatment failure. PMID:26155527

  12. Energy intake and appetite following exercise in lean and overweight girls.

    PubMed

    Dodd, C J; Welsman, J R; Armstrong, N

    2008-11-01

    Twelve 11-year-old girls (six lean, six overweight) were given meals in the laboratory and at school for 5 days, with exercise imposed for 2 days and sedentary activities on another 2 days in counterbalanced sequences. During a preliminary visit, the FLEX heart rate method was used to predict individual exercise durations eliciting 1.5 MJ energy expenditure. Morning and afternoon cycling exercise was subsequently imposed in the laboratory on 2 consecutive days as part of the 5-day intervention. Energy intake was measured via observation with meals being standardised between conditions, prepared and weighed by the research team. Hunger, fullness and desire to eat were rated by subjects immediately before and after meals and exercise. Energy expenditure was significantly elevated in the exercise condition, compared to sedentary. No exercise-induced differences in total daily or 5-day total energy intake were observed between groups or treatments. Overweight girls, however, rated their appetite immediately after exercise as being stronger than they rated it before exercise. In response to exercise-induced energy expenditure, 11-year old overweight and lean girls did not elevate their energy intake over a 5-day period.

  13. [Vulvovaginitis in young girls].

    PubMed

    Olejek, Anita; Kellas-Sleczka, Sylwia; Kozak-Darmas, Iwona; Bilska, Anna; Zamłyński, Jacek; Horak, Stanisław; Nowak, Leszek

    2009-12-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most common cause of gynecological complaints in young girls. Factors which cause vulvovaginitis include, among other things, low level of sexual hormones (hypoestrogenism), the anatomical proximity of the rectum and delicate vulvar skin and vaginal mucosa. Usually vulvovaginitis in young girls is caused by non-specific factors. The aim of the study was to present the most frequent causes of vulvovaginitis in young girls.

  14. Reaching Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…

  15. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  16. Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8-11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke Agnete; Egelund, Niels; Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Stark, Ken D; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim Fleisher; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-11-28

    Fe and n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) have both been associated with cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in well-nourished school-aged children. In the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, the 3-month intervention increased reading performance, inattention, impulsivity and dietary intake of fish and Fe. This study investigated whether the intervention influenced n-3 LCPUFA and Fe status and, if so, explored how these changes correlated with the changes in cognitive performance. The study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial comparing school meals with packed lunch (control). At baseline and after each treatment, we measured serum ferritin, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA and Hb, and performance in reading, mathematics and d2-test of attention. Data were analysed using mixed models (n 726) and principal component analysis of test performances (n 644), which showed two main patterns: 'school performance' and 'reading comprehension'. The latter indicated that children with good reading comprehension were also more inattentive and impulsive (i.e. higher d2-test error%). The intervention improved 'school performance' (P=0·015), 'reading comprehension' (P=0·043) and EPA+DHA status 0·21 (95% CI 0·15, 0·27) w/w % (P<0·001), but it did not affect serum ferritin or Hb. At baseline, having small Fe stores was associated with poorer 'school performance' in girls, but with better 'reading comprehension' in both boys and girls. Both baseline EPA+DHA status and the intervention-induced increase in EPA+DHA status was positively associated with 'school performance', suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA could potentially explain approximately 20 % of the intervention effect. These exploratory associations indicate that increased fish intake might explain some of the increase in reading performance and inattention in the study.

  17. Attachment-Based Family Therapy with a 13-Year-Old Girl Presenting with High Risk for Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Krauthamer Ewing, E. Stephanie; Levy, Suzanne A.; Boamah-Wiafe, Linda; Kobak, Roger; Diamond, Guy

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the application of Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) to the treatment of a 13-year old female adolescent presenting with high risk of suicide, complicated by a history of depression and sexual trauma. The paper begins with an overview of ABFT, including 1) how attachment theory guides treatment; 2) the structure of the clinical model; and 3) the data that provide empirical support. A case example is then presented that exemplifies the primary clinical procedures used to reach therapeutic goals in ABFT, including attachment repair and autonomy/competence promotion. Weekly changes in suicide ideation and depression scores are presented. The paper concludes with a discussion about implications for family-based treatment of suicidal youth. PMID:25329356

  18. Attachment-Based Family Therapy With a 13-Year-Old Girl Presenting With High Risk for Suicide.

    PubMed

    Krauthamer Ewing, E Stephanie; Levy, Suzanne A; Boamah-Wiafe, Linda; Kobak, Roger; Diamond, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the application of Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) to the treatment of a 13-year-old female adolescent presenting with high risk of suicide, complicated by a history of depression and sexual trauma. The article begins with an overview of ABFT, including (a) how attachment theory guides treatment; (b) the structure of the clinical model; and (c) the data that provide empirical support. A case example is then presented that exemplifies the primary clinical procedures used to reach therapeutic goals in ABFT, including attachment repair and autonomy/competence promotion. Weekly changes in suicide ideation and depression scores are presented. The article concludes with a discussion about implications for family-based treatment of suicidal youth.

  19. Attracting Girls to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandow, Barbara; Marks, Ann; Borg, Anne

    2009-04-01

    In most countries the number of girls studying physics, as well female physicists in academic positions, is still low. Active recruitment at all levels is essential to change this situation. In some countries a large proportion of students are female, but career progression is difficult. Highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications is a major approach in attracting girls to physics. This paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from the workshop, Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the Third IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, Seoul, 2008.

  20. Y's Girl: increasing body satisfaction among primary school girls.

    PubMed

    Ross, Amy; Paxton, Susan J; Rodgers, Rachel F

    2013-09-01

    To date, effective body image interventions for preadolescent school girls are lacking. The present study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of Y's Girl, a published body image curriculum specifically tailored for preadolescent school girls. A sample of 60 Grade 6 girls with a mean age of 11.25 (range of 11-12) years were allocated either to an intervention or control group and completed baseline and posttest measures of body image, thin-ideal internalization, body comparison, self-esteem, peer factors, and disordered eating. Findings revealed that, compared to the control group, girls receiving the intervention reported improved body image, thin-ideal internalization, body comparisons, and self-esteem at posttest 1 week after the intervention ended. Furthermore, changes in body satisfaction were moderated by initial levels of risk-factors. These findings provide initial support for Y's Girl as an effective, affordable body image intervention for preadolescent girls which can be implemented by teachers.

  1. Girls' dairy intake, energy intake, and weight status.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, Laura M; Ventura, Alison K; Mitchell, Diane C; Smiciklas-Wright, Helen; Birch, Leann L

    2006-11-01

    We explored the relationships among girls' weight status, dairy servings, and total energy intake. The hypothesis that consuming dairy could reduce risk for overweight was evaluated by comparing energy intake and weight status of girls who met or consumed less than the recommended three servings of dairy per day. Participants included 172 11-year-old non-Hispanic white girls, assessed cross-sectionally. Intakes of dairy, calcium, and energy were measured using three 24-hour recalls. Body mass index and body fat measures from dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were obtained. Because preliminary analyses suggested systematic underreporting of energy intake, the relationships among dairy servings and measures of weight status were examined for the total sample and for subsamples of under-, plausible, and overreporters. Data for the total sample provided support for the hypothesized relationship among weight status, dairy servings, and energy intake. Thirty-nine percent of girls reported consuming the recommended >/=3 servings of dairy per day; these girls also reported higher energy intake but had lower body mass index z scores and body fat than the girls who consumed fewer than three dairy servings each day. Among plausible reporters, no relationship between dairy intake and weight status was noted. This discrepancy may be attributable to a high percentage (45%) of overweight underreporters in the total sample. Our findings reveal that reporting bias, resulting from the presence of a substantial proportion of underreporters of higher weight status, can contribute to obtaining spurious associations between dairy intake and weight status. These findings underscore the need for randomly controlled trials to assess the role of dairy in weight management.

  2. Bowel perforation presenting with acute abdominal pain and subcutaneous emphysema in a 14-year-old girl with an abandoned distal peritoneal shunt catheter: case report.

    PubMed

    Riccardello, Gerald J; Barr, Luke K; Bassani, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    The authors report the case of 14-year-old girl with a history of myelomeningocele and previously shunt-treated hydrocephalus who presented with right-sided abdominal pain and subcutaneous emphysema that developed over a 1-week period. A CT scan of the patient's abdomen revealed a retained distal ventriculoperitoneal (VP) catheter with air tracking from the catheter to the upper chest wall. Given the high suspicion of the catheter being intraluminal, an exploratory laparotomy was performed and revealed multiple jejunal perforations. The patient required a partial small-bowel resection and reanastomosis for complete removal of the retained catheter. Six other similar cases of bowel perforation occurring in patients with abandoned VP and subdural-peritoneal shunts have been reported. The authors analyzed these cases with regard to age of presentation, symptomatic presentation, management, morbidity, and mortality. While there was 0% mortality associated with bowel perforation secondary to a retained distal VP catheter, the morbidity was significantly high and included peritonitis and small bowel resection.

  3. Fortuitous FISH diagnosis of an interstitial microdeletion (5)(q31.1q31.2) in a girl suspected to present a cri-du-chat syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mosca, A L; Callier, P; Leheup, B; Marle, N; Jalloul, M; Coffinet, L; Feillet, F; Valduga, M; Jonveaux, P; Mugneret, F

    2007-06-15

    Constitutional interstitial deletions of 5q are relatively rare and most are poorly characterized cytogenetically. Consequently a definite karyotype-phenotype correlation is difficult to establish. We report on a new case of a girl presenting with an abnormal cry, upslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, anteverted nostrils, microretrognathia, growth retardation, and an adenoid cyst at the base of the tongue. The first suspected diagnosis was cri-du-chat syndrome because of the mewing cry. Standard cytogenetic analyses were interpreted as normal, but FISH studies using the probe of cri-du-chat syndrome with the control probe EGR1 (5q31.2)/D5S23 (Abbott) revealed a 5q31.2 microdeletion which was then confirmed by CGH-array (Abbott). FISH studies using PACs and BACs clones (Rocchi, Italia) enabled us to characterize the breakpoints of the deleted region. Cytogenetic analysis with FISH studies revealed a normal karyotype with normal 5q31 region in both parents. This case is compared with the other cases reported in the literature.

  4. A 3-Year-Old Girl with Recurrent Infections and Autoimmunity due to a STAT1 Gain-of-Function Mutation: The Expanding Clinical Presentation of Primary Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Aldave Becerra, Juan Carlos; Cachay Rojas, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    We report a 3-year-old Peruvian girl, born to non-consanguineous parents. At the age of 8 months, she had a severe pneumonia complicated with empyema that required thoracic drainage and mechanical ventilation. Although no microorganisms were isolated, the patient recovered with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Since that date, she has presented multiple episodes of pneumonia and recurrent episodes of bronchospasm. At 1 year 5 months of age, the patient began with recurrent episodes of oropharyngeal, vaginal, and skin candidiasis, which improved transiently after using oral azole drugs. At 2.5 years of age, she was admitted with lupus-like syndrome, including serositis, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and positive antinuclear (1:80) and dsDNA (1:10) autoantibodies. Available immunologic testing was not contributory. Imaging studies revealed bilateral ethmoidal sinusitis and mild hepatomegaly. Bone marrow analysis did not showed evidence of leukemia or myelodysplasia, while renal biopsy concluded mild mesangial proliferation. Genetic studies revealed a pathogenic heterozygous signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 gain-of-function mutation (WT/P293L). The clinical status and lung function of the patient has worsened progressively. She has not achieved an optimal response to therapy, including high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin, GM-CSF, prophylactic antibiotics and antifungal drugs, so we plan to perform hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:28367431

  5. Recurrent abdominal pain as the presentation of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) in an Asian girl: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Ju; Yu, Hsin-Hui; Yang, Yao-Hsu; Lau, Yu-Lung; Lee, Wen-I; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2014-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is characterized by periodic fever, cutaneous rash, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, myalgia, and arthralgia. It is a rare autosomal dominant disease and strongly associated with heterozygous mutations in the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor super family 1A (TNFRSF1A) gene. It is believed to be more common in Western countries than in Asian countries. Here, we present the case of a 14-year-old girl with periodic fever and abdominal pain with elevation of inflammatory markers for 2 years. After extensive work-up of infectious etiology with negative results, the diagnosis of TRAPS was made although no gene mutations were identified in the TNFRSF1A gene, MVK gene, and NALP3/CIAS1 gene. She had partial clinical response to corticosteroids and immunomodulatory agents. However, the treatment response to TNF-α inhibitor etanercept was dramatic. She has remained symptom free under regular weekly to biweekly etanercept treatment for 2 years. We also reviewed the related literature and summarized the data of 10 Asian cases of TRAPS.

  6. Turtle Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles; Ponder, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The day the Turtle Girls received Montel's adoption papers, piercing screams ricocheted across the school grounds instantaneously and simultaneously--in that moment, each student felt the joy of civic stewardship. Read on to find out how a visit to The Turtle Hospital inspired a group of elementary students to create a club devoted to supporting…

  7. Disruptive Behavior and School Grades: Genetic and Environmental Relations in 11-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Disruptive behavior may be associated with poor academic achievement due to covariance with attention problems and low IQ. Evidence is based on clinical samples and on associations between problem behaviors in young children and later achievement difficulties. The contemporaneous relations and their genetic and environmental influences have not…

  8. Individual, family, and neighborhood correlates of independent mobility among 7 to 11-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ian; Ferrao, Thomas; King, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Independent mobility refers to the freedom that children have to move around their neighborhood without adult supervision. It is related to their physical activity and health. We examined the intrapersonal, family, and neighborhood correlates of independent mobility within children. Methods. 497 American parents of 6.9-11.9 year olds completed a survey (November, 2014) that assessed their child's independent mobility range, several intrapersonal characteristics of their child (gender, age, race, etc.), several characteristics of their family (family structure, socioeconomic status, parental physical activity, etc.), and their perceptions of the safety of their neighborhood (18 questions reduced to 4 components). Associations were determined using ordinal logistic regression. Results. Children's age, parent's perception that their neighborhood is safe for children, and parent's fear of neighborhood crime were the independent correlates of independent mobility. Compared to 6.9-7.9 year olds, the odds ratio (95% CI) for increasing independent mobility were 2.31 (1.47-3.64) in 8.0-9.9 year olds and 3.38 (2.13-5.36) in 10.0-11.9 year olds. Compared to children whose parents who did not perceive that their neighborhood was safe for children, the odds ratio for increasing independent mobility was 4.24 (2.68-6.70) for children whose parents perceived their neighborhood was safe for children. Compared to children whose parents had the lowest fear of neighborhood crime, the odds ratio for increasing independent mobility was 0.41 (0.27-0.62) for children whose parents had the highest fear of crime. Conclusions. Children's independent mobility was associated with their age, their parent's perception that their neighborhood was safe for children, and their parent's fear of crime.

  9. Easy Growth Experiment on Peas Stimulates Interest in Biology for 10-11 Year Old Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    How do we support the enthusiasm children show for biology in school? Unfortunately, lack of exciting practical work and boring biology lessons seem to make science less popular. As a senior lecturer in plant physiology at Karlstad University I have simplified experiments intended for students at university and then tested them on 10-11 year old…

  10. Effect of the Great Activity Programme on healthy lifestyle behaviours in 7-11 year olds.

    PubMed

    Morris, John G; Gorely, Trish; Sedgwick, Matthew J; Nevill, Alan; Nevill, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity and dietary variables. In total 378 children (177 intervention, 201 control; age 9.75 ± 0.82 years (mean ± s)) took part in the 7-month intervention comprising: preparation for and participation in 3 highlight events (a dance festival, a walking event and a running event); an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; and vacation activity planners. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers), endurance fitness and dietary variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for data analysis. The increase in physical activity was greater in the intervention group than the control group (steps: 1049 vs 632 daily steps each month; moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) total: 4.6 min · day(-1) · month(-1) vs 1.3 min · day(-1) · month(-1); MVPA bouts: 5.4 min · day(-1) · month(-1) vs 2.6 min · day(-1) · month(-1); all P < 0.05). The increase in multi-stage fitness test distance was greater for intervention participants (46 vs 29 m · month(-1) of intervention, group × month interaction, P < 0.05). There were no differences between groups in dietary variables, body composition, knowledge of healthy lifestyles or psychological variables. Thus an intervention centred around highlight events and including relatively few additional resources can impact positively on the objectively measured physical activity of children.

  11. Psychostimulant and Other Effects of Caffeine in 9- to 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heatherley, Susan V.; Hancock, Katie M. F.; Rogers, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent research on adults suggests that "beneficial" psychostimulant effects of caffeine are found only in the context of caffeine deprivation; that is, caffeine improves psychomotor and cognitive performance in habitual caffeine consumers following caffeine withdrawal. Furthermore, no net benefit is gained because…

  12. [Socioeconomic differences in nutrition and nutritional status in 10-11-year-old boys].

    PubMed

    van Poppel, G; Schneijder, P; Maas, I A; Schrijver, J; Sluiter-van Nies, A A; Kok, F J

    1989-06-17

    The relation between socio-economic status and food consumption and nutritional status was investigated in boys aged 10-11 yr (n = 125) who participated in a survey in 1987. Based on the parents' education and profession, boys were categorized in three levels of socio-economic status. In the lower socio-economic category (n = 59) body mass index and skinfold thickness are higher (p less than 0.05) than in the highest category (n = 41) and caries is more prevalent (83% vs 51%). In comparison with both higher groups, dairy products, vegetables and fruit are less frequently used in the lower category, and consumption of protein, calcium and riboflavin is lower (p less than 0.05). These results indicate an increased risk of caries and obesity in the lower socio-economic group. The other differences clearly have an unfavourable tendency, but do not indicate directly increased risk of nutritional deficiencies or nutrition-related diseases in the lower socio-economic group.

  13. Enthusing the next Generation: A Biology Curriculum for 3-11 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael

    2006-01-01

    There is much that is healthy in school science in the UK but recent years have seen a worrying decline in the numbers choosing to study physical sciences after the age of 16. In an attempt to ensure that this doesn't also happen to the biological sciences, the Biosciences Federation set up a working group to explore how more young people might be…

  14. Imaging Girls: Visual Methodologies and Messages for Girls' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Cathryn; Kirk, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the use of visual methodologies to examine images of girls used by development agencies to portray and promote their work in girls' education, and provides a detailed discussion of three report cover images. It details the processes of methodology and tool development for the visual analysis and presents initial 'readings'…

  15. Attracting girls to physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling

    2013-03-01

    Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.

  16. Involving Girls in Program Evaluations: Girls Study Girls Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Colette

    2005-01-01

    Based on an interview with Dr. PeiYao Chen, a research analyst with Girls Incorporated, this article explores how the "Girls Study Girls Inc." participatory research project was conducted, what it meant for those involved, and what other programs can learn from it.

  17. Attracting Girls Into Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosny, Hala M.; Kahil, Heba M.

    2005-10-01

    From our national statistics, it is evident that in the population of physicists there are considerably fewer women than men. Our role is to attract girls to physics and thus decrease this gap. The institutional structure in Egypt provides an equal opportunity for girls to study sciences, including physics. It is reckoned that girls refrain from studying physics due to a group of social and economic factors. We will discuss teaching physics at schools and present some ideas to develop it. The media should play a role in placing female physicists in the spotlight. Unfortunately, careers that require intellectual skills are considered men's careers. This necessitates that society changes the way it sees women and trusts more in their skills and talents. We therefore call for the cooperation of governmental and nongovernmental bodies, together with universities and the production sectors involved. This will ultimately lead to enhancing the entrepreneurial projects related to physics and technology on the one hand, and will encourage girls to find challenging opportunities on the other.

  18. Estrogen-mediated Height Control in Girls with Marfan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Rimm; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Yoon, Byung-Koo

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a stepwise regimen of estradiol valerate for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome. Eight girls with Marfan syndrome who had completed estrogen treatment for height control were included. Estradiol valerate was started at a dose of 2 mg/day, and then was increased. The projected final height was estimated using the initial height percentile (on a disease-specific growth curve for Korean Marfan syndrome [gcPFHt]), and the initial bone age (baPFHt). After the estrogen treatment, the projected final height was compared to the actual final height (FHt). The median baseline chronological and bone age were 10.0 and 10.5 years, respectively. After a median of 36.5 months of treatment, the median FHt (172.6 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.0 cm) and baPFHt (175.9 cm). In the six patients who started treatment before the age of 11 years, the median FHt (171.8 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.5 cm) and baPFHt (177.4 cm) after treatment. The median differences between the FHt and gcPFHt and baPFHt were 9.2 and 8.3 cm, respectively. In two patients started treatment after the age of 11, the differences between FHt and gcPFHt, and baPFHt after treatment were -4 and 1.4 cm, and -1.2 and 0 cm for each case, respectively. A stepwise increasing regimen of estradiol valerate may be an effective treatment for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome, especially when started under 11 years old. PMID:26839483

  19. Estrogen-mediated Height Control in Girls with Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Yun; Hyun, Hye Sun; Huh, Rimm; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Choi, DooSeok

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a stepwise regimen of estradiol valerate for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome. Eight girls with Marfan syndrome who had completed estrogen treatment for height control were included. Estradiol valerate was started at a dose of 2 mg/day, and then was increased. The projected final height was estimated using the initial height percentile (on a disease-specific growth curve for Korean Marfan syndrome [gcPFHt]), and the initial bone age (baPFHt). After the estrogen treatment, the projected final height was compared to the actual final height (FHt). The median baseline chronological and bone age were 10.0 and 10.5 years, respectively. After a median of 36.5 months of treatment, the median FHt (172.6 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.0 cm) and baPFHt (175.9 cm). In the six patients who started treatment before the age of 11 years, the median FHt (171.8 cm) was shorter than the median gcPFHt (181.5 cm) and baPFHt (177.4 cm) after treatment. The median differences between the FHt and gcPFHt and baPFHt were 9.2 and 8.3 cm, respectively. In two patients started treatment after the age of 11, the differences between FHt and gcPFHt, and baPFHt after treatment were -4 and 1.4 cm, and -1.2 and 0 cm for each case, respectively. A stepwise increasing regimen of estradiol valerate may be an effective treatment for height control in girls with Marfan syndrome, especially when started under 11 years old.

  20. A Girl Like You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a profile of author Gilda O'Neill and a description of how she became a writer. She left school at 15 after being told by a teacher that "girls like her" never became writers. Now a best-selling author, she hopes her work will inspire others to regain the love of learning they lost at school. She always knew that stories…

  1. Reading Self-Efficacy Predicts Word Reading But Not Comprehension in Both Girls and Boys

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Julia M.; Fox, Amy C.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between cognitive skills and reading has been well-established. However, the role of motivational factors such as self-efficacy in reading progress is less clear. In particular, it is not clear how self-efficacy relates to word level reading versus comprehension, and whether this differs in boys and girls. This study examines the relationship between self-efficacy, word reading and reading comprehension across the range of reading abilities after controlling for reading-related cognitive factors. One hundred and seventy nine children (86 males and 93 females) between 8 and 11 years old completed a self-report measure of reading self-efficacy together with measures of reading comprehension and word reading, working memory, auditory short-term memory, phonological awareness, and vocabulary. Boys and girls showed similar levels of attainment and reading self-efficacy. Reading self-efficacy was associated with word reading, but not with reading comprehension in either boys or girls. It is argued that this may reflect important differences between reading self-efficacy and more general measures of reading motivation and engagement. Reading self-efficacy is an element of reading motivation that is closely associated with a child’s perceived attainments in reading and is less susceptible to the gender differences seen in broader measures. PMID:28144223

  2. Reading Self-Efficacy Predicts Word Reading But Not Comprehension in Both Girls and Boys.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Julia M; Fox, Amy C

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between cognitive skills and reading has been well-established. However, the role of motivational factors such as self-efficacy in reading progress is less clear. In particular, it is not clear how self-efficacy relates to word level reading versus comprehension, and whether this differs in boys and girls. This study examines the relationship between self-efficacy, word reading and reading comprehension across the range of reading abilities after controlling for reading-related cognitive factors. One hundred and seventy nine children (86 males and 93 females) between 8 and 11 years old completed a self-report measure of reading self-efficacy together with measures of reading comprehension and word reading, working memory, auditory short-term memory, phonological awareness, and vocabulary. Boys and girls showed similar levels of attainment and reading self-efficacy. Reading self-efficacy was associated with word reading, but not with reading comprehension in either boys or girls. It is argued that this may reflect important differences between reading self-efficacy and more general measures of reading motivation and engagement. Reading self-efficacy is an element of reading motivation that is closely associated with a child's perceived attainments in reading and is less susceptible to the gender differences seen in broader measures.

  3. Preadolescent Violence among Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    This research study explored preadolescent girl-to-girl violence based on the perceptions of the victim at 14 years of age and those of her family. Using a heuristic research design (Moustakas, 1990), this constant comparative analysis of multiple data sources found (a) a clearly delineated progression of girl-to-girl violence, (b) blindness…

  4. A girl with tuberous sclerosis complex presenting with severe epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus during sleep, and with high-functioning autism and mutism.

