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Sample records for 11-year-old girl presented

  1. First Manic Episode in an 11 Year-old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Don Quang; Beaudry, Vincent; Lajoie, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We present the case of an 11 year-old girl admitted to the Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke for a first manic episode. Method: Differential diagnoses of adjustment disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder were considered but eliminated. Results: No organic etiology was detected. Her condition rapidly remitted with aripiprazole 3mg. After her discharge, she suffered a relapse due to instability of her living conditions and was rehospitalized. Conclusion: Mania is a difficult diagnosis in youths due to its nonspecific symptoms, rare prepubertal occurrence, and diagnostic complexity. Despite ongoing research, there is little conclusive information on the impact of psychosocial stressors on the evolution of early-onset bipolar disorder. PMID:24223053

  2. Motor Competence in 11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vedul-Kjelsås, Vigdis; Stensdotter, Ann-Katrin; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2013-01-01

    By using the Movement Assessment Battery (MABC), the present study investigated possible gender differences in several tasks of motor competence in children. The sample included 67 Norwegian sixth-grade children (Girls N?=?29; Boys?=?39). Boys' performance exceeds that of girls in ball skills and in one of the balance skills. No differences…

  3. Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease in an 11-year-old girl: diagnostic pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kano, Gen; Nakamura, Keiko; Sakamoto, Izumi

    2014-02-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare chronic lung disease that is difficult to diagnose due to non-specific clinical findings. Little is known about the pathogenesis of PVOD. Reported herein is the case of an 11-year-old girl who initially presented with 'bat-wing' shadows on chest radiography. This finding, coupled with prominent hemosiderosis in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, initially led to a misdiagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis. Oral prednisolone dramatically improved signs and symptoms initially, but her condition then gradually deteriorated during maintenance therapy with corticosteroids and other immunosuppressants. PVOD was suspected but not confirmed owing to a lack of hallmark radiographic findings and contraindications for lung biopsy. Three years later, while arranging for lung transplantation, the patient experienced sudden onset of fatal massive pulmonary edema. PVOD was confirmed at autopsy. This case provides insights regarding an unfamiliar presentation of PVOD and may help physicians to avoid diagnostic pitfalls.

  4. A fatal outcome of complicated severe diabetic ketoacidosis in a 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Severinski, Srećko; Butorac Ahel, Ivona; Ovuka, Aleksandar; Verbić, Arijan

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complex metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis and ketonuria. Cerebral edema is the most common rare complication of DKA in children. The objective of the study was to emphasize the importance of careful evaluation and monitoring for signs and symptoms of cerebral edema in all children undergoing treatment for DKA. We present a case of 11-year-old girl with a history of diabetes mellitus type I (T1DM) who presented with severe DKA complicated by hypovolemic shock, cerebral edema and hematemesis. Considering the fact that complications of DKA are rare and require a high index of clinical suspicion, early recognition and treatment are crucial for avoiding permanent damage.

  5. A fatal outcome of complicated severe diabetic ketoacidosis in a 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Severinski, Srećko; Butorac Ahel, Ivona; Ovuka, Aleksandar; Verbić, Arijan

    2016-08-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complex metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis and ketonuria. Cerebral edema is the most common rare complication of DKA in children. The objective of the study was to emphasize the importance of careful evaluation and monitoring for signs and symptoms of cerebral edema in all children undergoing treatment for DKA. We present a case of 11-year-old girl with a history of diabetes mellitus type I (T1DM) who presented with severe DKA complicated by hypovolemic shock, cerebral edema and hematemesis. Considering the fact that complications of DKA are rare and require a high index of clinical suspicion, early recognition and treatment are crucial for avoiding permanent damage. PMID:27226096

  6. Pemphigus foliaceus in an 11-year-old mexican girl with response to oral dapsone.

    PubMed

    García-Meléndez, Martha Elena; Eichelmann, Kristian; Salas-Alanís, Julio César; Gomez-Flores, Minerva; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is rarely described in the pediatric population with less than 40 cases reported in the literature. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl who was diagnosed with PF after 6 months of starting with symptoms and who responded well to therapy with oral dapsone. Although therapeutic guidelines for PF in children are lacking, oral corticosteroids in combination with dapsone have proven to be effective as first-line treatment in this setting.

  7. Pemphigus Foliaceus in an 11-Year-Old Mexican Girl with Response to Oral Dapsone

    PubMed Central

    García-Meléndez, Martha Elena; Eichelmann, Kristian; Salas-Alanís, Julio César; Gomez-Flores, Minerva; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is rarely described in the pediatric population with less than 40 cases reported in the literature. We report the case of an 11-year-old girl who was diagnosed with PF after 6 months of starting with symptoms and who responded well to therapy with oral dapsone. Although therapeutic guidelines for PF in children are lacking, oral corticosteroids in combination with dapsone have proven to be effective as first-line treatment in this setting. PMID:24416609

  8. Eating attitudes in a group of 11-year-old urban South African girls

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Carmen D; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; MacKeown, Jenny M

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To explore and describe eating attitudes in early pubertal 11-year-old black and white South African girls in an urban environment undergoing transition. Design The study was designed as a cross-sectional baseline initiative within a longitudinal study. Subjects Two hundred and two subjects were randomly selected; 54 were white and 148 black. Methods Subjects completed questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements were taken. Outcome measures Variables included body mass index (BMI), eating attitudes (EAT score), dietary intake, socio-economic status, pubertal status and level of physical activity. Results As expected, the prevalence rate of abnormal eating attitudes in this group of girls was low (1%). No significant ethnic differences were found in the total EAT scores. White participants displayed greater oral control, while their black peers displayed greater tendencies toward dieting (p = 0.05). Girls who scored higher on the dieting subscale had a larger body size and were more inactive than low dieting scorers (p = 0.05). A relationship between body size measurements and dietary intake was found only in black girls. Traditionally a larger figure is accepted in black culture. However our data suggest a move away from this, indicating acculturation, as awareness of increased body size significantly influenced dieting attitudes. However, scores were within the normal range. Conclusions There is early evidence suggesting the impact of societal transition on young black girls with regard to eating attitudes. Black girls in this age group are adopting Western ideals of beauty and thinness. PMID:20526468

  9. Physical training improves body composition of black obese 7- to 11-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Gutin, B; Cucuzzo, N; Islam, S; Smith, C; Moffatt, R; Pargman, D

    1995-07-01

    We determined the effect of supervised physical training without dietary intervention, on body composition of obese girls. The subjects were 25 obese 7- to 11-year-old black girls, divided into physical training and lifestyle education groups which were comparable on baseline body composition; 22 girls finished all aspects of the study. Twelve girls engaged in aerobic training (10 weeks, 5 days/week) while 10 engaged in weekly lifestyle discussions without formal physical training. Total body and regional body composition were measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, skinfolds and circumferences. Aerobic fitness was measured by heart rate response to submaximal treadmill exercise. The physical training group attended 94% of scheduled sessions and kept their heart rates at an average of 163 bpm for 28 minutes/session. The lifestyle group attended 95% of their sessions; they remained stable in aerobic fitness and most body composition measurements. The physical training group showed a significant improvement in aerobic fitness and a significant decline of 1.4% body fat. Skinfold and circumference indices of fatness also declined significantly in the training group. We conclude that controlled physical training, without dietary intervention, improved the fitness and body composition of obese black girls.

  10. Trichotillomania: Bizzare Patern of Hair Loss at 11-Year-old Girl.

    PubMed

    Zímová, Jana; Zímová, Pavlína

    2016-06-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) is defined by the Diagnostics and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DMS-IV) as hair loss from a patient`s repetitive self-pulling of hair. The disorder is included under anxiety disorders because it shares some obsessive-compulsive features. Patients have the tendency towards feelings of unattractiveness, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem (1,2). It is a major psychiatric problem, but many patients with this disorder first present to a dermatologist. An 11-year-old girl came to our department with a 2-month history of diffuse hair loss on the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area (Figure 1). She had originally been examined by a pediatrician with the diagnosis of alopecia areata. The patient`s personal history included hay fever and shortsightedness, and she suffered from varicella and mononucleosis. Nobody in the family history suffered from alopecia areata, but her father has male androgenetic alopecia (Norwood/Hamilton MAGA C3F3). The mother noticed that the child had had changeable mood for about 2 months and did not want to communicate with other persons in the family. The family did not have any pet at home. At school, her favorite subjects were Math and Computer Studies. She did not like Physical Education and did not participate in any sport activities during her free time. This was very strange because she was obese (body-mass index (BMI) 24.69). She was sometimes angry with her 13-year-old sister who had better results at school. The girl had suddenly started to wear a blue scarf. The parents did not notice that she pulled out her hair at home. Dermatological examination of the capillitium found a zone of incomplete alopecia in the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area, without inflammation, desquamation, and scaring. Hairs were of variable length (Figure 1). There was a patch of incomplete alopecia above the forehead between two stripes of hair of variable length (Figure 2). The hair pull test was

  11. Trichotillomania: Bizzare Patern of Hair Loss at 11-Year-old Girl.

    PubMed

    Zímová, Jana; Zímová, Pavlína

    2016-06-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) is defined by the Diagnostics and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DMS-IV) as hair loss from a patient`s repetitive self-pulling of hair. The disorder is included under anxiety disorders because it shares some obsessive-compulsive features. Patients have the tendency towards feelings of unattractiveness, body dissatisfaction, and low self-esteem (1,2). It is a major psychiatric problem, but many patients with this disorder first present to a dermatologist. An 11-year-old girl came to our department with a 2-month history of diffuse hair loss on the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area (Figure 1). She had originally been examined by a pediatrician with the diagnosis of alopecia areata. The patient`s personal history included hay fever and shortsightedness, and she suffered from varicella and mononucleosis. Nobody in the family history suffered from alopecia areata, but her father has male androgenetic alopecia (Norwood/Hamilton MAGA C3F3). The mother noticed that the child had had changeable mood for about 2 months and did not want to communicate with other persons in the family. The family did not have any pet at home. At school, her favorite subjects were Math and Computer Studies. She did not like Physical Education and did not participate in any sport activities during her free time. This was very strange because she was obese (body-mass index (BMI) 24.69). She was sometimes angry with her 13-year-old sister who had better results at school. The girl had suddenly started to wear a blue scarf. The parents did not notice that she pulled out her hair at home. Dermatological examination of the capillitium found a zone of incomplete alopecia in the frontoparietal and parietotemporal area, without inflammation, desquamation, and scaring. Hairs were of variable length (Figure 1). There was a patch of incomplete alopecia above the forehead between two stripes of hair of variable length (Figure 2). The hair pull test was

  12. Echocardiographic Diagnosis of Incidentally Found Left Coronary Artery to Pulmonary Artery Fistula in an 11-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo-Hau; Lin, Chu-Chuan; Weng, Ken-Pen; Wu, Huang-Wei; Chien, Jen-Hung; Huang, Shih-Ming

    2016-01-01

    We report on a healthy 11-year-old girl who presented to our facility with sudden onset of fainting in a strenuous running course. Transthoracic echocardiography at short-axis view showed a diastolic flow into the main pulmonary artery (PA). The diagnosis of left anterior descending artery (LAD) to PA fistula was documented by cardiac computed tomography and catheterization. Interventional therapy of LAD to the main PA fistula was not performed because of no evidence of myocardial ischemia or significant hemodynamic change. Presently, the patient remains asymptomatic. Coronary fistula with an incidence of about 0.1-0.8% is very rare and may be undetected, particularly in pediatric patients without cardiac murmur. We herein describe the diagnostic approach and discuss the current treatment modalities. PMID:27274178

  13. Speech-Language and swallowing manifestations and rehabilitation in an 11-year-old girl with MELAS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vandana, V P; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Sonam, Kothari; Taly, Arun B; Gayathri, N; Madhu, N; Sinha, S

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome is a rare mitochondrial disease. The available studies on MELAS syndrome are limited to evaluation of radiological, audiological, genetic, and neurological findings. Among the various neurological manifestations, speech-language and swallowing manifestations are less discussed in the literature. This report describes the speech-language and swallowing function in an 11-year-old girl with MELAS syndrome. The intervention over a period of 6 months is discussed.

  14. Cardiovascular Fitness in Obese versus Nonobese 8-11-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastrangelo, M. Alysia; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Rattigan, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiovascular fitness between obese and nonobese children. Based on body mass index, 118 were classified as obese (boys [OB] = 62, girls [OG] = 56), while 421 were nonobese (boys [NOB] = 196, girls [NOG] = 225). Cardiovascular fitness was determined by a 1-mile [1.6 km] run/walk (MRW) and estimated peak…

  15. Visual diagnosis: an 11-year-old girl who has left leg pain.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Moshe; Issakov, Josephine; Eidelman, Mark

    2012-07-01

    Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) in children usually are asymptomatic. Most UBCs are discovered when a radiograph is performed on a child who has had accidental trauma to a limb. Symptomatic cysts typically present with pain, often the result of pathologic fracture through a large cyst or occult stress fracture within the thinned cortex around the cyst. Simple radiography is the best method for detecting such cysts, which typically are located within the long bone (femur, tibia, fibula, humerus), but can appear elsewhere. Cysts typically appear in the proximal metaphysis, but some involve the epiphysis and growth plate, thereby affecting bone growth. If clinically necessary to confirm the diagnosis, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can delineate the cyst better or demonstrate an occult fracture. For the asymptomatic UBC, close follow-up is the recommended course of action. However, surgical intervention by corticosteroid or autogenous bone marrow injection or open curettage with bone grafting is recommended if the cyst is symptomatic, carries an increased risk for pathologic fracture (weight-bearing bone or dominant arm of a throwing athlete), or shows signs of an impending pathologic fracture. Clinical and radiographic follow-up is recommended after surgical intervention, because UBC recurrence after initial surgery is reported to occur in 18% to 88% of patients. PMID:22753795

  16. Acute pancreatitis secondary to hyperlipidemia in an 11-year-old girl: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bălănescu, NR; Topor, L; Ulici, A; Djendov, FB

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of an 11-year-old female with acute pancreatitis, and review the literature highlighting the presenting symptoms and signs, laboratory tests, and investigational tools that helped in the establishment of a correct diagnosis. First, the patient presented to a regional hospital reporting abdominal pain, vomiting and liquid stool. She was admitted with the diagnosis of acute surgical abdomen and underwent surgery. Upon admission in our department, laboratory findings showed high values for total lipids = 2600 mg/dL and triglycerides 1200 mg/dL. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a pancreas with a small enlargement of the head (19 mm), and with a heterogeneous structure of the parenchyma. Abdominal computed tomography showed small left pleural collection and a high-dimensioned pancreas, particularly at the head, with heterogeneous structure, and peripancreatic collections. The patient was treated by fasting, gastric decompression by nasogastric tube, and intravenous antibiotherapy followed by antialgic and antispasticity treatment. Time of the patient’s first feeding was after the 7th day of hospitalization. The patient was discharged in a very good condition after 22 days of hospitalization. PMID:23599811

  17. Hunter syndrome in an 11-year old girl on enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase: brain magnetic resonance imaging features and evolution.

    PubMed

    Manara, Renzo; Rampazzo, Angelica; Cananzi, Mara; Salviati, Leonardo; Mardari, Rodica; Drigo, Paola; Tomanin, Rosella; Gasparotto, Nicoletta; Priante, Elena; Scarpa, Maurizio

    2010-12-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS-II, Hunter disease) is a X-linked recessive disorder. Affected females are extremely rare, mostly due to skewed X chromosome inactivation. A few papers outline MPS-II brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) "gestalt" in males, but neuroradiological reports on females are still lacking. We present an 11-year-old girl affected by the severe form of MPS-II who was followed up over a time span of 8 years, focusing on clinical and brain MRI evolution. In the last 2.5 years, the patient has been treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with idursulfase (Elaprase™, Shire Human Genetic Therapies AB, Sweden). On brain and cervical MRI examination, abnormalities in our patient did not differ from those detected in male patients: J-shaped pituitary sella, enlargement of perivascular spaces, brain atrophy, mild T2-hyperintensity in the paratrigonal white matter, diffuse platyspondylia, and mild odontoid dysplasia with odontoid cup. Brain atrophy progressed despite ERT introduction, whereas perivascular space enlargement did not change significantly before and after ERT. Cognitive impairment worsened independently from the course of white matter abnormality. Despite a profound knowledge of genetic and biochemical aspects in MPS-II, neuroradiology is still poorly characterized, especially in female patients. Spinal and brain involvement and its natural course and evolution after ERT introduction still need to be clarified. PMID:20052546

  18. [A delayed motor production of open chains of linear strokes presented visually in static and dynamic modes: a comparison between 9 to 11 years old children and adults].

    PubMed

    Antonova, A A; Absatova, K A; Korneev, A A; Kurgansky, A V

    2015-01-01

    The production of drawing movements was studied in 29 right-handed children of 9-to-11 years old. The movements were the sequences of horizontal and vertical linear stokes conjoined at right angle (open polygonal chains) referred to throughout the paper as trajectories. The length of a trajectory varied from 4 to 6. The trajectories were presented visually to a subject in static (linedrawing) and dynamic (moving cursor that leaves no trace) modes. The subjects were asked to draw (copy) a trajectory in response to delayed go-signal (short click) as fast as possible without lifting the pen. The production latency time, the average movement duration along a trajectory segment, and overall number of errors committed by a subject during trajectory production were analyzed. A comparison of children's data with similar data in adults (16 subjects) shows the following. First, a substantial reduction in error rate is observed in the age range between 9 and 11 years old for both static and dynamic modes of trajectory presentation, with children of 11 still committing more error than adults. Second, the averaged movement duration shortens with age while the latency time tends to increase. Third, unlike the adults, the children of 9-11 do not show any difference in latency time between static and dynamic modes of visual presentation of trajectories. The difference in trajectory production between adult and children is attributed to the predominant involvement of on-line programming in children and pre-programming in adults.

  19. A comparison of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in 9–11 year old British Pakistani and White British girls: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggest that British children of South Asian origin are less active and more sedentary than White British children. However, little is known about the behaviours underlying low activity levels, nor the familial contexts of active and sedentary behaviours in these groups. Our aim was to test hypotheses about differences between British Pakistani and White British girls using accelerometry and self-reports of key active and sedentary behaviours, and to obtain an understanding of factors affecting these behaviours using parental interviews. Methods Participants were 145 girls (70 White British and 75 British Pakistani) aged 9–11 years and parents of 19 of the girls. Accelerometry data were collected over 4 days and girls provided 24-hour physical activity interviews on 3 of these days. Multilevel linear regression models and generalised linear mixed models tested for ethnic differences in activity, sedentary time, and behaviours. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents. Results Compared to White British girls, British Pakistani girls accumulated 102 (95% CI 59, 145) fewer counts per minute and 14 minutes (95% CI 8, 20) less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity per day. British Pakistani girls spent more time (28 minutes per day, 95% CI 14, 42) sedentary. Fewer British Pakistani than White British girls reported participation in organised sports and exercise (OR 0.22 95% CI 0.08, 0.64) or in outdoor play (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.20, 0.91). Fewer British Pakistani girls travelled actively to school (OR 0.26 95% CI 0.10, 0.71). There was no significant difference in reported screen time (OR 0.88 95% CI 0.45, 1.73). Parental interviews suggested that structural constraints (e.g. busy family schedules) and parental concerns about safety were important influences on activity levels. Conclusions British Pakistani girls were less active than White British girls and were less likely to participate in key active behaviours

  20. [Lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome revealing systemic lupus in an 11-year old girl in a context of clinical and biological emergency].

    PubMed

    Favier, Rémi; Kheyar, Tassadit; Renolleau, Sylvain; Tabone, Marie Dominique; Favier, Marie; Ulinski, Tim

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome (LAHPS) in an 11 year old girl initially hospitalized for bleeding. The patient presented with petechia, persisting bleeding after tooth extraction performed two days before, nephritic syndrome (renal failure, proteinuria and macroscopic hematuria), severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia. The association of these abnormalities suggested LAHPS secondary to severe systemic lupus. Immediate treatment with fresh frozen plasma and intravenous immunoglobulins (400 mg/kg/5d) was started and followed by steroid (500 mg/d) and cyclophosphamide (800 mg/m(2)) pulse therapy leading to rapid improvement of bleeding, renal involvement and prothrombin levels within 13 days. Lupus diagnosis was confirmed by immunological investigations and renal biopsy. Two early relapses occurred despite adequate treatment. After a follow-up of two years, no further disease activity is noted while the patient is treated only by mycophenolate mofetil (1 200 mg/m(2)/d). LAHPS did not relapse during this follow-up. PMID:22484537

  1. Do descriptive norms related to parents and friends predict fruit and vegetable intake similarly among 11-year-old girls and boys?

    PubMed

    Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Haukkala, Ari; Yngve, Agneta; Thorsdottir, Inga; Roos, Eva

    2016-01-14

    We examined whether there are sex differences in children's fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and in descriptive norms (i.e. perceived FV intake) related to parents and friends. We also studied whether friends' impact is as important as that of parents on children's FV intake. Data from the PRO GREENS project in Finland were obtained from 424 children at the age 11 years at baseline. At baseline, 2009 children filled in a questionnaire about descriptive norms conceptualised as perceived FV intake of their parents and friends. They also filled in a validated FFQ that assessed their FV intake both at baseline and in the follow-up in 2010. The associations were examined with multi-level regression analyses with multi-group comparisons. Girls reported higher perceived FV intake of friends and higher own fruit intake at baseline, compared with boys, and higher vegetable intake both at baseline and in the follow-up. Perceived FV intake of parents and friends was positively associated with both girls' and boys' FV intake in both study years. The impact of perceived fruit intake of the mother was stronger among boys. The change in children's FV intake was affected only by perceived FV intake of father and friends. No large sex differences in descriptive norms were found, but the impact of friends on children's FV intake can generally be considered as important as that of parents. Future interventions could benefit from taking into account friends' impact as role models on children's FV intake.

  2. Increased Cross-Gender Identification Independent of Gender Role Behavior in Girls with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Results from a Standardized Assessment of 4- to 11-Year-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Pasterski, Vickie; Zucker, Kenneth J; Hindmarsh, Peter C; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo; Spencer, Debra; Neufeld, Sharon; Hines, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    While reports showing a link between prenatal androgen exposure and human gender role behavior are consistent and the effects are robust, associations to gender identity or cross-gender identification are less clear. The aim of the current study was to investigate potential cross-gender identification in girls exposed prenatally to high concentrations of androgens due to classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Assessment included two standardized measures and a short parent interview assessing frequency of behavioral features of cross-gender identification as conceptualized in Part A of the diagnostic criteria for gender identity disorder (GID) in the DSM-IV-TR. Next, because existing measures may have conflated gender role behavior with gender identity and because the distinction is potentially informative, we factor analyzed items from the measures which included both gender identity and gender role items to establish the independence of the two constructs. Participants were 43 girls and 38 boys with CAH and 41 unaffected female and 31 unaffected male relatives, aged 4- to 11-years. Girls with CAH had more cross-gender responses than female controls on all three measures of cross-gender identification as well as on a composite measure of gender identity independent of gender role behavior. Furthermore, parent report indicated that 5/39 (12.8 %) of the girls with CAH exhibited cross-gender behavior in all five behavioral domains which comprise the cross-gender identification component of GID compared to 0/105 (0.0 %) of the children in the other three groups combined. These data suggest that girls exposed to high concentrations of androgens prenatally are more likely to show cross-gender identification than girls without CAH or boys with and without CAH. Our findings suggest that prenatal androgen exposure could play a role in gender identity development in healthy children, and may be relevant to gender assignment in cases of prenatal hormone disruption

  3. [Cerebellar gangliocytoma in an 11-year-old child].

    PubMed

    Joly, Marie; Valmary-Degano, Séverine; Cattin, Françoise; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Jouvet, Anne; Viennet, Gabriel

    2014-12-01

    Cerebellar gangliocytoma can correspond to Lhermitte-Duclos disease, a benign hamartomatous malformation encountered in young adults. It can also be a part of gangliogliomas/gangliocytomas family, which usually encompasses temporal pediatric neoplasms associated with longstanding seizures. We report a case of a young 11-year-old patient who presented with a gangliocytoma of the cerebellum revealed by neurologic manifestations (headache, dyspraxia, equilibrium and gait disturbances). Diagnosis was made on surgical material. Tumour was characterized by dysplastic mature ganglion cells, perivascular lymphocytic infiltrates and no glial neoplastic component. By immunohistochemistry, ganglion cells expressed neurofilaments, MAP2 protein, synaptophysin, chromogranin A and S100 protein. BRAF V600E mutation was absent. Clinical characteristics, radiology, histopathology of the two main diagnoses are discussed.

  4. [A case of porphyria cutanea tarda in an 11-year-old boy].

    PubMed

    Pindycka-Piaszczyńska, M; Danik, E; Bendkowski, W

    1995-06-01

    A rare case of porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) in an 11-year-old boy is presented. The clinical manifestations were typical. Results of porphyrin analyses of urine and serum with a fluorescence emission maximum around 398 nm revealed a pattern consistent with PCT. PMID:8692611

  5. Isolated ileal ganglioneuromatosis in an 11-year-old boy: Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Subhashis; Mukherjee, Sanghamitra; Chakraborty, Hema

    2016-01-01

    Ganglioneuromatous proliferation in the gastrointestinal tract is a rare occurrence and is usually associated with specific syndrome complexes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 2B or von Recklinghausen's disease. We report here a case of diffuse intestinal ganglioneuromatosis, presenting as intestinal obstruction and chronic constipation in an 11-year-old boy. Sporadic cases of intestinal ganglioneuromatosis in the absence of any systemic manifestations are a very rare cause of enteric motility disorders in childhood, and we discuss the pathological and clinical significance of this finding. Histopathological identification of this uncommon cause of a common pediatric problem is important since the condition is amenable to surgical treatment.

  6. Mask face: bilateral simultaneous facial palsy in an 11-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Güngör, Serdal; Güngör Raif, Sabiha; Arslan, Müjgan

    2013-04-01

    Bilateral facial paralysis is an uncommon clinical entity especially in the pediatric age group and occurs frequently as a manifestation of systemic disease. The most important causes are trauma, infectious diseases, neurological diseases, metabolic, neoplastic, autoimmune diseases and idiopathic disease (Bell's palsy). We report a case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with bilateral simultaneous peripheral facial paralysis. All possible infectious causes were excluded and the patient was diagnosed as having Bell's palsy (idiopathic). The most important approach in these cases is to rule out a life-threatening disease.

  7. Does school environment affect 11-year-olds' fruit and vegetable intake in Denmark?

    PubMed

    Krølner, Rikke; Due, Pernille; Rasmussen, Mette; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Holstein, Bjørn E; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Lynch, John

    2009-04-01

    It is often found that adolescents eat too little fruit and vegetables. We examined the importance of school for 11-year-olds' daily intake measured by food frequency- and 24-h recall questionnaires in Danish data from the European 2003 Pro Children Survey. Multilevel logistic regression analyses included matched student-parent-school questionnaire data (N=1410) from a random sample of 59 schools and were conducted for fruit and vegetables separately: 1) without explanatory variables, to decompose the between-school and within-school variance; 2) with individual level covariates (socioeconomic position, parental intake, etc.) to examine if the between-school variance was attributable to different student compositions of schools; and 3) with individual- and school-level covariates (school availability of fruit/vegetables and unhealthy food) to examine the effect of context. Additional analyses stratified by gender and home availability of fruit/vegetables examined if school food availability influenced subgroups differently. Between-school variations were quantified by intra class correlations and median odds ratios. We found that 40% of the students ate > or = 200 g fruit/day and 25% ate > or = 130 g vegetables/day. Most of the total variance in students' intake occurred at the individual level (93-98%). There were larger between-school variations in vegetable intake than in fruit intake. Fruit and vegetable consumption clustered within schools to a larger degree for boys than girls. The between-school variance did not differ by home availability. Boys and students from high availability homes consumed more fruit and/or vegetables if enrolled in schools with access to fruit/vegetables and unhealthy food or contrarily with no food available versus schools with only fruit/vegetables available. The small school-level effects on 11-year-olds' fruit and vegetable intake imply that family level interventions may be more important and that the success of school

  8. An international comparison of dietary patterns in 9–11-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Mikkilä, V; Vepsäläinen, H; Saloheimo, T; Gonzalez, S A; Meisel, J D; Hu, G; Champagne, C M; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Dietary pattern is defined as a combination of foods and drinks and the frequency of consumption within a population. Dietary patterns are changing on a global level, which may be linked to an increased incidence of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to identify and compare the dietary patterns among 9–11-year-old children living in urban regions in different parts of the world. METHODS: Participants were 7199 children (54% girls), aged 9–11 years, from 12 countries situated in all major world regions. Food consumption was assessed using a 23-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). To identify dietary patterns, principal components analyses (PCA) were carried out using weekly portions as input variables. RESULTS: Both site-specific and pooled PCA resulted in two strong components. Component 1 (‘unhealthy diet pattern') included fast foods, ice cream, fried food, French fries, potato chips, cakes and sugar-sweetened sodas with >0.6 loadings. The loadings for component 2 (‘healthy diet pattern') were slightly weaker with only dark-green vegetables, orange vegetables, vegetables in general, and fruits and berries reaching a >0.6 loading. The site-specific diet pattern scores had very strong correlations with the pattern scores from the pooled data: r=0.82 and 0.94 for components 1 and 2, respectively. CONCULSIONS: The results suggest that the same ‘healthier' and ‘unhealthier' foods tend to be consumed in similar combinations among 9–11-year-old children in different countries, despite variation in food culture, geographical location, ethnic background and economic development. PMID:27152179

  9. Expectations and Levels of Understanding When Using Mobile Phones among 9-11-Year Olds in Wales, UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Joanne; Baker, Sally-Ann; Lewis, Christopher Alan

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in examining the use of mobile technology among children. The present study extended this literature among a sample of 9-11-year olds in Wales, UK in three ways. First, to examine the level of mobile phone ownership; second, to consider how mobile phones are used, investigate timescales and expectations when communicating…

  10. Chiari type 1 malformation, corpus callosum agenesis and patent craniopharyngeal canal in an 11-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Tijssen, Maud Pm; Poretti, Andrea; Huisman, Thierry Agm

    2016-10-01

    We describe the neuroimaging findings of an 11-year-old boy who presented with mild occipital headache and precocious puberty. This child was found to have a combination of various midline anomalies including a Chiari type 1 malformation, corpus callosum agenesis and patent craniopharyngeal canal with adjacent intracranial dermoid cyst.

  11. Facial reconstruction of an 11-year-old female resident of 430 BC Athens.

    PubMed

    Papagrigorakis, Manolis J; Synodinos, Philippos N; Antoniadis, Aristomenis; Maravelakis, Emmanuel; Toulas, Panagiotis; Nilsson, Oscar; Baziotopoulou-Valavani, Effie

    2011-01-01

    Although modern standards of ideal proportions and facial esthetics are based mostly on observations of human faces as depicted in Classical Greek masterpieces of art, the real faces of ordinary ancient Greeks have, until now, remained elusive and subject to the imagination. Objective forensic techniques of facial reconstruction have never been applied before, because human skeletal material from Classical Greece has been extremely scarce, since most decent burials of that time required cremation. Here, the authors show stage by stage the facial reconstruction of an 11-year-old girl whose skull was unearthed in excellent condition from a mass grave with victims of the Plague that struck Athens of 430 bc. The original skull was replicated via three-dimensional modeling and rapid prototyping techniques. The reconstruction followed the Manchester method, laying the facial tissues from the surface of the skull outward by using depth-marker pegs as thickness guides. The shape, size, and position of the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth were determined according to features of the underlying skeletal tissues, whereas the hairstyle followed the fashion of the time. This is the first case of facial reconstruction of a layperson residing in Athens of the Golden Age of Pericles. It is ironic, however, that this unfortunate girl who lived such a short life in ancient Athens, will now, 2500 years later, have the chance to travel and be universally recognizable in a world much bigger than anybody in ancient Athens could have ever imagined. PMID:20936971

  12. Reporting accuracy of packed lunch consumption among Danish 11-year-olds differ by gender

    PubMed Central

    Lyng, Nina; Fagt, Sisse; Davidsen, Michael; Hoppe, Camilla; Holstein, Bjørn; Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Background Packed lunch is the dominant lunch format in many countries including Denmark. School lunch is consumed unsupervised, and self-reported recalls are appropriate in the school setting. However, little is known about the accuracy of recalls in relation to packed lunch. Objective To assess the qualitative recall accuracy of self-reported consumption of packed lunch among Danish 11-year-old children in relation to gender and dietary assessment method. Design A cross-sectional dietary recall study of packed lunch consumption. Digital images (DIs) served as an objective reference method to determine food items consumed. Recalls were collected with a lunch recall questionnaire (LRQ) comprising an open-ended recall (OE-Q) and a pre-coded food group prompted recall (PC-Q). Individual interviews (INTs) were conducted successively. The number of food items was identified and accuracy was calculated as match rates (% identified by DIs and reported correctly) and intrusion rates (% not identified by DIs but reported) were determined. Setting and subjects Three Danish public schools from Copenhagen. A total of 114 Danish 11-year-old children, mean (SE) age=11.1 (0.03), and body mass index=18.2 (0.26). Results The reference (DIs) showed that girls consumed a higher number of food items than boys [mean (SE) 5.4 (0.25) vs. 4.6 (0.29) items (p=0.05)]. The number of food items recalled differed between genders with OE-Q recalls (p=0.005) only. Girls’ interview recalls were more accurate than boys’ with higher match rates (p=0.04) and lower intrusion rates (p=0.05). Match rates ranged from 67–90% and intrusion rates ranged from 13–39% with little differences between girls and boys using the OE-Q and PC-Q methods. Conclusion Dietary recall validation studies should not only consider match rates as an account of accuracy. Intrusions contribute to over-reporting in non-validation studies, and future studies should address recall accuracy and inaccuracies in relation to

  13. An 11-year-old boy with pharyngitis and cough: Lemierre syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mação, Patricia; Cancelinha, Candida; Lopes, Paulo; Rodrigues, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    The authors present the case of an 11-year-old boy with pharyngitis, treated with amoxicillin, that worsened on day 7, with cough, high fever and refusal to eat. Lethargy and respiratory distress were noted. Based on radiographic findings of bilateral infiltrates he was diagnosed with pneumonia and started on intravenous ampicillin and erythromycin. Two days later he complained of right-sided neck pain and a palpable mass was identified. An ultrasound showed partial thrombosis of the right internal jugular vein and a lung CT scan revealed multiple septic embolic lesions. Lemierre syndrome was diagnosed, antibiotic treatment adjusted and anticoagulation started. A neck CT-scan showed a large parapharyngeal abscess. His clinical condition improved gradually and after 3 weeks of intravenous antibiotics he was discharged home on oral treatment. This case illustrates the importance of diagnosing Lemierre syndrome in the presence of pharyngitis with localised neck pain and respiratory distress, to prevent potentially fatal complications. PMID:23616317

  14. Auditory-Motor Learning during Speech Production in 9-11-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Shiller, Douglas M.; Gracco, Vincent L.; Rvachew, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background Hearing ability is essential for normal speech development, however the precise mechanisms linking auditory input and the improvement of speaking ability remain poorly understood. Auditory feedback during speech production is believed to play a critical role by providing the nervous system with information about speech outcomes that is used to learn and subsequently fine-tune speech motor output. Surprisingly, few studies have directly investigated such auditory-motor learning in the speech production of typically developing children. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we manipulated auditory feedback during speech production in a group of 9–11-year old children, as well as in adults. Following a period of speech practice under conditions of altered auditory feedback, compensatory changes in speech production and perception were examined. Consistent with prior studies, the adults exhibited compensatory changes in both their speech motor output and their perceptual representations of speech sound categories. The children exhibited compensatory changes in the motor domain, with a change in speech output that was similar in magnitude to that of the adults, however the children showed no reliable compensatory effect on their perceptual representations. Conclusions The results indicate that 9–11-year-old children, whose speech motor and perceptual abilities are still not fully developed, are nonetheless capable of auditory-feedback-based sensorimotor adaptation, supporting a role for such learning processes in speech motor development. Auditory feedback may play a more limited role, however, in the fine-tuning of children's perceptual representations of speech sound categories. PMID:20886033

  15. Diagnosis and Treatment of Odontogenic Cutaneous Sinus Tracts in an 11-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Liang, Yun; Xiong, Huacui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts (OCSTs) are generally primarily misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated by virtue of their rarity and the absence of dental symptoms. Accurate diagnosis and treatment and the elimination of the source of infection can reduce the incidence of complications and relieve the pain of the patient. In this case report, we present the case of an 11-year-old patient with an apparent abscess but an unobvious draining sinus tract in his left cheek. Intraorally, a glass-ionomer-cement filling on the occlusal surface of the left mandibular first molar (tooth 36) was noted. Radiographic examination revealed a radiopaque mass inside the crown and pulp chamber and an irregular, radiolucent periapical lesion surrounding the distal root apex. He was diagnosed with an OCTS secondary to a periapical abscess of tooth 36. Precise root canal therapy (RCT) and chronic granuloma debridement was performed; 6 months later, the abscess and sinus had healed completely, and the periapical lesion had resolved. Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts are uncommon in the clinic. This case report reminds us of the significance of OCSTs and provides some implications for their diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27196471

  16. Duration, Distance, and Speed Judgments of Two Moving Objects by 4- to 11-Year-Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuda, Fumiko

    1996-01-01

    Four- to 11-year-olds made duration, distance, and speed judgments on Piagetian tasks where cars ran on parallel tracks. Among younger children, duration and distance judgments had approximately the same difficulty. Among older children, distance judgments were easier than duration judgments, and symmetry of effects of temporal and spatial…

  17. The between-day reproducibility of fasting, satiety-related analytes, in 8 to 11year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Rumbold, Penny L S; Green, Benjamin P

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish the between-day reproducibility of fasting plasma GLP-17-36, glucagon, leptin, insulin and glucose, in lean and overweight/obese 8-11year-old boys. A within-group study design was utilised wherein the boys attended two study days, separated by 1week, where a fasting fingertip capillary blood sample was obtained. Deming regression, mean difference, Bland-Altman limits of agreement (LOA) and typical imprecision as a percentage coefficient of variation (CV %), were utilised to assess reproducibility between-days. On a group level, Deming regression detected no evidence of systematic or proportional bias between-days for all of the satiety-related analytes however, only glucose and plasma GLP-17-36 displayed low typical and random imprecision. When analysed according to body composition, good reproducibility was maintained for glucose in the overweight/obese boys and for plasma GLP-17-36, in those with lean body mass. The present findings demonstrate that the measurement of glucose and plasma GLP-17-36 by fingertip capillary sampling on a group level, is reproducible between-days, in 8-11year-old boys. Comparison of blood glucose obtained by fingertip capillary sampling can be made between lean and overweight/obese 8-11year-old boys. Presently, the comparison of fasting plasma GLP-17-36 according to body weight is inappropriate due to high imprecision observed in lean boys between-days. The use of fingertip capillary sampling in the measurement of satiety-related analytes has the potential to provide a better understanding of mechanisms that affect appetite and feeding behaviour in children. PMID:27265877

  18. The between-day reproducibility of fasting, satiety-related analytes, in 8 to 11year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Rumbold, Penny L S; Green, Benjamin P

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish the between-day reproducibility of fasting plasma GLP-17-36, glucagon, leptin, insulin and glucose, in lean and overweight/obese 8-11year-old boys. A within-group study design was utilised wherein the boys attended two study days, separated by 1week, where a fasting fingertip capillary blood sample was obtained. Deming regression, mean difference, Bland-Altman limits of agreement (LOA) and typical imprecision as a percentage coefficient of variation (CV %), were utilised to assess reproducibility between-days. On a group level, Deming regression detected no evidence of systematic or proportional bias between-days for all of the satiety-related analytes however, only glucose and plasma GLP-17-36 displayed low typical and random imprecision. When analysed according to body composition, good reproducibility was maintained for glucose in the overweight/obese boys and for plasma GLP-17-36, in those with lean body mass. The present findings demonstrate that the measurement of glucose and plasma GLP-17-36 by fingertip capillary sampling on a group level, is reproducible between-days, in 8-11year-old boys. Comparison of blood glucose obtained by fingertip capillary sampling can be made between lean and overweight/obese 8-11year-old boys. Presently, the comparison of fasting plasma GLP-17-36 according to body weight is inappropriate due to high imprecision observed in lean boys between-days. The use of fingertip capillary sampling in the measurement of satiety-related analytes has the potential to provide a better understanding of mechanisms that affect appetite and feeding behaviour in children.

  19. Thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma in an 11-year-old boy with type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazerkina, Nadia; Trunin, Yuri; Gorelyshev, Sergey; Golanov, Andrey; Kadashev, Boris; Shishkina, Liudmila; Rotin, Daniil; Karmanov, Maxim; Orlova, Elizabet

    2016-02-01

    Thyrotropinomas (TSHomas) are rare pituitary adenomas, particularly in childhood. We present here the case of an 11-year-old boy with type 1 autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS1) and TSHoma which was diagnosed by elevated thyroid - stimulating hormone and thyroid hormones levels without evident clinical signs of hyperthyroidism. He was underwent partial resection of the tumor via transsphenoidal approach and subsequently radiation therapy. Consequently, 1 year after radiotherapy, the patient developed growth hormone deficiency, three and half years after radiation became euthyroid, and five and half years after treatment - hypothyroid. This is the first case of the coexistence of these two rare endocrine diseases in one patient. PMID:26244671

  20. Blood lead levels of 4-11-year-old Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban children.

    PubMed Central

    Carter-Pokras, O; Pirkle, J; Chavez, G; Gunter, E

    1990-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to estimate arithmetic mean blood lead and percent with elevated blood lead [25 micrograms per deciliter (micrograms per dl) or greater] for 4-11-year-old Mexican American, Puerto Rican, and Cuban children. The sample size was 1,390 for Mexican American children, 397 for Puerto Rican children, and 114 for Cuban children. Puerto Rican children had the highest mean blood lead levels (11.5 micrograms per dl), followed by Mexican American children (10.4 micrograms per dl) and Cuban children (8.6 micrograms per dl, P less than .05). Puerto Rican children had the highest percent with elevated blood lead (2.7 percent); 1.6 percent of Mexican American children had elevated blood lead; less than 1 percent (0.9 percent) of the Cuban children had elevated blood lead (P less than .05). Mexican American girls had a lower mean blood lead level than did boys: 9.7 micrograms per dl versus 11.0 micrograms per dl (P less than .05). For both Puerto Rican and Mexican American children, younger age indicated a higher risk of having elevated blood lead levels. Mexican American children who lived in poverty had higher mean blood lead levels than did Mexican American children who did not live in poverty--11.6 micrograms per dl versus 9.6 micrograms per dl (P less than .05). Despite advances in primary prevention of lead toxicity in children during the past 10 years, many Hispanic children are at risk of lead toxicity. Approximately 19,000 Mexican American 4-11-year-old children living in the Southwest and approximately 8,000 Puerto Rican children living in the New York City area had elevated blood lead levels (greater than or equal to 25 micrograms per dl) during 1982-84. PMID:2116641

  1. Frequency of family meals and 6-11-year-old children's social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lora, Karina R; Sisson, Susan B; DeGrace, Beth W; Morris, Amanda S

    2014-08-01

    Family meals are regarded as an opportunity to promote healthy child development. In this brief report, we examined the relationship between frequency of family meals and children's social behaviors in 6-11-year-olds. The 2007 U.S. National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) provided data on the frequency of family meals in a sample of 6-11-year-old children (N = 24,167). The following social behavior indicators were examined: child positive social skills, child problematic social behaviors, child engagement in school, and parental aggravation with the child. Individual logistic regression analyses were calculated in unadjusted and adjusted models. On average, families had 5.3 meals together per week. In adjusted models, more frequent family meals increased the odds of child positive social skills (OR = 1.08, 95% CI [1.02, 1.16]) and child engagement in school (OR = 1.11, 95% CI [1.06, 1.15]), and decreased the likelihood of child problematic social behaviors (OR = 0.92, 95% CI [0.87, 0.98]). There was no association between frequency of family meals and parental aggravation with the child (OR = 0.98, 95% CI [0.93, 1.04]). Findings support the promotion of family meals to benefit children's development of healthy social behaviors.

  2. Infective endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism following scorpion sting envenoming in an 11-year-old child.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Vellasamy; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Mahadevan, Subramanian; Bethou, Adhisivam; Deepak Barathi, S

    2014-05-01

    Scorpion sting is one of the common paediatric toxicological problems encountered in southern India. This rural emergency often results in an autonomic storm causing peripheral circulatory failure and/or congestive cardiac failure, leading to pulmonary oedema. A rare case of scorpion sting envenoming in an 11-year-old boy that led to local cellulitis, dyspnoea and congestive heart failure is presented. This was followed by a persistent high-grade fever which lasted for more than 2 weeks and was complicated by fatal Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism. Although infective endocarditis has been reported occasionally in adults following scorpion sting, this is the first case of infective endocarditis in a native valve in a child following scorpion sting. The literature is reviewed and the mechanisms for this association are discussed.

