Science.gov

Sample records for 110-1 problem set

  1. 24 CFR 110.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... POSTER Purpose and Definitions § 110.1 Purpose. The regulations set forth in this part contain the... fair housing poster by persons subject to sections 804 through 806 of the Fair Housing Act, 42...

  2. 24 CFR 110.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... POSTER Purpose and Definitions § 110.1 Purpose. The regulations set forth in this part contain the... fair housing poster by persons subject to sections 804 through 806 of the Fair Housing Act, 42...

  3. 24 CFR 110.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... POSTER Purpose and Definitions § 110.1 Purpose. The regulations set forth in this part contain the... fair housing poster by persons subject to sections 804 through 806 of the Fair Housing Act, 42...

  4. 24 CFR 110.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... POSTER Purpose and Definitions § 110.1 Purpose. The regulations set forth in this part contain the... fair housing poster by persons subject to sections 804 through 806 of the Fair Housing Act, 42...

  5. 24 CFR 110.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... POSTER Purpose and Definitions § 110.1 Purpose. The regulations set forth in this part contain the... fair housing poster by persons subject to sections 804 through 806 of the Fair Housing Act, 42...

  6. 42 CFR 110.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 110.1 Section 110.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 110.1 Purpose. This part implements the Public Readiness and...

  7. 42 CFR 110.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 110.1 Section 110.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 110.1 Purpose. This part implements the Public Readiness and...

  8. 42 CFR 110.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 110.1 Section 110.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 110.1 Purpose. This part implements the Public Readiness and...

  9. 42 CFR 110.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 110.1 Section 110.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 110.1 Purpose. This part implements the Public Readiness and...

  10. Gene set enrichment; a problem of pathways

    PubMed Central

    Meaburn, Emma L.; Schalkwyk, Leonard C.

    2010-01-01

    Gene Set Enrichment (GSE) is a computational technique which determines whether a priori defined set of genes show statistically significant differential expression between two phenotypes. Currently, the gene sets used for GSE are derived from annotation or pathway databases, which often contain computationally based and unrepresentative data. Here, we propose a novel approach for the generation of comprehensive and biologically derived gene sets, deriving sets through the application of machine learning techniques to gene expression data. These gene sets can be produced for specific tissues, developmental stages or environments. They provide a powerful and functionally meaningful way in which to mine genomewide association and next generation sequencing data in order to identify disease-associated variants and pathways. PMID:20861160

  11. Educational Problems in the Urban Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Roald F., Ed.; And Others

    In spite of the trend toward suburbanization, the cities continue to be the hub of institutional America. The assimilation of growing numbers of uneducated, unskilled, and minority group immigrants in the face of declining physical, fiscal, and leadership resources is the basic problem confronting cities. The ghetto is populated by individuals…

  12. Setting mental health priorities: problems and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    1994-01-01

    A recent project at the Hastings Center examined the question of priority setting in the provision of mental health services. A central issue was whether those services should be prioritized independently of other health services. The answer to that question was no: they should have full parity. Even so, priority setting can be a complex venture. At the heart of any such effort will be the relationship between empirical evidence on treatment outcomes and efficacy and the political and ethical interests that legitimately bear on interpreting and using that evidence. An argument is made that a priority should be given those whose suffering and inability to function in ordinary life is most pronounced, even if the available treatment for them is comparatively less efficacious than for other conditions. PMID:7935242

  13. 40 CFR 211.110-1 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Testing exemption. 211.110-1 Section 211.110-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.110-1 Testing exemption. (a) A new...

  14. 40 CFR 211.110-1 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Testing exemption. 211.110-1 Section 211.110-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.110-1 Testing exemption. (a) A new...

  15. 40 CFR 211.110-1 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing exemption. 211.110-1 Section 211.110-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.110-1 Testing exemption. (a) A new...

  16. 40 CFR 211.110-1 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Testing exemption. 211.110-1 Section 211.110-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.110-1 Testing exemption. (a) A new...

  17. 40 CFR 211.110-1 - Testing exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing exemption. 211.110-1 Section 211.110-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.110-1 Testing exemption. (a) A new...

  18. 26 CFR 1.110-1 - Qualified lessee construction allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Qualified lessee construction allowances. 1.110-1 Section 1.110-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.110-1 Qualified lessee construction allowances....

  19. 26 CFR 1.110-1 - Qualified lessee construction allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Qualified lessee construction allowances. 1.110-1 Section 1.110-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.110-1 Qualified lessee construction allowances....

  20. Setting dietary intake levels: problems and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Russell, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Recommended dietary intake levels are the nutrient standards used in designing food assistance programmes, institutional feeding programmes, counselling and teaching. In the USA, the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) are the basis for setting the poverty threshold and food stamp allotments. In the 1990s, a new paradigm was put forth for estimating nutrient requirements and recommended intake levels. This considered the level of nutrient needed for normal body functioning (versus the amount needed to prevent a deficiency state from occurring). An estimated average requirement (EAR), an RDA and a tolerable upper intake level (UL) were determined for most nutrients. In setting forth these nutrient intake levels (dietary reference intakes, DRIs), a number of data challenges were encountered. For example, it was recognized that for most nutrients there was an absence of dose-response data, and few chronic human or animal studies had been undertaken. In considering how to revise nutrient intake recommendations for populations in the future, the following pitfalls must be overcome: (1) invalid assumption that a threshold level for a requirement will hold for all nutrients; (2) lack of uniform criteria for the selection of the endpoints used (need for evidence-based review, consideration of comparative risk); (3) invalid extrapolations to children for many nutrients; (4) lack of information on variability of responses, and interactions with other nutrients; and (5) lack of understanding in the community of how to use the various DRI numbers. PMID:17913222

  1. Couples' Reports of Relationship Problems in a Naturalistic Therapy Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boisvert, Marie-Michele; Wright, John; Tremblay, Nadine; McDuff, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Understanding couples' relationship problems is fundamental to couple therapy. Although research has documented common relationship problems, no study has used open-ended questions to explore problems in couples seeking therapy in naturalistic settings. The present study used a reliable coding system to explore the relationship problems reported…

  2. Individualized Math Problems in Whole Numbers. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems in this set require computations involving whole numbers.…

  3. Two Quantum Protocols for Oblivious Set-member Decision Problem.

    PubMed

    Shi, Run-Hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we defined a new secure multi-party computation problem, called Oblivious Set-member Decision problem, which allows one party to decide whether a secret of another party belongs to his private set in an oblivious manner. There are lots of important applications of Oblivious Set-member Decision problem in fields of the multi-party collaborative computation of protecting the privacy of the users, such as private set intersection and union, anonymous authentication, electronic voting and electronic auction. Furthermore, we presented two quantum protocols to solve the Oblivious Set-member Decision problem. Protocol I takes advantage of powerful quantum oracle operations so that it needs lower costs in both communication and computation complexity; while Protocol II takes photons as quantum resources and only performs simple single-particle projective measurements, thus it is more feasible with the present technology. PMID:26514668

  4. Two Quantum Protocols for Oblivious Set-member Decision Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Run-Hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we defined a new secure multi-party computation problem, called Oblivious Set-member Decision problem, which allows one party to decide whether a secret of another party belongs to his private set in an oblivious manner. There are lots of important applications of Oblivious Set-member Decision problem in fields of the multi-party collaborative computation of protecting the privacy of the users, such as private set intersection and union, anonymous authentication, electronic voting and electronic auction. Furthermore, we presented two quantum protocols to solve the Oblivious Set-member Decision problem. Protocol I takes advantage of powerful quantum oracle operations so that it needs lower costs in both communication and computation complexity; while Protocol II takes photons as quantum resources and only performs simple single-particle projective measurements, thus it is more feasible with the present technology.

  5. Two Quantum Protocols for Oblivious Set-member Decision Problem

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we defined a new secure multi-party computation problem, called Oblivious Set-member Decision problem, which allows one party to decide whether a secret of another party belongs to his private set in an oblivious manner. There are lots of important applications of Oblivious Set-member Decision problem in fields of the multi-party collaborative computation of protecting the privacy of the users, such as private set intersection and union, anonymous authentication, electronic voting and electronic auction. Furthermore, we presented two quantum protocols to solve the Oblivious Set-member Decision problem. Protocol I takes advantage of powerful quantum oracle operations so that it needs lower costs in both communication and computation complexity; while Protocol II takes photons as quantum resources and only performs simple single-particle projective measurements, thus it is more feasible with the present technology. PMID:26514668

  6. Solving the set cover problem and the problem of exact cover by 3-sets in the Adleman-Lipton model.

    PubMed

    Chang, Weng Long; Guo, Minyi

    2003-12-01

    Adleman wrote the first paper in which it is shown that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strands could be employed towards calculating solutions to an instance of the NP-complete Hamiltonian path problem (HPP). Lipton also demonstrated that Adleman's techniques could be used to solve the NP-complete satisfiability (SAT) problem (the first NP-complete problem). In this paper, it is proved how the DNA operations presented by Adleman and Lipton can be used for developing DNA algorithms to resolving the set cover problem and the problem of exact cover by 3-sets. PMID:14643494

  7. Individualized Math Problems in Square Root. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems in this volume require the computation of square roots,…

  8. Individualized Math Problems in Volume. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems in this booklet require the computation of volumes of solids,…

  9. Individualized Math Problems in Algebra. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic, and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems presented in this package concern ratios used in food…

  10. Individualized Math Problems in Simple Equations. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems in this volume require solution of linear equations, systems…

  11. Individualized Math Problems in Logarithms. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    THis is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This volume includes problems involving logarithms, exponents, and…

  12. Individualized Math Problems in Geometry. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. The volume contains problems in applied geometry. Measurement of…

  13. Individualized Math Problems in Calculus and Statistics. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems in which calculus and statistics are applied to forestry,…

  14. Individualized Math Problems in Trigonometry. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems in this volume require the use of trigonometric and inverse…

  15. Individualized Math Problems in Metrics. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This booklet contains a problem on metric measurement in the area of…

  16. Individualized Math Problems in Decimals. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    THis is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems in this volume concern use of decimals and are related to the…

  17. Individualized Math Problems in Ratio and Proportion. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This volume contains problems involving ratio and proportion. Some…

  18. Individualized Math Problems in Fractions. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This package contains problems involving computation with common…

  19. Individualized Math Problems in Percent. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosler, Norma, Ed.

    This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This volume includes problems concerned with computing percents.…

  20. 41 CFR 109-40.110-1 - Small business assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small business assistance. 109-40.110-1 Section 109-40.110-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS...

  1. A Set-Oriented Perspective on Solving Counting Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Elise

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I present the notion of a set-oriented perspective for solving counting problems that emerged during task-based interviews with postsecondary students. Framing the findings within Harel's "ways of thinking", I argue that students may benefit from this perspective, in which they view attending to sets of outcomes as…

  2. System for solving diagnosis and hitting set problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Vatan, Farrokh (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis problem arises when a system's actual behavior contradicts the expected behavior, thereby exhibiting symptoms (a collection of conflict sets). System diagnosis is then the task of identifying faulty components that are responsible for anomalous behavior. To solve the diagnosis problem, the present invention describes a method for finding the minimal set of faulty components (minimal diagnosis set) that explain the conflict sets. The method includes acts of creating a matrix of the collection of conflict sets, and then creating nodes from the matrix such that each node is a node in a search tree. A determination is made as to whether each node is a leaf node or has any children nodes. If any given node has children nodes, then the node is split until all nodes are leaf nodes. Information gathered from the leaf nodes is used to determine the minimal diagnosis set.

  3. A parallel genetic algorithm for the set partitioning problem

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation the author reports on his efforts to develop a parallel genetic algorithm and apply it to the solution of set partitioning problem -- a difficult combinatorial optimization problem used by many airlines as a mathematical model for flight crew scheduling. He developed a distributed steady-state genetic algorithm in conjunction with a specialized local search heuristic for solving the set partitioning problem. The genetic algorithm is based on an island model where multiple independent subpopulations each run a steady-state genetic algorithm on their subpopulation and occasionally fit strings migrate between the subpopulations. Tests on forty real-world set partitioning problems were carried out on up to 128 nodes of an IBM SP1 parallel computer. The authors found that performance, as measured by the quality of the solution found and the iteration on which it was found, improved as additional subpopulation found and the iteration on which it was found, improved as additional subpopulations were added to the computation. With larger numbers of subpopulations the genetic algorithm was regularly able to find the optimal solution to problems having up to a few thousand integer variables. In two cases, high-quality integer feasible solutions were found for problems with 36,699 and 43,749 integer variables, respectively. A notable limitation they found was the difficulty solving problems with many constraints.

  4. The Impact of Problem Sets on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Myeong Hwan; Cho, Moon-Heum; Leonard, Karen Moustafa

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the role of problem sets on student learning in university microeconomics. A total of 126 students participated in the study in consecutive years. independent samples t test showed that students who were not given answer keys outperformed students who were given answer keys. Multiple regression analysis showed that, along with…

  5. A parallel genetic algorithm for the set partitioning problem

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, D.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a parallel genetic algorithm developed for the solution of the set partitioning problem- a difficult combinatorial optimization problem used by many airlines as a mathematical model for flight crew scheduling. The genetic algorithm is based on an island model where multiple independent subpopulations each run a steady-state genetic algorithm on their own subpopulation and occasionally fit strings migrate between the subpopulations. Tests on forty real-world set partitioning problems were carried out on up to 128 nodes of an IBM SP1 parallel computer. We found that performance, as measured by the quality of the solution found and the iteration on which it was found, improved as additional subpopulations were added to the computation. With larger numbers of subpopulations the genetic algorithm was regularly able to find the optimal solution to problems having up to a few thousand integer variables. In two cases, high- quality integer feasible solutions were found for problems with 36, 699 and 43,749 integer variables, respectively. A notable limitation we found was the difficulty solving problems with many constraints.

  6. Adaptive SAR ATR problem set (AdaptSAPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Angela R.; Fitzgerald, Donna; Ross, Timothy D.

    2004-09-01

    A strong and growing interest in systems that adapt to changing circumstances was evident in panel discussions at the "Algorithms for SAR Imagery" Conference of the AeroSense Symposium in April 2003, with DARPA, Air Force, industry and academia participation. As a result, Conference Co-Chair Mr. Ed Zelnio suggested producing a dynamic model to create problem sets suitable for adaptive system research and development. Such a problem set provides a framework for the overall problem, including organization of operating conditions, performance measures and specific test cases. It is hoped that this AdaptSAPS framework will help provide the community with a more concrete base for discussing adaptation in SAR imagery exploitation. AdaptSAPS Version 1.0 was produced by the AFRL COMPASE and SDMS organizations and posted on 5 August 2003. AdaptSAPS consists of over a dozen MatLab programs that allow the user to create "missions" with SAR data of varying complexities and then present that test data one image at a time, first as unexploited imagery and then later with the exploitation results that an ATR could use for adaptation in an operational environment. AdaptSAPS keeps track of performance results and reports performance measures. This paper describes AdaptSAPS - its application process and possible improvements as a problem set.