    PubMed

    Pacheva, Iliyana; Panov, Georgi; Gillberg, Christopher; Neville, Brian

    2014-06-01

    Most patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) suffer from epilepsy, and many have cognitive and behavioral problems like severe intellectual disability, autism, and hyperactivity. Only rare patients with TSC and autism have a normal intelligence quotient. We report a 13-year-old girl with definite TSC who had early-onset severe epilepsy, autistic behavior, and moderate developmental delay. By school age, however, she had normal intelligence; her intelligence quotient was at least 70 based on a Stanford-Binet test that she refused to complete. She showed good reading, writing, and language comprehension skills, and the special abilities of hyperlexia, hypermnesia, and hypercalculia. However, she did not speak. Criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and her Childhood Autism Rating Scale score of 36 indicated mild to moderate autism. She had severe electroencephalographic abnormalities: hypsarrhythmia, multifocal or generalized epileptiform discharges, and electrical status epilepticus during sleep, with a continuous left temporal focus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed many cortical tubers in all brain lobes, and subependymal nodules. We discuss possible explanations for her lack of speech. Considered as speech apraxia, her mutism could be either a symptom of her TSC or a component of her autism. Another possibility is that long-lasting electrical status epilepticus during sleep led to her autistic behavior and language arrest. Still another possibility is that a disinhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was at the root of all of her neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  5. Dysosteosclerosis Presents as an “Osteoclast-Poor” Form of Osteopetrosis: Comprehensive Investigation of a 3-Year-Old Girl and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Michael P; Wenkert, Deborah; McAlister, William H; Novack, Deborah V; Nenninger, Angie R; Zhang, Xiafang; Huskey, Margaret; Mumm, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Dysosteosclerosis (DSS), an extremely rare dense bone disease, features short stature and fractures and sometimes optic atrophy, cranial nerve palsy, developmental delay, and failure of tooth eruption in infancy or early childhood consistent with osteopetrosis (OPT). Bone histology during childhood shows unresorbed primary spongiosa from deficient osteoclast action. Additionally, there is remarkable progressive flattening of all vertebrae and, by adolescence, paradoxical metaphyseal osteopenia with thin cortical bone. Reports of consanguinity indicate autosomal recessive inheritance, yet more affected males than females suggest X-linked recessive inheritance. We investigated a nonconsanguineous girl with DSS. Osteosclerosis was discovered at age 7 months. Our studies, spanning ages 11 to 44 months, showed weight at approximately 50th percentile, and length diminishing from approximately 30th percentile to –2.3 SD. Head circumference was +4 SD. The patient had frontal bossing, blue sclera, normal teeth, genu valgum, and unremarkable joints. Radiographs showed orbital and facial sclerosis, basilar thickening, bone-in-bone appearance of the pelvis, sclerotic long bone ends, and fractures of ribs and extremities. Progressive metaphyseal widening occurred as vertebrae changed from ovoid to flattened and became beaked anteriorly. A hemogram was normal. Consistent with OPT, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations reflected dietary calcium levels. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and TRACP-5b were subnormal. The iliac crest contained excessive primary spongiosa and no osteoclasts. No mutations were identified in the splice sites or exons for the genes encoding chloride channel 7, T-cell immune regulator 1, OPT-associated transmembrane protein 1, and monocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor C-FMS, ANKH, OPG, RANK, and RANKL. Genomic copy-number microarray was unrevealing. Hence, DSS is a distinctive OPT of unknown etiology featuring

  6. Girls back off mathematics again: the views and experiences of girls in computer-based mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vale, Colleen

    2002-12-01

    The views and experiences of girls in two co-educational mathematics classrooms in which computers were regularly used were researched. Data were collected by observation and videotaping of lessons, questionnaire, and interviews of students and the teachers. In this paper case studies of six girls are presented. Their `stories' reveal a diversity of experiences and views and multiple gender identities. High achieving girls persisted as "outsiders within," other girls "backed off", and exceptional girls challenged gender stereotypes. Implications for social justice in mathematics in the age of the super highway are discussed.

  7. Girls and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Article Body The fact that many more boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD—at a ... many parents and teachers that ADHD is a “boys’ disorder” that rarely occurs in girls. In fact, ...

  8. Simultaneous, Bilateral Ophthalmoplegia as the Presenting Sign of Paediatric Multiple Sclerosis: Case Report and Discussion of the Differential Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Murtaza K.; Krespan, Kelly; Moster, Mark L.; Sergott, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An 11-year-old female developed bilateral oculomotor nerve palsies without pupillary involvement and bilateral optic neuropathy as the presenting signs of paediatric multiple sclerosis (MS). Although ocular mono-neuropathies have been reported, this is the first bilateral mono-neuropathy reported in a paediatric patient due to MS. The differential diagnosis and evaluation for bilateral ophthalmoplegia are discussed in detail. PMID:27928305

  9. Atypical severe combined immunodeficiency caused by a novel homozygous mutation in Rag1 gene in a girl who presented with pyoderma gangrenosum: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Patiroglu, Turkan; Akar, H Haluk; Gilmour, Kimberly; Ozdemir, M Akif; Bibi, Shahnaz; Henriquez, Frances; Burns, Siobhan O; Unal, Ekrem

    2014-10-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a heterogeneous group of inherited defects involving the development of T- and/or B-lymphocytes. We report a female with atypical severe combined immunodeficiency caused by a novel homozygous mutation at cDNA position 2290 (c.2290C > T) in exon 2 of the RAG1 gene. The patient presented with bronchopneumonia, pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), pancytopenia and splenomegaly. She presented to us with pancytopenia and splenomegaly at the age of 11. Her condition was complicated by PG on left lower ankle at the age of 12. She experienced bronchopneumonia at the age of 15. She was diagnosed with RAG1 deficiency at the age of 16. Her immunological presentation included leucopenia and diminished number of B cells.

  10. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.

  11. The Rural Girls in Science Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginorio, Angela B.; Fournier, Janice; Frevert, Katie

    2004-01-01

    The rural girls in science program presented a comprehensive model of the entire scientific process. National Science Foundation funded a program, which targeted girls in rural schools serving American Indian or Latina, who are less fortunate than American students of Washington State.

  12. A Novel Frameshift Mutation of the ALDOB Gene in a Korean Girl Presenting with Recurrent Hepatitis Diagnosed as Hereditary Fructose Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hae-Won; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Oh, Seak Hee; Kim, Kyung Mo; Ryu, Jeong-Min; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is an autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by a deficiency in fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (Aldolase B). Children can present with hypoglycemia, jaundice, elevated liver enzymes and hepatomegaly after intake of dietary fructose. Long-term intake of fructose in undiagnosed patients can result in hepatic failure or renal failure. We experienced a case of hereditary fructose intolerance presenting as recurrent hepatitis-like episodes. Detailed evaluation of her dietary habits revealed her avoidance of sweetened foods and fruits. Genetic analysis of ALDOB revealed that she is a homozygote for a novel frameshifting mutation c[758_759insT]+[758_759insT] (p.[val25 3fsX24]+[val253fsX24]). This report is the first of a Korean patient diagnosed with hereditary fructose intolerance using only molecular testing without undergoing intravenous fructose tolerance test or enzyme assay.

  13. Girls' Bodies, Drama and Unruliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This article examines some of the performance outcomes from a practised-based research project that took place with adolescent girls attending an after-school drama club. Participants experimented with slapstick humour in a series of workshops, before presenting their own devised physical comedy performance for a live audience. Comic performances…

  14. Parent's Guide to Girls' Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutko, Thomas

    This pamphlet provides guidelines for parents in encouraging their daughters to participate in and enjoy athletic activities. Brief discussions are presented on: (1) the value of sport; (2) girls' needs at different age levels; (3) guidelines for supportive behavior; (4) special needs of the female athlete; (5) parent/child/coach relationship; (6)…

  15. Music Therapy: A Therapeutic Intervention for Girls with Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Kathleen A.

    The paper reviews music therapy, the educational background of music therapists, music therapy's various settings, and its use as an intervention with girls with Rett Syndrome. Sample music therapy programs for three girls (aged 5, 14, and 20 years) with Rett Syndrome are presented. The sample programs provide: student descriptions; the girls'…

  16. What's Sexy? Adolescent Girls Discuss Confidence, Danger, and Media Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon; Farmer, Kaelin M.; Kosterina, Elena; Lambe Sariñana, Susan; Plocha, Aleksandra; Randazzo, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Building on qualitative research about sexualisation by media and culture and the impact on girls' development, in this article we present a discourse analysis of three focus groups of teen girls of colour and of diverse ethnicities asked to talk about sexiness. We focus on the ways the girls both support and resist hegemonic discourses about…

  17. Girls Leading Outward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  18. Puberty in girls

    MedlinePlus

    ... hips and breasts than when you were a little girl. Expect Lots of Body Changes Your body makes ... wonder when you will get your period. Usually girls get their period about 2 years after their ... (this is what could happen with unprotected sex), the egg may plant itself into this uterus ...

  19. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy…

  20. Protecting Black Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  1. Lexical-semantic body knowledge in 5- to 11-year-old children: How spatial body representation influences body semantics.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Laurent; Jambaqué, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the relation between lexico-semantic body knowledge (i.e., body semantics) and spatial body representation (i.e., structural body representation) by analyzing naming performances as a function of body structural topography. One hundred and forty-one children ranging from 5 years 2 months to 10 years 5 months old were asked to provide a lexical label for isolated body part pictures. We compared the children's naming performances according to the location of the body parts (body parts vs. head features and also upper vs. lower limbs) or to their involvement in motor skills (distal segments, joints, and broader body parts). The results showed that the children's naming performance was better for facial body parts than for other body parts. Furthermore, it was found that the naming of body parts was better for body parts related to action. These findings suggest that the development of a spatial body representation shapes the elaboration of semantic body representation processing. Moreover, this influence was not limited to younger children. In our discussion of these results, we focus on the important role of action in the development of body representations and semantic organization.

  2. Time-of-day effects on short-term exercise performances in 10- to 11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Souissi, Hichem; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Dogui, Mohamed; Amri, Mohamed; Souissi, Nizar

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the time-of-day effects on short-term performances in boys. In a balanced and randomized study design, 20 boys performed four anaerobic tests of strength and power (grip strength, Squat-Jump, Five-jump and cycle Wingate tests) at 08:00, 14:00 and 18:00 hr on separate days. The results showed a time-of-day effect on oral temperature. Analysis of variance revealed a significant time-of-day effect for short-term performances for strength, cycle, and jump tests. The post hoc analysis revealed that performances improved significantly from morning to afternoon but no significant differences were noticed between 14:00 and 18:00 hr. The differences between the morning and the afternoon (the highest value measured either at 14:00 or at 18:00 hr) reached 5.9% for grip strength, 3.5% for the squat jump test, 5% for the five jump test, and 5.5% for P(peak) and 6% for P(mean) during the Wingate test. A significant positive correlation was found between temperature and short-term performances. In conclusion, a time-of-day effect in the child's maximal short-term exercise performances exists in relation with core temperature. Such variations would have pronounced effects when expressed in training programs and competitions.

  3. Acquired torticollis due to primary pyomyositis of the paraspinal muscles in an 11-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Ray, S; Iyer, A; Avula, S; Kneen, R

    2016-03-18

    Torticollis is characterised by tilting and rotation of the cervical spine in opposite directions. Causes can be congenital or acquired. Primary pyomyositis is a rare subacute deep bacterial infection of skeletal muscles that typically affects individuals under 20 years of age from tropical countries. Infrequently, pyomyositis occurs in individuals from temperate regions, usually in immunocompromised adults, and this is defined as secondary pyomyositis. We report a case of acquired torticollis due to primary pyomyositis of the paraspinal muscles in a previously healthy boy from the UK. A prolonged course of antibiotics and physiotherapy led to a complete resolution of his illness. We review how to differentiate pyomyositis from focal myositis, a more common inflammatory muscular cause of acquired torticollis.

  4. [Validity of an instrument for assessing food consumption, food habits and cooking skills in 8-11 years old students].

    PubMed

    Lera, Lydia; Fretes, Gabriela; González, Carmen Gloria; Salinas, Judith; Vio del Rio, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: Para medir cambios en prácticas alimentarias, se requieren instrumentos que midan conocimiento, consumo, habilidades culinarias, hábitos y gastos en alimentos en las escuelas. Objetivo: Validar un instrumento que permita medir cambios en conocimiento, consumo, habilidades culinarias, hábitos y gastos en niños de 8 a 11 años, de tercero a quinto básico, en escuelas públicas de Chile. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de validación de un cuestionario de 42 preguntas de conocimiento, consumo, habilidades culinarias, hábitos y gastos en la escuela. Se realizó en dos etapas: la primera en 45 niños para evaluar la estabilidad temporal, concordancia y consistencia interna. La segunda fue aplicar el instrumento modificado con los resultados de la primera etapa en 90 niños para medir consistencia interna. Resultados: El cuestionario aplicado en los 45 niños mostró estabilidad temporal, concordancia y consistencia interna aceptables para habilidades culinarias, hábitos y gastos en la escuela. La consistencia fue buena para frecuencia de consumo, pero mala en conocimiento. En la validación final con 90 niños, se confirmó la buena consistencia para frecuencia de consumo y mala para conocimiento. Se observó que aquellos niños con habilidades culinarias, consumen más alimentos saludables y los que gastan más dinero en la escuela, consumen menos alimentos saludables. Conclusiones: Al instrumento se le quitaron las preguntas de conocimiento, quedando con 28 preguntas de consumo, habilidades culinarias, hábitos y gasto en alimentos en las escuelas. Este instrumento es útil para medir cambios en intervenciones educativas en alimentación y nutrición en niños de 8 a 11 años.

  5. The Effects of Playground Markings on the Physical Self-Perceptions of 10-11-Year-Old School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crust, Lee; McKenna, Jim; Spence, Jon; Thomas, Catherine; Evans, Donna; Bishop, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Significant proportions of school children in the UK do not meet the minimum recommended daily requirements of 60-min moderate-intensity physical activity. Beyond taught classes, playtimes offer the opportunity for children to play and be physically active. Painted markings are one recent addition to school playgrounds that are…

  6. An 11-year-old boy with silico-tuberculosis attributable to secondary exposure to sandstone mining in central India.

    PubMed

    Murlidhar, V

    2015-06-23

    Silicosis from secondary exposure is not often reported. This is the first such report of a child with possible silicosis attributable to secondary exposure to sandstone mining in India. Silicosis from secondary exposure has been reported in the gem polishing and slate pencil manufacturing industries in India; however, the stone-mining industry is severely under-researched. No preventive measures have been instituted in the stone-mining industry and children are exposed to respirable silica dust when their mothers take them to their work places. Poverty and lack of accessibility to modern medical facilities promote malnutrition and tuberculosis, two known co-morbid conditions. Stone mining, an export-oriented industry, produces billions of dollars of foreign currency every year. Although there is legislation to protect workers from exploitation, employers disregard the law and the state turns a blind eye by not implementing proper enforcement mechanisms. Silicosis from environmental exposure affects the entire community that lives in stone-mining areas.

  7. The Resources and Strategies that 10--11-Year-Old Boys Use to Construct Masculinities in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Jon

    2004-01-01

    The data in this article come from an ethnographic exploration into the construction of masculinities in three junior schools in the UK between 1998 and 1999. The author argues that the construction and performance of masculinity is inextricably linked to the acquisition of status within the school peer group, and he delineates the specific series…

  8. Effect of a school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles in 7–11 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Gorely, Trish; Nevill, Mary E; Morris, John G; Stensel, David J; Nevill, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is recognised as a public health concern within children and interventions to increase physical activity are needed. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, body composition, knowledge, and psychological variables. Method A non-randomised controlled study involving 8 primary schools (4 intervention, 4 control). Participants were 589 children aged 7–11 years. The intervention lasted 10 months and comprised a CD-rom learning and teaching resource for teachers; an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; two highlight physical activity events (1 mile school runs/walks); a local media campaign; and a summer activity wall planner and record. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers) and fruit and vegetable consumption. Secondary outcomes included body mass index, waist circumference, estimated percent body fat, knowledge, psychological variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for the data analysis. Results Relative to children in control schools, those in intervention schools significantly increased their total time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (by 9 minutes/day vs a decrease of 10 minutes/day), their time in MVPA bouts lasting at least one minute (10 minutes/day increase vs no change) and increased daily steps (3059 steps per day increase vs 1527 steps per day increase). A similar pattern of results was seen in a subset of the least active participants at baseline. Older participants in intervention schools showed a significant slowing in the rate of increase in estimated percent body fat, BMI, and waist circumference. There were no differences between groups in fruit and vegetable intake. Extrinsic motivation decreased more in the intervention group. Conclusion The intervention produced positive changes in physical activity levels and body composition. It appeared to have little or no effect on consumption of fruit and vegetables. Schools are a suitable setting for the promotion of healthy lifestyles although more work, particularly focussed on dietary change, is needed in a variety of schools and social settings. PMID:19154622

  9. Guiding Readers--Layers of Meaning: A Handbook for Teaching Reading Comprehension to 7-11-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennent, Wayne; Reedy, David; Hobsbaum, Angela; Gamble, Nikki

    2016-01-01

    How can teachers foster good reading in pupils aged 7-11? This book explains the way to do it. What is this book about? Reading comprehension is so much more than just reading words, and this book explains how to develop all aspects of it for pupils aged 7-11. Written by top experts in the field, it includes eleven in-depth case studies--taken…

  10. Validation of a Group-Administered Pictorial Dietary Recall with 9- to 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Victoria; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Auld, Garry; Romaniello, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Determine validity of Day in the Life Questionnaire-Colorado (DILQ-CO) as a dietary assessment tool for classroom-administered use. Methods: Agreement between DILQ-CO responses and weighed plate waste measured in 125 fourth-grade students in 2 low-income schools. Validity assessed by comparing reported school lunch items and portion…

  11. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  12. A Ray of Hope for Girls in Trouble: Alternative Education Services in a Singapore Girls' Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Wu, Deirdra I-Hwey

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a trans-cultural perspective of emotional/behavioral difficulties and a brief overview of the subculture of today's young adolescent girls. Features of successful alternative education services provided at a Singapore girls' home are also presented. This paper concludes with a consideration of implications for teachers and…

  13. Future Girls, Transcendent Femininities and New Pedagogies: Toward Girls' Hybrid Bodies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzarito, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Media provides a material site for girls' identity formation and presents conflicting images of femininity, which challenge young women's self-expression and physicality development. The "problem" with girls' physicality has not been resolved, but rather complicated by discourses of new femininities in sport, fitness and health promoted…

  14. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  15. Health and human rights of adolescent girls in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Heisler, M; Rasekh, Z; Iacopino, V

    1999-01-01

    Physicians for Human Rights (PHR) conducted a study in early 1998 to assess the health and human rights conditions of Afghan women and girls living under the Taliban regime in Kabul. This paper highlights the concerns and experiences of adolescent girls in Kabul, includes a brief overview of the political situation in Afghanistan and Taliban policies toward women and girls, and presents findings from interviews with adolescent girls and women with adolescent daughters. It concludes with a discussion of current international standards for the protection of women's and girls' rights and the crucial role of health professionals in helping defend these rights.

  16. Concurrent fibroadenoma and intraductal papilloma - A recurring complex lesion in a premenarcheal girl.

    PubMed

    Alessandrini, Lara; Gobbi, Dalia; Zanon, Giovanni Franco; Dall'Igna, Patrizia; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Alaggio, Rita

    2013-02-15

    Breast diseases are rare in childhood and adolescence, most lesions being fibroadenomas and papillomas. We report the case of an 11-year old girl with a complex breast lesion with hybrid features of fibroadenoma and intraductal papilloma with an early recurrence. Microscopically, the lesion was composed of dilated ducts showing intraluminal papillary projections with small to broad fibrovascular stalks. The typical leaf-like appearance of fibroadenoma was determined by the presence at the periphery of ducts compressed and distorted by the prominent stromal component. Despite its florid epithelial hyperplasia and mild cytological atypia (more evident in the relapse), immunohistochemical staining for p63 and smooth muscle actin highlighted a continuum outer myoepithelial layer, confirming the non-invasive appearance of the lesion. Two pathogenetic links have been hypothesized: one is based on the morphological continuum between these two entities, which may represent different evolutive stages in the same lesion; the other is based on epithelial/mesenchymal interactions. The possible malignant transformation of such complex lesion is also discussed, along with its differential diagnoses. The relevance of this case lies in its rarity, as well as in the therapeutic strategies related to its biological potential and to the necessity of a conservative treatment, due to the young age of the patient.

  17. Girls, Cars, and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Beth

    2005-03-01

    For the past two summers, I have run an NSF-funded residential camp for girls ages 14-17. This camp is designed to stimulate girls' interest in science by building on their interest in automobiles. The girls spend half the day in hands-on work with cars at Morrisville State College. The other half of the day is dedicated to laboratory exercises at Colgate University that have been designed to help girls learn the science behind the operation of cars. While it is impossible to assess the long-range impact of this program after only two years, the results seem promising. I will discuss the camp program, with particular emphasis on the laboratory experiments that have been developed, which could easily be incorporated into standard high school or college laboratories.

  18. A Girl Is No Girl Is a Girl_: Girls-Work after Queer Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busche, Mart

    2013-01-01

    This contribution gives an overview over 40 years of girls-work in Germany. It highlights certain topics and theoretical implications and emphasises especially the realisation of queer theory and deconstructivism in the last 10 years. (Contains 4 notes.)

  19. Changing Girls' Education in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…

  20. Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Carolyn L.

    This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…

  1. Boys as Only-Children and Girls as Only-Children--Parental Gendered Expectations of the Only-Child in the Nuclear Chinese Family in Present-Day China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Fengshu

    2006-01-01

    Studies on the effect of only-child status on girls' education indicate that the only-child policy has had an unintended consequence of engendering a child-centered culture with a strong belief and shared interest among the urban community in educating the only-child regardless of the child's sex. As the distribution of education by sex is…

  2. "Girls Are Worse": Drama Queens, Ghetto Girls, Tomboys, and the Meaning of Girl Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a race-class-gender intersectional approach to analyze qualitative interviews with girls at two public high schools to better understand a common perception that "girls are worse" when it comes to school fights. Several different understandings of why girls fight emerged from the data. On one hand, girls' perception of…

  3. Building positive life skills the Smart Girls way: evaluation of a school-based sexual responsibility program for adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Graves, Kelly N; Sentner, Annette; Workman, Jean; Mackey, Wanda

    2011-05-01

    In response to the public health epidemic of teenage pregnancy, the present study investigated a new, gender-specific, school-based approach to adolescent pregnancy prevention for middle school girls called Smart Girls Life Skills Training(©) (Smart Girls). Participants included 854 students (633, experimental group; 221, control group) across three time points to assess change in social sexuality expectations, personal/self sexuality expectations, perceived susceptibility, and parent-adolescent communication. Girls who received the Smart Girls curriculum increased their personal/self sexuality expectations and improved some aspects of their parent-adolescent communication compared to control group participants. The evaluation provides initial evidence that Smart Girls is at least partially effective at changing personal/self sexuality expectations and parent-adolescent communication for middle school girls. Implications, recommendations, and next steps for school-based teen pregnancy prevention programs are offered.

  4. Girls Study Girls Inc.: engaging girls in evaluation through participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiyao; Weiss, Faedra Lazar; Nicholson, Heather Johnston

    2010-09-01

    Between 2004 and 2007, Girls Incorporated conducted research about the experience of five affiliates from different parts of the United States as they engaged with girls in Girls Study Girls Inc., a participatory evaluation project that explored the meaning and impact of Girls Inc. environments and uncovered ways such environments can be improved. We describe the context and motivation for using participatory action research [PAR] in Girls Inc. environments and discuss the relevance and importance of PAR for organizations that empower girls and young women. We explain the process of training and engaging Girls Inc. members in research, discuss the effectiveness of Girls Study Girls Inc. as an evaluation strategy, and conclude this article with lessons learned and recommendations for using PAR in evaluating youth development programs.

  5. The Girl Game Company: Engaging Latina Girls in Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Jill; Bean, Steve; Martinez, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Girl Game Company's involvement in teaching Latina girls to design and program computer games while building a network of support to help them pursue IT courses and careers. Afterschool programs like the Girl Game Company can fill an important gap by providing opportunities for underserved youth to build IT fluency. A…

  6. Digital Media and "Girling" at an Elite Girls' School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Claire

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Judith Butler's notion of performativity to investigate the role of digital technologies in processes of gendered subjectification (or "girling") in elite girls' education. Elite girls' schooling is a site where the potential of digital technologies in mediating student-led constructions and explorations of…

  7. Girl-to-Girl Violence: The Voice of the Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2008-01-01

    School violence is not gender-exclusive to boys; girls are also capable of violence. Research shows that girl-to-girl violence stems from competition for male attention and tends to be relational in nature, which typically takes the form of social alienation, spreading of rumors, and otherwise manipulating the victim's peer group. By proactively…

  8. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cause Donate Now Retailers Team Up to Support Boys & Girls Clubs of America During Holiday Season Sixteen ... back to nation’s leading advocate for youth MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America and the UPS Foundation ...

  9. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Near You. Find a Club Clubs Change Lives. Boys & Girls Clubs help millions of kids and teens ... data More About Our Impact Celebrate in April! Boys & Girls Clubs will join the military community in ...

  10. Girls and Physics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, M. B.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Secondary school students' attitudes toward science or the sciences were determined with specially constructed scales and from records relating to student enrollment in science courses. Emphasis is placed on factors which influence girls to enroll in physical science courses vs biological science courses. (SA)

  11. The Goose Girl Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Janice H.

    1989-01-01

    Uses fairy tale of the goose girl to explain administrative behaviors designed to keep well-intentioned, misguided females away from the action. Notes that in administration it is necessary to be more assertive, that one must recognize the differences between the demands and privileges of the administrative and nonadministrative tasks. (NB)

  12. Girls in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Three years ago, the San Diego Zoo embarked on a new crusade--to introduce opportunities in the scientific realm to a small, diverse population of girls at a local inner-city, low-income junior high school. Researchers from the National Council for Research on Women found that mentoring programs and the opportunity to perform active science are…

  13. Japanese Girls and Guns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Laurie

    2007-01-01

    Prior to a teaching assignment at Miyazaki Women's Junior College in 1993, the author accepted a 6-month contract to teach in the women's high school of the Miyazaki Educational Institute. In this article, she shares her first-day experience with a class of fifteen Miyazaki Girls' High School freshmen on their first lesson, a question-and-answer…

  14. GO-GIRL Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Enora

    2010-01-01

    The GO-GIRL Program is a unique project, characterized by its ability to bring together pivotal elements within a youth-intervention program and foster collaboration between university and local communities in large and moderate-size urban areas through service learning. Designed to bolster the social-skill development, educational outcomes, and…

  15. Academe's New Girl Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Angela

    1978-01-01

    A "networking" processing pioneered by the Committee for the Concerns of Women in New England Colleges and Universities, which is establishing a New Girl network to compete with and eventually mesh with the Old Boy system, is described. Lobbying and conference efforts of HERS (Higher Education Resource Services) are reported. (LBH)

  16. Stage Costumes for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhowe, Jean

    This book contains full instructions for making 14 costumes for girls to fit any sizes up to about 147 cm (4 feet 10 inches) in height. All the garments can be made to fit any child's individual measurements without the need of complicated pattern pieces. Simple basic shapes such as rectangles and circles are used for the patterns and the only…

  17. Of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, much has been written about threats to boys' and girls' healthy participation in dance. This Viewpoints essay considers some of the causes and proposed remedies, which focus almost exclusively on the roles and responsibilities of dance educators and administrators. I suggest that what is missing from recent research,…

  18. Scientific Temper among Academically High and Low Achieving Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kour, Sunmeet

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the scientific temper of high and low achieving adolescent girl students. Random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from various high schools of District Srinagar. The sample for the present study consisted of 120 school going adolescent girls (60 high and 60 low achievers). Data was…

  19. Helping Girls Who Hate PE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2008

    2008-01-01

    A new website is helping girls who doubt their athletic abilities: www.ihategymclass.com. The website encourages girls through articles and an advice column, where girls can bring issues related to sports that they might be embarrassed to take to peers or a physical education teacher. Website founder Heather E. Schwartz says she wanted to reach…

  20. Puberty and Girls' Sexuality: Why Hormones Are Not the Complete Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Sontag, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    The psychosocial impact of puberty on changes in girls' feelings about their bodies and their sexuality is discussed. We present a model of girls' sexuality development that incorporates puberty, self, and peer systems. (Contains 2 figures.)