  3. Manual Control Age and Sex Differences in 4 to 11 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Flatters, Ian; Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Barber, Sally E.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2014-01-01

    To what degree does being male or female influence the development of manual skills in pre-pubescent children? This question is important because of the emphasis placed on developing important new manual skills during this period of a child's education (e.g. writing, drawing, using computers). We investigated age and sex-differences in the ability of 422 children to control a handheld stylus. A task battery deployed using tablet PC technology presented interactive visual targets on a computer screen whilst simultaneously recording participant's objective kinematic responses, via their interactions with the on-screen stimuli using the handheld stylus. The battery required children use the stylus to: (i) make a series of aiming movements, (ii) trace a series of abstract shapes and (iii) track a moving object. The tasks were not familiar to the children, allowing measurement of a general ability that might be meaningfully labelled ‘manual control’, whilst minimising culturally determined differences in experience (as much as possible). A reliable interaction between sex and age was found on the aiming task, with girls' movement times being faster than boys in younger age groups (e.g. 4–5 years) but with this pattern reversing in older children (10–11 years). The improved performance in older boys on the aiming task is consistent with prior evidence of a male advantage for gross-motor aiming tasks, which begins to emerge during adolescence. A small but reliable sex difference was found in tracing skill, with girls showing a slightly higher level of performance than boys irrespective of age. There were no reliable sex differences between boys and girls on the tracking task. Overall, the findings suggest that prepubescent girls are more likely to have superior manual control abilities for performing novel tasks. However, these small population differences do not suggest that the sexes require different educational support whilst developing their manual skills

  4. Hydration Deficit in 9- to 11-Year-Old Egyptian Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouda, Zaghloul; Zarea, Mohamed; El-Hennawy, Usama; Viltard, Mélanie; Lepicard, Eve; Hawili, Nasrine; Constant, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Background. Children who drink too little to meet their daily water requirements are likely to become dehydrated, and even mild dehydration can negatively affect health. This is even more important in Middle-Eastern countries where high temperatures increase the risk of dehydration. We assessed morning hydration status in a sample of 519 Egyptian schoolchildren (9-11 years old). Methods. Children completed a questionnaire on breakfast intakes and collected a urine sample after breakfast. Breakfast food and fluid nutritional composition was analyzed and urine osmolality was measured using osmometry. Results. The mean urine osmolality of children was 814 mOsmol/kg: >800 mOsmol/kg (57%) and >1000 mOsmol/kg (24.7%). Furthermore, the results showed that a total water intake of less than 400 mL was associated with a significant higher risk of dehydration. Surprisingly, 63% of the children skipped breakfast. Conclusions. The results showed that a majority of Egyptian schoolchildren arrive at school with a hydration deficit. These results highlight the fact that there is a need to educate schoolchildren about the importance of having a breakfast and adequate hydration. PMID:27335985

  5. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Alters Cortisol Stress Reactivity in 11 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Barry M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S.; Bauer, Charles R.; Lin, Richard; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    Objective Determine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and postnatal environmental adversity on salivary cortisol stress reactivity in school aged children. Study design Subjects included 743 11 year old children (n=320 cocaine exposed; 423 comparison) followed since birth in a longitudinal prospective multisite study. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol at baseline and after a standardized procedure to induce psychological stress. Children were divided into those who showed an increase in cortisol from baseline to post stress and those who showed a decrease or blunted cortisol response. Covariates measured included site, birthweight, maternal pre and postnatal use of alcohol, tobacco or marijuana, social class, changes in caretakers, maternal depression and psychological symptoms, domestic and community violence, child abuse and quality of the home. Results With adjustment for confounding variables, cortisol reactivity to stress was more likely to be blunted in children with prenatal cocaine exposure. Cocaine exposed children exposed to domestic violence showed the strongest effects. Conclusion The combination of prenatal cocaine exposure and an adverse postnatal environment could down regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) resulting in the blunted cortisol response to stress possibly increasing risk for later psychopathology and adult disease. PMID:20400094

  6. Hydration Deficit in 9- to 11-Year-Old Egyptian Children.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Zaghloul; Zarea, Mohamed; El-Hennawy, Usama; Viltard, Mélanie; Lepicard, Eve; Hawili, Nasrine; Constant, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Background. Children who drink too little to meet their daily water requirements are likely to become dehydrated, and even mild dehydration can negatively affect health. This is even more important in Middle-Eastern countries where high temperatures increase the risk of dehydration. We assessed morning hydration status in a sample of 519 Egyptian schoolchildren (9-11 years old). Methods. Children completed a questionnaire on breakfast intakes and collected a urine sample after breakfast. Breakfast food and fluid nutritional composition was analyzed and urine osmolality was measured using osmometry. Results. The mean urine osmolality of children was 814 mOsmol/kg: >800 mOsmol/kg (57%) and >1000 mOsmol/kg (24.7%). Furthermore, the results showed that a total water intake of less than 400 mL was associated with a significant higher risk of dehydration. Surprisingly, 63% of the children skipped breakfast. Conclusions. The results showed that a majority of Egyptian schoolchildren arrive at school with a hydration deficit. These results highlight the fact that there is a need to educate schoolchildren about the importance of having a breakfast and adequate hydration. PMID:27335985

  7. Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Vietnamese Children, 6 to 11 Years Old.

    PubMed

    Le Nguyen Bao, Khanh; Tran Thuy, Nga; Nguyen Huu, Chinh; Khouw, Ilse; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    In a population sample of 385 children, 6 to 11 years old, venous blood parameters-hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, red blood cell count (RBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)-were determined to get insight into the iron status. The prevalence of anemia was 11.4%; 5.6% had iron deficiency (ID), whereas 0.4% had ID anemia. Correction for inflammation based on CRP and AGP did not markedly change the overall prevalence of ID and ID anemia. Stunted children had lower Hb and ferritin values compared with nonstunted children, and thin children had lower values compared with normal-weight or overweight and obese children. Many nonanemic children had alert values for RBC, MCV, MCH, and MCHC. It is concluded that although the prevalence of anemia is of the magnitude of a mild public health problem, the iron status of many nonanemic children is borderline, as indicated by a high number of children with low values for red blood cytology. PMID:27052301

  8. Nutritional anaemia in 11-year-old schoolchildren in the western Cape.

    PubMed

    Lamparelli, R D; van der Westhuyzen, J; Steyn, N P; Baynes, R D; MacFarlane, B J; Green, A; Bothwell, T H

    1988-04-16

    A nutritional anaemia survey was carried out on 610 11-year-old coloured, black and white schoolchildren in urban and rural communities in the western Cape. The mean (+/- 1 SD) haemoglobin concentration was 13.0 +/- 1.2 g/dl. The coloured and black subgroups considered together had a significantly lower mean haemoglobin concentration than the white subgroup (12.8 +/- 1.2 g/dl v. 13.4 +/- 1.0 g/dl) (F = 37.47; P less than 0.0001). The urban population as a whole had a significantly lower geometric mean (1 SD range) serum ferritin concentration than the rural population (25.6 (13.5-48.6) micrograms/l v. 34.1 (21.3-54.6) micrograms/l) (F = 42.94; P less than 0.0001). The lowest geometric mean serum ferritin values were found in the urban coloured (23.1 (11.5-46.4) micrograms/l) and urban black schoolchildren (23.7 (13.2-42.6) micrograms/l), with figures of less than 12 micrograms/l in 11.7% and 12.5% respectively. Although 28% of the children had red cell folate values below the recommended lower limit of normal (175 ng/ml), probability plot analysis of the data suggested that folate deficiency was not a major problem in the study population. The calculated daily iron and folate intakes were below the age-related recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in all the subgroups, yet anaemia was relatively uncommon. These findings suggest that the RDA values are too high. Overall the prevalence of nutritional anaemia was low and only the urban coloured subgroup showed significant second populations with low haemoglobin and serum ferritin measurements.

  9. Drunkenness and heavy drinking among 11year olds - Findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Yvonne; Britton, Annie; Cable, Noriko; Sacker, Amanda; Watt, Richard G

    2016-09-01

    Heavy drinking among young people is linked to negative consequences including other risky behaviours, educational failure and premature mortality. There is a lack of research examining factors that influence heavy and binge drinking in early adolescence as prior work has focused on older teenagers. The objective of this paper was to identify individual and family factors associated with drunkenness and episodes of heavy drinking in early adolescence. We analysed data on 11,046 11year olds from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios for associations. 1.2% of participants reported having been drunk, and 0.6% reported having had 5 or more drinks in a single episode. Participants who reported drunkenness were more likely to be boys (1.6% vs 0.7%, p<0.01), to have socioemotional difficulties (2.6% vs 1.0%, p<0.001), to report antisocial behaviours (none=0.6%, 1=2.0%, 2 or more=7.0%, p<0.001), report truancy (6.0% vs 1.0%, p<0.001), smoke cigarettes (12.0% vs 0.8%, p<0.001). Parental drinking did not appear to be associated with the odds of drunkenness. Associated with higher odds of drunkenness were: having friends who drank (OR=5.17); having positive expectancies towards alcohol (OR 2+=2.02); ever having smoked cigarettes (OR=5.32); the mother-child relationship not being close (OR=2.17). Associated with a reduced odds of drunkenness was having a heightened perception of harm from drinking 1-2 drinks daily (OR - some risk=0.48, great risk=0.40). Our findings support policies aimed at multiple levels, starting in the preadolescent years, which incorporate individual, family, and peer factors. PMID:27413004

  10. Norms for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in 6- to 11-year-old children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shu, B C; Tien, A Y; Lung, F W; Chang, Y Y

    2000-08-01

    The main aims of this study were to develop norms for the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in 6- to 11-year-old children in Taiwan; to explore the effect of sex, age, birth order, number of siblings, and parental education on WCST performance in 6- to 11-year-old children; and to make a comparison of WCST performance between children in Taiwan and the USA. The results of this comparison of developmental norms of school children in Taiwan and the United States may facilitate the WCST as a clinical or research instrument in combination with other test procedures to assess aspects of cognitive and neuropsychological functioning of school children.

  11. Diagnosis and Treatment of Odontogenic Cutaneous Sinus Tracts in an 11-Year-Old Boy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Liang, Yun; Xiong, Huacui

    2016-05-01

    Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts (OCSTs) are generally primarily misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated by virtue of their rarity and the absence of dental symptoms. Accurate diagnosis and treatment and the elimination of the source of infection can reduce the incidence of complications and relieve the pain of the patient.In this case report, we present the case of an 11-year-old patient with an apparent abscess but an unobvious draining sinus tract in his left cheek. Intraorally, a glass-ionomer-cement filling on the occlusal surface of the left mandibular first molar (tooth 36) was noted. Radiographic examination revealed a radiopaque mass inside the crown and pulp chamber and an irregular, radiolucent periapical lesion surrounding the distal root apex. He was diagnosed with an OCTS secondary to a periapical abscess of tooth 36. Precise root canal therapy (RCT) and chronic granuloma debridement was performed; 6 months later, the abscess and sinus had healed completely, and the periapical lesion had resolved.Odontogenic cutaneous sinus tracts are uncommon in the clinic. This case report reminds us of the significance of OCSTs and provides some implications for their diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27196471

  12. A Case of an 11-year-old With Cough, Diarrhea, and Findings of Concern in His Lungs and Spleen.

    PubMed

    Darby, John B; Rees, Chris A; Bocchini, Claire E; Cruz, Andrea T; Kellermayer, Richard; Finegold, Milton J; Barlow, Sarah E

    2016-03-01

    This is the case of a previously healthy, 11-year-old male of Indian descent who presented to the emergency department with a 2-month history of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, cough, and 7-lb weight loss. Acutely, he developed 5 days of fever as high as 39.4°C. He had a remote travel history to the Middle East. On physical examination, he was febrile and tachycardic, was thin but otherwise had a normal examination. His inflammatory markers were elevated: erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 93 mm/hour and his C-reactive protein was 25.4 mg/L. A complete blood count revealed a white blood cell count of 17,000 × 10(3)/µL with increased bands. His hemoglobin level was 8.8 g/dL with a mean corpuscular volume of 81 fl. Platelets were 556 × 10(3)/µL. A chest radiograph was concerning for a cavitary lung lesion and an abdominal ultrasound revealed multiple hypoechoic lesions in his spleen. Our panel of experts reviews his case and examines the workup of this patient with diverse symptoms and focal findings on chest radiograph and abdominal ultrasound. PMID:26908705

  13. Effect of Ball Mass on Dribble, Pass, and Pass Reception in 9-11-Year-Old Boys' Basketball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Jose L.; Argudo, Francisco M.; Alonso, Jose I.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of ball mass on dribble, pass, and pass reception in real game situations in 9-11-year-old boys' basketball. Participants were 54 boys identified from six federated teams. The independent variable was ball mass, and dependent variables were number of dribbles, passes, and pass receptions. Three…

  14. Predictors of Meeting Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Recommendations in 9-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Jimikaye; De Witt, Peter; McNally, Janise; Siegfried, Scott; Hill, James O; Stroebele-Benschop, Nanette

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Childhood obesity represents a significant public health problem. This study examined physical activity and nutrition behaviours and attitudes of 9-11-year-olds, and factors influencing these behaviours. Design: Study participants recorded pedometer steps for 7 days and completed physical activity enjoyment, food attitudes and food…

  15. Internet Use and Psychological Well-Being among 10-Year-Old and 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Paula; Lloyd, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 2009 Kids' Life and Times Survey, involving 3657 children aged 10 or 11 years old in Northern Ireland. The survey indicated high levels of use of Internet applications, including social-networking sites and online games. Using the KIDSCREEN-27 instrument, the data indicate that the use of social-networking sites and…

  16. Evaluation of Low-Cost, Objective Instruments for Assessing Physical Activity in 10-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Teresa L.; Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McClain, James J.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2011-01-01

    This study compared step counts detected by four, low-cost, objective, physical-activity-assessment instruments and evaluated their ability to detect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to the ActiGraph accelerometer (AG). Thirty-six 10-11-year-old children wore the NL-1000, Yamax Digiwalker SW 200, Omron HJ-151, and Walk4Life…

  17. Comparative Analysis of Musical Abilities of 11-Year-Olds from Slovenia and the Island of Martinique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerman, Janez; Pretnar, Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the study is the comparison between the musical abilities of 11-year-old children on the island of Martinique and in Slovenia, and finding out to what extent their development of musical abilities is influenced by musical and cultural family background, music school attendance, choral singing and playing orchestral instruments. Our…

  18. Aorto-left ventricular tunnel originating from the left coronary sinus with aortic aneurysm in an 11-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Ayse; Erek, Ersin; Uslu, Zulal; Saygili, Arda; Karaagac, Aysu Turkmen

    2013-01-01

    Aorto-left ventricular tunnel, characterized by extracardiac communication between the ascending aorta and left ventricle, is a very rare congenital condition. Although some affected infants remain asymptomatic until adulthood, most present with symptoms of heart failure during their first year of life. We report the case of an 11-year-old boy who had coexisting abnormalities: an aorto-left ventricular tunnel originating from the left coronary sinus, and an ascending aortic aneurysm. The patient underwent on-pump surgical correction and was in New York Heart Association functional class I status a year later. We also review the nature of this rare condition.

  19. Developmental pathways of language and social communication problems in 9-11 year olds: unpicking the heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Roy, P; Chiat, S

    2014-10-01

    This paper addressed relations between language, social communication and behaviour, and their trajectories, in a sample of 9-11-year-olds (n=91) who had been referred to clinical services with concerns about language as pre-schoolers. Children were first assessed at 2½-4 years, and again 18 months later. Results revealed increasing differentiation of profiles across time. By 9-11 years, 11% of the sample had social communication deficits, 27% language impairment, 20% both, and 42% neither. The size of group differences on key language and social communication measures was striking (2-3 standard deviations). Social communication deficits included autistic mannerisms and were associated with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties (SEBDs); in contrast, language impairment was associated with hyperactivity only. Children with both language and social communication problems had the most severe difficulties on all measures. These distinct school-age profiles emerged gradually. Investigation of developmental trajectories revealed that the three impaired groups did not differ significantly on language or SEBD measures when the children were first seen. Only low performance on the Early Sociocognitive Battery, a new measure of social responsiveness, joint attention and symbolic understanding, differentiated the children with and without social communication problems at 9-11 years. These findings suggest that some children who first present with language delay or difficulties have undetected Autism Spectrum Disorders which may or may not be accompanied by language impairment in the longer term. This new evidence of developmental trajectories starting in the preschool years throws further light on the nature of social communication and language problems in school-age children, relations between language impairment and SEBDs, and on the nature of early language development.

  20. Habitual Levels of Physical Activity Influence Bone Mass in 11-Year-Old Children From the United Kingdom: Findings From a Large Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Jon H; Steer, Colin D; Mattocks, Calum G; Riddoch, Chris; Ness, Andy R

    2009-01-01

    We examined the influence of habitual levels of physical activity on bone mass in childhood by studying the relationship between accelerometer recordings and DXA parameters in 4457 11-year-old children. Physical activity was positively related to both BMD and bone size in fully adjusted models. However, further exploration revealed that this effect on bone size was modified by fat mass. Introduction Exercise interventions have been reported to increase bone mass in children, but it is unclear whether levels of habitual physical activity also influence skeletal development. Materials and Methods We used multivariable linear regression to analyze associations between amount of moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA), derived from accelerometer recordings for a minimum of 3 days, and parameters obtained from total body DXA scans in 4457 11-year-old boys and girls from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The influence of different activity intensities was also studied by stratification based on lower and higher accelerometer cut-points for moderate (3600 counts/minute) and vigorous (6200 counts/minute) activity, respectively. Results MVPA was positively associated with lower limb BMD and BMC adjusted for bone area (aBMC; p < 0.001, adjusted for age, sex, socio-economic factors, and height, with or without additional adjustment for lean and fat mass). MVPA was inversely related to lower limb bone area after adjusting for height and lean mass (p = 0.01), whereas a positive association was observed when fat mass was also adjusted for (p < 0.001). Lower limb BMC was positively related to MVPA after adjusting for height and lean and fat mass (p < 0.001), whereas little relationship was observed after adjusting for height and lean mass alone (p = 0.1). On multivariable regression analysis using the fully adjusted model, moderate activity exerted a stronger influence on lower limb BMC compared with light activity (light activity: 2.9 [1.2–4.7, p = 0

  1. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9–11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development

    PubMed Central

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9–11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of −1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=−1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development. PMID:27152184

  2. Association between body mass index and body fat in 9-11-year-old children from countries spanning a range of human development.

    PubMed

    Katzmarzyk, P T; Barreira, T V; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose was to assess associations between body mass index (BMI) and body fat in a multinational sample of 9-11-year-old children. The sample included 7265 children from countries ranging in human development. Total body fat (TBF) and percentage body fat (PBF) were measured with a Tanita SC-240 scale and BMI z-scores (BMIz) and percentiles were computed using reference data from the World Health Organization and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively. Mean PBF at BMIz values of -1, 0 and +1 were estimated using multilevel models. Correlations between BMI and TBF were >0.90 in all countries, and correlations between BMI and PBF ranged from 0.76 to 0.96. Boys from India had higher PBF than boys from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Kenyan girls had lower levels of PBF than girls from several other countries at all levels of BMIz. Boys and girls from Colombia had higher values of PBF at BMIz=-1, whereas Colombian boys at BMIz 0 and +1 also had higher values of PBF than boys in other countries. Our results show a consistently high correlation between BMI and adiposity in children from countries representing a wide range of human development. PMID:27152184

  3. Size at birth and blood pressure: cross sectional study in 8-11 year old children.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S. J.; Whincup, P. H.; Cook, D. G.; Papacosta, O.; Walker, M.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify which patterns of fetal growth, represented by different measurements of size at birth, are associated with increased blood pressure in children aged 8-11 years. DESIGN AND SETTING: School based, cross sectional survey conducted in 10 towns in England and Wales in 1994. SUBJECTS: 3010 singleton children (response rate 75%) with physical measurements and information on birth weight from parental questionnaires. Hospital birth records were examined for 1573. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure at age 8-11 years. RESULTS: In the whole group birth weight was inversely related to systolic pressure (regression coefficient -1.48 mm Hg/kg; 95% confidence interval -2.20 to -0.76) after adjustment for current body size. There was no significant association between birth weight and diastolic pressure. The association with systolic pressure was much stronger in girls (-2.54 mm Hg/kg; -3.60 to -1.48) than in boys (-0.64 mm Hg/kg; -1.58 to 0.30), with a significant difference between the sexes (P = 0.006). Among the other neonatal measures, head circumference and placental weight were inversely associated with subsequent blood pressure in girls, and placental ratio (placental weight:birth weight) was positively associated with blood pressure in boys. Neither ponderal index at birth nor length:head circumference ratio was related to blood pressure in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: In these contemporary children the association between birth weight and blood pressure was apparent only in girls. There was no evidence that measures of size at birth, which may be related to nutrition at critical periods of pregnancy (thinness at birth or shortness in relation to head circumference), are related to blood pressure in the offspring. PMID:9056797

  4. Association between obesity and asthma in 4-11 year old children in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Munoz, J; Chinn, S; Rona, R

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—There is evidence of a positive association between asthma and obesity in adults and in children. We investigated, in a large sample of English and Scottish primary school children, whether there is a consistent association between fatness and asthma symptoms in Britain.
METHODS—A cross sectional analysis was made of 18 218 children aged 4-11 years who participated in the 1993 or 1994 surveys of the National Study of Health and Growth (NSHG). Children belonged either to English or Scottish representative samples, or an English inner city sample. Asthma attacks in the previous year, occasional wheeze, or persistent wheeze were the symptoms used in the analysis. Body mass index (BMI) and the sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds converted to standard deviation scores (SDS) were used to assess levels of fatness.
RESULTS—A total of 14 908 children (81.8%) were included in the analysis. In the multiple logistic analysis BMI and asthma (asthma attacks or wheeze) were associated in the representative sample (OR for the comparison of the 10th and 90th centiles of BMI 1.28,95% CI 1.11 to 1.48), but sum of skinfolds was unrelated to asthma symptoms in most analyses. The association between asthma and BMI was stronger in girls than in boys in the inner city sample, but less convincingly in the representative sample.
CONCLUSIONS—Levels of obesity are associated with asthma symptoms regardless of ethnicity. The association is more consistent for BMI than for sum of skinfolds, partly because obese children are more advanced in their maturation than other children. There is some evidence that, as in adults, the association is stronger in girls than in boys, but only in the multiethnic inner city sample.

 PMID:11209102

  5. Brainstem arteriovenous malformation presenting with dyspraxic handwriting in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Giangennaro; D'Amico, Alessandra; Pironti, Erica; Martino, Federica; Santoro, Elena; Di Paolo, Nilde; Isone, Claudia; Catone, Gennaro

    2014-06-01

    We report the case of a 11-year-old girl who developed an isolated hand-writing disorder with dysgraphia at the beginning of the school year in the sixth grade. A brain magnetic resonance angiography showed a round arteriovenous malformation sited in the left side of the midbrain extending to the ipsilateral medio-basal thalamus. Child neurologists should never neglect a thorough neurological evaluation in case of isolated worsening of handwriting, to rule out possible underlying organic causes.

  6. Responsiveness and functional connectivity of the scene-sensitive retrosplenial complex in 7-11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping; Tokariev, Maksym; Aronen, Eeva T; Salonen, Oili; Ma, YuanYe; Vuontela, Virve; Carlson, Synnöve

    2014-10-29

    Brain imaging studies have identified two cortical areas, the parahippocampal place area (PPA) and the retrosplenial complex (RSC), that respond preferentially to the viewing of scenes. Contrary to the PPA, little is known about the functional maturation and cognitive control of the RSC. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and tasks that required attention to scene (or face) images and suppression of face (or scene) images, respectively, to investigate task-dependent modulation of activity in the RSC and whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) of this area in 7-11-year-old children and young adults. We compared responsiveness of the RSC with that of the PPA. The RSC was selectively activated by scene images in both groups, albeit less than the PPA. Children modulated activity between the tasks similarly in the RSC and PPA, and to the same extent as adults in PPA, whereas adults modulated activity in the RSC less than in PPA. In children, the whole brain FC of the RSC was stronger in the Sf than Fs task between the left RSC and right fusiform gyrus. The between groups comparison suggested stronger FC in children than adults in the Sf task between the right RSC and the left inferior parietal lobule and intraparietal sulcus. Together the results suggest that the function of the RSC and the related networks undergo dynamic changes over the development from 7-11-year-old children to adulthood.

  7. Korean 4- to 11-Year-Old Student Conceptions of Heat and Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paik, Seoung-Hey; Cho, Boo-Kyung; Go, Young-Mi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to shed light on the conceptions that young students have of heat and temperature, concepts that are both important in school science curricula and closely related to daily life. The subjects of the study were students from a rural district in South Korea and they ranged in age from 4 to 11 years. Interviews were…

  8. Differential Aspects of Sandplay with 10- and 11-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinni, V. Ruth

    1997-01-01

    A study compared the sandplay behavior and pictures of 26 children (ages 10-11) who had experienced sexual, physical, and/or emotional abuse and 26 typical children. The children who had experienced abuse had difficulty staying within the boundary of the sandbox, displayed more regressed play, and presented more disorganized pictures. (Author/CR)

  9. Blue Sky Below My Feet: Daycamp & After School Programs--9 to 11 Year Olds. Leader's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Berkeley. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual presents a 10-day lesson plan for day camp and after-school program leaders. The activities and experiments described in the manual focus on nutrition and space exploration. Topics covered by the lesson plan and specific projects include: (1) gravity; (2) food spoilage; (3) model rocket building and launching; (4) the basic food…

  10. The use of an unpleasant sound unconditional stimulus in an aversive conditioning procedure with 8- to 11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Neumann, David L; Waters, Allison M; Westbury, H Rae; Henry, Julie

    2008-12-01

    The study of aversive Pavlovian conditioning in children can contribute to our understanding of how fears are acquired and extinguished during development. However, methodological issues hamper further research because of ethical and procedural concerns regarding the use of traditional aversive unconditional stimuli (USs) and no established method to measure trial-by-trial changes in the child's expectancy of the US. The present experiment used geometric shape conditional stimuli (CSs) and an unpleasant sound US with 8- to 11-year-old children. Reliable acquisition and extinction were observed with first, second, and third interval skin conductance responses, on-line expectancy judgments, and post-conditioning subjective ratings of pleasantness and arousal. The experiment confirms the novel use of an unpleasant sound of metal scraping on slate as a US in aversive conditioning with children. The methods have the potential to facilitate the ethical conduct of aversive conditioning research in children using psychophysiological, affective, and self-report expectancy measures.

  11. [The dynamics of the direct current potentials of the brain during sustained attention in 10-11-year-old children].

    PubMed

    Shimko, I A; Andreev, O A; Ponomareva, N V; Fokin, V F

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of direct current potentials of the brain was studied in 10-11-year-old children during sustained attention to successive presentation of series of Shulte tables. Children were examined twice: before and after the series of training to fast reading. A gradual increase in the level of direct current potentials during sustained attention was observed. The increase was more pronounced in children with excessive than in children with moderate reactions to the loading. After the series of training to fast reading, the increase in the level of direct current potentials was reduced in both groups. This aftertraining neurophysiological phenomenon was combined with a transformation of psychophysiological characteristics: a decrease in the time of viewing of Shulte tables and increase in the speed of reading. It is suggested that the shifts of direct current potentials reflects the dynamics of intensity of the cerebral energy metabolism.

  12. Somatotype in 6-11-year-old Italian and Estonian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, A R; Semproli, S; Jürimäe, J; Toselli, S; Claessens, A L; Jürimäe, T; Brasili, P

    2008-01-01

    The study of somatotypes can contribute to the understanding of variability in human body build. The aim of this study was to compare the somatotypes of Italian and Estonian schoolchildren in order to evaluate factors that might lead to variability in somatotypes. The sample consisted of 762 Italian and 366 Estonian children aged 6-11 years. They were somatotyped by the Heath-Carter anthropometric method. Data on organised extra-curricular physical activity and hours of weekly training were also collected. One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate country-related variations of somatotype in each age/sex group, while factorial ANOVA was used to test the influence of country and organised physical activity on the variability of the anthropometric characteristics and somatotype components. There are significant differences in mean somatotypes between the Italian and Estonian children in many age classes and a different constitutional trend in children from the two different countries is observed. The Italian children are more endomorphic and less mesomorphic and ectomorphic than the Estonian children. On the other hand, it emerges from factorial ANOVA, that the somatotype components do not present significant variations related to organised physical activity and to the interaction between the country of origin and sport practice. Moreover, the results of the forward stepwise discriminant analyses show that mesomorphy is the best discriminator between the two countries, followed by ectomorphy. Our findings suggest that the observed differences between Italian and Estonian children could be related mainly to country rather than to the practice of organised physical activity in the two countries.

  13. Prevalence of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder in two community samples: 6,330 English 11-year-olds and 34,653 American adults.

    PubMed

    Zanarini, Mary C; Horwood, Jeremy; Wolke, Dieter; Waylen, Andrea; Fitzmaurice, Garrett; Grant, Bridget F

    2011-10-01

    This study had two main objectives. The first was to assess the prevalence of DSM-IV borderline personality disorder and its constituent symptoms in a community sample of late-latency children. The second was to compare these rates to those found in a community sample of American adults. A birth cohort of 6,330 11-year-old children in Bristol, England, was interviewed concerning borderline psychopathology in 2002-2004. A community sample of 34,653 American adults was interviewed about borderline psychopathology in 2004-2005. Rates of chronic emptiness, physically self-damaging acts, and stormy relationships were very similar in both samples (<2% difference). However, a significantly higher percentage of children than adults reported being angry and moody. In contrast, a significantly higher percentage of adults than children reported being paranoid/dissociated, having a serious identity disturbance, being impulsive, and making frantic efforts to avoid abandonment. In addition, a significantly higher percentage of adults than children met DSM-IV criteria for BPD (5.9% vs. 3.2%). Statistically significant but clinically minor gender differences were also found between girls and boys as well as men and women. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that late-latency children are about half as likely as adults to meet DSM-IV criteria for BPD. They also suggest that gender does not play a defining role in symptom expression.

  14. Prosthodontic Rehabilitation of Hereditary Ectodermal Dysplasia in an 11-Year-Old Patient with Flexible Denture: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Neha; Naitam, Dinesh; Wadkar, Arti; Nemane, Anuradha; Katoch, Shiva; Dewangan, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary ectodermal dysplasia is a rare group of inherited disorders characterized by aplasia or dysplasia of two or more tissues of ectodermal origin such as hair, nails, teeth, and skin. The dental characteristics of this syndrome include anodontia or hypodontia of the primary and/or permanent teeth, hypoplastic conical teeth, and underdevelopment of the alveolar ridges. The options for a definitive treatment plan include fixed, removable or implant-supported prostheses, singly or in combination. This clinical report describes the prosthetic rehabilitation of an 11-year-old boy with hereditary ectodermal dysplasia. Maxillary flexible removable partial denture and mandibular conventional complete denture were fabricated to establish an acceptable masticatory function, speech, and esthetics for the patient. PMID:23320200

  15. [Drowning versus cardiac ischemia: Cardiac arrest of an 11-year-old boy at a swimming lake].

    PubMed

    Födinger, A; Wöss, C; Semsroth, S; Stadlbauer, K H; Wenzel, V

    2015-11-01

    This report describes a case of sudden cardiac arrest and subsequent attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation of an 11-year-old child on the shores of a swimming lake. Reports of eyewitnesses excluded the obviously suspected diagnosis of a drowning accident. The result of the autopsy was sudden cardiac death due to a congenital coronary anomaly (abnormal left coronary artery, ALCA). Favored by vigorous physical activity, this anomaly can lead to malignant arrhythmias because the ectopic coronary artery with its intramural course through the aortic wall is compressed during every systole. This pathology was not known to the boy or his family; in fact he liked sports but had suffered of a syncope once which was not followed up. Without a strong suspicion it is difficult to diagnose a coronary artery anomaly and it is often missed even in college athletes. Tragically, sudden cardiac arrest may be the first symptom of an undiagnosed abnormal coronary artery. Following syncope or chest pain during exercise with a normal electrocardiogram (ECG) cardiac imaging, such as computed tomography (CT) or angiography should be initiated in order to enable surgical repair of an abnormal coronary artery.

  16. Effect of ball mass on dribble, pass, and pass reception in 9-11-year-old boys' basketball.

    PubMed

    Arias, José L; Argudo, Francisco M; Alonso, José I

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of ball mass on dribble, pass, and pass reception in real game situations in 9-11-year-old boys' basketball. Participants were 54 boys identified from six federated teams. The independent variable was ball mass, and dependent variables were number of dribbles, passes, and pass receptions. Three situations were established in which the participants played four games with each of the following: (a) regulation ball (485 g, 69-71 cm), (b) ball of smaller mass (440 g, 69-71 cm), and (c) ball of greater mass (540 g, 69-71 cm). Four observers recorded data from observing game videos using a computerized register instrument. Participants executed more dribbles, passes, and pass receptions with the 440g ball when compared to the regulation (p < .05) and 540g ball (p < .01). Reduction of ball mass seems to have enabled the children to go from paying attention to aspects related to ball handling to aspects of game interpretation.

  17. Association between home and school food environments and dietary patterns among 9–11-year-old children in 12 countries

    PubMed Central

    Vepsäläinen, H; Mikkilä, V; Erkkola, M; Broyles, S T; Chaput, J-P; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the roles of home and school environments on dietary patterns among children from 12 countries differing widely in geographic region and levels of human and economic development. Methods: The sample included a total of 6685 (54% girls) 9–11-year-old children. Parents/guardians reported the availability of certain foods in the home, and trained researchers performed school audits recording the availability of foods for sale at schools. Foods were then divided into wholesome (nutrient-dense) and empty-calorie (nutrient-poor) foods and scored according to their availability. Children reported if their school provided school lunch and how many times during the last week they had eaten meals prepared away from home and school. Via principal components analysis, data-driven dietary pattern scores were calculated from food frequency questionnaires. Multilevel models were used to study the associations between home and school food environments (wholesome and empty-calorie foods) and dietary patterns (healthy and unhealthy diet pattern scores). Results: For low unhealthy diet pattern scores, low availability of empty-calorie foods at home was found to be more important than high availability of wholesome foods. More meals eaten outside home and school were associated with the higher unhealthy diet pattern scores. The availability of wholesome foods at home was positively associated with the healthy diet pattern scores. Food availability at school was not associated with the dietary patterns. Conclusions: In this sample, the home food environment was more significant than the school food environment in predicting the dietary patterns. The availability of empty-calorie foods was associated with the unhealthy dietary pattern even when the availability of wholesome foods at home was high. Meals prepared away from home contributed to the unhealthy dietary pattern. Therefore, parents should be encouraged to limit the availability of empty

  18. E-cigarette use and intentions to smoke among 10-11-year-old never-smokers in Wales

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Graham F; Littlecott, Hannah J; Moore, Laurence; Ahmed, Nilufar; Holliday, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Background E-cigarettes are seen by some as offering harm reduction potential, where used effectively as smoking cessation devices. However, there is emerging international evidence of growing use among young people, amid concerns that this may increase tobacco uptake. Few UK studies examine the prevalence of e-cigarette use in non-smoking children or associations with intentions to smoke. Methods A cross-sectional survey of year 6 (10–11-year-old) children in Wales. Approximately 1500 children completed questions on e-cigarette use, parental and peer smoking, and intentions to smoke. Logistic regression analyses among never smoking children, adjusted for school-level clustering, examined associations of smoking norms with e-cigarette use, and of e-cigarette use with intentions to smoke tobacco within the next 2 years. Results Approximately 6% of year 6 children, including 5% of never smokers, reported having used an e-cigarette. By comparison to children whose parents neither smoked nor used e-cigarettes, children were most likely to have used an e-cigarette if parents used both tobacco and e-cigarettes (OR=3.40; 95% CI 1.73 to 6.69). Having used an e-cigarette was associated with intentions to smoke (OR=3.21; 95% CI 1.66 to 6.23). While few children reported that they would smoke in 2 years’ time, children who had used an e-cigarette were less likely to report that they definitely would not smoke tobacco in 2 years’ time and were more likely to say that they might. Conclusions E-cigarettes represent a new form of childhood experimentation with nicotine. Findings are consistent with a hypothesis that children use e-cigarettes to imitate parental and peer smoking behaviours, and that e-cigarette use is associated with weaker antismoking intentions. PMID:25535293

  19. Four minutes of in-class high-intensity interval activity improves selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jasmin K; Le Mare, Lucy; Gurd, Brendon J

    2015-03-01

    The amount of time allocated to physical activity in schools is declining. Time-efficient physical activity solutions that demonstrate their impact on academic achievement-related outcomes are needed to prioritize physical activity within the school curricula. "FUNtervals" are 4-min, high-intensity interval activities that use whole-body actions to complement a storyline. The purpose of this study was to (i) explore whether FUNtervals can improve selective attention, an executive function posited to be essential for learning and academic success; and (ii) examine whether this relationship is predicted by students' classroom off-task behaviour. Seven grade 3-5 classes (n = 88) were exposed to a single-group, repeated cross-over design where each student's selective attention was compared between no-activity and FUNtervals days. In week 1, students were familiarized with the d2 test of attention and FUNterval activities, and baseline off-task behaviour was observed. In both weeks 2 and 3 students completed the d2 test of attention following either a FUNterval break or a no-activity break. The order of these breaks was randomized and counterbalanced between weeks. Neither motor nor passive off-task behaviour predicted changes in selective attention following FUNtervals; however, a weak relationship was observed for verbal off-task behaviour and improvements in d2 test performance. More importantly, students made fewer errors during the d2 test following FUNtervals. In supporting the priority of physical activity inclusion within schools, FUNtervals, a time efficient and easily implemented physical activity break, can improve selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.

  20. Relationships of bronchial responsiveness assessed by methacholine to serum IgE, lung function, symptoms, and diagnoses in 11-year-old New Zealand children.

    PubMed

    Burrows, B; Sears, M R; Flannery, E M; Herbison, G P; Holdaway, M D

    1992-09-01

    The relationship of bronchial responsiveness (BR), assessed by methacholine challenge, to serum IgE, baseline ventilatory function, and symptoms or diagnoses suggesting an atopic disorder were examined in 522 11-year-old New Zealand children. BR was assessed by the presence or absence of a PC20 25 mg/ml or less and by calculating a continuous index of the decline of the FEV1 during the methacholine test. The latter facilitated multivariate analyses and revealed significant relationships to predictor variables even in those considered "nonresponsive" by PC20 criteria. There was a close relationship of BR to the baseline FEV1/vital capacity ratio, seen even in patients with known asthma, but this relationship was seen only in subjects with at least moderate levels of serum IgE. There was a less close relation of BR to percent predicted FEV1, but this persisted even after accounting for the FEV1/vital capacity ratio and was present regardless of the level of serum IgE. Reported asthma was associated with increased BR independent of all other factors, but other diagnoses and symptoms contributed relatively little to the prediction of BR once the serum IgE and lung function were taken into account. The overall results are compatible with the concept that IgE is a critical factor in the development of bronchial responsiveness in childhood.

  1. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts. PMID:26435259

  2. Acute effects of active gaming on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations of 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Green, Benjamin P; Debuse, Dorothée; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2015-12-28

    The present study examined the acute effects of active gaming on energy intake (EI) and appetite responses in 8-11-year-old boys in a school-based setting. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-one boys completed four individual 90-min gaming bouts, each separated by 1 week. The gaming bouts were (1) seated gaming, no food or drink; (2) active gaming, no food or drink; (3) seated gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum; and (4) active gaming with food and drink offered ad libitum. In the two gaming bouts during which foods and drinks were offered, EI was measured. Appetite sensations - hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness - were recorded using visual analogue scales during all gaming bouts at 30-min intervals and at two 15-min intervals post gaming. In the two bouts with food and drink, no significant differences were found in acute EI (MJ) (P=0·238). Significant differences were detected in appetite sensations for hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness between the four gaming bouts at various time points. The relative EI calculated for the two gaming bouts with food and drink (active gaming 1·42 (sem 0·28) MJ; seated gaming 2·12 (sem 0·25) MJ) was not statistically different. Acute EI in response to active gaming was no different from seated gaming, and appetite sensations were influenced by whether food was made available during the 90-min gaming bouts.

  3. Concentrations of Bisphenol A and Seven Other Phenols in Pooled Sera from 3–11 Year Old Children: 2001–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Xiaoliu; Wong, Lee-Yang; Calafat, Antonia M.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns exist regarding children’s exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) and other phenols because of the higher sensitivity, compared to adults, of children’s developing organs to endocrine disruptors. Several studies reported the urinary concentrations of these phenols in children, but data on levels of these compounds in children’s serum are limited. We present here the total (free plus conjugated) and free concentrations of BPA and seven other phenols in 24 pooled serum samples prepared from individual specimens collected from 936 children 3–11 years old who participated in the 2001–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We detected benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5- dichlorophenol, and three parabens in at least 60% of the pools suggesting children’s exposure to these compounds or their precursors. Conjugated phenols were the major species. However, although many previous studies have shown widespread detection of BPA in children’s urine, we only detected total or free BPA in 3 and 2 pooled serum samples, respectively, at concentrations of 0.1–0.2 µg/L. The non-persistent nature of BPA and the phenols examined and the likely episodic nature of the exposures to these compounds (or their precursors) suggest that for general population biomonitoring of these non-persistent phenols, urine, not serum or plasma, is the preferred matrix. PMID:23102149

  4. Familiarity with and affective responses to foods in 8-11-year-old children. The role of food neophobia and parental education.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Sari; Oerlemans, Patty; Tuorila, Hely

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated whether the familiarity with and affective responses to foods are predicted by the individual trait food neophobia and by parental education in school children. The cross-sectional data collection involved children (N=208, 8- and 11-year-old) from Helsinki, and their parents. A questionnaire assessing children's food neophobia with Food Neophobia Scale (FNS), and familiarity with and affective responses to 36 foods was completed by parents. Children with low FNS were familiar with a larger number of foods than those with high FNS. High FNS was associated with low pleasantness assessment of most food groups, including cheese, fruit/vegetables, fish, starch/cereals, and ethnic/exotic. Children of well educated parents had tasted a larger number of foods, thus displaying lower behavioral neophobia, and had lower FNS scores than children of less educated parents. Both low FNS scores and high parental education predicted the number of tasted foods. Parental education was not associated with pleasantness ratings (exception: cheese). To conclude, high food neophobia lowers the pleasantness ratings of foods, and parental education moderates behavioral neophobia. PMID:22326884

  5. High-intensity interval training improves VO(2peak), maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9-11-year-old swimmers.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-11-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9-11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000 m time (T(100 m) and T(2,000 m)), VO(2peak) and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (Lac(max)). In a 5-week crossover study, 26 competitive swimmers with a mean (SD) age of 11.5 ± 1.4 years performed a training period of HIIT and HVT. Competition (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.48) and T(2,000 m) (P = 0.04; effect size = 0.21) performance increased following HIIT. No changes were found in T(100 m) (P = 0.20). Lac(max) increased following HIIT (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.43) and decreased after HVT (P < 0.01; effect size = 0.51). VO(2peak) increased following both interventions (P < 0.05; effect sizes = 0.46-0.57). The increases in competition performance, T(2,000 m), Lac(max) and VO(2peak) following HIIT were achieved in significantly less training time (~2 h/week). PMID:20683609

  6. Validation of the automated self-administered 24-hour dietary recall for children (ASA24-Kids) among 9- to 11-year-old youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to validate ASA24-Kids-2012, a self-administered web-based 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR) among 9- to 11-year-old children. Sixty-nine children in two sites participated in the study. In one site, trained staff observed and recorded types and portions of foods and drinks consumed by ...

  7. Mental Calculation Methods Used by 11-Year-Olds in Different Attainment Bands: A Reanalysis of Data from the 1987 APU Survey in the UK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxman, Derek; Beishuizen, Meindert

    2002-01-01

    Reanalyzes data obtained in 1987 on mental calculation strategies used by 11-year-olds in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland. Classifies mental strategies developed in the past decade in international research. Compares frequency and effectiveness of the strategies used by pupils of different levels of attainment. Discusses basic arithmetic…

  8. Anthropometric Characteristics, Physical Fitness and Motor Coordination of 9 to 11 Year Old Children Participating in a Wide Range of Sports

    PubMed Central

    Elferink-Gemser, Marije; Hartman, Esther; Willemse, Bas; Philippaerts, Renaat; Visscher, Chris; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent 9 to 11 year old children participating in a specific sport already exhibit a specific anthropometric, physical fitness and motor coordination profile, in line with the requirements of that particular sport. In addition, the profiles in children with a different training volume were compared and possible differences in training hours per week between children from a low, moderate, and high level of physical fitness and motor coordination were investigated. Methods and Results Data of 620 children, 347 boys and 273 girls, who participated in the Flemish Sports Compass were used. Only the primary sport of each child was considered and six groups of sports (Ball sports, Dance, Gymnastics, Martial arts, Racquet sports and Swimming) were formed based on common characteristics. Measurements consisted of 17 tests. Independent T-tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests revealed few differences between the groups of sports and the discriminant analyses with the moderate and low active group did not show any significant results (p > .05). However, when discriminating among the high active children, a 85.2 % correct classification between six groups of sports was found (Wilks’ Λ = .137 and p < .001). Finally, children performing under average on the tests spent significantly fewer hours in sport per week (2.50 ± 1.84 hours) compared to the children performing best (3.25 ± 2.60 hours) (p = .016) and the children performing above average (2.90 ± 1.96 hours) (p = .029) on physical fitness and motor coordination. Discussion The study showed that in general, children at a young age do not exhibit sport-specific characteristics, except in children with a high training volume. It is possible that on the one hand, children have not spent enough time yet in their sport to develop sport-specific qualities. On the other hand, it could be possible that they do not take individual qualities into account when choosing a sport

  9. Predicting gender differences in liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among 11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Haukkala, Ari; Yngve, Agneta; Thorsdottir, Inga; Roos, Eva

    2015-12-01

    We studied the factors that predict liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among schoolchildren. Additionally, we examined if there were gender differences in the predictors that explain the hypothesized higher scores in liking vegetables and preferences among girls. The data from the PRO GREENS project included 424 Finnish children (response rate 77%) aged 11 to 12. The children completed validated measures about social and environmental factors related to their liking for vegetables and preferences both at baseline 2009 and follow-up 2010. The associations were examined with regression and mediation analyses. The strongest predictors of both girls' and boys' liking and preferences were higher levels of eating vegetables together with the family, previous vegetable intake and a lower level of perceived barriers. Liking was additionally predicted by a lower level of parental demand that their child should eat vegetables. Girls reported higher levels of liking and preferences in the follow-up. This gender difference was mainly explained by girls' lower level of perceived barriers related to vegetable intake and girls' higher previous vegetable intake. Interventions that aim to increase the low vegetable intake among boys by increasing their liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables could benefit from targeting perceived barriers, namely boys' perception and values concerning the consumption of vegetables.