  7. A neural computation approach to the set covering problem

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, T.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents a neural network algorithm which is capable of finding approximate solutions for unicost set covering problems. The network has two types of units (neurons), with different dynamics and activation functions. One type represents the objects to be covered (the rows in the matrix representation of the problem) and another represents the ``covering`` sets (the 0,1 variables). They are connected as a bipartite graph which represents the incidence relations between objects and sets (i.e the 0,1 adjacency matrix). When the parameters of the units are correctly tuned, the stable states of the system correspond to the minimal covers. I show that in its basic mode of operation, descent dynamics, when the network is set in an arbitrary initial state it converges in less than 2n steps (where n is the number of variables), to a stable state which represents a valid solution. In this mode, the network implements a greedy heuristic in which the choice function is based on the unit inputs (which are determined by the activation functions and the network state). On top of the basic network dynamics, the algorithm applies an adaptive restart procedure which helps to search more effectively for ``good`` initial states and results in better performance.

  8. Problems in merging Earth sensing satellite data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul H.; Goldberg, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing systems provide a tremendous source of data flow to the Earth science community. These systems provide scientists with data of types and on a scale previously unattainable. Looking forward to the capabilities of Space Station and the Earth Observing System (EOS), the full realization of the potential of satellite remote sensing will be handicapped by inadequate information systems. There is a growing emphasis in Earth science research to ask questions which are multidisciplinary in nature and global in scale. Many of these research projects emphasize the interactions of the land surface, the atmosphere, and the oceans through various physical mechanisms. Conducting this research requires large and complex data sets and teams of multidisciplinary scientists, often working at remote locations. A review of the problems of merging these large volumes of data into spatially referenced and manageable data sets is presented.

  9. The Collaborative Problem Solving approach: outcomes across settings.

    PubMed

    Pollastri, Alisha R; Epstein, Lawrence D; Heath, Georgina H; Ablon, J Stuart

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS) has become a popular approach to managing the challenging behaviors of children and adolescents, and has established a growing evidence base for reducing oppositional behavior and related outcomes. In contrast with standard behavioral methods that provide incentives for meeting adult expectations, CPS focuses on identifying and treating lagging cognitive skills that interfere with children's ability to meet these expectations. Since the majority of CPS outcomes have been evaluated in clinical and educational settings as part of internal quality-improvement efforts, only a small proportion of these findings has been published in peer-reviewed academic journals. Here, we describe the CPS approach and provide a summary of all known published and unpublished findings related to its implementation in outpatient, inpatient, residential, juvenile justice, and educational settings. Finally, we provide specific recommendations for future research on the model. PMID:24651507

  10. Biophysics at the Boundaries: The Next Problem Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skolnick, Malcolm

    2009-03-01

    The interface between physics and biology is one of the fastest growing subfields of physics. As knowledge of such topics as cellular processes and complex ecological systems advances, researchers have found that progress in understanding these and other systems requires application of more quantitative approaches. Today, there is a growing demand for quantitative and computational skills in biological research and the commercialization of that research. The fragmented teaching of science in our universities still leaves biology outside the quantitative and mathematical culture that is the foundation of physics. This is particularly inopportune at a time when the needs for quantitative thinking about biological systems are exploding. More physicists should be encouraged to become active in research and development in the growing application fields of biophysics including molecular genetics, biomedical imaging, tissue generation and regeneration, drug development, prosthetics, neural and brain function, kinetics of nonequilibrium open biological systems, metabolic networks, biological transport processes, large-scale biochemical networks and stochastic processes in biochemical systems to name a few. In addition to moving into basic research in these areas, there is increasing opportunity for physicists in industry beginning with entrepreneurial roles in taking research results out of the laboratory and in the industries who perfect and market the inventions and developments that physicists produce. In this talk we will identify and discuss emerging opportunities for physicists in biophysical and biotechnological pursuits ranging from basic research through development of applications and commercialization of results. This will include discussion of the roles of physicists in non-traditional areas apart from academia such as patent law, financial analysis and regulatory science and the problem sets assigned in education and training that will enable future

  11. Basis set expansion for inverse problems in plasma diagnostic analysis.

    PubMed

    Jones, B; Ruiz, C L

    2013-07-01

    A basis set expansion method [V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, and H. Reisler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2634 (2002)] is applied to recover physical information about plasma radiation sources from instrument data, which has been forward transformed due to the nature of the measurement technique. This method provides a general approach for inverse problems, and we discuss two specific examples relevant to diagnosing fast z pinches on the 20-25 MA Z machine [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats, J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, L. K. Warne, J. R. Woodworth, C. W. Mendel, K. R. Prestwich, R. W. Shoup, D. L. Johnson, J. P. Corley, K. C. Hodge, T. C. Wagoner, and P. E. Wakeland, in Proceedings of the Pulsed Power Plasma Sciences Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 979]. First, Abel inversion of time-gated, self-emission x-ray images from a wire array implosion is studied. Second, we present an approach for unfolding neutron time-of-flight measurements from a deuterium gas puff z pinch to recover information about emission time history and energy distribution. Through these examples, we discuss how noise in the measured data limits the practical resolution of the inversion, and how the method handles discontinuities in the source function and artifacts in the projected image. We add to the method a propagation of errors calculation for estimating uncertainties in the inverted solution. PMID:23902066

  12. Basis set expansion for inverse problems in plasma diagnostic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.

    2013-07-01

    A basis set expansion method [V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, and H. Reisler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2634 (2002)], 10.1063/1.1482156 is applied to recover physical information about plasma radiation sources from instrument data, which has been forward transformed due to the nature of the measurement technique. This method provides a general approach for inverse problems, and we discuss two specific examples relevant to diagnosing fast z pinches on the 20-25 MA Z machine [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats, J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, L. K. Warne, J. R. Woodworth, C. W. Mendel, K. R. Prestwich, R. W. Shoup, D. L. Johnson, J. P. Corley, K. C. Hodge, T. C. Wagoner, and P. E. Wakeland, in Proceedings of the Pulsed Power Plasma Sciences Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 979]. First, Abel inversion of time-gated, self-emission x-ray images from a wire array implosion is studied. Second, we present an approach for unfolding neutron time-of-flight measurements from a deuterium gas puff z pinch to recover information about emission time history and energy distribution. Through these examples, we discuss how noise in the measured data limits the practical resolution of the inversion, and how the method handles discontinuities in the source function and artifacts in the projected image. We add to the method a propagation of errors calculation for estimating uncertainties in the inverted solution.

  13. Basis set expansion for inverse problems in plasma diagnostic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.

    2013-07-15

    A basis set expansion method [V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, and H. Reisler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2634 (2002)] is applied to recover physical information about plasma radiation sources from instrument data, which has been forward transformed due to the nature of the measurement technique. This method provides a general approach for inverse problems, and we discuss two specific examples relevant to diagnosing fast z pinches on the 20–25 MA Z machine [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats, J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, L. K. Warne, J. R. Woodworth, C. W. Mendel, K. R. Prestwich, R. W. Shoup, D. L. Johnson, J. P. Corley, K. C. Hodge, T. C. Wagoner, and P. E. Wakeland, in Proceedings of the Pulsed Power Plasma Sciences Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 979]. First, Abel inversion of time-gated, self-emission x-ray images from a wire array implosion is studied. Second, we present an approach for unfolding neutron time-of-flight measurements from a deuterium gas puff z pinch to recover information about emission time history and energy distribution. Through these examples, we discuss how noise in the measured data limits the practical resolution of the inversion, and how the method handles discontinuities in the source function and artifacts in the projected image. We add to the method a propagation of errors calculation for estimating uncertainties in the inverted solution.

  14. Hydrocarbon Development from Shale: A Set of Important, Unsolved Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingraffea, A. R.; Burchell, A.; Howarth, R.; Wilson, A.; Doe, P.; Colborn, T.; Wood, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has become synonymous with the new technologies and processes used to develop oil and methane from shale formations. We will address the following important set of problems associated with such development and the role scientists are playing in communicating these to the public. Human Health Consequences: The health consequences of the wide-range of fugitive hydrocarbon emissions associated with methane and oil are not adequately addressed. New evidence about exposure to, and the known and possible health effects of, these toxic hitch hikers will be presented. Methane Emissions: Methane is a more powerful greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, though atmospheric residence is shorter. Methane is emitted through-out the development life-cycle, albeit there is uncertainty over the rate, and short-term effect on global warming. Leakage from Faulty Wells: Multiple industry studies show that about 5 percent of oil and gas wells immediately leak methane and other fluids into the atmosphere and water wells due to integrity issues and increasing rates of leakage over time. With millions of wells drilled worldwide, and millions more expected, this problem is neither negligible nor preventable with current technology. Federal Exemptions and Home Rule: 'Fracking' currently slips through federal environmental statutory law because of an industry-friendly exemption. However, trusts are established in US law and the Public Trust Doctrine provides a basis for courts to enjoin 'fracking' due to the potential impact on beneficiaries of the trust --present and future generations. The public trust designates government as a trustee of crucial resources and imposes a fiduciary obligation on agencies to prevent "substantial impairment" of- and protect access to- clean air, clean water and other natural resources vital for public welfare and survival. Already applied to the realm of ecology, the doctrine is reviewed as a legal and policy toot to protect communities

  15. Setting Structure and the Problem of the Match.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grannis, Joseph C.; Jackson, David E.

    Greene's finding that children's involvement was higher in the more pupil-controlled classrooms is in apparent conflict with CCEP's expectation that involvement is a measure independent of setting. A resolution is suggested in the study of a set of 20 all-day behavior stream observations of individual children in 3 Follow Through classrooms and…

  16. Bifurcation sets in the Kovalevskaya-Yehia problem

    SciTech Connect

    Avdreyanov, Pavel P; Dushin, Kirill E

    2012-04-30

    The two-parameter family of bifurcation diagrams {Sigma} of the moment map is investigated in the integrable Kovalevskaya-Yehia case for the motion of a rigid body. A method is developed which is useful for calculating the bifurcation set {Theta} in the parameter space which corresponds to bifurcations of diagrams in {Sigma} and for classifying these bifurcations. The properties of the sets {Sigma} and {Theta} are thoroughly investigated, and details of the modifications the bifurcation diagrams undergo as the value of the parameter crosses {Theta} are described. Illustrations which explain the structure of the different types of diagram and their interrelations are given. Bibliography: 22 titles.

  17. Bifurcation sets in the Kovalevskaya-Yehia problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdreyanov, Pavel P.; Dushin, Kirill E.

    2012-04-01

    The two-parameter family of bifurcation diagrams Σ of the moment map is investigated in the integrable Kovalevskaya-Yehia case for the motion of a rigid body. A method is developed which is useful for calculating the bifurcation set Θ in the parameter space which corresponds to bifurcations of diagrams in Σ and for classifying these bifurcations. The properties of the sets Σ and Θ are thoroughly investigated, and details of the modifications the bifurcation diagrams undergo as the value of the parameter crosses Θ are described. Illustrations which explain the structure of the different types of diagram and their interrelations are given. Bibliography: 22 titles.

  18. A Problem in Information Retrieval with Fuzzy Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buell, Duncan A.

    1985-01-01

    Discussion of problems with fuzzy subsets in document retrieval highlights attempts to invent a system of weighted fuzzy queries in which weights correspond to relative importance of each term in query as whole, and use of Kantor's Logic for Retrieval as an alternative to Boolean queries. Six references are cited. (EJS)

  19. Creativity, Problem Solving, and Solution Set Sightedness: Radically Reformulating BVSR

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2012-01-01

    Too often, psychological debates become polarized into dichotomous positions. Such polarization may have occurred with respect to Campbell's (1960) blind variation and selective retention (BVSR) theory of creativity. To resolve this unnecessary controversy, BVSR was radically reformulated with respect to creative problem solving. The reformulation…

  20. Conducting a Functional Assessment of Problem Behavior in Applied Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, David B.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1989-01-01

    Three methods used in applied behavioral analysis research and appropriate for conducting a functional assessment of problem behavior in persons with mental retardation are described. They are informant assessment (e.g., behavioral interviews, rating scales, and questionnaires), direct observation assessment, and experimental analysis. (Author/DB)

  1. Supporting Advice Sharing for Technical Problems in Residential Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Erika Shehan

    2010-01-01

    Visions of future computing in residential settings often come with assumptions of seamless, well-functioning, properly configured devices and network connectivity. In the near term, however, processes of setup, maintenance, and troubleshooting are fraught with difficulties; householders regularly report these tasks as confusing, frustrating, and…

  2. Goal Setting: The Heart of the Problem in Research Assignments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nottage, Cindy; Morse, Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Presents strategies to prepare students in step two of the Independent Investigation Method, goal setting, for the research in step three: ask essential questions; ask questions using Bloom's taxonomy; create playful ways to focus questioning; create a hypothesis or preliminary thesis statement; identify a variety of likely resources before…

  3. Application of the artificial bee colony algorithm for solving the set covering problem.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Broderick; Soto, Ricardo; Cuesta, Rodrigo; Paredes, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The set covering problem is a formal model for many practical optimization problems. In the set covering problem the goal is to choose a subset of the columns of minimal cost that covers every row. Here, we present a novel application of the artificial bee colony algorithm to solve the non-unicost set covering problem. The artificial bee colony algorithm is a recent swarm metaheuristic technique based on the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees. Experimental results show that our artificial bee colony algorithm is competitive in terms of solution quality with other recent metaheuristic approaches for the set covering problem. PMID:24883356

  4. Impact of Problem-Based Learning in a Large Classroom Setting: Student Perception and Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klegeris, Andis; Hurren, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) can be described as a learning environment where the problem drives the learning. This technique usually involves learning in small groups, which are supervised by tutors. It is becoming evident that PBL in a small-group setting has a robust positive effect on student learning and skills, including better…

  5. Problem set guidelines to facilitate ATR research, development, and performance assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerkamp, Lori A.; Wild, Thomas J.; Meredith, Donna; Morrison, S. A.; Mossing, John C.; Avent, Randy K.; Bergman, Annette; Bruckheim, Arthur; Castanon, David A.; Corbett, Francis J.; Hugo, Douglas; Hummel, Robert A.; Irvine, John M.; Merle, Bruce; Otto, Louis; Reynolds, Robert; Sadowski, Charles; Schachter, Bruce J.; Simonson, Katherine M.; Smit, Gene; Walters, Clarence P.