  1. Pubertal Timing and Its Link to Behavioral and Emotional Problems among "At-Risk" African American Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rona; Jaccard, James; Silverman, Wendy K.; Pina, Armando A.

    2009-01-01

    Using an "at-risk" sample of African American girls, the present study examined the link between girls' retrospective reports of pubertal timing, girls' perceived relative pubertal timing, and their behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the girls themselves (N = 102; 11-17 years), as well as teachers and parents. Structural equation…

  2. FLEDGE-ling: A Science Program for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Ingrid; Snow, Eleanour; Bell, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Presents the planning, implementation, and assessment of a four-week summer program entitled Florida Education in Geology and Ecology: FLEDGE-ling Camp for Girls. Exit surveys and follow-up interviews proved that girls learned most from field and hands-on activities. Outcomes included a change in view of science and scientists and an increase in…

  3. Raising Their Voices: The Politics of Girls' Anger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel

    Challenging conventional characterization of teenage girlhood as a wasteland of depression, low self-esteem, and passive victimhood, this book presents accounts of young girls showing how their voices are shaped and constrained by socioeconomic class. Based on a year-long study involving conversations with white adolescent girls from the working…

  4. A Great Balancing Act: Equitable Education for Girls and Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Anne

    This book presents recent research-based information about educationally relevant gender-related differences between girls and boys and how they are taught and perceived in society. The book offers practical suggestions on how to avoid trammeling either girls or boys, how to overcome negative aspects of gender-stereotyping, and how to maximize…

  5. The All-American Girls' Baseball League, 1943-1954.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Merrie A.

    This presentation provides an historical sketch of the All-American Girls' Baseball League (AAGBBL). The League was created in 1942 as the All-American Girls' Softball League, by Philip K. Wrigley. He initiated the League as a non-profit organization governed by a board of three trustees. Mr. Wrigley's basic motivation for creating the AAGSBL was…

  6. The maintenance of regional dialects: a matter of gender? Boys, but not girls, use local varieties in relation to their friends' nativeness and local identity

    PubMed Central

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Martin, Nathael; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The linguistic diversity enduring beyond institutional pressures and social prejudices against non-standard dialects questions the social forces influencing language maintenance across generations and how children contribute to this process. Children encounter multi-dialectal interactions in their early environment, and increasing evidence shows that the acquisition of sociolinguistic variation is not a side issue but an inherent part of the general acquisition process. Despite these recent advances in sociolinguistic acquisition, children's sociolinguistic uses remain under-studied in relation to peer social networks and the ability to use dialect for identity purposes. Our study focused on a grammatical sociolinguistic variable consisting of the alternation between a regional and a standard variant of the third person object pronoun in French. The regional variant is a remnant of the Francoprovençal language and its usage by adults is strongly associated with local identity in the French Alps. We described, using questionnaires, the social networks of 117 10–11 year-old girls and boys living in the same restricted rural area. Thirteen native target children (7 girls and 6 boys) were selected from the sample, as well as 39 same-sex friends chosen according to their place of birth (native vs. non-native) and the duration of their friendship with the targets (number of years they have known each other). The target children were recorded during spontaneous dyadic conversations during free play at school with each category of friends. Target boys, but not girls, used the regional variant significantly more frequently with their long-term native friends than with their non-native friends. This adjustment mirrored their partners' uses. Moreover, with long-term native friends, boys used the regional variant twice as frequently as girls. Boys appeared thus as key actors in the maintenance and the diffusion of regional cues in local social networks. PMID:25400617

  7. Facilitating Career Development for Girls and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Vocational Guidance Association, Washington, DC.

    Selections from papers given at a 1973 workshop held at Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, are presented. Seventy-nine participants gathered to search out new insights into the changing world of girls and women. A forword by Carl McDaniels and an introduction by Thelma Lennon precede the 12 papers, which include: (1) Historical…

  8. Sex Equity: Increasing Girls' Use of Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockheed, Marlaine E.; Frakt, Steven B.

    1984-01-01

    Indicates that although computer science has been free of male domination, the stereotype of computers as male machines is emerging with increasing growth in microcomputer use by children. Factors that account for this development and some strategies teachers can adopt to equalize computer use by boys and girls are presented. (MBR)

  9. Book Series Helps Girls Fight Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (2003-2004) revealed that approximately 18% of children 6-to-19 years old are overweight. The Beacon Street Girls brand was specifically designed to entertain while providing healthy role models and positive messages. This article presents a study that tested whether an…

  10. Cholas, Mexican-American Girls, and Gangs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary G.

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 21 present and former female gang members illustrate the lives of Mexican American girls in the gang milieu of the San Fernando Valley (Los Angeles, California). Gang structure, activities, and reasons for joining are discussed, along with the gang as a source of support. (SLD)

  11. Predicting mandibular growth increment on the basis of cervical vertebral dimensions in Iranian girls

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this longitudinal study was to establish an equation to predict incremental mandibular length on the basis of the analysis of the cervical vertebrae on a single cephalometric radiograph and to compare the predictive accuracy with the method by Mito et al. Methods Data consist of a group of 33 Iranian girls, 9 to 11 years old with two lateral cephalometric radiographs taken at a 24-month interval. For each individual, on the lateral cephalometric radiographs, points and lines for the description of the morphologic characteristics of the third and fourth cervical vertebral bodies were traced and measured. The real mandibular length increment (MLI) in this period was determined by the difference between the second (24 months) and first (baseline) radiographs: MLI = Ar-Pog (second) − Ar-Pog (first). An equation was determined to calculate mandibular length increments on the basis of the measurements in the third and fourth cervical vertebral bodies. The predictive accuracy was assessed using multiple regression analysis. Results The adjusted R2 for this equation was 54.9% which is a reliable value for evaluating prediction accuracy .The average error between the predicted increment and the actual increment was 0.149 mm for our method and 5.87 mm for the method by Mito et al. Discussion There are two items that contributed to easier and better prediction accuracy in our equation: (1) higher R2 and (2) fewer independent variables. In our subjects, the prediction accuracy was lower when using Mito et al.'s method, which could be due to genetic and environmental factors and selected age range. Conclusion These results indicate that cervical vertebral measurements, obtained in lateral cephalograms, are able to predict properly the mandibular growth potential. PMID:24326181

  12. Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis and other severe drug eruptions from over the counter medications: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kline, Amy; Fischer, Gayle

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis in an 11-year-old girl who used Duro-Tuss, an over-the-counter cough mixture containing pholcodine, and present a comprehensive review of the literature on severe drug reactions resulting from using non-prescription medications. This case reinforces the importance of taking a complete medication history.

  13. Counseling Adolescent Girls for Body Image Resilience: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2007-01-01

    Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…

  14. Learning to Negotiate Sexual Relationships: A Girls' School in Tanzania as a Restrictive and Agentic Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemsen, Laura Wangsness; DeJaeghere, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Literature on schooling in Africa often frames sexual relationships as threatening girls' educational participation, health, and general well-being. Schooling practices aimed at sheltering girls reflect the prevalence of discourses emphasising danger and abstinence. This article presents the case of one all-girls school in Tanzania which provides…

  15. Baseline and Modulated Acoustic Startle Responses in Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschitz, Deborah S.; Mayes, Linda M.; Rasmusson, Ann M.; Anyan, Walter; Billingslea, Eileen; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Southwick, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess baseline and modulated acoustic startle responses in adolescent girls with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Twenty-eight adolescent girls with PTSD and 23 healthy control girls were recruited for participation in the study. Acoustic stimuli were bursts of white noise of 104 dB presented biaurally through…

  16. Turn Off the TV and Dance! Participation in Culturally Tailored Health Interventions: Implications for Obesity Prevention among Mexican American Girls

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Kathryn J.; Mendoza, Sonia; Fernández, María; Haydel, K. Farish; Fujimoto, Michelle; Tirumalai, Evelyn C.; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Our evaluation study identifies facilitators and barriers to participation among families participating in the treatment arm of Stanford ECHALE. This culturally tailored obesity prevention trial consisted of a combined intervention with two main treatment components: 1) a folkloric dance program; and 2) a screen time reduction curriculum designed for 7–11 year old Latinas and their families. We conducted 83 interviews (40 parents and 43 girls) in participant homes after 6 months of enrollment in the ECHALE trial. The Spradley ethnographic method and NVivo 8.0 were used to code and analyze narrative data. Three domains emerged for understanding participation: 1) family cohesiveness; 2) perceived gains; and 3) culturally relevant program structure. Two domains emerged for non-participation: program requirements and perceived discomforts. Non-parametric, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the relationships with participant attendance data. Sustained participation was most strongly influenced by the domain perceived gains when parents reported better self-esteem, confidence, improved attitude, improved grades, etc. (Spearman r=.45, P=.003). Alternatively, under the domain, perceived discomforts, with subthemes such as child bullying, participation in the combined intervention was inversely associated with attendance (Spearman r=.38, P=.02). Family-centered, school-based, community obesity prevention programs that focus on tangible short-term gains for girls may generate greater participation rates, enhance social capital, and promote community empowerment. These factors can be emphasized in future obesity prevention program design and implementation. (Ethn Dis. 2013; 23[4]:452–461) PMID:24392608

  17. Changing Girls' Education in Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provasnik, Stephen; Brush, Lorie; Heyman, Cory; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Guatemala's school completion rates are among the lowest in Latin America and are particularly low in rural indigenous areas ravaged by 36 years of civil conflict. In 1997, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity, known as Proyecto Global in Guatemala, to increase the percentage of girls who complete fifth grade, especially in rural areas and…

  18. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  19. Adolescent Girls Face the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffee, Lynn; Bergeron, Suzie

    1994-01-01

    This article is the final report on a study of adolescent girls which explored the relationship between physical activity and self-esteem. Two earlier phases of the study collected data on girls aged 9 to 12 years (n=76) and aged 12 to 17 years (n=67). A questionnaire explored: (1) confidence and perceived competence; (2) sports and activity…

  20. Are Girls Behaving like Boys?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Rosie

    2008-01-01

    This article explores some of the issues that have given rise to the perception of an increase in aggressive behaviour by females. It asserts that merely comparing girls' behaviour with that of boys, especially the claim that "girls are behaving like boys", trivialises the very real issues associated with females and aggression. This paper will…

  1. Gender Dysphoria and Sexual Abuse: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Kenneth J.; Kuksis, Myra

    1990-01-01

    A case report is presented in which an 11-year-old boy's desire to be a girl and to have his penis removed are shown to follow the initiation of sexual contact by his older brother. The boy's early history of moderate femininity may have made him vulnerable to gender identity conflict. (JDD)

  2. Fixed drug eruption to tartrazine.

    PubMed

    Orchard, D C; Varigos, G A

    1997-11-01

    An 11-year-old girl with a recurrent fixed drug eruption to tartrazine on the dorsum of the left hand is presented. Oral provocation tests to both the suspected food, an artificially coloured cheese crisp, and to tartrazine were positive. This case highlights fire need to consider artificial flavours, colours and preservatives as potential culprits in classic drug eruptions.

  3. Removing the Shackles of Euclid: 3 Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielker, David S.

    1981-01-01

    The process of investigating some of the properties of diagonals and other geometric concepts with a group of 11-year-old girls is presented. Possible changes that could have been made in the lesson are discussed, and examples of individual student work are provided. (MP)

  4. Vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, T; Navratil, F; Sennhauser, F

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the clinical features and findings in bacterial cultures and in microscopic examination of vaginal secretions in 80 prepubertal girls, aged 2–12 years, with vulvovaginitis. Vaginal secretions were obtained directly from the vagina with a sterile catheter carefully inserted into the vagina. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated in 36% of cases. In 59% of these cases the isolated pathogen was group A ß-haemolytic streptococcus. Candida was not found in any of the patients. The finding of leucocytes in vaginal secretions as an indicator for growth of pathogenic bacteria had a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 59%. Antimicrobial treatment should therefore be based on bacteriological findings of vaginal secretions and not on the presence of leucocytes alone. PMID:12651758

  5. Girls Being Quiet: A Problem for Foreign Language Classrooms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunderland, Jane

    1998-01-01

    Discusses gendered-discourse in the foreign language classroom. Presents research suggesting that boys do not necessarily always dominate and that girls create learning opportunities for themselves and are able to utilize those provided by the teacher. (Author/VWL)

  6. Cool Girls, Inc.: promoting the positive development of urban preadolescent and early adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Kuperminc, Gabriel P; Thomason, Jessica; DiMeo, Michelle; Broomfield-Massey, Kimberley

    2011-08-01

    The past two decades have seen a transformation in youth programming toward a comprehensive positive youth development (YD) framework. Cool Girls, Inc., a YD program, focuses on improving girls' life chances by promoting positive behaviors and attitudes in multiple domains. These include self-concept, academic orientation, future orientation, and healthy behaviors. The present study uses a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent comparison group design to examine short-term effects of participation in Cool Girls, Inc. on multiple indicators of each of these domains. Participants were predominately African American and included 86 program participants and 89 comparisons in grades 4-8. Self-report questionnaires were administered at pretest (September-October) and posttest (April-May) of the 2005-2006 academic school year. We hypothesized that program participants would show improvements across domains of self-concept, academic orientation, future orientation, and healthy behavior. Relative to comparisons, program participants experienced gains in scholastic competence, hope for the future, and physical activity. Cool Girls participants with a mentor experienced significant gains in social acceptance and body image relative to other Cool Girls and were more than four times as likely to have expectations of avoiding drug use in the future. The role of mentoring as well as the study's practical significance, strengths, and limitations are discussed.

  7. Educating for the future: adolescent girls' health and education in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rees, Chris A; Long, Katelyn N; Gray, Bobbi; West, Joshua H; Chanani, Sheila; Spielberg, Freya; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent girls in India carry a disproportionate burden of health and social risks; girls that do not finish secondary education are more likely to have an earlier age of sexual initiation, engage in risky sexual behavior, and consequentially be at greater risk of dying from pregnancy-related causes. This paper presents a comparison of girls in school and girls not in school from 665 participants in rural West Bengal, India. The social cognitive theory (SCT), a comprehensive theoretical model, was used as a framework to describe the personal, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting the lives of these adolescent girls. There were significant differences between girls in and out of school in all three categories of the SCT; girls in school were more likely to have heard of sexually transmitted diseases or infections than girls not in school (p<0.0001). Girls in school were also more likely than girls not in school to boil water before drinking (p=0.0078), and girls in school lived in dwellings with 2.3 rooms on average, whereas girls not in school lived in dwellings with only 1.7 rooms (p<0.0001). Indian adolescent girls who are not in school are disadvantaged both economically and by their lack of health knowledge and proper health behaviors when compared with girls who are still in school. In addition, to programs to keep girls in school, efforts should also be made to provide informal education to girls not in school to improve their health knowledge and behaviors.

  8. Korean Physical Society's Physics Camp for High School Girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngah; Yoon, Jin-Hee

    2005-10-01

    The Women's Committee of the Korean Physical Society organized physics camps during the summers of 2002, 2003, and 2004 for high school girls. The camps give the girls an opportunity to meet and interact with working physicists and enhance smart-girl networking. About 40 students in 10 teams visited excellent laboratories in universities and research institutes located in diverse areas of the country. The girls explored the work going on in each laboratory for a few days and participated in some basic experiments when possible. Afterward they gathered at the on-site camp for oral and poster presentations about what they learned and what they did in the laboratories they visited. Their presentations were evaluated and prizes awarded for outstanding teams. These camps were successful in terms of attracting many enthusiastic girl students and enhancing their interest in physics. The camps also showed the Korean physics community the importance of this kind of activity. To attract many girl students from various regions of the country, the Korean Physical Society co-organized the physics camp with the WISE (Women in Science and Engineering) Center, which has a network system for girl students interested in science and mathematics. The 2004 KPS-ASML-WISE Physics camp was supported by the ASML Foundation in the Netherlands.

  9. Girls' Science Investigations (GSI) New Haven Curriculum and Educational Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, Sheena; Fleming, Bonnie

    2009-05-01

    Girls' Science Investigations (GSI) New Haven is a program which aims at encouraging middle school girls to pursue careers in science. To accomplish this goal, each day at GSI features a different area of science; ``the material world,'' ``the chemical world,'' and ``the electromagnetic world'' are examples of the sessions held during the past two years. Every session features a short explanation of the science topic given by a volunteer and a variety of hands-on activities, which allow the girls to experiment with and absorb the concepts presented in the short presentations. Activities are selected based on their ability to visualize the concepts under study. The education philosophy of GSI is that if the students have the opportunity to perform science experiments themselves, rather than just watching others do it, and enjoy performing these experiments, then the students will be more confident in their ability to succeed in a scientific field. Thus, in addition to encouraging girls to learn as much science as they can, the volunteers work to ensure that the girls enjoy the program as well. By giving the girls the opportunity to explore science in a fun and exciting way, the girls begin to see themselves as capable of becoming scientists and are more inclined to pursue science in the future.

  10. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  11. Girls Back Off Mathematics Again: The Views and Experiences of Girls in Computer-Based Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Colleen

    2002-01-01

    Presents the views and experiences of six girls in two co-educational mathematics classrooms in which computers were regularly used. Indicates a diversity of experiences and views and multiple gender identities. Discusses implications for social justice in mathematics in the age of the information super highway. (Author/KHR)

  12. Bridging Differences -- how Social Relationships and Racial Diversity Matter in a Girls' Technology Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekelis, Linda S.; Ancheta, Rebecca Wepsic; Heber, Etta; Countryman, Jeri

    In this article, we explore an understudied dimension of girls' single-sex education - how social relationships and racial diversity impact the educational environment for girls, and how teachers may best address these concerns. Findings are presented from a 3-year qualitative study of girls' experiences in a single-sex technology program. Girls valued the all-girls aspect of the programs, and friendships formed the foundation of their social experiences. Girls' friendship groups influenced their experiences and eventually their success in the after school technology programs. When friendship groups were observed to be racially homogeneous, they created challenges for including and supporting a racially diverse student membership. Our responses to the challenges that cultural differences and tensions present are outlined, along with recommendations for helping girls bridge these differences.

  13. Girls Online Feeling Out of Bounds: Girl Scout Research Institute Study on Teenage Girls and the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    A study of girls' Internet usage collected data from 1,246 girls aged 13-18 via focus groups, personal journals, and surveys. Many girls didn't know how to react to situations like pornography or sexual harassment in chat room conversations. Girls wanted proactive involvement from adults, not just prohibitive advice, on navigating the Internet.…

  14. Microchimerism of male origin in a cohort of Danish girls.

    PubMed

    Müller, Amanda Cecilie; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Barington, Torben; Vaag, Allan Arthur; Grunnet, Louise Groth; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2015-10-02

    Male microchimerism, the presence of a small number of male cells, in women has been attributed to prior pregnancies. However, male microchimerism has also been reported in women with only daughters, in nulliparous women and prepubertal girls suggesting that other sources of male microchimerism must exist. The aim of the present study was to examine the presence of male microchimerism in a cohort of healthy nulliparous Danish girls aged 10-15 y using DNA extracted from cells from whole blood (buffy coats) and report the association with potential sources of male cells. A total of 154 girls were studied of which 21 (13.6%) tested positive for male microchimerism. There was a tendency that girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism if their mothers previously had received transfusion, had given birth to a son or had had a spontaneous abortion. Furthermore, the oldest girls were more likely to test positive for male microchimerism. However, less than half of microchimerism positivity was attributable to these factors. In conclusion, data suggest that male microchimerism in young girls may originate from an older brother either full born or from a discontinued pregnancy or from transfusion during pregnancy. We speculate that sexual intercourse may be important but other sources of male cells likely exist in young girls.

  15. Nobody's perfect: a qualitative examination of African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' perceptions of body image.

    PubMed

    Pope, Michell; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2014-06-01

    Using semi-structured interviews, we explored African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' (N=25 dyads) perceptions about the adolescent's body using Grounded Theory. Caregivers and adolescent girls (Mage=13.42) were asked what the adolescent girls liked most/least about their bodies and how peers and media may affect adolescent girls' perceptions. While some adolescent girls reported overall body satisfaction, others described features they would like to change. Belief in God, body acceptance, and appreciation for average/moderate features helped the adolescent girls maintain their positive body image. The body-related messages that adolescent girls received from caregivers and peers included compliments, pressure to lose weight, teasing, and advice. Adolescent girls also reported being either influenced by or skeptical of the images presented in the media. Programs that promote caregiver-adolescent communication about body perceptions and that build on the adolescent girls' media skepticism may prove useful for their health-related attitudes and behaviors.

  16. Bad little girls.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Carlo

    2008-04-01

    The characters, in little girl style, who more and more often appear in advertisements, glossy magazines, television programs and megastores, and who can be encountered in the streets of many cities, are not the product of an ephimerous fashion dictated by the logic of the market. They come from far away, disquieting and erotic, and have crossed all the cultures of the western world, fascinating and disconcerting the soul with their power of seduction. They are the nymphs of Greek mythology, and not even the gods were able to resist them, knowing very well that their bodies are a place of knowledge that could lead to insanity. The paradox of the nymph is that possessing her means being possessed. After an overview of the myth of possession by nymphs, the author discusses certain illustrious figures of western culture of the 19th and 20th century possessed by a nymph: Aby Warburg, Martin Heidegger, Carl Gustav Jung, Henrik Ibsen and Emil Cioran. In all of them the possession by a nymph unfolded in keeping with the myth: intellectual fervor was common to all, insanity in Warburg, rapacious egotism in Heidegger and Jung, and a metamorphosis of Weltanshaung in Ibsen and Cioran. Nonetheless, they all, in their encounter with a nymph, laid bare their multifaceted identities, the muddy depths and the "heart of darkness" of their souls.

  17. Understanding Girls' Circle as an Intervention on Perceived Social Support, Body Image, Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steese, Stephanie; Dollette, Maya; Phillips, William; Hossfeld, Elizabeth; Matthews, Gail; Taormina, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    The Girls' Circle is a support group for adolescent girls developed by Beth Hossfeld and Giovanna Taormina as a unique program that addresses the needs of girls by focusing on increasing connections, building empathic skills, and developing resiliency. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of the Girls' Circle intervention on improving…

  18. Writing Like a Good Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitler, Helen Collins

    2008-01-01

    In a montage of genres, Helen Collins Sitler illuminates the subtle yet powerful, often detrimental messages we send to girls that silence their public and private voices and diminish their opportunities to question and learn.

  19. Concerns Girls Have about Puberty

    MedlinePlus

    ... a girl to be surprised by her first menstrual cycle, not knowing what is happening or why. Remember, ... physical exercises or medication. Discuss hygiene related to menstrual cycles. Be certain your daughter has the supplies she ...

  20. Girl child and sexual victimisation.

    PubMed

    Krishna, K P

    1995-01-01

    This article offers 12 suggestions for improving the protection of sexually victimized children and discusses the extent, form, causes, and consequences of sexual victimization of female children in India. Female victimization includes child marriage, polygamy, rape, incest, and kidnapping for immoral purposes. A female child is victimized from birth to maturity. Girls are born into a secondary status and married off. If her dowry is meager, a girl is subjected to ridicule, criticism, or denigration. The number of prosecuted sex offenses against girls and the number of reported sex offenses increased during 1980-89. However, most sex offenses are unreported. About 63% of rape cases pertain to girls 16-30 years old. Only 18% of rape cases occur among women over age 30. During 1971-89, kidnapping increased by over 79%. Most kidnapping involves girls 3-16 years old and is connected with prostitution, begging, sexual gratification, unemployment, extreme poverty, broken homes, and antisocial surroundings. One study in 1991 found that 48% of adolescent school girls had been molested. Another study in 1985 found that 54.29% of rape victims were 7-16 years old, and 3.27% were under 7 years old. 53.88% were unmarried, and 45.32% were married. Most of the victims were unemployed, dependents, or students. Most rapists are known by the victims. The rapist and the victims tend to come from middle or lower socioeconomic classes. Brother-sister incest is about 5 times more common than father-daughter incest. The literature suggests that children are sexually abused for pleasure or material gain. A current city study found that 15% of prostitutes were under 15 years old; 24.5% were 16-18 years old. Girls enter prostitution through a temple devdasi life, abduction, regular employment, and initiation by parents and brothel keepers. Marriage victimizes girls who marry at an early age or with a poor dowry.