  10. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis presenting with acute psychosis in a preteenage girl: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a rare, newly defined autoimmune clinical entity that presents with atypical clinical manifestations. Most patients with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis develop a progressive illness from psychosis into a state of unresponsiveness, with catatonic features often associated with abnormal movements and autonomic instability. This is the first report of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis in a Greek pediatric hospital. Case presentation An 11-year-old Greek girl presented with clinical manifestations of acute psychosis. The differential diagnosis included viral encephalitis. The presence of a tumor usually an ovarian teratoma, a common clinical finding in many patients, was excluded. Early diagnosis and prompt immunotherapy resulted in full recovery up to one year after the initial diagnosis. Conclusion Acute psychosis is a rare psychiatric presentation in children, diagnosed only after possible organic syndromes that mimic acute psychosis are excluded, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor receptor encephalitis. Pediatricians, neurologists and psychiatrists should consider this rare clinical syndrome, in order to make an early diagnosis and instigate appropriate treatment to maximize neurological recovery. PMID:22846610

  11. [Repeated torsion of the normal adnexa in a premenarchal girl].

    PubMed

    Pankrac, Zofia; Preis, Krzysztof; Swiatkowska-Freund, Małgorzata; Korzon, Michał

    2004-12-01

    Recurrent normal adnexal torsion is rare. The clinical presentation is poor and nonspecific. Authors present 11-years old girl with repeated torsion of the normal adnexa. At the first laparotomy salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Next two incidences were treated conservatively by ovary detorsion in laparoscopy. After second laparoscopy the girl was referred to the Adolescent Gynecology Outpatient Clinic. Preventive oophoroplexy was performed. After half of a year observation the girl reported no complaints and no abnormalities in physical examinations were found. Oophoroplexy in the cases of repeated normal adnexal torsion is a very useful method of prevention of recurrence.

  12. Onchocercosis mansonella co-infection presenting as a subcutaneous nodule in a child.

    PubMed

    Davies, John Q; Cohen, Marta C; Shackley, Fiona; Clarke, Tim C; Page, Richard E

    2007-01-01

    A 11-year-old girl presented with a subcutaneous lesion on the forehead, thought to be an implantation dermoid cyst. Microscopic examination revealed an onchocercoma. Microfilariae were found in the blood indicating a co-infection with Mansonella perstans. This case demonstrates the diagnostic difficulties of a parasitic co-infection uncommonly encountered in Europe. PMID:17613046

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-01

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes.

  14. Regulation of Brain Activity in the Fusiform Face and Parahippocampal Place Areas in 7-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuontela, Virve; Jiang, Ping; Tokariev, Maksym; Savolainen, Petri; Ma, YuanYe; Aronen, Eeva T.; Fontell, Tuija; Liiri, Tiina; Ahlstrom, Matti; Salonen, Oili; Carlson, Synnove

    2013-01-01

    Developmental studies have demonstrated that cognitive processes such as attention, suppression of interference and memory develop throughout childhood and adolescence. However, little is currently known about the development of top-down control mechanisms and their influence on cognitive performance. In the present study, we used functional…

  15. Sensory Discrimination, Working Memory and Intelligence in 9-Year-Old and 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelke, Annik E.; Troche, Stefan J.; Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Wagner, Felicitas L.; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    More than a century ago, Galton and Spearman suggested that there was a functional relationship between sensory discrimination ability and intelligence. Studies have since been able to confirm a close relationship between general discrimination ability (GDA) and IQ. The aim of the present study was to assess whether this strong relationship…

  16. The Influence of Cartoon Character Advertising on Fruit and Vegetable Preferences of 9- to 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezbaruah, Nandita; Brunt, Ardith

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study is to determine the influence of cartoon characters in preferences of fruit and vegetables among children. Methods: A 10-item survey was used in this cross-sectional study to determine the factors that influence a child's likelihood of eating fruits and vegetables. Seven factors influencing consumption of…

  17. Pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland in an eleven years old girl.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Ananthalakshmi

    2013-04-01

    We are presenting a case of pleomorphic adenoma of the lacrimal gland in a 11 years old girl. This is a rare presentation. Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common epithelial tumour of the lacrimal gland, which represents 12% of all the lacrimal fossa lesions. It typically presents in middle age and is rare in children who are under the age of sixteen years, with only a few previously reported cases.

  18. [Fibro-osseous pseudo-tumor of the fingers. A little known entity. A case of an 11 year-old girl].

    PubMed

    Aboujaoude, J; Bocquet, L; Oberlin, C

    1995-01-01

    The authors report a case of fibro-osseous pseudo-tumour affecting a long finger. This is a rare tumour difficult to diagnose. Complete excision of the tumour was delayed till two years after its appearance as it's true nature had not been recognised at the time of the initial histopathologic examination. It is a benign tumour with a good prognosis as it does not undergo malignant degeneration and does not recur locally if excision has been complete. Errors in interpretation of the histopathologic picture have, in the past, led to unwarranted amputations of the involved fingers.

  19. Active school transport and weekday physical activity in 9–11-year-old children from 12 countries

    PubMed Central

    Denstel, K D; Broyles, S T; Larouche, R; Sarmiento, O L; Barreira, T V; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Active school transport (AST) may increase the time that children spend in physical activity (PA). This study examined relationships between AST and weekday moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), light physical activity (LPA), sedentary time (SED) and total activity during naturally organized time periods (daily, before school, during school and after school) in a sample of children from 12 countries. METHODS: The sample included 6224 children aged 9–11 years. PA and sedentary time were objectively measured using Actigraph accelerometers. AST was self-reported by participants. Multilevel generalized linear and logistic regression statistical models were used to determine associations between PA, SED and AST across and within study sites. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, highest parental educational attainment, BMI z-score and accelerometer wear time, children who engaged in AST accumulated significantly more weekday MVPA during all studied time periods and significantly less time in LPA before school compared with children who used motorized transport to school. AST was unrelated to time spent in sedentary behaviors. Across all study sites, AST was associated with 6.0 min (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.7–7.3; P<0.0001) more of weekday MVPA; however, there was some evidence that this differed across study sites (P for interaction=0.06). Significant positive associations were identified within 7 of 12 study sites, with differences ranging from 4.6 min (95% CI: 0.3–8.9; P=0.04, in Canada) to 10.2 min (95% CI: 5.9–14.4; P<0.0001, in Brazil) more of daily MVPA among children who engaged in AST compared with motorized transport. CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated that AST was associated with children spending more time engaged in MVPA throughout the day and less time in LPA before school. AST represents a good behavioral target to increase levels of PA in children. PMID:27152177

  20. Comparison of short-term energy intake and appetite responses to active and seated video gaming, in 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Green, Benjamin P; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Barry, Gillian; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2016-03-28

    The acute effects of active and seated video gaming on energy intake (EI), blood glucose, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-17-36) and subjective appetite (hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness) were examined in 8-11-year-old boys. In a randomised, crossover manner, twenty-two boys completed one 90-min active and one 90-min seated video gaming trial during which food and drinks were provided ad libitum. EI, plasma GLP-17-36, blood glucose and subjective appetite were measured during and following both trials. Time-averaged AUC blood glucose was increased (P=0·037); however, EI was lower during active video gaming (1·63 (sem 0·26) MJ) compared with seated video gaming (2·65 (sem 0·32) MJ) (P=0·000). In a post-gaming test meal 1 h later, there were no significant differences in EI between the active and seated gaming trials. Although estimated energy expenditure was significantly higher during active video gaming, there was still no compensation for the lower EI. At cessation of the trials, relative EI (REI) was significantly lower following active video gaming (2·06 (sem 0·30) MJ) v. seated video gaming (3·34 (sem 0·35) MJ) (P=0·000). No significant differences were detected in time-averaged AUC GLP-17-36 or subjective appetite. At cessation of the active video gaming trial, EI and REI were significantly less than for seated video gaming. In spite of this, the REI established for active video gaming was a considerable amount when considering the total daily estimated average requirement for 8-11-year-old boys in the UK (7·70 MJ). PMID:26817510

  1. Comparison of short-term energy intake and appetite responses to active and seated video gaming, in 8-11-year-old boys.

    PubMed

    Allsop, Susan; Green, Benjamin P; Dodd-Reynolds, Caroline J; Barry, Gillian; Rumbold, Penny L S

    2016-03-28

    The acute effects of active and seated video gaming on energy intake (EI), blood glucose, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-17-36) and subjective appetite (hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness) were examined in 8-11-year-old boys. In a randomised, crossover manner, twenty-two boys completed one 90-min active and one 90-min seated video gaming trial during which food and drinks were provided ad libitum. EI, plasma GLP-17-36, blood glucose and subjective appetite were measured during and following both trials. Time-averaged AUC blood glucose was increased (P=0·037); however, EI was lower during active video gaming (1·63 (sem 0·26) MJ) compared with seated video gaming (2·65 (sem 0·32) MJ) (P=0·000). In a post-gaming test meal 1 h later, there were no significant differences in EI between the active and seated gaming trials. Although estimated energy expenditure was significantly higher during active video gaming, there was still no compensation for the lower EI. At cessation of the trials, relative EI (REI) was significantly lower following active video gaming (2·06 (sem 0·30) MJ) v. seated video gaming (3·34 (sem 0·35) MJ) (P=0·000). No significant differences were detected in time-averaged AUC GLP-17-36 or subjective appetite. At cessation of the active video gaming trial, EI and REI were significantly less than for seated video gaming. In spite of this, the REI established for active video gaming was a considerable amount when considering the total daily estimated average requirement for 8-11-year-old boys in the UK (7·70 MJ).

  2. Juvenile dermatomyositis in a Nigerian girl

    PubMed Central

    Adelowo, Olufemi; Nwankwo, Madu; Olaosebikan, Hakeem

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile dermatomyositis is an autoimmune connective tissue disease occurring in children less than 16 years old. It is part of a heterogeneous group of muscle diseases called idiopathic Iiflammatory myopathies. It had previously been reported in black Africans resident in UK. However, there is no documented case reported from Africa. The index sign of heliotrope rashes is often difficult to visualise in the black skin. An 11-year-old Nigerian girl presenting with clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of juvenile dermatomyositis is presented here. It is hoped that this case will heighten the index of suspicion of this condition among medical practitioners in Africa. PMID:24706700

  3. The Position of Lingula as an Index for Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block Injection in 7-11-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Ezoddini Ardakani, Fatemeh; Bahrololoumi, Zahra; Zangouie Booshehri, Maryam; Navab Azam, Alireza; Ayatollahi, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Inferior alveolar nerve block injection is one of the common intra oral anesthetic techniques, with a failure rate of 15-20%. The aim of this study was to evaluate the position of the lingula as an index for this injection. Materials and methods Thirty eight panoramic radiographs of 7–11 year old patients were analyzed and the distance between the lingula index and occlusal plane was measured. Then, lower alveolar nerve block injection was performed on 88 children. Finally, a visual analogue scale was used to measure the rate of pain in the patients. Results This distance increased with age and in children younger than nine years is −0.45 mm on the right side and −0.95 mm on the left side. This distance in children older than 9 years is −0.23 mm on the right side and 0.47 mm on the left side. The success rates of inferior alveolar nerve block injection based on lingual index were 49% on the right side and 53.8% on the left side. Conclusion As the lingual index has various positions and its distance from the occlusal plane increases with age, it is not an appropriate landmark for inferior alveolar nerve block injection. PMID:22991596

  4. Dental fluorosis and nutritional status of 6- to 11-year-old children living in rural areas of Paraíba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Correia Sampaio, F; Ramm von der Fehr, F; Arneberg, P; Petrucci Gigante, D; Hatløy, A

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutritional status and dental fluorosis in areas with fluoride in the drinking water in Paraíba, Brazil. Rural villages of comparable low socio-economic status and stable water fluoride levels were selected. Lifelong residents (6-11 years old, n = 650) were examined for nutritional status (height-for-age index; WHO methods) and dental fluorosis of central incisors and first molars (TF index). The sample was divided into three groups according to fluoride levels in the drinking water: low (below 0.7 ppm F, n = 164), medium (between 0.7 and 1.0 ppm F, n = 360) and high (above 1.0 ppm F, n = 126). Dental fluorosis was observed in 30.5, 61.1 and 71.4% of the children in these F groups, respectively. The prevalence was significantly related to the water F concentrations (chi2 = 59.93, d. f. = 2, p<0.001). The severity of dental fluorosis ranged from TF 1 to 3 in the low F group and up to 7 in the others. Malnutrition prevalence was approximately 20% in all F groups, but was unrelated to dental fluorosis. The fairly high prevalence of dental fluorosis observed suggests that other factors may be operating. PMID:9831782

  5. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity profile of a two-dose combined hepatitis A and B vaccine in 1-11-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Roberton, D; Marshall, H; Nolan, T M; Sokal, E; Díez-Domingo, J; Flodmark, C-E; Rombo, L; Lewald, G; Flor, J de la; Casanovas, J M; Verdaguer, J; Marés, J; Esso, D Van; Dieussaert, I; Stoffel, M

    2005-10-17

    This study was conducted to compare the reactogenicity, immunogenicity and safety of a combined two-dose (0, 6 months) hepatitis A and B vaccine (720ELU HAV, 20 mcg HBsAg) with the established three-dose (0, 1 and 6 months) hepatitis A and B vaccine (360ELU HAV, 10 mcg HBsAg). A total of 511 children aged 1-11 years who had not previously received a hepatitis A or B vaccine were enrolled in the study. Both vaccines were well tolerated, and were shown to be safe and immunogenic. The analysis, stratified according to two age groups (1-5 year and 6-11-year-old children) demonstrated that the reactogenicity profile of the two-dose schedule was at least as good as that of the established schedule. Both vaccines and schedules provided at least 98% seroprotection against hepatitis B and 100% seroconversion against hepatitis A, 1 month after the end of the vaccination course (Month 7).

  6. Breast carcinoma in a prepubertal girl.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Tausif; Singh, Sudipto Kumar; Mukherjee, Tanmoy; Banerjee, Manju

    2014-04-15

    Breast carcinoma is a very rare disease in children. We present a rare case of breast cancer in an 11-year-old prepubertal girl. Clinically, it was a case of locally advanced breast cancer (T4bN1M0). The core biopsy report showed adenocarcinoma of the not otherwise specified (NOS) variety (oestrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative). Diagnosis was late in this case due to lack of suspicion. A modified radical mastectomy was considered to be adequate treatment. Histologically, it was adenocarcinoma NOS, which is rare in young girls (the secretory type being more common). Incidence, differential diagnoses, investigation and management of breast carcinoma in young girls are discussed. The purpose of reporting this case is to highlight that prevention and early detection of breast carcinoma in children is very important.

  7. The Effects of Group Play Therapy on Self-Concept Among 7 to 11 Year-Old Children Suffering From Thalassemia Major

    PubMed Central

    Tomaj, Ome Kolsoum; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Taghavi, Taraneh; Borim Nejad, Leili; Dastoorpoor, Maryam; Ghasemi, Afsaneh

    2016-01-01

    Background Children suffering from thalassemia have higher levels of depression and lower levels of self-concept. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine if group play therapy could significantly increase self-concept among children with thalassemia major ages 7 to 11 years old in teaching hospitals of Golestan province, Iran, in 2012. Patients and Methods In this randomized, controlled clinical trial, 60 children with thalassemia major were randomly assigned to intervention (30 children) and control (30 children) groups. The intervention included eight 45 to 60 minute sessions during four weeks, during which the intervention group received group play therapy. The control group received no interventions. Self-concept was measured three times using the Piers-Harris children’s self-concept scale: before, immediately after, and a month after the intervention. Results For the intervention group, results showed that the mean self-concept score was significantly higher at the second point in time compared to the baseline (P < 0.001), going from 60.539 to 69.908. Likewise, comparing the first and third time points, the mean score significantly increased and reached 70.611 (P < 0.001). Furthermore, changes in the mean score from the second to the third time point, though non-significant (P = 0.509), followed the trend, going from 69.908 to 70.611. For the control group, comparing the first, second, and third time points did not result in any significant change in the mean score (P > 0.05). Conclusions The results showed that group play therapy improves self-concept in children suffering from thalassemia major. PMID:27275402

  8. Association of recent exposure to ambient metals on fractional exhaled nitric oxide in 9-11 year old inner-city children

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Maria José; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Divjan, Adnan; Chillrud, Steven N; Hoepner, Lori; Zhang, Hanjie; Ridder, Robert; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ambient metals in urban environments has been associated with wheeze, and emergency room visits and hospitalizations due to respiratory illness. However, the effect of ambient metals exposure on airway inflammation, and how these associations may be modified by seroatopy, has not been determined. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a reliable proxy marker of airway inflammation. We hypothesized that recent ambient concentrations of Ni, V, Zn and Fe would be associated differentially with proximal and distal fractions of exhaled NO, and that these associations would be modified by seroatopy. As part of the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health (CCCEH) birth cohort study, 9-11 year old children (n=192) were evaluated. Ambient measures of Ni, V, Zn and Fe were obtained from a local central monitoring site and averaged over nine days based on three 24 hour measures every third day. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) samples were obtained at constant flows of 50 (FENO50), 83 and 100 mL/sec, and used to determine surrogate measures for proximal (JNO) and alveolar (Calv) inflammation. Seroatopy was determined by specific IgE at age 7. Data were analyzed using multivariable linear regression. Ambient V and Fe concentrations were associated positively with FENO50 (p = 0.018, p = 0.027). Ambient Fe was associated positively with JNO (p = 0.017). Ambient Ni and V concentrations were associated positively with Calv (p = 0.004, p = 0.018 respectively). A stronger association of Ni concentrations with Calv was observed among the children with seroatopy. These results suggest that ambient metals are associated differentially with different fractions of FENO production, and this relationship may be modified by seroatopy. PMID:24878380

  9. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity.

  10. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity. PMID:24892903

  11. Cardiorespiratory fitness, activity level, health-related anthropometric variables, sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic status in a sample of Iranian 7-11 year old boys.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilzadeh, S; Kalantari, H; Nakhostin-Roohi, B

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), activity level, some health-related anthropometric variables, sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic status (SES) of 7-11 year old boys in the city of Ardabil, Iran. Of 21 253 school boys aged 7-11 years, 766 participated in this study using the cluster sampling method. Subjects underwent standard anthropometry. One-mile test was used to evaluate [Formula: see text]O2 max. BMI cut-off points were used to identify weight status. Child's TV watching and video playing daily time (TVVPT) was taken for sedentary behaviour evaluation. SES and activity level were measured by standard questionnaires. Of all participants, 8.9% (N=68) of students had CRF lower than normal and 58.6% (N=449) of them had inadequate physical activity. There was a significant adverse relationship between [Formula: see text]O2 max and body mass index (BMI), waist to height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC), and fat mass (FM) (p<0.05). A significant direct association between SES and both FM and TVVPT was observed (p<0.05). Significantly lower physical activity and [Formula: see text]O2 max, and higher TVVPT were observed in the obese boys than their counterparts (p<0.05). The results of this study indicated a significant relationship between CRF and physical activity, and health-related anthropometric variables in a selected sample of 7-11 year boys. Moreover, the obese subjects had not only lower physical activity but also longer sedentary behaviour time than their counterparts.

  12. "I'm on it 24/7 at the moment": A qualitative examination of multi-screen viewing behaviours among UK 10-11 year olds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Screen-viewing has been associated with increased body mass, increased risk of metabolic syndrome and lower psychological well-being among children and adolescents. There is a shortage of information about the nature of contemporary screen-viewing amongst children especially given the rapid advances in screen-viewing equipment technology and their widespread availability. Anecdotal evidence suggests that large numbers of children embrace the multi-functionality of current devices to engage in multiple forms of screen-viewing at the same time. In this paper we used qualitative methods to assess the nature and extent of multiple forms of screen-viewing in UK children. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 10-11 year old children (n = 63) who were recruited from five primary schools in Bristol, UK. Topics included the types of screen-viewing in which the participants engaged; whether the participants ever engaged in more than one form of screen-viewing at any time and if so the nature of this multiple viewing; reasons for engaging in multi-screen-viewing; the room within the house where multi-screen-viewing took place and the reasons for selecting that room. All focus groups were transcribed verbatim, anonymised and thematically analysed. Results Multi-screen viewing was a common behaviour. Although multi-screen viewing often involved watching TV, TV viewing was often the background behaviour with attention focussed towards a laptop, handheld device or smart-phone. There were three main reasons for engaging in multi-screen viewing: 1) tempering impatience that was associated with a programme loading; 2) multi-screen facilitated filtering out unwanted content such as advertisements; and 3) multi-screen viewing was perceived to be enjoyable. Multi-screen viewing occurred either in the child's bedroom or in the main living area of the home. There was considerable variability in the level and timing of viewing and this appeared to be a function of whether

  13. Tomboys and Girly-Girls: Embodied Femininities in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about how 9-11-year-old children, particularly girls, co-construct tomboy and girly-girl identities as oppositional positions. The paper sits within a theoretical framework in which I understand individual and collective masculinities and femininities as ways of "doing man/woman" or "doing boy/girl" that are constructed within local…

  14. Elastofibroma dorsi: MRI diagnosis in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Devaney, D; Livesley, P; Shaw, D

    1995-01-01

    Elastofibroma dorsi is a slowly growing tumour-like process composed of an ill-defined mass of fibro-elastic tissue. It occurs almost exclusively in the elderly and is thought to result from mechanical friction. It has received little attention in the radiological literature and is considered a rare lesion. With indications for computerised imaging expanding, elastofibroma dorsi will probably be seen more frequently. This report describes an elastofibroma presenting in an 11-year-old girl and its appearance by magnetic resonance imaging. Presumptive diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging may prevent unnecessary radical surgery.

  15. Preadolescent Girls and the Presentation of Self: A Dramaturgical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Lori; MacKinnon, David

    2001-01-01

    Interviews and focus groups with five 9- and 10-year-old girls from rural Nova Scotia (Canada) clearly revealed the power and influence of the media in manipulating young girls' perceptions of themselves and others. Goffman's interactionist perspective of the "theatrical performance" provided a framework for the study. (Contains 47 references.)…

  16. Determining anthropometric variables as a tool in the preparation of furniture and designs of interior spaces: the case of children 6 to 11 years old of Vicosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, Sharinna Venturim; Mafra, Simone Caldas Tavares; Antônio, Carlos Emílio Barbosa; Filho, Jugurta Lisboa; Vidigal Guimarães, Elza Maria; da Silva, Vania Eugênia; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José

    2012-01-01

    The adequacy of facilities and the individual securities in their different age groups is importance to ensure greater functionality to them, allowing full development of daily activities. For this to occur more efficiently it is necessary the use of ergonomics which can ensure more comfort and safety for end users of products and spaces. The present study aimed to measure body dimensions of a representative sample of children aged 6 to 11 years old, children of graduate and pos graduate students, faculty and staff of the Federal University of Vicosa and also residents of the city of Vicosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, coming from different municipalities of State of Minas Gerais, to organize a database that will provide the furniture industry, anthropometric variables more appropriate to design products for both the leisure activities, and for the school sector. To realize this research we used the methodology proposed by the authors Panero and Zelnik, based on samples distributed in six age groups, and providing a measurement of 10 variables. By applying the methodology to the field was possible to compare the observed data, with the tables of the aforementioned authors. The main results revealed a significant variation of the 10 variables analyzed, and it is believed that this variation could lead to possible flaws in the designs of products that use the data from these authors. The completion of the study provided data on Vicosa considered more appropriate for the design of products and environments for the population of the study, considering age and region, of Brazil (State of Minas Gerais) and it is believed that the future may expand to the Brazilian population, with the progress of study of this nature.

  17. The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise B; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Lauritzen, Lotte; Michaelsen, Kim F; Egelund, Niels

    2015-04-28

    It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794). The d2 test of attention, the Learning Rating Scale (LRS) and standard tests on reading and mathematics proficiency were administered at baseline and at the end of each study period. Intervention effects were evaluated using hierarchical mixed models. The school meal intervention did not influence concentration performance (CP; primary outcome, n 693) or processing speed; however, the decrease in error percentage was 0·18 points smaller (P<0·001) in the intervention period than in the control period (medians: baseline 2·03%; intervention 1·46%; control 1·37%). In contrast, the intervention increased reading speed (0·7 sentence, P=0·009) and the number of correct sentences (1·8 sentences, P<0·001), which corresponded to 11 and 25%, respectively, of the effect of one school year. The percentage of correct sentences also improved (P<0·001), indicating that the number correct improved relatively more than reading speed. There was no effect on overall math performance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention. These findings are worth examining in future trials. PMID:25791747

  18. Determining anthropometric variables as a tool in the preparation of furniture and designs of interior spaces: the case of children 6 to 11 years old of Vicosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zanuncio, Sharinna Venturim; Mafra, Simone Caldas Tavares; Antônio, Carlos Emílio Barbosa; Filho, Jugurta Lisboa; Vidigal Guimarães, Elza Maria; da Silva, Vania Eugênia; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José

    2012-01-01

    The adequacy of facilities and the individual securities in their different age groups is importance to ensure greater functionality to them, allowing full development of daily activities. For this to occur more efficiently it is necessary the use of ergonomics which can ensure more comfort and safety for end users of products and spaces. The present study aimed to measure body dimensions of a representative sample of children aged 6 to 11 years old, children of graduate and pos graduate students, faculty and staff of the Federal University of Vicosa and also residents of the city of Vicosa, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, coming from different municipalities of State of Minas Gerais, to organize a database that will provide the furniture industry, anthropometric variables more appropriate to design products for both the leisure activities, and for the school sector. To realize this research we used the methodology proposed by the authors Panero and Zelnik, based on samples distributed in six age groups, and providing a measurement of 10 variables. By applying the methodology to the field was possible to compare the observed data, with the tables of the aforementioned authors. The main results revealed a significant variation of the 10 variables analyzed, and it is believed that this variation could lead to possible flaws in the designs of products that use the data from these authors. The completion of the study provided data on Vicosa considered more appropriate for the design of products and environments for the population of the study, considering age and region, of Brazil (State of Minas Gerais) and it is believed that the future may expand to the Brazilian population, with the progress of study of this nature. PMID:22317432

  19. Low Physical Activity Level and Short Sleep Duration Are Associated with an Increased Cardio-Metabolic Risk Profile: A Longitudinal Study in 8-11 Year Old Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Andersen, Rikke; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Background As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Objective To examine independent and combined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between movement behaviors and the MetS score in 8-11 year old Danish children. Design Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration (seven days and eight nights) were assessed by accelerometer and fat mass index (fat mass/height2) was assessed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The MetS-score was based on z-scores of waist circumference, mean arterial blood pressure, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. All measurements were taken at three time points separated by 100 days. Average of the three measurements was used as habitual behavior in the cross-sectional analysis and changes from first to third measurement was used in the longitudinal analysis. Results 723 children were included. In the cross-sectional analysis, physical activity was negatively associated with the MetS-score (P<0.03). In the longitudinal analysis, low physical activity and high sedentary time were associated with an increased MetS-score (all P<0.005); however, after mutual adjustments for movement behaviors, physical activity and sleep duration, but not sedentary time, were associated with the MetS-score (all P<0.03). Further adjusting for fat mass index while removing waist circumference from the MetS-score rendered the associations no longer statistically significant (all P>0.17). Children in the most favorable tertiles of changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sleep duration and sedentary time during the 200-day follow-up period had an improved MetS-score relative to children in the opposite tertiles (P = 0

  20. Use of an Edwards Sapien S3 valve to replace a dysfunctional mechanical mitral valve in an 11-year old boy: another small step for surgical and interventional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael; Austin, Conal; Bapat, Vinayak; Morgan, Gareth J

    2016-09-01

    An 11-year old boy, with complex left ventricular morphology in the setting of repaired double outlet right ventricle developed progressive mitral regurgitation leading to a repair which failed, necessitating replacement of the valve with a 21 mm St. Jude mechanical prosthesis. He represented 3 weeks later in extremis with signs of severe mitral stenosis. The valve was replaced via a hybrid technique with a 26 mm Edwards Sapien 3 valve mounted on a MEMO 3D annuloplasty ring. One year later, the valve is functioning well with no regurgitation or evidence of an inflow gradient.

  1. Use of an Edwards Sapien S3 valve to replace a dysfunctional mechanical mitral valve in an 11-year old boy: another small step for surgical and interventional collaboration.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Michael; Austin, Conal; Bapat, Vinayak; Morgan, Gareth J

    2016-09-01

    An 11-year old boy, with complex left ventricular morphology in the setting of repaired double outlet right ventricle developed progressive mitral regurgitation leading to a repair which failed, necessitating replacement of the valve with a 21 mm St. Jude mechanical prosthesis. He represented 3 weeks later in extremis with signs of severe mitral stenosis. The valve was replaced via a hybrid technique with a 26 mm Edwards Sapien 3 valve mounted on a MEMO 3D annuloplasty ring. One year later, the valve is functioning well with no regurgitation or evidence of an inflow gradient. PMID:26994169

  2. Prevesical Calcification and Hydronephrosis in a Girl Treated for Vesicoureteral Reflux

    PubMed Central

    Kuipers, Sarah; van der Horst, Eric H. J. R.; Verbeke, Jonathan I. M. L.; Bökenkamp, Arend

    2016-01-01

    The endoscopic STING procedure using Deflux is a common and minimal invasive treatment for vesicoureteral reflux. Herein we present the case of an 11-year-old girl with loin pain and de novo hydronephrosis and megaureter on the left. Ultrasound and plain abdominal X-ray demonstrated a calcification at the ureterovesical junction. She had been treated with Deflux injections 5 years before. The clinical quiz addresses the differential diagnosis, workup, and pathogenesis of calcifications at the ureterovesical junction following endoscopic reflux therapy. PMID:27408905

  3. Prevesical Calcification and Hydronephrosis in a Girl Treated for Vesicoureteral Reflux.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Sarah; van der Horst, Eric H J R; Verbeke, Jonathan I M L; Bökenkamp, Arend

    2016-01-01

    The endoscopic STING procedure using Deflux is a common and minimal invasive treatment for vesicoureteral reflux. Herein we present the case of an 11-year-old girl with loin pain and de novo hydronephrosis and megaureter on the left. Ultrasound and plain abdominal X-ray demonstrated a calcification at the ureterovesical junction. She had been treated with Deflux injections 5 years before. The clinical quiz addresses the differential diagnosis, workup, and pathogenesis of calcifications at the ureterovesical junction following endoscopic reflux therapy. PMID:27408905

  4. The Education of African American Girls and Women: Past to Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Veronica G.; Jackson, Janine A.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the education of African American girls and women. It begins with a look at scholarship on African American girls and women published in "The Journal of Negro Education" from its inception in 1932 to the present. Subsequently, a historical overview of the long, hard-fought struggles of educating this population for…

  5. Television viewing and food intake during television viewing in normal-weight, overweight and obese 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear if children of different weight status differ in their nutritional habits while watching television. The objective of the present paper was to determine if children who are overweight or obese differ in their frequency of consumption of six food items while watching television compared with their normal-weight counterparts. A cross-sectional study of 550 children (57·1 % female; mean age = 10 years) from Ottawa, Canada was conducted. Children's weight status was categorised using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-points. Questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching per day and the frequency of consumption of six types of foods while watching television. Overweight/obese children watched more television per day than normal-weight children (3·3 v. 2·7 h, respectively; P = 0·001). Obese children consumed fast food and fruits/vegetables more frequently while watching television than normal-weight or overweight children (P < 0·05). Children who watched more than 4 h of television per d had higher odds (OR 3·21; 95% CI 1·14, 9·03; P = 0·03) of being obese, independent of several covariates, but not independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The finding that both television watching and the frequency of consumption of some food items during television watching are higher in children who are obese is concerning. While the nature of the present study does not allow for the determination of causal pathways, future research should investigate these weight-status differences to identify potential areas of intervention.

  6. "Why Can't Girls Play Football?" Gender Dynamics and the Playground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sheryl; Paechter, Carrie

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the involvement of boys and girls in playground football. It is based on research conducted with 10- to 11-year-old pupils at two state primary schools in London. Boys and girls were found to draw on gender constructs that impacted variously on their involvement in playground football. The performance of masculinity through…

  7. EFFECT OF 4 WEEKS OF PILATES ON THE BODY COMPOSITION OF YOUNG GIRLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. There is a need to find ways to increase the physical activity levels and improve the body composition and blood pressure of girls. Methods. Thirty 11-year-old girls were recruited from two after-school programs in Houston, Texas, in spring 2005. Participants from one program (16) were r...

  8. Isoniazid induced acute pancreatitis in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Ali Faisal; Arbab, Saba; Naz, Farah Qamar

    2015-04-01

    Isoniazid (INH) is the mainstay of management against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. INH-induced acute pancreatitis is an uncommon association and with dearth of literature on it. We are reporting a case of an 11 years old girl who developed acute pancreatitis after 2 weeks of antituberculous therapy. An INH free regimen was started. She was discharged and followed without complications.

  9. Prolapsing ectopic ureterocele presenting as a vulval mass in a newborn girl.

    PubMed

    Ilica, Ahmet Turan; Kocaoğlu, Murat; Bulakbaşi, Nail; Sürer, Ilhami; Tayfun, Cem

    2008-03-01

    Prolapse of the ureterocele and its presentation as a vulval mass is an extremely rare condition. There are no detailed imaging findings of such cases in the literature. We present voiding cystourethrography and MRI findings of a newborn girl with a ureterocele extending through the urethra. PMID:18306143

  10. A teenage girl with a sternal mass: an unusual presentation of Pott disease.

    PubMed

    Posner, Kari R; Mittal, Manoj K

    2010-11-01

    Bone and joint infection complicating tuberculosis is most likely to involve vertebrae. Pott disease, or tuberculous spondylitis, represents a small proportion of tuberculosis cases, but it can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Our case report details Pott disease in a teenage girl, which presented with a sternal mass. We also present a review of the subject.

  11. Spinal epidural abscess in a young girl without risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mantadakis, Elpis; Birbilis, Theodosios; Michailidis, Lambros; Souftas, Vasileios; Chatzimichael, Athanassios

    2011-07-01

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare infection associated with well-established risk factors mainly in adults. We describe an 11-year-old girl without any known risk factors who presented with fever and localized spinal tenderness in the lumbar area and was diagnosed with spinal MRI as suffering from a posterior SEA extending between T11 and L4. She was successfully managed with sequential intravenous and oral antibiotics along with minimally invasive surgery without laminectomy. Methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus was the responsible pathogen isolated at surgery. Immediate institution of antibiotics, spinal MRI, and well-timed neurosurgical consultation are mandatory for a favorable outcome in cases of SEA in children. PMID:21360025

  12. A Weeping Tumor in a Young Girl: An Unusual Presentation of Nodular Hidradenoma.

    PubMed

    Das, Anupam; Gayen, Tirthankar; Podder, Indrashis; Shome, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2016-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl presented with a swelling on her left thigh that was associated with dripping of serous fluid from the lesion. Based on histological features of the excised tumor, a diagnosis of nodular hidradenoma was made. Atypical features including large size of the tumor, location on the lower limb, a weeping presentation, and histological finding of a nodular hidradenoma with an unusually large cystic cavity discharging fluid prompted us to report the case.

  13. Differential diagnosis of double site intussusception in childhood: a 15-year-old girl presenting with bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Joseph; Wright, Naomi Jane; Kufeji, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pain in a teenage girl is common; however, thorough history and examination can often distinguish a more rare or sinister diagnosis. We present a case of a 15-year-old girl presenting with abdominal pain, who was subsequently diagnosed with double intussusception secondary to her previously unrecognised Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS). PMID:26581705

  14. The reliability and validity of a short food frequency questionnaire among 9–11-year olds: a multinational study on three middle-income and high-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Saloheimo, T; González, S A; Erkkola, M; Milauskas, D M; Meisel, J D; Champagne, C M; Tudor-Locke, C; Sarmiento, O; Katzmarzyk, P T; Fogelholm, M

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a food frequency questionnaire with 23 food groups (I-FFQ) among a sample of 9–11-year-old children from three different countries that differ on economical development and income distribution, and to assess differences between country sites. Furthermore, we assessed factors associated with I-FFQ's performance. Methods: This was an ancillary study of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment. Reliability (n=321) and validity (n=282) components of this study had the same participants. Participation rates were 95% and 70%, respectively. Participants completed two I-FFQs with a mean interval of 4.9 weeks to assess reliability. A 3-day pre-coded food diary (PFD) was used as the reference method in the validity analyses. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, intraclass correlation coefficients and cross-classifications were used to assess the reliability of I-FFQ. Spearman correlation coefficients, percentage difference and cross-classifications were used to assess the validity of I-FFQ. A logistic regression model was used to assess the relation of selected variables with the estimate of validity. Analyses based on information in the PFDs were performed to assess how participants interpreted food groups. Results: Reliability correlation coefficients ranged from 0.37 to 0.78 and gross misclassification for all food groups was <5%. Validity correlation coefficients were below 0.5 for 22/23 food groups, and they differed among country sites. For validity, gross misclassification was <5% for 22/23 food groups. Over- or underestimation did not appear for 19/23 food groups. Logistic regression showed that country of participation and parental education were associated (P⩽0.05) with the validity of I-FFQ. Analyses of children's interpretation of food groups suggested that the meaning of most food groups was understood by the children. Conclusion: I-FFQ is a

  15. "Balancing Acts": Elementary School Girls' Negotiations of Femininity, Achievement, and Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, Louise; DeWitt, Jennifer; Osborne, Jonathan; Dillon, Justin; Willis, Beatrice; Wong, Billy

    2012-01-01

    There is international concern over persistent low rates of participation in postcompulsory science--especially the physical sciences--within which there is a notable underrepresentation of girls/women. This paper draws on data collected from a survey of more than 9,000 10/11-year-old pupils and 170 interviews (with 92 children and 78 parents)…

  16. Correlates of Total Sedentary Time and Screen Time in 9–11 Year-Old Children around the World: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Allana G.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Church, Timothy S.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Harrington, Deirdre M.; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previously, studies examining correlates of sedentary behavior have been limited by small sample size, restricted geographic area, and little socio-cultural variability. Further, few studies have examined correlates of total sedentary time (SED) and screen time (ST) in the same population. This study aimed to investigate correlates of SED and ST in children around the world. Methods The sample included 5,844 children (45.6% boys, mean age = 10.4 years) from study sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Child- and parent-reported behavioral, household, and neighborhood characteristics and directly measured anthropometric and accelerometer data were obtained. Twenty-one potential correlates of SED and ST were examined using multilevel models, adjusting for sex, age, and highest parental education, with school and study site as random effects. Variables that were moderately associated with SED and/or ST in univariate analyses (p<0.10) were included in the final models. Variables that remained significant in the final models (p<0.05) were considered correlates of SED and/or ST. Results Children averaged 8.6 hours of daily SED, and 54.2% of children failed to meet ST guidelines. In all study sites, boys reported higher ST, were less likely to meet ST guidelines, and had higher BMI z-scores than girls. In 9 of 12 sites, girls engaged in significantly more SED than boys. Common correlates of higher SED and ST included poor weight status, not meeting physical activity guidelines, and having a TV or a computer in the bedroom. Conclusions In this global sample many common correlates of SED and ST were identified, some of which are easily modifiable (e.g., removing TV from the bedroom), and others that may require more intense behavioral interventions (e.g., increasing physical activity). Future work should incorporate these findings into the development of

  17. Lupus catatonia in a young girl who presented with fever and altered sensorium.

    PubMed

    Ali, Alia; Taj, Azeem; -Uz-Zehra, Misbah

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of 20 Years old girl who presented with catatonia resulting from cerebral lupus. There are few cases of catatonia being described in Systemic Lupus Erythmatoses (SLE). The patient presented to us with fever and altered sensorium. She was initially treated on lines of Acute Bacterial Meningitis/encephalitis but lumbar puncture examination and CT scan showed no evidence of these conditions. Patient's behavior was also not improved after this treatment and she further deteriorated in the sense that she exhibited mutism, negativism and psychosocial withdrawal. Psychiatric analysis was done and she was found to be having catatonia and on further investigation came out to be a case of SLE. Keeping in mind her previous history of joint pains, oral ulcers and alopecia her autoimmune profile such as ANA and dsDNA was done that came out to be positive. Patient responded to treatment with steroids, Hyroxychloroquine and azathioprine in addition to clonazepam and fluoxetine for her catatonic behavior. Thus this case history illustrates the importance of considering organic disease in patients presenting with catatonia.

  18. A 12-year-old girl presenting with bilateral gigantic Burkitt's lymphoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Lingohr, Philipp; Eidt, Sebastian; Rheinwalt, Karl Peter

    2009-05-01

    The female breast rarely constitutes the primary localization for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The incidence of primary breast lymphoma (PBL) lies between 0.04 and 1.1% for all breast tumors and 1.7-2.2% for all extranodal NHL. Mostly it occurs during the child-bearing period, during pregnancy or lactation. In general, children between the ages of 8 and 10 years are most frequently affected by Burkitt's lymphoma. Methods for classification, detection and especially treatment of this condition continue being a subject of discussions and research. We present and evaluate the rare case of a 12-year-old girl with bilateral gigantic breast tumors treated during a surgical mission with "Doctors without borders" (MSF, "médecins sans frontiers") in the zone of civil war in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The monstrous bilateral breast hypertrophy, symmetrical, rapidly growing, consequently ulcerating and severely bleeding had to be treated by bilateral mastectomy as a salvage procedure. Examinations through histopathology was not feasible and other facilities like ultrasound, CT, MRI and further laboratory examinations were not available.. The patient died 27 days after the surgical procedure. The histological result received by later examination in Germany showed a bilateral high malignant B cell lymphoma (Burkitt lymphoma) of the breast.

  19. Early Puberty in African-American Girls: Nutrition Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talpade, Medha; Talpade, Salil

    2001-01-01

    Early sexual maturation is associated with many high-risk behaviors and a prediction was made that food consumption may contribute to early onset of puberty. A comparison was made between the eating habits of several generations of African-American women. Girls today were found to consume more calcium, grains, and meat then older women did in…

  20. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the new Nordic diet and on packed lunches: a randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Anne V; Lassen, Anne D; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Christensen, Lene M; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare total food intake, total and relative edible plate waste and self-reported food likings between school lunch based on the new Nordic diet (NND) and packed lunch from home. In two 3-month periods in a cluster-randomised controlled unblinded cross-over study 3rd- and 4th-grade children (n 187) from two municipal schools received lunch meals based on NND principles and their usual packed lunch (control). Food intake and plate waste (n 1558) were calculated after weighing lunch plates before and after the meal for five consecutive days and self-reported likings (n 905) assessed by a web-based questionnaire. Average food intake was 6 % higher for the NND period compared with the packed lunch period. The quantity of NND intake varied with the menu (P < 0·0001) and was positively associated with self-reported likings. The edible plate waste was 88 (sd 80) g for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P < 0·0001), with more waste on soup days (36 %) and vegetarian days (23 %) compared with the packed lunch period. Self-reported likings were negatively associated with percentage plate waste (P < 0·0001). The study suggests that portion sizes need to be considered in new school meal programmes. New strategies with focus on reduction of plate waste, children's likings and nutritious school meals are crucial from both a nutritional, economic and environmental point of view. PMID:26097703

  1. Plate waste and intake of school lunch based on the new Nordic diet and on packed lunches: a randomised controlled trial in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children.