    2002-07-01

    In November of 2000, the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Science and Technology Sensor Systems (DUSD (S&T/SS)) chartered the ATR Working Group (ATRWG) to develop guidelines for sanctioned Problem Sets. Such Problem Sets are intended for development and test of ATR algorithms and contain comprehensive documentation of the data in them. A problem set provides a consistent basis to examine ATR performance and growth. Problem Sets will, in general, serve multiple purposes. First, they will enable informed decisions by government agencies sponsoring ATR development and transition. Problem Sets standardize the testing and evaluation process, resulting in consistent assessment of ATR performance. Second, they will measure and guide ATR development progress within this standardized framework. Finally, they quantify the state of the art for the community. Problem Sets provide clearly defined operating condition coverage. This encourages ATR developers to consider these critical challenges and allows evaluators to assess over them. Thus the widely distributed development and self-test portions, along with a disciplined methodology documented within the Problem Set, permit ATR developers to address critical issues and describe their accomplishments, while the sequestered portion permits government assessment of state-of-the-art and of transition readiness. This paper discusses the elements of an ATR problem set as a package of data and information that presents a standardized ATR challenge relevant to one or more scenarios. The package includes training and test data containing targets and clutter, truth information, required experiments, and a standardized analytical methodology to assess performance.

  6. Influence of Assessment Setting on the Results of Functional Analyses of Problem Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Rispoli, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    Analogue functional analyses are widely used to identify the operant function of problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. Because problem behavior often occurs across multiple settings (e.g., homes, schools, outpatient clinics), it is important to determine whether the results of functional analyses vary across settings.…

  7. INFLUENCE OF ASSESSMENT SETTING ON THE RESULTS OF FUNCTIONAL ANALYSES OF PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Russell; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Didden, Robert; Rispoli, Mandy

    2010-01-01

    Analogue functional analyses are widely used to identify the operant function of problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. Because problem behavior often occurs across multiple settings (e.g., homes, schools, outpatient clinics), it is important to determine whether the results of functional analyses vary across settings. This brief review covers 3 recent studies that examined the influence of different settings on the results of functional analyses and identifies directions for future research. PMID:21358920

  8. Two Methods for Efficient Solution of the Hitting-Set Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vatan, Farrokh; Fijany, Amir

    2005-01-01

    A paper addresses much of the same subject matter as that of Fast Algorithms for Model-Based Diagnosis (NPO-30582), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. However, in the paper, the emphasis is more on the hitting-set problem (also known as the transversal problem), which is well known among experts in combinatorics. The authors primary interest in the hitting-set problem lies in its connection to the diagnosis problem: it is a theorem of model-based diagnosis that in the set-theory representation of the components of a system, the minimal diagnoses of a system are the minimal hitting sets of the system. In the paper, the hitting-set problem (and, hence, the diagnosis problem) is translated from a combinatorial to a computational problem by mapping it onto the Boolean satisfiability and integer- programming problems. The paper goes on to describe developments nearly identical to those summarized in the cited companion NASA Tech Briefs article, including the utilization of Boolean-satisfiability and integer- programming techniques to reduce the computation time and/or memory needed to solve the hitting-set problem.

  9. Connecting scientific research and classroom instruction: Developing authentic problem sets for the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raker, Jeffrey R.

    Reform efforts in science education have called for instructional methods and resources that mirror the practice of science. Little research and design methods have been documented in the literature for designing such materials. The purpose of this study was to develop problems sets for sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. This research adapted an instructional design methodology from the science education literature for the creation of new curricular problem sets. The first phase of this study was to establish an understanding of current curricular problems in sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. A sample of 792 problems was collected from four organic chemistry courses. These problems were assessed using three literature reported problem typologies. Two of these problem typologies have previously been used to understand general chemistry problems; comparisons between general and organic chemistry problems were thus made. Data from this phase was used to develop a set of five problems for practicing organic chemists. The second phase of this study was to explore practicing organic chemists' experiences solving problems in the context of organic synthesis research. Eight practicing organic chemists were interviewed and asked to solve two to three of the problems developed in phase one of this research. These participants spoke of three problem types: project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day. Three knowledge types (internal knowledge, knowledgeable others, and literature) were used in solving these problems in research practice and in the developed problems. A set of guiding factors and implications were derived from this data and the chemistry education literature for the conversion of the problems for practicing chemists to problems for undergraduate students. A subsequent conversion process for the five problems occurred. The third, and last phase, of this study was to explore undergraduate students' experiences solving problems in

  10. The graph representation of the problem of pairing points from two sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzejszczak, Tomasz; Orwat, Justyna

    2016-06-01

    The validation procedure of hand detection algorithms required the creation of scoring method for a set of detected points according to set of ground truth points. In this paper a method of finding all points pairs with a smallest mutual distance is described. The problem of finding pairs is represented in graph form and solved with use of Dijkstra's algorithm. The problem is also described with use of an example.

  11. The Prevalence of Behavior Problems among People with Intellectual Disability Living in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrbakk, Even; Von Tetzchner, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    With the desegregation processes of services for people with intellectual disability (ID) that is taking place in most Western countries there is a need for more knowledge related to the prevalence of behavior problems among people living in community settings. This study investigates the prevalence of behavior problems among 140 adolescents and…

  12. A regularized Newton method for solving equilibrium programming problems with an inexactly specified set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipin, A. S.; Vasil'Ev, F. P.; Stukalov, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    Unstable equilibrium problems are examined in which the objective function and the set where the equilibrium point is sought are specified inexactly. A regularized Newton method, combined with penalty functions, is proposed for solving such problems, and its convergence is analyzed. A regularizing operator is constructed.

  13. A Critical Appraisal of Four Approaches Which Support Teachers' Problem-Solving within Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Sue; Monsen, Jeremy J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper critically appraises four problem-solving approaches, based on a range of theoretical perspectives and procedures, which are currently used in educational settings to support adults to find solutions to complex problems that arise within classrooms and the wider school community. The four approaches are: Circles of Adults; Teacher…

  14. Applicability domains for classification problems: benchmarking of distance to models for AMES mutagenicity set

    EPA Science Inventory

    For QSAR and QSPR modeling of biological and physicochemical properties, estimating the accuracy of predictions is a critical problem. The “distance to model” (DM) can be defined as a metric that defines the similarity between the training set molecules and the test set compound ...

  15. Problems in the Cataloging of Large Microform Sets or, Learning to Expect the Unexpected.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joachim, Martin D.

    1989-01-01

    Describes problems encountered during the cataloging of three major microform sets at the Indiana University Libraries. Areas discussed include size and contents of the sets, staffing for the project, equipment, authority work, rare book cataloging rules, serials, language of materials, musical scores, and manuscripts. (CLB)

  16. Development of Problem Sets for K-12 and Engineering on Pharmaceutical Particulate Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savelski, Mariano J.; Slater, C. Stewart; Del Vecchio, Christopher A.; Kosteleski, Adrian J.; Wilson, Sarah A.

    2010-01-01

    Educational problem sets have been developed on structured organic particulate systems (SOPS) used in pharmaceutical technology. The sets present topics such as particle properties and powder flow and can be integrated into K-12 and college-level curricula. The materials educate students in specific areas of pharmaceutical particulate processing,…

  17. Goal-Setting Interventions for Students with Behavior Problems: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Allison L.; McDaniel, Sara C.; Fernando, Josephine; Troughton, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Students with persistent behavior problems, including those with or at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders, often struggle to be self-regulated learners. To improve self-regulation skills, numerous strategies have been suggested, including goal setting. Whereas goal setting has focused mostly on academic and life skills, behavioral goal…

  18. Simplified neutrosophic sets and their applications in multi-criteria group decision-making problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Juan-juan; Wang, Jian-qiang; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong-yu; Chen, Xiao-hong

    2016-07-01

    As a variation of fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, neutrosophic sets have been developed to represent uncertain, imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent information that exists in the real world. Simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs) have been proposed for the main purpose of addressing issues with a set of specific numbers. However, there are certain problems regarding the existing operations of SNSs, as well as their aggregation operators and the comparison methods. Therefore, this paper defines the novel operations of simplified neutrosophic numbers (SNNs) and develops a comparison method based on the related research of intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. On the basis of these operations and the comparison method, some SNN aggregation operators are proposed. Additionally, an approach for multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) problems is explored by applying these aggregation operators. Finally, an example to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method is provided and a comparison with some other methods is made.

  19. Ethical problems in pediatrics: what does the setting of care and education show us?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pediatrics ethics education should enhance medical students' skills to deal with ethical problems that may arise in the different settings of care. This study aimed to analyze the ethical problems experienced by physicians who have medical education and pediatric care responsibilities, and if those problems are associated to their workplace, medical specialty and area of clinical practice. Methods A self-applied semi-structured questionnaire was answered by 88 physicians with teaching and pediatric care responsibilities. Content analysis was performed to analyze the qualitative data. Poisson regression was used to explore the association of the categories of ethical problems reported with workplace and professional specialty and activity. Results 210 ethical problems were reported, grouped into five areas: physician-patient relationship, end-of-life care, health professional conducts, socioeconomic issues and health policies, and pediatric teaching. Doctors who worked in hospitals as well as general and subspecialist pediatricians reported fewer ethical problems related to socioeconomic issues and health policies than those who worked in Basic Health Units and who were family doctors. Conclusions Some ethical problems are specific to certain settings: those related to end-of-life care are more frequent in the hospital settings and those associated with socioeconomic issues and public health policies are more frequent in Basic Health Units. Other problems are present in all the setting of pediatric care and learning and include ethical problems related to physician-patient relationship, health professional conducts and the pediatric education process. These findings should be taken into consideration when planning the teaching of ethics in pediatrics. Trial registration This research article didn't reports the results of a controlled health care intervention. The study project was approved by the Institutional Ethical Review Committee (Report CEP-HIJG 032

  20. A note on the estimation of the Pareto efficient set for multiobjective matrix permutation problems.

    PubMed

    Brusco, Michael J; Steinley, Douglas

    2012-02-01

    There are a number of important problems in quantitative psychology that require the identification of a permutation of the n rows and columns of an n × n proximity matrix. These problems encompass applications such as unidimensional scaling, paired-comparison ranking, and anti-Robinson forms. The importance of simultaneously incorporating multiple objective criteria in matrix permutation applications is well recognized in the literature; however, to date, there has been a reliance on weighted-sum approaches that transform the multiobjective problem into a single-objective optimization problem. Although exact solutions to these single-objective problems produce supported Pareto efficient solutions to the multiobjective problem, many interesting unsupported Pareto efficient solutions may be missed. We illustrate the limitation of the weighted-sum approach with an example from the psychological literature and devise an effective heuristic algorithm for estimating both the supported and unsupported solutions of the Pareto efficient set. PMID:21711346

  1. A spin glass approach to the directed feedback vertex set problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hai-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A directed graph (digraph) is formed by vertices and arcs (directed edges) from one vertex to another. A feedback vertex set (FVS) is a set of vertices that contains at least one vertex of every directed cycle in this digraph. The directed feedback vertex set problem aims at constructing a FVS of minimum cardinality. This is a fundamental cycle-constrained hard combinatorial optimization problem with wide practical applications. In this paper we construct a spin glass model for the directed FVS problem by converting the global cycle constraints into local arc constraints, and study this model through the replica-symmetric (RS) mean field theory of statistical physics. We then implement a belief propagation-guided decimation (BPD) algorithm for single digraph instances. The BPD algorithm slightly outperforms the simulated annealing algorithm on large random graph instances. The RS mean field results and algorithmic results can be further improved by working on a more restrictive (and more difficult) spin glass model.

  2. Interval Neutrosophic Sets and Their Application in Multicriteria Decision Making Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-yu; Wang, Jian-qiang; Chen, Xiao-hong

    2014-01-01

    As a generalization of fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, neutrosophic sets have been developed to represent uncertain, imprecise, incomplete, and inconsistent information existing in the real world. And interval neutrosophic sets (INSs) have been proposed exactly to address issues with a set of numbers in the real unit interval, not just a specific number. However, there are fewer reliable operations for INSs, as well as the INS aggregation operators and decision making method. For this purpose, the operations for INSs are defined and a comparison approach is put forward based on the related research of interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IVIFSs) in this paper. On the basis of the operations and comparison approach, two interval neutrosophic number aggregation operators are developed. Then, a method for multicriteria decision making problems is explored applying the aggregation operators. In addition, an example is provided to illustrate the application of the proposed method. PMID:24695916

  3. A set partitioning reformulation for the multiple-choice multidimensional knapsack problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voß, Stefan; Lalla-Ruiz, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    The Multiple-choice Multidimensional Knapsack Problem (MMKP) is a well-known ?-hard combinatorial optimization problem that has received a lot of attention from the research community as it can be easily translated to several real-world problems arising in areas such as allocating resources, reliability engineering, cognitive radio networks, cloud computing, etc. In this regard, an exact model that is able to provide high-quality feasible solutions for solving it or being partially included in algorithmic schemes is desirable. The MMKP basically consists of finding a subset of objects that maximizes the total profit while observing some capacity restrictions. In this article a reformulation of the MMKP as a set partitioning problem is proposed to allow for new insights into modelling the MMKP. The computational experimentation provides new insights into the problem itself and shows that the new model is able to improve on the best of the known results for some of the most common benchmark instances.

  4. BEST in CLASS: A Classroom-Based Model for Ameliorating Problem Behavior in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vo, Abigail; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    As more young children enter school settings to attend early childhood programs, early childhood teachers and school psychologists have been charged with supporting a growing number of young children with chronic problem behaviors that put them at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). There is a need for effective,…

  5. Best in Class: A Classroom-Based Model for Ameliorating Problem Behavior in Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vo, Abigail K.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.

    2012-01-01

    As more young children enter school settings to attend early childhood programs, early childhood teachers and school psychologists have been charged with supporting a growing number of young children with chronic problem behaviors that put them at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). There is a need for effective,…

  6. Escape-to-Attention as a Potential Variable for Maintaining Problem Behavior in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarno, Jana M.; Sterling, Heather E.; Mueller, Michael M.; Dufrene, Brad; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe

    2011-01-01

    Mueller, Sterling-Turner, and Moore (2005) reported a novel escape-to-attention (ETA) functional analysis condition in a school setting with one child. The current study replicates Mueller et al.'s functional analysis procedures with three elementary school-age boys referred for problem behavior. Functional analysis verified the participant's…

  7. Group Problem Solving, Goal-Setting and Decision-Making. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    One of a series of pre-apprenticeship training modules, this self-paced student training module deals with group problem solving, goal setting, and decision making. Included in the module are the following: cover sheet listing module title, goals, and performance indicators; introduction; cover sheet/study guide with directions for module…

  8. Useful Material Efficiency Green Metrics Problem Set Exercises for Lecture and Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andraos, John

    2015-01-01

    A series of pedagogical problem set exercises are posed that illustrate the principles behind material efficiency green metrics and their application in developing a deeper understanding of reaction and synthesis plan analysis and strategies to optimize them. Rigorous, yet simple, mathematical proofs are given for some of the fundamental concepts,…

  9. A semi-implicit level set method for multiphase flows and fluid-structure interaction problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottet, Georges-Henri; Maitre, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we present a novel semi-implicit time-discretization of the level set method introduced in [8] for fluid-structure interaction problems. The idea stems from a linear stability analysis derived on a simplified one-dimensional problem. The semi-implicit scheme relies on a simple filter operating as a pre-processing on the level set function. It applies to multiphase flows driven by surface tension as well as to fluid-structure interaction problems. The semi-implicit scheme avoids the stability constraints that explicit scheme need to satisfy and reduces significantly the computational cost. It is validated through comparisons with the original explicit scheme and refinement studies on two-dimensional benchmarks.