  1. The impact of obesity on hyperandrogenemia in Korean girls

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min Jae; Yang, Seung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose As metabolic complication and polycystic ovarian syndrome due to childhood obesity is rising, the role of hyperandrogenemia (HA) and hyperinsulinism is receiving attention. The aims of this study were to investigate the presence of obvious HA according to pubertal status and to find potential etiologic determinants of HA in Korean obese (OB) girls. Methods We analyzed 91 girls aged 6–17 years (prepuberty, n=54; puberty, n=37). Each girl was classified as being either normal weight (NW) or OB. Anthropometric measurements were obtained and blood test was performed early in the morning after at least 8 hours of fasting to measure glucose, insulin, total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicular-stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone. Results The plasma levels of free testosterone (FT) and DHEAS were markedly higher in OB girls compared to NW girls in puberty (FT, P=0.009; DHEAS, P=0.046) but not in prepuberty (FT, P=0.183; DHEAS, P=0.052). Hyperinsulinemia and high homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were found regardless of pubertal status in OB girls. The significant related factor to HA in puberty was the body mass index Z-score (P=0.003). But HOMA-IR, LH, and progesterone levels were not relevant to HA in pubertal girls. Conclusion OB prepubertal girls did not show HA in the present study but they should be regularly monitored because they already had hyperinsulinemia. OB pubertal girls had significant HA and hyperinsulinemia, and obesity per se was the most important factor for HA. PMID:28164075

  2. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

  3. Early-onset anorexia nervosa in girls with Asperger syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome. PMID:26170676

  4. Early-onset anorexia nervosa in girls with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome.

  5. Gender, Ethnicity and Race in Incarcerated and Detained Youth: Services and Policy Implications for Girls

    PubMed Central

    Stein, L.A.R.; Clair, Mary; Rossi, Joseph; Martin, Rosemarie; Cancilliere, Mary Kathryn; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective While work has been conducted on gender differences to inform gender-specific programming, relatively little work has been done regarding racial and ethnic differences among incarcerated and detained girls in particular. This is an important gap, considering gender, race and ethnicity may be important factors in responding to the needs of incarcerated and detained girls within the Risk-Needs-Responsivity (RNR) model. We hypothesize girls will show relatively more pathology than boys, and that White girls will show relatively more pathology as compared to girls of other groups. Implications of findings for services delivery and policy are presented. Methods Data were collected on N=657 youth using structured interview and record review. Analyses included χ2 and t-tests. Results As compared to boys, girls were older at first arrest yet younger during most lock-up, received poorer grades, experienced more family difficulty, and more were lesbian/bisexual. As compared to minority girls, White girls began hard drugs at a younger age, had more conduct disorder symptoms, and more frequently experienced parental difficulty and abuse. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Age-appropriate programming that addresses family difficulty and sexuality is needed for girls. As compared to White girls, re-entry planning may more readily rely on family support for minority girls. Systems should consider use of actuarial methods in order to reduce bias in making placement decisions. PMID:25180525

  6. Unusual Presentation of Spasm of Near Reflex Mimicking Large-Angle Acute Acquired Comitant Esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Shanker, Varshini; Nigam, Vishal

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We report the case of an 11-year-old boy who presented with sudden esotropia, binocular diplopia, and blurred vision. The patient was neurologically normal. He had a large, constant, comitant, alternating esotropia associated with minimal accommodative spasm. Ocular motility and pupillary reactions were normal. He was diagnosed to have spasm of the near reflex presenting as acute onset of esotropia. The esotropia was persistent despite treatment and eventually resolved with prolonged cycloplegic therapy. This unusual case illustrates that spasm of the near reflex can have unique and variable presentations. Spasm of the near reflex needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of every case of acute, acquired, comitant esotropia. This is the first case of spasm of the near reflex where persistent esotropia is reported in the absence of any neurological disorder. PMID:27928354

  7. Does Barbie Make Girls Want to be Thin? The Effect of Experimental Exposure to Images of Dolls on the Body Image of 5- to 8-Year-Old Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Helga; Halliwell, Emma; Ive, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitous Barbie doll was examined in the present study as a possible cause for young girls' body dissatisfaction. A total of 162 girls, from age 5 to age 8, were exposed to images of either Barbie dolls, Emme dolls (U.S. size 16), or no dolls (baseline control) and then completed assessments of body image. Girls exposed to Barbie reported…

  8. Preadolescent Clues to Understanding Depression in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison E.

    2010-01-01

    Between the ages of 10 and 15, increases in depression among girls result in a rate that is twice as high as the rate of depression in boys. This sex difference remains throughout early and middle adulthood. Prior to early adolescence, there is essentially no sex difference in the rate of depression. The aim of the present review is to examine whether the preadolescent period is a time during which precursors to depression in girls can be identified. First, existing areas of research on explaining sex differences in depression, including cognitive and affiliative style and the socialization of emotion, are reviewed. Second, the hypothesis that for some girls, preadolescent precursors to depression take the form of excessive empathy, compliance and regulation of negative emotions is articulated. Third, ways of building on existing models by including the proposed preadolescent precursors are proposed. Finally, approaches to testing the hypotheses that individual differences in these domains during preadolescence may explain later individual differences in adolescent onset depression are explored. PMID:15984082

  9. Creating "Buddy Partnerships" with 5- and 11-Year Old-Boys: A Methodological Approach to Conducting Participatory Research with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Rachael; Thompson, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    Building on literature concerning participatory research, this article explores the use of "buddy partnership" as a technique to access the voices of young children. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old boys were paired with 11- to 12-year-old boys, and each dyad was asked to contribute towards the creation of an information DVD that would…

  10. Food intake and appetite following school-based high-intensity interval training in 9-11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Morris, Anna; Cramb, Robert; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J

    2017-03-15

    Using a randomised cross-over design, free-living lunch intake and subjective appetite were examined in 10 children (9.8 ± 0.6 years) following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) versus a control sedentary (SED) period, within a school setting. The 22-min HIIT took place during a regular PE lesson and consisted of two rounds of 4 × 30 s sprints. Foods were offered at a regular school lunch immediately following HIIT and SED and were matched between conditions. All food was covertly weighed before and after the meal. Hunger, fullness and prospective consumption were reported immediately before and after HIIT/SED, using visual analogue scales. Heart rate was higher during HIIT than SED (159.3 ± 23.1 vs. 76.9 ± 2.2 bpm, P < 0.05). Lunch energy intake was not different (P = 0.52) following HIIT, compared to SED (2.06 ± 0.35 vs. 2.09 ± 0.29 MJ, respectively). There were no significant differences in macronutrient intake or subjective appetite (P > 0.05). Results suggest that HIIT can be implemented in a PE lesson immediately before lunch, without causing a compensatory increase in food consumption.

  11. A longitudinal study of semantic grouping strategy use in 6-11-year-old children: investigating developmental phases, the role of working memory, and strategy transfer.

    PubMed

    Schleepen, Tamara M J; Jonkman, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    This two-cohort longitudinal study on the development of the semantic grouping strategy had three goals. First, the authors examined if 6-7-year-olds are nonstrategic before becoming strategic after prompting at 8-9 years of age, and if 8-9-year-olds are prompted strategic before spontaneous strategy use at 10-11 years of age. Children 6-7 and 8-9 years old performed two sort-recall tasks (one without and one with a grouping prompt) at two time points separated 1.5 years from each other. Second, the authors investigated whether short-term or working memory capacity at time point 1 predicted recall in children who did or did not use the semantic grouping strategy 1.5 years later. Third, the authors investigated whether prompted strategic children and children who used the strategy spontaneously differed in strategy transfer to a new task. Developmental results confirmed previous cross-sectional results, but in a longitudinal two-cohort study 6-7-year-olds were nonstrategic, and became prompted strategic around 8-9 years of age, followed by spontaneous strategy use at age 10-11 years. The authors found that memory capacity was not predictive of later use of the strategy. New findings were that prompted strategic children were as equally able as spontaneously strategic children to transfer the strategy to a new task, albeit with smaller recall benefits.

  12. The Reading Lives of 8 to 11-Year-Olds 2005-2013: An Evidence Paper for the Read On. Get On. Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This report focuses on children aged 8 to 11 and their enjoyment of reading, reading behaviour, and attitudes toward reading. It synthesises information from surveys that have been conducted since 2005, but most heavily exploits data from the fourth annual literacy survey conducted in November/December 2013 in which 10,946 8 to 11-year-olds…

  13. Systemic exposure and urinary cortisol effects of fluticasone propionate formulated with hydrofluoroalkane in 4- to 11-year-olds with asthma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kenneth T; Milgrom, Henry; Yoon, Y Kellie; Levy, Arden L; Matz, Paul; Welch, Michael J; Cahn, Anthony; Collins, David A; Kathman, Steven; Mehta, Rashmi; Su, Sheng-Fang; Kunka, Robert L

    2008-01-01

    The systemic exposure of fluticasone propionate with hydrofluoroalkane propellant compared with chlorofluoro-carbon propellant and the effect of fluticasone propionate hydrofluoroalkane on 24-hour urinary cortisol in children aged 4 to 11 years with asthma were evaluated. Study 1 was an open-label, 2-way crossover study in which 16 subjects were randomized to 7.5 days each of fluticasone propionate hydrofluoroalkane 88 mug twice a day or fluticasone propionate chlorofluorocarbon 88 mug twice a day. In study 2, 63 subjects received 13.5 days of placebo followed by 27.5 days of fluticasone propionate hydrofluoroalkane 88 mug twice a day. The main outcome measure for study 1 was the difference between fluticasone propionate hydrofluoroalkane and fluticasone propionate chlorofluorocarbon in fluticasone propionate AUC(last) (area under the plasma fluticasone propionate concentration-time curve from zero up to the last quantifiable plasma concentration), and for study 2, 24-hour overnight urinary cortisol excretion. In study 1, fluticasone propionate systemic exposure was significantly lower (55%) with hydrofluoroalkane metered dose inhaler compared with chlorofluorocarbon metered dose inhaler. Study 2 showed no statistically significant changes in 24-hour overnight urinary cortisol excretion and no relationship to fluticasone propionate systemic exposure at this dose. The results of these 2 studies showed that in children aged 4 to 11 years with asthma, fluticasone propionate hydrofluoroalkane has lower systemic exposure compared with chlorofluorocarbon and no hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis effects as measured by 24-hour urinary cortisol excretion.

  14. Assessing 10- to 11-Year-Old Children's Performance and Misconceptions in Number Sense Using a Four-Tier Diagnostic Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Der-Ching; Lin, Yung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Number sense is a key topic in mathematics education, and the identification of children's misconceptions about number is, therefore, important. Information about students' serious misconceptions can be quite significant for teachers, allowing them to change their teaching plans to help children overcome these misconceptions. In…

  15. Childhood in Crisis? Perceptions of 7-11-Year-Olds on Being a Child and the Implications for Education's Well-Being Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Notions of a good childhood are inextricably linked with well-being. Both concepts are central to a contentious debate about the quality of childhood in the UK, which is partly situated within the "childhood in crisis" discourse which opponents claim is overstated. This study contributes to the debate by hearing the voices of children as…

  16. The enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program: The relationship between internalizing symptoms and family functioning in children aged 9-11 years old.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Patricia; Rooney, Rosanna M; Kane, Robert T; Hassan, Sharinaz; Nesa, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The family context plays a critical role in the health of the child. This was the first study to examine the usefulness of the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device (FAD-GF) in assessing family functioning and its relationship to internalizing symptoms in school-aged children aged between 9 and 11 years of age. Eight hundred and forty-seven year 4 and 5 students from 13 schools (607 intervention students, and 240 control students) participated in the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS) - a universal school-based program targeting internalizing symptoms. Students rated how 'healthy' they perceived their family to be at pre-test and at 6-months follow-up. Although some aspects of validity and reliability could be improved, results indicated that perceptions of family functioning at pre-test were predictive of internalizing symptoms at the 6-months follow-up. The FAD-GF therefore showed promise as a potential measure of family functioning for children as young as 9 years old. Regardless of children's pre-test levels of perceived family functioning, no intervention effects were found on the anxiety and depression scales; this finding suggests that child perceptions of family functioning may act as a general protective factor against internalizing symptomology.

  17. Child overweight, associated psychopathology, and social functioning: a French school-based survey in 6- to 11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Pitrou, Isabelle; Shojaei, Taraneh; Wazana, Ashley; Gilbert, Fabien; Kovess-Masféty, Viviane

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of child overweight in a regional sample of primary school-aged children, and to examine the relationships among child overweight, psychopathology, and social functioning. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2004 in 100 primary schools of a large French region, with 2,341 children aged 6-11 randomly selected. Child weight and height, lifestyle variables (leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), watching television (TV), playing video games), and socioeconomic characteristics were collected in parent-administered questionnaires. Child psychopathology outcomes were assessed using child- and parent-reported instruments (Dominic Interactive (DI) and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)). Overweight and obesity were estimated according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) definition. Response rates to the parent questionnaire and DI were 57.4 and 95.1%, respectively. Final sample size was 1,030 children. According to the IOTF, 17.3% of the children were overweight, of whom 3.3% were obese. In univariate analysis, correlates of overweight were low parental education, low monthly income, Disadvantaged School Areas (DSAs), self-reported generalized anxiety, parent-reported conduct disorders, emotional problems, and peer difficulties. High monthly income was less frequently associated with overweight. In multivariate analysis, parent-reported peer difficulties (odds ratio (OR) = 2.06; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-3.35) and DSAs (1.88; 1.03-3.44) were independent factors significantly associated with child overweight. There was a trend of being overweight with elevated TV times (P for trend = 0.02). The psychosocial burden of excess weight appears to be significant even in young children. Findings should be considered for preventing strategies and public health interventions. School-based overweight prevention programs should be implemented first in disadvantaged areas together with information about weight stigmatization and discrimination.

  18. Family characteristics predicting favourable changes in 10 and 11-year-old children's lifestyle-related health behaviours during an 18-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ray, Carola; Roos, Eva

    2012-02-01

    Lifestyle-related health behaviours such as screen time, physical activity, sleep duration, and food intake tend to change into non-favourable directions when children become young adolescents. Cross-sectional studies show that family characteristics are important determinants for children's health behaviours. This study examined whether family characteristics such as parenting practices at meals and family involvement predict a more favourable change in children's lifestyle-related health behaviours during an 18-month follow-up. 745 children in school grades 4 and 5 (response rate 65%) filled in a baseline questionnaire in the autumn of 2006. A follow-up was conducted in the spring of 2008 (91%). Several health behaviours had changed in a non-favourable direction. Baseline parenting practices at meals and family involvement predicted some of the changes in the lifestyle-related health behaviours in 2008. Parenting practices at meals predicted a smaller increase in TV, DVD viewing time, and a smaller decrease in fruit intake. Amongst family involvement determinants, less time alone at home after school predicted a smaller increase in screen time, a smaller decrease in sleep duration, and a smaller increase in soft drink intake. For conclusion several family characteristics predicted favourable changes in children's lifestyle-related health behaviours.

  19. Protecting the Development of 5-11-Year-Olds from the Impacts of Early Disadvantage: The Role of Primary School Academic Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Pam; Hall, James; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Whether or not more effective schools can successfully mitigate the impacts of early disadvantage upon educational attainment remains uncertain. We investigated 2,664 children aged 6-11 years and measured their academic skills in English and maths along with self-regulation at 6, 7, and 11. Experiencing multiple disadvantages before age 5 strongly…

  20. Relationships between Parental Education and Overweight with Childhood Overweight and Physical Activity in 9–11 Year Old Children: Results from a 12-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, Stella K.; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Church, Timothy S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children has serious implications for morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood. Various parental factors are associated with childhood overweight and physical activity. The objective of this paper was to investigate relationships between parental education or overweight, and (i) child overweight, (ii) child physical activity, and (iii) explore household coexistence of overweight, in a large international sample. Methods Data were collected from 4752 children (9–11 years) as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment in 12 countries around the world. Physical activity of participating children was assessed by accelerometry, and body weight directly measured. Questionnaires were used to collect parents’ education level, weight, and height. Results Maternal and paternal overweight were positively associated with child overweight. Higher household coexistence of parent-child overweight was observed among overweight children compared to the total sample. There was a positive relationship between maternal education and child overweight in Colombia 1.90 (1.23–2.94) [odds ratio (confidence interval)] and Kenya 4.80 (2.21–10.43), and a negative relationship between paternal education and child overweight in Brazil 0.55 (0.33–0.92) and the USA 0.54 (0.33–0.88). Maternal education was negatively associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines in Colombia 0.53 (0.33–0.85), Kenya 0.35 (0.19–0.63), and Portugal 0.54 (0.31–0.96). Conclusions Results are aligned with previous studies showing positive associations between parental and child overweight in all countries, and positive relationships between parental education and child overweight or negative associations between parental education and child physical activity in lower economic status countries. Relationships between maternal and paternal education and child weight status and physical activity appear to be related to the developmental stage of different countries. Given these varied relationships, it is crucial to further explore familial factors when investigating child overweight and physical activity. PMID:27557132

  1. Photogrammetric Comparison of Facial Soft Tissue Profile before and after Protraction Facemask Therapy in Class III Children (6-11 Years Old)

    PubMed Central

    Moshkelgosha, Vahid; Raoof, Arghavan; Sardarian, Ahmadreza; Salehi, Parisa

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Achieving a normal soft tissue facial profile is considered to be the main concern of class III patients and the goal of most class III treatments. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of facemask treatment on profile with photogrammetric method. Materials and Method: Before (T0) and after (T1) treatment photograms of 40 class III patients profiles (20 male and 20 female individuals) treated with protraction face mask that met the inclusion criteria were digitized and analyzed using Aesthetic Analyzer software. Selected linear and angular measurements were performed for each patient and the changes were noted. Results: An increase in inferior facial height (p< 0.001) and inferior facial angle (p< 0.001) was observed. Nasal prominence and upper lip prominence also increased significantly (p< 0.001). Advancement of sub nasal area was observed to be significant in females (p< 0.05) in contrast to males. Conclusion: Remarkable advancement in the middle face and consequent fullness in the soft-tissue profile can be achieved by using protraction face mask. The response to treatment is not different between males and females. PMID:28280754

  2. Gait pattern in 9-11-year-old children with generalized joint hypermobility compared with controls; a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To study differences in gait patterns in 10-year-old children with Generalized Joint Hypermobility (GJH) and with no GJH (NGJH). Methods A total of 37 children participated (19 GJH, 18 NGJH, mean age 10.2 (SD 0.5) years). Inclusion criteria for GJH were a Beighton score of ≥5, with at least one hypermobile knee joint; for NGJH a Beighton score of ≤4, and no hypermobile knees and for both groups no knee pain during the previous week. All children were recorded by five video cameras, while they walked across three force platforms. Net joint moments were calculated in 3D by inverse dynamics and peak values provided input to statistical analyses. Results In the frontal plane, children with GJH had a significantly lower peak knee abductor moment and peak hip abductor moment. In the sagittal plane, the peak knee flexor moment and the peak hip extensor moment were significantly lower in the GJH group although the absolute difference was small. Conclusions The walking pattern was the same for children with GJH and for healthy children, as there were no differences in kinematics, but it was, however, performed with different kinetics. Children with GJH walked with lower ankle, knee and hip joint moments compared to children with NGJH. However, the clinical importance of these differences during normal gait is unknown. To obtain this knowledge, children with GJH must be followed longitudinally. Trial registration The study was approved by the Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics for Copenhagen and Frederiksberg, Denmark (jnr. KF01-2006-178). PMID:24308706

  3. Where the girls aren't: High school girls and advanced placement physics enrollment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Susan O'brien

    During the high school years, when many students first have some choice in course selection, research indicates that girls choose to enroll in more math and science courses, take more advanced placement courses, and take more honors courses in English, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and foreign languages than ever before. Yet, not only are boys more likely to take all of the three core science courses (biology, chemistry, and physics), boys enroll in advanced placement physics approximately three times as often as do girls. This study examines the perceptions, attitudes, and aspirations of thirty high school girls enrolled in senior-level science electives in an attempt to understand their high school science course choices, and what factors were influencing them. This is a qualitative investigation employing constructivist grounded theory methods. There are two main contributions of this study. First, it presents a new conceptual and analytical framework to investigate the problem of why some high school girls do not enroll in physics coursework. This framework is grounded in the data and is comprised of three existing feminist perspectives along the liberal/radical continuum of feminist thought. Second, this study illuminates a complex set of reasons why participants avoided high school physics (particularly advanced placement physics) coursework. These reasons emerged as three broad categories related to: (a) a lack of connectedness with physics curriculum and instruction; (b) prior negative experiences with physics and math classroom climates; and (c) future academic goals and career aspirations. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that the problem of high school girls and physics enrollment---particularly advanced placement physics enrollment---is a problem that cannot be evaluated or considered from one perspective.

  4. Measurement characteristics of activity-related psychosocial measures in 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls in the Girls health Enrichment Multisite Study (GEMS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: This paper presents reliability and validity analyses of physical activity-related psychosocial questionnaires completed by 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls at baseline and follow-up assessments of pilot intervention studies in the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Study (GEMS)....

  5. Making Science Appeal to Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    It is no secret that many girls seem disinterested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), but strategies for building their interest are sometimes elusive. Because STEM career paths are not always perceived as "natural" for women, educators do no't always push their female students to explore these educational areas. As a…

  6. The State of Hispanic Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition of Hispanic Health and Human Services Organizations.

    In 1998, a series of focus groups was held to explore the factors that promote resilience among Hispanic girls. At least 4 focus groups, composed of no less than 6 and no more than 15 participants, were conducted at each of the 6 urban sites. In spite of the variations in Hispanic subgroup membership of the focus group participants, the findings…

  7. Abdominal pain and nausea in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Walters, Randall; Bowen, Denise J

    2016-04-01

    Girls presenting with lower abdominal pain have a broad differential diagnosis. Transabdominal ultrasound should be performed in all girls presenting in the ED with lower abdominal pain. If ovarian torsion is suspected, surgical intervention should be initiated quickly to preserve the viability of the ovary.

  8. Fasciolopsiasis in a five year old girl.

    PubMed

    Naher, B S; Shahid, A T; Khan, K A; Nargis, S; Hoque, M M

    2013-04-01

    A 5 year old girl hailing from Keraniganj, presented with the complaints of fever, periumbilical pain and vomiting. In vomitus, Fasciolopsis buski worm in adult form was identified by naked eye examination. In stool, ova of Fasciolopsis buski were also observed under microscope. Clinically she was pale and had hepatomegaly. Microcytic hypochromic anaemia with normal liver function test was found on lab investigation. She was diagnosed as a case of Fasciolopsiasis and treated with Praziquantel and on follow up visit she was found to be free of symptom.

  9. Primary haemophagocytic syndrome in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, P K; Prasanth Varghese, C; Sandeep, P; Sreejith, R; Shaan, Mohammed; Shiji, P V; Satish, H; Feroz, M

    2011-01-01

    Haemophagocytic syndrome is a life-threatening systemic illness characterized by an uncontrolled inflammatory response. Patients present with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice and liver dysfunction, neurological manifestations and often pancytopenla. Bone marrow, lymph node, hepatic or splenic biopsy shows macrophages with Ingested blood cells or their precursors. Laboratory markers include elevated triglycerides and ferritin, low fibrinogen with normal or low erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Familial haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an autosomal recessive disorder. Secondary haemophagocytic syndrome results from infections, malignancy and collagen vascular disorders. We describe a young girl with primary haemophagocytic syndrome.

  10. Severe lysosomal storage disease of liver in del(1)(p36): a new presentation.

    PubMed

    Haimi, Motti; Iancu, Theodore C; Shaffer, Lisa G; Lerner, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    1p36 deletion is the most common terminal deletion syndrome with an estimated occurrence of 1:5000 live births. The deletion is of variable size. It usually involves less than 10 Mb in the 1pter-1p36.23 interval. Variability of the phenotype is partially related to the extent of the deletion. Some children with a 1p36 deletion were reported with obesity and hyperphagia, raising the question of possible phenotypic overlap with Prader-Willi syndrome. Correlation between presence of obesity and the size of the deletion has only been documented in one case. We report a 11-year-old girl with 1p36 deletion and the classical dysmorphological features. In late infancy, she developed an uncontrolled voracious appetite, overweight, truncal obesity and elevated serum transaminases. Liver biopsy disclosed severe steatosis. The hepatocytes contained accumulation of lipofuscins. Lipolysosomes were abnormally numerous and extremely enlarged. These features have not been previously reported in 1p36 deletion. Oligonucleotide-based microarray analysis showed a subtelomeric 2.2 Mb deletion at 1p36.33p36.32. This suggests that this chromosome segment is a critical region for obesity and hyperphagia. The accumulation in the liver with abnormal ultrastructure may be an additional feature of this form of syndromal obesity. 1p36 deletion syndrome should be considered in patients with obesity, hyperphagia and liver fat accumulation.

  11. Comparing Neuropsychological Profiles between Girls with Asperger's Disorder and Girls with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Megan E.; Culotta, Vincent P.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining neuropsychological profiles of girls with Asperger's disorder (AD) is sparse. In this study, we sought to characterize neurocognitive profiles of girls with AD compared to girls with learning disabilities (LD). Two groups of school-age girls referred for neuropsychological assessment participated in the study. A total of 23…

  12. Girls' Success: Mentoring Guide for Life Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Mentoring girls is a challenge. Girls will come to mentors with hard questions and great hope. Mentoring is about building trust over a long period of time. If a mentor cares about the girls and follows through with the promises that he or she makes to them, a mentor will be successful in helping them to improve their lives. This "Guide"…

  13. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  14. Girls' and Women's Education in Laos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    While girls and women in Laos are not the target of strong discriminatory practices, they are at a higher risk of dropping out of school and never attending school. Specific components have been developed within educational policies and strategies to address needs of and concerns for girls and women. Reasons that girls and women lack access to…

  15. The Young Gifted Girl: A Contemporary View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeper, Annemarie

    2003-01-01

    In this reprint of an article published in 1978, the role of women in society and its impact on gifted girls is discussed. It is argued that gender stereotypes work against gifted girls and that the women's movement has helped gifted girls develop a new image and concept of womanhood. (CR)

  16. Exploring Work: Fun Activities for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. Women's Educational Equity Act Dissemination Center.

    This document contains learning activities to help middle school girls begin the career planning process and resist gender-role stereotyping. The activities are designed for individuals and/or groups of girls either in classroom settings or in organizations such as Girl Scouts and 4-H Clubs. A total of 30 activities are organized into 4 sections…

  17. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  18. Phenomenology of Depression in Young Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Duax, Jeanne; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the overlap between caregiver and child report, the association between depression and anxiety, and the relationship between symptoms of depression and impairment in young girls. Method: Participants in the Pittsburgh Girls Study, a community sample of 2,451 girls aged 5-8 years old and…

  19. Middle School Girls' Envisioned Future in Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open…

  20. Girls' math performance under stereotype threat: the moderating role of mothers' gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-07-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed that stereotype threat impaired girls' performance on math tasks among students from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Moreover, mothers' but not fathers' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderated girls' vulnerability to stereotype threat: performance of girls whose mothers strongly rejected the gender stereotype about math did not decrease under stereotype threat. These findings are important because they point to the role of mothers' beliefs in the development of girls' vulnerability to the negative effects of gender stereotypes about math.

  1. Inner-City Youth Development Organizations: Strengthening Programs for Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Barton J.; Roffman, Jennifer G.; Deutsch, Nancy L.; Flynn, Cathy A.; Loder, Tondra L.; Pagano, Maria E.

    2012-01-01

    The challenges of early adolescence are intensified for girls of color who live in disadvantaged urban communities. One response to the needs of these girls comes from the Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCA), a youth development organization that has a long-standing presence in inner-city neighborhoods. A gender equity initiative designed to strengthen programming for minority girls at a BGCA affiliate in a major urban center was examined. Drawing on initial qualitative findings, a conceptual framework is presented for understanding the ways in which the clubs can affect urban early adolescent girls’ self-esteem. Several strategic choices confronting this initiative then are considered. The authors emphasize the creation of a “home place” that enables the development of self via organizational responsiveness to girls’ voices, strong bonds between girls and staff, adaptive peer friendship cliques, and the development of programs that fuse the interests of girls and adult staff. PMID:23565020

  2. Creating Spaces for Black Adolescent Girls to "Write It Out!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2012-01-01

    Identity and literacy development are two critical processes shaping the life trajectories of adolescents. Identity development in particular can present unique issues for Black adolescent girls, who are positioned in ways to negotiate their identity(ies) when presented with hegemonic language and representations of what is beauty and what is…

  3. Engaging adolescent girls in transactional sex through compensated dating.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Xinshan; Li, Jessica Chi-Mei; Lee, Tak-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Transactional sex through so-called compensated dating in adolescent girls is a problem in need of public concern. Compensated dating typically involves the use of information communication technology to advertise, search, bargain, and eventually arrange for transactional sex. The technology enables the sexual partners to maintain privacy and secrecy in transactional sex. Such secrecy necessitates the girls' disclosure about their life experiences in order to address the concern. The disclosure is the focus of the present qualitative study of 27 girls practicing the dating in Hong Kong, China. Based on the disclosure, the study presents a grounded theory that epitomizes engagement in compensated dating by referential choice. Such a referential choice theory unravels that choice with reference to the family push and social norms sustains the engagement. Meanwhile, the choice rests on expectancy and reinforcement from experiential learning about compensated dating. The theory thus implies ways to undercut the engagement through diverting the referential choice of the dating.