    PubMed

    Thorsen, Anne V; Lassen, Anne D; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Christensen, Lene M; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare total food intake, total and relative edible plate waste and self-reported food likings between school lunch based on the new Nordic diet (NND) and packed lunch from home. In two 3-month periods in a cluster-randomised controlled unblinded cross-over study 3rd- and 4th-grade children (n 187) from two municipal schools received lunch meals based on NND principles and their usual packed lunch (control). Food intake and plate waste (n 1558) were calculated after weighing lunch plates before and after the meal for five consecutive days and self-reported likings (n 905) assessed by a web-based questionnaire. Average food intake was 6 % higher for the NND period compared with the packed lunch period. The quantity of NND intake varied with the menu (P < 0·0001) and was positively associated with self-reported likings. The edible plate waste was 88 (sd 80) g for the NND period and 43 (sd 60) g for the packed lunch period whereas the relative edible plate waste was no different between periods for meals having waste (n 1050). Edible plate waste differed between menus (P < 0·0001), with more waste on soup days (36 %) and vegetarian days (23 %) compared with the packed lunch period. Self-reported likings were negatively associated with percentage plate waste (P < 0·0001). The study suggests that portion sizes need to be considered in new school meal programmes. New strategies with focus on reduction of plate waste, children's likings and nutritious school meals are crucial from both a nutritional, economic and environmental point of view.

  2. Investigating Persuasive Writing by 9-11 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Roger; Burrell, Andrew; Homer, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Within research into children's persuasive writing, relatively little work has been done on the writing of advertisements, how such writing develops in the primary school years and the textual features that help to secure this development. Framed within rhetoric, writing and linguistics, an exploratory study was undertaken in which a standardised…

  3. An exploratory study of the effectiveness of group narrative therapy on the school behavior of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms.

    PubMed

    Looyeh, Majid Yoosefi; Kamali, Khosrow; Shafieian, Roya

    2012-10-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of group narrative therapy for improving the school behavior of a small sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Fourteen clinics referred 9- to 11-year-old girls with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD were randomly assigned to treatment and wait-list control groups. Posttreatment ratings by teachers showed that narrative therapy had a significant effect on reducing ADHD symptoms 1 week after completion of treatment and sustained after 30 days. PMID:22999036

  4. Menarche? A Case of Abdominal Pain and Vaginal Bleeding in a Preadolescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Riney, Lauren C; Reed, Jennifer L; Kruger, Laura L; Brody, Alan J; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2015-11-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints in the pediatric ED. Because of the broad range of potential diagnoses, it can pose challenges in diagnosis and therapy in the preadolescent girl. An 11-year-old previously healthy girl presented to our pediatric ED with fever, decreased appetite, vaginal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Initial evaluation yielded elevated creatinine levels, leukocytosis with bandemia, elevated inflammatory markers, and urine concerning for a urinary tract infection. She began receiving antibiotics for presumed pyelonephritis and was admitted to the hospital. After worsening respiratory status and continued abdominal pain, a computed tomography scan was obtained and a pelvic foreign body and abscess were identified. Adolescent gynecology was consulted for examination under anesthesia for abscess drainage and foreign body removal. A foreign body in the vagina or uterus can present as vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, dysuria, or hematuria. Because symptoms can be diverse, an intravaginal or uterine foreign body should be considered in the preteen female patient presenting to the ED with abdominal pain. PMID:26169928

  5. Clinical Reasoning: a girl presenting with stiffness episodes during sleep, cafe-au-lait spots, and flecked retina.

    PubMed

    Moavero, Romina; Cusmai, Raffaella; Roberti, Maria Cristina; Vigevano, Federico; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-01-29

    A 4-year-old girl who had been born of normal pregnancy and delivery and had an unremarkable family or personal history was referred to a neuropsychiatric department because of the appearance of peculiar nocturnal episodes. Parents described that their child abruptly became stiff during sleep. These episodes usually ranged from 20 to 40 seconds, and after that the child continued to sleep. Initially she presented 1 episode per week, but there was a progressive increase in frequency up to 3 to 4 times per night. The child never presented similar episodes while awake. Her examination revealed some café-au-lait spots, congenital microcephaly (3rd centile) and low stature for the age (10th centile). She did not present any neurologic deficit, but she failed to develop an age-appropriate speech, with a delay in the main language milestones.

  6. Gorham-Stout syndrome presenting in a 5-year-old girl with a successful bisphosphonate therapeutic effect

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, MIN-WEN; YANG, MIN; QIU, JIAN-XIN; NAN, XUE-PING; HUANG, LU-YU; ZHANG, WEN-DONG; GONG, LI; HUANG, ZHI-ZHONG

    2012-01-01

    Gorham-Stout syndrome (GSS), also known as Gorham-Stout disease, massive osteolysis, disappearing bone disease or phantom bone, is a rare disorder of the musculo-skeletal system. It most commonly involves the skull, shoulder and pelvic girdle. Histological examination reveals a progressive osteolysis always associated with an angiomatosis of blood vessels and sometimes of lymphatics, which seemingly is responsible for the destruction of the bone. It is extremely rare that Gorham-Stout syndrome involves the bones of the entire body. A 5-year-old girl complaining of intermittent and dull back pain for 3 months was admitted to a local hospital. X-ray revealed left pleural effusion, and the patient was diagnosed with tuberculous pleurisy. Thus, anti-tuberculosis therapy was performed. However, it was not effective. A soft mass with significant tenderness was found in the upper segment of the right leg 50 days afterwards. X-ray revealed multiple osteolysis of the bilateral clavicle, scapula, rib, vertebral body, ilium, sacrum, femur and tibia. The biopsy from the right tibia disclosed that the lesion was composed of hyperplastic blood vessels and fibrous tissues similar to hemangioma. Based on the above clinical, radiological and histopathological findings, the clinical physician confirmed a diagnosis of Gorham-Stout disease, and prescribed oral anti-osteoclastic medications consisting of bisphosphonates. At present, the girl is alive and healthy, and new lesions have not been noted. PMID:23181116

  7. Uterine sarcoma in a 14 year-old girl presenting with uterine rupture.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Jane; Dülger, Özlem; Küpelioğlu, Latif; Gönenç, Ali İhsan; Erşahin, Aynur

    2014-12-01

    •Uterine sarcomas are rare in adolescents. Adenosarcomas are even more rare. Uterine rupture, as a presentation is a rare entity.•It is hard to diagnose sarcomas preoperatively. It is still hard even postoperatively due to variable morphologic features.•Experience of the gynecopathologists and oncologic surgeons is the hallmark of the treatment option.

  8. Atrial Fibrillation and Long QT Syndrome Presenting in a 12-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Knoche, Jonathan W; Orland, Kate M; January, Craig T; Maginot, Kathleen R

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is rare in the pediatric population; however, there is increasing recognition that AF can be inherited. Long QT syndrome (LQTS), likewise, can be both acquired and inherited with mutations leading to abnormalities in cardiac ion channel function. Mutations in KCNQ1 are the most common cause of LQTS. Although rare, mutations in KCNQ1 also can cause familial AF. This report describes a child with a KCNQ1 missense mutation who uniquely expresses concomitant AF and LQTS. Due to the potential for increased morbidity and mortality, young patients who present with AF and a family history suggestive of inherited arrhythmias should trigger further investigation for LQTS and subsequent familial genetic counseling. PMID:23193492

  9. Atrial Fibrillation and Long QT Syndrome Presenting in a 12-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Knoche, Jonathan W.; Orland, Kate M.; January, Craig T.; Maginot, Kathleen R.

    2012-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is rare in the pediatric population; however, there is increasing recognition that AF can be inherited. Long QT syndrome (LQTS), likewise, can be both acquired and inherited with mutations leading to abnormalities in cardiac ion channel function. Mutations in KCNQ1 are the most common cause of LQTS. Although rare, mutations in KCNQ1 also can cause familial AF. This report describes a child with a KCNQ1 missense mutation who uniquely expresses concomitant AF and LQTS. Due to the potential for increased morbidity and mortality, young patients who present with AF and a family history suggestive of inherited arrhythmias should trigger further investigation for LQTS and subsequent familial genetic counseling. PMID:23193492

  10. Pubertal development, physical self-perception, and motivation toward physical activity in girls.

    PubMed

    Labbrozzi, Dina; Robazza, Claudio; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bucci, Ines; Bortoli, Laura

    2013-08-01

    We examined the differences in physical self-perception and motivation toward physical activity in early- and mid-adolescent girls. Body Mass Index (BMI) and pubertal status, assessed by means of the Tanner scale, were collected in 11-year-old (n=74) and 13-year-old girls (n=60). The assessment included six scales from the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale, and the Situational Intrinsic Motivation Scale. Age differences emerged, with older girls showing a poorer physical perception and lower scores in intrinsic motivation and enjoyment of physical activity. In the subsample of 11-year-olds, findings showed that more developed girls reported a poorer physical perception on the scales of body fat, global physical self-concept, and appearance, and a lower score in the PACES positive scale. Results underscore the need to promote interventions aimed at encouraging active lifestyles among children and adolescent girls, in order to prevent overweight prior to pubertal onset.

  11. Knowledge and Perceptions of HPV and the HPV Vaccine among Pre-adolescent Girls and Their Guardians in Georgetown, Guyana

    PubMed Central

    Tyrell, E; Ramsammy-Boyce, K

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To examine the knowledge and perceptions of 11-year old girls and their guardians toward the human papillomavirus (HPV), HPV (mandatory) vaccination and cervical cancer and to determine their main sources of health information. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done by interviewing two separate study populations ie 11-year old girls from five primary schools in Georgetown and their guardians. Questions were designed to assess level of knowledge as well as perceptions about mandatory vaccination and sources of health information. Results: A total of 87 girls participated, of whom 10 (11%) had already received the HPV vaccine. Overall, when asked whether they knew of HPV, the HPV vaccine, cervical cancer or the Pap smear, more than half of the girls, in every instance, did not know. Seventy-four guardians took part and most (> 80%) of them claimed that they knew about these parameters except for HPV transmission (40%) and the cause of cervical cancer (30%). Both girls and guardians responded poorly to questions about the detection of cervical cancer. Furthermore, only two of the 14 girls who stated that they knew how HPV was transmitted, actually answered correctly that it was sexual transmission. Girls were almost twice as likely to be in favour of mandatory vaccination as guardians (OR 1.8, 95% CI: 0.9, 3.6) but the difference was not significant (p > 0.05). The girls indicated health centres/clinics (58%), whilst TV/radio (66%) was the preference for the guardians as their most popular health information sources. Conclusions: These findings point to a necessity for educational programmes and activities in which children and their guardians can meaningfully participate and be informed about the different aspects of HPV vaccination. PMID:26035815

  12. Reaching Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charlotte E.; Kuriloff, Peter J.; Cox, Amanda B.

    2014-01-01

    If educators want to engage girls in learning, they must align teaching practices with girls' specific needs. In a study modeled after Reichert and Hawley's study of boys, the authors learned that lessons with hands-on learning, elements of creativity, multimodal projects, and class discussions all worked to stimulate girls'…

  13. Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8-11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke Agnete; Egelund, Niels; Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Stark, Ken D; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim Fleisher; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-11-28

    Fe and n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) have both been associated with cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in well-nourished school-aged children. In the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, the 3-month intervention increased reading performance, inattention, impulsivity and dietary intake of fish and Fe. This study investigated whether the intervention influenced n-3 LCPUFA and Fe status and, if so, explored how these changes correlated with the changes in cognitive performance. The study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial comparing school meals with packed lunch (control). At baseline and after each treatment, we measured serum ferritin, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA and Hb, and performance in reading, mathematics and d2-test of attention. Data were analysed using mixed models (n 726) and principal component analysis of test performances (n 644), which showed two main patterns: 'school performance' and 'reading comprehension'. The latter indicated that children with good reading comprehension were also more inattentive and impulsive (i.e. higher d2-test error%). The intervention improved 'school performance' (P=0·015), 'reading comprehension' (P=0·043) and EPA+DHA status 0·21 (95% CI 0·15, 0·27) w/w % (P<0·001), but it did not affect serum ferritin or Hb. At baseline, having small Fe stores was associated with poorer 'school performance' in girls, but with better 'reading comprehension' in both boys and girls. Both baseline EPA+DHA status and the intervention-induced increase in EPA+DHA status was positively associated with 'school performance', suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA could potentially explain approximately 20 % of the intervention effect. These exploratory associations indicate that increased fish intake might explain some of the increase in reading performance and inattention in the study.

  14. Diet-induced changes in iron and n-3 fatty acid status and associations with cognitive performance in 8-11-year-old Danish children: secondary analyses of the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet School Meal Study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Louise Bergmann; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke Agnete; Egelund, Niels; Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Stark, Ken D; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim Fleisher; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2015-11-28

    Fe and n-3 long-chain PUFA (n-3 LCPUFA) have both been associated with cognition, but evidence remains inconclusive in well-nourished school-aged children. In the Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study, the 3-month intervention increased reading performance, inattention, impulsivity and dietary intake of fish and Fe. This study investigated whether the intervention influenced n-3 LCPUFA and Fe status and, if so, explored how these changes correlated with the changes in cognitive performance. The study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial comparing school meals with packed lunch (control). At baseline and after each treatment, we measured serum ferritin, whole-blood n-3 LCPUFA and Hb, and performance in reading, mathematics and d2-test of attention. Data were analysed using mixed models (n 726) and principal component analysis of test performances (n 644), which showed two main patterns: 'school performance' and 'reading comprehension'. The latter indicated that children with good reading comprehension were also more inattentive and impulsive (i.e. higher d2-test error%). The intervention improved 'school performance' (P=0·015), 'reading comprehension' (P=0·043) and EPA+DHA status 0·21 (95% CI 0·15, 0·27) w/w % (P<0·001), but it did not affect serum ferritin or Hb. At baseline, having small Fe stores was associated with poorer 'school performance' in girls, but with better 'reading comprehension' in both boys and girls. Both baseline EPA+DHA status and the intervention-induced increase in EPA+DHA status was positively associated with 'school performance', suggesting that n-3 LCPUFA could potentially explain approximately 20 % of the intervention effect. These exploratory associations indicate that increased fish intake might explain some of the increase in reading performance and inattention in the study. PMID:26359192

  15. Strength Training for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  16. Unilateral optic neuritis as a presentation of neurobrucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Rita; Martins, Cristina; Machado, Inês; Monteiro, José Paulo; Campos, Nuno; Calhau, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Neurobrucellosis manifesting as optic neuritis is a rare disease in childhood. We report a case of neurobrucellosis in a 11 year old girl leading to visual impairment and headache. Physical examination revealed mild oedema of right tibiotarsic joint and optic neuritis. Investigations showed CSF pleocytosis and a Brucella serum agglutination titer of 1/640. Complete reversal of the symptoms was observed after appropriate antibiotic treatment. To our knowledge only four cases of neurobrucellosis manifesting with visual impairment in childhood are previously reported in literature. PMID:21772948

  17. Gifted Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drum, Jean, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This journal issue focuses on the theme of the education of gifted female students. This document consists of the five articles devoted to this subject. The lead article by Carolyn M. Callahan, titled "How Schools Shortchange Girls: Implications for Parents and Educators of Gifted Girls," discusses the development of gender roles, the experiences…

  18. Acute abducens nerve palsy as a presenting feature in carotid-cavernous fistula in a 6-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Neelam; Ramakrishanan, R.; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF) are abnormal communications between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulae are rare potential complications of craniofacial trauma. Typical findings of CCF are proptosis, chemosis, headache, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, trigeminal pain and pulsating bruit over the temporal skull and the bulb. CCF are reported very rarely in childhood. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a pediatric patient presented with CCF.

  19. Acute abducens nerve palsy as a presenting feature in carotid-cavernous fistula in a 6-year-old girl

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Neelam; Ramakrishanan, R.; Maheshwari, Devendra; Ravindran, Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCF) are abnormal communications between the internal carotid artery and the cavernous sinus. Traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulae are rare potential complications of craniofacial trauma. Typical findings of CCF are proptosis, chemosis, headache, oculomotor or abducens nerve palsy, trigeminal pain and pulsating bruit over the temporal skull and the bulb. CCF are reported very rarely in childhood. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a pediatric patient presented with CCF. PMID:27625935

  20. Attracting Girls to Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandow, Barbara; Marks, Ann; Borg, Anne

    2009-04-01

    In most countries the number of girls studying physics, as well female physicists in academic positions, is still low. Active recruitment at all levels is essential to change this situation. In some countries a large proportion of students are female, but career progression is difficult. Highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications is a major approach in attracting girls to physics. This paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from the workshop, Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the Third IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, Seoul, 2008.

  1. The importance of recognizing paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction: A case report of a 13-year-old girl presenting with stridor

    PubMed Central

    Seaberg, Raewyn M; Allegro, Jennifer; Friedman, Jeremy N; Campisi, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The present report details the case of a 13-year-old girl who presented to the emergency department with stridor. Treatment for presumed reactive airway disease was attempted with antibiotics, nebulized adrenaline masks and high-dose corticosteroids. Over the next month, she presented repeatedly in a similar fashion and was admitted to hospital on three separate occasions. Ultimately, she was referred to the Centre for Paediatric Voice and Laryngeal Function at The Hospital for Sick Children (Toronto, Ontario) for a speech-language pathology evaluation and direct laryngoscopy. The patient was diagnosed with paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction. After a brief treatment session with a speech-language pathologist, her stridor completely resolved and paradoxical inspiratory vocal fold adduction was no longer visualized on direct laryngoscopy. The present case highlights the fact that paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction can mimic other entities that present with stridor, and misdiagnosis can result in significant morbidity. Investigation into a patient’s social history and stressors can facilitate the diagnosis, and can avoid unnecessary and potentially harmful medical and surgical interventions. PMID:19436501

  2. Bowel perforation presenting with acute abdominal pain and subcutaneous emphysema in a 14-year-old girl with an abandoned distal peritoneal shunt catheter: case report.

    PubMed

    Riccardello, Gerald J; Barr, Luke K; Bassani, Luigi

    2016-09-01

    The authors report the case of 14-year-old girl with a history of myelomeningocele and previously shunt-treated hydrocephalus who presented with right-sided abdominal pain and subcutaneous emphysema that developed over a 1-week period. A CT scan of the patient's abdomen revealed a retained distal ventriculoperitoneal (VP) catheter with air tracking from the catheter to the upper chest wall. Given the high suspicion of the catheter being intraluminal, an exploratory laparotomy was performed and revealed multiple jejunal perforations. The patient required a partial small-bowel resection and reanastomosis for complete removal of the retained catheter. Six other similar cases of bowel perforation occurring in patients with abandoned VP and subdural-peritoneal shunts have been reported. The authors analyzed these cases with regard to age of presentation, symptomatic presentation, management, morbidity, and mortality. While there was 0% mortality associated with bowel perforation secondary to a retained distal VP catheter, the morbidity was significantly high and included peritonitis and small bowel resection.

  3. A girl with permanent neonatal diabetes due to KCNJ11 mutation presented with Mauriac syndrome after improper adjustment in sulfonylurea dosage over 6 years.

    PubMed

    Chai-Udom, Rapeepun; Sahakitrungruang, Taninee; Wacharasindhu, Suttipong; Supornsilchai, Vichit

    2016-09-01

    Mauriac syndrome is characterized by growth impairment, Cushingoid features, and hepatomegaly in patients with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We report a novel presentation of Mauriac syndrome in a 9-year-old girl who was diagnosed with neonatal diabetes at 3 months of age due to the p.R201C mutation in KCNJ11. She was initially treated successfully with glipizide at a dose of 0.85 mg/kg/day but after being lost to follow-up and having improper adjustment in dose over many years, the recent dose of 0.6 mg/kg/day appears to have been insufficient for glycemic control but enough to maintain a low level of C-peptide and prevent diabetic ketoacidosis. With proper insulin administration, all presenting clinical characteristics were resolved within 1 month. A review of the literature relating to clinical manifestations of Mauriac syndrome in children with diabetes was performed and included in this report for comparison with our patient. While Mauriac syndrome has been traditionally associated with T1DM, the presence of Mauriac syndrome should not be excluded in other types of diabetes mellitus.

  4. Individual, family, and neighborhood correlates of independent mobility among 7 to 11-year-olds

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Ian; Ferrao, Thomas; King, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Independent mobility refers to the freedom that children have to move around their neighborhood without adult supervision. It is related to their physical activity and health. We examined the intrapersonal, family, and neighborhood correlates of independent mobility within children. Methods. 497 American parents of 6.9–11.9 year olds completed a survey (November, 2014) that assessed their child's independent mobility range, several intrapersonal characteristics of their child (gender, age, race, etc.), several characteristics of their family (family structure, socioeconomic status, parental physical activity, etc.), and their perceptions of the safety of their neighborhood (18 questions reduced to 4 components). Associations were determined using ordinal logistic regression. Results. Children's age, parent's perception that their neighborhood is safe for children, and parent's fear of neighborhood crime were the independent correlates of independent mobility. Compared to 6.9–7.9 year olds, the odds ratio (95% CI) for increasing independent mobility were 2.31 (1.47–3.64) in 8.0–9.9 year olds and 3.38 (2.13–5.36) in 10.0–11.9 year olds. Compared to children whose parents who did not perceive that their neighborhood was safe for children, the odds ratio for increasing independent mobility was 4.24 (2.68–6.70) for children whose parents perceived their neighborhood was safe for children. Compared to children whose parents had the lowest fear of neighborhood crime, the odds ratio for increasing independent mobility was 0.41 (0.27–0.62) for children whose parents had the highest fear of crime. Conclusions. Children's independent mobility was associated with their age, their parent's perception that their neighborhood was safe for children, and their parent's fear of crime. PMID:26844195

  5. Motor Coordination Dynamics Underlying Graphic Motion in 7- to 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danna, Jeremy; Enderli, Fabienne; Athenes, Sylvie; Zanone, Pier-Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Using concepts and tools of a dynamical system approach in order to understand motor coordination underlying graphomotor skills, the aim of the current study was to establish whether the basic coordination dynamics found in adults is already established in children at elementary school, when handwriting is trained and eventually acquired. In the…

  6. Psychostimulant and Other Effects of Caffeine in 9- to 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heatherley, Susan V.; Hancock, Katie M. F.; Rogers, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Recent research on adults suggests that "beneficial" psychostimulant effects of caffeine are found only in the context of caffeine deprivation; that is, caffeine improves psychomotor and cognitive performance in habitual caffeine consumers following caffeine withdrawal. Furthermore, no net benefit is gained because performance is…

  7. Easy Growth Experiment on Peas Stimulates Interest in Biology for 10-11 Year Old Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    How do we support the enthusiasm children show for biology in school? Unfortunately, lack of exciting practical work and boring biology lessons seem to make science less popular. As a senior lecturer in plant physiology at Karlstad University I have simplified experiments intended for students at university and then tested them on 10-11 year old…

  8. Individual, family, and neighborhood correlates of independent mobility among 7 to 11-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ian; Ferrao, Thomas; King, Nathan

    2016-06-01

    Objective. Independent mobility refers to the freedom that children have to move around their neighborhood without adult supervision. It is related to their physical activity and health. We examined the intrapersonal, family, and neighborhood correlates of independent mobility within children. Methods. 497 American parents of 6.9-11.9 year olds completed a survey (November, 2014) that assessed their child's independent mobility range, several intrapersonal characteristics of their child (gender, age, race, etc.), several characteristics of their family (family structure, socioeconomic status, parental physical activity, etc.), and their perceptions of the safety of their neighborhood (18 questions reduced to 4 components). Associations were determined using ordinal logistic regression. Results. Children's age, parent's perception that their neighborhood is safe for children, and parent's fear of neighborhood crime were the independent correlates of independent mobility. Compared to 6.9-7.9 year olds, the odds ratio (95% CI) for increasing independent mobility were 2.31 (1.47-3.64) in 8.0-9.9 year olds and 3.38 (2.13-5.36) in 10.0-11.9 year olds. Compared to children whose parents who did not perceive that their neighborhood was safe for children, the odds ratio for increasing independent mobility was 4.24 (2.68-6.70) for children whose parents perceived their neighborhood was safe for children. Compared to children whose parents had the lowest fear of neighborhood crime, the odds ratio for increasing independent mobility was 0.41 (0.27-0.62) for children whose parents had the highest fear of crime. Conclusions. Children's independent mobility was associated with their age, their parent's perception that their neighborhood was safe for children, and their parent's fear of crime.

  9. Disruptive Behavior and School Grades: Genetic and Environmental Relations in 11-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G.

    2005-01-01

    Disruptive behavior may be associated with poor academic achievement due to covariance with attention problems and low IQ. Evidence is based on clinical samples and on associations between problem behaviors in young children and later achievement difficulties. The contemporaneous relations and their genetic and environmental influences have not…

  10. Meaning-Making with Colour in Multimodal Texts: An 11-Year-Old Student's Purposeful "Doing"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Colour, a visual element of art and design, is a semiotic mode that is used strategically by sign-makers to communicate meaning. Understanding the meaning-making potential of colour can enhance students' understanding, appreciation, interpretation and composition of multimodal texts. This article features a case study of Anya, an 11-year-old…

  11. Turtle Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Charles; Ponder, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The day the Turtle Girls received Montel's adoption papers, piercing screams ricocheted across the school grounds instantaneously and simultaneously--in that moment, each student felt the joy of civic stewardship. Read on to find out how a visit to The Turtle Hospital inspired a group of elementary students to create a club devoted to supporting…

  12. Imaging Girls: Visual Methodologies and Messages for Girls' Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magno, Cathryn; Kirk, Jackie

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the use of visual methodologies to examine images of girls used by development agencies to portray and promote their work in girls' education, and provides a detailed discussion of three report cover images. It details the processes of methodology and tool development for the visual analysis and presents initial 'readings'…

  13. Attracting girls to physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Anne; Sui, Manling

    2013-03-01

    Large regional differences remain in the number of girls studying physics and the number of female physicists in academic positions. While many countries struggle with attracting female students to university studies in physics, climbing the academic ladder is the main challenge for these women. Furthermore, for many female physicists the working climate is not very supportive. The workshop Attracting Girls to Physics, organized as part of the 4th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, South Africa 2011, addressed attitudes among education-seeking teenagers and approaches for attracting young girls to physics through successful recruitment plans, including highlighting the broad spectrum of career opportunities for those with physics qualifications. The current paper presents findings, examples of best practices, and recommendations resulting from this workshop.

  14. Age-related differences in actual and perceived levels of physical activity in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Labbrozzi, Dina; Bortoli, Laura; Bertollo, Maurizio; Bucci, Ines; Doria, Christian; Robazza, Claudio

    2012-06-01

    Age-related differences in actual and perceived physical activity were investigated in a sample of adolescent girls, also considering the relationship between physical activity and motor abilities. Self-reported physical activity was measured in 11-year-old (n=66) and 13-year-old (n=52) girls by means of the physical activity questionnaire-children form, and actual levels of activity were assessed by means of the Lifecorder uniaxial accelerometer. The Sit-and-Reach Test was employed to estimate flexibility, while lower limb strength was measured by squat jump and counter-movement jump tests. Weight and height were measured, and sex-specific age-related body mass index cutoff points were used to identify overweight and obesity. Findings showed a drop in objective vigorous physical activity in older girls, which was also reflected in the physical activity questionnaire. Contrary to expectations, no association was found between motor abilities and measured physical activity. Results highlight the need to understand the reasons why girls progressively reduce their involvement in physical activity as they get older, so as to plan interventions aimed at preventing this decline.

  15. What about the Girls?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Rebecca Priegert

    2012-01-01

    Aggregated test results that identify the literacy problems of boys as the most salient gender issue in schools distort the reality that girls experience significant gender-based challenges as well, though their problems may not present as clearly on standardized tests. This emphasis on boys' difficulties has moved educational resources in that…

  16. Attracting Girls Into Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosny, Hala M.; Kahil, Heba M.

    2005-10-01

    From our national statistics, it is evident that in the population of physicists there are considerably fewer women than men. Our role is to attract girls to physics and thus decrease this gap. The institutional structure in Egypt provides an equal opportunity for girls to study sciences, including physics. It is reckoned that girls refrain from studying physics due to a group of social and economic factors. We will discuss teaching physics at schools and present some ideas to develop it. The media should play a role in placing female physicists in the spotlight. Unfortunately, careers that require intellectual skills are considered men's careers. This necessitates that society changes the way it sees women and trusts more in their skills and talents. We therefore call for the cooperation of governmental and nongovernmental bodies, together with universities and the production sectors involved. This will ultimately lead to enhancing the entrepreneurial projects related to physics and technology on the one hand, and will encourage girls to find challenging opportunities on the other.

  17. A Girl Like You

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a profile of author Gilda O'Neill and a description of how she became a writer. She left school at 15 after being told by a teacher that "girls like her" never became writers. Now a best-selling author, she hopes her work will inspire others to regain the love of learning they lost at school. She always knew that stories…

  18. Girls' Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Larry; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to boys' bullying behavior which is often overt and easily visible, girls' aggression is usually indirect and covert. Less research has been conducted on the types of bullying that girls usually engage in. Using focus groups composed of teenaged girls, Dr. Owens and colleagues examine the nature of teenage girls' indirect aggression.

  19. Preadolescent Violence among Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Wanda

    2010-01-01

    This research study explored preadolescent girl-to-girl violence based on the perceptions of the victim at 14 years of age and those of her family. Using a heuristic research design (Moustakas, 1990), this constant comparative analysis of multiple data sources found (a) a clearly delineated progression of girl-to-girl violence, (b) blindness…

  20. A girl with tuberous sclerosis complex presenting with severe epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus during sleep, and with high-functioning autism and mutism.

    PubMed

    Pacheva, Iliyana; Panov, Georgi; Gillberg, Christopher; Neville, Brian

    2014-06-01

    Most patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) suffer from epilepsy, and many have cognitive and behavioral problems like severe intellectual disability, autism, and hyperactivity. Only rare patients with TSC and autism have a normal intelligence quotient. We report a 13-year-old girl with definite TSC who had early-onset severe epilepsy, autistic behavior, and moderate developmental delay. By school age, however, she had normal intelligence; her intelligence quotient was at least 70 based on a Stanford-Binet test that she refused to complete. She showed good reading, writing, and language comprehension skills, and the special abilities of hyperlexia, hypermnesia, and hypercalculia. However, she did not speak. Criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and her Childhood Autism Rating Scale score of 36 indicated mild to moderate autism. She had severe electroencephalographic abnormalities: hypsarrhythmia, multifocal or generalized epileptiform discharges, and electrical status epilepticus during sleep, with a continuous left temporal focus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed many cortical tubers in all brain lobes, and subependymal nodules. We discuss possible explanations for her lack of speech. Considered as speech apraxia, her mutism could be either a symptom of her TSC or a component of her autism. Another possibility is that long-lasting electrical status epilepticus during sleep led to her autistic behavior and language arrest. Still another possibility is that a disinhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was at the root of all of her neuropsychiatric symptoms. PMID:24968009

  1. A girl with tuberous sclerosis complex presenting with severe epilepsy and electrical status epilepticus during sleep, and with high-functioning autism and mutism.

    PubMed

    Pacheva, Iliyana; Panov, Georgi; Gillberg, Christopher; Neville, Brian

    2014-06-01

    Most patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) suffer from epilepsy, and many have cognitive and behavioral problems like severe intellectual disability, autism, and hyperactivity. Only rare patients with TSC and autism have a normal intelligence quotient. We report a 13-year-old girl with definite TSC who had early-onset severe epilepsy, autistic behavior, and moderate developmental delay. By school age, however, she had normal intelligence; her intelligence quotient was at least 70 based on a Stanford-Binet test that she refused to complete. She showed good reading, writing, and language comprehension skills, and the special abilities of hyperlexia, hypermnesia, and hypercalculia. However, she did not speak. Criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and her Childhood Autism Rating Scale score of 36 indicated mild to moderate autism. She had severe electroencephalographic abnormalities: hypsarrhythmia, multifocal or generalized epileptiform discharges, and electrical status epilepticus during sleep, with a continuous left temporal focus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed many cortical tubers in all brain lobes, and subependymal nodules. We discuss possible explanations for her lack of speech. Considered as speech apraxia, her mutism could be either a symptom of her TSC or a component of her autism. Another possibility is that long-lasting electrical status epilepticus during sleep led to her autistic behavior and language arrest. Still another possibility is that a disinhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was at the root of all of her neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  2. Dysosteosclerosis Presents as an “Osteoclast-Poor” Form of Osteopetrosis: Comprehensive Investigation of a 3-Year-Old Girl and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Michael P; Wenkert, Deborah; McAlister, William H; Novack, Deborah V; Nenninger, Angie R; Zhang, Xiafang; Huskey, Margaret; Mumm, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Dysosteosclerosis (DSS), an extremely rare dense bone disease, features short stature and fractures and sometimes optic atrophy, cranial nerve palsy, developmental delay, and failure of tooth eruption in infancy or early childhood consistent with osteopetrosis (OPT). Bone histology during childhood shows unresorbed primary spongiosa from deficient osteoclast action. Additionally, there is remarkable progressive flattening of all vertebrae and, by adolescence, paradoxical metaphyseal osteopenia with thin cortical bone. Reports of consanguinity indicate autosomal recessive inheritance, yet more affected males than females suggest X-linked recessive inheritance. We investigated a nonconsanguineous girl with DSS. Osteosclerosis was discovered at age 7 months. Our studies, spanning ages 11 to 44 months, showed weight at approximately 50th percentile, and length diminishing from approximately 30th percentile to –2.3 SD. Head circumference was +4 SD. The patient had frontal bossing, blue sclera, normal teeth, genu valgum, and unremarkable joints. Radiographs showed orbital and facial sclerosis, basilar thickening, bone-in-bone appearance of the pelvis, sclerotic long bone ends, and fractures of ribs and extremities. Progressive metaphyseal widening occurred as vertebrae changed from ovoid to flattened and became beaked anteriorly. A hemogram was normal. Consistent with OPT, serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations reflected dietary calcium levels. Serum bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and TRACP-5b were subnormal. The iliac crest contained excessive primary spongiosa and no osteoclasts. No mutations were identified in the splice sites or exons for the genes encoding chloride channel 7, T-cell immune regulator 1, OPT-associated transmembrane protein 1, and monocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and its receptor C-FMS, ANKH, OPG, RANK, and RANKL. Genomic copy-number microarray was unrevealing. Hence, DSS is a distinctive OPT of unknown etiology featuring

  3. Girls back off mathematics again: the views and experiences of girls in computer-based mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vale, Colleen

    2002-12-01

    The views and experiences of girls in two co-educational mathematics classrooms in which computers were regularly used were researched. Data were collected by observation and videotaping of lessons, questionnaire, and interviews of students and the teachers. In this paper case studies of six girls are presented. Their `stories' reveal a diversity of experiences and views and multiple gender identities. High achieving girls persisted as "outsiders within," other girls "backed off", and exceptional girls challenged gender stereotypes. Implications for social justice in mathematics in the age of the super highway are discussed.

  4. Girls and ADHD

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Article Body The fact that many more boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD—at a ratio of ... even when their symptoms are the same as boys’, and girls are less likely than boys to receive sufficient ...

  5. Girls and war: an extra vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Black, M

    1998-01-01

    It is no longer possible to consider the raping of girls as an isolated atrocity of war. In Uganda, guerrilla forces have kidnapped 6000-10,000 children and have forced the "most desirable" girls to become "wives" of warlords. Girls who manage to escape are deeply traumatized and suffer ill health as well as possible social ostracism. In refugee camps, recognition that adolescent girls face special risks of rape and of engaging in the informal prostitution that may expose them to HIV/AIDS has led to the introduction of new measures to increase female security. Families in refugee camps in Burundi and Somalia protect female honor by submitting their daughters to very early marriage, which also abuses the girls' rights. Girls conscripted to military groups are forced to transport materials, cook, or help loot villages. In conditions of war, even girls who remain at home protected by their families must assume extra responsibilities, especially if men go off to fight leaving women with the agricultural and livestock burdens. Girls will be the first children withdrawn from school to help keep the household afloat. Girls and women are also expected to tend those wounded by the very war that destroys the health care services that are vital to meet women's reproductive needs. Efforts are being made to identify rape as a specific war crime, and these efforts should be extended to the kidnapping and forced recruitment of children into combat roles. Moral codes must be reestablished, even if they are only nominal at present.

  6. [A girl with a cold foot].

    PubMed

    Rouwet, E V; Ten Raa, S; Verhagen, H J M

    2016-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl presented with a progressively cold, pale foot. Pedal pulses were absent and there was sensory and motor loss. CT angiography revealed a thromboembolic occlusion of the crural arteries and a popliteal artery entrapment. Following thromboembolectomy with popliteal artery patch angioplasty and release of the gastrocnemius muscle, the girl fully recovered.

  7. Girls Can! Community Coalitions Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Univ. Women Educational Foundation, Washington, DC.

    It is possible that the materials presented in this manual were used in implementing community action projects supported by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) Educational Foundation. These projects, part of the Girls Can! initiative, were intended to address the disparity between the educational experiences of girls and boys in…

  8. A Novel Frameshift Mutation of the ALDOB Gene in a Korean Girl Presenting with Recurrent Hepatitis Diagnosed as Hereditary Fructose Intolerance.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hae-Won; Lee, Yeoun Joo; Oh, Seak Hee; Kim, Kyung Mo; Ryu, Jeong-Min; Lee, Beom Hee; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Yoo, Han-Wook

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary fructose intolerance is an autosomal recessive disorder that is caused by a deficiency in fructose-1-phosphate aldolase (Aldolase B). Children can present with hypoglycemia, jaundice, elevated liver enzymes and hepatomegaly after intake of dietary fructose. Long-term intake of fructose in undiagnosed patients can result in hepatic failure or renal failure. We experienced a case of hereditary fructose intolerance presenting as recurrent hepatitis-like episodes. Detailed evaluation of her dietary habits revealed her avoidance of sweetened foods and fruits. Genetic analysis of ALDOB revealed that she is a homozygote for a novel frameshifting mutation c[758_759insT]+[758_759insT] (p.[val25 3fsX24]+[val253fsX24]). This report is the first of a Korean patient diagnosed with hereditary fructose intolerance using only molecular testing without undergoing intravenous fructose tolerance test or enzyme assay.

  9. A YOUNG GIRL WITH FITS.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Imran; Ahmed, Ejaz; Zaidi, Badshah Hussain; Ansari, Jawad Khaliq; Nisar, Shazia

    2015-01-01

    A young girl presented with fits vomiting and epigastric pain. Investigations including CT-Scan brain, MRI brain, MRV brain and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination were normal. Her urine was screened for porphobilinogen which was positive. She responded to intravenous dextrose and hypercaloric diet

  10. Girls' Bodies, Drama and Unruliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsay, Alison

    2014-01-01

    This article examines some of the performance outcomes from a practised-based research project that took place with adolescent girls attending an after-school drama club. Participants experimented with slapstick humour in a series of workshops, before presenting their own devised physical comedy performance for a live audience. Comic performances…

  11. Late Adolescent Girls' Sexual Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impett, Emily A.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presented and tested a model of sexual satisfaction for late adolescent girls. In this model, sexual self-concept and approach sexual motives were tested as predictors of adolescent girls' sexual satisfaction with their most recent experience of sexual intercourse. A total of 116 girls in 12th grade (ages 16-19) completed measures of…

  12. Music Therapy: A Therapeutic Intervention for Girls with Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Kathleen A.

    The paper reviews music therapy, the educational background of music therapists, music therapy's various settings, and its use as an intervention with girls with Rett Syndrome. Sample music therapy programs for three girls (aged 5, 14, and 20 years) with Rett Syndrome are presented. The sample programs provide: student descriptions; the girls'…

  13. [Growth hormone administered to non-growth hormone deficient, small girls: echographic aspect of the gonads and uterus].

    PubMed

    Colle, M; Broussin, B

    1993-09-01

    The effect of growth hormone (GH) treatment on prepubertal gonads is controversial especially with regard to the risk of precocious puberty. Ultrasound assessment of ovarian volume, follicle size, and uterine growth was performed in 20 premenarcheal girls (8.0 +/- 2.6 years) receiving growth hormone (GH) for short stature (-2.8 +/- 0.4 SD) not related to growth hormone deficiency or Turner syndrome. Mean GH dosage was 1.0 +/- 0.4 IU/kg/week and mean duration of treatment at evaluation was 16.3 +/- 8.9 months. All patients underwent real time ultrasonography of the pelvic organs and ten subjects also had color Doppler studies of the ovarian and uterine arteries. Ultrasound findings were similar to those reported in normal prepubertal girls. Mean uterine length (29.1 +/- 7.5 mm) and volume (1.23 +/- 0.86 ml) were correlated with age but not with dosage or duration of GH treatment. Ovarian volumes was within the normal age-specific range in all patients except a 7.9 year old girl with substantially enlarged ovaries (4.7 ml) but no evidence or precocious puberty. Ovarian follicles were found in five girls; they measured less than 9 mm in diameter in every case except one (13 mm follicle in an 11-year-old). Blood flow in the ovarian arteries was seen on 5 of the 10 color Doppler studies and was not correlated with dosage or duration of GH treatment. Administration of GH to non-GH-deficient girls did not substantially affect the internal genital organs. It remains uncertain whether the single case of ovarian enlargement seen was related to GH treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. [Prevalence and risk factors of overweight among 5- to 11-year-old schoolchildren in Narbonne, France].

    PubMed

    Padilla, Nadège; Biason, Marie-Line; Ledésert, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    In order to address the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in children, the French city of Narbonne recently began monitoring childhood obesity with a view to developing and implementing targeted actions to stabilize the prevalence of overweight. The main purpose of this study was to assess the risk factors for overweight in children. The study was conducted during the 2008-2009 academic year and was based on a sample of 1,476 preschool and primary school children from all public and private schools in Narbonne. The prevalence of overweight and obesity were 14.9% and 3.7%, respectively. The study found that watching television for more than 2 hours a day, short sleep duration (less than 10 hours per night), a low socioeconomic status and parental obesity are risk factors for overweight and obesity in children. The findings suggest that priority actions among poor populations and overweight mothers are required in order to stabilize the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children, including providing advice on healthy eating, fighting against sedentary lifestyles and promoting sleep.

  15. An 11-year-old boy with silico-tuberculosis attributable to secondary exposure to sandstone mining in central India.

    PubMed

    Murlidhar, V

    2015-06-23

    Silicosis from secondary exposure is not often reported. This is the first such report of a child with possible silicosis attributable to secondary exposure to sandstone mining in India. Silicosis from secondary exposure has been reported in the gem polishing and slate pencil manufacturing industries in India; however, the stone-mining industry is severely under-researched. No preventive measures have been instituted in the stone-mining industry and children are exposed to respirable silica dust when their mothers take them to their work places. Poverty and lack of accessibility to modern medical facilities promote malnutrition and tuberculosis, two known co-morbid conditions. Stone mining, an export-oriented industry, produces billions of dollars of foreign currency every year. Although there is legislation to protect workers from exploitation, employers disregard the law and the state turns a blind eye by not implementing proper enforcement mechanisms. Silicosis from environmental exposure affects the entire community that lives in stone-mining areas.

  16. The Effects of Playground Markings on the Physical Self-Perceptions of 10-11-Year-Old School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crust, Lee; McKenna, Jim; Spence, Jon; Thomas, Catherine; Evans, Donna; Bishop, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Significant proportions of school children in the UK do not meet the minimum recommended daily requirements of 60-min moderate-intensity physical activity. Beyond taught classes, playtimes offer the opportunity for children to play and be physically active. Painted markings are one recent addition to school playgrounds that are…

  17. An 11-year-old boy with silico-tuberculosis attributable to secondary exposure to sandstone mining in central India.

    PubMed

    Murlidhar, V

    2015-01-01

    Silicosis from secondary exposure is not often reported. This is the first such report of a child with possible silicosis attributable to secondary exposure to sandstone mining in India. Silicosis from secondary exposure has been reported in the gem polishing and slate pencil manufacturing industries in India; however, the stone-mining industry is severely under-researched. No preventive measures have been instituted in the stone-mining industry and children are exposed to respirable silica dust when their mothers take them to their work places. Poverty and lack of accessibility to modern medical facilities promote malnutrition and tuberculosis, two known co-morbid conditions. Stone mining, an export-oriented industry, produces billions of dollars of foreign currency every year. Although there is legislation to protect workers from exploitation, employers disregard the law and the state turns a blind eye by not implementing proper enforcement mechanisms. Silicosis from environmental exposure affects the entire community that lives in stone-mining areas. PMID:26106174

  18. Bicycle Education, A New Dimension in 4-H Programs for 8-11 Year Olds: Designed into Three Teaching Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borst, William H.

    The three teaching units in this packet are designed to help children ages 8 to 11 enjoy, utilize, and safely ride bicycles by mastering skills and knowledge pertaining to their bicycles, their driving ability, and the traffic system. Unit I is concerned with the bicycle and its parts, various kinds of bicycles, and proper size and maintenance.…

  19. Acquired torticollis due to primary pyomyositis of the paraspinal muscles in an 11-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Ray, S; Iyer, A; Avula, S; Kneen, R

    2016-03-18

    Torticollis is characterised by tilting and rotation of the cervical spine in opposite directions. Causes can be congenital or acquired. Primary pyomyositis is a rare subacute deep bacterial infection of skeletal muscles that typically affects individuals under 20 years of age from tropical countries. Infrequently, pyomyositis occurs in individuals from temperate regions, usually in immunocompromised adults, and this is defined as secondary pyomyositis. We report a case of acquired torticollis due to primary pyomyositis of the paraspinal muscles in a previously healthy boy from the UK. A prolonged course of antibiotics and physiotherapy led to a complete resolution of his illness. We review how to differentiate pyomyositis from focal myositis, a more common inflammatory muscular cause of acquired torticollis.