  10. Application of Column Generation for Train-set Scheduling Problems with Regular Maintenance Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Akiyoshi; Nishi, Tatsushi; Inuiguchi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Satoru; Ueda, Kenji

    In this paper, we propose a column generation for the train-set scheduling problem with regular maintenance constraints. The problem is to allocate the minimum train-set to the train operations required to operate a given train timetable. In the proposed method, a tight lower bound can be obtained from the continuous relaxation for Dantzig-Wolfe reformulation by column generation. The subproblem for the column generation is an elementary shortest path problem with resource constraints. A labeling algorithm is applied to solve the subproblem. In order to reduce the computational effort for solving subproblems, a new state space relaxation of the subproblem is developed in the labeling algorithm. An upper bound is computed by a heuristic algorithm. Computational results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. Phase transitions in number theory: from the birthday problem to Sidon sets.

    PubMed

    Luque, Bartolo; Torre, Iván G; Lacasa, Lucas

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we show how number theoretical problems can be fruitfully approached with the tools of statistical physics. We focus on g-Sidon sets, which describe sequences of integers whose pairwise sums are different, and propose a random decision problem which addresses the probability of a random set of k integers to be g-Sidon. First, we provide numerical evidence showing that there is a crossover between satisfiable and unsatisfiable phases which converts to an abrupt phase transition in a properly defined thermodynamic limit. Initially assuming independence, we then develop a mean-field theory for the g-Sidon decision problem. We further improve the mean-field theory, which is only qualitatively correct, by incorporating deviations from independence, yielding results in good quantitative agreement with the numerics for both finite systems and in the thermodynamic limit. Connections between the generalized birthday problem in probability theory, the number theory of Sidon sets and the properties of q-Potts models in condensed matter physics are briefly discussed. PMID:24329226

  12. A characterization of nonemptiness and boundedness of the solution set for set-valued vector equilibrium problems via scalarization and stability results.

    PubMed

    Preechasilp, Pakkapon; Wangkeeree, Rabian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the existence theorems of solutions for generalized weak vector equilibrium problems are developed in real reflexive Banach spaces. Based on recession method and scalarization technique, we derive a characterization of nonemptiness and boundedness of solution set for generalized weak vector equilibrium problems. Moreover, Painlevé-Kuratowski upper convergence of solution set is also discussed as an application, when both the objective mapping and the constraint set are perturbed by difference parameters. PMID:27588238

  13. A set-covering based heuristic algorithm for the periodic vehicle routing problem.

    PubMed

    Cacchiani, V; Hemmelmayr, V C; Tricoire, F

    2014-01-30

    We present a hybrid optimization algorithm for mixed-integer linear programming, embedding both heuristic and exact components. In order to validate it we use the periodic vehicle routing problem (PVRP) as a case study. This problem consists of determining a set of minimum cost routes for each day of a given planning horizon, with the constraints that each customer must be visited a required number of times (chosen among a set of valid day combinations), must receive every time the required quantity of product, and that the number of routes per day (each respecting the capacity of the vehicle) does not exceed the total number of available vehicles. This is a generalization of the well-known vehicle routing problem (VRP). Our algorithm is based on the linear programming (LP) relaxation of a set-covering-like integer linear programming formulation of the problem, with additional constraints. The LP-relaxation is solved by column generation, where columns are generated heuristically by an iterated local search algorithm. The whole solution method takes advantage of the LP-solution and applies techniques of fixing and releasing of the columns as a local search, making use of a tabu list to avoid cycling. We show the results of the proposed algorithm on benchmark instances from the literature and compare them to the state-of-the-art algorithms, showing the effectiveness of our approach in producing good quality solutions. In addition, we report the results on realistic instances of the PVRP introduced in Pacheco et al. (2011)  [24] and on benchmark instances of the periodic traveling salesman problem (PTSP), showing the efficacy of the proposed algorithm on these as well. Finally, we report the new best known solutions found for all the tested problems. PMID:24748696

  14. Efficient parallel algorithms for (5+1)-coloring and maximal independent set problems

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, A.V.; Plotkin, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    An efficient technique for breaking symmetry in parallel is described. The technique works especially well on rooted trees and on graphs with a small maximum degree. In particular, a maximal independent set can be found on a constant-degree graph in O(lg*n) time on an EREW PRAM using a linear number of processors. It is shown how to apply this technique to construct more efficient parallel algorithms for several problems, including coloring of planar graphs and (delta + 1)-coloring of constant-degree graphs. Lower bounds for two related problems are proved.

  15. Planet Alsioff - A problem set for students of phase equilibria or metamorphic petrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burt, Donald M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a problem set that contains questions for students of phase equilibria or metamorphic petrology concerning a hypothetical planet Alsioff, for which incomplete data are given. On this panet, the SiF4 is the major volatile and Al, Si, O, and F are the only elements present. Progressive metamorphism on Alsioff mainly involves devolatilization of fluid SiF4. The problem set includes ten questions. Some of these are concerned with possible chemical reactions that should affect water, wollastonite, or Ca-SiO3 exposed to the atmosphere of Alsioff; the mechanism of controls of the O2 and F2 contents of the Alsioffian atmosphere; and the devolatilization reactions involving SiF4 with progressive thermal metamorphism.

  16. Identifying an Efficient Set of Items Sensitive to Clinical-Range Externalizing Problems in Children

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Isaac T.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    The present study applied item response theory to identify an efficient set of items of the Achenbach Externalizing scale from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; 33 items) and Teacher's Report Form (TRF; 35 items) that were sensitive to clinical-range scores. Mothers and teachers rated children's externalizing problems annually from ages 5 to 13 years in two independent samples (Ns = 585 and 1,199). Item properties for each rater across ages 5–8 and 9–13 were examined with item response theory. We identified 10 mother- and teacher-reported items from both samples based on the items' measurement precision for sub-clinical and clinical levels of externalizing problems: externalizing problems that involve meanness to others, destroying others' things, fighting, lying and cheating, attacking people, screaming, swearing/obscene language, temper tantrums, threatening people, and being loud. Scores on the scales using these items had strong reliability and psychometric properties, capturing nearly as much information as the full Externalizing scale for classifying clinical levels of externalizing problems. Scores on the scale with the 10 CBCL items had moderate accuracy, equivalent to the full Externalizing scale, in classifying diagnoses of conduct disorder based on a research diagnostic interview. Of course, comprehensive clinical assessment would consider additional items, dimensions of behavior, and sources of information, too, but it appears that the behaviors tapped by this select set of items may be core to externalizing psychopathology in children. PMID:26322800

  17. Identifying an efficient set of items sensitive to clinical-range externalizing problems in children.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Isaac T; Bates, John E; Dodge, Kenneth A; Lansford, Jennifer E; Pettit, Gregory S

    2016-05-01

    The present study applied item response theory to identify an efficient set of items of the Achenbach Externalizing scale from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL; 33 items) and Teacher's Report Form (TRF; 35 items) that were sensitive to clinical-range scores. Mothers and teachers rated children's externalizing problems annually from ages 5 to 13 years in 2 independent samples (Ns = 585 and 1,199). Item properties for each rater across ages 5-8 and 9-13 were examined with item response theory. We identified 10 mother- and teacher-reported items from both samples based on the items' measurement precision for subclinical and clinical levels of externalizing problems: externalizing problems that involve meanness to others, destroying others' things, fighting, lying and cheating, attacking people, screaming, swearing/obscene language, temper tantrums, threatening people, and being loud. Scores on the scales using these items had strong reliability and psychometric properties, capturing nearly as much information as the full Externalizing scale for classifying clinical levels of externalizing problems. Scores on the scale with the 10 CBCL items had moderate accuracy, equivalent to the full Externalizing scale, in classifying diagnoses of conduct disorder based on a research diagnostic interview. Of course, comprehensive clinical assessment would consider additional items, dimensions of behavior, and sources of information, too, but it appears that the behaviors tapped by this select set of items may be core to externalizing psychopathology in children. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322800

  18. Characterizing the parent Hamiltonians for a complete set of orthogonal wave functions: An inverse quantum problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezanpour, A.

    2016-06-01

    We study the inverse problem of constructing an appropriate Hamiltonian from a physically reasonable set of orthogonal wave functions for a quantum spin system. Usually, we are given a local Hamiltonian and our goal is to characterize the relevant wave functions and energies (the spectrum) of the system. Here, we take the opposite approach; starting from a reasonable collection of orthogonal wave functions, we try to characterize the associated parent Hamiltonians, to see how the wave functions and the energy values affect the structure of the parent Hamiltonian. Specifically, we obtain (quasi) local Hamiltonians by a complete set of (multilayer) product states and a local mapping of the energy values to the wave functions. On the other hand, a complete set of tree wave functions (having a tree structure) results to nonlocal Hamiltonians and operators which flip simultaneously all the spins in a single branch of the tree graph. We observe that even for a given set of basis states, the energy spectrum can significantly change the nature of interactions in the Hamiltonian. These effects can be exploited in a quantum engineering problem optimizing an objective functional of the Hamiltonian.

  19. A PERFECT MATCH CONDITION FOR POINT-SET MATCHING PROBLEMS USING THE OPTIMAL MASS TRANSPORT APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, PENGWEN; LIN, CHING-LONG; CHERN, I-LIANG

    2013-01-01

    We study the performance of optimal mass transport-based methods applied to point-set matching problems. The present study, which is based on the L2 mass transport cost, states that perfect matches always occur when the product of the point-set cardinality and the norm of the curl of the non-rigid deformation field does not exceed some constant. This analytic result is justified by a numerical study of matching two sets of pulmonary vascular tree branch points whose displacement is caused by the lung volume changes in the same human subject. The nearly perfect match performance verifies the effectiveness of this mass transport-based approach. PMID:23687536

  20. Model choice problems using approximate Bayesian computation with applications to pathogen transmission data sets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xing Ju; Drovandi, Christopher C; Pettitt, Anthony N

    2015-03-01

    Analytically or computationally intractable likelihood functions can arise in complex statistical inferential problems making them inaccessible to standard Bayesian inferential methods. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) methods address such inferential problems by replacing direct likelihood evaluations with repeated sampling from the model. ABC methods have been predominantly applied to parameter estimation problems and less to model choice problems due to the added difficulty of handling multiple model spaces. The ABC algorithm proposed here addresses model choice problems by extending Fearnhead and Prangle (2012, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 74, 1-28) where the posterior mean of the model parameters estimated through regression formed the summary statistics used in the discrepancy measure. An additional stepwise multinomial logistic regression is performed on the model indicator variable in the regression step and the estimated model probabilities are incorporated into the set of summary statistics for model choice purposes. A reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo step is also included in the algorithm to increase model diversity for thorough exploration of the model space. This algorithm was applied to a validating example to demonstrate the robustness of the algorithm across a wide range of true model probabilities. Its subsequent use in three pathogen transmission examples of varying complexity illustrates the utility of the algorithm in inferring preference of particular transmission models for the pathogens. PMID:25303085

  1. Solving problems by interrogating sets of knowledge systems: Toward a theory of multiple knowledge systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dekorvin, Andre

    1989-01-01

    The main purpose is to develop a theory for multiple knowledge systems. A knowledge system could be a sensor or an expert system, but it must specialize in one feature. The problem is that we have an exhaustive list of possible answers to some query (such as what object is it). By collecting different feature values, in principle, it should be possible to give an answer to the query, or at least narrow down the list. Since a sensor, or for that matter an expert system, does not in most cases yield a precise value for the feature, uncertainty must be built into the model. Also, researchers must have a formal mechanism to be able to put the information together. Researchers chose to use the Dempster-Shafer approach to handle the problems mentioned above. Researchers introduce the concept of a state of recognition and point out that there is a relation between receiving updates and defining a set valued Markov Chain. Also, deciding what the value of the next set valued variable is can be phrased in terms of classical decision making theory such as minimizing the maximum regret. Other related problems are examined.

  2. Contextual settings, science stories, and large context problems: Toward a more humanistic science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinner, Arthur

    This article addresses the need for and the problem of organizing a science curriculum around contextual settings and science stories that serve to involve and motivate students to develop an understanding of the world that is rooted in the scientific and the humanistic traditions. A program of activities placed around contextual settings, science stories, and contemporary issues of interest is recommended in an attempt to move toward a slow and secure abolition of the gulf between scientific knowledge and common sense beliefs. A conceptual development model is described to guide the connection between theory and evidence on a level appropriate for children, from early years to senior years. For the senior years it is also important to connect the activity of teaching to a sound theoretical structure. The theoretical structure must illuminate the status of theory in science, establish what counts as evidence, clarify the relationship between experiment and explanation, and make connections to the history of science. The article concludes with a proposed program of activities in terms of a sequence of theoretical and empirical experiences that involve contextual settings, science stories, large context problems, thematic teaching, and popular science literature teaching.

  3. GreedyMAX-type Algorithms for the Maximum Independent Set Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowiecki, Piotr; Göring, Frank

    A maximum independent set problem for a simple graph G = (V,E) is to find the largest subset of pairwise nonadjacent vertices. The problem is known to be NP-hard and it is also hard to approximate. Within this article we introduce a non-negative integer valued function p defined on the vertex set V(G) and called a potential function of a graph G, while P(G) = max v ∈ V(G) p(v) is called a potential of G. For any graph P(G) ≤ Δ(G), where Δ(G) is the maximum degree of G. Moreover, Δ(G) - P(G) may be arbitrarily large. A potential of a vertex lets us get a closer insight into the properties of its neighborhood which leads to the definition of the family of GreedyMAX-type algorithms having the classical GreedyMAX algorithm as their origin. We establish a lower bound 1/(P + 1) for the performance ratio of GreedyMAX-type algorithms which favorably compares with the bound 1/(Δ + 1) known to hold for GreedyMAX. The cardinality of an independent set generated by any GreedyMAX-type algorithm is at least sum_{vin V(G)} (p(v)+1)^{-1}, which strengthens the bounds of Turán and Caro-Wei stated in terms of vertex degrees.