  4. Interlabial masses in little girls: review and imaging recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Nussbaum, A.R.; Lebowitz, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    When an interlabial mass is seen on physical examination in a little girl, there is often confusion about its etiology, its implications, and what should be done next. Five common interlabial masses, which superficially are strikingly similar, include a prolapsed ectopic ureterocele, a prolapsed urethra, a paraurethral cyst, hydro(metro)colpos, and rhabdomyosarcoma of the vagina (botryoid sarcoma). A prolapsed ectopic ureterocele occurs in white girls as a smooth mass which protrudes from the urethral meatus so that urine exits circumferentially. A prolapsed urethra occurs in black girls and resembles a donut with the urethral meatus in the center. A paraurethral cyst is smaller and displaces the meatus, so that the urinary stream is eccentric. Hydro(metro)colpos from hymenal imperforation presents as a smooth mass that fills the vaginal introitus, as opposed to the introital grapelike cluster of masses of botryoid sarcoma. Recommendations for efficient imaging are presented.

  5. Middle school girls' envisioned future in computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open to computing career were compared to the two thirds were not. Girls open to a computing career had higher interest and confidence in computing, had more social support for computing, and saw themselves as more like a computer scientist than girls who did not want a computing career.

  6. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  7. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally and developmental appropriate online obesity prevention program for young African American girls. Methods/Design The Butterfly Girls and the Quest for Founder’s Rock is an 8-episode online program delivered as an animated, interactive comic. The program promotes healthy diet and physical activity and is specifically designed for 8–10 year old African American girls. Girls, parents, and community representatives provided formative feedback on cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. A three-group (treatment, comparison, wait-list control) randomized design (n = 390 parent/child dyads) is employed, with child as the unit of assignment. Change in body mass index is the primary outcome; change in fruit and vegetable consumption, water, and physical activity are secondary outcomes. Data collection occurs at baseline, approximately 3 months after baseline (i.e., completion of the online program), and approximately three months later (i.e., maintenance assessment). Two dietary recalls are collected at each data collection period by trained interviewers using the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR 2012) system. Physical activity is objectively measured by seven days of accelerometry. Psychosocial and process data are also collected. Girls in the treatment and comparison groups will be interviewed at post 1 to obtain information on personal reactions to the program. Discussion This research will develop and evaluate the efficacy of an online program for reducing obesity risk among girls at risk of obesity and related diseases. Online programs offer the potential for wide dissemination, thus reducing disparities related to obesity. Trial

  8. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  9. Suicidal behavior of adolescent girls: profile and meaning.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Hanna Bar; Reznik, Ilya; Mester, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    In the last two decades the incidence of adolescent suicides has been very high (though it has been on the decrease in the U.S.A. over the last four years), giving rise to a multitude of empirical and theoretical studies. The extensive knowledge that has accumulated regarding adolescent suicidal behavior has led to a more differentiated attitude. Many studies try to clarify specific needs, motivations and the conceptualization of death and suicide in various adolescent subgroups (minorities, females, homosexuals), thereby enabling more specific and exact methods of evaluation, prevention and intervention. Adolescent girls' suicidal behavior is different in many aspects from boys' suicidal behavior: Girls mortality rate from suicide is a 3-5 times lower rate than boys, but their attempted suicide rate is four to hundreds time higher. Girls suicide mainly by drugs and their suicide is mainly in reaction to interpersonal difficulties. Their motivation is often a cry for help. The comorbidity of suicide and depression is much higher for adolescent girls than boys. These differences generate a different understanding and separate treatment strategies. Two theoretical approaches that may explain the profile which characterizes suicidal girls will be presented. One has a psychological developmental context, and the other a social cultural context. Implications for specific prevention measures include legal action on pack sizes of analgesics, compulsory registration of attempted suicide and more gender specific treatment and prevention programs.

  10. Developmental and social influences on young girls' early problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Keenan, K; Shaw, D

    1997-01-01

    A developing body of research suggests that there are few sex differences in the rate and severity of problem behavior in early childhood, but clear sex differences emerge at about 4 years of age. The authors explore 2 hypotheses to further the understanding of emerging sex differences in problem behavior across the first 5 years of life. The first posits that the change in girls' problem behavior from infancy to school entry represents a channeling of early problem behavior into predominantly internalizing problems as a result of socialization. The second hypothesis is that the change in girls' early problem behavior during the preschool period results from the more rapid biological, cognitive, and social-emotional development of girls relative to boys. The authors review research on the influence of parents, teachers, and peers on girls' behavior from infancy to preschool regarding the first hypothesis, whereas they review studies of sex differences in developmental processes to test the second. They find moderate support for both hypotheses and present a comprehensive theory of girls' developmental psychopathology that integrates social and developmental influences.

  11. "What You Wear Tells a Lot about You:" Girls Dress Up Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Rebekah

    2008-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study in which 26 girls aged 12- to 13-years-old took part in workshops at a specialist ICT center connected to a school in inner-city London. The girls explored and discussed fashion as presented online, and they produced their own interactive fashion design webpages, making decisions about body shapes, types…

  12. Mathematics Learning Disabilities in Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome during Late Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on math and related skills among 32 girls with fragile X (n = 14) or Turner (n = 18) syndrome during late elementary school. Performance in each syndrome group was assessed relative to Full Scale IQ-matched comparison groups of girls from the general population (n = 32 and n = 89 for fragile X syndrome and Turner…

  13. Girls, Subjectivity and Language: From Four to Twelve in a Rural School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhedding-Jones, Jeanette

    This dissertation presents the construction and development of a thesis that investigates links between discourses of gender and the production of writing by girls at primary school. The research took place over three years in a one-teacher rural school in country Victoria (Australia). The girls were aged from four to twelve. The research…

  14. "Little Intellectuals". Girls' Academic Secondary Education under Francoism: Projects, Realities and Paradoxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Antonio Fco.

    2012-01-01

    The present article examines the situation of girls in Spanish academic secondary education during the first Francoism. It outlines the measures introduced by the Franco Regime that maintained the traditional access for girls to the same academic curriculum followed by boys, although in separate schools. Later, it examines the various projects put…

  15. Pregnancy Rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two Randomized Controlled Trials of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…

  16. A Perceptual Study of Girls Education, Its Factors and Challenges in South Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2015-01-01

    Education is accepted as an important tool for human development in all dimensions of life, it is at same level of significance for boys and girls. Despite this recognition, girls are one of the most vulnerable groups, deprived of education by various socio-cultural, economical and political reasons. The present study is a perceptual study, which…

  17. Boys' and Girls' Motivations for Refraining from Prompting Friends to Talk about Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.; Robert, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Girls' and boys' peer relationships are thought to have unique strengths and weaknesses. However, developmentalists have done a better job of identifying strengths of girls' friendships than boys' friendships. The present research was aimed at better understanding boys' friendship strengths. The study focused on the frequency with which youth (N =…

  18. Can We Encourage Girls' Mobility towards Science-Related Careers? Disconfirming Stereotype Belief through Expert Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selimbegovic, Leila; Chatard, Armand; Mugny, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore expert influence as a possible way to encourage girls' mobility towards math- and science-related careers. High school students were exposed to an expert source presenting "scientific evidence" that contrary to stereotype, girls are better than boys in all subject domains. Beliefs related to stereotype…

  19. Where the Girls Are: The Facts about Gender Equity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Christianne; Hill, Catherine; St. Rose, Andresse

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a comprehensive look at girls' educational achievement during the past 35 years, paying special attention to the relationship between girls' and boys' progress. Analyses of results from national standardized tests, such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and the SAT and ACT college entrance examinations,…

  20. Teaching 21st Century Competencies: Lessons from Crescent Girls' School in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Gucci; Patel, Deepa; Shear, Linda; Goh, Peishi; Quek, Yin Kang; Tan, Chen Kee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents case studies of two teachers at Crescent Girl's School (an all-girls high school in Singapore) who implemented strategies learned through a teacher professional development program called 21st Century Learning Design (21CLD). Policymakers often state requirements for teachers to focus on 21st century (21C) competencies without…

  1. Preschool Girls and the Media: How Magazines Describe and Depict Gender Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hata, Mikako

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the presentation and content of magazines targeted at preschool-aged girls in Japan to analyse what gender patterns or gendered behaviours were encouraged and how the readers reacted to the media discourse. There were 13 magazines published in 2013 in Japan. Seven of them catered to girls, three to boys and three to both…

  2. The Effect of Recreational Activities on Self-Esteem Development of Girls in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayazit, Betül

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of recreational activities on self-esteem development of girls in adolescence. For this purpose, a total of 20 girls in adolescence period took part in the present study. Recreational activities program included bowling, patenga, orienteering, basketball, volleyball, badminton, ping-pong, dance, fun…

  3. Pubertal Effects on Adjustment in Girls: Moving from Demonstrating Effects to Identifying Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation examines mediated pathways from pubertal development to changes in depressive affect and aggression. Participants were 100 white girls who were between the ages of 10 and 14 (M=12.13, SD=0.80); girls were from well-educated, middle-to upper-middle class families, and attended private schools in a major northeastern urban…

  4. The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…

  5. Girls' Math Performance under Stereotype Threat: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Gender Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed…

  6. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! A Guide for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurian, Michael; Henley, Patricia

    This book focuses on brain-based research to explore why boys and girls learn differently and how educators and parents can use that information to create the ultimate early childhood, elementary, or secondary classroom for both boys and girls. Part 1 of the book presents research findings from three primary points of view: (1) neurological and…

  7. Linking Parental Socialization to Interpersonal Protective Processes, Academic Self-Presentation, and Expectations among Rural African American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Shannon J.; Chen, Yi-fu

    2008-01-01

    Data obtained from two waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families, with an 11-year-old preadolescent, were examined to test pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth's self-presentation and academic expectation and anticipation through the enhancement of youth self-pride. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization was linked with youth's expectation and anticipation for academic success, through youth self-pride, including racial identity and self-esteem, and academic self-presentation. The results highlight the need to disaggregate racial and ethnic socialization in order to better understand how these parenting domains uniquely forecast youth self-pride, as well as their orientation to education and academic success. PMID:19209975

  8. Combatting anemia in adolescent girls: a report from India.

    PubMed

    Kanani, S

    1994-01-01

    In a study on anemia in adolescent girls living in slum areas, 105 girls, aged 10 to 18, participated in qualitative (focus group discussions; open ended, in depth interviews) and quantitative (structured survey and hemoglobin estimation) research activities before and after intervention. Perceptions of mothers were also surveyed. The qualitative methods were used on selected subsamples in order to represent all age and ethnic groups and geographic areas of the slum. Quantitative methods were used on all 105 girls. The prevalence of anemia was 98%. The patterns of responses were similar for the focus groups, interviews, and surveys. Mothers and their daughters believed the girls were healthy (" one who ate well, worked without tiring easily and did not fall sick often"). There was no major connection made between menstruation and health, or between present and future health. Most of the girls were unaware of the Gujarati term for anemia, pandurog, which is used in awareness campaigns. The girls described symptoms (weakness = kamshakti) associated with anemia and knew these could be remedied with green leafy vegetables, fruit, milk, meat, tonics from the doctor, and iron tablets (shakti ni goli). Based on these results, a puppet show, using local terms and events, was developed that covered the causes, symptoms, treatment, and prevention of anemia. The term, pandurog, was introduced and reinforced. The girls were encouraged to have their blood tested and to take iron tablets. The hemoglobin levels of the girls were taken after the show and after an iron supplement program lasting three months. Compliance with the supplementation program was monitored biweekly. Group discussions with flash cards reinforced the information in the puppet show. Results from the last hemoglobin level showed a significant increase; however, the prevalence of anemia was 87%. About half of the girls consumed at least 60% of the tablets; one-fifth consumed 80%. Forgetfulness and fasting

  9. Perforated peptic ulcer in an adolescent girl.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shepard; Edden, Yair; Orkin, Boris; Erlichman, Matityahu

    2012-07-01

    A perforated peptic ulcer in a child is a rare entity. Severe abdominal pain in an ill-appearing child with a rigid abdomen and possibly with signs of shock is the typical presenting feature of this life-threatening complication of peptic ulcer disease. We present a case of a 14.5-year-old adolescent girl who developed abdominal and shoulder pain that resolved after 1 day. She was then completely well for 2 days until the abdominal and shoulder pain recurred. On examination, she appeared well, but in pain. A chest radiograph revealed a large pneumoperitoneum. She underwent emergent laparoscopic omental patch repair of a perforated ulcer on the anterior wall of her stomach. Result of a urea breath test to detect Helicobacter pylori was negative. The differential diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum in children is discussed, as are childhood perforated peptic ulcer in general, and the unique clinical features present in this case in particular.

  10. Diagnosis and Management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Adolescent Girls.

    PubMed

    Lanzo, Erin; Monge, Maria; Trent, Maria

    2015-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder in adolescent girls that has both reproductive and metabolic implications. Patients with PCOS typically present to their pediatrician for evaluation of menstrual irregularity and/or signs of hyperandrogenism, such as hirsutism and acne. The diagnosis of PCOS is made by clinical symptoms and laboratory evaluation. Because of the long-term health consequences that can accompany the disorder, pediatricians should consider PCOS in their initial evaluation of menstrual irregularity. Lifestyle modification is the cornerstone of treatment for girls with PCOS; however, hormonal medication such as oral contraceptive pills and insulin-sensitizing agents are useful and effective adjuncts to therapy. The goals of treatment for girls with PCOS are to improve clinical manifestations of the disorder, health-related quality of life, and long-term health outcomes.

  11. Boys and Girls Clubs in Public Housing. Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Carl E.; And Others

    This report presents findings and recommendations resulting from the evaluation of programs implemented in 15 cities by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America. These programs were implemented to distribute variations on the "Weed and Seed" program and its provision of crime and drug prevention programs. The overall goal of Weed and Seed was…

  12. Differences between Boys and Girls in Extracurricular Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batz, Katrin; Wittler, Sebastian; Wilde, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Only few psychological differences between the sexes can be proven empirically. Presented here is a study about learning in the extracurricular environment of a zoological garden during a school excursion with particular regard to the differences between boys and girls. In the main focus are, hereby, motivational and cognitive levels of the…

  13. Defining Deviance: Sex, Science, and Delinquent Girls, 1890-1960

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemente, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a review on "Defining deviance: sex, science, and delinquent girls, 1890-1960," by Michael A. Rembis. This is the first book by Michael A. Rembis, an Associate Professor and Director of the Center for Disability Studies at the University of Buffalo. Drawing on thousands of case files from the Illinois State Training School in…

  14. Roma Girls: Between Traditional Values and Educational Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyuchukov, Hristo

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents findings from a survey of 720 respondents: 240 Roma parents, 240 Roma boys and 240 Roma girls between 12 and 25 years of age. The subjects were from various regions of Bulgaria and were members of different ethnic groups. The main goal of the survey was to study the current attitudes that Roma communities hold regarding an…

  15. Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Disadvantaged Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the results of a meeting of education officials from Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand to discuss the promotion of primary education for girls and other disadvantaged groups in developing Asian countries. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, discussing the goals and results of the meeting. Chapter…

  16. How Feminism Can Help Us Not Shortchange Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, deKoven Pelton; Astuto, Terry A.

    What would a school that is responsive to the needs of girls look like? This paper presents findings of a study that sought to synthesize research and commentaries that develop, articulate, or use a feminist critique. It also attempted to identify a set of feminist thought and action to serve as building blocks of an alternative structure for…

  17. League Constitution and Bylaws for Girls' Interscholastic Programs (Suggested Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mary Ann

    This guide was developed to assist with the problems of organization and administration of girls' interscholastic sports programs. Guidelines are presented for the following: (a) a statement of basic principles, (b) a constitution, (c) league bylaws, (d) operating codes, (e) conduct of contests, (f) archery, (g) badminton, (h) basketball, (i)…

  18. Heterogeneity of Girls' Consensual Popularity: Academic and Interpersonal Behavioral Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.

    2006-01-01

    The present study explored the heterogeneous nature of popularity by investigating subgroups of popular girls (N = 365) in their first year of secondary school (mean age = 13.05). Cluster analysis revealed the presence of five subgroups based upon sociometric popularity (i.e., those considered "likeable" by peers) and consensual popularity (i.e.,…

  19. Girls and Basic Education: A Cultural Enquiry. Education Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, David

    A study examined the issues and experiences of 89 women teachers, head teachers, and girls in and out of school in two contrasting Ghanaian cultural contexts. Data were collected via life history interviews, analyzed, and presented around three domains: culture of the home; relationship between culture and the economy, and culture of the school.…

  20. Rett syndrome: studies of 13 affected girls.

    PubMed

    Budden, S S

    1986-01-01

    This is a presentation and discussion of clinical and laboratory data obtained on 13 girls with Rett syndrome, a progressive neurological disorder. The condition is thought to be far more prevalent than earlier reported. Family history in one patient showed presence of abnormal hand movements, increasing spasticity and psychomotor retardation in a paternal great grandaunt who died at 7 years. In the absence of chromosomal or biochemical markers, the characteristic disorder of hand movements can be used to distinguish this entity from other mental retardation, cerebral palsy and autism conditions. This report addresses the uniformity of clinical expression and highlights the differences between autism and Rett syndrome. Precocious puberty and respiratory alkalosis were not found in our patients. Feeding disorders were commonly present, and are often difficult to manage. The importance of diagnosis is emphasized as it influences long term management.

  1. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: Rationale and design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally ...

  2. Interventions with Young Female Offenders and Teenage Girls at Risk: Alternative Educational Services in a Singapore Girls' Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Choo, Andrew; Lim, Liping

    2009-01-01

    This article presents factors that place girls at risk of delinquency and offending as well as the patterns in juvenile delinquency trends for females in Singapore. The authors also describe Singapore's overall structure of services for young offenders and the current status of alternative education programmes for young women engaged in delinquent…

  3. Altered Breast Development in Young Girls from an Agricultural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, Elizabeth A.; Conard, Craig; Lares, Fernando; Aguilar, Maria Guadalupe; McLachlan, John; Guillette, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    In several human populations, the age at which female breast development begins is reported to have declined over the last five decades. Much debate has occurred over whether this reported decline has actually occurred and what factors contribute to it. However, geographical patterns reflecting earlier developmental onset in some human populations suggest environmental factors influence this phenomenon. These factors include interactions between genetic makeup, nutrition, and possible cumulative exposure to estrogens, both endogenous as well as environmental beginning during in utero development. We examined the onset of breast development in a group of peripubertal girls from the Yaqui Valley of Sonora, Mexico. We observed that girls from valley towns, areas using modern agricultural practices, exhibited larger breast fields than those of girls living in the foothills who exhibited similar stature [e.g., weight, height, body mass index (BMI)], and genetic background. Further, girls from valley towns displayed a poorly defined relationship between breast size and mammary gland development, whereas girls from the Yaqui foothills, where traditional ranching occurs, show a robust positive relationship between breast size and mammary size. The differences noted were obtained by a medically based exam involving morphometric analysis and palpation of tissues, in contrast to visual staging alone. In fact, use of the Tanner scale, involving visual staging of breast development for puberty, detected no differences between the study populations. Mammary tissue, determined by palpation, was absent in 18.5% of the girls living in agricultural areas, although palpable breast adipose tissue was present. No relationship was seen between mammary diameter and weight or BMI in either population. These data suggest that future in-depth studies examining mammary tissue growth and fat deposition in breast tissue are required if we are to understand environmental influences on these

  4. Personalized Biobehavioral HIV Prevention for Women and Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Bevilacqua, Amanda W.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. Primary Study Objective: The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. Methods: We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. Results: The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk—reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk—reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Conclusions: Generalized programs and

  5. Adolescent girls' parasocial interactions with media figures.

    PubMed

    Theran, Sally A; Newberg, Emily M; Gleason, Tracy R

    2010-01-01

    We examined aspects of adolescent girls' parasocial interactions in the context of typical development. Parasocial interactions are defined as symbolic, one-sided quasi-interactions between a viewer and a media figure. In total, 107 adolescent girls were examined; 94% reported engaging in parasocial interactions to some degree. Preoccupied attachment style predicted the degree of involvement in and emotional intensity of parasocial interactions. Results suggest that parasocial interactions are characteristic of girls with preoccupied attachment, but are also part of normative development.

  6. Immigration status, acculturation, and dating violence risk for Hispanic adolescent girls in New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Mary M; Green, Dan; Booker, John; Nelson, Anna

    2011-10-01

    Little data exist on dating violence experienced by immigrant Hispanic adolescents. The present study examined the relationships between immigration status, language spoken at home, and dating violence experienced by Hispanic adolescent girls in New Mexico. Data from the 2007 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Surveys were analyzed. Adjusted logistic regression analyses were conducted among the full sample of Hispanic females (N = 3,412) and among strata based on immigration status. Immigrant Hispanic girls were as likely as non-immigrant Hispanic girls to have experienced dating violence in the prior year (P = 0.93). Among immigrant Hispanic girls, those who were Non-English-dominant were one-fourth as likely to have experienced dating violence as those immigrant girls who were English-dominant (aOR 0.27 [95% CI 0.08-0.87]). Among US-born Hispanic girls, those who were Non-English-dominant were less likely to have experienced dating violence; however, this value did not reach statistical significance (aOR 0.65 [95% CI 0.33-1.27]). Past sexual experience was a significant risk factor for dating violence for US-born Hispanic girls (aOR 4.99 [95% CI 3.18-7.83]) but not for immigrant Hispanic girls (aOR 1.66 [95% CI 0.63-4.43]). Immigrant status was not found to be protective against dating violence for New Mexico Hispanic girls. However, those immigrant girls who were less acculturated in terms of language used at home were found to have only a quarter of the risk of dating violence as those more acculturated. The use of heritage language by immigrant Hispanic girls may be a protective factor against dating violence. Further studies are indicated to confirm this finding.

  7. African American girls and the challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Rozie-Battle, Judith L

    2002-01-01

    The research on the psychosocial development of African American girls is limited. Information that is available focuses on teen pregnancy and health issues such as nutrition and physical activity. African American girls are facing challenges, including poverty, crime, poor self-esteem, and peer pressure. Despite some of the negative characteristics attributed to African American girls, many are achieving some success. Policy makers and service providers need to recognize the resiliency and unique needs of African American girls and develop services that ensure their needs are being fully met.

  8. Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Girl Scouts of the USA; Girl Scouts of Northern California; University of Arizona; Astronomical Society of the Pacific; Aires Scientific

    2017-01-01

    Girl Scout Stars aims to enhance STEM experiences for Girl Scouts in grades K-12. New space science badges are being created for every Girl Scout level. Using best practices, we engage girls and volunteers with the fundamental STEM concepts that underpin our human quest to explore the universe. Through early and sustained exposure to the people and assets of NASA and the excitement of NASA’s Mission, they explore STEM content, discoveries, and careers. Today’s tech savvy Girl Scout volunteers prefer just-in-time materials and asynchronous learning. The Volunteer Tool Kit taps into the wealth of NASA's online materials for the new space science badges. Training volunteers supports troop activities for the younger girls. For older girls, we enhance Girl Scout summer camp activities, support in-depth experiences at Univ. of Arizona’s Astronomy Camp, and “Destination” events for the 2017 total solar eclipse. We partner with the Night Sky Network to engage amateur astronomers with Girl Scouts. Univ. of Arizona also leads Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout volunteers. Aires Scientific leads eclipse preparation and summer sessions at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center for teams of volunteers, amateur astronomers and older Girl Scouts.There are 1,900,000 Girl Scouts and 800,000 volunteers in the USA. During development, we work with the Girl Scouts of Northern California (50,000 girl members and 31,000 volunteers) and expand across the USA to 121 Girl Scout councils over five years. SETI Institute leads the space science educators and scientists at Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Univ. of Arizona, and Aires Scientific. Girl Scouts of the USA leads dissemination of Girl Scout Stars with support of Girl Scouts of Northern California. Through professional development of Girl Scout volunteers, Girl Scout Stars enhances public science literacy. Girl Scout Stars supports the NASA Science Mission Directorate Science Education Objectives and NASA’s STEM Engagement and

  9. Little girls in a grown up world: Exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualization messages, and body image in 6-9 year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-09-01

    Despite widespread public concern about the early sexualization of young girls, as yet there has been little empirical examination of potential negative effects. In the present study a sample of 300 6-9 year-old girls completed individual interviews assessing exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualized messages (measured via preference for sexualized clothing), and body image attitudes (body esteem, body dissatisfaction). Exposure to sexualized media was found to be correlated with internalization of sexualization messages, itself correlated with negative body image. The findings provide preliminary evidence that sexualized messages appear to be internalized by very young girls which, in turn, has negative implications for how they feel about their bodies.