  20. Lexical-semantic body knowledge in 5- to 11-year-old children: How spatial body representation influences body semantics.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Laurent; Jambaqué, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the relation between lexico-semantic body knowledge (i.e., body semantics) and spatial body representation (i.e., structural body representation) by analyzing naming performances as a function of body structural topography. One hundred and forty-one children ranging from 5 years 2 months to 10 years 5 months old were asked to provide a lexical label for isolated body part pictures. We compared the children's naming performances according to the location of the body parts (body parts vs. head features and also upper vs. lower limbs) or to their involvement in motor skills (distal segments, joints, and broader body parts). The results showed that the children's naming performance was better for facial body parts than for other body parts. Furthermore, it was found that the naming of body parts was better for body parts related to action. These findings suggest that the development of a spatial body representation shapes the elaboration of semantic body representation processing. Moreover, this influence was not limited to younger children. In our discussion of these results, we focus on the important role of action in the development of body representations and semantic organization. PMID:24814800

  1. Validation of a Group-Administered Pictorial Dietary Recall with 9- to 11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallen, Victoria; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Auld, Garry; Romaniello, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Determine validity of Day in the Life Questionnaire-Colorado (DILQ-CO) as a dietary assessment tool for classroom-administered use. Methods: Agreement between DILQ-CO responses and weighed plate waste measured in 125 fourth-grade students in 2 low-income schools. Validity assessed by comparing reported school lunch items and portion…

  2. Lexical-semantic body knowledge in 5- to 11-year-old children: How spatial body representation influences body semantics.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Laurent; Jambaqué, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses the relation between lexico-semantic body knowledge (i.e., body semantics) and spatial body representation (i.e., structural body representation) by analyzing naming performances as a function of body structural topography. One hundred and forty-one children ranging from 5 years 2 months to 10 years 5 months old were asked to provide a lexical label for isolated body part pictures. We compared the children's naming performances according to the location of the body parts (body parts vs. head features and also upper vs. lower limbs) or to their involvement in motor skills (distal segments, joints, and broader body parts). The results showed that the children's naming performance was better for facial body parts than for other body parts. Furthermore, it was found that the naming of body parts was better for body parts related to action. These findings suggest that the development of a spatial body representation shapes the elaboration of semantic body representation processing. Moreover, this influence was not limited to younger children. In our discussion of these results, we focus on the important role of action in the development of body representations and semantic organization.

  3. Effect of a school-based intervention to promote healthy lifestyles in 7–11 year old children

    PubMed Central

    Gorely, Trish; Nevill, Mary E; Morris, John G; Stensel, David J; Nevill, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is recognised as a public health concern within children and interventions to increase physical activity are needed. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of a school-based healthy lifestyles intervention on physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, body composition, knowledge, and psychological variables. Method A non-randomised controlled study involving 8 primary schools (4 intervention, 4 control). Participants were 589 children aged 7–11 years. The intervention lasted 10 months and comprised a CD-rom learning and teaching resource for teachers; an interactive website for pupils, teachers and parents; two highlight physical activity events (1 mile school runs/walks); a local media campaign; and a summer activity wall planner and record. Primary outcome measures were objectively measured physical activity (pedometers and accelerometers) and fruit and vegetable consumption. Secondary outcomes included body mass index, waist circumference, estimated percent body fat, knowledge, psychological variables. Multi-level modelling was employed for the data analysis. Results Relative to children in control schools, those in intervention schools significantly increased their total time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (by 9 minutes/day vs a decrease of 10 minutes/day), their time in MVPA bouts lasting at least one minute (10 minutes/day increase vs no change) and increased daily steps (3059 steps per day increase vs 1527 steps per day increase). A similar pattern of results was seen in a subset of the least active participants at baseline. Older participants in intervention schools showed a significant slowing in the rate of increase in estimated percent body fat, BMI, and waist circumference. There were no differences between groups in fruit and vegetable intake. Extrinsic motivation decreased more in the intervention group. Conclusion The intervention produced positive changes in physical activity levels and body composition. It appeared to have little or no effect on consumption of fruit and vegetables. Schools are a suitable setting for the promotion of healthy lifestyles although more work, particularly focussed on dietary change, is needed in a variety of schools and social settings. PMID:19154622

  4. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  5. [Validity of an instrument for assessing food consumption, food habits and cooking skills in 8-11 years old students].

    PubMed

    Lera, Lydia; Fretes, Gabriela; González, Carmen Gloria; Salinas, Judith; Vio del Rio, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: Para medir cambios en prácticas alimentarias, se requieren instrumentos que midan conocimiento, consumo, habilidades culinarias, hábitos y gastos en alimentos en las escuelas. Objetivo: Validar un instrumento que permita medir cambios en conocimiento, consumo, habilidades culinarias, hábitos y gastos en niños de 8 a 11 años, de tercero a quinto básico, en escuelas públicas de Chile. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de validación de un cuestionario de 42 preguntas de conocimiento, consumo, habilidades culinarias, hábitos y gastos en la escuela. Se realizó en dos etapas: la primera en 45 niños para evaluar la estabilidad temporal, concordancia y consistencia interna. La segunda fue aplicar el instrumento modificado con los resultados de la primera etapa en 90 niños para medir consistencia interna. Resultados: El cuestionario aplicado en los 45 niños mostró estabilidad temporal, concordancia y consistencia interna aceptables para habilidades culinarias, hábitos y gastos en la escuela. La consistencia fue buena para frecuencia de consumo, pero mala en conocimiento. En la validación final con 90 niños, se confirmó la buena consistencia para frecuencia de consumo y mala para conocimiento. Se observó que aquellos niños con habilidades culinarias, consumen más alimentos saludables y los que gastan más dinero en la escuela, consumen menos alimentos saludables. Conclusiones: Al instrumento se le quitaron las preguntas de conocimiento, quedando con 28 preguntas de consumo, habilidades culinarias, hábitos y gasto en alimentos en las escuelas. Este instrumento es útil para medir cambios en intervenciones educativas en alimentación y nutrición en niños de 8 a 11 años.

  6. Guiding Readers--Layers of Meaning: A Handbook for Teaching Reading Comprehension to 7-11-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennent, Wayne; Reedy, David; Hobsbaum, Angela; Gamble, Nikki

    2016-01-01

    How can teachers foster good reading in pupils aged 7-11? This book explains the way to do it. What is this book about? Reading comprehension is so much more than just reading words, and this book explains how to develop all aspects of it for pupils aged 7-11. Written by top experts in the field, it includes eleven in-depth case studies--taken…

  7. Girls Incorporated of Alameda County at 50: a voice for girls (1958-2008).

    PubMed

    Terrazas, Cecilia; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Girls Incorporated of Alameda County is nonprofit human service organization that has delivered education, counseling, and advocacy services to girls aged 6 to 18 for 50 years. The organization began as a small, local girls club and has grown into a large multi-faceted service delivery organization attached to a national governing body. The history of Girls Incorporated of Alameda County introduces struggles in relation to external and internal factors that altered the way that the agency financed and managed and exemplifies the important role of nonprofit leadership. The organization's many accomplishments have also presented multiple challenges, particularly related to the changing roles of women in American society. PMID:21416431

  8. Girls Leading Outward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Heather; Reyes, Jazmin; Moceri, Dominic C.; Morana, Laura; Elias, Maurice J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a program implemented in Red Bank Middle School in New Jersey to help at-risk, minority middle school girls realize their leadership potential. The GLO (Girls Leading Outward) program was developed by the Developing Safe and Civil Schools Project at Rutgers University and is facilitated by university students. Selected middle…

  9. Girls' Class, Infinite Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ost, Nancy

    1999-01-01

    The co-director of a small independent school describes Girls' Class, which she created in order to have a special time together with the girls in grades 6 through 8. The class provides guidance and celebrates spirituality and the beginning of menses for the young women. To end the class, each person says a positive self-affirmation and gives…

  10. Social Aggression among Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Marion K.

    Noting recent interest in girls' social or "relational" aggression, this volume offers a balanced, scholarly analysis of scientific knowledge in this area. The book integrates current research on emotion regulation, gender, and peer relations, to examine how girls are socialized to experience and express anger and aggression from infancy through…

  11. Turn off the TV and dance! Participation in culturally tailored health interventions: implications for obesity prevention among Mexican American girls.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Kathryn J; Mendoza, Sonia; Fernández, María; Haydel, K Farish; Fujimoto, Michelle; Tirumalai, Evelyn C; Robinson, Thomas N

    2013-01-01

    Our evaluation study identifies facilitators and barriers to participation among families participating in the treatment arm of Stanford ECHALE. This culturally tailored obesity prevention trial consisted of a combined intervention with two main treatment components: 1) a folkloric dance program; and 2) a screen time reduction curriculum designed for 7-11 year old Latinas and their families. We conducted 83 interviews (40 parents and 43 girls) in participant homes after 6 months of enrollment in the ECHALE trial. The Spradley ethnographic method and NVivo 8.0 were used to code and analyze narrative data. Three domains emerged for understanding participation: 1) family cohesiveness; 2) perceived gains; and 3) culturally relevant program structure. Two domains emerged for non-participation: program requirements and perceived discomforts. Non-parametric, Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the relationships with participant attendance data. Sustained participation was most strongly influenced by the domain perceived gains when parents reported better self-esteem, confidence, improved attitude, improved grades, etc. (Spearman r = .45, P = .003). Alternatively, under the domain, perceived discomforts, with subthemes such as child bullying, participation in the combined intervention was inversely associated with attendance (Spearman r = -.38, P = .02). Family-centered, school-based, community obesity prevention programs that focus on tangible short-term gains for girls may generate greater participation rates, enhance social capital, and promote community empowerment. These factors can be emphasized in future obesity prevention program design and implementation. PMID:24392608

  12. The predicted relative risk of premature ovarian failure for three radiotherapy modalities in a girl receiving craniospinal irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Andújar, A.; Newhauser, W. D.; Taddei, P. J.; Mahajan, A.; Howell, R. M.

    2013-05-01

    In girls and young women, irradiation of the ovaries can reduce the number of viable ovarian primordial follicles, which may lead to premature ovarian failure (POF) and subsequently to sterility. One strategy to minimize this late effect is to reduce the radiation dose to the ovaries. A primary means of reducing dose is to choose a radiotherapy technique that avoids irradiating nearby normal tissue; however, the relative risk of POF (RRPOF) due to the various therapeutic options has not been assessed. This study compared the predicted RRPOF after craniospinal proton radiotherapy, conventional photon radiotherapy (CRT) and intensity-modulated photon radiotherapy (IMRT). We calculated the equivalent dose delivered to the ovaries of an 11-year-old girl from therapeutic and stray radiation. We then predicted the percentage of ovarian primordial follicles killed by radiation and used this as a measure of the RRPOF; we also calculated the ratio of the relative risk of POF (RRRPOF) among the three radiotherapies. Proton radiotherapy had a lower RRPOF than either of the other two types. We also tested the sensitivity of the RRRPOF between photon and proton therapies to the anatomic position of the ovaries, i.e., proximity to the treatment field (2 ≤ RRRPOF ≤ 10). We found that CRT and IMRT have higher risks of POF than passive-scattering proton radiotherapy (PRT) does, regardless of uncertainties in the ovarian location. Overall, PRT represents a lower RRPOF over the two other modalities.

  13. Future Girls, Transcendent Femininities and New Pedagogies: Toward Girls' Hybrid Bodies?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzarito, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Media provides a material site for girls' identity formation and presents conflicting images of femininity, which challenge young women's self-expression and physicality development. The "problem" with girls' physicality has not been resolved, but rather complicated by discourses of new femininities in sport, fitness and health promoted by the new…

  14. A Ray of Hope for Girls in Trouble: Alternative Education Services in a Singapore Girls' Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Wu, Deirdra I-Hwey

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a trans-cultural perspective of emotional/behavioral difficulties and a brief overview of the subculture of today's young adolescent girls. Features of successful alternative education services provided at a Singapore girls' home are also presented. This paper concludes with a consideration of implications for teachers and…

  15. Girls, girls, girls: Gender composition and female school choice.

    PubMed

    Schneeweis, Nicole; Zweimüller, Martina

    2012-08-01

    Gender segregation in employment may be explained by women's reluctance to choose technical occupations. However, the foundations for career choices are laid much earlier. Educational experts claim that female students are doing better in math and science and are more likely to choose these subjects if they are in single-sex classes. One possible explanation is that coeducational settings reinforce gender stereotypes. In this paper, we identify the causal impact of the gender composition in coeducational classes on the choice of school type for female students. Using natural variation in the gender composition of adjacent cohorts within schools, we show that girls are less likely to choose a traditionally female dominated school type and more likely to choose a male dominated school type at the age of 14 if they were exposed to a higher share of girls in previous grades. PMID:24850996

  16. Migrated esophageal foreign body presents as acute onset dysphagia years later: A case report.

    PubMed

    Shew, Matthew; Jiang, Zi; Bruegger, Daniel; Arganbright, Jill

    2015-12-01

    Ingested esophageal foreign bodies are commonly seen in the pediatric population. Rarely do they perforate and migrate through neck fascial planes asymptomatically. We present a case of an otherwise healthy 11 year old with sudden onset dysphagia that based on MRI and CT findings was most consistent with an esophageal duplication cyst. However upon surgical exploration, a circular disk like foreign body was identified adjacent to the esophagus. Given the patient's age and no reports of purposeful ingestion, it is most likely the patient had ingested this disk foreign body in early childhood, leaving her asymptomatic for 8 years prior to presentation. PMID:26541295

  17. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

  18. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  19. A Girl Is No Girl Is a Girl_: Girls-Work after Queer Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busche, Mart

    2013-01-01

    This contribution gives an overview over 40 years of girls-work in Germany. It highlights certain topics and theoretical implications and emphasises especially the realisation of queer theory and deconstructivism in the last 10 years. (Contains 4 notes.)

  20. The Search for Sustainable Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pabst, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The girls of girls' schools, the author believes, are a kind of Platonic Form of American girl, an ideal to which most of the rest of society, of the country's meritocratic system, aspires for their daughters, a reflection of one's deepest values. She believes girls all over the country, in all high schools, want The Dream. They want to achieve…

  1. Outdoor Education in Girl Scouting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Carolyn L.

    This book was written to help Girl Scout leaders prepare themselves and the girls with whom they work to enjoy outdoor experiences together. It complements the age-level handbook and leaders' guide, and training provided by the local Girl Scout council. The book contains nine chapters. The first chapter lists age-level characteristics of girls,…

  2. Changing Girls' Education in Peru.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Cory; Brush, Lorie; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Access to quality education is a problem for all rural children in Peru, but especially for rural girls, who complete primary school at far lower rates than other Peruvian children. In 1998, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity (GEA) in Peru, also known as New Horizons for Girls' Education, which aims to increase girls' completion of…

  3. Fighting like a girl fighting like a guy: gender identity, ideology, and girls at early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Tappan, Mark B

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we explore the phenomenon of "girls fighting like guys" by listening to adolescent girls' justification for physical fighting with other girls. We argue that physical girlfighting is a particular kind of gendered performance--a performance of identity that expresses, at least in part, an answer to the question, "Who am I?"--that both perpetuates and challenges the usual notions of masculinity and femininity and the differential power associated with these discourses. We present a sociocultural approach to identity that we believe not only holds promise for helping us to understand girl-fighting behavior but also highlights the clear interrelationship between social identity and personal identity. We conclude by highlighting several implications of this analysis for those who work with girls (and boys) in educational and clinical settings.

  4. Attention styles of hyperactive and normal girls.

    PubMed

    deHaas, P A; Young, R D

    1984-12-01

    Behavioral characteristics and cognitive skills of teacher-identified hyperactive (n = 24) and normally active (n = 24) first- and second-grade girls were investigated. Teachers rated subjects on the Conners Teacher Rating Scale (TRS). Subjects were given several tasks measuring attentional styles and motor skills. Results suggested that hyperactive girls, like hyperactive boys, have short attention spans and poor concentration when compared with normals. Unlike hyperactive boys, hyperactive girls did not show an impulsive response style, and presented few conduct problems to their teachers. TRS profile patterns of the hyperactive girls were similar to those of hyperactive boys, but cutoff scores currently used for males may not be applicable to females. A direct comparison of hyperactive females and males is advocated.

  5. "Girls Are Worse": Drama Queens, Ghetto Girls, Tomboys, and the Meaning of Girl Fights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article uses a race-class-gender intersectional approach to analyze qualitative interviews with girls at two public high schools to better understand a common perception that "girls are worse" when it comes to school fights. Several different understandings of why girls fight emerged from the data. On one hand, girls' perception of…

  6. Connecting with Girls, Connects Them to You: Toward a "by Girls, for Girls" Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenberg, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Today there are 14 million girls ages 11-17 in the United States. The growing population of girls clearly represents a new opportunity for youth development organizations to reach out and engage them. In its continuing commitment to develop program options to meet the needs of girls today, in 2001 the Girl Scout Research Institute conducted one of…

  7. Child survival and development with special reference to the girl child.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, M P

    1990-01-01

    This article is based on plenary address given before the International Symposium on the Girl Child in Asia, a Neglected Majority. The author answers the question of how do the efforts in child survival relate to the real welfare of children. The statistics are grim. 40,000 children 5 years died today. 1 child dies every 2 seconds. Every other second a child is severely disabled with a permanent mental or physical handicap, mostly in developing countries. More female than male children die even though, biologically, it ought to be the reverse. Most of the 14 million dying in a year and comparable figures for those who are disabled are preventable. Safe drinking water, appropriate sanitation, immunization, basic nutritional measures, and the guarantee of basic human rights would contribute greatly to changing the trend. 500 million children have insufficient food and clothing. The status of girls, particularly those in Nepal, is also grim. In 1981, 14.6% of Nepali children 10-14 years were either married, widowed, or divorced. Female illiteracy is high. Approximately 102 million of those 6-11 years old are not in school. In 50% of developing countries, universal primary education is decreasing. 57% of 10-14 year olds in Nepal are economically active. Daily, hundreds of girls are subjected to bonded labor, marriages without consent, sexual abuse and prostitution. 150 million street children are begging, picking rags, or engaged in underpaid, unhealthy and unsafe labor. The goal of ratifying the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child is not enough. Implementation is required. The rights of the child begin in utero. Women and girls are economically, politically, and socially powerless. Their complaints are frequently misunderstood, misinterpreted, or ignored. The development and education of the child must be appropriate to the historical, physical, sociocultural and demographic conditions of the country. Empowerment of women and participation in the social and

  8. Body composition in Egyptian Turner syndrome girls

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Moushira Erfan; Afifi, Hanan H.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study was undertaken to construct the new body fat % curve and provide body composition reference data for adolescent girls with Turner syndrome (TS). They diagnosed cytogenetically by blood karyotyping and not treated with growth hormone (GH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 70 TS girls from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Smoothed centile charts were derived by using the least mean square (LMS) method. RESULTS: The new body fat curves reflect the increase of body fat mass (FM) from age 13 years to age 17 years. Body FM % of Egyptian TS girls was lower when compared with age-matched American untreated TS girls. CONCLUSION: This study presents the new body fat curves and reference values of body composition for untreated Egyptian TS adolescent girls. The present charts can be used for direct assessment of body FM % for Egyptian TS girls and evaluation for cases on GH treatment or other growth promoting therapy. PMID:24019614

  9. A case report of pontine glioblastoma presenting as subcutaneous metastasis in nape of neck in a child

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vikas; Singh, Daljit; Singh, Hukum; Saran, Ravindra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant tumor in adults. Extracranial metastasis of GBM is very rare. The incidence of brainstem glioblastoma is not known due to low biopsy and resection rates. In this case report, we experienced an 11-year-old male who was diagnosed as a case of pontine GBM after biopsy of lesion and underwent radiotherapy with adjuvant chemotherapy. He presented with a subcutaneous swelling in the nape of neck 1 year after the first procedure. Swelling was excised. Pathological examination and immunohistochemical staining confirmed it as GBM. This case shows us that GBM can at times present as a swelling in soft tissue. PMID:26962352

  10. Emotion recognition in girls with conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Schwenck, Christina; Gensthaler, Angelika; Romanos, Marcel; Freitag, Christine M; Schneider, Wolfgang; Taurines, Regina

    2014-01-01

    A deficit in emotion recognition has been suggested to underlie conduct problems. Although several studies have been conducted on this topic so far, most concentrated on male participants. The aim of the current study was to compare recognition of morphed emotional faces in girls with conduct problems (CP) with elevated or low callous-unemotional (CU+ vs. CU-) traits and a matched healthy developing control group (CG). Sixteen girls with CP-CU+, 16 girls with CP-CU- and 32 controls (mean age: 13.23 years, SD=2.33 years) were included. Video clips with morphed faces were presented in two runs to assess emotion recognition. Multivariate analysis of variance with the factors group and run was performed. Girls with CP-CU- needed more time than the CG to encode sad, fearful, and happy faces and they correctly identified sadness less often. Girls with CP-CU+ outperformed the other groups in the identification of fear. Learning effects throughout runs were the same for all groups except that girls with CP-CU- correctly identified fear less often in the second run compared to the first run. Results need to be replicated with comparable tasks, which might result in subgroup-specific therapeutic recommendations. PMID:23568422

  11. Earth Science Education and the Girl Scouts USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, A. S.

    2001-12-01

    Women are an under-represented population in the physical sciences and engineering, including the Earth sciences. In order to enhance interest and understanding of the Earth sciences in young girls, the Atmospheric Sciences Program at the NASA Langley Research Center, in partnership and cooperation with the Girl Scouts USA and individual Girl Scout Councils, have developed a series of Earth science workshops for Girl Scout trainers and leaders. The workshops cover the Earth system, including the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the lithosphere, and the biosphere and the interactions betwen the various components of the system. The workshop lectures are presented by NASA and university scientists. Each workshop includes hands-on demonstrations and experiments that can be performed by the Girl Scouts. The workshops are presented both at the NASA Langley Research Center and at the Girl Scout USA Conference Center in Briarcliff, New York. The workshop format, content and demonstrations will be discussed.

  12. Putting menarche and girls into the global population health agenda.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Marni; Sutherland, Carla; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman

    2015-03-26

    Menarche, the onset of menstruation is a fundamental part of a girl's transition from childhood to adolescence. Studies show that girls in many countries experience menarche with insufficient information and support. Girls from around the world report feeling ashamed and afraid. The potential health effects of such experiences include a weakening of girls' sense of self-confidence and competence, which in turn may comprise girls' abilities to assert themselves in different situations, including in relation to their sexuality and sexual and reproductive health. There is an important need for the public health community to assure that girls receive the education and support they need about menstruation, so they are able to feel more confident about their bodies, and navigate preventable health problems - now and in the future. For too long, the global health community has overlooked the window of opportunity presented by menarche. Family planning programs have generally focused their efforts on married couples and HIV programs have focused safer sex promotion on older adolescent girls and boys. Starting the conversation at menarche with girls in early adolescence would fully use this window of opportunity. It would engage young adolescent girls and be a natural first step for later, more comprehensive conversations about sexuality, reproduction and reproductive health. There are a number of initiatives beginning to tackle the provision of puberty information to girls and boys, but the global health community is overdue to set a global standard for the provision of such guidance.

  13. The Girl Game Company: Engaging Latina Girls in Information Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Jill; Bean, Steve; Martinez, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the Girl Game Company's involvement in teaching Latina girls to design and program computer games while building a network of support to help them pursue IT courses and careers. Afterschool programs like the Girl Game Company can fill an important gap by providing opportunities for underserved youth to build IT fluency. A…

  14. Scientific Temper among Academically High and Low Achieving Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kour, Sunmeet

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the scientific temper of high and low achieving adolescent girl students. Random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from various high schools of District Srinagar. The sample for the present study consisted of 120 school going adolescent girls (60 high and 60 low achievers). Data was…

  15. Boys and Girls Apart.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahood, Ramona M.; Orr, Donald R.

    This paper reports on a study to see whether girls in middle school who took tests separately from boys did better than when they were tested together. A mathematics attitude and anxiety instrument was administered as part of the study to determine if either had any effect on test performance. Results indicate that boys were more anxious than…

  16. Stage Costumes for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhowe, Jean

    This book contains full instructions for making 14 costumes for girls to fit any sizes up to about 147 cm (4 feet 10 inches) in height. All the garments can be made to fit any child's individual measurements without the need of complicated pattern pieces. Simple basic shapes such as rectangles and circles are used for the patterns and the only…

  17. Girls + Technology = Turnoff?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenza, Joyce Kasman

    1997-01-01

    Examines gender differences in computer use, citing male- oriented software as a possible reason girls are turned off, and highlights traditionally feminine and gender-neutral games. Describes ways of encouraging females: all-female computer and math classes, pairing students, mentoring, integrating technology into content areas, early…

  18. Of Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, much has been written about threats to boys' and girls' healthy participation in dance. This Viewpoints essay considers some of the causes and proposed remedies, which focus almost exclusively on the roles and responsibilities of dance educators and administrators. I suggest that what is missing from recent research,…

  19. Girls in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Robin

    2005-01-01

    Three years ago, the San Diego Zoo embarked on a new crusade--to introduce opportunities in the scientific realm to a small, diverse population of girls at a local inner-city, low-income junior high school. Researchers from the National Council for Research on Women found that mentoring programs and the opportunity to perform active science are…

  20. Academe's New Girl Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Angela

    1978-01-01

    A "networking" processing pioneered by the Committee for the Concerns of Women in New England Colleges and Universities, which is establishing a New Girl network to compete with and eventually mesh with the Old Boy system, is described. Lobbying and conference efforts of HERS (Higher Education Resource Services) are reported. (LBH)

  1. The Goose Girl Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Janice H.

    1989-01-01

    Uses fairy tale of the goose girl to explain administrative behaviors designed to keep well-intentioned, misguided females away from the action. Notes that in administration it is necessary to be more assertive, that one must recognize the differences between the demands and privileges of the administrative and nonadministrative tasks. (NB)

  2. Girl scouts face complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    A claim filed by the Legal Action Center alleges that the Girl Scouts USA and the Adirondack Girl Scout Council discriminated against 8-year-old [name removed] [name removed] by refusing to admit her because she has HIV. One complaint, filed in the New York State's Division of Human Rights, alleged that the Adirondack Council denied the girl equal access based on New York's human rights law. A second complaint alleged that the Girl Scouts USA aided and abetted in the discrimination by not requiring the Adirondack unit to comply with national organization policy barring discrimination based on disability. The girl has been successfully placed in another troop.

  3. Girl scouts face complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    A claim filed by the Legal Action Center alleges that the Girl Scouts USA and the Adirondack Girl Scout Council discriminated against 8-year-old [name removed] [name removed] by refusing to admit her because she has HIV. One complaint, filed in the New York State's Division of Human Rights, alleged that the Adirondack Council denied the girl equal access based on New York's human rights law. A second complaint alleged that the Girl Scouts USA aided and abetted in the discrimination by not requiring the Adirondack unit to comply with national organization policy barring discrimination based on disability. The girl has been successfully placed in another troop. PMID:11366636

  4. Acrocallosal syndrome: report of a Brazilian girl.

    PubMed

    Guion-Almeida, M L; Richieri-Costa, A

    1992-08-01

    We report on a Brazilian girl born to nonconsanguineous parents and presenting with frontonasal dysostosis, callosal agenesis, abnormal upper lids, cleft lip/palate, redundant skin in the neck, grooved chin, and bifid thumbs. Major diagnostic criteria present in this patient are related to the acrocallosal syndrome. The clinical and major nosologic aspects of this condition are discussed.

  5. Pubertal Timing and Its Link to Behavioral and Emotional Problems among "At-Risk" African American Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Rona; Jaccard, James; Silverman, Wendy K.; Pina, Armando A.

    2009-01-01

    Using an "at-risk" sample of African American girls, the present study examined the link between girls' retrospective reports of pubertal timing, girls' perceived relative pubertal timing, and their behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the girls themselves (N = 102; 11-17 years), as well as teachers and parents. Structural equation…

  6. The maintenance of regional dialects: a matter of gender? Boys, but not girls, use local varieties in relation to their friends' nativeness and local identity

    PubMed Central

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Martin, Nathael; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The linguistic diversity enduring beyond institutional pressures and social prejudices against non-standard dialects questions the social forces influencing language maintenance across generations and how children contribute to this process. Children encounter multi-dialectal interactions in their early environment, and increasing evidence shows that the acquisition of sociolinguistic variation is not a side issue but an inherent part of the general acquisition process. Despite these recent advances in sociolinguistic acquisition, children's sociolinguistic uses remain under-studied in relation to peer social networks and the ability to use dialect for identity purposes. Our study focused on a grammatical sociolinguistic variable consisting of the alternation between a regional and a standard variant of the third person object pronoun in French. The regional variant is a remnant of the Francoprovençal language and its usage by adults is strongly associated with local identity in the French Alps. We described, using questionnaires, the social networks of 117 10–11 year-old girls and boys living in the same restricted rural area. Thirteen native target children (7 girls and 6 boys) were selected from the sample, as well as 39 same-sex friends chosen according to their place of birth (native vs. non-native) and the duration of their friendship with the targets (number of years they have known each other). The target children were recorded during spontaneous dyadic conversations during free play at school with each category of friends. Target boys, but not girls, used the regional variant significantly more frequently with their long-term native friends than with their non-native friends. This adjustment mirrored their partners' uses. Moreover, with long-term native friends, boys used the regional variant twice as frequently as girls. Boys appeared thus as key actors in the maintenance and the diffusion of regional cues in local social networks. PMID:25400617

  7. Puberty and Girls' Sexuality: Why Hormones Are Not the Complete Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Sontag, Lisa M.

    2006-01-01

    The psychosocial impact of puberty on changes in girls' feelings about their bodies and their sexuality is discussed. We present a model of girls' sexuality development that incorporates puberty, self, and peer systems. (Contains 2 figures.)

  8. High Achieving Girls in Mathematics: What's Wrong with Working Hard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Ann C.; Berenson, Sarah B.

    2003-01-01

    The participation of women in graduate studies and mathematics-related careers remains a social and economic problem in the United States. Part of a larger study to understand this lack of participation, here we present preliminary findings of girls who are high achievers in middle grades mathematics. This interpretive study documents girls'…

  9. Bullying, Social Power and Heteronormativity: Girls' Constructions of Popularity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Neil; Owens, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Literature on girls' popularity posits a strong association between popularity, social power and bullying behaviours, some of which conflate the concepts "bully" and "popular". This study explores that association through links to concepts of popularity among girls in two demographically different high schools. Data are presented that were derived…

  10. Raising Their Voices: The Politics of Girls' Anger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel

    Challenging conventional characterization of teenage girlhood as a wasteland of depression, low self-esteem, and passive victimhood, this book presents accounts of young girls showing how their voices are shaped and constrained by socioeconomic class. Based on a year-long study involving conversations with white adolescent girls from the working…

  11. The All-American Girls' Baseball League, 1943-1954.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Merrie A.

    This presentation provides an historical sketch of the All-American Girls' Baseball League (AAGBBL). The League was created in 1942 as the All-American Girls' Softball League, by Philip K. Wrigley. He initiated the League as a non-profit organization governed by a board of three trustees. Mr. Wrigley's basic motivation for creating the AAGSBL was…

  12. [A girl with a painful red skin].

    PubMed

    Bakker, M E C Mariëlle; Oberndorff, Karin M E J

    2013-01-01

    A 5-year-old girl presented with increasing erythroderma since one day in combination with impetigo vulgaris. As exfoliative lesions and bullae developed within hours, the patient was diagnosed with staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. She was successfully treated with flucloxacillin. PMID:23369814

  13. Book Series Helps Girls Fight Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data (2003-2004) revealed that approximately 18% of children 6-to-19 years old are overweight. The Beacon Street Girls brand was specifically designed to entertain while providing healthy role models and positive messages. This article presents a study that tested whether an…

  14. Facilitating Career Development for Girls and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Vocational Guidance Association, Washington, DC.

    Selections from papers given at a 1973 workshop held at Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, are presented. Seventy-nine participants gathered to search out new insights into the changing world of girls and women. A forword by Carl McDaniels and an introduction by Thelma Lennon precede the 12 papers, which include: (1) Historical…

  15. Turn Off the TV and Dance! Participation in Culturally Tailored Health Interventions: Implications for Obesity Prevention among Mexican American Girls

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Kathryn J.; Mendoza, Sonia; Fernández, María; Haydel, K. Farish; Fujimoto, Michelle; Tirumalai, Evelyn C.; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Our evaluation study identifies facilitators and barriers to participation among families participating in the treatment arm of Stanford ECHALE. This culturally tailored obesity prevention trial consisted of a combined intervention with two main treatment components: 1) a folkloric dance program; and 2) a screen time reduction curriculum designed for 7–11 year old Latinas and their families. We conducted 83 interviews (40 parents and 43 girls) in participant homes after 6 months of enrollment in the ECHALE trial. The Spradley ethnographic method and NVivo 8.0 were used to code and analyze narrative data. Three domains emerged for understanding participation: 1) family cohesiveness; 2) perceived gains; and 3) culturally relevant program structure. Two domains emerged for non-participation: program requirements and perceived discomforts. Non-parametric, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the relationships with participant attendance data. Sustained participation was most strongly influenced by the domain perceived gains when parents reported better self-esteem, confidence, improved attitude, improved grades, etc. (Spearman r=.45, P=.003). Alternatively, under the domain, perceived discomforts, with subthemes such as child bullying, participation in the combined intervention was inversely associated with attendance (Spearman r=.38, P=.02). Family-centered, school-based, community obesity prevention programs that focus on tangible short-term gains for girls may generate greater participation rates, enhance social capital, and promote community empowerment. These factors can be emphasized in future obesity prevention program design and implementation. (Ethn Dis. 2013; 23[4]:452–461) PMID:24392608

  16. Learning to Negotiate Sexual Relationships: A Girls' School in Tanzania as a Restrictive and Agentic Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemsen, Laura Wangsness; DeJaeghere, Joan

    2015-01-01

    Literature on schooling in Africa often frames sexual relationships as threatening girls' educational participation, health, and general well-being. Schooling practices aimed at sheltering girls reflect the prevalence of discourses emphasising danger and abstinence. This article presents the case of one all-girls school in Tanzania which provides…

  17. Some Problems of Sexual Growth in Adolescent Underprivileged Unwed Black Girls

    PubMed Central

    James, W. F. Bernell; James, Pauline M.; Walker, Edgar

    1977-01-01

    The adolescent female experiences many problems associated with sexual growth. These are greatly compounded in underprivileged black girls, particularly the unwed. Meharry Medical College has established comprehensive programs for the management of special health problems involving adolescent girls. This study presents an overview and statistical study of the psychological and psychosocial forces that confront these underprivileged girls. PMID:904015

  18. Counseling Adolescent Girls for Body Image Resilience: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Laura Hensley

    2007-01-01

    Because body image dissatisfaction is such a pervasive problem in adolescent girls, school counselors need to develop effective prevention programs in this area. In this article, a model to promote girls' body image resilience is presented. The model identifies five protective factors that contribute to girls' abilities to resist sociocultural…

  19. Baseline and Modulated Acoustic Startle Responses in Adolescent Girls with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipschitz, Deborah S.; Mayes, Linda M.; Rasmusson, Ann M.; Anyan, Walter; Billingslea, Eileen; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Southwick, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess baseline and modulated acoustic startle responses in adolescent girls with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Method: Twenty-eight adolescent girls with PTSD and 23 healthy control girls were recruited for participation in the study. Acoustic stimuli were bursts of white noise of 104 dB presented biaurally through…

  20. No Boys Allowed! All-Girl Class Gets Students Hooked on TE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the number of girls who enroll in their elective courses is a perennial challenge for many technology educators. Yet one educator has found a very successful approach to drawing in female students: a girls-only class called Woodworking for Girls. This paper presents a brief description of the course. It also offers suggestions for…

  1. An Approach to Teaching Self-Dressing to a Child with Dual Sensory Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Jenifer L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A self-help skills instructional program used graduated guidance as a method of teaching independent dressing to an 11-year-old girl with profound mental retardation, seizure disorder, deafness, and blindness. Dressing skills improved with instruction and were maintained. Task analyses are presented for putting on socks, shorts, and shirts. (JDD)

  2. Removing the Shackles of Euclid: 3 Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielker, David S.

    1981-01-01

    The process of investigating some of the properties of diagonals and other geometric concepts with a group of 11-year-old girls is presented. Possible changes that could have been made in the lesson are discussed, and examples of individual student work are provided. (MP)

  3. Metaplastic Conditions in The Bladder in Patient With Epidermolysis Bullosa

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Kenan; Demirci, Deniz; Baydilli, Numan; Nazlim, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Epidermolysis bullosa is a rare inherited muco-cutaneous disorder that sometimes presents with genitourinary involvement. Herein we report the case of an 11-year-old girl with a history of junctional epidermolysis bullosa who was admitted with urological symptoms. On cystoscopy, suspected bullous bladder lesions were observed. Mesonephroid, intestinal and squamous metaplasia is reported here for the first time. PMID:27564298

  4. Gender Dysphoria and Sexual Abuse: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Kenneth J.; Kuksis, Myra

    1990-01-01

    A case report is presented in which an 11-year-old boy's desire to be a girl and to have his penis removed are shown to follow the initiation of sexual contact by his older brother. The boy's early history of moderate femininity may have made him vulnerable to gender identity conflict. (JDD)

  5. Large Artery Stroke in a Child With Hypoparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Sumeet R; Jondhale, Sunil N; Sahu, Jitendra K; Vyas, Sameer; Singhi, Pratibha D

    2015-07-01

    The association of hypoparathyroidism and ischemic stroke is rare in childhood. We report an interesting case of an 11-year-old girl diagnosed to have hypoparathyroidism and presented with an acute-onset right hemiparesis. Investigations revealed large artery ischemic stroke and uncontrolled hypoparathyroidism. Pediatricians and pediatric neurologists should be aware of this association in view of its potential preventive nature.

  6. Metaplastic Conditions in The Bladder in Patient with Epidermolysis Bullosa.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Kenan; Demirci, Deniz; Baydilli, Numan; Nazlim, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa is a rare inherited muco-cutaneous disorder that sometimes presentes with genitourinary involvement. Herein we report the case of an 11-year-old girl with a history of junctional epidermolysis bullosa who was admitted with urological symptoms. On cystoscopy, suspected bullous bladder lesions were observed. Mesonephroid, intestinal and squamous metaplasia is reported here for the first time. PMID:27564298

  7. The girl child: a girls' empowerment initiative in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, B; Sheikh, M

    1995-01-01

    In 1992, the Girl Child Project became a reality in Pakistan. This pilot project aimed to 1) set a base line for activities for a sample of 1000 girls and their families, 2) organize orientation meetings and workshops to raise the awareness of 500 young girls and women, 3) develop a core of young girls to create local awareness of the problems of girls through various activities, and 4) develop motivational messages and advocacy/training materials. The first phase of the project included a national workshop for leaders in June 1992; 10 evaluation workshops on the topics of status, literacy, nutrition, health, and the environment as they relate to the girl child; the formation of 105 groups of five to eight girls each who were directly influenced by the project; and the indirect influence of 2.7 million people. The second phase, begun in 1994, expands on the first phase and sponsors project activities in 200 locations. Girls who participated in the project have learned to increase their confidence and to voice their opinions in their homes as they have become aware of their rights. Thus mothers who feed sons better than daughters, for example, are being challenged and are changing their practices. Some girls are also providing education to other children. The girls face a great deal of resistance when they try to change their traditional roles, and they must convince their families that their increased knowledge and skills will ultimately benefit their family and community. The girls who have participated in the workshops have become aware of new worlds and ways of life which they did not know existed, and they have developed the confidence to gain the education they need to improve their society.

  8. Weight, height and puberty in a cohort of Macedonian girls.

    PubMed

    Krstevska-Konstantinova, Marina; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Kicova, M; Gucev, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is becoming a growing problem in developed and developing countries. Many studies report an increasing incidence of obesity in the last decade. The aim of our transversal epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of overweight children, auxological characteristics and pubertal stage in healthy girls from first (200 girls), third (209), fifth (290) and seventh (223) grade of school. In this study 928 girls were evaluated through systematic school examinations in the ambulance of municipality of Karposh, Skopje. The Rome and Turkish nationality, as well as Serbian were present in a small percentage, while detailed analysis was performed in the Macedonian and Albanian population of girls. The initiation of puberty (stage M2 or P2 by Tanner) was present in Macedonian girls: 4.3% of children in first grade, 23% in third grade, and 51.7% in fifth grade. In Albanians, in first grade M2 is present in 2.7%, in third grade 5.2%, and in fifth grade 46.9%. Body mass index (BMI SDS) was +3.5 +/- 1.5 in 35% of Macedonian girls and only 5% of Albanian girls. The Macedonian girls were also significantly higher (p < 0.01) and more obese than the Albanian girls. The pubertal stage was also more advanced in Macedonian girls. Most of the obese children who were included in the study reported increased consumption of fast food. Although in the past years obesity was not a problem in our country, it is becoming more severe with every year. PMID:19537661

  9. Handicapped Girls and Girl Scouting: A Guide for Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Marian Weller

    Designed as a handbook for girl scount leaders involved with the handicapped girl scout, the manual first makes general statements about handicaps, leader qualifications, and troop placement and organization. Information and guidelines for leaders are provided for the following exceptionalities: visual impairment, hearing impairment, orthopedic…

  10. Girl Scouts settle complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-12-24

    The Girl Scouts have settled a claim of discrimination made against New York's Adirondack Girl Scout Council and the national Girl Scouts organization for refusing admittance of a third-grader into the Brownies because of her HIV infection. The settlement occurred without adjudication on the key point of whether volunteer-based organizations such as the Girl Scouts are places of public accommodation under the New York Human Rights Act. The parties agreed that the Adirondack council will revise its HIV policy so that volunteers know they cannot deny admission to HIV-positive candidates; that the council will educate its troop leaders and staff on HIV transmission, universal precautions, and the organization's policy of nondiscrimination; and that the national Girl Scouts' organization will continue to investigate any allegations of HIV discrimination against applicants.

  11. Girl Scouts settle complaints over reluctance to admit girl.

    PubMed

    1999-12-24

    The Girl Scouts have settled a claim of discrimination made against New York's Adirondack Girl Scout Council and the national Girl Scouts organization for refusing admittance of a third-grader into the Brownies because of her HIV infection. The settlement occurred without adjudication on the key point of whether volunteer-based organizations such as the Girl Scouts are places of public accommodation under the New York Human Rights Act. The parties agreed that the Adirondack council will revise its HIV policy so that volunteers know they cannot deny admission to HIV-positive candidates; that the council will educate its troop leaders and staff on HIV transmission, universal precautions, and the organization's policy of nondiscrimination; and that the national Girl Scouts' organization will continue to investigate any allegations of HIV discrimination against applicants. PMID:11366649

  12. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education.

  13. Girl child in rural India.

    PubMed

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education. PMID:12158006

  14. Changing Girls' Education in Guatemala.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provasnik, Stephen; Brush, Lorie; Heyman, Cory; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan

    Guatemala's school completion rates are among the lowest in Latin America and are particularly low in rural indigenous areas ravaged by 36 years of civil conflict. In 1997, USAID launched the Girls' Education Activity, known as Proyecto Global in Guatemala, to increase the percentage of girls who complete fifth grade, especially in rural areas and…

  15. The "Right" Sexuality for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Feminist researchers in psychology and education have been theorizing about the kind of sexuality girls ought to have. They are not afraid to investigate morality and what makes a good life. While they explore the meaning and cultural context of girls' sexual development, the good sexual life they describe may be an elusive ideal that, in the end,…

  16. Are Girls Behaving like Boys?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Rosie

    2008-01-01

    This article explores some of the issues that have given rise to the perception of an increase in aggressive behaviour by females. It asserts that merely comparing girls' behaviour with that of boys, especially the claim that "girls are behaving like boys", trivialises the very real issues associated with females and aggression. This paper will…

  17. Toys for Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Karen

    1994-01-01

    Many people in our society distinguish between girls and boys toys. A physical science toy collector shares her experience at a fast food restaurant when she was asked "Do you want a girl toy?" Her response was, "What's the difference?" (ZWH)

  18. Serum leptin levels in girls with precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Verrotti, A; Basciani, F; Trotta, D; De Simone, M; Morgese, G; Chiarelli, F

    2003-04-01

    Few data are available regarding leptin levels in children with different pubertal stages or with precocious puberty (PP). The aim of this study was to assess the changes in serum leptin levels in patients with PP. We studied 20 girls with PP, with Tanner stage II-III; the age at the beginning of pubertal signs ranged from 4.2 to 7.1 yr; all the girls had an advantaged bone age. Controls were subdivided in two groups: group 1: 20 pre-pubertal girls with the same chronological age of the patients, without any signs of pubertal development (Tanner stage I); group 2: 20 additional girls with the same bone age, pubertal stage and body mass index (BMI) of the girls with PP. Serum leptin levels in females with PP are similar to those found in subjects with normal puberty (9.0 +/- 0.8 vs 9.1 +/- 0.9 ng/ml; ns) and different from subjects with the same chronological age without activation of puberty (5.6 +/- 0.9 ng/ml, p < 0.001). In all groups leptin levels correlated significantly with BMI (girls with PP: r = 0.5 1, p < 0.02; control group 1 girls: r = 0.71; p < 0.0001; control group 2 girls: r = 0.49; p < 0.02), there was no significant relationship between leptin and activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Our results indicate that the serum leptin levels in the girls with PP are not significantly different from levels in healthy girls at a similar stage of pubertal development, suggesting that the relationship between serum leptin levels and BMI is also present in this pathological situation.