  4. The Study of CIQ Inspection Rate's Setting Problem Based on Gray-fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Liu; Ding, Liu Wen

    Inspection is not only one of the most significant duties, but the important prerequisite for going through Customs. Setting the inspection rate scientifically can not only solve the contradiction between the "check on" and "service" for CIQ (CHINA ENTRY-EXIT INSPECTION AND UARANTINE)site inspection personnel, but can highlight the key of inspection and enhance the ratio of discovering, achieving the optimum allocation of CIQ's limited human and material resources. In this article, from the characteristics of inspection risk evaluation themselves, considering the setting problem of check rate at from the angle of data mining, construct an index system rationally and objectively. On the basis of Fuzzy theory, evaluate the risk of the inward and outward goods with the grey-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, and establish the inspection rate scientifically.

  5. How much is enough? The recurrent problem of setting measurable objectives in conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tear, T.H.; Kareiva, P.; Angermeier, P.L.; Comer, P.; Czech, B.; Kautz, R.; Landon, L.; Mehlman, D.; Murphy, K.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Scott, J.M.; Wilhere, G.

    2005-01-01

    International agreements, environmental laws, resource management agencies, and environmental nongovernmental organizations all establish objectives that define what they hope to accomplish. Unfortunately, quantitative objectives in conservation are typically set without consistency and scientific rigor. As a result, conservationists are failing to provide credible answers to the question "How much is enough?" This is a serious problem because objectives profoundly shape where and how limited conservation resources are spent, and help to create a shared vision for the future. In this article we develop guidelines to help steer conservation biologists and practitioners through the process of objective setting. We provide three case studies to highlight the practical challenges of objective setting in different social, political, and legal contexts. We also identify crucial gaps in our science, including limited knowledge of species distributions and of large-scale, long-term ecosystem dynamics, that must be filled if we hope to do better than setting conservation objectives through intuition and best guesses. ?? 2005 American Institute of Biological Sciences.

  6. A new set of integrals of motion to propagate the perturbed two-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baù, Giulio; Bombardelli, Claudio; Peláez, Jesús

    2013-05-01

    A formulation of the perturbed two-body problem that relies on a new set of orbital elements is presented. The proposed method represents a generalization of the special perturbation method published by Peláez et al. (Celest Mech Dyn Astron 97(2):131-150, 2007) for the case of a perturbing force that is partially or totally derivable from a potential. We accomplish this result by employing a generalized Sundman time transformation in the framework of the projective decomposition, which is a known approach for transforming the two-body problem into a set of linear and regular differential equations of motion. Numerical tests, carried out with examples extensively used in the literature, show the remarkable improvement of the performance of the new method for different kinds of perturbations and eccentricities. In particular, one notable result is that the quadratic dependence of the position error on the time-like argument exhibited by Peláez's method for near-circular motion under the J2 perturbation is transformed into linear. Moreover, the method reveals to be competitive with two very popular element methods derived from the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel and Sperling-Burdet regularizations.

  7. Some free boundary problems in potential flow regime usinga based level set method

    SciTech Connect

    Garzon, M.; Bobillo-Ares, N.; Sethian, J.A.

    2008-12-09

    Recent advances in the field of fluid mechanics with moving fronts are linked to the use of Level Set Methods, a versatile mathematical technique to follow free boundaries which undergo topological changes. A challenging class of problems in this context are those related to the solution of a partial differential equation posed on a moving domain, in which the boundary condition for the PDE solver has to be obtained from a partial differential equation defined on the front. This is the case of potential flow models with moving boundaries. Moreover the fluid front will possibly be carrying some material substance which will diffuse in the front and be advected by the front velocity, as for example the use of surfactants to lower surface tension. We present a Level Set based methodology to embed this partial differential equations defined on the front in a complete Eulerian framework, fully avoiding the tracking of fluid particles and its known limitations. To show the advantages of this approach in the field of Fluid Mechanics we present in this work one particular application: the numerical approximation of a potential flow model to simulate the evolution and breaking of a solitary wave propagating over a slopping bottom and compare the level set based algorithm with previous front tracking models.

  8. Essential processes for cognitive behavioral clinical supervision: Agenda setting, problem-solving, and formative feedback.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jorden A; Ballantyne, Elena C; Scallion, Laura M

    2015-06-01

    Clinical supervision should be a proactive and considered endeavor, not a reactive one. To that end, supervisors should choose supervision processes that are driven by theory, best available research, and clinical experience. These processes should be aimed at helping trainees develop as clinicians. We highlight 3 supervision processes we believe should be used at each supervision meeting: agenda setting, encouraging trainee problem-solving, and formative feedback. Although these are primarily cognitive-behavioral skills, they can be helpful in combination with other supervision models. We provide example dialogue from supervision exchanges, and discuss theoretical and research support for these processes. Using these processes not only encourages trainee development but also models for them how to use the same processes and approaches with clients. PMID:25895121

  9. The Assessment of Alexithymia in Medical Settings: Implications for Understanding and Treating Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Mark A.; Neely, Lynn C.; Burger, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    The construct of alexithymia encompasses the characteristics of difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings, externally oriented thinking, and a limited imaginal capacity. These characteristics are thought to reflect deficits in the cognitive processing and regulation of emotions and to contribute to the onset or maintenance of several medical and psychiatric disorders. This article reviews recent methods for assessing alexithymia and examines how assessing alexithymia can inform clinical practice. Alexithymia is associated with heightened physiological arousal, the tendency to notice and report physical symptoms, and unhealthy compulsive behaviors. Alexithymic patients may respond poorly to psychological treatments, although perhaps not to cognitive-behavioral techniques, and it is unclear whether alexithymia can be improved through treatment. Interpretive problems regarding alexithymia include its overlap with other traits, whether it is secondary to illness or trauma, the possibility of subtypes, and low correlations among multiple measures. Nonetheless, we encourage the assessment of alexithymia in applied settings. PMID:18001224

  10. Brief Intervention for Problem Drug Use in Safety-Net Primary Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Byrne, Peter; Bumgardner, Kristin; Krupski, Antoinette; Dunn, Chris; Ries, Richard; Donovan, Dennis; West, Imara I.; Maynard, Charles; Atkins, David C.; Graves, Meredith C.; Joesch, Jutta M.; Zarkin, Gary A.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Although brief intervention is effective for reducing problem alcohol use, few data exist on its effectiveness for reducing problem drug use, a common issue in disadvantaged populations seeking care in safety-net medical settings (hospitals and community health clinics serving low-income patients with limited or no insurance). OBJECTIVE To determine whether brief intervention improves drug use outcomes compared with enhanced care as usual. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized clinical trial with blinded assessments at baseline and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months conducted in 7 safety-net primary care clinics in Washington State. Of 1621 eligible patients reporting any problem drug use in the past 90 days, 868 consented and were randomized between April 2009 and September 2012. Follow-up participation was more than 87% at all points. INTERVENTIONS Participants received a single brief intervention using motivational interviewing, a handout and list of substance abuse resources, and an attempted 10-minute telephone booster within 2 weeks (n = 435) or enhanced care as usual, which included a handout and list of substance abuse resources (n = 433). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcomes were self-reported days of problem drug use in the past 30 days and Addiction Severity Index–Lite (ASI) Drug Use composite score. Secondary outcomes were admission to substance abuse treatment; ASI composite scores for medical, psychiatric, social, and legal domains; emergency department and inpatient hospital admissions, arrests, mortality, and human immunodeficiency virus risk behavior. RESULTS Mean days used of the most common problem drug at baseline were 14.40 (SD, 11.29) (brief intervention) and 13.25 (SD, 10.69) (enhanced care as usual); at 3 months postintervention, means were 11.87 (SD, 12.13) (brief intervention) and 9.84 (SD, 10.64) (enhanced care as usual) and not significantly different (difference in differences, β = 0.89 [95% CI, –0.49 to 2

  11. Spin-glass phase transitions and minimum energy of the random feedback vertex set problem.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Ying; Zhou, Hai-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A feedback vertex set (FVS) of an undirected graph contains vertices from every cycle of this graph. Constructing a FVS of sufficiently small cardinality is very difficult in the worst cases, but for random graphs this problem can be efficiently solved by converting it into an appropriate spin-glass model [H.-J. Zhou, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 455 (2013)EPJBFY1434-602810.1140/epjb/e2013-40690-1]. In the present work we study the spin-glass phase transitions and the minimum energy density of the random FVS problem by the first-step replica-symmetry-breaking (1RSB) mean-field theory. For both regular random graphs and Erdös-Rényi graphs, we determine the inverse temperature β_{l} at which the replica-symmetric mean-field theory loses its local stability, the inverse temperature β_{d} of the dynamical (clustering) phase transition, and the inverse temperature β_{s} of the static (condensation) phase transition. These critical inverse temperatures all change with the mean vertex degree in a nonmonotonic way, and β_{d} is distinct from β_{s} for regular random graphs of vertex degrees K>60, while β_{d} are identical to β_{s} for Erdös-Rényi graphs at least up to mean vertex degree c=512. We then derive the zero-temperature limit of the 1RSB theory and use it to compute the minimum FVS cardinality. PMID:27627285

  12. Quasi-measures on the group G{sup m}, Dirichlet sets, and uniqueness problems for multiple Walsh series

    SciTech Connect

    Plotnikov, Mikhail G

    2011-02-11

    Multiple Walsh series (S) on the group G{sup m} are studied. It is proved that every at most countable set is a uniqueness set for series (S) under convergence over cubes. The recovery problem is solved for the coefficients of series (S) that converge outside countable sets or outside sets of Dirichlet type. A number of analogues of the de la Vallee Poussin theorem are established for series (S). Bibliography: 28 titles.

  13. Fe3O4(110)-(1 × 3) revisited: Periodic (111) nanofacets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkinson, Gareth S.; Lackner, Peter; Gamba, Oscar; Maaß, Sebastian; Gerhold, Stefan; Riva, Michele; Bliem, Roland; Diebold, Ulrike; Schmid, Michael

    2016-07-01

    The structure of the Fe3O4(110)-(1 × 3) surface was studied with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The so-called one-dimensional reconstruction is characterized by bright rows that extend hundreds of nanometers in the [ 1 bar10] direction and have a periodicity of 2.52 nm in [001] in STM. It is concluded that this reconstruction is the result of a periodic faceting to expose {111}-type planes with a lower surface energy.

  14. Hesitant Fuzzy Soft Sets with Application in Multicriteria Group Decision Making Problems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-qiang; Li, Xin-E

    2015-01-01

    Soft sets have been regarded as a useful mathematical tool to deal with uncertainty. In recent years, many scholars have shown an intense interest in soft sets and extended standard soft sets to intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets, interval-valued fuzzy soft sets, and generalized fuzzy soft sets. In this paper, hesitant fuzzy soft sets are defined by combining fuzzy soft sets with hesitant fuzzy sets. And some operations on hesitant fuzzy soft sets based on Archimedean t-norm and Archimedean t-conorm are defined. Besides, four aggregation operations, such as the HFSWA, HFSWG, GHFSWA, and GHFSWG operators, are given. Based on these operators, a multicriteria group decision making approach with hesitant fuzzy soft sets is also proposed. To demonstrate its accuracy and applicability, this approach is finally employed to calculate a numerical example. PMID:25688378

  15. Hesitant fuzzy soft sets with application in multicriteria group decision making problems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-qiang; Li, Xin-E; Chen, Xiao-hong

    2015-01-01

    Soft sets have been regarded as a useful mathematical tool to deal with uncertainty. In recent years, many scholars have shown an intense interest in soft sets and extended standard soft sets to intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets, interval-valued fuzzy soft sets, and generalized fuzzy soft sets. In this paper, hesitant fuzzy soft sets are defined by combining fuzzy soft sets with hesitant fuzzy sets. And some operations on hesitant fuzzy soft sets based on Archimedean t-norm and Archimedean t-conorm are defined. Besides, four aggregation operations, such as the HFSWA, HFSWG, GHFSWA, and GHFSWG operators, are given. Based on these operators, a multicriteria group decision making approach with hesitant fuzzy soft sets is also proposed. To demonstrate its accuracy and applicability, this approach is finally employed to calculate a numerical example. PMID:25688378

  16. A New Ghost Cell/Level Set Method for Moving Boundary Problems: Application to Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Macklin, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a ghost cell/level set method for the evolution of interfaces whose normal velocity depend upon the solutions of linear and nonlinear quasi-steady reaction-diffusion equations with curvature-dependent boundary conditions. Our technique includes a ghost cell method that accurately discretizes normal derivative jump boundary conditions without smearing jumps in the tangential derivative; a new iterative method for solving linear and nonlinear quasi-steady reaction-diffusion equations; an adaptive discretization to compute the curvature and normal vectors; and a new discrete approximation to the Heaviside function. We present numerical examples that demonstrate better than 1.5-order convergence for problems where traditional ghost cell methods either fail to converge or attain at best sub-linear accuracy. We apply our techniques to a model of tumor growth in complex, heterogeneous tissues that consists of a nonlinear nutrient equation and a pressure equation with geometry-dependent jump boundary conditions. We simulate the growth of glioblastoma (an aggressive brain tumor) into a large, 1 cm square of brain tissue that includes heterogeneous nutrient delivery and varied biomechanical characteristics (white matter, gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid, and bone), and we observe growth morphologies that are highly dependent upon the variations of the tissue characteristics—an effect observed in real tumor growth. PMID:21331304

  17. The Effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy for Youth with Behavioral Problems in a Community Practice Setting

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Thomas; Turner, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy (FFT), as compared to probation services, in a community juvenile justice setting 12 months post treatment. The study also provides specific insight into the interactive effects of therapist model specific adherence and measures of youth risk and protective factors on behavioral outcomes for a diverse group of adolescents. The findings suggest that FFT was effective in reducing youth behavioral problems, although only when the therapists adhered to the treatment model. High adherent therapists delivering FFT had a statistically significant reduction of (35%) in felony, a (30%) violent crime, and a marginally significant reduction (21%) in misdemeanor recidivisms as compared to the control condition. The results represent a significant reduction in serious crimes one year after treatment, when delivered by a model adherent therapist. The low adherent therapists were significantly higher than the control group in recidivism rates. There was an interaction effect between youth risk level and therapist adherence demonstrating that the most difficult families (those with high peer and family risk) had a higher likelihood of successful outcomes when their therapist demonstrated model specific adherence. These results are discussed within the context of the need and importance of measuring and accounting for model specific adherence in the evaluation of community-based replications of evidence-based family therapy models like FFT. PMID:20545407