  10. Problematic Peer Functioning in Girls with ADHD: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Groen, Yvonne; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Objective Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience many peer interaction problems and are at risk of peer rejection and victimisation. Although many studies have investigated problematic peer functioning in children with ADHD, this research has predominantly focused on boys and studies investigating girls are scant. Those studies that did examine girls, often used a male comparison sample, disregarding the inherent gender differences between girls and boys. Previous studies have highlighted this limitation and recommended the need for comparisons between ADHD females and typical females, in order to elucidate the picture of female ADHD with regards to problematic peer functioning. The aim of this literature review was to gain insight into peer functioning difficulties in school-aged girls with ADHD. Methods PsychINFO, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant literature comparing school-aged girls with ADHD to typically developing girls (TDs) in relation to peer functioning. The peer relationship domains were grouped into ‘friendship’, ‘peer status’, ‘social skills/competence’, and ‘peer victimisation and bullying’. In total, thirteen studies were included in the review. Results All of the thirteen studies included reported that girls with ADHD, compared to TD girls, demonstrated increased difficulties in the domains of friendship, peer interaction, social skills and functioning, peer victimization and externalising behaviour. Studies consistently showed small to medium effects for lower rates of friendship participation and stability in girls with ADHD relative to TD girls. Higher levels of peer rejection with small to large effect sizes were reported in all studies, which were predicted by girls’ conduct problems. Peer rejection in turn predicted poor social adjustment and a host of problem behaviours. Very high levels of peer victimisation were present in girls with ADHD with large effect sizes

  11. Bringing Astronomy Activities and Science Content to Girls Locally and Nationally: A Girl Scout and NIRCam Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Higgins, M. L.; McCarthy, D. W.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, the University of Arizona's (UA) NIRCam E/PO team (NASA James Webb Space Telescope) and the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council began a long-term collaboration to bring astronomy activities and concepts to Girl Scout leaders, staff, and volunteers and, in turn, to their councils and girls, i.e., to train the trainers. Nationally, our goal is to reach leaders in all councils. To date, this program has reached nearly 200 adults from 39 councils nationwide (plus Guam and Korea), bringing together leaders, UA graduate students, and NIRCam scientists and educators to experience Arizona's dark skies. Locally, our goal is to provide Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education to girls of all ages throughout southern Arizona. To accomplish this in astronomy, we have additional ongoing collaborations with the Planetary Science Institute, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and, most recently with the Amphitheater School District. One of the programs that we have been recently emphasizing is Family Science and Astronomy Nights. These programs can be run at our local Girl Scout facility or can be incorporated into programs that we are running in local schools. Our near-term goal is to provide a series of interconnected activities that can be done in classrooms, in afterschool programs, as part of the Family Science and Astronomy Nights, or in summer astronomy camps. Our long-term goal is to empower girls ultimately to become leaders who are excited about the night sky and can take lead roles presenting activities and facilitating astronomy nights. Our poster will display a variety of the activities we have refined and developed through this progam: scale models of the Solar System and beyond, classifying Solar System objects, a portable human orrery, observing the night sky with and without telescopes, constellation transformations, and constellation sorting cards.NIRCam E/PO website: http://zeus.as.arizona.edu/ dmccarthy/GSUSA

  12. Teen Girls and Technology: What's the Problem, What's the Solution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    Are teenage girls being left behind in the technology race? According to author and professor Lesley Farmer, teenage girls are not embracing technology and all of its potential impact on their futures. In "Teen Girls and Technology", Farmer explores the developmental issues of teen girls, including the reality of girls and tech as it now stands.…

  13. "In the Eye of the Beholder...": Girls', Boys' and Teachers' Perceptions of Boys' Aggression to Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Laurence; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    Because children and young teenagers usually associate in same-sex groups, psychological research concerned with adolescent aggression has often concentrated on within-sex relationships. However, during adolescence, boys and girls increasingly interact socially. This paper reports a study of boy-to-girl aggression as perceived by girls, boys and…

  14. Resilient Girls--Factors That Protect against Delinquency. Girls Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Stephanie R.; Graham, Phillip W.; Williams, Jason; Zahn, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    According to data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, from 1991 to 2000, arrests of girls increased more (or decreased less) than arrests of boys for most types of offenses. By 2004, girls accounted for 30 percent of all juvenile arrests. However, questions remain about whether these trends reflect an actual increase in girls' delinquency or…

  15. Understanding Girls' Friendships, Fights and Feuds: A Practical Approach to Girls' Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besag, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    Girls' bullying is more subtle and less physical than that perpetrated by boys; however, it can be just as powerful, and the emotional repercussions of bullying among girls can be more destructive and longer lasting than the effects of more obvious forms of bullying. Teachers report that quarrels between girls are far more time-consuming and…

  16. Girl Stuff: Same-Sex Relations in Girls' Public Reform Schools and the Institutional Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steet, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Examines data on same-sex relations in girls' reform schools, noting the invisibility of gay and lesbian lives in most educational research. Discusses difficulties with terminology, institutional efforts to curb girls' relationships and sexual behavior, the girls' creation of an alternative family structure, love letters, and interracial…

  17. Teaching the Third World Girl: "Girl Rising" as a Precarious Curriculum of Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Karishma

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the recently released "Girl Rising" film and associated campaign to analyze how the guarantee that girls' education is panacea for local, national and global solutions is sedimented through affective logics. I view Girl Rising as a curriculum inclusive of the film, accompanying packaged lesson plans for educators,…

  18. Britney, Beyonce, and Me--Primary School Girls' Role Models and Constructions of the "Popular" Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the ways in which the gendered social construction of the "popular girl" infuses girls' ideas as to their role models: those representing who they would like to be when they "grow up". It will look at the ways in which the gendered characteristics that are seen to be of most value to girls (often embodied by "celebrities" such…

  19. Promoting Girls' Participation in Sports: Discursive Constructions of Girls in a Sports Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svender, Jenny; Larsson, Hakan; Redelius, Karin

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to promote girls' participation in sports and which girls are seen as needing support? In this article we focus a government-financed sports venture and scrutinize the frames governing what is possible to say about girls and their participation in sports. By analyzing project applications from local sport clubs we investigate how…

  20. High prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in adolescent girls in a tropical area of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Vaca, M; Guadalupe, I; Erazo, S; Tinizaray, K; Chico, M E; Cooper, P J; Hay, P

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common clinical syndrome, but data are scarce on the BV prevalence in tropical regions among sexually active and virgin adolescents. To estimate the prevalence of BV among adolescent girls in an Ecuadorian coastal town, girls were asked to complete a questionnaire on risk factors for BV and vaginal samples were examined. Bacterial vaginosis was present in 31.5% of 213 girls, and the prevalence was similar in self-reported virgin and sexually active girls (OR 1.06, 95% CI, 0.51-2.21, P = 0.88), although the power of this analysis was limited. The prevalence of BV was high among Ecuadorian adolescent girls, and did not appear to be associated with sexual activity.

  1. Understanding girls' enrollment at Louise's Farm School: A qualitative case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Ashley E. P.

    This thesis presents a qualitative case study of enrollment and retention considerations at Louise's Farm School (LFS) in Palmer, Alaska, with a focus on how gender is performed in this domain. Interviews with 25 students, 12 parents, and 14 instructors revealed the enrollment decision-making process, identifying constraints to and enablers of girls' participation. Findings included three primary factors as greatly influencing girls' enrollment: (1) mothers' backgrounds; (2) mothers' knowledge of and the misperceptions regarding outcomes of LFS programing; and (3) girls' interest in LFS curriculum. Findings also exposed differences in mothers' and instructors' expectations for the educative development of girls and boys, suggesting that there is greater pressure on girls to perform academically while boys are expected to need greater space for physical expression.

  2. Comparing matching ability, spatial memory, and ideational fluency in boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Young, G D; Wilson, J F

    1994-10-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine whether girls and boys show patterns of problem-solving ability similar to those attributed by Kimura in 1992 to women and men, respectively. Subjects were 28 girls and 24 boys, aged 5-11 years, who were tested individually on matching ability, spatial memory, and ideational fluency, tasks on which women reportedly outperform men. No significant gender differences in these problem-solving abilities were found. On ideational fluency, the youngest girls were seven times more likely than young boys to give whimsical responses, but older girls were then times less likely than older boys to give whimsical responses. These results suggest that the patterns of visuospatial problem-solving abilities that Kimura ascribed to women and men are not present in preadolescent girls and boys.

  3. Smart Girls, Hard-Working Girls but Not yet Self-Assured Girls: The Limits of Gender Equity Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentith, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    Higher levels of girls and women's participation in targeted areas are widely apparent, particularly in affluent and middle-class sites. Here, we report on research with young middle and upper middle-class high school girls successfully enrolled in non-traditional advanced placement (AP) courses in mathematics, science, and computer programming in…

  4. Menstrual-related changes expected by premenarcheal girls living in rural and urban areas of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Marván, María Luisa; Vacio, Angeles; Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela

    2003-02-01

    Most women experience changes surrounding the start of menstruation. These changes are influenced by sociocultural context. Consequently, certain changes are more pronounced in some cultures than in others. Girls enter menarche with a clear set of paramenstrual expectations that may alter their menstrual cycle-related experiences when they become postmenarcheal. This study explored expectations concerning the paramenstrual changes of 1,173 premenarcheal girls living in rural and urban areas of Mexico. In accordance with the findings of studies conducted in other countries, Mexican premenarcheal girls associate menstruation with a set of mostly negative expectations. A comparison of the results from urban and rural girls revealed that urban girls expected negative paramenstrual changes more, while rural ones expected positive changes more. These differences suggest that the cultures in which girls are brought up have an impact on their expectations. Urban girls are more exposed to media which present a picture of menses as a debilitating event, while rural girls link menses with health because it is associated with the ability to have children.

  5. Lupus vulgaris in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Bakshi, S K

    2013-01-01

    With the estimated global burden of TB being 8.8 million incident cases and 1.1 million deaths from TB in HIV-negative cases and additional 0.35 million deaths in HIV-associated cases,1 the total number of cutaneous TB cases ( < 1-2 % of total cases) becomes significant. With the WHO setting up public-private mix partnerships and a millenium development goal of a 50% reduction in the total number of incident cases, the case detection and reporting of unusual cutaneous TB cases becomes very important. We present a case of lupus vulgaris in a young girl with rapid progression of a large plaque with hypertrophic features in the periphery. The case is unusual due to its rapid progression, unusual site and extensive giant form which have never been reported previously.

  6. Endogenous Inhibition of Somatic Pain is Impaired in Girls with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Compared with Healthy Girls

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Amy E.; Heitkemper, Margaret; Self, Mariella M.; Czyzewski, Danita I.; Shulman, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous pain-inhibition is often deficient in adults with chronic pain conditions including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is unclear whether deficiencies in pain-inhibition are present in young children with IBS. The present study compared endogenous pain-inhibition, somatic pain threshold, and psychosocial distress in young girls with IBS versus controls. Girls with IBS did not show significant endogenous pain-inhibition of heat pain-threshold during a cold-pressor task in contrast to controls who had significant pain-inhibition. Girls with IBS did not differ from peers on measures of somatic pain but had more symptoms of depression, somatization, and anxiety than controls. When psychological variables were included as covariates the difference in pain-inhibition was no longer significant, although poor achieved power limits interpretation of these results. Higher-order cognitive processes including psychological variables may be contributing to observed pain-inhibition. In girls with IBS, pain-inhibition was positively related to the number of days without a bowel movement. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate deficiencies of endogenous pain-inhibition in young children with IBS. Findings have implications for better understanding of onset and maintenance of IBS and other chronic pain conditions. PMID:23685184

  7. Perceived Experiences with Sexism among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls…

  8. Girls in School: Women in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahle, Jane Butler

    This report describes a 9-month project, conducted in seven states, during which teaching strategies and teacher attitudes which successfully encouraged girls in science were observed, described, and analyzed. Biology, taken by over 80 percent of high school students, was the course selected for observation; if girls are turned off to science in…

  9. Girls' Education: The Power of Policy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monkman, Karen; Hoffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Girls' education has been a focus of international development policy for several decades. The discursive framing of international organizations' policy initiatives relating to girls' education, however, limits the potential for discussing complex gender issues that affect the possibilities for gender equity. Because discourse shapes our…

  10. Girls' and Women's Education in Nepal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    The impact of enlightened policies and incentives designed to increase girls' enrollment and achievement in education has been marginal in Nepal. Ministry of Education (MOE) goals aimed at increasing girls' participation include increasing the enrollment rate, opening early childhood development centers, promoting recruitment of at least one…

  11. Smart Girls, Black Girls, Mean Girls, and Bullies: At the Intersection of Identities and the Mediating Role of Young Girls' Social Network in Mathematical Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gholson, Maisie; Martin, Danny B.

    2014-01-01

    By taking an intersectional and emic view to studying a group of African American girls in a third-grade class, we attempted to capture the complexity of mathematics learning for these girls. Traditionally, children's social networks in school are framed as external to mathematics content learning. Our preliminary analyses of student interviews…

  12. The Meaning of Running Away for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Cohavi, Ayelet

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this qualitative research was to understand how runaway girls perceive the processes involved in leaving home and the meaning they attribute to it. Method: Findings are based on in-depth interviews with 10 Israeli girls aged 13-17 with a history of running away from home. Results: The meaning of running away as it emerged…

  13. Girls' Attitudes towards Science in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences…

  14. Bridging the Gender Gap: How Girls Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Judy

    1994-01-01

    This publication discusses the development of girls and women within a hierarchical power structure and the effects on their self-esteem and performance. It describes the differences between girls' and boys' learning styles and educational experiences, which have differential effects on self-esteem and performance, particularly in mathematics and…

  15. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  16. The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…

  17. Girls' and Women's Education in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Cultural and socioeconomic barriers to girls' and women's education are reflected in the female literacy rate, average wage, and girls' enrollment, dropout, attainment, and participation rates in formal education. Development of national education has been given top priority in the Indonesian national development. The education system is organized…

  18. Girls' and Women's Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    As a result of intensive advocacy, girls' and women's education is a developmental priority in India. Availability of international development assistance for basic education and women's education has gone up significantly. Government and donor perceptions of gender issues in education and the importance of reaching out to girls to achieve the…

  19. Girls and Violence. ERIC Digest Number 143.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Jeanne

    This digest reviews current research on girls' delinquent and violent behavior, the factors contributing to it, and effective programming strategies to prevent it. Girls are more involved in violent crime than they were a decade ago. Their murder rate is up 64%, although status offenses (offenses only because the perpetrator is a minor) continue…

  20. Role Calls for Boys & Girls Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou

    2013-01-01

    The New Hampshire Alliance of Boys & Girls Clubs has come a long way since the inception of the state's first Club in Manchester more than 100 years ago. The goal of the Boys & Girls Clubs of America is to provide youth with programs and services that allow them to realize their full potential as productive members of society. State and…

  1. Sex, Power, and the Violent School Girl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artz, Sibylle

    This book examines the worlds and practices of school girls who participate in violent activities, but who are not involved with the juvenile justice system, members of gangs, or a visible minority group. It provides an understanding of where the violent school girl stands in relation to her nonviolent female peers, and her violent and nonviolent…

  2. Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Horace R.; Brown-Thirston, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling" focuses on a range of social phenomenon that impact the lives of adolescent females of color. The authors highlight the daily challenges that African-American, Chicana, and Puerto Rican teenage girls face with respect to peer and family influences, media stereotyping, body image,…

  3. The Neurobiological Profile of Girls with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2008-01-01

    Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and…

  4. Jessie, a Girl with Two Moms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Danné E.

    2016-01-01

    "The Jessie Books" are a seven-book series complete with a dedicated website. Each book features a 5-year-old girl named Jessie who happens to live in a city with her two moms. Each book features Jessie as an ordinary young girl engaging in familiar, life-enriching activities. Across "The Jessie Books," the community of…

  5. Developing the Girl as a Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembrow-Beach, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Single-sex educational environments can create young women who are engaged, active leaders. Girls receive differential treatment in combined-sex education environments. Girls often do not receive the encouragement or instruction to assume leadership. I want to identify the elements of single-sex education that foster female leadership and consider…

  6. USAID Adolescent Girl Strategy Implementation Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2016

    2016-01-01

    USAID's commitment to empowering adolescent girls to reach their full potential is reflected in the Agency's larger efforts to achieve gender equality and women's empowerment. The Agency holds decades of experience leading advances for greater gender equality and empowerment that benefit adolescent girls; however, these activities have not been…

  7. Boys and Girls: Join the Club

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou; Wool, Michael; McKenzie, Mary Alice

    2012-01-01

    Boys & Girls Clubs of America count 4,000 community-based clubs serving more than 4 million young people through membership and community outreach. They provide a safe place to spend time during non-school hours and the summer as an alternative to the streets or being home alone--a place to play, have fun and learn. Boys & Girls Clubs…

  8. Sport as a Developmental Experience for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Mimi

    The author examines (1) sport as a medium for attitude learning, (2) achievement as an attitude to be modified in girls, and (3) educational sport as a teaching model through which achievement attitudes in elementary school girls can be affected. Sport is seen as an ideal mechanism for attitude change since it has all the characteristics of a…

  9. Science Camp: Just for the Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Research shows that girls tend to lose interest in science and math as they move through the education pipeline--a retreat that often begins during middle school. Summer science camps can be part of reversing that trend, some say. Academic camps are on the rise across the country, including ones to get adolescent girls excited about the…

  10. Reading Girls: Living Literate and Powerful Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Pam; Roe, Mary F.

    2008-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the authors merge two bodies of previously separated scholarship: (1) a socio-cultural understanding of adolescent girls in light of the shifting meaning of ideal girlhood, and (2) the participation and success of adolescent girls in school-based literacy activities. They apply these fields of inquiry to explore the…

  11. Little Girl, Where Are You Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elisberg, Joan; Elisberg Sue

    1974-01-01

    This article consists of black and white photographs of girls ages 13-17 doing things that interest them: carpentry, basketball, pottery, camera work, etc. The photographs are accompanied by the girls' thoughts on what they will do as future women, and what it means to be a woman. (Author/RM)

  12. Cyber Bullying and Our Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stomfay-Stitz, Aline; Wheeler, Edyth

    2007-01-01

    This column of Childhood Education focuses on middle school girls. Cyberbullying has emerged as a new, insidious, and harmful way of getting back at an individual girl who may be "different" or disliked for a physical or social trait. Cyberbullying has been described as "willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text"…

  13. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  14. Girls Save the World through Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Christine

    2011-01-01

    It's no secret that fewer and fewer women are entering computer science fields. Attracting high school girls to computer science is only part of the solution. Retaining them while they are in higher education or the workforce is also a challenge. To solve this, there is a need to show girls that computer science is a wide-open field that offers…

  15. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  16. Relational spirituality and depression in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Alethea; Miller, Lisa

    2007-10-01

    This study examines the possibility that relational spirituality may be inversely associated with the relatively higher rates of adolescent depression found in girls as compared with boys. Subjects were 615 adolescents, representing a diverse range of religious, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds. Overall spirituality and depression were measured using The Brief-Multidimensional Measure of Religiosity/Spirituality and the Beck Depression Inventory, respectively. Overall, both level of depression and level of relational spirituality were higher in girls as compared with boys. Regression analyses conducted independently for boys and girls revealed that daily spiritual experiences, forgiveness, and religious coping were associated with less-depressive symptomatology exclusively in girls. This pattern in the findings suggests that uniquely in girls, depression may be associated with disruptions in a relational form of spirituality.

  17. Association of Age at Menarche with Anthropometric Measures in Punjabi Bania Girls

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Zora; Sethi, Gurmeet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Menarcheal age is the age at which menstruation begins. Menarcheal age is regarded as a sensitive indicator of physical, biological and psychological environment. Aim 1) To determine the menarcheal age and to examine the relationship between current age at menarche with anthropometric measures in Punjabi bania girls. 2) To develop maturity standards for Bania girls. Materials and Methods The present cross-sectional survey was carried out on 200 bania girls at the age of onset of menarche. Menarcheal data was obtained by status quo method by asking about whether menarche has been experienced or not. In the present survey adolescent girls were interviewed with the help of pre-designed questionnaire. Statistical analysis was carried out in SPSS software, version 16.0. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used for correlation studies. Results A total of 200 Punjabi bania girls were examined in the study. The median age of onset of menarche in these girls was 12.3 years. Menarcheal age was positively associated with bi-acromial width, bi-iliac width and arm span. Conclusion The present research has revealed secular trend in the age of onset of menarche as indicated by median age of 12.3 years in Bania girls. The bi-acromial width, bi-iliac width and arm span were also correlated with the age of menarche. PMID:28050402

  18. The tribal girl child in Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Bhanti, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the status of the girl child among tribes in India. Tribes have son preference but do not discriminate against girls by female infanticide or sex determination tests. Girls do not inherit land, but they are not abused, hated, or subjected to rigid social norms. Girls are not veiled and are free to participate in dancing and other recreational programs. There is no dowry on marriage. The father of the bridegroom pays a brideprice to the father of the girl. Widowed or divorced women are free to marry again. Daughters care for young children, perform housework, and work in the field with their brothers. In the tribal village of Choti Underi girls were not discriminated against in health and nutrition, but there was a gender gap in education. Both girls and boys were equally exposed to infection and undernourishment. Tribals experience high rates of infant and child mortality due to poverty and its related malnutrition. Child labor among tribals is a way of life for meeting the basic needs of the total household. A recent report on tribals in Rajasthan reveals that 15-20% of child labor involved work in mines that were dangerous to children's health. Girl children had no security provisions or minimum wages. Tribal children were exploited by human service agencies. Child laborers were raped. Government programs in tribal areas should focus on improving living conditions for children in general. Special programs for girls are needed for providing security in the workplace and increasing female educational levels. More information is needed on the work burden of tribal girls that may include wage employment as well as housework.

  19. When a girl's decision involves the community: the realities of adolescent Maya girls' lives in rural indigenous Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them.

  20. Leadership Workshops for Adult Girl Scout Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Reaching Stars Team

    2016-10-01

    This year, the University of Arizona is conducting its first two Leadership Workshops for Girl Scout adult leaders. These workshops are being supported by a five-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the University of Arizona, Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA), the Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. These workshops are an outgrowth of Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders, a 14-year "Train the Trainer" program funded by NASA through the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) education and outreach team. We are continuing our long-term relationship with all Girl Scout Councils to engage girls and young women not only in science and math education, but also in the astronomical and technological concepts relating to NASA's scientific mission. Our training aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It's Your Planet-Love It! and introduces participants to some of the activities that are being developed by the Girl Scout Stars team for GSUSA's new space science badges for all Girl Scout levels being developed as a part of Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts.The workshops include hands-on activities in basic astronomy (night sky, stars, galaxies, optics, telescopes, etc.) as well as some more advanced concepts such as lookback time and the expansion of the Universe. Since the inception of our original Astronomy Camp in 2003, our team has grown to include nearly 280 adult leaders, staff, and volunteers from over 79 Councils in 43 states and the District of Columbia so they can, in turn, teach young women essential concepts in astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, and engineering. Our workshops model what astronomers do by engaging participants in the process of science inquiry, while equipping adults to host astronomy-related programs with

  1. Patterns of Weight Control Behavior among 15 year old Girls

    PubMed Central

    Balantekin, Katherine N.; Birch, Leann L.; Savage, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to identify and predict patterns of weight control behavior in 15 year old (yo) girls and to examine weight control group differences in energy intake. Method Subjects included 166 girls assessed every 2 years (ys) from age 5 to 15. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of weight control behaviors. Antecedent variables (e.g. inhibitory control at 7ys), and concurrent variables (e.g. BMI and dietary intake at 15ys) were included as predictors. Assessments were a combination of survey, interview, and laboratory measures. Results LCA identified four classes of weight control behaviors, Non-dieters (26%), and three dieting groups: Lifestyle (16%), Dieters (43%), and Extreme Dieters (17%). Levels of restraint, weight concerns, and dieting frequency increased across groups, from Non-dieters to Extreme Dieters. BMI at 5ys and inhibitory control at 7ys predicted weight control group at 15ys; e.g. with every one-point decrease in inhibitory control, girls were twice as likely to be Extreme Dieters than Non-dieters. Girls in the Extreme Dieters group were mostly classified as under-reporters, and had the lowest self-reported intake, but ate significantly more in the laboratory. Discussion Among 15yo girls, “dieting” includes a range of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Risk factors for membership in a weight control groups are present as early as 5ys. Patterns of intake in the laboratory support the view that lower reported energy intake by Extreme Dieters is likely due under-reporting as an intent to decrease intake, not actual decreased intake. PMID:26284953

  2. Kartagener syndrome associated with mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Choudhary, Bharat; Rajesh, Nachiappa Ganesh; Ramesh, Ananthakrishnan; Srinivasan, Sadagopan

    2012-05-01

    An 11-year-old girl with clinical features of Kartagener syndrome presented with signs of acute glomerulonephritis. Blood urea and creatinine were mildly elevated and anti-streptolysin O and C3 levels were normal. Renal biopsy demonstrated mesangial proliferation and direct immunofluorescence showed IgM and C3 deposits. This appears to be the first report of Kartagener syndrome in association with mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. The literature is reviewed and the possible mechanisms for this association are discussed.

  3. Delayed lead pulmonary emboli after a gunshot wound to the head. Case report.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Betsy D; Vender, John R

    2006-09-01

    Bullet fragment emboli are uncommon, and there have been only a few reports of intracranial-to-extracranial migration of these fragments. The authors present the case of an 11-year-old girl who was struck in the suboccipital region with a "soft nose" bullet fired at close range. Several months later, the patient was found to have asymptomatic pulmonary emboli. Similar cases are reviewed, and a management strategy is recommended.

  4. Parent-reported differences between school-aged girls and boys on the autism spectrum.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Rebecca; Hodge, Antoinette; Bruck, Susan; Costley, Debra; Klieve, Helen

    2017-03-01

    More boys than girls are diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder; however, there are conflicting findings about whether they differ in their presentation. This study involved a survey of parents of school-aged children on the autism spectrum (171 parents of girls and 163 parents of boys) that was distributed via social media. The surveys provided insights regarding the characteristics of boys and girls (as perceived by parents) as well as some demographic information. There were very few differences reported regarding communication and social strengths and difficulties of boys and girls with autism. No differences were reported in the number of boys and girls on the autism spectrum with special interests or repetitive behaviours; however, significant differences were found in the types of special interests with boys and girls showing generally interests along traditional gender lines. Qualitative analysis of open comments indicated that some parents of girls on the autism spectrum described their daughter as trying to hide or mask her difficulties more but no parents of boys on the spectrum described this phenomenon.

  5. Girls and science: A qualitative study on factors related to success and failure in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Paula Denise

    This qualitative study sought to determine how girls perceived factors that contribute to their success in science programs designed to maximize their achievement. The sample consisted of 20 students in 9th and 12th grades attending a school of choice. Respondents were interviewed using a structured interview protocol. The National Council for Research on Women study (Thom, 2001) found that girls are more successful in math and science programs that incorporate a cooperative, hands-on approach than in programs that stress competition and individual learning. This finding was supported by this study among 20 high school girls in a school whose mission is to improve the access of girls who study and choose careers in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) disciplines. Related studies on the subject of the underrepresentation of girls and women in science and related disciplines raise the question why so few girls choose STEM careers. Qualitative inductive analysis was used to discover critical themes that emerged from the data. The initial results were presented within the context of the following five themes: (1) learning styles, (2) long-term goals, (3) subject matter, (4) classroom climate/environment, and (5) evaluation. After further analysis, the researcher found that factors cited by the girls as contributing to their success in science programs specifically designed to maximize their achievement were: (a) cooperative learning, (b) a custom-tailored curriculum, and (c) positive influences of mentors.

  6. Sororicide in preteen girls. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Adam, B S; Livingston, R

    1993-01-01

    All means of exploring the psychological and environmental antecedents of murder by a child should be used toward preventing lethal outcomes in future. The authors present the case of a ten year old girl who killed her sister with details of the sisters' relationship, the perpetrator's psychological characteristics and the family situation. Sibling-rivalry, family stressors, and the perpetrator's compulsive and narcissistic traits and preoccupation with a violent television fantasy are discussed. A literature review and suggestions for future research are provided.

  7. Giant Bilateral Juvenile Fibroadenoma of the Breast in Prepubescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salma; Khan, Momna; Rafique, Sadia

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma accounts for 4% of the total fibroadenomas. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma is found in only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas. The authors report a 10-year girl presenting with progressive enlargement of both breasts for one year. Based on clinical findings and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), a diagnosis of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of breast was made. She underwent bilateral lumpectomy with breast conservation and made uneventful postoperative recovery.