  19. Vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls

    PubMed Central

    Stricker, T; Navratil, F; Sennhauser, F

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective study evaluated the clinical features and findings in bacterial cultures and in microscopic examination of vaginal secretions in 80 prepubertal girls, aged 2–12 years, with vulvovaginitis. Vaginal secretions were obtained directly from the vagina with a sterile catheter carefully inserted into the vagina. Pathogenic bacteria were isolated in 36% of cases. In 59% of these cases the isolated pathogen was group A ß-haemolytic streptococcus. Candida was not found in any of the patients. The finding of leucocytes in vaginal secretions as an indicator for growth of pathogenic bacteria had a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 59%. Antimicrobial treatment should therefore be based on bacteriological findings of vaginal secretions and not on the presence of leucocytes alone. PMID:12651758

  20. A message to school girls.

    PubMed

    Akinwande, A

    1993-06-01

    Information, education, and communication (IEC) programs need to be strengthened to appeal to adolescents, who are increasingly contributing to unwanted pregnancy and are using abortion as a means of birth control. Successful IEC programs have the following characteristics: 1) established communication theories that guide development of materials; 2) a multimedia and a mass media approach to information dissemination, and 3) emphasis on visual displays. The primary emphasis should be on presentation of a concise, clear message with the appropriate visual medium. Many communication specialists in developing countries, however, lack the training to design and use effective IEC software. Designing effective messages involves a process of integrating scientific ideas with artistic appeal. The aim is to stimulate the target audience to change its behavior of life style. The message must be convincing and contain practical and useful information. The IEC Software Design Cycle focuses on analysis and diagnosis, design production, pretesting and modification, and distribution and evaluation. Each of these processes are described. Necessary before any attempt is made is obtaining data on historical, sociocultural, and demographic characteristics, economic activities, health and social services, communication infrastructure, marriage and family life patterns, and decision making systems. Focus group discussions may be used to collect information about the target group. An example is given of the process of development, in a course through the Center or African Family Studies, of a poster about premarital sex directed to 11-16 year olds. On the basis of focus group discussions, it was decided that the message would be to encourage girls to talk with their mothers about family life and premarital sex. The poster was produced with 2 school girls talking in front of the school. The evaluation yielded modifications such as including a school building that resembled actual

  1. Educating for the future: adolescent girls' health and education in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rees, Chris A; Long, Katelyn N; Gray, Bobbi; West, Joshua H; Chanani, Sheila; Spielberg, Freya; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent girls in India carry a disproportionate burden of health and social risks; girls that do not finish secondary education are more likely to have an earlier age of sexual initiation, engage in risky sexual behavior, and consequentially be at greater risk of dying from pregnancy-related causes. This paper presents a comparison of girls in school and girls not in school from 665 participants in rural West Bengal, India. The social cognitive theory (SCT), a comprehensive theoretical model, was used as a framework to describe the personal, behavioral, and environmental factors affecting the lives of these adolescent girls. There were significant differences between girls in and out of school in all three categories of the SCT; girls in school were more likely to have heard of sexually transmitted diseases or infections than girls not in school (p<0.0001). Girls in school were also more likely than girls not in school to boil water before drinking (p=0.0078), and girls in school lived in dwellings with 2.3 rooms on average, whereas girls not in school lived in dwellings with only 1.7 rooms (p<0.0001). Indian adolescent girls who are not in school are disadvantaged both economically and by their lack of health knowledge and proper health behaviors when compared with girls who are still in school. In addition, to programs to keep girls in school, efforts should also be made to provide informal education to girls not in school to improve their health knowledge and behaviors.

  2. India's "nowhere" girls. Voices of girls 1: India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S

    1998-01-01

    In India, a 12-year-old girl rises before dawn to complete household chores before heading off to work in the fields herding animals or plucking weeds. When this work is unavailable, she migrates to quarries or brick kilns with her landless parents. This scenario is not unusual, as millions of Indian girls are denied schooling so they can contribute to their family's income. Child agricultural laborers are invisible in official statistics, and girls have a harder life than their brothers who have no household duties and are given more to eat. A large number of girls work in factories or homes producing matches, incense, cigarettes, locks, or brassware or polishing gems. There are no statistics describing how many girls are domestic servants in Bombay or rag-pickers, fish-cleaners, or beggars, but an estimated 500,000 girls under age 15 work as prostitutes. Child labor is defined as work that is detrimental to a child's growth and development, and there are 20-100 million child laborers in India. In Bombay, most girl laborers live and work in conditions that threaten their health, and they experience malnutrition and its attendant diseases as well as occupational hazards. Girls also suffer from the son preference that reduces the amount of time girls are breast fed, the amount of health care they receive, their access to education, and their marriage age. Legislation against child labor has proved ineffectual and will continue to be useless until poverty is reduced in India, educational statutes are enforced, and other policy issues are addressed.

  3. Korean Physical Society's Physics Camp for High School Girls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngah; Yoon, Jin-Hee

    2005-10-01

    The Women's Committee of the Korean Physical Society organized physics camps during the summers of 2002, 2003, and 2004 for high school girls. The camps give the girls an opportunity to meet and interact with working physicists and enhance smart-girl networking. About 40 students in 10 teams visited excellent laboratories in universities and research institutes located in diverse areas of the country. The girls explored the work going on in each laboratory for a few days and participated in some basic experiments when possible. Afterward they gathered at the on-site camp for oral and poster presentations about what they learned and what they did in the laboratories they visited. Their presentations were evaluated and prizes awarded for outstanding teams. These camps were successful in terms of attracting many enthusiastic girl students and enhancing their interest in physics. The camps also showed the Korean physics community the importance of this kind of activity. To attract many girl students from various regions of the country, the Korean Physical Society co-organized the physics camp with the WISE (Women in Science and Engineering) Center, which has a network system for girl students interested in science and mathematics. The 2004 KPS-ASML-WISE Physics camp was supported by the ASML Foundation in the Netherlands.

  4. Bridging Differences -- how Social Relationships and Racial Diversity Matter in a Girls' Technology Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kekelis, Linda S.; Ancheta, Rebecca Wepsic; Heber, Etta; Countryman, Jeri

    In this article, we explore an understudied dimension of girls' single-sex education - how social relationships and racial diversity impact the educational environment for girls, and how teachers may best address these concerns. Findings are presented from a 3-year qualitative study of girls' experiences in a single-sex technology program. Girls valued the all-girls aspect of the programs, and friendships formed the foundation of their social experiences. Girls' friendship groups influenced their experiences and eventually their success in the after school technology programs. When friendship groups were observed to be racially homogeneous, they created challenges for including and supporting a racially diverse student membership. Our responses to the challenges that cultural differences and tensions present are outlined, along with recommendations for helping girls bridge these differences.

  5. Attracting Girls into Physics (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadalla, Afaf

    2009-04-01

    A recent international study of women in physics showed that enrollment in physics and science is declining for both males and females and that women are severely underrepresented in careers requiring a strong physics background. The gender gap begins early in the pipeline, from the first grade. Girls are treated differently than boys at home and in society in ways that often hinder their chances for success. They have fewer freedoms, are discouraged from accessing resources or being adventurous, have far less exposure to problem solving, and are not encouraged to choose their lives. In order to motivate more girl students to study physics in the Assiut governorate of Egypt, the Assiut Alliance for the Women and Assiut Education District collaborated in renovating the education of physics in middle and secondary school classrooms. A program that helps in increasing the number of girls in science and physics has been designed in which informal groupings are organized at middle and secondary schools to involve girls in the training and experiences needed to attract and encourage girls to learn physics. During implementation of the program at some schools, girls, because they had not been trained in problem-solving as boys, appeared not to be as facile in abstracting the ideas of physics, and that was the primary reason for girls dropping out of science and physics. This could be overcome by holding a topical physics and technology summer school under the supervision of the Assiut Alliance for the Women.

  6. Status of tribal girl child.

    PubMed

    Dashora, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes socioeconomic conditions for the girl child among tribals in India. India has the largest tribal population in the world: about 67.7 million in 1991. 1 in every 12 Indian women is a tribal woman. Tribal populations are distributed unevenly across India. 85% of the tribal population live in the central belt extending from Gujarat and Rajasthan to Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and Bihar states to the east. There are 250 officially recognized tribal groups. Article 46 of the Constitution provides for special care in education and economic matters for scheduled tribes (STs) and for protection from social injustice and exploitation. In practice, STs are denied rights over resources, and their social governing systems are not recognized. Tribal girls do not have the same inheritance rights, except in matrilineal society. The incidence of child labor is very high. Girls are paid less than boys and are forced to stay home from school to care for younger siblings. Tribal girls are denied nutritious food and proper health care. Literacy among tribal women increased from 3.16% in 1961 to 18.19% in 1991. Male literacy increased from 13.04% to 32.5%. Girl children are enrolled in school but are withdrawn early. Lower female enrollment is attributed to lack of parental awareness, lack of institutional support, girls who are the eldest in the family, irrelevant school curricula, and teaching in a language different from the child's spoken language. During 1991-92, there were insufficient numbers of schools for girls. Tribal mothers have high rates of anemia, and girl children receive less than the desired nutritional level. Tribal girls suffer from inadequate food intake, hard work, and diseases. The community is also deficient in adequate food intake. Tribals have learned to live with minimum subsistence. Tribals need to be made aware of politics, economic opportunities, and how to achieve a higher quality of life. PMID:12158010

  7. Status of tribal girl child.

    PubMed

    Dashora, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes socioeconomic conditions for the girl child among tribals in India. India has the largest tribal population in the world: about 67.7 million in 1991. 1 in every 12 Indian women is a tribal woman. Tribal populations are distributed unevenly across India. 85% of the tribal population live in the central belt extending from Gujarat and Rajasthan to Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, and Bihar states to the east. There are 250 officially recognized tribal groups. Article 46 of the Constitution provides for special care in education and economic matters for scheduled tribes (STs) and for protection from social injustice and exploitation. In practice, STs are denied rights over resources, and their social governing systems are not recognized. Tribal girls do not have the same inheritance rights, except in matrilineal society. The incidence of child labor is very high. Girls are paid less than boys and are forced to stay home from school to care for younger siblings. Tribal girls are denied nutritious food and proper health care. Literacy among tribal women increased from 3.16% in 1961 to 18.19% in 1991. Male literacy increased from 13.04% to 32.5%. Girl children are enrolled in school but are withdrawn early. Lower female enrollment is attributed to lack of parental awareness, lack of institutional support, girls who are the eldest in the family, irrelevant school curricula, and teaching in a language different from the child's spoken language. During 1991-92, there were insufficient numbers of schools for girls. Tribal mothers have high rates of anemia, and girl children receive less than the desired nutritional level. Tribal girls suffer from inadequate food intake, hard work, and diseases. The community is also deficient in adequate food intake. Tribals have learned to live with minimum subsistence. Tribals need to be made aware of politics, economic opportunities, and how to achieve a higher quality of life.

  8. Girls Back Off Mathematics Again: The Views and Experiences of Girls in Computer-Based Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Colleen

    2002-01-01

    Presents the views and experiences of six girls in two co-educational mathematics classrooms in which computers were regularly used. Indicates a diversity of experiences and views and multiple gender identities. Discusses implications for social justice in mathematics in the age of the information super highway. (Author/KHR)

  9. Nobody's perfect: a qualitative examination of African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' perceptions of body image.

    PubMed

    Pope, Michell; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye Z

    2014-06-01

    Using semi-structured interviews, we explored African American maternal caregivers' and their adolescent girls' (N=25 dyads) perceptions about the adolescent's body using Grounded Theory. Caregivers and adolescent girls (Mage=13.42) were asked what the adolescent girls liked most/least about their bodies and how peers and media may affect adolescent girls' perceptions. While some adolescent girls reported overall body satisfaction, others described features they would like to change. Belief in God, body acceptance, and appreciation for average/moderate features helped the adolescent girls maintain their positive body image. The body-related messages that adolescent girls received from caregivers and peers included compliments, pressure to lose weight, teasing, and advice. Adolescent girls also reported being either influenced by or skeptical of the images presented in the media. Programs that promote caregiver-adolescent communication about body perceptions and that build on the adolescent girls' media skepticism may prove useful for their health-related attitudes and behaviors.

  10. Understanding Girls' Circle as an Intervention on Perceived Social Support, Body Image, Self-Efficacy, Locus of Control, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steese, Stephanie; Dollette, Maya; Phillips, William; Hossfeld, Elizabeth; Matthews, Gail; Taormina, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    The Girls' Circle is a support group for adolescent girls developed by Beth Hossfeld and Giovanna Taormina as a unique program that addresses the needs of girls by focusing on increasing connections, building empathic skills, and developing resiliency. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of the Girls' Circle intervention on improving…

  11. Girls Online Feeling Out of Bounds: Girl Scout Research Institute Study on Teenage Girls and the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    A study of girls' Internet usage collected data from 1,246 girls aged 13-18 via focus groups, personal journals, and surveys. Many girls didn't know how to react to situations like pornography or sexual harassment in chat room conversations. Girls wanted proactive involvement from adults, not just prohibitive advice, on navigating the Internet.…

  12. Cognitive Distortions about Sex and Sexual Offending: A Comparison of Sex Offending Girls, Delinquent Girls, and Girls from the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Elizabeth K.; Hecker, Jeffrey E.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive distortions about sexual offending were examined in 11 girls who committed sexual offenses, 12 girls who committed non-sexual criminal offenses, and 21 girls with no history of sexual or non-sexual offending. Participants responded to 12 vignettes that described sexual contact between an adolescent girl and a younger boy. The vignettes…

  13. Metastatic Crohn's disease in a Chinese girl.

    PubMed

    Yu, J T H T; Chong, L Y; Lee, K C

    2006-12-01

    Metastatic Crohn's disease, in which non-caseating granulomatous infiltration of the skin occurs at sites separated from the gastro-intestinal tract by normal tissue, is the least common dermatologic manifestation of Crohn's disease. We report a 15-year-old girl with metastatic Crohn's disease presenting as granulomatous vulvar papules and nodules with typical histopathologic features. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of metastatic Crohn's disease in Chinese children reported in the English medical literature.

  14. Forefoot pain in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Veenema, K R

    1999-01-01

    A 12-year-old girl struck her left foot against a wall during a school basketball game but continued to play, despite a minor injury. During the following days, she developed mild forefoot swelling and persistent discomfort in the foot. She presented to her primary care physician, and plain x-rays were unremarkable. She was diagnosed as having a foot sprain and was given no specific treatment.

  15. Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly-active 8th grade girls

    PubMed Central

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Dowda, Marsha; Beets, Michael W.; Pate, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose While girls are generally less physically active than boys, some girls regularly engage in high levels of physical activity (PA); however, very little is known about these girls and how they differ from those who are less physically active. This study examined the PA behavior and related characteristics of highly-active adolescent girls and compared them with those who are less active. Methods Data from 1,866 8th grade girls from 6 field centers across the U.S. participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were included in the present analysis. Mixed model ANOVAs examined differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and physical activity (accelerometry and self-report) variables between high- and low-active girls; effect sizes were calculated for the differences. Results High-active girls were taller, had lower BMIs and body fat, and were less sedentary. High-active girls scored higher on self-efficacy, enjoyment of PA, self-management strategies, outcome-expectancy value, and support from family and friends than low-active girls. Low-active girls participated in more leisure-time and educational sedentary activities than high-active girls. High-active girls participated in more PA classes/lessons outside of school, team sports, and individual sports. They were also more likely to participate in sports in an organized setting in the community or at school than low-active girls. Conclusions Health promotion efforts should focus on decreasing the amount of time girls spend in sedentary activities and replacing that time with organized PA opportunities; such efforts should seek to minimize perceived barriers and increase self-efficacy and support for PA. PMID:23384978

  16. Bad little girls.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Carlo

    2008-04-01

    The characters, in little girl style, who more and more often appear in advertisements, glossy magazines, television programs and megastores, and who can be encountered in the streets of many cities, are not the product of an ephimerous fashion dictated by the logic of the market. They come from far away, disquieting and erotic, and have crossed all the cultures of the western world, fascinating and disconcerting the soul with their power of seduction. They are the nymphs of Greek mythology, and not even the gods were able to resist them, knowing very well that their bodies are a place of knowledge that could lead to insanity. The paradox of the nymph is that possessing her means being possessed. After an overview of the myth of possession by nymphs, the author discusses certain illustrious figures of western culture of the 19th and 20th century possessed by a nymph: Aby Warburg, Martin Heidegger, Carl Gustav Jung, Henrik Ibsen and Emil Cioran. In all of them the possession by a nymph unfolded in keeping with the myth: intellectual fervor was common to all, insanity in Warburg, rapacious egotism in Heidegger and Jung, and a metamorphosis of Weltanshaung in Ibsen and Cioran. Nonetheless, they all, in their encounter with a nymph, laid bare their multifaceted identities, the muddy depths and the "heart of darkness" of their souls. PMID:18551822

  17. Bad little girls.

    PubMed

    Maggini, Carlo

    2008-04-01

    The characters, in little girl style, who more and more often appear in advertisements, glossy magazines, television programs and megastores, and who can be encountered in the streets of many cities, are not the product of an ephimerous fashion dictated by the logic of the market. They come from far away, disquieting and erotic, and have crossed all the cultures of the western world, fascinating and disconcerting the soul with their power of seduction. They are the nymphs of Greek mythology, and not even the gods were able to resist them, knowing very well that their bodies are a place of knowledge that could lead to insanity. The paradox of the nymph is that possessing her means being possessed. After an overview of the myth of possession by nymphs, the author discusses certain illustrious figures of western culture of the 19th and 20th century possessed by a nymph: Aby Warburg, Martin Heidegger, Carl Gustav Jung, Henrik Ibsen and Emil Cioran. In all of them the possession by a nymph unfolded in keeping with the myth: intellectual fervor was common to all, insanity in Warburg, rapacious egotism in Heidegger and Jung, and a metamorphosis of Weltanshaung in Ibsen and Cioran. Nonetheless, they all, in their encounter with a nymph, laid bare their multifaceted identities, the muddy depths and the "heart of darkness" of their souls.

  18. Writing Like a Good Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitler, Helen Collins

    2008-01-01

    In a montage of genres, Helen Collins Sitler illuminates the subtle yet powerful, often detrimental messages we send to girls that silence their public and private voices and diminish their opportunities to question and learn.

  19. Early-onset anorexia nervosa in girls with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome.

  20. Early-onset anorexia nervosa in girls with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dudova, Iva; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders frequently occur in conjunction with autism spectrum disorders, posing diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. The comorbidity of anorexia nervosa and Asperger syndrome is a significant clinical complication and has been associated with a poorer prognosis. The authors are presenting the cases of an eleven-year-old girl and a five-and-a-half-year-old girl with comorbid eating disorders and Asperger syndrome. PMID:26170676

  1. Does worry moderate the relation between aggression and depression in adolescent girls?

    PubMed

    Blain-Arcaro, Christine; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2016-06-01

    Aggressive girls, more so than aggressive boys, are at an increased risk for depression. Despite disconcerting outcomes, few researchers have examined factors that may attenuate or exacerbate the relation between aggression and depression. Competing hypotheses for explaining the role of worry in the relation between aggressive behaviour and depressive symptoms, commonly co-occurring problems in girls, have been proposed. In the present study, we examined worry as a possible moderator in the relation between girls nominated as aggressive by their peers and self-reported depressive symptoms in a sample of 226 girls aged 13 (M = 12.92, SD = 1.28) at Time 1. We found that worry exacerbated the risk of depressive symptoms concurrently and one year later for physically aggressive girls, but not relationally aggressive girls. These results suggest that worry plays an important role in the prediction of depression for aggressive girls, which varies by the form aggression takes.

  2. Body Talk for Girls Growing Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This pamphlet, targeted to girls, discusses issues surrounding puberty. The introduction describes the reaction of parents' to their children's process of growing up, as well as the reaction of other boys and girls to the physical changes of puberty. Physical changes that happen during puberty for girls and boys are listed. Books for girls on…

  3. Aspiring Girls: Great Expectations or Impossible Dreams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Gill; Posnett, Carol

    2012-01-01

    This study explores girls' aspirations for their future. The context was an ex-coalmining area where concerns had been raised by the local authority about the levels of girls' achievement. The focus of the research was the views of Year 6 girls as they prepared for their transition to secondary school and Year 11 girls as they prepared for their…

  4. Listening to girls and boys talk about girls' physical activity behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vu, Maihan B; Murrie, Dale; Gonzalez, Vivian; Jobe, Jared B

    2006-02-01

    As part of the formative assessment for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a multicenter study to reduce the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls, girls and boys with diverse ethnicity from six states participated in focus groups and semistructured interviews. Data from 13 girls' focus groups (N = 100), 11 boys' focus groups (N = 77), and 80 semistructured interviews with girls are examined to identify perceptions of girls' physical activity behaviors to help develop TAAG interventions. Both girls and boys talk about physically active girls as being "tomboys" or "too aggressive." Girls are more likely to characterize active girls as "in shape," whereas boys say they are "too athletic." Girls report boys to be influential barriers and motivators in shaping their beliefs about physical activity. Given the strong influence of peers, developing successful interventions for girls should include verbal persuasion, modeling, and social support from both girls and boys.

  5. Girl child and sexual victimisation.

    PubMed

    Krishna, K P

    1995-01-01

    This article offers 12 suggestions for improving the protection of sexually victimized children and discusses the extent, form, causes, and consequences of sexual victimization of female children in India. Female victimization includes child marriage, polygamy, rape, incest, and kidnapping for immoral purposes. A female child is victimized from birth to maturity. Girls are born into a secondary status and married off. If her dowry is meager, a girl is subjected to ridicule, criticism, or denigration. The number of prosecuted sex offenses against girls and the number of reported sex offenses increased during 1980-89. However, most sex offenses are unreported. About 63% of rape cases pertain to girls 16-30 years old. Only 18% of rape cases occur among women over age 30. During 1971-89, kidnapping increased by over 79%. Most kidnapping involves girls 3-16 years old and is connected with prostitution, begging, sexual gratification, unemployment, extreme poverty, broken homes, and antisocial surroundings. One study in 1991 found that 48% of adolescent school girls had been molested. Another study in 1985 found that 54.29% of rape victims were 7-16 years old, and 3.27% were under 7 years old. 53.88% were unmarried, and 45.32% were married. Most of the victims were unemployed, dependents, or students. Most rapists are known by the victims. The rapist and the victims tend to come from middle or lower socioeconomic classes. Brother-sister incest is about 5 times more common than father-daughter incest. The literature suggests that children are sexually abused for pleasure or material gain. A current city study found that 15% of prostitutes were under 15 years old; 24.5% were 16-18 years old. Girls enter prostitution through a temple devdasi life, abduction, regular employment, and initiation by parents and brothel keepers. Marriage victimizes girls who marry at an early age or with a poor dowry. PMID:12158001

  6. Premature thelarche in Taiwanese girls.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Ting; Tung, Yi-Ching; Tsai, Wen-Yu

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to understand the clinical features and natural course of Taiwanese girls with premature thelarche (PT). The medical records of 91 Taiwanese girls with PT who were diagnosed younger than six and have been regularly followed up for more than two years were reviewed. For comparison, GnRH test was also done in 25 girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) and 10 normal prepubertal girls. The age of onset of these patients was 1.5 +/- 1.6 years and 79% of them developed PT before the age of two. Girls with PT had intermediate degree of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian activity between prepuberty and CPP with FSH-predominant response to GnRH stimulation. 87% of patients have complete regression of breast development during 3.8 +/- 2.5 years' follow-up but 19% of them have progressed to CPP during follow-up. We conclude that Taiwanese girls with PT more often developed within the first two years of life. Activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis with predominant FSH activity during infancy may contribute to its development. In addition, PT is not always a benign self-limited condition, and clinicians should be cautious about pubertal development of these patients.

  7. Cyberspace violence against girls and adolescent females.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, June F

    2006-11-01

    Children and adolescents today are the first generation raised in a society in which technological literacy is essential for effective citizenship in the 21st century. With many more youth using digital technologies for educational and recreational purposes, there has been an increase in social problems in cyberspace, exposing them to different forms of cyberviolence. This article gives an overview of the developments in cyberspace, describes different types of cyberviolence, and focuses on cyberbullying among girls and adolescent females as both victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. At-risk online activities among girls and adolescent females as well as strategies to promote cybersafety are presented. Current research and future directions for research are reviewed. PMID:17189499

  8. Case presentation and images of a lingual osseous choristoma in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Stanford, James K; Spencer, James C; Reed, J Mark

    2015-01-01

    Since its original description in 1913, fewer than 100 lingual osseous choristomas have been reported in the literature; thus, prevalence is unknown. We describe a case of an 11 year old male who was seen in consultation after an incidental left posterior tongue mass was discovered on exam. The patient's presentation of an asymptomatic, hard, pedunculate posterior tongue lesion is typical; however, if one is to believe the proposed congenital remnant theory in regards to the etiology of this benign tumor, it is curious that no mention was made of a lesion of the tongue on prior evaluations by his pediatrician or on the otolaryngologic examinations performed 3 and 6 years prior to the most recent presentation. Included with the case description are interesting radiographs, intra-operative photos, gross specimen photo and microscopic images. PMID:26545466

  9. Case presentation and images of a lingual osseous choristoma in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Stanford, James K; Spencer, James C; Reed, J Mark

    2015-01-01

    Since its original description in 1913, fewer than 100 lingual osseous choristomas have been reported in the literature; thus, prevalence is unknown. We describe a case of an 11 year old male who was seen in consultation after an incidental left posterior tongue mass was discovered on exam. The patient's presentation of an asymptomatic, hard, pedunculate posterior tongue lesion is typical; however, if one is to believe the proposed congenital remnant theory in regards to the etiology of this benign tumor, it is curious that no mention was made of a lesion of the tongue on prior evaluations by his pediatrician or on the otolaryngologic examinations performed 3 and 6 years prior to the most recent presentation. Included with the case description are interesting radiographs, intra-operative photos, gross specimen photo and microscopic images.

  10. Tall girls: the social shaping of a medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joyce M; Howell, Joel D

    2006-10-01

    During the latter half of the 20th century, estrogen therapy was administered to prevent otherwise healthy girls with tall stature from becoming tall adults by inhibiting further linear growth. We explore how decisions to treat tall girls with estrogen were influenced by both scientific knowledge and sociologic norms. Estrogen therapy represented the logical application of scientific knowledge regarding the role of estrogen for closure of the growth plates, but it also reflected prevailing societal and political beliefs about what it meant to be a tall girl. We discuss the rise and fall in popularity of this therapy and suggest that insight into the present-day treatment of short stature can be gained by comparing the use of estrogen therapy for tall girls with the use of growth hormone therapy for short boys. We suggest that this case study illustrates how scientific knowledge is always created and applied within a particular social context. PMID:17018462

  11. Creating "Buddy Partnerships" with 5- and 11-Year Old-Boys: A Methodological Approach to Conducting Participatory Research with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Rachael; Thompson, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    Building on literature concerning participatory research, this article explores the use of "buddy partnership" as a technique to access the voices of young children. In this study, 5- to 6-year-old boys were paired with 11- to 12-year-old boys, and each dyad was asked to contribute towards the creation of an information DVD that would…

  12. Childhood in Crisis? Perceptions of 7-11-Year-Olds on Being a Child and the Implications for Education's Well-Being Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Notions of a good childhood are inextricably linked with well-being. Both concepts are central to a contentious debate about the quality of childhood in the UK, which is partly situated within the "childhood in crisis" discourse which opponents claim is overstated. This study contributes to the debate by hearing the voices of children as…

  13. Sex, Intelligence and Educational Achievement in a National Cohort of over 175,000 11-Year-Old Schoolchildren in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Catherine M.; Fernandes, Cres; Smith, Pauline; Visscher, Peter M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    General cognitive ability ("g") does not explain sex differences in academic test performance by the end of compulsory education. Instead, individual differences in specific reasoning abilities, after removing the effects of "g," may contribute to the observed gender gaps. Associations between general or specific cognitive abilities, sex, and…

  14. Emotional Reactivity and the Emergence of Conduct Problems and Emotional Symptoms in 7- to 11-Year-Olds: A 1-Year Follow-up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Carla; Petersen, Nancy; Goodyer, Ian

    2008-01-01

    A study to investigate the relation between psychopathology and predictive validity of emotional reactivity in children over a 1-year follow up period was conducted. The investigation was done using the International Affective Picture System to determine individual differences in the emotional and attention process involved in appetitive and…

  15. The Reading Lives of 8 to 11-Year-Olds 2005-2013: An Evidence Paper for the Read On. Get On. Coalition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This report focuses on children aged 8 to 11 and their enjoyment of reading, reading behaviour, and attitudes toward reading. It synthesises information from surveys that have been conducted since 2005, but most heavily exploits data from the fourth annual literacy survey conducted in November/December 2013 in which 10,946 8 to 11-year-olds…

  16. A longitudinal study of semantic grouping strategy use in 6-11-year-old children: investigating developmental phases, the role of working memory, and strategy transfer.

    PubMed

    Schleepen, Tamara M J; Jonkman, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    This two-cohort longitudinal study on the development of the semantic grouping strategy had three goals. First, the authors examined if 6-7-year-olds are nonstrategic before becoming strategic after prompting at 8-9 years of age, and if 8-9-year-olds are prompted strategic before spontaneous strategy use at 10-11 years of age. Children 6-7 and 8-9 years old performed two sort-recall tasks (one without and one with a grouping prompt) at two time points separated 1.5 years from each other. Second, the authors investigated whether short-term or working memory capacity at time point 1 predicted recall in children who did or did not use the semantic grouping strategy 1.5 years later. Third, the authors investigated whether prompted strategic children and children who used the strategy spontaneously differed in strategy transfer to a new task. Developmental results confirmed previous cross-sectional results, but in a longitudinal two-cohort study 6-7-year-olds were nonstrategic, and became prompted strategic around 8-9 years of age, followed by spontaneous strategy use at age 10-11 years. The authors found that memory capacity was not predictive of later use of the strategy. New findings were that prompted strategic children were as equally able as spontaneously strategic children to transfer the strategy to a new task, albeit with smaller recall benefits. PMID:25375863

  17. Number of players who gain ball possession as a function of basketball mass among 9-11-year-old male players.

    PubMed

    Arias, José L; Argudo, Francisco M; Alonso, José I

    2011-10-01

    This study analyzed whether a ball with a higher (540-g) or lower (440-g) mass than the regulation ball (485-g) resulted in a larger number of participants gaining ball possession during games. Prior studies have indicated that ball handling is facilitated by decreasing the mass of the ball. It was assumed that a greater number of children gaining possession of the ball indicated greater ease of use and more control. Thus, the hypothesis was that the number of participants who gained ball possession would increase when using a ball of lower mass. The participants were 54 boys from six youth basketball teams. Participants played four games with each one of the three different balls and the number of possessions was calculated using videos of each game. The hypothesis was only partially supported: the number of participants who gained possession with the regular ball was similar to that with the 440-g ball and with the 540-g ball, but a greater number of participants gained possession with the 440-g ball in comparison to the 540-g ball. This result suggests balls that differ by more than 65 g may affect actual game outcomes.

  18. Relationships between Parental Education and Overweight with Childhood Overweight and Physical Activity in 9–11 Year Old Children: Results from a 12-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Muthuri, Stella K.; Onywera, Vincent O.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Church, Timothy S.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children has serious implications for morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood. Various parental factors are associated with childhood overweight and physical activity. The objective of this paper was to investigate relationships between parental education or overweight, and (i) child overweight, (ii) child physical activity, and (iii) explore household coexistence of overweight, in a large international sample. Methods Data were collected from 4752 children (9–11 years) as part of the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment in 12 countries around the world. Physical activity of participating children was assessed by accelerometry, and body weight directly measured. Questionnaires were used to collect parents’ education level, weight, and height. Results Maternal and paternal overweight were positively associated with child overweight. Higher household coexistence of parent-child overweight was observed among overweight children compared to the total sample. There was a positive relationship between maternal education and child overweight in Colombia 1.90 (1.23–2.94) [odds ratio (confidence interval)] and Kenya 4.80 (2.21–10.43), and a negative relationship between paternal education and child overweight in Brazil 0.55 (0.33–0.92) and the USA 0.54 (0.33–0.88). Maternal education was negatively associated with children meeting physical activity guidelines in Colombia 0.53 (0.33–0.85), Kenya 0.35 (0.19–0.63), and Portugal 0.54 (0.31–0.96). Conclusions Results are aligned with previous studies showing positive associations between parental and child overweight in all countries, and positive relationships between parental education and child overweight or negative associations between parental education and child physical activity in lower economic status countries. Relationships between maternal and paternal education and child weight status and physical activity appear to be related to the developmental stage of different countries. Given these varied relationships, it is crucial to further explore familial factors when investigating child overweight and physical activity. PMID:27557132

  19. The enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program: The relationship between internalizing symptoms and family functioning in children aged 9–11 years old

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Patricia; Rooney, Rosanna M.; Kane, Robert T.; Hassan, Sharinaz; Nesa, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The family context plays a critical role in the health of the child. This was the first study to examine the usefulness of the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device (FAD-GF) in assessing family functioning and its relationship to internalizing symptoms in school-aged children aged between 9 and 11 years of age. Eight hundred and forty-seven year 4 and 5 students from 13 schools (607 intervention students, and 240 control students) participated in the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS) – a universal school-based program targeting internalizing symptoms. Students rated how ‘healthy’ they perceived their family to be at pre-test and at 6-months follow-up. Although some aspects of validity and reliability could be improved, results indicated that perceptions of family functioning at pre-test were predictive of internalizing symptoms at the 6-months follow-up. The FAD-GF therefore showed promise as a potential measure of family functioning for children as young as 9 years old. Regardless of children’s pre-test levels of perceived family functioning, no intervention effects were found on the anxiety and depression scales; this finding suggests that child perceptions of family functioning may act as a general protective factor against internalizing symptomology. PMID:25983698

  20. Children's Subjective Emotional Reactivity to Affective Pictures: Gender Differences and Their Antisocial Correlates in an Unselected Sample of 7-11-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Carla; Van Goozen, Stephanie; Goodyer, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Background: Differential responses in terms of gender and antisocial behaviour in emotional reactivity to affective pictures using the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) have been demonstrated in adult and adolescent samples. Moreover, a quadratic relationship between the arousal (intensity) and valence (degree of unpleasantness) has…

  1. A longitudinal study of semantic grouping strategy use in 6-11-year-old children: investigating developmental phases, the role of working memory, and strategy transfer.

    PubMed

    Schleepen, Tamara M J; Jonkman, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    This two-cohort longitudinal study on the development of the semantic grouping strategy had three goals. First, the authors examined if 6-7-year-olds are nonstrategic before becoming strategic after prompting at 8-9 years of age, and if 8-9-year-olds are prompted strategic before spontaneous strategy use at 10-11 years of age. Children 6-7 and 8-9 years old performed two sort-recall tasks (one without and one with a grouping prompt) at two time points separated 1.5 years from each other. Second, the authors investigated whether short-term or working memory capacity at time point 1 predicted recall in children who did or did not use the semantic grouping strategy 1.5 years later. Third, the authors investigated whether prompted strategic children and children who used the strategy spontaneously differed in strategy transfer to a new task. Developmental results confirmed previous cross-sectional results, but in a longitudinal two-cohort study 6-7-year-olds were nonstrategic, and became prompted strategic around 8-9 years of age, followed by spontaneous strategy use at age 10-11 years. The authors found that memory capacity was not predictive of later use of the strategy. New findings were that prompted strategic children were as equally able as spontaneously strategic children to transfer the strategy to a new task, albeit with smaller recall benefits.

  2. Assessing 10- to 11-Year-Old Children's Performance and Misconceptions in Number Sense Using a Four-Tier Diagnostic Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Der-Ching; Lin, Yung-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Number sense is a key topic in mathematics education, and the identification of children's misconceptions about number is, therefore, important. Information about students' serious misconceptions can be quite significant for teachers, allowing them to change their teaching plans to help children overcome these misconceptions. In…

  3. Does Barbie Make Girls Want to be Thin? The Effect of Experimental Exposure to Images of Dolls on the Body Image of 5- to 8-Year-Old Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittmar, Helga; Halliwell, Emma; Ive, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The ubiquitous Barbie doll was examined in the present study as a possible cause for young girls' body dissatisfaction. A total of 162 girls, from age 5 to age 8, were exposed to images of either Barbie dolls, Emme dolls (U.S. size 16), or no dolls (baseline control) and then completed assessments of body image. Girls exposed to Barbie reported…

  4. Girl child and gender bias.

    PubMed

    Chowdhry, D P

    1995-01-01

    This article identifies gender bias against female children and youth in India. Gender bias is based on centuries-old religious beliefs and sayings from ancient times. Discrimination is reflected in denial or ignorance of female children's educational, health, nutrition, and recreational needs. Female infanticide and selective abortion of female fetuses are other forms of discrimination. The task of eliminating or reducing gender bias will involve legal, developmental, political, and administrative measures. Public awareness needs to be created. There is a need to reorient the education and health systems and to advocate for gender equality. The government of India set the following goals for the 1990s: to protect the survival of the girl child and practice safe motherhood; to develop the girl child in general; and to protect vulnerable girl children in different circumstances and in special groups. The Health Authorities should monitor the laws carefully to assure marriage after the minimum age, ban sex determination of the fetus, and monitor the health and nutrition of pre-school girls and nursing and pregnant mothers. Mothers need to be encouraged to breast feed, and to breast feed equally between genders. Every village and slum area needs a mini health center. Maternal mortality must decline. Primary health centers and hospitals need more women's wards. Education must be universally accessible. Enrollments should be increased by educating rural tribal and slum parents, reducing distances between home and school, making curriculum more relevant to girls, creating more female teachers, and providing facilities and incentives for meeting the needs of girl students. Supplementary income could be provided to families for sending girls to school. Recreational activities must be free of gender bias. Dowry, sati, and devdasi systems should be banned.

  5. Recruiting a Diverse Group of Middle School Girls Into the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Elder, John P.; Shuler, LaVerne; Moe, Stacey G.; Grieser, Mira; Pratt, Charlotte; Cameron, Sandra; Hingle, Melanie; Pickrel, Julie L.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Schachter, Kenneth; Greer, Susan; Bothwell, Elizabeth K. Guth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND School-based study recruitment efforts are both time consuming and challenging. This paper highlights the recruitment strategies employed by the national, multisite Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a study designed to measure the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce the decline of physical activity levels among middle school—aged girls. TAAG provided a unique opportunity to recruit large cohorts of randomly sampled girls within 36 diverse middle schools across the United States. METHODS Key elements of the formative planning, coordination, and design of TAAG’s recruitment efforts included flexibility, tailoring, and the use of incentives. Various barriers, including a natural disaster, political tension, and district regulations, were encountered throughout the recruitment process, but coordinated strategies and frequent communication between the 6 TAAG sites were helpful in tailoring the recruitment process at the 36 intervention and control schools. RESULTS Progressively refined recruitment strategies and specific attention to the target audience of middle school girls resulted in overall study recruitment rates of 80%, 85%, and 89%, for the baseline, posttest, and follow-up period, respectively. DISCUSSION The steady increase in recruitment rates over time is attributed to an emphasis on successful strategies and a willingness to modify less successful methods. Open and consistent communication, an increasingly coordinated recruitment strategy, interactive recruitment presentations, and participant incentives resulted in an effective recruitment campaign. PMID:18808471

  6. Severely obese adolescent girls rely earlier on carbohydrates during walking than normal-weight matched girls.

    PubMed

    Gavarry, Olivier; Aguer, Celine; Delextrat, Anne; Lentin, Gregory; Ayme, Karine; Boussuges, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the substrate oxidation rate and the exercise intensity at which maximal lipid oxidation and ventilatory threshold (VT) occur in obese (BMI: 36.6 ± 6.3 kg · m(-2)) and normal-weight adolescent girls (BMI: 18.7 ± 1.6 kg · m(-2)) aged 14-18 years. Substrate oxidation rate was determined by gas exchange using an incremental field test involving walking. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Carbohydrate oxidation rates were significantly higher in obese than in normal-weight girls at speeds ranging from 4 to 6 km · h(-1) (P < 0.05), whereas no significant differences were observed between groups regarding lipid oxidation rates. The crossover point of substrate utilisation and the VT were significantly lower in obese than in normal-weight adolescents (P < 0.05). Maximal lipid oxidation rate was observed at 46 ± 15 and 53 ± 15 %EVO2max in obese and normal-weight adolescents, respectively. At these intensities, the Lipox(max) was significantly lower in obese than in normal-weight girls (6.7 ± 2.3 versus 8.9 ± 3.5 mg · min(-1) · kg(-1) FFM, P < 0.05, 95% CI: -3.7 to -0.7, d = -0.74). The present results have implications in designing interventions to promote lipid oxidation and energy expenditure during walking in severely obese adolescent girls.

  7. Gender Context of the School and Study Culture, or How the Presence of Girls Affects the Achievement of Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtte, Mieke Van

    2004-01-01

    This paper builds on my previous research, explaining the differential achievement of boys and girls in secondary education by the fact that boys' culture is less study orientated than girls' culture. The central question of the present paper is whether the presence of girls at school affects the boys' study culture and, by consequence, boys'…

  8. Girls, pecking order and smoking.

    PubMed

    Michell, L; Amos, A

    1997-06-01

    Against a background of growing concern about the failure to reduce cigarette smoking amongst young people, particularly girls, this paper attempts to unravel the complex interrelationships between smoking, peer group structure and gender. We were particularly intrigued to explore a recent hypothesis in the literature that suggests that girls who smoke, far from lacking self-esteem, are more self-confident and socially skilled than their non-smoking peers. Sociometric and qualitative analyses revealed that smoking behaviour was indeed shaped by gender, and that the psychosocial processes involved in smoking uptake may be different for boys and than for girls. Peer group structure, consistently described by young people as hierarchical, was closely related to smoking behaviour. Girls at the top of the social pecking order who projected an image of high self-esteem were identified as most likely to smoke, while only a small minority of girls fitted the stereotype of the young female smoker who has poor social skills and low self-esteem. Boys of high social status were less vulnerable, since sport and a desire to be fit to some extent protected them. Our findings raise fundamental questions about the meaning of self-esteem in relation to smoking uptake, arguing instead for an exploration of the term "self-worth". They suggest the need for health education programmes which are sensitive both to gender and to peer group structures.

  9. Girl child and family in Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Pandey, D

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the problems of the girl child at the family level in India. Analysis is based on a field study in Maharashtra state and other studies included in a government report on the "Girl Child and the Family." The family context strongly impacts child growth and development. Evidence indicates that a girl child faces discrimination and inequality. Every sixth female death is attributed to gender discrimination. Household tasks prevent girls' school enrollment. Children learn role expectations at home. Daughters are taught their duties and obligations as if they were a piece of property. 25% of the parents in the sample considered a girl's birth with indifference and unhappiness. In 11% of cases, girls were not immunized at all. Breast feeding was short. 31.8% of mothers and 25% of in-laws expected the girl's birth to be a boy. 98.2% of mothers did not rely on sex determination of the fetus. Almost 60% of households did not restrict smiling or crying among boys or girls. 70% restricted laughing loudly. 42.4% restricted only girls' laughing out loud. 17% restricted girls' smiling or crying. 46.5% restricted girls' movement to the house. 42% did not allow daughters to speak to the opposite sex. 17% restricted access to the market for daughters. Girls were encouraged to cook, stitch, and dance. 60% of girls preferred to spend time with girl friends. Boys had better access to movies. 57% of girls spent time on housework. 47% became gender aware from mass media. Most felt frightened at menstruation. 88% of girls thought that all should equally attain the same level of education. Girls received an equal share of food and health care. 87% of girls did not work for wages. Those who worked did not control their income.

  10. Where the girls aren't: High school girls and advanced placement physics enrollment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Susan O'brien

    During the high school years, when many students first have some choice in course selection, research indicates that girls choose to enroll in more math and science courses, take more advanced placement courses, and take more honors courses in English, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and foreign languages than ever before. Yet, not only are boys more likely to take all of the three core science courses (biology, chemistry, and physics), boys enroll in advanced placement physics approximately three times as often as do girls. This study examines the perceptions, attitudes, and aspirations of thirty high school girls enrolled in senior-level science electives in an attempt to understand their high school science course choices, and what factors were influencing them. This is a qualitative investigation employing constructivist grounded theory methods. There are two main contributions of this study. First, it presents a new conceptual and analytical framework to investigate the problem of why some high school girls do not enroll in physics coursework. This framework is grounded in the data and is comprised of three existing feminist perspectives along the liberal/radical continuum of feminist thought. Second, this study illuminates a complex set of reasons why participants avoided high school physics (particularly advanced placement physics) coursework. These reasons emerged as three broad categories related to: (a) a lack of connectedness with physics curriculum and instruction; (b) prior negative experiences with physics and math classroom climates; and (c) future academic goals and career aspirations. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that the problem of high school girls and physics enrollment---particularly advanced placement physics enrollment---is a problem that cannot be evaluated or considered from one perspective.