  18. Focusing on the Golden Ball Metaheuristic: An Extended Study on a Wider Set of Problems

    PubMed Central

    Osaba, E.; Diaz, F.; Carballedo, R.; Onieva, E.; Perallos, A.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the development of new metaheuristics for solving optimization problems is a topic of interest in the scientific community. In the literature, a large number of techniques of this kind can be found. Anyway, there are many recently proposed techniques, such as the artificial bee colony and imperialist competitive algorithm. This paper is focused on one recently published technique, the one called Golden Ball (GB). The GB is a multiple-population metaheuristic based on soccer concepts. Although it was designed to solve combinatorial optimization problems, until now, it has only been tested with two simple routing problems: the traveling salesman problem and the capacitated vehicle routing problem. In this paper, the GB is applied to four different combinatorial optimization problems. Two of them are routing problems, which are more complex than the previously used ones: the asymmetric traveling salesman problem and the vehicle routing problem with backhauls. Additionally, one constraint satisfaction problem (the n-queen problem) and one combinatorial design problem (the one-dimensional bin packing problem) have also been used. The outcomes obtained by GB are compared with the ones got by two different genetic algorithms and two distributed genetic algorithms. Additionally, two statistical tests are conducted to compare these results. PMID:25165742

  19. Focusing on the golden ball metaheuristic: an extended study on a wider set of problems.

    PubMed

    Osaba, E; Diaz, F; Carballedo, R; Onieva, E; Perallos, A

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the development of new metaheuristics for solving optimization problems is a topic of interest in the scientific community. In the literature, a large number of techniques of this kind can be found. Anyway, there are many recently proposed techniques, such as the artificial bee colony and imperialist competitive algorithm. This paper is focused on one recently published technique, the one called Golden Ball (GB). The GB is a multiple-population metaheuristic based on soccer concepts. Although it was designed to solve combinatorial optimization problems, until now, it has only been tested with two simple routing problems: the traveling salesman problem and the capacitated vehicle routing problem. In this paper, the GB is applied to four different combinatorial optimization problems. Two of them are routing problems, which are more complex than the previously used ones: the asymmetric traveling salesman problem and the vehicle routing problem with backhauls. Additionally, one constraint satisfaction problem (the n-queen problem) and one combinatorial design problem (the one-dimensional bin packing problem) have also been used. The outcomes obtained by GB are compared with the ones got by two different genetic algorithms and two distributed genetic algorithms. Additionally, two statistical tests are conducted to compare these results. PMID:25165742

  20. Solving Problems in Library and Information Science Using Fuzzy Set Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, William W.; Wilson, Concepcion S.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the use of mathematical tools in library and information science focuses on information retrieval applications of fuzzy set theory. Topics include fuzzy set theory in informetrics and bibliometrics; and the literature of fuzzy set theory. (Contains 87 references.) (LRW)

  1. TOUGH Simulations of the Updegraff's Set of Fluid and Heat Flow Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Moridis, G.J.; Pruess , K.

    1992-11-01

    The TOUGH code [Pruess, 1987] for two-phase flow of water, air, and heat in penneable media has been exercised on a suite of test problems originally selected and simulated by C. D. Updegraff [1989]. These include five 'verification' problems for which analytical or numerical solutions are available, and three 'validation' problems that model laboratory fluid and heat flow experiments. All problems could be run without any code modifications (*). Good and efficient numerical performance, as well as accurate results were obtained throughout. Additional code verification and validation problems from the literature are briefly summarized, and suggestions are given for proper applications of TOUGH and related codes.

  2. The Timing of Feedback on Mathematics Problem Solving in a Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyfe, Emily R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    Feedback is a ubiquitous learning tool that is theorized to help learners detect and correct their errors. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of feedback in a classroom context for children solving math equivalence problems (problems with operations on both sides of the equal sign). The authors worked with children in 7 second-grade…

  3. Community and Problem Oriented Policing in School Settings: Design and Process Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Richard L.

    Community and Problem Oriented Policing (CPOP) is a multidimensional strategy used by police departments to control crime and improve the quality of life in targeted areas. This monograph presents CPOP as a possible solution to the problem of school violence. It identifies design components and process dimensions that can contribute to successful…

  4. Some Practical Solutions to Standard-Setting Problems: The Georgia Teacher Certification Test Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Stephen E.

    A standard-setting procedure was developed for the Georgia Teacher Certification Testing Program as tests in 30 teaching fields were revised. A list of important characteristics of a standard-setting procedure was derived, drawing on the work of R. A. Berk (1986). The best method was found to be a highly formalized judgmental, empirical Angoff…

  5. Geomorphology and Ecology of Mountain Landscapes: an interdisciplinary approach to problem-based learning in a particular geographical setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wemple, B.; Thomas, E. P.; Shanley, J.

    2006-12-01

    Mountain settings provide some unique conditions for the instruction of earth surface processes and ecology. Recent attention has also highlighted certain risks to mountain environments posed by development pressures and climate change scenarios. We describe a course developed for senior undergraduate students that focuses on an integrated, interdisciplinary view of ecological, geophysical, and socio-political processes in mountain settings. We use a problem-based learning approach where students first learn to collect and analyze data around a set of field problems tackled during a one-week field intensive. Next, students explore a range of research problems from mountain settings through a semester-long seminar focusing on current scholarly readings and visits with resource managers, policy makers and stakeholders. Finally, students craft and execute a research project and present results in a symposium setting. Our course builds on the traditional model of the Geoscience field camp, employs a geographical perspective to think synthetically about the nature of mountain landscapes, uses an interdisciplinary approach to study processes and process- interactions of the mountain setting, and explores some of the unique challenges facing mountain regions.

  6. A comparison of limit setting methods for the on-off problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolke, Wolfgang A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the frequentist properties of confidence intervals found with various methods previously proposed for the On-Off problem. We derive explicit formulas for the limits and calculate the true coverage and the expected lengths of these methods.

  7. Dress-Related Behavioral Problems and Violence in the Public School Setting: Prevention, Intervention, and Policy--A Holistic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloman, Lillian; LaPoint, Velma; Alleyne, Sylvan I.; Palmer, Ruth J.; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    1996-01-01

    Addresses clothing-related behavioral problems for public school children and the increasing use of dress codes and uniform policies as preventive measures. It describes dress-related conflicts for black public school students and parents across socialization and contextual settings. The implications of preventive policies and practices are…

  8. Testing problem-solving capacities: differences between individual testing and social group setting.

    PubMed

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M

    2014-09-01

    Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test. PMID:24668582

  9. A Pilot Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Program for Problem Gamblers in a Rural Australian Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Jane; Gardiner, Paula; McLaughlin, Kristin; Battersby, Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    An innovative pilot treatment program was developed for problem gamblers living in rural areas of Australia using cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) modified from an established specialist therapy service. The standard 12 weekly group program was delivered on site by adapting it to two 1 week blocks with daily group sessions and 1 week of patient…

  10. Summary of the setting, air quality problems, and meteorological activities in the oil shale region

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; Clements, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    This document discusses air quality problems that may arise in the valleys of the Uinta mountains and the Roan Ridge in the oil shale area in western Colorado and eastern Utah. A meteorological field expedition that was undertaken in August 1980 by LASL and PNL is described. (DLC)

  11. Maternal Prenatal Stress and Later Child Behavioral Problems in an Urban South African Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramchandani, Paul G.; Richter, Linda M.; Norris, Shane A.; Stein, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Findings from a number of cohort studies suggest that children who are exposed to maternal stress during pregnancy have an increased risk of behavioral problems. All of the research assessing this association to date has been conducted in developed countries; yet the majority of the child population, and the majority of the burden of…

  12. Implementing a Structured Reading Program in an Afterschool Setting: Problems and Potential Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartry, Ardice; Fitzgerald, Robert; Porter, Kristie

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Ardice Hartry, Robert Fitzgerald, and Kristie Porter present results from their implementation study of a structured reading program for fourth, fifth, and sixth graders in an afterschool setting. As the authors explain, schools and districts often view an extended school day as a promising way to address the literacy needs of…

  13. Data Literacy: Real-World Learning through Problem-Solving with Data Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Robin W., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    The achievement of deep learning by secondary students requires teaching approaches that draw students into task commitment, integrated curricula, and analytical thinking. By using real-world data sets in project based instructional units, teachers can guide students in analyzing, interpreting, and reporting quantitative data. Working with…

  14. Supporting Inclusion in Early Childhood Settings: Some Possibilities and Problems for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdue, Kerry; Gordon-Burns, Diane; Gunn, Alexandra; Madden, Barbara; Surtees, Nicola

    2009-01-01

    Aotearoa New Zealand, like other countries, has legislation and policies that support inclusion and promote the participation of all children and families in early childhood education. We might expect therefore to see a culture of inclusion resonating through policy and practice in early childhood settings. There are early childhood teachers who…

  15. "Perpetual Problem-Solving": An Ethnographic Study of Clinical Reasoning in a Therapeutic Recreation Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Susan L.; LeBlanc, Adrienne; Booth, Rhonda

    2002-01-01

    Reviews literature on the concept and practice of clinical reasoning, presenting evidence of clinical reasoning in a therapeutic recreation setting. Data from observations of and interviews with recreation therapists and clients in a Canadian rehabilitation hospital provided evidence of therapists' clinical reasoning practices which supported the…

  16. Clinical problem solving ability of BSc and diploma nursing students in Indian setting--a comparison.

    PubMed

    Ezhilarasu, Punitha

    2012-01-01

    Clinical Problem Solving Ability (CPSA) is an important skill essential for nurses to achieve professional excellence which is developed during the educational process. A sample of 215 students from BSc and Diploma nursing educational programmes were studied to determine their CPSA and the differences were compared. A written simulation instrument (Ezhilarasu, 2000) with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.81 was used to measure the CPSA. BSc students scored significantly higher than Diploma students (p = 0). Final year students from both the programmes scored higher than the first year students (p = 0.01). The least commonly used step in clinical problem solving is evaluation. Along with other studies, this study also supports the influence of the educational process in the development of CPSA. Appropriate teaching strategies and role modelling by faculty should become an essential part in all nursing educational institutions. PMID:24597097

  17. A primal-dual active-set method for non-negativity constrained total variation deblurring problems.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, D; Lin, Ping; Yip, Andy M

    2007-11-01

    This paper studies image deblurring problems using a total variation-based model, with a non-negativity constraint. The addition of the non-negativity constraint improves the quality of the solutions, but makes the solution process a difficult one. The contribution of our work is a fast and robust numerical algorithm to solve the non-negatively constrained problem. To overcome the nondifferentiability of the total variation norm, we formulate the constrained deblurring problem as a primal-dual program which is a variant of the formulation proposed by Chan, Golub, and Mulet for unconstrained problems. Here, dual refers to a combination of the Lagrangian and Fenchel duals. To solve the constrained primal-dual program, we use a semi-smooth Newton's method. We exploit the relationship between the semi-smooth Newton's method and the primal-dual active set method to achieve considerable simplification of the computations. The main advantages of our proposed scheme are: no parameters need significant adjustment, a standard inverse preconditioner works very well, quadratic rate of local convergence (theoretical and numerical), numerical evidence of global convergence, and high accuracy of solving the optimality system. The scheme shows robustness of performance over a wide range of parameters. A comprehensive set of numerical comparisons are provided against other methods to solve the same problem which show the speed and accuracy advantages of our scheme. PMID:17990753

  18. Non-homogeneous solutions of a Coulomb Schrödinger equation as basis set for scattering problems

    SciTech Connect

    Del Punta, J. A.; Ambrosio, M. J.; Gasaneo, G.; Zaytsev, S. A.; Ancarani, L. U.

    2014-05-15

    We introduce and study two-body Quasi Sturmian functions which are proposed as basis functions for applications in three-body scattering problems. They are solutions of a two-body non-homogeneous Schrödinger equation. We present different analytic expressions, including asymptotic behaviors, for the pure Coulomb potential with a driven term involving either Slater-type or Laguerre-type orbitals. The efficiency of Quasi Sturmian functions as basis set is numerically illustrated through a two-body scattering problem.

  19. Multiplicity of inhabited worlds and the problem of setting up contacts among them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shklovskiy, I. S.

    1974-01-01

    The numerous planetary systems in our galaxy appear to a high degree of probability to contain some planets with a biosphere similar to earth' environment. The possibility of communicating with those extraterrestrial alien planetary civilizations centers on the high level of technological development that is required to overcome the problem of distance. It is conceivable that advanced civilizations can produce energy at a level of 10 to the 43rd power erg/year and that an artificial biosphere can be developed within the limits of 10 to the 22nd power to 10 to the 23rd power cm.

  20. Cognitive work analysis to evaluate the problem of patient falls in an inpatient setting

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Karen Dunn; Cary, Michael P; Kanak, Mary F

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify factors in the nursing work domain that contribute to the problem of inpatient falls, aside from patient risk, using cognitive work analysis. Design A mix of qualitative and quantitative methods were used to identify work constraints imposed on nurses, which may underlie patient falls. Measurements Data collection was done on a neurology unit staffed by 27 registered nurses and utilized field observations, focus groups, time–motion studies and written surveys (AHRQ Hospital Survey on Patient Culture, NASA-TLX, and custom Nursing Knowledge of Fall Prevention Subscale). Results Four major constraints were identified that inhibit nurses' ability to prevent patient falls. All constraints relate to work processes and the physical work environment, opposed to safety culture or nursing knowledge, as currently emphasized. The constraints were: cognitive ‘head data’, temporal workload, inconsistencies in written and verbal transfer of patient data, and limitations in the physical environment. To deal with these constraints, the nurses tend to employ four workarounds: written and mental chunking schemas, bed alarms, informal querying of the previous care nurse, and informal video and audio surveillance. These workarounds reflect systemic design flaws and may only be minimally effective in decreasing risk to patients. Conclusion Cognitive engineering techniques helped identify seemingly hidden constraints in the work domain that impact the problem of patient falls. System redesign strategies aimed at improving work processes and environmental limitations hold promise for decreasing the incidence of falls in inpatient nursing units. PMID:20442150

  1. Leadership and leadership development in healthcare settings - a simplistic solution to complex problems?

    PubMed

    McDonald, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    There is a trend in health systems around the world to place great emphasis on and faith in improving 'leadership'. Leadership has been defined in many ways and the elitist implications of traditional notions of leadership sit uncomfortably with modern healthcare organisations. The concept of distributed leadership incorporates inclusivity, collectiveness and collaboration, with the result that, to some extent, all staff, not just those in senior management roles, are viewed as leaders. Leadership development programmes are intended to equip individuals to improve leadership skills, but we know little about their effectiveness. Furthermore, the content of these programmes varies widely and the fact that many lack a sense of how they fit with individual or organisational goals raises questions about how they are intended to achieve their aims. It is important to avoid simplistic assumptions about the ability of improved leadership to solve complex problems. It is also important to evaluate leadership development programmes in ways that go beyond descriptive accounts. PMID:25337595

  2. The effect of Problem/Project-Based Learning on a desired skill set for construction professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirotiak, Todd L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if a Problem/Project-Based Learning (PBL) approach can affect certain non-technical, "soft" skills of construction engineers. Such skills include leadership, adaptability, and stress management. In mixed design research, quantitative and qualitative data are assembled and analyzed collectively. For this study, two separate assessment tools were used for the quantitative portion, while open-ended written reflections and a partially closed-ended senior questionnaire were implemented for the qualitative portion. A hypothetical model was used to investigate certain soft skills based on prior research documenting need. Skills investigated were confidence, stress coping, leadership, communication skills, adaptability, and management skills. Descriptive statistics, open-ended final written reflections, and a partially closed-ended senior questionnaire were used to analyze the data. PBL is a process in which the students are challenged to develop realistic solutions on open, less structured, real world type problems. The results of this study performed with the combined count of nearly 60 students suggest that PBL can influence several soft skills of senior construction engineers. Specifically, these findings demonstrate the following: (a) PBL appears to affect students' soft skills; (b) students appear to recognize the realism and "real world" applicability that PBL brings to their skill development; and (c) the data suggest that the experience is holistic and offers opportunities for balanced growth in several ways. Some key competencies such as communication and leadership indicated significant enhancements. Although this study was limited to one academic year of the university's construction engineering program, it provides interesting insight to changes within the time period investigated. This study should be replicated in other construction engineering environments to investigate a larger population sample. In addition

  3. The Karoo igneous province — A problem area for inferring tectonic setting from basalt geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Andrew R.