  8. Edwards syndrome in a 6-year old girl.

    PubMed

    Raczkowski, Jan W; Daniszewska, Barbara; Paradecka, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome - ES) is the second most common trisomy. It occurs in 1/3 000 to 1/8 000 births. ES is a cause of numerous developmental disorders and malformations. The median life span of children with ES is about 2 weeks and only 5%-10% will survive their first year of life. The report presents a case of a 6-year-old girl with ES.

  9. Perceived experiences with sexism among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls reported sexual harassment (90%), academic sexism (52%), and athletic sexism (76%) at least once, with likelihood increasing with age. Socialization influences and individual factors, however, influenced likelihood of all three forms of sexism. Specifically, learning about feminism and gender-conformity pressures were linked to higher perceptions of sexism. Furthermore, girls' social gender identity (i.e., perceived gender typicality and gender-role contentedness) and gender-egalitarian attitudes were related to perceived sexism.

  10. Audience Effects on Self-Presentation in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Robin

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments examined 6- to 11-year-olds' judgments about appropriate self-descriptions in front of different audiences. Findings indicated that only older children differentiated between an unfamiliar peer and unfamiliar adult audience in selecting one of two self-descriptive statements. Even the youngest children differentiated between…

  11. Young Girls' Arithmetic and Spatial Skills: The Distal and Proximal Roles of Family Socioeconomics and Home Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearing, Eric; Casey, Beth M.; Ganley, Colleen M.; Tillinger, Miriam; Laski, Elida; Montecillo, Christine

    2012-01-01

    The present study addressed girls' (N=127) early numerical and spatial reasoning skills, within the context of a critical environment in which these cognitive skills develop, namely their homes. Specifically, proximal links between distal family socioeconomic conditions and first-grade girls' arithmetic and spatial skills were examined (mean…

  12. Developing Critical Hip Hop Feminist Literacies: Centrality and Subversion of Sexuality in the Lives of Black Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The present article explores discourses surrounding the bodies of Black women and girls as they engage the meanings of Black womanhood in (American) society in an afterschool setting. Drawing on Black and hip hop feminisms, African American literacies, and critical discourse perspectives, the author analyzes two young girls' narratives, which…

  13. On Their Own and in Their Own Words: Bolivian Adolescent Girls' Empowerment through Non-Governmental Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In recognition of the profound benefits of children's engagement with their rights, this article presents an experiential account of how Bolivian adolescent indigenous girls discover, articulate, experience, and advocate human rights. This study explores adolescent girls' demonstrations of empowerment, agency, resistance, and solidarity as part of…

  14. Reflections of Girls in the Media: A National Survey of Children. A Summary of Findings and Toplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document presents a summary of a national telephone survey that examined messages sent to adolescent girls (ages 10 to 17) across 6 types of media most heavily used by adolescent girls: television, movies, magazines, music videos, television commercials, and magazine advertisements. The study asked what messages are sent about gender…

  15. Experimentally Testing a Narrative Sense-Making Metaphor Intervention: Facilitating Communicative Coping about Social Aggression with Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Erin K.

    2009-01-01

    Social aggression, including behaviors such as gossip and friendship manipulation, can be damaging to girls' individual and relational well-being. As a result, the purpose of the present dissertation study was to test a narrative sense-making metaphor intervention with middle schools girls experiencing social aggression in order to facilitate…

  16. School-Based Exercise to Lower Blood Pressure in High-Risk African American Girls: Project Design and Baseline Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewart, Craig K.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes effective methods for identifying and recruiting high risk African American ninth-grade girls to measure their fitness and assess the impact of fitness training on blood pressure. A multistage step test for fitness assessment in such girls is presented. The "Project Heart" aerobics class and control groups are described. (SM)

  17. Bodily Knowledge: Learning about Equity and Justice with Adolescent Girls. Adolescent Cultures, School and Society, Vol. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Kimberly L.; Lalik, Rosary.

    This book examines how four adolescent girls constructed the meaning of their bodies, discussing oppression and resistance, voice and silence, and girls' desires to be seen and heard for who they are as they experience themselves individually and socially. It presents the struggles of two educational researchers trying to create ethical research…

  18. Developmental pathways to antisocial behavior: the delayed-onset pathway in girls.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, P; Frick, P J

    1999-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that there are two distinct trajectories for the development of antisocial behavior in boys: a childhood-onset pathway and an adolescent-onset pathway. After reviewing the limited available research on antisocial girls, we propose that this influential method of conceptualizing the development of severe antisocial behavior may not apply to girls without some important modifications. Antisocial girls appear to show many of the correlates that have been associated with the childhood-onset pathway in boys, and they tend to show impaired adult adjustment, which is also similar to boys in the childhood-onset pathway. However, antisocial girls typically show an adolescent-onset to their antisocial behavior. We have proposed that these girls show a third developmental pathway which we have labeled the "delayed-onset" pathway. This model rests on the assumption that many of the putative pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to the development of antisocial behavior in girls, such as cognitive and neuropsychological deficits, a dysfunctional family environment, and/or the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, may be present in childhood, but they do not lead to severe and overt antisocial behavior until adolescence. Therefore, we propose that the delayed-onset pathway for girls is analogous to the childhood-onset pathway in boys and that there is no analogous pathway in girls to the adolescent-onset pathway in boys. Although this model clearly needs to be tested in future research, it highlights the need to test the applicability of current theoretical models for explaining the development of antisocial behavior in girls.

  19. Girls Are Great. Contemporary Issues: Growing Up Female.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosatche, Harriet S.; And Others

    This document is designed to help Girl Scout leaders understand the maturation of girls and how to assist the girls in their development. The information and activities described in this booklet are designed to help girls see themselves in a positive way, understand some of the forces that influence them as they develop, and cope with the stresses…

  20. Starting Now: Strategies for Helping Girls Complete Primary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugh, Andrea

    This report assesses the current situation of girls' participation in elementary education, suggesting approaches that may help increase girls' retention. It reviews research findings and conventional wisdom on constraints affecting girls' schooling and examines initiatives that have attempted to increase girls' retention. Chapter 1,…

  1. Meeting at the Crossroads: Women's Psychology and Girls' Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Gilligan, Carol

    A study explored girls' development and its implication for the psychology of women. From 1986-1990, nearly 100 girls between the ages of 7 and 18 at the Laurel School for Girls in Cleveland, Ohio, were interviewed. Most of the girls were from middle- or upper-middle-class families (80%), although some were scholarship students from working-class…

  2. Educational Work of the Girl Scouts. Bulletin, 1921, No. 46

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Louise Stevens

    1921-01-01

    The Girl Scouts, a national organization, is open to any girl who expresses her desire to join and voluntarily accepts the promise and the laws. The object of the Girl Scouts is to bring to all girls the opportunity for group experience outdoor life, and to learn through work, but more by play, to serve their community. Patterned after the Girl…

  3. Sleeping Beauty Redefined: African American Girls in Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusimo, Patricia S.

    This paper examines the interests, perceptions, and participation of 16 African American girls in a program designed to improve girls' persistence in science, mathematics, and technology (SMT). The girls are among 33 African American and 73 total original participants in "Rural and Urban Images: Voices of Girls in Science, Mathematics, and…

  4. Girls' Attitudes Towards Science in Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences in attitudes in SS and Co-Ed schools and in schools in rural and urban areas. The methodology included the use of both questionnaires and focus group interviews. The main aim was to gain insight into the extent and depth of students' attitudes towards science. The findings of the study showed that the majority of Kenyan girls who participated in the study have a favourable attitude towards science. Girls in SS schools were found to have a more favourable attitude than those in Co-Ed schools, while girls in rural area schools were found to find science more relevant than those in urban schools. It emerged from this study that the attitudes of Kenyan girls are influenced by their perceptions of the relevance of science, enjoyment of studying science, perceptions of the suitability of science for a career, and their perceptions of subject difficulty.

  5. Letting girls speak out about science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Dale; Leary, Rosemary

    The purpose of this study was to try to determine what influences girls to choose science. Forty girls were interviewed in Grades 2, 5, 8, 11 using a semistructured protocol. The interview focused on feelings about science, science careers, peer and parental support, and how science is taught. To determine whether their responses were based on gender, each girl was asked to respond to questions as if she were a boy. The girls were highly self-confident and positive about science. All of the girls took a strong equity position and asserted that women can and should do science. The girls liked learning science in an interactive social context rather than participating in activities that isolated them such as independent reading, writing, or note taking. Those who chose science careers were drawn to them because of strong affective experiences with a loved one and a desire to help. The interviews were analyzed through the framework of women's affective and psychological needs.Received: 15 July 1993; Revised: 23 May 1994;

  6. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    SciTech Connect

    Fucic, A.; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L.; Aerts, D.; Biot, P.; Katsonouri, A.; Cerna, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Castano, A.; Rudnai, P.; Gutleb, A.; Ligocka, D.; Lupsa, I-R.; Berglund, M.; Horvat, M.; Halzlova, K.; Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G.; Hadjipanayis, A.; Krskova, A.; and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  7. Understanding Girls' Circle as an intervention on perceived social support, body image, self-efficacy, locus of control, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Steese, Stephanie; Dollette, Maya; Phillips, William; Hossfeld, Elizabeth; Matthews, Gail; Taormina, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    The Girls' Circle is a support group for adolescent girls developed by Beth Hossfeld and Giovanna Taormina as a unique program that addresses the needs of girls by focusing on increasing connections, building empathic skills, and developing resiliency. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of the Girls' Circle intervention on improving social support, body image, locus of control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Sixty-three girls from 9 support groups (comprising 5 to 15 girls each) across the United States completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale, the Nowicki-Strickland Personal Reaction Survey, Schwarzer's General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale both before and after the 10-week Girls' Circle program. Results revealed a significant increase in social support, body image, and self-efficacy after completion of the program.

  8. Research priorities on ending child marriage and supporting married girls.

    PubMed

    Svanemyr, Joar; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Raj, Anita; Travers, Ellen; Sundaram, Lakshmi

    2015-09-03

    Over the past few years the issue of child marriage has received growing political and programmatic attention. In spite of some progress in a number of countries, global rates have not declined over the past decade. Knowledge gaps remain in understanding trends, drivers and approaches to ending child marriage, especially to understand what is needed to achieve results on a large scale. This commentary summarizes the outcomes of an Expert Group Meeting organized by World Health Organization to discuss research priorities on Ending Child Marriage and Supporting Married Girls. It presents research gaps and recommends priorities for research in five key areas; (i) prevalence and trends of child marriage; (ii) causes of child marriage (iii) consequences of child marriage; (iv) efforts to prevent child marriage; (v) efforts to support married girls.

  9. Gender identity disorder in a girl: insights from adoption.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, K

    1995-01-01

    Gender identity disorder in girls is reported far less frequently than in boys. The analysis of a six-year-old adopted girl with gender identity disorder is presented to show the importance of the mother-infant relationship and of parental, especially maternal, attitudes toward gender in the normal development of gender identity and gender role definition. This child's unusual history included a late adoption, with clear evidence of separation trauma, and the ongoing influence of maternal infertility. Her symptoms of gender identity disorder appeared before her second birthday and were well established by three years of age. The analysis, from age six to thirteen, achieved a better adaptation to her gender. Her masculine strivings gradually became incorporated into an essentially feminine orientation.

  10. The girl child and law.

    PubMed

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  11. Meeting the need. Special report: educating girls.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D

    1993-01-01

    Educated women are more productive, more confident, marry later, use family planning, and have healthier children. There are an estimated 600 million illiterate women in the world, which is double the number of male illiterates. Improvements have been made in the past 10 years in educating girls. Current figures indicate that 65% of girls and 78% of boys enter primary school in developing countries vs. 20% and 11%, respectively, 10 years earlier. 37% of girls and 48% of boys are in secondary schools. An additional 56 million girls need to be enrolled in order to achieve parity with boys. The education of girls in Africa has suffered setbacks in the past decade due to economic recession. Primary school enrollment fell from 80% of eligible children in 1980 to 76% in 1986. Many countries are having difficulty keeping pace with population growth and educating more girls. There are many factors which interfere with girls' schooling: shortages of schools, lack of educational materials, cost of schools or educational materials, girl's status in society, competition with other household chores, child labor, time schedules of classes, flexibility of schools in allowing dropping in and out of school, lack of the appropriate kind of resources, distance to schools, lack of sanitation, and values emphasizing "respectability" rather than autonomy. Many countries are using innovative solutions to these difficulties. For example, in Bangladesh, Liberia, Morocco, and Tanzania, schools are "double shift" where classes are conducted in the morning, in the afternoon, and sometimes again in the evening for adult education. Communities and shanty towns are constructing their own crude buildings as schools close to home. However, in Egypt school construction is not the only answer; 400 new primary schools were opened and male enrollment increased from 90% to 100% and female enrollment rose to 74%. In Nigeria, cost of books and uniforms prevents many from attending. Poor families must be

  12. [Girls of today, women of tomorrow].

    PubMed

    Torres, C

    1996-01-01

    In many countries, girls are discriminated against in nutrition, education, health care, and other areas, to the detriment of their personal development. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) concerned with promoting women's rights have come to regard the problem of girls' rights as very serious. Attention to girls in the past was focused on adolescent pregnancy or on social problems such as violence or child prostitution. But in the view of the NGOs, gender equity will be impossible to achieve as long as discrimination against girls continues. In addition, limiting the opportunities of girls will inevitably limit their potential contributions to society. The UN General Assembly in September 1989 approved the Convention on the Rights of Children, the principal goals of which were to eliminate malnutrition, preventable diseases, and illiteracy. The World Conference on Children in 1990 was attended by representatives of over 150 countries, who specified concrete goals. Measurable progress has occurred. UNICEF estimates, for example, that 2.5 million fewer children died on 1996 than in 1990, but it is probable that over half of the children in Latin America and the Caribbean live in poverty. In 1990, nearly 1 million children under age 5 in the region died of preventable diseases, and some 7 million were estimated to be malnourished, 1 million seriously. Infant mortality rates indicate that most countries of the region have improved their health status, but the rate has apparently increased in Haiti, Bolivia, and Peru. The Pan American Health Organization and the Demographic and Health Surveys have accumulated data indicating that excess mortality has occurred among girls 1-4 years old in at least 9 countries of the region. Some evidence suggests that health care is less likely to be sought for girls than boys. Domestic violence and sexual abuse are a serious problem for girls and women, but many countries continue to avoid the issue. The 1993 UN Declaration of Human

  13. Pubertal Development in Mexican American Girls: The Family’s Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Rosenie Thelus; Bondy, Melissa L.; Wilkinson, Anna V.; Forman, Michele R.

    2011-01-01

    Mexican American (MA) girls are entering puberty earlier than in the past, yet few studies have explored the perceptions surrounding puberty among this group. We conducted separate focus groups for fathers, mothers, and daughters aged 6 to 12 years to explore perceptions of body image, pubertal development, communications, and sources of puberty-related information in MA participants. Our results revealed parental concerns about daughters’ weight and pubertal development, as well as differences in their communication with their daughters. Although both parents willingly discussed pubertal issues concerning their daughters, mothers had a more active role in conveying pubertal information to daughters. Among the girls, there was a gap in knowledge about the pubertal process between the younger and older girls. Our findings present opportunities and challenges for addressing obesity as a pubertal risk factor in MA girls; however, more studies are needed to understand family beliefs and sociocultural dynamics surrounding puberty in MAs. PMID:19690203

  14. A process evaluation of the art of yoga project mentor program for incarcerated teenage girls.

    PubMed

    Harris, Danielle Arlanda; Malone, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Returning to the community upon release from custody is a difficult process to navigate, and there are scant resources available to juvenile female offenders, in particular. Comprehensive wraparound aftercare and mentor services are a central component of successful community reentry, and the well-established unique characteristics of juvenile girls make it necessary to create programs catered specifically to them. The present study employed a case study design to describe and evaluate the Art of Yoga Project's Mentor Program. Eight girls and their mentors were followed for a period of 12 months after the girls' release from custody. Preliminary results from qualitative content analysis suggest that the program was valuable for the girls who participated.

  15. The Rural Girls in Science Project: from Pipelines to Affirming Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginorio, Angela B.; Huston, Michelle; Frevert, Katie; Seibel, Jane Bierman

    The Rural Girls in Science (RGS) program was developed to foster the interest in science, engineering, and mathematics among rural high school girls in the state of Washington. Girls served include American Indians, Latinas, and Whites. This article provides an overview of the program and its outcomes not only for the participants (girls, teachers, counselors, and schools) but the researchers. Lessons learned from and about the participants are presented, and lessons learned from the process are discussed to illustrate how RGS moved from a focus on individuals to a focus on the school. The initial guiding concepts (self-esteem and scientific pipeline) were replaced by “possible selves” and our proposed complementary concepts: science-affirming and affirming science education.

  16. Girls' Workplace Destinations in a Changed Social Landscape: Girls and Their Mothers Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walshaw, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Changes in participation and achievement patterns mark a turning point for girls in schooling and place female empowerment squarely in the public domain. Using data from a longitudinal study of girls, this paper looks at female empowerment by exploring the relationship between the production of female subjectivity and the processes operating in…

  17. Girls' Rumination and Anxiety Sensitivity: Are They Related after Controlling for Girl, Maternal, and Parenting Factors?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Christie; Epkins, Catherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rumination and anxiety sensitivity are posited cognitive vulnerabilities in the development and/or maintenance of depression and anxiety and have only been examined separately in youth. Objective: We examined the relation between rumination and anxiety sensitivity in girls, after controlling for other girl, maternal, and parenting…

  18. And Girl Justice for All: Blending Girl-Specific & Youth Development Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muno, Ann

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a Seattle-based nonprofit organization, Powerful Voices, designed to help girls realize their dreams, engage their communities, and shape a better world. One among many efforts to address the equity gap for girls of color, Powerful Voices intertwines gender- and race-specific practices with evidence-based…

  19. Girls Helping Girls: Assessing the Influence of College Student Mentors in an Afterschool Engineering Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Stephanie; Redmond, Adrienne; Thomas, Julie; High, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Current data suggest fewer females than males continue to be interested in engineering and that this gender gap is first evidenced during middle school years. One might expect that female engineering role models would encourage adolescent girls to pursue future careers in engineering and thereby increase the girls' interests in and attitudes…

  20. Gifted Girls and Nonmathematical Aspirations: A Longitudinal Case Study of Two Gifted Korean Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kyeong Hwa; Sriraman, Bharath

    2012-01-01

    In this longitudinal study of two gifted Korean girls, experiences with early admittance into a gifted program are charted alongside their family and societal experiences that ultimately influenced their career choices in nonmathematical fields. The 8-year-long qualitative study involved extensive interviews with the two gifted girls and their…

  1. Cool Girls, Inc.: Promoting the Positive Development of Urban Preadolescent and Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Thomason, Jessica; DiMeo, Michelle; Broomfield-Massey, Kimberley

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a transformation in youth programming toward a comprehensive positive youth development (YD) framework. Cool Girls, Inc., a YD program, focuses on improving girls' life chances by promoting positive behaviors and attitudes in multiple domains. These include self-concept, academic orientation, future orientation, and…

  2. Girls Rule! TGIF: Thank God I'm Female: Girls Kick Butt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Elaine M.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that teachers and librarians can have a positive influence on the lives of young girls by complimenting their reading choices and search strategies rather than just their shoes and hairdos. Discusses books dealing with beauty, clothes, media stereotypes, women in sports, sexuality, and recommended reading for girls. (PEN)

  3. Missionary Girl Power: Saving the "Third World" One Girl at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensoy, Ozlem; Marshall, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Deborah Ellis's "The Breadwinner" is a popular young adult novel about Muslim girls. In this paper, we offer an analysis of the representation of Muslim girls and women in the book as well as responses from undergraduate students enrolled in a children's literature course to these constructions. Building on the work of postcolonial feminism…

  4. "Oh, Those Loud Black Girls!": A Phenomenological Study of Black Girls Talking with an Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koonce, Jacqueline B.

    2012-01-01

    Current research suggests that it is imperative for researchers and educators to pay more attention to the needs of African American adolescent girls and how their race and gender affect schooling (Fordham, 1993; Morris, 2007). The purpose of this study was to highlight the lived experiences of two African American adolescent girls when they used…

  5. Mean Girls, Homosociality and Football: An Education on Social and Power Dynamics between Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    Relationships between girls and women have typically been explored through the lexicon of "friendship" or, where there is a presence of sexual desire, "lesbian". This article suggests the complexity and impact of female (same-sex) sociality, and its relationship to heteronormativity and power dynamics between girls and women…

  6. Bangladesh: giving girls the "key of keys".

    PubMed

    Chhabra, R

    1998-01-01

    In Bangladesh, 100 nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have worked with the government to create approximately 52,000 nonformal schools for children who have never attended school or have dropped out. The Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) alone has 34,000 nonformal education centers. The BRAC program has been particularly effective at increasing educational opportunities for girls, and BRAC is a major implementing agency of the agreement forged by the International Labor Organization and the UN Children's Fund with the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers Export Association, which gives about 10,000 former child garment workers a meager stipend allowing them to study instead of work. BRAC, the Grameen Bank, and several other NGOs are also developing alternative income-generating methods to compete with the exploitative working conditions suffered by impoverished girls. BRAC now has more than a million students enrolled each year, 700,000 of whom are girls. Students participate in special condensed courses in classes that average 33 pupils (20 must be girls). Gender sensitivity is incorporated at every level. BRAC also relies on community participation in running the schools, and the flexible hours and imaginative curriculum have resulted in very high attendance rates. Government actions (making primary education compulsory and tripling education expenditure) have also resulted in increased primary enrollment while special programs seek to increase the number of girls in secondary schools.

  7. Neuropsychological Functioning in Girls with Premature Adrenarche

    PubMed Central

    Tissot, A.; Dorn, L.D.; Rotenstein, D.; Rose, S.R.; Sontag-Padilla, L.M.; Jillard, C.L.; Witchel, S.F.; Berga, S.L.; Loucks, T.L.; Beers, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary research indicates that brain development occurs during childhood and into early adulthood, particularly in certain regions. A critical question is whether premature or atypical hormone exposures impact brain development (e.g., structure) or function (e.g., neuropsychological functioning). The current study enrolled 40 girls (aged 6–8 years) diagnosed with premature adrenarche (PA) and a comparison group of 36 girls with on-time maturation. It was hypothesized that girls with PA would demonstrate lower IQ and performance on several neuropsychological tasks. The potential for a sexually dimorphic neuropsychological profile in PA was also explored. No significant univariate or multivariate group differences emerged for any neuropsychological instrument. However, effect size confidence intervals contained medium-sized group differences at the subscale level. On-time girls performed better on verbal, working memory, and visuospatial tasks. Girls with PA showed improved attention, but not a sexually dimorphic profile. These results, though preliminary, suggest that premature maturation may influence neuropsychological functioning. PMID:22114879

  8. Preventing Substance Use among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Schinke, Steven P.; Fang, Lin; Cole, Kristin C.

    2009-01-01

    This study tested a computerized gender-specific, parent-involvement intervention program grounded in family interaction theory and aimed at preventing substance use among adolescent girls. Following program delivery and 1 year later, girls randomly assigned to the intervention arm improved more than girls in a control arm on variables associated with reduced risks for substance use, including communication with their mothers, knowledge of family rules about substance use, awareness of parental monitoring of their discretionary time, non-acceptance of peer substance use, problem-solving skills, and ability to refuse peer pressure to use substances. Relative to control-arm girls, those in the intervention arm also reported less 30-day use of alcohol and marijuana and lower intentions to smoke, drink, and take illicit drugs in the future. Girls’ mothers in the intervention arm reported greater improvements after the program and relative to control-arm mothers in their communication with their daughters, establishment of family rules about substance use, and monitoring of their daughters’ discretionary time. Study findings lend support to the potential of gender-specific, parent-involvement, and computerized approaches to preventing substance use among adolescent girls. PMID:19632053

  9. Child sexual assault: risk factors for girls.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2013-09-01

    To identify prospectively measured risk factors of sexual assault (SA) among girls age 17 and younger. The data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and are derived from interviews with 1,087 girls, their primary caregivers, and household heads. The data were collected from the girls' first year of life through their early twenties. Factors measured during childhood were used to predict whether the girls experienced a subsequent first sexual assault before the age of 18. Prospectively measured risk factors associated with subsequent child SA included the absence of one or both parents, maternal education less than college, family income below 400% of the federal poverty threshold, low caregiver warmth, child internalizing and externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, low achievement scores, and having been classified by their school as needing special education. Girls with behavioral health problems and learning challenges are at heightened risk for sexual assault. Research on behavioral health consequences of SA should control for preexisting SA risk factors to more accurately estimate the impact of child SA on subsequent behavioral health.

  10. How Israeli social workers perceive adolescent girls in prostitution.

    PubMed

    Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution.

  11. Single and aggregate salivary cortisol measures during two schooldays in midadolescent girls and boys.

    PubMed

    Folkesson, Lisa; Riva, Roberto; Östberg, Viveca; Lindfors, Petra

    2014-06-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, including its regulation of cortisol, is central to bodily functioning and salivary cortisol is a commonly used biomarker that reflects the functioning of the HPA axis. However, knowledge of diurnal cortisol rhythms in healthy adolescents is limited and few studies have examined patterns in midadolescent girls and boys across single and aggregate cortisol measures. To fill this gap, the present study investigated single and aggregate cortisol measures reflecting diurnal rhythms in 14 to 16-year-old girls and boys. Self-administered salivary samples from 79 girls and 42 boys were collected during two schooldays at four timepoints: (a) immediately at awakening, (b) 30 min after waking up, (c) 60 min after waking up, and (d) at 8:00 p.m. Additionally, diary data including time of awakening, sampling times, and other potential confounders were analyzed. As for single measures, both girls and boys exhibited a typical diurnal cortisol profile with high levels in the morning that decreased throughout the day. However, girls had higher morning cortisol than did boys with significant differences at time of awakening, and at 30 and 60 min postawakening. For the aggregate measures, girls had a larger total level of cortisol in terms of cortisol awakening response (CARG ), area under the curve (AUCG ), and rise over run (slopeawake to last ), while no differences emerged for reactivity measures. Taken together, these findings suggest differences in single and aggregate cortisol measures between midadolescent girls and boys. Such differences in diurnal cortisol between pubertal girls and boys may play a role for the differential health trajectories typically found among adult women and men.

  12. Contemporary girlhood: maternal reports on sexualized behaviour and appearance concern in 4-10 year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Tiggemann, Marika; Slater, Amy

    2014-09-01

    It is widely accepted that the sexualization of girls has increased markedly over time. The overall aim of the present study was to offer a description of the behaviours of young girls, with a particular focus on potentially sexualized behaviours and appearance concern. A sample of 815 mothers of 4-10 year-old girls completed a questionnaire about a range of behaviours exhibited by their daughters, in addition to measures of their own self-objectification and material concern. It was found that many girls engaged with teen culture and used a variety of beauty products, but few exhibited more overtly sexualized behaviours. Involvement with teen culture, using beauty products, attention to clothes, and personal grooming were all associated with the measure of appearance concern, as were maternal self-objectification and material concern. It was concluded that young girls do engage in 'grown up' behaviours and that such engagement is not benign for their development.