  11. Measurement characteristics of activity-related psychosocial measures in 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls in the Girls health Enrichment Multisite Study (GEMS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: This paper presents reliability and validity analyses of physical activity-related psychosocial questionnaires completed by 8- to 10-year-old African-American girls at baseline and follow-up assessments of pilot intervention studies in the Girls health Enrichment Multi-site Study (GEMS)....

  12. Girls Just Being Girls? Mediating Relational Aggression and Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radliff, Kisha M.; Joseph, Laurice M.

    2011-01-01

    Although physical aggression has received much attention in the literature, relational aggression has only been explored in the past decade or so. This is problematic given that relational aggression is increasingly prevalent among middle school girls and has become a cause for alarm, as this phenomenon leads to several negative psychological,…

  13. Boys & Girls Clubs of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Silicon Valley youth awarded $145,000 in college scholarships, organization’s highest honor representing four million kids and teens MORE» Boys & Girls Clubs of America and the University of Wisconsin-Madison to Provide Full Tuition Scholarships for Multicultural Arts Program Two full-tuition ...

  14. Making Science Appeal to Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrea, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    It is no secret that many girls seem disinterested in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), but strategies for building their interest are sometimes elusive. Because STEM career paths are not always perceived as "natural" for women, educators do no't always push their female students to explore these educational areas. As a…

  15. "Good Morning Boys and Girls"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2005-01-01

    It happens every day across the nation: Teachers welcome their students to class by saying, "Good morning, boys and girls." It is one of countless ways teachers highlight gender with their speech and behavior. Unfortunately, teachers' use of gender to label students and organize the classroom can have negative consequences. New research in the…

  16. Urogenital complications among girls with genital mutilation: a hospital-based study in Khartoum.

    PubMed

    Almroth, Lars; Bedri, Hibba; El Musharaf, Susan; Satti, Alia; Idris, Tayseer; Hashim, M Sir K; Suliman, Gaafar I; Bergström, Staffan

    2005-08-01

    To explore paediatric complications of female genital mutilation (FGM), 255 consecutive girls aged 4-9 years presenting to an emergency ward in Sudan were included in this clinical study. Full examination, including inspection of genitalia, was performed. Dipsticks for nitrite and leucocytes were used to diagnose suspected urinary tract infection (UTI). Girls with a form of FGM narrowing vulva had significantly more UTI than others, and among girls below the age of seven there was a significant association between FGM and UTI. Only 8% of girls diagnosed as having UTI reported urogenital symptoms. In spite of the fact that 73% of the girls subjected to FGM were reported to have been bedridden for one week or more after the operation, only 10% stated immediate complications. We conclude that FGM contributes significantly to morbidity among girls, a large share of which does not come to medical attention.

  17. Girls' math performance under stereotype threat: the moderating role of mothers' gender stereotypes.

    PubMed

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-07-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed that stereotype threat impaired girls' performance on math tasks among students from kindergarten through 2nd grade. Moreover, mothers' but not fathers' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderated girls' vulnerability to stereotype threat: performance of girls whose mothers strongly rejected the gender stereotype about math did not decrease under stereotype threat. These findings are important because they point to the role of mothers' beliefs in the development of girls' vulnerability to the negative effects of gender stereotypes about math.

  18. Color naming by boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Machen, V

    2002-02-01

    The present study describes a field experiment conducted to test the hypothesis that color naming varies for 56 adolescent boys and 39 girls. No standard color chart such as Munsell, Pantone, or Crayola was used. Instead, subjects identified 15 computer-generated color samples assigned a score based on thescale devised by Rich in 1977 of four color descriptor categories. Findings differed from those of most previous studies, in which women aged over 16 years showed a more elaborate color vocabulary than men. Among the 14- to 16-yr.-old subjects, there was no significant difference in color naming. PMID:11883586

  19. Fasciolopsiasis in a five year old girl.

    PubMed

    Naher, B S; Shahid, A T; Khan, K A; Nargis, S; Hoque, M M

    2013-04-01

    A 5 year old girl hailing from Keraniganj, presented with the complaints of fever, periumbilical pain and vomiting. In vomitus, Fasciolopsis buski worm in adult form was identified by naked eye examination. In stool, ova of Fasciolopsis buski were also observed under microscope. Clinically she was pale and had hepatomegaly. Microcytic hypochromic anaemia with normal liver function test was found on lab investigation. She was diagnosed as a case of Fasciolopsiasis and treated with Praziquantel and on follow up visit she was found to be free of symptom.

  20. Comparing Neuropsychological Profiles between Girls with Asperger's Disorder and Girls with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Megan E.; Culotta, Vincent P.

    2012-01-01

    Research examining neuropsychological profiles of girls with Asperger's disorder (AD) is sparse. In this study, we sought to characterize neurocognitive profiles of girls with AD compared to girls with learning disabilities (LD). Two groups of school-age girls referred for neuropsychological assessment participated in the study. A total of 23…

  1. Listening to Girls and Boys Talk about Girls' Physical Activity Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vu, Maihan B.; Murrie, Dale; Gonzalez, Vivian; Jobe, Jared B.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the formative assessment for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a multicenter study to reduce the decline of physical activity in adolescent girls, girls and boys with diverse ethnicity from six states participated in focus groups and semistructured interviews. Data from 13 girls' focus groups (N = 100), 11 boys' focus…

  2. "It's Murder Out Today": Middle School Girls Speak Out about Girl Fighting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Letendre, Joan; Smith, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Girl fighting and its relational context is a problem that is receiving extensive attention in popular and academic circles. This article reports on a project that gathered the opinions from focus groups of seventh- and eighth-grade girls, organized to understand the perspectives of young adolescent girls in middle school on girl fighting. Both…

  3. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  4. Phenomenology of Depression in Young Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alison; Duax, Jeanne; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Loeber, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of depressive symptoms, the overlap between caregiver and child report, the association between depression and anxiety, and the relationship between symptoms of depression and impairment in young girls. Method: Participants in the Pittsburgh Girls Study, a community sample of 2,451 girls aged 5-8 years old and…

  5. Gifted Girls: What Challenges Do They Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Vickie

    1997-01-01

    Discusses challenges facing gifted girls at all levels of education, including social pressures not to appear gifted. Identifies school factors that negatively impact their education, and provides school strategies for helping gifted girls succeed, including support groups, counseling, and calling on girls in class. (CR)

  6. Working with Challenging Groups of Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditter, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Discusses conflicts among girls in a camp setting and how camp counselors can promote positive changes. Examines conflicting female roles in today's society and girls' reactions. Suggests addressing social dysphoria among girls through outdoor-challenge activities led by credible adult female role models. Includes counseling tips. (SV)

  7. The Young Gifted Girl: A Contemporary View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeper, Annemarie

    2003-01-01

    In this reprint of an article published in 1978, the role of women in society and its impact on gifted girls is discussed. It is argued that gender stereotypes work against gifted girls and that the women's movement has helped gifted girls develop a new image and concept of womanhood. (CR)

  8. Maternal Characteristics Predicting Young Girls' Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Molen, Elsa; Hipwell, Alison E.; Vermeiren, Robert; Loeber, Rolf

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the relative predictive utility of maternal characteristics and parenting skills on the development of girls' disruptive behavior. The current study used five waves of parent- and child-report data from the ongoing Pittsburgh Girls Study to examine these relationships in a sample of 1,942 girls from age 7 to 12 years.…

  9. Improving Girls' Education in Guatemala. Impact Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC. Center for Development Information and Evaluation.

    In Guatemala, many girls attend no school. A project by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), Basic Education Strengthening (BEST), demonstrated that improving educational quality is the best approach to enhancing girls' participation. BEST included a Girls Education Program (GEP) activity. Under the BEST/GEP umbrella,…

  10. Girls' Success: Mentoring Guide for Life Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Mentoring girls is a challenge. Girls will come to mentors with hard questions and great hope. Mentoring is about building trust over a long period of time. If a mentor cares about the girls and follows through with the promises that he or she makes to them, a mentor will be successful in helping them to improve their lives. This "Guide" serves as…

  11. Exploring Work: Fun Activities for Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA. Women's Educational Equity Act Dissemination Center.

    This document contains learning activities to help middle school girls begin the career planning process and resist gender-role stereotyping. The activities are designed for individuals and/or groups of girls either in classroom settings or in organizations such as Girl Scouts and 4-H Clubs. A total of 30 activities are organized into 4 sections…

  12. Middle School Girls' Envisioned Future in Computing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open…

  13. Linking parental socialization to interpersonal protective processes, academic self-presentation, and expectations among rural African American youth.

    PubMed

    Murry, Velma McBride; Berkel, Cady; Brody, Gene H; Miller, Shannon J; Chen, Yi-Fu

    2009-01-01

    Data obtained from 2 waves of a longitudinal study of 671 rural African American families with an 11-year-old preadolescent were used to examine pathways through which racial and ethnic socialization influence youth self-presentation, academic expectations, and academic anticipation. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that racial and ethnic socialization were linked with youth expectations for and anticipation of academic success through youth self-pride, which included racial identity and self-esteem, and through academic self-presentation. The results highlight the need to disaggregate racial and ethnic socialization to attain a better understanding of the ways in which these parenting domains uniquely forecast youth self-pride and academic orientation.

  14. [Incidentaloma in a 16 years old girl -- 2 year observation].

    PubMed

    Basiak, Aleksander; Bolanowski, Marek; Wasikowa, Renata; Noczyńska, Anna; Bednorz, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    Adenomas of the hypophysis are tumors of the CNS which are on the third place in the frequency of appearance, which cause disturbances of hypophyseal function. In children incidentaloma is seldom observed. The authors present a 16-year-old girl who was admitted to the clinic because of amenorrhoea and an increased growth velocity during the last year. The MRI examination of the hypophysis proved a hypophyseal adenoma. Hormonal laboratory examinations do not show any hormonal activity of the observation. The girl's case is presented because the diagnosis of an incidentaloma is exceptionally rare in this age group.

  15. Creating Spaces for Black Adolescent Girls to "Write It Out!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2012-01-01

    Identity and literacy development are two critical processes shaping the life trajectories of adolescents. Identity development in particular can present unique issues for Black adolescent girls, who are positioned in ways to negotiate their identity(ies) when presented with hegemonic language and representations of what is beauty and what is…

  16. Engaging adolescent girls in transactional sex through compensated dating.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Xinshan; Li, Jessica Chi-Mei; Lee, Tak-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Transactional sex through so-called compensated dating in adolescent girls is a problem in need of public concern. Compensated dating typically involves the use of information communication technology to advertise, search, bargain, and eventually arrange for transactional sex. The technology enables the sexual partners to maintain privacy and secrecy in transactional sex. Such secrecy necessitates the girls' disclosure about their life experiences in order to address the concern. The disclosure is the focus of the present qualitative study of 27 girls practicing the dating in Hong Kong, China. Based on the disclosure, the study presents a grounded theory that epitomizes engagement in compensated dating by referential choice. Such a referential choice theory unravels that choice with reference to the family push and social norms sustains the engagement. Meanwhile, the choice rests on expectancy and reinforcement from experiential learning about compensated dating. The theory thus implies ways to undercut the engagement through diverting the referential choice of the dating. PMID:27551992

  17. Interlabial masses in little girls: review and imaging recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Nussbaum, A.R.; Lebowitz, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    When an interlabial mass is seen on physical examination in a little girl, there is often confusion about its etiology, its implications, and what should be done next. Five common interlabial masses, which superficially are strikingly similar, include a prolapsed ectopic ureterocele, a prolapsed urethra, a paraurethral cyst, hydro(metro)colpos, and rhabdomyosarcoma of the vagina (botryoid sarcoma). A prolapsed ectopic ureterocele occurs in white girls as a smooth mass which protrudes from the urethral meatus so that urine exits circumferentially. A prolapsed urethra occurs in black girls and resembles a donut with the urethral meatus in the center. A paraurethral cyst is smaller and displaces the meatus, so that the urinary stream is eccentric. Hydro(metro)colpos from hymenal imperforation presents as a smooth mass that fills the vaginal introitus, as opposed to the introital grapelike cluster of masses of botryoid sarcoma. Recommendations for efficient imaging are presented.

  18. Engaging adolescent girls in transactional sex through compensated dating.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Jia, Xinshan; Li, Jessica Chi-Mei; Lee, Tak-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Transactional sex through so-called compensated dating in adolescent girls is a problem in need of public concern. Compensated dating typically involves the use of information communication technology to advertise, search, bargain, and eventually arrange for transactional sex. The technology enables the sexual partners to maintain privacy and secrecy in transactional sex. Such secrecy necessitates the girls' disclosure about their life experiences in order to address the concern. The disclosure is the focus of the present qualitative study of 27 girls practicing the dating in Hong Kong, China. Based on the disclosure, the study presents a grounded theory that epitomizes engagement in compensated dating by referential choice. Such a referential choice theory unravels that choice with reference to the family push and social norms sustains the engagement. Meanwhile, the choice rests on expectancy and reinforcement from experiential learning about compensated dating. The theory thus implies ways to undercut the engagement through diverting the referential choice of the dating.

  19. Middle school girls' envisioned future in computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Experience is necessary but not sufficient to cause girls to envision a future career in computing. This study investigated the experiences and attitudes of girls who had taken three years of mandatory computer science classes in an all-girls setting in middle school, measured at the end of eighth grade. The one third of participants who were open to computing career were compared to the two thirds were not. Girls open to a computing career had higher interest and confidence in computing, had more social support for computing, and saw themselves as more like a computer scientist than girls who did not want a computing career.

  20. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  1. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: rationale and design

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally and developmental appropriate online obesity prevention program for young African American girls. Methods/Design The Butterfly Girls and the Quest for Founder’s Rock is an 8-episode online program delivered as an animated, interactive comic. The program promotes healthy diet and physical activity and is specifically designed for 8–10 year old African American girls. Girls, parents, and community representatives provided formative feedback on cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. A three-group (treatment, comparison, wait-list control) randomized design (n = 390 parent/child dyads) is employed, with child as the unit of assignment. Change in body mass index is the primary outcome; change in fruit and vegetable consumption, water, and physical activity are secondary outcomes. Data collection occurs at baseline, approximately 3 months after baseline (i.e., completion of the online program), and approximately three months later (i.e., maintenance assessment). Two dietary recalls are collected at each data collection period by trained interviewers using the Nutrient Data System for Research (NDSR 2012) system. Physical activity is objectively measured by seven days of accelerometry. Psychosocial and process data are also collected. Girls in the treatment and comparison groups will be interviewed at post 1 to obtain information on personal reactions to the program. Discussion This research will develop and evaluate the efficacy of an online program for reducing obesity risk among girls at risk of obesity and related diseases. Online programs offer the potential for wide dissemination, thus reducing disparities related to obesity. Trial

  2. Does Barbie make girls want to be thin? The effect of experimental exposure to images of dolls on the body image of 5- to 8-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Helga; Halliwell, Emma; Ive, Suzanne

    2006-03-01

    The ubiquitous Barbie doll was examined in the present study as a possible cause for young girls' body dissatisfaction. A total of 162 girls, from age 5 to age 8, were exposed to images of either Barbie dolls, Emme dolls (U.S. size 16), or no dolls (baseline control) and then completed assessments of body image. Girls exposed to Barbie reported lower body esteem and greater desire for a thinner body shape than girls in the other exposure conditions. However, this immediate negative impact of Barbie doll was no longer evident in the oldest girls. These findings imply that, even if dolls cease to function as aspirational role models for older girls, early exposure to dolls epitomizing an unrealistically thin body ideal may damage girls' body image, which would contribute to an increased risk of disordered eating and weight cycling. PMID:16569167

  3. Pregnancy Rates among Juvenile Justice Girls in Two Randomized Controlled Trials of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Preventing adolescent pregnancy is a national research priority that has had limited success. In the present study, the authors examined whether Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) relative to intervention services as usual (group care [GC]) decreased pregnancy rates among juvenile justice girls mandated to out-of-home care. Girls (13-17…

  4. Mathematics Learning Disabilities in Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome during Late Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Melissa M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on math and related skills among 32 girls with fragile X (n = 14) or Turner (n = 18) syndrome during late elementary school. Performance in each syndrome group was assessed relative to Full Scale IQ-matched comparison groups of girls from the general population (n = 32 and n = 89 for fragile X syndrome and Turner…

  5. A Perceptual Study of Girls Education, Its Factors and Challenges in South Kashmir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Khan, Zebun Nisa

    2015-01-01

    Education is accepted as an important tool for human development in all dimensions of life, it is at same level of significance for boys and girls. Despite this recognition, girls are one of the most vulnerable groups, deprived of education by various socio-cultural, economical and political reasons. The present study is a perceptual study, which…

  6. Grades Four and Eight Students' and Teachers' Perceptions of Girls' and Boys' Writing Competencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shelley

    2000-01-01

    Presents teacher and student responses that show a privileging of girls' writing over boys' writing. Finds that girls' writing was viewed as more detailed, descriptive, and showing greater conformity to writing conventions. Indicates a need for conversations that question an emphasis on conformity in writing and that explore ways to nurture…

  7. Pubertal Effects on Adjustment in Girls: Moving from Demonstrating Effects to Identifying Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Julia A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Warren, Michelle P.

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation examines mediated pathways from pubertal development to changes in depressive affect and aggression. Participants were 100 white girls who were between the ages of 10 and 14 (M=12.13, SD=0.80); girls were from well-educated, middle-to upper-middle class families, and attended private schools in a major northeastern urban…

  8. Teaching 21st Century Competencies: Lessons from Crescent Girls' School in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trinidad, Gucci; Patel, Deepa; Shear, Linda; Goh, Peishi; Quek, Yin Kang; Tan, Chen Kee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents case studies of two teachers at Crescent Girl's School (an all-girls high school in Singapore) who implemented strategies learned through a teacher professional development program called 21st Century Learning Design (21CLD). Policymakers often state requirements for teachers to focus on 21st century (21C) competencies without…

  9. "Little Intellectuals". Girls' Academic Secondary Education under Francoism: Projects, Realities and Paradoxes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canales, Antonio Fco.

    2012-01-01

    The present article examines the situation of girls in Spanish academic secondary education during the first Francoism. It outlines the measures introduced by the Franco Regime that maintained the traditional access for girls to the same academic curriculum followed by boys, although in separate schools. Later, it examines the various projects put…

  10. "What You Wear Tells a Lot about You:" Girls Dress Up Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Rebekah

    2008-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study in which 26 girls aged 12- to 13-years-old took part in workshops at a specialist ICT center connected to a school in inner-city London. The girls explored and discussed fashion as presented online, and they produced their own interactive fashion design webpages, making decisions about body shapes, types…

  11. Between Returns and Respectability: Parental Attitudes towards Girls' Education in Rural Punjab, Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purewal, Navtej; Hashmi, Naimatullah

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses upon perceptions of girls' education in the family context within which decisions around children's education and opportunities are made. The article presents a framework showing how parental attitudes to girls' education are shaped by an objective logic framed by the notion of returns, relating to potential benefits of…

  12. Where the Girls Are: The Facts about Gender Equity in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Christianne; Hill, Catherine; St. Rose, Andresse

    2008-01-01

    This report presents a comprehensive look at girls' educational achievement during the past 35 years, paying special attention to the relationship between girls' and boys' progress. Analyses of results from national standardized tests, such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and the SAT and ACT college entrance examinations,…

  13. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! A Guide for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurian, Michael; Henley, Patricia

    This book focuses on brain-based research to explore why boys and girls learn differently and how educators and parents can use that information to create the ultimate early childhood, elementary, or secondary classroom for both boys and girls. Part 1 of the book presents research findings from three primary points of view: (1) neurological and…

  14. Girls, Subjectivity and Language: From Four to Twelve in a Rural School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhedding-Jones, Jeanette

    This dissertation presents the construction and development of a thesis that investigates links between discourses of gender and the production of writing by girls at primary school. The research took place over three years in a one-teacher rural school in country Victoria (Australia). The girls were aged from four to twelve. The research…

  15. The Experience of the Hidden Curriculum for Autistic Girls at Mainstream Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyse, R.; Porter, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of ethnographic case studies of three girls on the autistic spectrum attending mainstream primary schools and illustrates the difficulties they experience and the ways in which these are often unrecognised. The observations of the girls and subsequent individual interviews with their mothers, class teachers,…

  16. Boys' and Girls' Motivations for Refraining from Prompting Friends to Talk about Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amanda J.; Swenson, Lance P.; Robert, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Girls' and boys' peer relationships are thought to have unique strengths and weaknesses. However, developmentalists have done a better job of identifying strengths of girls' friendships than boys' friendships. The present research was aimed at better understanding boys' friendship strengths. The study focused on the frequency with which youth (N =…

  17. The Effect of Recreational Activities on Self-Esteem Development of Girls in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayazit, Betül

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of recreational activities on self-esteem development of girls in adolescence. For this purpose, a total of 20 girls in adolescence period took part in the present study. Recreational activities program included bowling, patenga, orienteering, basketball, volleyball, badminton, ping-pong, dance, fun…

  18. Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome of the hypertrophic clitoris in a 6-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Parlak, Mesut; Karakaya, Ali Erdal

    2015-05-01

    Hair-thread tourniquet syndrome is defined as the ischemic strangulation of hair resulting in edema and severe pain and may cause amputation of organs. Strangulation of the external genitalia (clitoris, labia minora) has rarely been described in girls. Here, we present a case of hypertrophic clitoris injury secondary to hair strangulation in a 6-year-old girl.

  19. The Formative Years: Pathways to Substance Abuse among Girls and Young Women Ages 8-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substance abuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substance abuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…

  20. Colloquium on HIV/AIDS and Girls' Education. Proceedings (Washington, DC, October 25-26, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (IDCA), Washington, DC.

    This document presents a summary of a colloquium that focused on the threat the HIV/AIDS epidemic poses to education systems and to girls' access to and completion of education. The colloquium examined how girls' education might be used to mitigate this impact. The meeting involved nearly 200 people from academic institutions, nongovernmental…

  1. When Little Girls Become Junior Connoisseurs: A Cautionary Tale of Art Museum Education in the Hyperreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Melinda M.

    2006-01-01

    Introducing the tale--A young girl about eleven years old appeared on the TV screen. She stood in an art museum expounding upon the painting hanging behind her. She talked about the artist and what the image portrayed. With an air of elitist prissiness that suited the museum environment, the girl delivered her presentation to a group of…

  2. Reversing the Effects of Sexism in Elementary School Girls Through the Use of Classical Conditioning Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.; Bryant, William T.

    Probably as a result of America's "socialization" process, girls and women have tended to develop rather negativistic views of females. That this negativism may be part of a developmental indoctrination process is further advanced by the present experiment's finding that older girls in this experiment demonstrated significantly less favorable…

  3. Preschool Girls and the Media: How Magazines Describe and Depict Gender Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hata, Mikako

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the presentation and content of magazines targeted at preschool-aged girls in Japan to analyse what gender patterns or gendered behaviours were encouraged and how the readers reacted to the media discourse. There were 13 magazines published in 2013 in Japan. Seven of them catered to girls, three to boys and three to both…

  4. Girls' Math Performance under Stereotype Threat: The Moderating Role of Mothers' Gender Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasetto, Carlo; Alparone, Francesca Romana; Cadinu, Mara

    2011-01-01

    Previous research on stereotype threat in children suggests that making gender identity salient disrupts girls' math performance at as early as 5 to 7 years of age. The present study (n = 124) tested the hypothesis that parents' endorsement of gender stereotypes about math moderates girls' susceptibility to stereotype threat. Results confirmed…

  5. Girls, aggression, and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Conway, Anne M

    2005-04-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that boys are more aggressive than girls (see J. D. Coie & K. Dodge, 1997, for a review) and that emotion regulation difficulties are associated with problematic behaviors (N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes, 1999; M. Gilliom, D. S. Shaw, J. E. Beck, M. A. Schonberg, & J. L. Lukon, 2002). However, recent findings indicate that gender differences in aggressive behaviors disappear when assessments are broadened to include relational aggression--behaviors designed to harm the relationship goals of others by spreading rumors, gossiping, and eliciting peer rejection of others. Moreover, although difficulties regulating emotions have been reported for physically aggressive children, little research has examined these processes in relationally aggressive children. This article argues that investigation into the associations between emotion regulation and relational aggression is a critical direction for future research on the etiology and prevention of mental health problems in girls. PMID:15839769

  6. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological.

  7. Girl child and social change.

    PubMed

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological. PMID

  8. Amenorrhea, ptosis and high insulin requirement in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Hari Kumar, K V S; Kumar, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Lipodystrophy is an uncommon condition leading to excessive insulin requirement and menstrual abnormalities in young girls with diabetes. Neurological symptoms are uncommon in patients of generalized or partial lipodystrophy. We recently encountered a young girl, who presented with high insulin requirement, amenorrhea and neurological symptoms. Detailed evaluation led to the diagnosis of congenital lipodystrophy and we describe the same in this report. We also highlight the atypical features of the congenital lipodystrophy and the reasons for the excessive insulin requirement in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  9. Spreading the use of solar cooking by Girl Scouts

    SciTech Connect

    Pulliam, B.

    1992-12-31

    The author describes the advantages of using organizations such as the World Organization of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts to include solar cooking technology in their programs. The national organizations involved have researched the needs and resources of their countries and have developed plans to meet their unique needs. The need is great for contributions to purchase materials. This need would be best met with large grants to the World Organization of the Scouting movement where staff could provide oversight and evaluation of projects. Projects from several countries are presented as illustration.

  10. Phallometric comparison of pedophilic interest in nonadmitting sexual offenders against stepdaughters, biological daughters, other biologically related girls, and unrelated girls.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Cantor, James M; Klassen, Philip; Dickey, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the mean levels of sexual response to children produced by four groups of men with sexual offences against prepubescent girls and two comparison groups with other offences or no offences. All groups (N = 291) consisted of patients referred for clinical assessment of their sexual behavior or interests. Group assignment was determined by the victim's age and her relation to the patient: biological daughter; stepdaughter; other biologically related girl (e.g., sister, niece, granddaughter); unrelated girl; adult woman; and no known victim. The men with sexual offences had precisely one known victim each. The patients with offences may or may not have denied the act of which they were accused, but all patients denied an erotic preference for children. Sexual response to children was assessed by means of phallometric testing, a psychophysiological technique in which the individual's penile blood volume is monitored while he is presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children and adults. The results indicated that the mean level of pedophilic response in men with offences against daughters or stepdaughters is intermediate between that in men with offences against otherwise-related or unrelated girls and that in men with no offences against girls at all. PMID:16598663

  11. Cognitive distortions about sex and sexual offending: a comparison of sex offending girls, delinquent girls, and girls from the community.

    PubMed

    Kubik, Elizabeth K; Hecker, Jeffrey E

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive distortions about sexual offending were examined in 11 girls who committed sexual offenses, 12 girls who committed non-sexual criminal offenses, and 21 girls with no history of sexual of non-sexual offending. Participants responded to 12 vignettes that described sexual contact between an adolescent girl and a younger boy. The vignettes varied with respect to the sexual contact portrayed and the victim's response. Girls who had sexually offended were more likely to endorse statements reflecting the belief that the offender in a sexually aggressive vignette was not responsible for initiating the sexual contact. In addition, when the victim's response to the sexual contact was clearly negative, and the degree of contact was more serious, girls who had sexually offended demonstrated more distorted beliefs about the victim than the other two groups. Similarities and differences between the current findings and studies of distorted thinking in male sexual offenders are discussed.

  12. [The sleeping girl from Oknö].

    PubMed

    Holmstedt, B; Ljungberg, L; Moëll, H; Sjöberg, S G

    1995-01-01

    The peninsula of Oknö is located on the Baltic in Southern Sweden. It was here a 14 year-old girl "fell asleep" around Christmas time in the year 1875 - she woke up on April 3rd, 1908. She was then 46 years of age and had slept for 32 years. Except for numerous newspaper articles this unusual case has been described by the Swedish psychiatrist Harald Fröderström in 1912. The present article is based on his review and the investigation of the medical records at the hospital of the city of Oskarshamn where the woman in question was hospitalized for one month in 1892. At the city hospital she was given the diagnosis dementia paralytica - a diagnosis which was obviously wrong. When the woman woke up in 1908 she assumed a normal life and remained healthy until she died in 1950 through a brain hemorrhage. Fröderström, who except for an article written in French, wrote several extensive articles for Swedish newspapers about the sleeping girl. These articles are here reviewed from a modern psychiatric point of view.

  13. League Constitution and Bylaws for Girls' Interscholastic Programs (Suggested Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mary Ann

    This guide was developed to assist with the problems of organization and administration of girls' interscholastic sports programs. Guidelines are presented for the following: (a) a statement of basic principles, (b) a constitution, (c) league bylaws, (d) operating codes, (e) conduct of contests, (f) archery, (g) badminton, (h) basketball, (i)…

  14. Differences between Boys and Girls in Extracurricular Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batz, Katrin; Wittler, Sebastian; Wilde, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Only few psychological differences between the sexes can be proven empirically. Presented here is a study about learning in the extracurricular environment of a zoological garden during a school excursion with particular regard to the differences between boys and girls. In the main focus are, hereby, motivational and cognitive levels of the…

  15. Analysis of Three High-Achieving Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Schinck-Mikel, Amelie G.; Watson, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an in-depth cross-case analysis of three high-achieving young adolescent girls who had contrasting mathematics learning experiences during the first year of middle school. In particular, this study examines the foundation for their motivation, as well as the dominant mode of learning and academic engagement in relation to three…

  16. Promotion of Primary Education for Girls and Disadvantaged Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    This report presents the results of a meeting of education officials from Bangladesh, China, India, Japan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand to discuss the promotion of primary education for girls and other disadvantaged groups in developing Asian countries. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, discussing the goals and results of the meeting. Chapter…

  17. Deaf Lives: Nineteenth-Century Spanish Deaf Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plann, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This article is about the lives of nineteenth-century Spanish deaf girls and women. The research presented is contained in a larger work, a book titled "Portraits from the Spanish National Deaf-Mute School," to be published by Gallaudet University Press. These "portraits" are in fact biographical essays on nineteenth-century deaf people and their…

  18. Growing Up Girl: Preparing for Change through Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khattab, Nancy; Jones, Cathy P.

    2007-01-01

    The early years of school provide opportunities for active learning, including developing habits of resiliency and perceptions of self-worth. Girls in particular may be at risk for developing negative self-perceptions. This article presents a pilot group (psychoeducational and counseling) designed to educate members about pre-adolescent…

  19. Girls' Touch Football, Physical Education: 5551.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kathy

    This course outline is a guide for teaching basic understanding of fundamental skills and rules of girls' touch football in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures, demonstrations, practice of basic skills, visual aids, lead-up games, presentation and practice of officiating techniques, tournaments, and written and skills tests. Course…

  20. Boys and Girls Clubs in Public Housing. Final Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Carl E.; And Others

    This report presents findings and recommendations resulting from the evaluation of programs implemented in 15 cities by the Boys and Girls Clubs of America. These programs were implemented to distribute variations on the "Weed and Seed" program and its provision of crime and drug prevention programs. The overall goal of Weed and Seed was to form…

  1. Defining Deviance: Sex, Science, and Delinquent Girls, 1890-1960

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemente, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a review on "Defining deviance: sex, science, and delinquent girls, 1890-1960," by Michael A. Rembis. This is the first book by Michael A. Rembis, an Associate Professor and Director of the Center for Disability Studies at the University of Buffalo. Drawing on thousands of case files from the Illinois State Training School in…

  2. Self-Care Strategies among Chinese Adolescent Girls with Dysmenorrhea: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cho Lee; Ip, Wan Yim; Lam, Lai Wah

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about how Chinese adolescent girls manage dysmenorrhea. This study aims to explore self-care strategies among Chinese adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea. The study uses a mixed methods design with two phases: a cross-sectional survey in phase I and semistructured interviews in phase II. This paper reports phase II. In line with the phase I findings, 28 adolescent girls with different characteristics (high or low levels of self-care behavior and pain intensity, who did or did not self-medicate, and who had or had not received menstrual education) were recruited for interviews. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Four categories emerged from the data: lifestyle changes, symptom management, communicating dysmenorrhea with others, and seeking medical advice. Girls selected their diets carefully and reduced physical activity during menstruation to avoid aggravating symptoms. Heat therapy commonly was employed for symptom management. A few girls self-medicated to obtain immediate relief from pain, but the majority expressed reservations about using medication because they worried about dependence and side effects. Some girls communicated dysmenorrhea with their family and friends, but the majority did not seek medical advice. The present study showed that girls employed various self-care strategies for dysmenorrhea, including some strategies stemming from traditional Chinese medicine. The findings revealed menstrual etiquette among Chinese adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea, and demonstrated that self-medication was not part of most girls' self-care. Understanding the self-care strategies of these girls is important, as it can help nurses develop a culturally-specific intervention to promote self-care among adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea.

  3. Self-Care Strategies among Chinese Adolescent Girls with Dysmenorrhea: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cho Lee; Ip, Wan Yim; Lam, Lai Wah

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about how Chinese adolescent girls manage dysmenorrhea. This study aims to explore self-care strategies among Chinese adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea. The study uses a mixed methods design with two phases: a cross-sectional survey in phase I and semistructured interviews in phase II. This paper reports phase II. In line with the phase I findings, 28 adolescent girls with different characteristics (high or low levels of self-care behavior and pain intensity, who did or did not self-medicate, and who had or had not received menstrual education) were recruited for interviews. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Four categories emerged from the data: lifestyle changes, symptom management, communicating dysmenorrhea with others, and seeking medical advice. Girls selected their diets carefully and reduced physical activity during menstruation to avoid aggravating symptoms. Heat therapy commonly was employed for symptom management. A few girls self-medicated to obtain immediate relief from pain, but the majority expressed reservations about using medication because they worried about dependence and side effects. Some girls communicated dysmenorrhea with their family and friends, but the majority did not seek medical advice. The present study showed that girls employed various self-care strategies for dysmenorrhea, including some strategies stemming from traditional Chinese medicine. The findings revealed menstrual etiquette among Chinese adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea, and demonstrated that self-medication was not part of most girls' self-care. Understanding the self-care strategies of these girls is important, as it can help nurses develop a culturally-specific intervention to promote self-care among adolescent girls with dysmenorrhea. PMID:27292081

  4. Interventions with Young Female Offenders and Teenage Girls at Risk: Alternative Educational Services in a Singapore Girls' Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Choo, Andrew; Lim, Liping

    2009-01-01

    This article presents factors that place girls at risk of delinquency and offending as well as the patterns in juvenile delinquency trends for females in Singapore. The authors also describe Singapore's overall structure of services for young offenders and the current status of alternative education programmes for young women engaged in delinquent…

  5. Butterfly Girls; promoting healthy diet and physical activity to young African American girls online: Rationale and design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young African American girls have a high risk of obesity. Online behavior change programs promoting healthy diet and physical activity are convenient and may be effective for reducing disparities related to obesity. This report presents the protocol guiding the design and evaluation of a culturally ...

  6. Altered Breast Development in Young Girls from an Agricultural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, Elizabeth A.; Conard, Craig; Lares, Fernando; Aguilar, Maria Guadalupe; McLachlan, John; Guillette, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    In several human populations, the age at which female breast development begins is reported to have declined over the last five decades. Much debate has occurred over whether this reported decline has actually occurred and what factors contribute to it. However, geographical patterns reflecting earlier developmental onset in some human populations suggest environmental factors influence this phenomenon. These factors include interactions between genetic makeup, nutrition, and possible cumulative exposure to estrogens, both endogenous as well as environmental beginning during in utero development. We examined the onset of breast development in a group of peripubertal girls from the Yaqui Valley of Sonora, Mexico. We observed that girls from valley towns, areas using modern agricultural practices, exhibited larger breast fields than those of girls living in the foothills who exhibited similar stature [e.g., weight, height, body mass index (BMI)], and genetic background. Further, girls from valley towns displayed a poorly defined relationship between breast size and mammary gland development, whereas girls from the Yaqui foothills, where traditional ranching occurs, show a robust positive relationship between breast size and mammary size. The differences noted were obtained by a medically based exam involving morphometric analysis and palpation of tissues, in contrast to visual staging alone. In fact, use of the Tanner scale, involving visual staging of breast development for puberty, detected no differences between the study populations. Mammary tissue, determined by palpation, was absent in 18.5% of the girls living in agricultural areas, although palpable breast adipose tissue was present. No relationship was seen between mammary diameter and weight or BMI in either population. These data suggest that future in-depth studies examining mammary tissue growth and fat deposition in breast tissue are required if we are to understand environmental influences on these

  7. Personalized Biobehavioral HIV Prevention for Women and Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Teitelman, Anne M.; Bevilacqua, Amanda W.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Women and adolescent girls bear a significant burden of the global HIV pandemic. Both behavioral and biomedical prevention approaches have been shown to be effective. In order to foster the most effective combination HIV-prevention approaches for women and girls, it is imperative to understand the unique biological, social, and structural considerations that increase vulnerability to acquiring HIV within this population. Primary Study Objective: The purpose of this article is to propose novel ideas for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention for women and adolescent girls. The central argument is that we must transcend unilevel solutions for HIV prevention toward comprehensive, multilevel combination HIV prevention packages to actualize personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention. Our hope is to foster transnational dialogue among researchers, practitioners, educators, and policy makers toward the actualization of the proposed recommendations. Methods: We present a commentary organized to review biological, social, and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV acquisition among women and adolescent girls. The overview is followed by recommendations to curb HIV rates in the target population in a sustainable manner. Results: The physiology of the lower female reproductive system biologically increases HIV risk among women and girls. Social (eg, intimate partner violence) and structural (eg, gender inequality) factors exacerbate this risk by increasing the likelihood of viral exposure. Our recommendations for personalized biobehavioral HIV prevention are to (1) create innovative mechanisms for personalized HIV risk—reduction assessments; (2) develop mathematical models of local epidemics; (3) prepare personalized, evidence-based combination HIV risk—reduction packages; (4) structure gender equity into society; and (5) eliminate violence (both physical and structural) against women and girls. Conclusions: Generalized programs and

  8. Educating the girl child in rural areas.

    PubMed

    Tandon, S

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of educating female children in India. There is ample evidence worldwide that improvements in girls' education benefit the status of the family and empower women. The World Declaration of Education for All was adopted in Jomtein, Thailand in 1990. It urged access to and improvement in the quality of education of girls and women to remove obstacles that hamper active participation. 1990 was the Year of Literacy and the Year of the Girl Child. Girls lag in education worldwide. The gender gap is widest in India in levels of literacy, school enrollment, school dropouts, and opportunities for vocational training. There is a need to educate the public, particularly mothers, about the value of girls. In rural and backward areas of India, there is fear of educating girls that is related to prevalent practices of exploitation and violence against women. Education and vocational training should be linked with anti-poverty programs. Adult literacy should be linked with girls' education. The National Policy on Education in 1986 targeted removal of sex stereotyping from school curricula and promoted diversified curricula and access of girls to vocational and professional training programs. The policy recommended integrated child care services and primary education. The national action plan for the 1990s focuses on protection, survival, and development of the girl child in India. Special schools for developing skills in nutrition, cooking, sewing, home economics, and child development should be set up in villages for girls 12-20 years old. The gap in girls' education is attributed to apathy and resistance of parents, unfavorable attitudes toward coeducation, poverty of parents, shortages of schools, and poor quality instruction. Girls' continuing education should be ensured by incentives, such as free books and clothes; time tables conducive to work; support systems; and work schemes.

  9. Little girls in a grown up world: Exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualization messages, and body image in 6-9 year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-09-01

    Despite widespread public concern about the early sexualization of young girls, as yet there has been little empirical examination of potential negative effects. In the present study a sample of 300 6-9 year-old girls completed individual interviews assessing exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualized messages (measured via preference for sexualized clothing), and body image attitudes (body esteem, body dissatisfaction). Exposure to sexualized media was found to be correlated with internalization of sexualization messages, itself correlated with negative body image. The findings provide preliminary evidence that sexualized messages appear to be internalized by very young girls which, in turn, has negative implications for how they feel about their bodies.

  10. Dysmenorrhoea in Different Settings: Are the Rural and Urban Adolescent Girls Perceiving and Managing the Dysmenorrhoea Problem Differently?

    PubMed Central

    Avasarala, Atchuta Kameswararao; Panchangam, Saibharghavi

    2008-01-01

    Context: It is well-known that every health problem, not only presents itself with different epidemiological profiles in different population settings, but is also perceived and managed differently. Having knowledge of these variations in its presentations and perceptions in different population settings, for example, in urban and rural settings, will be useful for its successful management. Aim: To study differences in epidemiological profiles, perceptions, socio economic losses, and quality-of-life losses and management of dysmenorrhoea in different settings for effective management. Design and Setting: A comparative cross-sectional study among adolescent school girls (101 girls in urban areas and 79 girls in rural areas) in the district of Karimnagar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a pretested questionnaire was conducted among 180 adolescent girls in urban and rural settings. Statistical Analyses Used: Proportions and X2 test. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhoea is 54% (53% in girls in urban areas and 56% in girls in rural areas) (X2 df = 0.1, P = 0.05). Sickness absenteeism (28–48%), socio economic losses, and perceived quality of life losses are more prevalent among girls in urban areas than in girls in rural areas. Girls in rural areas resort to physical labor and other natural methods to obtain relief while the girls in urban areas are mainly depending on medications. Conclusions: Dysmenorrhoea can also be managed effectively by natural methods without resorting to medicines, provided one is psychologically prepared to face it without anxiety. PMID:19876499

  11. Depression Prevention for Early Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Chaplin, Tara M.; Gillham, Jane E.; Reivich, Karen; Elkon, Andrea G. L.; Samuels, Barbra; Freres, Derek R.; Winder, Breanna; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2015-01-01

    Given the dramatic increase in depression that occurs during early adolescence in girls, interventions must address the needs of girls. The authors examined whether a depression prevention program, the Penn Resiliency Program, was more effective for girls in all-girls groups than in co-ed groups. Within co-ed groups, the authors also tested whether there were greater effects for boys than for girls. Participants were 208 11- to 14-year-olds. Girls were randomly assigned to all-girls groups, co-ed groups, or control. Boys were assigned to co-ed groups or control. Students completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms, hopelessness, and explanatory style before and after the intervention. Girls groups were better than co-ed groups in reducing girls’hopelessness and for session attendance rates but were similar to co-ed groups in reducing depressive symptoms. Co-ed groups decreased depressive symptoms, but this did not differ by gender. Findings support prevention programs and suggest additional benefits of girls groups. PMID:26139955

  12. Bringing Astronomy Activities and Science Content to Girls Locally and Nationally: A Girl Scout and NIRCam Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; Higgins, M. L.; McCarthy, D. W.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2003, the University of Arizona's (UA) NIRCam E/PO team (NASA James Webb Space Telescope) and the Sahuaro Girl Scout Council began a long-term collaboration to bring astronomy activities and concepts to Girl Scout leaders, staff, and volunteers and, in turn, to their councils and girls, i.e., to train the trainers. Nationally, our goal is to reach leaders in all councils. To date, this program has reached nearly 200 adults from 39 councils nationwide (plus Guam and Korea), bringing together leaders, UA graduate students, and NIRCam scientists and educators to experience Arizona's dark skies. Locally, our goal is to provide Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) education to girls of all ages throughout southern Arizona. To accomplish this in astronomy, we have additional ongoing collaborations with the Planetary Science Institute, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, and, most recently with the Amphitheater School District. One of the programs that we have been recently emphasizing is Family Science and Astronomy Nights. These programs can be run at our local Girl Scout facility or can be incorporated into programs that we are running in local schools. Our near-term goal is to provide a series of interconnected activities that can be done in classrooms, in afterschool programs, as part of the Family Science and Astronomy Nights, or in summer astronomy camps. Our long-term goal is to empower girls ultimately to become leaders who are excited about the night sky and can take lead roles presenting activities and facilitating astronomy nights. Our poster will display a variety of the activities we have refined and developed through this progam: scale models of the Solar System and beyond, classifying Solar System objects, a portable human orrery, observing the night sky with and without telescopes, constellation transformations, and constellation sorting cards.NIRCam E/PO website: http://zeus.as.arizona.edu/ dmccarthy/GSUSA

  13. Understanding girls' enrollment at Louise's Farm School: A qualitative case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Ashley E. P.

    This thesis presents a qualitative case study of enrollment and retention considerations at Louise's Farm School (LFS) in Palmer, Alaska, with a focus on how gender is performed in this domain. Interviews with 25 students, 12 parents, and 14 instructors revealed the enrollment decision-making process, identifying constraints to and enablers of girls' participation. Findings included three primary factors as greatly influencing girls' enrollment: (1) mothers' backgrounds; (2) mothers' knowledge of and the misperceptions regarding outcomes of LFS programing; and (3) girls' interest in LFS curriculum. Findings also exposed differences in mothers' and instructors' expectations for the educative development of girls and boys, suggesting that there is greater pressure on girls to perform academically while boys are expected to need greater space for physical expression.