    1987-06-01

    Tholeiitic basalts and associated intrusives are the major component of the Karoo igneous province. They are of Mesozoic age and constitute one of the world's classic continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces. It has been argued that most Karoo basalts have not undergone significant contamination with continental crust and that their lithospheric mantle source areas were enriched in incompatible minor and trace elements during the Proterozoic. The only exceptions to this are late-stage MORB-like dolerites near the present-day continental margins which are considered to be of asthenospheric origin. When data for the "southern" Karoo basalts are plotted on many of the geochemical discriminant diagrams which have been used to infer tectonic setting, essentially all of them would be classified as calc-alkali basalts (CAB's) or low-K tholeiites. Virtually none of them plot in the compositional fields designated as characteristic of "within-plate" basalts. There is little likelihood that the compositions of the Karoo basalts can be controlled by active subduction at the time of their eruption and no convincing evidence that a "subduction component" has been added to the subcontinental lithospheric mantle under the entire area in which the basalts crop out. It must be concluded that the mantle source areas for CAB's and the southern Karoo basalts have marked similarities. In contrast, the data for "northern" Karoo basalts largely plot in the "within-plate" field on geochemical discriminant diagrams. Available data suggest that the source composition and/or the restite mineralogy and degree of partial melting are different for southern and northern Karoo basalts. There is no evidence for any difference in tectonic setting between the southern and northern Karoo basalts at the time they were erupted. This appears to be clear evidence that specific mantle source characteristics and/or magmatic processes can vary within a single CFB province to an extent that renders at least

  4. Leadership and leadership development in healthcare settings – a simplistic solution to complex problems?

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    There is a trend in health systems around the world to place great emphasis on and faith in improving ‘leadership’. Leadership has been defined in many ways and the elitist implications of traditional notions of leadership sit uncomfortably with modern healthcare organisations. The concept of distributed leadership incorporates inclusivity, collectiveness and collaboration, with the result that, to some extent, all staff, not just those in senior management roles, are viewed as leaders. Leadership development programmes are intended to equip individuals to improve leadership skills, but we know little about their effectiveness. Furthermore, the content of these programmes varies widely and the fact that many lack a sense of how they fit with individual or organisational goals raises questions about how they are intended to achieve their aims. It is important to avoid simplistic assumptions about the ability of improved leadership to solve complex problems. It is also important to evaluate leadership development programmes in ways that go beyond descriptive accounts. PMID:25337595

  5. Using graph models to find transcription factor modules: the hitting set problem and an exact algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lu, Songjian; Lu, Xinghua

    2013-01-01

    : Systematically perturbing a cellular system and monitoring the effects of the perturbations on gene expression provide a powerful approach to study signal transduction in gene expression systems. A critical step of revealing a signal transduction pathway regulating gene expression is to identify transcription factors transmitting signals in the system. In this paper, we address the task of identifying modules of cooperative transcription factors based on results derived from systems-biology experiments at two levels: First, a graph algorithm is developed to identify a minimum set of co-operative TFs that covers the differentially expressed genes under each systematic perturbation. Second, using a clique-finding approach, modules of TFs that tend to consistently cooperate together under various perturbations are further identified. Our results indicate that this approach is capable of identifying many known TF modules based on the individual experiment; thus we provide a novel graph-based method of identifying context-specific and highly reused TF-modules. PMID:23324335

  6. Ultra-sensitive γ-ray spectroscopy set-up for investigating primordial lithium problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, G.; Gustavino, C.; Trezzi, D.; Aliotta, M.; Anders, M.; Boeltzig, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Best, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C.; Caciolli, A.; Cavanna, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; DiLeva, A.; Elekes, Z.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gyürky, Gy.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Scott, D. A.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.

    2016-07-01

    To precisely determine BBN 6Li production, the cross-section of the nuclear reaction 2H(α, γ)6Li must be directly measured within the astrophysical energy range of 30-400 keV. This measure requires an ultra-low γ-ray background in the experimental set-up. We have realized the conditions matching these very strict requirements at LUNA, the deep underground accelerator laboratory active in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy: the γ-ray spectrometer background has been reduced down to reach unmatched low levels, comparable to the good ones experienced in dedicated off-line underground ultra low γ counting rate. We present and discuss the γ-ray background reduction reached in the HpGe spectrometer, where most of the remaining γ-ray background seen in the spectra are coming from the energetic deuterons scattered in the gas target by the α beam. Thanks to the low neutron environmental background at LUNA, the effect of this weak flux of 2-3 MeV neutrons on HpGe detectors has been studied in details and the results are presented and discussed.

  7. Medium-energy ion-scattering study of the structure of clean TiO{sub 2}(110)-(1x1)

    SciTech Connect

    Parkinson, G. S.; Munoz-Marquez, M. A.; Quinn, P. D.; Gladys, M. J.; Tanner, R. E.; Woodruff, D. P.; Bailey, P.; Noakes, T. C. Q.

    2006-06-15

    100 keV H{sup +} medium-energy ion scattering has been applied to investigate the surface relaxations of the clean rutile TiO{sub 2}(110)-(1x1) surface structure. A set of blocking curves in four different incident directions show clear differences between the surface and bulk attributable to surface relaxation. Optimized values of the surface relaxation parameters to give the best fit to the surface structure are generally in quite good agreement with a recent experimental determination of this structure using quantitative low-energy electron diffraction. In particular, both solutions favor an outward relaxation of the bridging O atoms on the surface rather than the strong inward displacement favored by the only previous experimental structure determination based on surface x-ray diffraction.

  8. Addressing the sexual problems of Iranian women in a primary health care setting: A quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Jafari, Fatemeh; Ozgoli, Giti; Shakeri, Masomeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization emphasizes on integration of sexual health into primary health care services, educating people and health care workers about sexuality, and promoting optimal sexual health. Despite the high prevalence of sexual problems, these problems are poorly managed in primary health care services. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of the first two steps of PLISSIT (Permission, Limited Information, Specific Suggestions, Intensive Treatment) model for handling of women sexual problems in a primary health care setting. Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study that was carried out in Zanjan, northwest of Iran. Eighty women who had got married in the past 5 years and had sexual problem were randomly assigned to control and intervention groups. The intervention group received consultation based on PLISSIT model by a trained midwife and the control group received routine services. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was used for assessing and tracking any changes in sexual function. Data were collected at three points: Before consultation and 2 and 4 weeks after consultation. Paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used for comparison of scores within groups. Results: Significant improvement was found in FSFI sub-domain scores, including sexual desire (P < 0.0001), arousal (P < 0.0001), lubrication (P < 0.0001), orgasm (P = 0.005), satisfaction (P = 0.005), pain (P < 0.0001), and FSFI total score (P < 0.0001) in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusions: This study showed that PLISSIT model can meet the sexual health needs of clients in a primary health care setting and it can be used easily by health workers in this setting for addressing sexual complaints and dysfunctions. PMID:25709703

  9. Social, political, and institutional setting: Water management problems of the Rio Grande

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses various water management issues facing federal, state, and local agencies charged with managing the water resources of the Rio Grande River Basin and its major tributaries. The Rio Grande - 3,058 km (=1,900 mi) long - is the fourth longest river in the United States. The river's basin is 870,236 km2 (=336,000 mi2) and for roughly two-thirds of its length it forms the United States-Mexican border. It is a major recreational resource providing world class trout fishing near its headwaters in Colorado's San Juan Mountains and shoreline, angling, and boating opportunities near the Colorado-New Mexico border. The Rio Grande is the principal tourist attraction of Big Bend National Park and flows through downtown Albuquerque and El Paso. Many reaches are wide and broad, but almost all are relatively shallow and not navigable by commercial ships. Nevertheless, it is one of the most important renewable water resources of the southwestern United States and North America. The issue of the "manageability" of the river in the face of social forces and disparate administrative jurisdictions that adversely impact Rio Grande flows is a thread linking various sections of the paper together. The length of the river; the fact that major reaches lie in Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas; and its unique role as an international boundary pose complex management problems. The allocation status quo formed by the complex nexus of existing river laws make it difficult to reshape Rio Grande management. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  10. Solution of multifrequency lidar inverse problem for a pre-set marine aerosol size-distribution formula

    SciTech Connect

    Piskozub, J.

    1994-12-31

    The multifrequency lidar inverse problem discussed consists of calculating the size distribution of sol particles from backscattered lidar data. Sea-water (marine) aerosol is particularly well suited for this kind of study as its scattering characteristics can be accurately represented by Mie theory as its particles are almost spherical and their complex index of refraction is well known. Here, a solution of the inverse problem concerning finding aerosol size distribution for a multifrequency lidar system working on a small number of wavelengths is proposed. The solution involves a best-fit method of finding parameters in a pre-set formula of particle size distribution. A comparison of results calculated with the algorithm from experimental lidar profiles with PMS data collected in Baltic Sea coastal zone is given.

  11. On the use of the resting potential and level set methods for identifying ischemic heart disease: An inverse problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Bjørn Fredrik; Lysaker, Marius; Tveito, Aslak

    2007-01-01

    The electrical activity in the heart is modeled by a complex, nonlinear, fully coupled system of differential equations. Several scientists have studied how this model, referred to as the bidomain model, can be modified to incorporate the effect of heart infarctions on simulated ECG (electrocardiogram) recordings. We are concerned with the associated inverse problem; how can we use ECG recordings and mathematical models to identify the position, size and shape of heart infarctions? Due to the extreme CPU efforts needed to solve the bidomain equations, this model, in its full complexity, is not well-suited for this kind of problems. In this paper we show how biological knowledge about the resting potential in the heart and level set techniques can be combined to derive a suitable stationary model, expressed in terms of an elliptic PDE, for such applications. This approach leads to a nonlinear ill-posed minimization problem, which we propose to regularize and solve with a simple iterative scheme. Finally, our theoretical findings are illuminated through a series of computer simulations for an experimental setup involving a realistic heart in torso geometry. More specifically, experiments with synthetic ECG recordings, produced by solving the bidomain model, indicate that our method manages to identify the physical characteristics of the ischemic region(s) in the heart. Furthermore, the ill-posed nature of this inverse problem is explored, i.e. several quantitative issues of our scheme are explored.

  12. Assessment of alcohol problems using AUDIT in a prison setting: more than an 'aye or no' question

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    links across drinking, crime and recidivism, supporting the argument for more extensive provision of alcohol-focused interventions in prisons. These should be carefully targeted based on initial screening and assessment, responsive, and include care pathways linking prisoners to community services. Finally, findings confirm the value and feasibility of routine use of the AUDIT screening tool in prison settings, to considerably enhance practice in the detection and understanding of alcohol problems, improving on current more limited questioning (e.g. 'yes or no' questions). PMID:22082009

  13. Stochastic Set-Based Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Local Exploration for Solving the Carpool Service Problem.

    PubMed

    Chou, Sheng-Kai; Jiau, Ming-Kai; Huang, Shih-Chia

    2016-08-01

    The growing ubiquity of vehicles has led to increased concerns about environmental issues. These concerns can be mitigated by implementing an effective carpool service. In an intelligent carpool system, an automated service process assists carpool participants in determining routes and matches. It is a discrete optimization problem that involves a system-wide condition as well as participants' expectations. In this paper, we solve the carpool service problem (CSP) to provide satisfactory ride matches. To this end, we developed a particle swarm carpool algorithm based on stochastic set-based particle swarm optimization (PSO). Our method introduces stochastic coding to augment traditional particles, and uses three terminologies to represent a particle: 1) particle position; 2) particle view; and 3) particle velocity. In this way, the set-based PSO (S-PSO) can be realized by local exploration. In the simulation and experiments, two kind of discrete PSOs-S-PSO and binary PSO (BPSO)-and a genetic algorithm (GA) are compared and examined using tested benchmarks that simulate a real-world metropolis. We observed that the S-PSO outperformed the BPSO and the GA thoroughly. Moreover, our method yielded the best result in a statistical test and successfully obtained numerical results for meeting the optimization objectives of the CSP. PMID:26890944

  14. Stokes-Leibenson problem for Hele-Shaw flow: a critical set in the space of contours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, A. S.; Lohéac, J.-P.; Runge, V.

    2016-01-01

    The Stokes-Leibenson problem for Hele-Shaw flow is reformulated as a Cauchy problem of a nonlinear integro-differential equation with respect to functions a and b, linked by the Hilbert transform. The function a expresses the evolution of the coefficient longitudinal strain of the free boundary and b is the evolution of the tangent tilt of this contour. These functions directly reflect changes of geometric characteristics of the free boundary of higher order than the evolution of the contour point obtained by the classical Galin-Kochina equation. That is why we managed to uncover the reason of the absence of solutions in the sink-case if the initial contour is not analytic at at least one point, to prove existence and uniqueness theorems, and also to reveal a certain critical set in the space of contours. This set contains one attractive point in the source-case corresponding to a circular contour centered at the source-point. The main object of this work is the analysis of the discrete model of the problem. This model, called quasi-contour, is formulated in terms of functions corresponding to a and b of our integro-differential equation. This quasi-contour model provides numerical experiments which confirm the theoretical properties mentioned above, especially the existence of a critical subset of co-dimension 1 in space of quasi-contours. This subset contains one attractive point in the source-case corresponding to a regular quasi-contour centered at the source-point. The main contribution of our quasi-contour model concerns the sink-case: numerical experiments show that the above subset is attractive. Furthermore, this discrete model allows to extend previous results obtained by using complex analysis. We also provide numerical experiments linked to fingering effects.