  13. Experiences in Sport, Physical Activity, and Physical Education Among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed. PMID:23412952

  14. Experiences in sport, physical activity, and physical education among Christian, Buddhist, and Hindu Asian adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kaori; Kodani, Iku; Gupta, Nidhi; Gill, Diane L

    2013-01-01

    Multicultural scholarship in sport and exercise psychology should help us understand and apply cultural competencies for all to be physically active. In the present study, two Asian countries, Japan and Singapore, were chosen. The participation rate for physical activities among adolescent girls tends to be lower than that of boys in both countries. Thus, the purpose of the project was to gain knowledge and understanding about sociocultural factors that may explain adolescent girls' perceptions and behaviors toward sport, physical activity, and physical education (PE). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews with focus groups was used to understand meanings of physical activity among Buddhist Japanese, and Hindu Indians and Christian Chinese from Singapore. Each focus group consisted of four or five girls and female researchers. Based on the analysis, we created four themes which were "cultural identities," "Asian girls and sport/physical activities," "PE experiences," "motivation for future involvement." The Buddhist Japanese, Hindu Indian, and Christian Chinese participants each reported unique physical activity experiences, and all the participants were aware of how Asian culture may affect being physically active. Experiences of PE classes were similar but perceptions of their PE attire were different for Christian Chinese and Hindu Indian adolescent girls. Based on the results, the importance of nurturing cultural competencies and ways to encourage girls to be physically active throughout life were discussed.

  15. Tectal pineal cyst in a 1-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Plowey, Edward D; Vogel, Hannes; Yeom, Kristen W; Jung, Henry; Chao, Kevin; Edwards, Michael S B

    2014-03-01

    Glial cysts of the pineal gland can frequently be found in adults and children, but only rarely do they enlarge to become clinically relevant. We report a unique presentation of a pineal cyst in the midbrain tectum of a 16-month-old girl who initially presented with ptosis and strabismus. Preoperative imaging studies and intraoperative findings revealed no continuity between the tectal cyst and the pineal gland proper. We surmise that this tectal pineal cyst may have arisen from duplicated pineal gland tissue.

  16. Sexual violence and the girl child.

    PubMed

    Purewal, J

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the forms of sexual abuse of female children and the psychosocial impact on the well-being of girls in India. Child sexual abuse statistics reveal an estimated 50% of girls being sexually abused before the age of 15 years. Girl children are abused and then are made to feel personally responsible, guilty, or persecuted. Girls are threatened with violence if they tell about the sexual abuse. Pregnancies arising from sexual abuse result in shame and early marriage. Male children are also abused but they are not made to feel punished. Child sexual abuse is technically any sexual activity (rape, fondling of genitalia, masturbation, forced oral sex, sodomy, or vaginal penetration) that is committed by someone in a position of authority, power, or trust over the child or by a stranger. The World Health Organization estimates that 1 in 10 children worldwide is sexually abused. Rape within the family is particularly difficult for the victim. In almost 60% of rape cases, the victim was unwilling to report the name of the abuser. Families remain silent about sexual offenses in order to protect the family image. Mothers remain silent if the abuser is the father, which interferes with a child's relationship to both parents. Sexual abuse can result in bed wetting, nightmares, sleep disorders, depression, anxiety, running away from home, multiple personality disorders, precocious sexual behavior, or sexual inhibition and low self-esteem. Parental responses tend to be inappropriate discipline or ignoring it. Children may experience flashbacks or other long-term effects. Girls who experience sexual abuse once tend to be more vulnerable to abuse in adult life. Healing is slow and systematic. The first aim is to restore a girl's ability to say no and to teach her to protect herself. Healing is about removing guilt and resolution of the conflict between blame and the grossness of the violation.

  17. Astronomy for Mile-Hi Girl Scouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, C. A.; Fuller, L.

    1999-12-01

    The Space Science Institute engaged Denver area astronomers in collaboration with the Girl Scouts - Mile Hi Council to plan, implement, and evaluate workshops on astronomy and Mars exploration for Junior Girl Scouts (ages 9-11) and their Troop Leaders. We designed a workshop for the Scouts that would enable them to earn their Sky Watch badge. In addition we implemented a workshop for Troop Leaders who want to implement badge-related space science activities within their troops. This talk (or poster) will report on our experiences and lessons learned in these workshops. Our work was supported by the NASA IDEAS program.

  18. Pioneering new approaches. Educating girls in Africa.

    PubMed

    Namuddu, K

    1993-01-01

    In Africa, the education of girls has varied with the history and development of countries. For instance, botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have higher enrollment of girls than boys, and in Nigeria the dropout rate for boys is higher than for girls. In Mozambique, girl's education is dependent on matrilineal or patrilineal family structure, urban or rural location, or religious preference. These and many other factors interfere with girl's access, survival, performance, and achievement in school. Strategies generally involve 1) improving access and increasing enrollment, 2) increasing survival in the school system, and 3) improving the quality of the learning environment. Most African countries are involved with the first strategy, but problems remain in selecting the appropriate age to begin school, retaining students and teachers, lowering absenteeism, providing adequate and appropriate teaching materials for students, and other factors that discourage female attendance. Solutions have involved establishing book banks and cardboard box libraries as a supplement to classroom learning. Gender stereotypes in curriculum materials are being introduced which show females in a positive and prominent way. In Zambia, an in-service training program aims to develop positive teacher attitudes toward girls, toward their work, and toward pupil's work. Program efforts in Kenya are attempting to educate parents about the importance of keeping their daughters in school, and about issues related to population, health, education, and a healthy environment. Traditional practices such as female circumcision, childhood marriages, early pregnancy, and nutritional taboos are discouraged. There are 43 district coordinators who conduct seminars and workshops to spread information to communities and households. Other countries are engaged in village meetings and workshops to persuade parents to examine their own interpersonal interaction with their daughters and the impact on their

  19. Teacher learning from girls' informal science experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birmingham, Daniel J.

    School science continues to fail to engage youth from non-dominant communities (Carlone, Huan-Frank & Webb, 2011). However, recent research demonstrates that informal science learning settings support both knowledge gains and increased participation in science among youth from non-dominant communities (Dierking, 2007; Falk et al., 2007; HFRP, 2010). Despite the success, little is known about how teachers can learn from informal science practices to support student engagement in science. In this study, I examine the impact informal science experiences has for the teaching and learning of science in school contexts. This study is focused on eliciting girls' stories of informal science learning experiences and sharing these stories with science teachers to examine what they notice and make meaning of in connection with their classroom practices (van Es & Sherin, 2002). I co-constructed cases of informal science experiences with middle school females who participate in an after school science program in an urban area. These cases consisted of the girls' written stories, their explicit messages to science teachers, examples of actions taken when investigating community based science issues and transcripts of conversations between the girls and researchers. These cases were shared with local science teachers in order to investigate what they "notice" (van Es & Sherin, 2002) regarding girls' participation in informal science learning, how they make meaning of youths' stories and whether the stories influence their classroom practices. I found that the girls' use their cases to share experiences of how, where and why science matters, to express hope for school science and to critique stereotypical views that young, female, students of color from lower SES backgrounds are not interested or capable of making contributions to scientific investigations. Additionally, I found that teachers noticed powerful messages within and across the girls' cases. The messages include; 1

  20. Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency presenting as hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Paul L; Mistry, Rakesh D

    2011-06-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism that commonly presents as hyperammonemia in neonates. We present a case of a 2-year-old girl who was referred to a pediatric emergency department for evaluation of hepatitis, an uncommon presentation of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. Recognition of late presentations of this disease is important for survival and neurological outcome.

  1. SciTech Clubs for Girls. [Annual] technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nogal, A.M.

    1993-02-01

    Since January 1992, 9 exhibits have been constructed by the SciTech Clubs for Girls, which involved 63 girls, ages 10 to 14. These exhibits are: Bubble Shapes by the St. Charles Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 109. Density Games by the South Elgin Cadette Girl Scout Troop No. 132. Electric Fleas by the Warrenville Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 305. Energy vs. Power by the Aurora Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 242. The Organ Pipe by the Bartlett Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 107. Ohm`s Law by the Geneva Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 401. What is Gravity by the Pilsen YMCA girls. Insulation at Work by the Algonquin Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 303. Series vs. Parallel by the Leland Junior Girl Scout Troop No. 50. The report is a description of each exhibit and the group that built the exhibit. Each group had a minimum of 10 hours of contact time at SciTech with the SciTech Clubs for Girls Program Coordinator. All mentors are female. Each exhibit building experience includes a trip to the hardware store to purchase supplies. After the exhibit is complete, the girls receive certificates of achievement and a SciTech Club Patch.

  2. A Review of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Women and Girls: Uncovering This Hidden Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Madhoo, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical presentation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in women and girls and factors influencing proper diagnosis and treatment. Data Sources: A PubMed search was conducted in April 9, 2012 for English-language publications from the previous 10 years. Search terms included attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, and AD/HD combined with gender, girls, females, women, continuity, discontinuity, gap, treatment, untreated, and lack of treatment. Study Selection/Data Extraction: A total of 41 articles were reviewed for relevance. Reference lists from relevant articles were reviewed for additional publications; sources known to the authors were also included. Results: Attitudes about ADHD among individuals with ADHD and knowledgeable informants (families, teachers, colleagues) vary on the basis of the diagnosed individual’s gender. The ADHD prevalence rates are higher among boys than girls. A low index of clinical suspicion exists for girls; their presentation is considered “subthreshold” because inattentiveness is more prominent than hyperactivity/impulsivity. Females with ADHD may develop better coping strategies than males to mask their symptoms. Lastly, anxiety and depression, common comorbidities in female patients with ADHD, can lead to missed or misdiagnosis. If not properly diagnosed and treated, girls with ADHD experience the same negative consequences as boys, including poor academic performance and behavioral problems. Unique issues related to hormonal effects on ADHD expression and treatment response are also experienced by women and girls. Conclusions: Accurate ADHD diagnosis in women and girls requires establishing a symptom history and an understanding of its gender-specific presentation. Coexisting anxiety and depression are prominent in female patients with ADHD; satisfactory academic achievement should not rule out an ADHD diagnosis. PMID:25317366

  3. Helping Girls Take a Byte Out of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Carol J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes several strategies principals can use to improve girls' confidence in using computer and information technology, such as making technology instruction "girl friendly," stressing active and cooperative learning, and demonstrating the positive impact of technology on society. (PKP)

  4. A Mediated Lifespace: Working Relationally with Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Marie L.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.

    2004-01-01

    A lifespace has to do with how selves are mediated by combining multiple cultural symbols to construct an identity in the world. The authors cite examples from media texts, as well as from a narrative study conducted with 10 adolescent girls in a treatment program for eating disorders, that illustrate the importance of practitioners considering…

  5. Girls Disengage from High School Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High school girls are bored, disengaged, and stressed in science classes, according to preliminary results of a study led by Northern Illinois University researchers Jennifer Schmidt and M. Cecil Smith. The two professors in the College of Education's Department of Leadership, Educational Psychology, and Foundations studied 244 high school…

  6. Igniting Girls' Interest in Science Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ride, Sally K.

    2005-01-01

    Encouraging students' interest in science has never been more important. Science plays a greater role in everyones lives than ever before, and students who have a solid foundation in science are prepared to pursue a wide range of opportunities in high school, college, and the workplace. Yet many students--particularly girls and students from…

  7. Postural Variables in Girls Practicing Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabara, Malgorzata; Hadzik, Andrzej

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess body posture of young female volleyball players in relation to their untrained mates. Material and methods: A group of 42 volleyball players and another of 43 untrained girls, all aged 13-16 years were studied with respect to their body posture indices by using computer posturography. Spinal angles and curvatures were…

  8. Gains and Gaps in Girls' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Xanthe Scharff; Scott, Kaitlyn

    2017-01-01

    After more than 25 years of research on girls' education, it is widely accepted among economists that investing in this area is one of, if not the most, effective development interventions. This research, as well as global advocacy and recent world events--including Malala Yousafzai winning the Nobel Peace Prize and the #Bringbackourgirls campaign…

  9. Hypnotizability and Dissociativity in Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships among hypnotizability, clinical dissociation and traumatic antecedents in 54 sexually abused girls, ages 6 to 15 years, and 51 matched controls. There were no significant differences in hypnotizability between abuse and control subjects. However, in the abuse group, highly hypnotizable subjects were…

  10. Why Girls Don't Count.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasset, Nike

    1991-01-01

    Examines the texts of 12 historians with access to educational directives produced by the Victorian Department of Education since the 1850s to determine the effects of curricular requirements on female enrollment in mathematics courses. Argues that girls were prohibited from taking arithmetic and mathematics because of other curricular…

  11. Preadolescent Girls' and Boys' Virtual MUD Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Strouse, Gabrielle A.; Strong, Bonnie L.; Huffaker, David A.; Lai, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Same and opposite-sex pairs of preadolescents interacted twice in a MUD, a virtual domain where they created characters known as avatars and socially interacted with one another. Boys interacted primarily through rapid scene shifts and playful exchanges; girls interacted with one another through written dialogue. Opposite-sex pairs lagged behind…

  12. "Scaling Up" Good Practices in Girls' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subrahmanian, Ramya

    2005-01-01

    This publication focuses on strategies for meeting international targets and national goals for universalizing girls' access to, retention in and completion of quality education. This will be done through "scaling up" successful interventions, or components of interventions that can be replicated. UNESCO published this book within the…

  13. Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

  14. Educating Girls and Women: A Moral Imperative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This booklet focuses on educating girls and women. The main issues include gender gap and its persistence in education. The reasons for this persistence include poverty, distance of schools, non-availability of gender segregated schools, absence of female teachers, inflexible school timing, and irrelevant and gender-insensitive curriculum. It is…

  15. Inhalant Use in Latina Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…

  16. Urinary tract infection in girls - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) should begin to improve within 1 to 2 days in most girls. The advice below may not ... Elder JS. Urinary tract infections. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, ... NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  17. "Dolly" Girls: Tweenies as Artefacts of Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Fiona; Kelly, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The apparent sexualization and exploitation of young girls by the consumer media is a much debated topic in the advanced liberal democracies. This paper will develop the argument that the "consumer-media culture" has established itself as one of the most powerful influences in processes of self-formation for young people, and that a…

  18. Supporting Girls in Early Adolescence. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Dianne

    Results of national studies suggest that for girls, the middle grades can be a time of significant decline in self-esteem and academic achievement. Reasons for this decline are not clearly indicated by research, but it is likely that multiple factors are involved. One factor is the preferential treatment boys receive in the classroom.…

  19. In the Classroom: Empowering Girls. Idea Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    Peace Corps volunteers are perceived as role models, technical specialists, teachers, counselors, heroes, and friends. This idea book shares specific ideas and frameworks for transferring the potential for positive guidance into classrooms and communities around the world. It concentrates on activities and strategies that increase girls' access…

  20. Women without Class: Girls, Race and Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettie, Julie

    This book examines Mexican American and white girls coming of age in California's Central Valley, offering tools for understanding the ways in which class identity is constructed, and at times fails to be constructed, in relationship to color, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality. Chapter 1, "Portraying Waretown High," introduces the issue.…

  1. Girls' and Women's Education in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Statistically, Thailand has eliminated gender disparity in access to education. Reasons that four women's conferences made very little impression on education reform could be no significant or overt discrimination against girls' enrollment and employment; education opportunity as more an issue of class (affordability) than gender (culture); and…

  2. The Young Gifted Girl: A Contemporary View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeper, Annemarie

    1978-01-01

    The author considers the impact of social trends, particularly the women's movement, on young gifted females, and cites such adjustment problems as the absence of gifted women models and the development of sublimated seduction patterns in the girls' relationships with their fathers. (CL)

  3. Puberty in the Girl Who is Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattullo, Ann

    Designed to help mothers of mentally retarded girls deal with the problems and concerns of puberty, the booklet provides information on physical and emotional changes, menstruation, masturbation, heterosexual behavior, contraception, protection against sexual aggression, the possibilities of marriage, and additional sources of information.…

  4. Girls and Gender in Alternative Education Provision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Lisa; Thomson, Pat

    2011-01-01

    UK Government policy states that all young people aged 14-19 are entitled to a broad and balanced curriculum, with access to "personalised" education and training pathways. With boys currently leading the statistics on exclusion, girls' educational and social needs are often sidelined in alternative education provision, as the majority…

  5. Coaching Behavior of Girls Youth Softball Coaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupnow, Allan; Stotlar, David

    A study examined coaches' behavior and classified the types and rates of coaches' behavior by time of athletic season (early or late), win/loss record, and throughout the time frame within a single contest. Subjects included all the volunteer coaches in a 13 team, softball program for 10-12 year old girls. The season consisted of a double…

  6. With Boys and Girls in Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurian, Michael; Stevens, Kathy

    2004-01-01

    New positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI technologies, which allow looking inside the brains, show that the brains of boys and girls differ both structurally and functionally that profoundly affect the human learning. These gender differences in the brain are corroborated in males and females throughout the world and do not differ…

  7. Nutrition Lessons Improve Hispanic Teenage Girls' Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neyman, Michelle R.; Block, Gladys; Morris, Jennifer L.; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2000-01-01

    Nutrition knowledge and dietary intake among 184 Hispanic teenage girls were assessed before and after a nutrition education intervention involving five weekly lessons. Intervention participants increased their nutrition knowledge by 50 percent and showed modest improvement in dietary behavior. Contains 16 references and data on subjects' dietary…

  8. Guatemalan Girls' Views of the Ideal Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Judith L.

    Adolescent girls living in Guatemala today experience a variety of influences on their lives. These include transmitted cultural values blended from Mayan and Spanish traditions, current social and economic conditions such as inflation, political violence, and urban migration, and also more immediate and personal influences: their families,…

  9. Pregnancy and Parenting among Runaway Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Syliva B.

    1980-01-01

    Alienated adolescent girls tend to be sexually active, tend not to use contraception effectively, and tend not to terminate pregnancy. Although they welcome a baby as a solution to lifelong problems, their poverty and drug abuse, inadequate nutrition, and lack of prenatal care put offspring at high risk. (Author/NRB)

  10. Library Materials and Services for Teen Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dell, Katie

    This book describes how libraries can define their service goals to better serve and empower young women, including how to establish partnerships with organizations, offer developmentally appropriate programming, and provide timely reader's advisory services. Chapter 1, "Girls in the Spotlight: A Short History," addresses the search for…

  11. Communication Skills in Girls with Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolotta, Theresa E.; Zipp, Genevieve P.; Simpkins, Susan D.; Glazewski, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Rett Syndrome (RS) is an X-linked, neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs primarily in females and causes significant impairment in cognition, motor control, and communication. Teachers and speech-language pathologists (SLPs) encounter girls with RS with increasing frequency as awareness of the disorder increases, yet the literature on clinical…

  12. Girls Trafficked from Nepal into Indian Brothels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Arati

    1996-01-01

    Account of the underground culture of sexual slavery of young girls. Children from Nepal are being lured in large numbers into the sex industry in Bombay, India. Describes the process by which children are seduced and coerced into this bondage with active support from political and law enforcement leaders. (LSR)

  13. Trends in Educational Equity of Girls & Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Yupin; Choy, Susan; Geddes, Claire; Sable, Jennifer; Snyder, Thomas

    This statistical report responds to a request by Congress for a report on educational equity for girls and women. The report assembles a series of indicators that examine the extent to which males and females have access to the same educational opportunities, avail themselves of these opportunities, perform at the same level, succeed at the same…

  14. NASA Science4Girls: Engaging Girls in STEM at Their Local Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinke, B.; Smith, D.; Bleacher, L.; Hauck, K.; Soeffing, C.; NASA SMD EPO Community

    2014-07-01

    The NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Science Education and Public Outreach Forums coordinate the participation of SMD education and public outreach (EPO) programs in Women's History Month through the NASA Science4Girls and Their Families initiative. The initiative partners NASA science education programs with public libraries to provide NASA-themed hands-on education activities for girls and their families. The initiative has expanded from the successful 2012 Astro4Girls pilot to engage girls in all four NASA science discipline areas, which broadens the impact of the pilot by enabling audiences to experience the full range of NASA science topics and the different career skills each requires. The events focus on engaging underserved and underrepresented audiences in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) via use of research-based best practices, collaborations with libraries, partnerships with local and national organizations, and remote engagement of audiences.

  15. Integrated health of the girl child.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses factors that affect the well-being and health of female children in India: sex ratio, literacy, food intake, morbidity, mortality, early marriage, maternal mortality, nutrition, prenatal care and delivery, family planning responsibilities, and access to health services. India has recognized within its Constitution and other government documents and programs equality for women, but practices lag behind principles. A National Action Plan was formulated for the period 1991-2000 for the girl child. Women themselves must change their attitudes about themselves and their female children. Several pilot programs have demonstrated the potential to empower girls to be outspoken, vocal, and enthusiastic. Girls in India are disadvantaged even before their birth. Patriarchal norms reinforce the view of girls as a bad investment. Women are blamed for not bearing a son, despite the evidence that males carry the deciding gender-specific chromosome. Tamil Nadu districts are known for their female infanticide. The declining sex ratio is attributed to the higher death rate among females younger than 35 years. Females until recently had a lower life expectancy than males. Sex ratios vary between states. The only state with a positive female sex ratio is Kerala. Males outnumber females by almost 10% in most of the northern and eastern states. Illiteracy among women is high in about 100 districts. Female school enrollment is 50% less than male enrollment. Females suffer from higher rates of malnutrition, morbidity, and death. Girls' adolescent growth spurt is delayed until 18 years. Maternal mortality accounts for the largest proportion of deaths among women of reproductive age. The most common reason for abortion is "too many children." Lower socioeconomic status is associated with lower nutrition. Women do not have control over their fertility. Women are limited in their access to reproductive health care.

  16. Social development and the girl child.

    PubMed

    Gangrade, K D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the social development of female children in India. Social development is "not merely an effort to provide ad hoc growth targets in each of the sectors of planning," but an integrative concept. Sustainable human development, according to Gus Speth (1994), is development that not only generates economic growth, it distributes its benefits equitably, regenerates the environment, and empowers people. India is ranked as 5th out of 132 countries in the 1994 World Bank Report, but 135th out of 173 in the Human Development Report. In India, there were 9000 dowry-related deaths in 1993. Son preference occurs regardless of social class. The sex ratio declined as low as 811 females per 1000 males in Jaisalmer district of Rajasthan. The government of India developed a National Action Plan that is committed to the survival, protection, and development of female children. The Integrated Child Development Scheme, in 2696 blocks with a coverage of 250,000 villages and 224 urban slum areas, has demonstrated its effectiveness in increased child nutrition. Survival of girl children is 50% less than male survival in the first 30 days of life. Under 50% of girls are enrolled in schools. Bihar state is particularly backward in enhancing girls' status through modernization and increased female enrollments. Child labor may contribute about 25-29% of gross national product. Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh, with 40% of the total population, have over 60% of their females marrying below the age of 20 years. Recommended are universal enrollment of all children from scheduled caste and tribes; nonformal educational options for school drop outs, working children, and girls who cannot attend school; and increasing upper school education of girls. A variety of other recommendations are made on improving the status of women for working women, unmarried single women, and women in general.

  17. Nuclear science outreach program for high school girls

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, D.E.; Stone, C.A.

    1996-12-31

    The authors have developed a 2-week summer school on nuclear science for high school girls. This summer school is an outgrowth of a recent American Nuclear Society high school teachers workshop held at San Jose State University. Young scientists are introduced to concepts in nuclear science through a combination of lectures, laboratory experiments, literature research, and visits to local national laboratories and nuclear facilities. Lectures cover a range of topics, including radioactivity and radioactive decay, statistics, fission and fusion, nuclear medicine, and food irradiation. A variety of applications of nuclear science concepts are also presented.

  18. Association of Wolfram syndrome with Fallot tetralogy in a girl.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Hüseyin A; Demir, Korcan; Hazan, Filiz; Yıldız, Melek; Elmas, Özlem N; Özkan, Behzat

    2016-06-01

    Wolfram syndrome (DIDMOAD: diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy and deafness) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder. Mutations of the WFS1 (wolframin) on chromosome 4 are responsible for the clinical manifestations in majority of patients with Wolfram syndrome. Wolfram syndrome is also accompanied by neurologic and psychiatric disorders, urodynamic abnormalities, restricted joint motility, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy, hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism in males and diabetic microvascular disorders. There are very limited data in the literature regarding cardiac malformations associated in children with Wolfram syndrome. A 5-year-old girl with Wolfram syndrome and tetralogy of Fallot is presented herein.

  19. Factitious purpura in a 10-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kayo; Sakurai, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Mari; Miyagawa, Sachiko; Yoshioka, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We describe a 10-year-old girl who presented with bizarre purpura. Both congenital and autoimmune hemorrhagic disorders were excluded based on her past medical history and physical and laboratory findings. Child abuse was also ruled out as purpura continued to develop after child-family separation. Histologic examination of the skin lesions revealed disruption of collagen fiber bundles. This finding indicated application of external force, leading to a definitive diagnosis of factitious purpura. Although it is very rare in school-age children, the diagnosis of factitious purpura should be included in the differential diagnosis of purpura in children. Histologic analysis of skin biopsies may aid in establishing the diagnosis.

  20. Science education for girls: A partnership between Girl Scouts and NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisham, Anne

    This study investigated the evolution of the relationship between NASA and the Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA). The stories of three groups of key players; NASA, Girl Scout National Staff, and Girl Scout volunteers explained the scope and depth of this unique partnership. Common goals between GSUSA and NASA of encouraging girls to seek careers in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) were studied to determine if the goals were met as a result of this collaboration. Outcomes such as the Memorandum of Understanding, numbers of attendees at workshops, and artifact reviews aided in the collection of data. The partnership between the Girl Scouts and NASA has not been without strife, and barriers such as funding and communication has delayed the goals of both organizations. Nevertheless, a partnership was forged and has grown since its inception in early 2001. Each of these national organizations has its own way of work and its own culture. How then can two such large organizations find the common ground to partner together and create a new culture shared between them with a common mindset? The timeline of how and when the two organizations began their collaborations and the outcome of their partnership was evaluated. Examination of the Girl Scout culture and goals as they are related to science was compared to the NASA goals of introducing more girls to STEM careers. The impact effect of how many different workshops, events, camps with space themes was analyzed. Girl Scout adult volunteers' attitudes and beliefs about science were explored to determine if changes in beliefs occurred as a result of the experiences with NASA. Ultimately, data were scrutinized to determine if the relationship is sustainable and what efforts each organization must take to maintain a high-leveled partnership.