  14. Changes in Girls' Lives: Malawi from 1990 to 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Joyce; Kainja, Katherine

    Increased awareness of the importance of girls' education within Malawi and internationally resulted in the implementation of many changes in girls' education during the 1990s. By 1997, the number of girls enrolled in primary school was twice the level in 1990, and girls' share of enrollment increased from 45 to 48 percent. Malawi improved girls'…

  15. We Roll Deep: Appalachian Girls Fight for Their Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spatig, Linda; Parrott, Laurel; Carter, Carolyn; Kusimo, Patricia; Keyes, Marian

    This paper chronicles the experiences of nine adolescent girls who participated in a 3-year science, mathematics, and technology program for Appalachian girls. The girls lived in two West Virginia communities (one rural, one urban). Most of the girls were poor; six were African American. Descriptions of the girls' neighborhoods and local…

  16. Britney, Beyonce, and Me--Primary School Girls' Role Models and Constructions of the "Popular" Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the ways in which the gendered social construction of the "popular girl" infuses girls' ideas as to their role models: those representing who they would like to be when they "grow up". It will look at the ways in which the gendered characteristics that are seen to be of most value to girls (often embodied by "celebrities" such…

  17. Teaching the Third World Girl: "Girl Rising" as a Precarious Curriculum of Empathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desai, Karishma

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the recently released "Girl Rising" film and associated campaign to analyze how the guarantee that girls' education is panacea for local, national and global solutions is sedimented through affective logics. I view Girl Rising as a curriculum inclusive of the film, accompanying packaged lesson plans for educators,…

  18. Fighting Like a Girl Fighting Like a Guy: Gender Identity, Ideology, and Girls at Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lyn Mikel; Tappan, Mark B.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we explore the phenomenon of "girls fighting like guys" by listening to adolescent girls' justification for physical fighting with other girls. We argue that physical girlfighting is a particular kind of gendered performance--a performance of identity that expresses, at least in part, an answer to the question, "Who am I?"--that…

  19. Understanding Girls' Friendships, Fights and Feuds: A Practical Approach to Girls' Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besag, Valerie

    2006-01-01

    Girls' bullying is more subtle and less physical than that perpetrated by boys; however, it can be just as powerful, and the emotional repercussions of bullying among girls can be more destructive and longer lasting than the effects of more obvious forms of bullying. Teachers report that quarrels between girls are far more time-consuming and…

  20. "In the Eye of the Beholder...": Girls', Boys' and Teachers' Perceptions of Boys' Aggression to Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Laurence; Shute, Rosalyn; Slee, Phillip

    2005-01-01

    Because children and young teenagers usually associate in same-sex groups, psychological research concerned with adolescent aggression has often concentrated on within-sex relationships. However, during adolescence, boys and girls increasingly interact socially. This paper reports a study of boy-to-girl aggression as perceived by girls, boys and…

  1. Bringing Astronomy Activities and Science Content to Girls Locally and Nationally: A Girl Scout NIRCam Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Higgins, M. L.; McCarthy, D. W.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2012-03-01

    A long-term collaboration between the JWST’s NIRCam E/PO team and the Girl Scouts of Southern Arizona brings STEM activities and concepts to Girl Scout leaders, staff, and volunteers, and in turn to their councils and girls.

  2. Promoting Girls' Participation in Sports: Discursive Constructions of Girls in a Sports Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svender, Jenny; Larsson, Hakan; Redelius, Karin

    2012-01-01

    What does it mean to promote girls' participation in sports and which girls are seen as needing support? In this article we focus a government-financed sports venture and scrutinize the frames governing what is possible to say about girls and their participation in sports. By analyzing project applications from local sport clubs we investigate how…

  3. Resilient Girls--Factors That Protect against Delinquency. Girls Study Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Stephanie R.; Graham, Phillip W.; Williams, Jason; Zahn, Margaret A.

    2009-01-01

    According to data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, from 1991 to 2000, arrests of girls increased more (or decreased less) than arrests of boys for most types of offenses. By 2004, girls accounted for 30 percent of all juvenile arrests. However, questions remain about whether these trends reflect an actual increase in girls' delinquency or…

  4. How Schools Shortchange Girls. A Study of Major Findings on Girls and Education. The AAUW Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellesley Coll., MA. Center for Research on Women.

    The educational experience of girls has been largely ignored in the current education debate in the United States. This absence does not mean that boys and girls have identical educational experiences in school. This report challenges the common assumption that girls and boys are treated equally in U.S. public schools by providing a synthesis of…

  5. A clinico-radiological phenotype of voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody-mediated disorder presenting with seizures and basal ganglia changes.

    PubMed

    Hacohen, Yael; Wright, Sukhvir; Siddiqui, Ata; Pandya, Nikki; Lin, Jean-Pierre; Vincent, Angela; Lim, Ming

    2012-12-01

    In childhood, central nervous system (CNS) presentations associated with antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex include limbic encephalitis, status epilepticus, epileptic encephalopathy, and autistic regression. We report the cases of two individuals (a 6-year-old male and an 11-year-old female) who presented with an acute-onset explosive seizure disorder with positive VGKC complex antibodies and bilateral basal ganglia changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Both patients made a complete clinical recovery, without immunotherapy, with resolution of the MRI changes and normalization of the antibody levels. Extended antibody testing, including testing for leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1), contactin-associated protein 2, and contactin-2 was negative. This could suggest that the clinico-radiological phenotype in our patients may in fact be associated with a novel autoreactive target(s) within the VGKC complex, as may be the case in other children with VGKC complex-mediated CNS disorders.

  6. Smart Girls, Hard-Working Girls but Not yet Self-Assured Girls: The Limits of Gender Equity Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentith, Audrey

    2008-01-01

    Higher levels of girls and women's participation in targeted areas are widely apparent, particularly in affluent and middle-class sites. Here, we report on research with young middle and upper middle-class high school girls successfully enrolled in non-traditional advanced placement (AP) courses in mathematics, science, and computer programming in…

  7. Gall bladder Adenocarcinoma in a Young Girl.

    PubMed

    Date, Shivprasad V; Rizvi, S J

    2015-04-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with abdominal discomfort, weakness, and jaundice. General examination revealed deep icterus with hard lymph nodes in left supraclavicular region. On gastrointestinal examination, we appreciated a hard intra-abdominal lump in the right hypochondrium. Biochemical evaluation showed features of obstructive jaundice. Imaging confirmed the presence of gall bladder lump with multiple intra-abdominal lymph nodes. Fine needle aspiration cytology of neck nodes demonstrated metastatic adenocarcinoma. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the gall bladder lump (done under sonographic guidance) confirmed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, malignancy of the gall bladder has not been reported in individuals less than 18 years in India, and only three cases have been reported worldwide in English literature. PMID:26139973

  8. Gall bladder Adenocarcinoma in a Young Girl.

    PubMed

    Date, Shivprasad V; Rizvi, S J

    2015-04-01

    A 16-year-old girl presented with abdominal discomfort, weakness, and jaundice. General examination revealed deep icterus with hard lymph nodes in left supraclavicular region. On gastrointestinal examination, we appreciated a hard intra-abdominal lump in the right hypochondrium. Biochemical evaluation showed features of obstructive jaundice. Imaging confirmed the presence of gall bladder lump with multiple intra-abdominal lymph nodes. Fine needle aspiration cytology of neck nodes demonstrated metastatic adenocarcinoma. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the gall bladder lump (done under sonographic guidance) confirmed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, malignancy of the gall bladder has not been reported in individuals less than 18 years in India, and only three cases have been reported worldwide in English literature.

  9. Lupus vulgaris in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Tarang; Varshney, Anupam; Bakshi, S K

    2013-01-01

    With the estimated global burden of TB being 8.8 million incident cases and 1.1 million deaths from TB in HIV-negative cases and additional 0.35 million deaths in HIV-associated cases,1 the total number of cutaneous TB cases ( < 1-2 % of total cases) becomes significant. With the WHO setting up public-private mix partnerships and a millenium development goal of a 50% reduction in the total number of incident cases, the case detection and reporting of unusual cutaneous TB cases becomes very important. We present a case of lupus vulgaris in a young girl with rapid progression of a large plaque with hypertrophic features in the periphery. The case is unusual due to its rapid progression, unusual site and extensive giant form which have never been reported previously.

  10. An ocular motility conundrum

    PubMed Central

    McElnea, Elizabeth Margaret; Stephenson, Kirk; Lanigan, Bernie; Flitcroft, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Two siblings, an 11-year-old boy and a 7-year-old girl presented with bilateral symmetrical ptosis and limited eye movements. Having already been reviewed on a number of occasions by a variety of specialists in multiple hospital settings a diagnosis of their ocular motility disorder had remained elusive. We describe their cases, outline the differential diagnosis and review the investigations performed which were influential in finally making a diagnosis. PMID:25349186

  11. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Munish; Kohli, Monica; Sharma, Naresh; Siddiqui, Saif Rauf; Tulsi, S.P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an inherited autosomal dominant disorder with complete penetrance and extreme variable expressivity. The authors present a case of an 11-year-old girl with typical features of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome with special respect to medical and dental problems which include multiple bony cage deformities like spina bifida with scoliosis having convexity to the left side, presence of an infantile uterus and multiple odonogenic keratocysts in the maxillofacial region. PMID:22442551

  12. Treatment of crown dilaceration: an interdisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, P; Naidu, P

    2010-01-01

    Trauma to primary teeth can result in a wide range of disturbances to the underlying permanent teeth, such as dilaceration. Root dilacerations occur more commonly than crown dilacerations. This paper is a report of an 11-year-old girl with a missing maxillary left anterior tooth. Past history revealed premature loss of primary maxillary anterior teeth due to trauma. Radiographic examination revealed crown dilaceration of permanent maxillary left central incisor. An interdisciplinary approach in the management of this child is presented herewith.

  13. Girls and Violence. ERIC Digest Number 143.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Jeanne

    This digest reviews current research on girls' delinquent and violent behavior, the factors contributing to it, and effective programming strategies to prevent it. Girls are more involved in violent crime than they were a decade ago. Their murder rate is up 64%, although status offenses (offenses only because the perpetrator is a minor) continue…

  14. Relational Aggression among Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallape, Aprille

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates that define relational aggression among middle school girls, the relationships among these factors, and the association between the correlates of relational aggression and the type of relational aggression (e.g., verbal, withdrawal) exhibited among middle school girls. The findings of this…

  15. A Climbing Girl's Reflections about Angles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyhn, Anne Birgitte

    2006-01-01

    The main research question in this paper is whether a climbing discourse can be a resource for a school-geometry discourse. The text is based on a 12-year old girl's story from an exciting climbing trip during her summer holiday. The girl uncovers some of her knowledge that had been invisible to her; she is guided to see some relations between her…

  16. Girls and Physics: Continuing Barriers to "Belonging"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patricia; Whitelegg, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The article discusses selected findings of a narrative review, funded by the Institute of Physics, in response to the continuing decline in the number of girls studying physics post-16 in England; 177 selected sources, of national and international research literature about girls' participation in physics, were reviewed. In the article, we argue…

  17. Girls' Education: The Power of Policy Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monkman, Karen; Hoffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Girls' education has been a focus of international development policy for several decades. The discursive framing of international organizations' policy initiatives relating to girls' education, however, limits the potential for discussing complex gender issues that affect the possibilities for gender equity. Because discourse shapes our…

  18. Body Talk for Parents of Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Margaret L.

    This pamphlet, targeted to girls' parents, discusses issues surrounding puberty. The introduction discusses cultural images of menstruation and girls' attitudes towards it. Suggestions are offered for discussing menstruation with one's daughter. Suggestions focus on timing of introducing the topic; which parent takes responsibility for menstrual…

  19. Perceived Experiences with Sexism among Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls…

  20. Girls' Attitudes towards Science in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetcuti, Deborah A.; Kioko, Beriter

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated girls' attitudes towards science in Kenya. It was carried out with 120 girls from four secondary schools in the Eastern province of Kenya. These were an urban single-sex (SS) and co-educational (Co-Ed) school and a rural SS and Co-Ed school. Different schools were chosen in order to explore whether there are any differences…

  1. Overview of the Girls' Education Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Lorelei; Heyman, Cory; Provasnik, Stephen; Fanning, Marina; Lent, Drew; De Wilde, Johan; Leal, Angela; Saher, Najat Yamouri; Robles, Ana Maria; Mendoza, Johanna

    In 1996, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Girls' Education Activity (GEA). GEA's goal has been to assist host country governments and private sector and nongovernmental entities in formulating, institutionalizing, and implementing country initiatives for girls' education. These initiatives have been designed…

  2. Girls Save the World through Computer Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murakami, Christine

    2011-01-01

    It's no secret that fewer and fewer women are entering computer science fields. Attracting high school girls to computer science is only part of the solution. Retaining them while they are in higher education or the workforce is also a challenge. To solve this, there is a need to show girls that computer science is a wide-open field that offers…

  3. Science Camp: Just for the Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Research shows that girls tend to lose interest in science and math as they move through the education pipeline--a retreat that often begins during middle school. Summer science camps can be part of reversing that trend, some say. Academic camps are on the rise across the country, including ones to get adolescent girls excited about the…

  4. Smart Girls, Black Girls, Mean Girls, and Bullies: At the Intersection of Identities and the Mediating Role of Young Girls' Social Network in Mathematical Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gholson, Maisie; Martin, Danny B.

    2014-01-01

    By taking an intersectional and emic view to studying a group of African American girls in a third-grade class, we attempted to capture the complexity of mathematics learning for these girls. Traditionally, children's social networks in school are framed as external to mathematics content learning. Our preliminary analyses of student interviews…

  5. Reading Girls: Living Literate and Powerful Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettis, Pam; Roe, Mary F.

    2008-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the authors merge two bodies of previously separated scholarship: (1) a socio-cultural understanding of adolescent girls in light of the shifting meaning of ideal girlhood, and (2) the participation and success of adolescent girls in school-based literacy activities. They apply these fields of inquiry to explore the…

  6. The Neurobiological Profile of Girls with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahone, E. Mark; Wodka, Ericka L.

    2008-01-01

    Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and…

  7. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  8. Little Girl, Where Are You Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elisberg, Joan; Elisberg Sue

    1974-01-01

    This article consists of black and white photographs of girls ages 13-17 doing things that interest them: carpentry, basketball, pottery, camera work, etc. The photographs are accompanied by the girls' thoughts on what they will do as future women, and what it means to be a woman. (Author/RM)

  9. Role Calls for Boys & Girls Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Allesandro, Lou

    2013-01-01

    The New Hampshire Alliance of Boys & Girls Clubs has come a long way since the inception of the state's first Club in Manchester more than 100 years ago. The goal of the Boys & Girls Clubs of America is to provide youth with programs and services that allow them to realize their full potential as productive members of society. State and federal…

  10. The Meaning of Running Away for Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Einat; Cohavi, Ayelet

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this qualitative research was to understand how runaway girls perceive the processes involved in leaving home and the meaning they attribute to it. Method: Findings are based on in-depth interviews with 10 Israeli girls aged 13-17 with a history of running away from home. Results: The meaning of running away as it emerged…

  11. Adolescent Girls' Parasocial Interactions with Media Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theran, Sally A.; Newberg, Emily M.; Gleason, Tracy R.

    2010-01-01

    We examined aspects of adolescent girls' parasocial interactions in the context of typical development. Parasocial interactions are defined as symbolic, one-sided quasi-interactions between a viewer and a media figure. In total, 107 adolescent girls were examined; 94% reported engaging in parasocial interactions to some degree. Preoccupied…

  12. The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…

  13. The Delta Team: Empowering Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Marian White

    1994-01-01

    In response to adolescent girls' concerns about teen violence, rumors, grooming, careers, and equity, four women teachers and a woman administrator at a Maryland middle school developed the Delta Program. The program provides positive learning experiences, teaches social skills and conflict management techniques, empowers girls through mentoring…

  14. Developing the Girl as a Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembrow-Beach, Rose

    2011-01-01

    Single-sex educational environments can create young women who are engaged, active leaders. Girls receive differential treatment in combined-sex education environments. Girls often do not receive the encouragement or instruction to assume leadership. I want to identify the elements of single-sex education that foster female leadership and consider…

  15. Transforming an icon: Girl Scouts of America.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Michelle; Inzunza, Victor

    2008-01-01

    The Girl Scouts is four years away from celebrating its centennial and has helped nurture courage, confidence, and character in more than fifty million girls. There are a quarter million troops, but mission, program, fundraising, and branding occur at the national level. These exciting programs are described here.

  16. Transforming an icon: Girl Scouts of America.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Michelle; Inzunza, Victor

    2008-01-01

    The Girl Scouts is four years away from celebrating its centennial and has helped nurture courage, confidence, and character in more than fifty million girls. There are a quarter million troops, but mission, program, fundraising, and branding occur at the national level. These exciting programs are described here. PMID:18551845

  17. "Lolita": Genealogy of a Cover Girl

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    At the publication of Vladimir Nabokov's controversial novel "Lolita" (1958), the author insisted that a girl never appear on the cover. This discourse analysis of 185 "Lolita" book covers, most of which feature a girl, considers the genealogy of "Lolita" in relation to representation, myth, and tacit knowledge…

  18. Girls in School: Women in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahle, Jane Butler

    This report describes a 9-month project, conducted in seven states, during which teaching strategies and teacher attitudes which successfully encouraged girls in science were observed, described, and analyzed. Biology, taken by over 80 percent of high school students, was the course selected for observation; if girls are turned off to science in…

  19. Girls' and Women's Education in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Principal Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

    Cultural and socioeconomic barriers to girls' and women's education are reflected in the female literacy rate, average wage, and girls' enrollment, dropout, attainment, and participation rates in formal education. Development of national education has been given top priority in the Indonesian national development. The education system is organized…

  20. Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Horace R.; Brown-Thirston, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding Teenage Girls: Culture, Identity and Schooling" focuses on a range of social phenomenon that impact the lives of adolescent females of color. The authors highlight the daily challenges that African-American, Chicana, and Puerto Rican teenage girls face with respect to peer and family influences, media stereotyping, body image,…

  1. Adolescent Girls' Participation in Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Janice; Hall, M. Ann

    A longitudinal study of girls from the sixth through tenth grades sought to determine if the extent and type of participation in physical activities changed with age. A sample of 207 girls was selected with 140 completing the survey over 5 years. Participation was measured by activities in interschool teams, intramural activities,…

  2. Cyber Bullying and Our Middle School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stomfay-Stitz, Aline; Wheeler, Edyth

    2007-01-01

    This column of Childhood Education focuses on middle school girls. Cyberbullying has emerged as a new, insidious, and harmful way of getting back at an individual girl who may be "different" or disliked for a physical or social trait. Cyberbullying has been described as "willful and repeated harm inflicted through the medium of electronic text"…

  3. Neuropsychological Function in Adolescent Girls with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajer, Kathleen; Chung, Jessica; Leininger, Lisa; Wang, Wei; Gardner, William; Yeates, Keith

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether neuropsychological function is poorer in girls with conduct disorder (CD) than in girls without any psychiatric disorder. It is concluded that girls with CD had deficits in several areas of neuropsychological function.

  4. Anorexia nervosa among teenage girls: Emerging or prevalent?

    PubMed Central

    Hisam, Aliya; Rahman, Mahmood Ur; Mashhadi, Syed Fawad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To find out frequency of anorexia nervosa (AN) among teenage girls (TG) and to find out the knowledge and practice regarding anorexia nervosa among teenage girls. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at higher secondary public school, Rawalpindi from June 2013 till December 2013. A sample of 100 female students of the age group 13-19 years were inducted by systematic sampling technique. Mixed pretested questionnaire was filled after informed verbal consent. Data was entered and analysed using SPSS version 20. Results: Participants mean age was 15.81 ± 1.323 years. Mean weight, mean height and mean body mass index were found to be 50.34 ± 10.445 kg, 160.14 ± 7.846 cm and 19.675 ± 4.1477 kg/m2 respectively. Anorexia nervosa was found in 42 (42%) teenage girls while 58 (58%) were not having anorexia nervosa. Sufficient knowledge and positive practice were found to be present in 57 (57%) and 49 (49%) respectively. Statistically no significant association was found between KP and AN (p=0.73). Conclusion: Anorexia nervosa is an emerging health concern in Pakistan. Anorexia prevalent behaviour was observed in almost half of the teenage girls. PMID:26870084

  5. Rubella seroprevalence among Turkish adolescent girls living in Edirne, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oner, Naci; Vatansever, Ulfet; Karasalihoglu, Serap; Tatman Otkun, Müşerref; Ekuklu, Galip; Küçükugurluoglu, Yasemin

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to estimate the rubella seroprevalence in unvaccinated Turkish adolescent girls in urban and rural areas of Edirne, and to create preventive strategies for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). The sample, representing 12- to 17-year-old adolescent girls, consisted of 1,600 subjects selected from school lists by systematic and random sampling, which was matched by age and urban-rural residency strata proportional to the corresponding distributions in the Edirne population. For each participant, a questionnaire was completed and rubella-specific IgG antibodies were measured. After analysis of samples, seropositivity prevalence, equivocal and seronegative samples of adolescent girls in Edirne were determined as 93.1%, 0.6% and 6.3%, respectively. Data from the present study may indicate that 6.9% of adolescent girls have considerable risk for rubella infection during pregnancy. Eliminating rubella and CRS in Turkey will require national health service efforts, including vaccination of all adolescents and all susceptible women of childbearing age.

  6. Congenital Panfollicular Nevus in a 6-Month-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Duan, Linna; Antaya, Richard J; Ko, Christine J; Narayan, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    A 6-month-old girl presented with an irregular nodule on the right lateral neck. The lesion, which superficially resembled a lymphangioma or mastocytoma, had been present since birth but had recently been growing. The patient was referred for surgical resection. Microscopic findings were compatible with a recently described rare hamartoma termed "panfollicular nevus," which is a well-circumscribed lesion containing aberrantly differentiated, clustered hair follicles in high density. PMID:26822169

  7. Educating girls: population growth's silver bullet?

    PubMed

    Fishel, J

    1998-06-01

    In Africa, only 46% of women are literate; 60% in Asian countries and 85% in Latin America. Even though educating girls has been repeatedly shown to increase their self-esteem, to increase their influence over their own lives and family and community decisions, to lower fertility, to improve maternal and child health, and to help in decreasing environmental degradation, considerable resistance still exists in developing countries to educating girls. Believing that boys who attend school will complete their education, secure employment, and earn wages to contribute to the well-being of the family, parents encourage boys to attend school and girls to remain at home to help with housework and raising younger siblings. The author recounts the story of a 10-year-old girl in Namibia forced to remain at home with her mother to help care for her younger siblings. The girl looks forward to having her own, albeit smaller, family.

  8. Hyperinsulinaemic androgen excess in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Lourdes; Ong, Ken K; López-Bermejo, Abel; Dunger, David B; de Zegher, Francis

    2014-08-01

    Hyperinsulinaemic androgen excess is the most common cause of hirsutism, acne and menstrual irregularity in adolescent girls. Here, we propose that the disorder frequently originates from an absolute or relative excess of lipids in adipose tissue, and from associated changes in insulin sensitivity, gonadotropin secretion and ovarian androgen release. Girls from populations with genotypes attuned to nutritionally harsh conditions seem to be particularly vulnerable to the development of hyperinsulinaemic androgen excess in today's obesogenic environment. We propose that hirsutism, hyperandrogenaemia and menstrual irregularity (≥2 years after menarche) is used as a diagnostic triad for the disorder. No pharmacological therapy has been approved for girls with androgen excess; however, lifestyle intervention is essential to reduce adiposity. In girls without obesity who are not sexually active, insulin sensitization has more broadly normalizing effects than estradiol-progestogen combinations. The early recognition of girls at risk of developing hyperinsulinaemic androgen excess might enable prevention in childhood.

  9. Incestuous Rape: A Cause for Hysterical Seizures in Four Adolescent Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Meir

    1979-01-01

    The etiology of such hysteroepilepsy is explored. It is suggested that, for all girls presented to the clinician with symptoms of hysterical seizures, a detailed history should be taken to explore for the possibility of incest. (Author/DLS)

  10. The tribal girl child in Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Bhanti, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the status of the girl child among tribes in India. Tribes have son preference but do not discriminate against girls by female infanticide or sex determination tests. Girls do not inherit land, but they are not abused, hated, or subjected to rigid social norms. Girls are not veiled and are free to participate in dancing and other recreational programs. There is no dowry on marriage. The father of the bridegroom pays a brideprice to the father of the girl. Widowed or divorced women are free to marry again. Daughters care for young children, perform housework, and work in the field with their brothers. In the tribal village of Choti Underi girls were not discriminated against in health and nutrition, but there was a gender gap in education. Both girls and boys were equally exposed to infection and undernourishment. Tribals experience high rates of infant and child mortality due to poverty and its related malnutrition. Child labor among tribals is a way of life for meeting the basic needs of the total household. A recent report on tribals in Rajasthan reveals that 15-20% of child labor involved work in mines that were dangerous to children's health. Girl children had no security provisions or minimum wages. Tribal children were exploited by human service agencies. Child laborers were raped. Government programs in tribal areas should focus on improving living conditions for children in general. Special programs for girls are needed for providing security in the workplace and increasing female educational levels. More information is needed on the work burden of tribal girls that may include wage employment as well as housework.

  11. The tribal girl child in Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Bhanti, R

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the status of the girl child among tribes in India. Tribes have son preference but do not discriminate against girls by female infanticide or sex determination tests. Girls do not inherit land, but they are not abused, hated, or subjected to rigid social norms. Girls are not veiled and are free to participate in dancing and other recreational programs. There is no dowry on marriage. The father of the bridegroom pays a brideprice to the father of the girl. Widowed or divorced women are free to marry again. Daughters care for young children, perform housework, and work in the field with their brothers. In the tribal village of Choti Underi girls were not discriminated against in health and nutrition, but there was a gender gap in education. Both girls and boys were equally exposed to infection and undernourishment. Tribals experience high rates of infant and child mortality due to poverty and its related malnutrition. Child labor among tribals is a way of life for meeting the basic needs of the total household. A recent report on tribals in Rajasthan reveals that 15-20% of child labor involved work in mines that were dangerous to children's health. Girl children had no security provisions or minimum wages. Tribal children were exploited by human service agencies. Child laborers were raped. Government programs in tribal areas should focus on improving living conditions for children in general. Special programs for girls are needed for providing security in the workplace and increasing female educational levels. More information is needed on the work burden of tribal girls that may include wage employment as well as housework. PMID:12158009

  12. When a girl's decision involves the community: the realities of adolescent Maya girls' lives in rural indigenous Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them. PMID:23684196

  13. When a girl's decision involves the community: the realities of adolescent Maya girls' lives in rural indigenous Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Wehr, Heather; Tum, Silvia Ester

    2013-05-01

    Adolescent Maya girls are among the most vulnerable, marginalized sub-populations in Guatemala, a country that is largely young, indigenous and poor. Adolescent Maya girls have limited access to secondary schooling, opportunities to work or earn an income, and sexual and reproductive health information and services. This article explores the extent to which adolescent Maya girls are able to adopt what they have learned in a community-based skills-building and sex education programme in isolated rural, indigenous Guatemalan communities. This is presented through an interview between the authors, who met and worked together in the Population Council's programme Abriendo Oportunidades (Opening Opportunities) for girls aged 8-19 years. The interview discusses what can be done so that indigenous adolescents not only obtain the sexual health information they need, but develop the skills to make decisions, communicate with their peers and parents, and exercise their rights. Much culturally and linguistically sensitive work must be done, using a community-based participatory approach, so that young people who do want to use condoms for protection or contraceptive methods not only have access to the methods, but the support of their families and communities, and government-sponsored sex education programmes, to use them.

  14. The Nature of Co-Occurring Exposure to Violence and of Court Responses to Girls in the Juvenile Justice System.

    PubMed

    Morash, Merry

    2016-07-01

    This article examines the co-occurrence of different types of victimization and violence exposure, and the effects of court interventions for girls in juvenile court. A life history interview methodology was used to collect qualitative data from 27 girls who had penetrated deeply into a treatment-oriented county court system. The study revealed that early abuse and violence in the home made girls vulnerable to later intimate partner violence and sexual assault when they left to avoid continued victimization. Whereas some court interventions helped girls, others revictimized them. Implications for helpful court practices and future research are presented and discussed.

  15. Leadership Workshops for Adult Girl Scout Leaders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald; DeVore, Edna; Harman, Pamela; Reaching Stars Team

    2016-10-01

    This year, the University of Arizona is conducting its first two Leadership Workshops for Girl Scout adult leaders. These workshops are being supported by a five-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the University of Arizona, Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA), the Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. These workshops are an outgrowth of Astronomy Camp for Girl Scout Leaders, a 14-year "Train the Trainer" program funded by NASA through the James Webb Space Telescope's Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam) education and outreach team. We are continuing our long-term relationship with all Girl Scout Councils to engage girls and young women not only in science and math education, but also in the astronomical and technological concepts relating to NASA's scientific mission. Our training aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It's Your Planet-Love It! and introduces participants to some of the activities that are being developed by the Girl Scout Stars team for GSUSA's new space science badges for all Girl Scout levels being developed as a part of Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts.The workshops include hands-on activities in basic astronomy (night sky, stars, galaxies, optics, telescopes, etc.) as well as some more advanced concepts such as lookback time and the expansion of the Universe. Since the inception of our original Astronomy Camp in 2003, our team has grown to include nearly 280 adult leaders, staff, and volunteers from over 79 Councils in 43 states and the District of Columbia so they can, in turn, teach young women essential concepts in astronomy, the night sky environment, applied math, and engineering. Our workshops model what astronomers do by engaging participants in the process of science inquiry, while equipping adults to host astronomy-related programs with

  16. Patterns of Weight Control Behavior among 15 year old Girls

    PubMed Central

    Balantekin, Katherine N.; Birch, Leann L.; Savage, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objectives were to identify and predict patterns of weight control behavior in 15 year old (yo) girls and to examine weight control group differences in energy intake. Method Subjects included 166 girls assessed every 2 years (ys) from age 5 to 15. Latent class analysis was used to identify patterns of weight control behaviors. Antecedent variables (e.g. inhibitory control at 7ys), and concurrent variables (e.g. BMI and dietary intake at 15ys) were included as predictors. Assessments were a combination of survey, interview, and laboratory measures. Results LCA identified four classes of weight control behaviors, Non-dieters (26%), and three dieting groups: Lifestyle (16%), Dieters (43%), and Extreme Dieters (17%). Levels of restraint, weight concerns, and dieting frequency increased across groups, from Non-dieters to Extreme Dieters. BMI at 5ys and inhibitory control at 7ys predicted weight control group at 15ys; e.g. with every one-point decrease in inhibitory control, girls were twice as likely to be Extreme Dieters than Non-dieters. Girls in the Extreme Dieters group were mostly classified as under-reporters, and had the lowest self-reported intake, but ate significantly more in the laboratory. Discussion Among 15yo girls, “dieting” includes a range of both healthy and unhealthy behaviors. Risk factors for membership in a weight control groups are present as early as 5ys. Patterns of intake in the laboratory support the view that lower reported energy intake by Extreme Dieters is likely due under-reporting as an intent to decrease intake, not actual decreased intake. PMID:26284953

  17. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    SciTech Connect

    Fucic, A.; Plavec, D; Casteleyn, L.; Aerts, D.; Biot, P.; Katsonouri, A.; Cerna, M.; Knudsen, L.E.; Castano, A.; Rudnai, P.; Gutleb, A.; Ligocka, D.; Lupsa, I-R.; Berglund, M.; Horvat, M.; Halzlova, K.; Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G.; Hadjipanayis, A.; Krskova, A.; and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  18. Girls, science and epistemology: A societal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arner Welsh, Jennifer M.

    This study examines the ways in which girls' personal epistemologies are applied and modulated in relationship with scientific disciplinary epistemology in the context of their early science learning. The research takes a societal approach, assuming that both girls' reasoning and scientific disciplinary epistemology are socially constituted, emphasizing the role of gendered discourses, realities and experiences in the construction of girls' subjectivities and disciplinary epistemology. Initially, three research scientists were interviewed to provide a naturalized understanding of scientific disciplinary epistemology. Subsequently, over the course of spring semester, seven ninth-grade girls from a small middle-class town participated in a series of in-depth interviews about their reasoning in scientific contexts. The focus of the interview analysis is two-fold. Possible points of connection and contention are examined between the ways in which girls deploy their personal epistemologies and scientific disciplinary epistemology. Individual profiles of each girl are also developed, describing patterns and tensions in her reasoning. This study reveals the intersection between personal and disciplinary epistemology as a productive area for research, and further, shows that examining societal context and personal epistemologies provides new insight into the issues facing girls learning science. Results suggest that there are both significant disjuncts and points of connection between these girls' personal epistemologies and scientific disciplinary epistemology. In particular, the personal understandings of knowledge as perspectival and the role of experience as providing frameworks for thinking which were shown by the girls in this study could be meaningfully used in conjunction with contemporary trends in philosophy of science to enhance understanding of science and scientific disciplinary epistemology.

  19. The Indian "girl" psychology: A perspective.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Prasad; Vidya, K L; Sriramya, V

    2015-07-01

    India has one of the fastest growing youth populations in the world. Girls below 19 years of age comprise one-quarter of India's rapidly growing population. In spite of India's reputation for respecting women, to an extent to treat her as a goddess, the moment a baby is born, the first thing comes to mind is "boy or girl?" as the differences are beyond just being biological. This article examines the significance of various psychological constructs and psychosocial issues that are important in the life of a "girl" baby born in our country.

  20. The Indian "girl" psychology: A perspective.

    PubMed

    Rao, G Prasad; Vidya, K L; Sriramya, V

    2015-07-01

    India has one of the fastest growing youth populations in the world. Girls below 19 years of age comprise one-quarter of India's rapidly growing population. In spite of India's reputation for respecting women, to an extent to treat her as a goddess, the moment a baby is born, the first thing comes to mind is "boy or girl?" as the differences are beyond just being biological. This article examines the significance of various psychological constructs and psychosocial issues that are important in the life of a "girl" baby born in our country. PMID:26330637

  1. Environmental Exposures and Puberty in Inner-City Girls

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Mary S.; Britton, Julie A; Boguski, Lisa; Hochman, Sarah; Maloney, Nell; Serra, Nicole; Liu, Zhisong; Berkowitz, Gertrud; Larson, Signe; Forman, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Background Hormonally active environmental exposures are suspected to alter onset of puberty in girls, but research on this question has been very limited. Objective We investigated pubertal status in relation to hormonally active environmental exposures among a multiethnic group of 192 healthy nine-year old girls residing in New York City. Methods Information was collected on breast and pubic hair stages, weight and height. Phytoestrogen intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Three phytoestrogens and bis-phenolA (BPA) were measured in urine. In a subset, 1,1′-dichloro-2,2′-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in blood plasma and lead (Pb) in blood. Associations of exposures with pubertal stages (present=stage 2+ vs absent=stage 1) were examined using t-tests and Poisson multivariate regression to derive prevalence ratios (PR, 95%-confidence limits [CI]). Results Breast development was present in 53% of girls. DDE, Pb, and dietary intakes of phytoestrogens were not significantly associated with breast stage. Urinary phytoestrogen biomarker concentrations were lower among girls with breast development than with no development. In multivariate models, main effects were strongest for two urinary isoflavones, daidzein (PR 0.89 [0.83-0.96] per ln-μg/g creatinine) and genistein (0.94 [0.88-1.01]). Body mass index (BMI) is a hormonally relevant, strong risk factor for breast development. Therefore, BMI-modification of exposure effects was examined, and associations became stronger. Delayed breast development was observed among girls with below-median BMI and 3rd tertile (high exposure) of urinary daidzein (PR 0.46 [0.26-0.78]); a similar effect was seen with genistein, comparing to girls ≥median BMI and lowest two tertiles (combined) of these isoflavones. With urinary enterolactone a phytoestrogen effect was seen only among girls with high BMI, where breast development was delayed among those with high

  2. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis. PMID:27366187

  3. Primary Nasal Tuberculosis in a 10-Year-Old Girl.

    PubMed

    Özer, Murat; Özsurekçi, Yasemin; Cengiz, Ali Bülent; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Gököz, Özay

    2016-01-01

    Nasal tuberculosis is a rare clinical entity which mainly presents in elderly people. Nasal tuberculosis has always been considered to be secondary to tuberculosis of the lungs, and in rare instances it is a primary infection, usually when mycobacteria are inhaled. We describe the case of a 10-year-old girl who was successfully treated for primary nasal tuberculosis. This patient is one of the very few children who have been reported to have primary nasal tuberculosis.

  4. Giant Bilateral Juvenile Fibroadenoma of the Breast in Prepubescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salma; Khan, Momna; Rafique, Sadia

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma accounts for 4% of the total fibroadenomas. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma is found in only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas. The authors report a 10-year girl presenting with progressive enlargement of both breasts for one year. Based on clinical findings and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), a diagnosis of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of breast was made. She underwent bilateral lumpectomy with breast conservation and made uneventful postoperative recovery. PMID:26522216

  5. Making 'good girls': sexual agency in the sexuality education of low-income black girls.

    PubMed

    Froyum, Carissa M

    2010-01-01

    Critics argue that abstinence-only programmes reinforce gender inequality when they contain discourses that equate being a 'good girl' with sexual restraint. Yet they too often overlook how racial and class inequalities shape discourses about girls' sexual agency. This ethnography extends gender scholarship by analysing the racialised, classed and gendered dynamics of an abstinence-only programme for low-income black girls. It finds that black adults viewed the girls as sexually vulnerable because of racism and class inequality. They tried to mediate this vulnerability by transforming girls into sexual agents. They did so, though, by exaggerating the gendered discourses of the official sexuality education curricula that framed girls as victims and their sexual restraint as a matter of morality. Thus, the programme reinforced gender inequality while trying to disrupt race and class inequalities.

  6. Coeducational or Single-Sex School: Does It Make a Difference on High School Girls' Academic Motivation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chouinard, Roch; Vezeau, Carole; Bouffard, Therese

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to further examine the impact over time of single-sex and coeducational school environments on girls' motivation in language arts and mathematics. Two cohorts comprising 340 girls (7th to 9th grade; 9th to 11th grade) from eight coeducational and two single-sex schools were followed during a period of three…

  7. Predictors of Learned Helplessness among Average and Mildly Gifted Girls and Boys Attending Initial High School Physics Instruction in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziegler, Albert; Finsterwald, Monika; Grassinger, Robert

    2005-01-01

    In mathematics, physics, and chemistry, women are still considered to be at a disadvantage. In the present study, the development of the symptoms of learned helplessness was of particular interest. A study involving average and mildly gifted 8th-grade boys and girls (top 60%) investigated whether girls, regardless of ability level, experience…

  8. Developing Critical Hip Hop Feminist Literacies: Centrality and Subversion of Sexuality in the Lives of Black Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The present article explores discourses surrounding the bodies of Black women and girls as they engage the meanings of Black womanhood in (American) society in an afterschool setting. Drawing on Black and hip hop feminisms, African American literacies, and critical discourse perspectives, the author analyzes two young girls' narratives, which…

  9. Policy Framework for Addressing Personal Security Issues Concerning Women and Girls. National Strategy on Community Safety and Crime Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Crime Prevention Centre, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This document presents a policy framework for improving the personal security of women and girls. The document includes: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Policy Background" (the concept of personal security, the societal context of women's personal security, consequences of violence for women and girls, long-term policy concern, and building an integrated…

  10. Reflections of Girls in the Media: A National Survey of Children. A Summary of Findings and Toplines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document presents a summary of a national telephone survey that examined messages sent to adolescent girls (ages 10 to 17) across 6 types of media most heavily used by adolescent girls: television, movies, magazines, music videos, television commercials, and magazine advertisements. The study asked what messages are sent about gender…

  11. Experimentally Testing a Narrative Sense-Making Metaphor Intervention: Facilitating Communicative Coping about Social Aggression with Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Erin K.

    2009-01-01

    Social aggression, including behaviors such as gossip and friendship manipulation, can be damaging to girls' individual and relational well-being. As a result, the purpose of the present dissertation study was to test a narrative sense-making metaphor intervention with middle schools girls experiencing social aggression in order to facilitate…

  12. Bodily Knowledge: Learning about Equity and Justice with Adolescent Girls. Adolescent Cultures, School and Society, Vol. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Kimberly L.; Lalik, Rosary.

    This book examines how four adolescent girls constructed the meaning of their bodies, discussing oppression and resistance, voice and silence, and girls' desires to be seen and heard for who they are as they experience themselves individually and socially. It presents the struggles of two educational researchers trying to create ethical research…

  13. For All Our Daughters: How Mentoring Helps Young Women and Girls Master the Art of Growing Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echevarria, Pegine

    As girls face the serious emotional, physical, and developmental challenges during youth and adolescence, external support from a nonparental female role model is an essential, and too frequently ignored, requirement for healthy development. This book presents a process for mentoring young women and girls by providing guidance in five areas:…

  14. [Psychoanalytic treatment of a drepressive girl which sufferend from loyality conflicts due to the divorce of her parents].

    PubMed

    Glorius-Josefowicz, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the long term psychoanalytic treatment of a depressive girl was presented, which suffered from loyality conflicts due to the divorce of her parents. The treatment lasted for 150 hours and was conducted over two years. Meetings with the parents were also included. The focus of this article is on the treatment of the girl. PMID:17451155

  15. On Their Own and in Their Own Words: Bolivian Adolescent Girls' Empowerment through Non-Governmental Human Rights Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In recognition of the profound benefits of children's engagement with their rights, this article presents an experiential account of how Bolivian adolescent indigenous girls discover, articulate, experience, and advocate human rights. This study explores adolescent girls' demonstrations of empowerment, agency, resistance, and solidarity as part of…

  16. Developmental pathways to antisocial behavior: the delayed-onset pathway in girls.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, P; Frick, P J

    1999-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that there are two distinct trajectories for the development of antisocial behavior in boys: a childhood-onset pathway and an adolescent-onset pathway. After reviewing the limited available research on antisocial girls, we propose that this influential method of conceptualizing the development of severe antisocial behavior may not apply to girls without some important modifications. Antisocial girls appear to show many of the correlates that have been associated with the childhood-onset pathway in boys, and they tend to show impaired adult adjustment, which is also similar to boys in the childhood-onset pathway. However, antisocial girls typically show an adolescent-onset to their antisocial behavior. We have proposed that these girls show a third developmental pathway which we have labeled the "delayed-onset" pathway. This model rests on the assumption that many of the putative pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to the development of antisocial behavior in girls, such as cognitive and neuropsychological deficits, a dysfunctional family environment, and/or the presence of a callous and unemotional interpersonal style, may be present in childhood, but they do not lead to severe and overt antisocial behavior until adolescence. Therefore, we propose that the delayed-onset pathway for girls is analogous to the childhood-onset pathway in boys and that there is no analogous pathway in girls to the adolescent-onset pathway in boys. Although this model clearly needs to be tested in future research, it highlights the need to test the applicability of current theoretical models for explaining the development of antisocial behavior in girls.

  17. Perceived experiences with sexism among adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Leaper, Campbell; Brown, Christia Spears

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of adolescent girls' experiences with sexism and feminism. Girls (N = 600; M = 15.1 years, range = 12-18), of varied socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, completed surveys of personal experiences with sexual harassment, academic sexism (regarding science, math, and computer technology), and athletics. Most girls reported sexual harassment (90%), academic sexism (52%), and athletic sexism (76%) at least once, with likelihood increasing with age. Socialization influences and individual factors, however, influenced likelihood of all three forms of sexism. Specifically, learning about feminism and gender-conformity pressures were linked to higher perceptions of sexism. Furthermore, girls' social gender identity (i.e., perceived gender typicality and gender-role contentedness) and gender-egalitarian attitudes were related to perceived sexism.

  18. Building Self-Esteem through Girl Scouting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Joanne

    1984-01-01

    Through fun and educational activities, Girl Scouts develop self-esteem. Scouting activities include such things as camping, job skills development, career awareness, self-reliance skills, and mainstreaming of disabled children. (DF)

  19. Understanding Girls' Circle as an intervention on perceived social support, body image, self-efficacy, locus of control, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Steese, Stephanie; Dollette, Maya; Phillips, William; Hossfeld, Elizabeth; Matthews, Gail; Taormina, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    The Girls' Circle is a support group for adolescent girls developed by Beth Hossfeld and Giovanna Taormina as a unique program that addresses the needs of girls by focusing on increasing connections, building empathic skills, and developing resiliency. The present study evaluates the effectiveness of the Girls' Circle intervention on improving social support, body image, locus of control, self-efficacy, and self-esteem. Sixty-three girls from 9 support groups (comprising 5 to 15 girls each) across the United States completed the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, the Body Parts Satisfaction Scale, the Nowicki-Strickland Personal Reaction Survey, Schwarzer's General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale both before and after the 10-week Girls' Circle program. Results revealed a significant increase in social support, body image, and self-efficacy after completion of the program. PMID:16689441

  20. "The Power to Squash People": Understanding Girls' Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Dawn H.; Kelly, Deirdre M.; Pomerantz, Shauna

    2007-01-01

    While researchers and concerned adults alike draw attention to relational aggression among girls, how this aggression is associated with girls' agency remains a matter of debate. This paper explores relational aggression among girls designated by their peers as "popular" in order to understand how social power constructs girls' agency as…