  15. Metalation of tetraphenylporphyrin with nickel on a TiO2(110)-1 × 2 surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cici; Fan, Qitang; Han, Yong; Martínez, José I.; Martín-Gago, José A.; Wang, Weijia; Ju, Huanxin; Gottfried, J. Michael; Zhu, Junfa

    2015-12-01

    The in situ metalation of tetraphenylporphyrin (2HTPP) with Ni on the reconstructed TiO2(110)-1 × 2 surface, resulting in the formation of adsorbed nickel(ii)-tetraphenylporphyrin (NiTPP), has been investigated by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SRPES), scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The metalation can be realized at room temperature irrespective of the deposition order of Ni and 2HTPP, which however leads to different metalation degrees. Increasing the substrate temperature or Ni : 2HTPP ratio results in higher metalation degree, which ultimately reaches its limit at ~85% (Ni : 2HTPP = 3 : 1) and ~49% (Ni : 2HTPP = 1 : 1) for post- and pre-deposition of Ni, respectively. The reaction from 2HTPP to NiTPP is accompanied by changes of the molecular adsorption conformation and the adsorption site from a tilted two-lobed feature on added Ti2O3 rows to a four-lobed feature on top of troughs or cross-links of the TiO2(110)-1 × 2 surface. This interpretation of the STM data is supported by DFT-based STM simulations.The in situ metalation of tetraphenylporphyrin (2HTPP) with Ni on the reconstructed TiO2(110)-1 × 2 surface, resulting in the formation of adsorbed nickel(ii)-tetraphenylporphyrin (NiTPP), has been investigated by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SRPES), scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The metalation can be realized at room temperature irrespective of the deposition order of Ni and 2HTPP, which however leads to different metalation degrees. Increasing the substrate temperature or Ni : 2HTPP ratio results in higher metalation degree, which ultimately reaches its limit at ~85% (Ni : 2HTPP = 3 : 1) and ~49% (Ni : 2HTPP = 1 : 1) for post- and pre-deposition of Ni, respectively. The reaction from 2HTPP to NiTPP is accompanied by changes of the molecular adsorption conformation and the adsorption site

  16. Interprofessional, simulation-based technology-enhanced learning to improve physical health care in psychiatry: The recognition and assessment of medical problems in psychiatric settings course.

    PubMed

    Akroyd, Mike; Jordan, Gary; Rowlands, Paul

    2016-06-01

    People with serious mental illness have reduced life expectancy compared with a control population, much of which is accounted for by significant physical comorbidity. Frontline clinical staff in mental health often lack confidence in recognition, assessment and management of such 'medical' problems. Simulation provides one way for staff to practise these skills in a safe setting. We produced a multidisciplinary simulation course around recognition and assessment of medical problems in psychiatric settings. We describe an audit of strategic and design aspects of the recognition and assessment of medical problems in psychiatric settings course, using the Department of Health's 'Framework for Technology Enhanced Learning' as our audit standards. At the same time as highlighting areas where recognition and assessment of medical problems in psychiatric settings adheres to these identified principles, such as the strategic underpinning of the approach, and the means by which information is collected, reviewed and shared, it also helps us to identify areas where we can improve. PMID:25425630

  17. Metalation of tetraphenylporphyrin with nickel on a TiO2(110)-1 × 2 surface†

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yong; Martínez, José I.; Martín-Gago, José A.; Wang, Weijia; Ju, Huanxin; Gottfried, J. Michael; Zhu, Junfa

    2015-01-01

    The in situ metalation of tetraphenylporphyrin (2HTPP) with Ni on the reconstructed TiO2(110)-1 × 2 surface, resulting in the formation of adsorbed nickel(II)-tetraphenylporphyrin (NiTPP), has been investigated by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SRPES), scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The metalation can be realized at room temperature irrespective of the deposition order of Ni and 2HTPP, which however leads to different metalation degrees. Increasing the substrate temperature or Ni : 2HTPP ratio results in higher metalation degree, which ultimately reaches its limit at ~85% (Ni : 2HTPP = 3 : 1) and ~49% (Ni : 2HTPP = 1 : 1) for post- and pre-deposition of Ni, respectively. The reaction from 2HTPP to NiTPP is accompanied by changes of the molecular adsorption conformation and the adsorption site from a tilted two-lobed feature on added Ti2O3 rows to a four-lobed feature on top of troughs or cross-links of the TiO2(110)-1 × 2 surface. This interpretation of the STM data is supported by DFT-based STM simulations. PMID:26667953

  18. Facility with the English language and problem-based learning group interaction: findings from an Arabic setting.

    PubMed

    Mpofu, D J; Lanphear, J; Stewart, T; Das, M; Ridding, P; Dunn, E

    1998-09-01

    The Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), United Arab Emirates (UAE) University is in a unique position to explore issues related to English language proficiency and medical student performance. All students entering the FMHS have English as a second language. This study focused on the issues of students' proficiency in English as measured by the TOEFL test, student background factors and interaction in problem-based learning (PBL) groups. Using a modification of Bales Interaction Process Analysis, four problem-based learning groups were observed over four thematic units, to measure the degree of student interaction within PBL groups and to compare this to individual TOEFL scores and key background variables. The students' contributions correlated highly with TOEFL test results in the giving of information (range r = 0.67-0.74). The female students adhered to interacting in English during group sessions, whereas the male students were more likely to revert to using Arabic in elaborating unclear phenomena (p < 0.01). The educational level of the student's mother was highly predictive of TOEFL scores for the male students, but not for female students. Multivariate analysis was undertaken to analyse the relative contribution of the TOEFL, parental education and years of studying in English. The best predictor of students' contributions in PBL groups was identified as TOEFL scores. The study demonstrates the importance of facilitating a locally acceptable level of English proficiency prior to admission to the FMHS. However, it also highlights the importance of not focusing only on English proficiency but paying attention to additional factors in facilitating medical students in maximizing benefits from interactions in PBL settings. PMID:10211288

  19. Empirical Mining of Large Data Sets Already Helps to Solve Practical Ecological Problems; A Panoply of Working Examples (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrove, W. W.; Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Spruce, J.; Norman, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    Here we present diverse examples where empirical mining and statistical analysis of large data sets have already been shown to be useful for a wide variety of practical decision-making problems within the realm of large-scale ecology. Because a full understanding and appreciation of particular ecological phenomena are possible only after hypothesis-directed research regarding the existence and nature of that process, some ecologists may feel that purely empirical data harvesting may represent a less-than-satisfactory approach. Restricting ourselves exclusively to process-driven approaches, however, may actually slow progress, particularly for more complex or subtle ecological processes. We may not be able to afford the delays caused by such directed approaches. Rather than attempting to formulate and ask every relevant question correctly, empirical methods allow trends, relationships and associations to emerge freely from the data themselves, unencumbered by a priori theories, ideas and prejudices that have been imposed upon them. Although they cannot directly demonstrate causality, empirical methods can be extremely efficient at uncovering strong correlations with intermediate "linking" variables. In practice, these correlative structures and linking variables, once identified, may provide sufficient predictive power to be useful themselves. Such correlation "shadows" of causation can be harnessed by, e.g., Bayesian Belief Nets, which bias ecological management decisions, made with incomplete information, toward favorable outcomes. Empirical data-harvesting also generates a myriad of testable hypotheses regarding processes, some of which may even be correct. Quantitative statistical regionalizations based on quantitative multivariate similarity have lended insights into carbon eddy-flux direction and magnitude, wildfire biophysical conditions, phenological ecoregions useful for vegetation type mapping and monitoring, forest disease risk maps (e.g., sudden oak

  20. An impatient evolutionary algorithm with probabilistic tabu search for unified solution of some NP-hard problems in graph and set theory via clique finding.

    PubMed

    Guturu, Parthasarathy; Dantu, Ram

    2008-06-01

    Many graph- and set-theoretic problems, because of their tremendous application potential and theoretical appeal, have been well investigated by the researchers in complexity theory and were found to be NP-hard. Since the combinatorial complexity of these problems does not permit exhaustive searches for optimal solutions, only near-optimal solutions can be explored using either various problem-specific heuristic strategies or metaheuristic global-optimization methods, such as simulated annealing, genetic algorithms, etc. In this paper, we propose a unified evolutionary algorithm (EA) to the problems of maximum clique finding, maximum independent set, minimum vertex cover, subgraph and double subgraph isomorphism, set packing, set partitioning, and set cover. In the proposed approach, we first map these problems onto the maximum clique-finding problem (MCP), which is later solved using an evolutionary strategy. The proposed impatient EA with probabilistic tabu search (IEA-PTS) for the MCP integrates the best features of earlier successful approaches with a number of new heuristics that we developed to yield a performance that advances the state of the art in EAs for the exploration of the maximum cliques in a graph. Results of experimentation with the 37 DIMACS benchmark graphs and comparative analyses with six state-of-the-art algorithms, including two from the smaller EA community and four from the larger metaheuristics community, indicate that the IEA-PTS outperforms the EAs with respect to a Pareto-lexicographic ranking criterion and offers competitive performance on some graph instances when individually compared to the other heuristic algorithms. It has also successfully set a new benchmark on one graph instance. On another benchmark suite called Benchmarks with Hidden Optimal Solutions, IEA-PTS ranks second, after a very recent algorithm called COVER, among its peers that have experimented with this suite. PMID:18558530

  1. Attentional Cuing in Math Word Problems for Girls At-Risk for ADHD and Their Peers in General Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kercood, Suneeta; Zentall, Sydney S.; Vinh, Megan; Tom-Wright, Kinsey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this theoretically-based study was to examine the effects of yellow-highlighting "relevant" words and units within math word problems. Initial differences were documented between 10 girls at-risk for ADHD and 10 comparisons on the performance of group and individual assessments of math computations and word problems, as had…

  2. Sleep Onset Problems in Two Children with Mild Intellectual Disability and Epilepsy: Assessment and Treatment in the Home Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, A. P. H. M.; Didden, R.; de Moor, J. M. H.; Renier, W. O.; Curfs, L. M. G.

    2005-01-01

    Sleep problems such as bedtime difficulties, frequent night waking and excessive daytime sleepiness are prevalent in children with epilepsy. In the present study, functional assessment of sleep onset problems in two young children with epilepsy was performed. Effects of bedtime fading and antipsychotic medication (pipamperon) in a 6-year-old boy,…

  3. Improvement in Generic Problem-Solving Abilities of Students by Use of Tutor-Less Problem-Based Learning in a Large Classroom Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klegeris, Andis; Bahniwal, Manpreet; Hurren, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) was originally introduced in medical education programs as a form of small-group learning, but its use has now spread to large undergraduate classrooms in various other disciplines. Introduction of new teaching techniques, including PBL-based methods, needs to be justified by demonstrating the benefits of such…

  4. Improvement in Generic Problem-Solving Abilities of Students by Use of Tutor-less Problem-Based Learning in a Large Classroom Setting

    PubMed Central

    Klegeris, Andis; Bahniwal, Manpreet; Hurren, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) was originally introduced in medical education programs as a form of small-group learning, but its use has now spread to large undergraduate classrooms in various other disciplines. Introduction of new teaching techniques, including PBL-based methods, needs to be justified by demonstrating the benefits of such techniques over classical teaching styles. Previously, we demonstrated that introduction of tutor-less PBL in a large third-year biochemistry undergraduate class increased student satisfaction and attendance. The current study assessed the generic problem-solving abilities of students from the same class at the beginning and end of the term, and compared student scores with similar data obtained in three classes not using PBL. Two generic problem-solving tests of equal difficulty were administered such that students took different tests at the beginning and the end of the term. Blinded marking showed a statistically significant 13% increase in the test scores of the biochemistry students exposed to PBL, while no trend toward significant change in scores was observed in any of the control groups not using PBL. Our study is among the first to demonstrate that use of tutor-less PBL in a large classroom leads to statistically significant improvement in generic problem-solving skills of students. PMID:23463230

  5. Educational Placement for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Public and Non-Public School Settings: The Impact of Social Skills and Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauderdale-Littin, Stacy; Howell, Erica; Blacher, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined relationships among behavior problems, social skills, and educational placement within a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder or ASD in public (mean age 7) and non-public (mean age 8) school settings (n = 56). Parent and teacher agreement on child characteristics ratings tended to be similar while differences…

  6. Temperature-programmed desorption study of NO reactions on rutile TiO2(110)-1 × 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Boseong; Dohnálek, Zdenek; Szanyi, János; Kay, Bruce D.; Kim, Yu Kwon

    2016-10-01

    Systematic temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies of NO adsorption and reactions on rutile TiO2(110)-1 × 1 surface reveal several distinct reaction channels in a temperature range of 50-500 K. NO readily reacts on TiO2(110) to form N2O, which desorbs between 50 and 200 K (LT N2O channels), which leaves the TiO2 surface populated with adsorbed oxygen atoms (Oa) as a by-product of N2O formation. In addition, we observe simultaneous desorption peaks of NO and N2O at 270 K (HT1 N2O) and 400 K (HT2 N2O), respectively, both of which are attributed to reaction-limited processes. No N-derived reaction product desorbs from TiO2(110) surface above 500 K or higher, while the surface may be populated with Oa's and oxidized products such as NO2 and NO3. The adsorbate-free TiO2 surface with oxygen vacancies can be regenerated by prolonged annealing at 850 K or higher. Detailed analysis of the three N2O desorption yields reveals that the surface species for the HT channels are likely to be various forms of NO dimers.

  7. Ammonia formation from NO reaction with surface hydroxyls on rutile TiO2 (110) - 1×1

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Boseong; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kim, Yu Kwon

    2015-01-15

    The reaction of NO with hydroxylated rutile TiO2(110)-1×1 surface (h-TiO2) was investigated as a function of NO coverage using temperature-programmed desorption. Our results show that NO reaction with h-TiO2 leads to formation of NH3 which is observed to desorb at ~ 400 K. Interestingly, the amount of NH3 produced depends nonlinearly on the coverage of NO. The yield increases up to a saturation value of ~1.3×1013 NH3/cm2 at a NO dose of 5×1013 NO/cm2, but subsequently decreases at higher NO doses. Preadsorbed H2O is found to have a negligible effect on the NH3 desorption yield. Additionally, no NH3 is formed in the absence of surface hydroxyls (HOb’s) upon coadsorption of NO and H2O on a stoichiometric TiO2(110) (s-TiO2(110)). Based on these observations, we conclude that nitrogen from NO has a strong preference to react with HOb’s on the bridge-bonded oxygen rows (but not with H2O) to form NH3. The absolute NH3 yield is limited by competing reactions of HOb species with titanium-bound oxygen adatoms to form H2O. Our results provide new mechanistic insight about the interactions of NO with hydroxyl groups on TiO2(110) .

  8. Temperature-programmed desorption study of NO reactions on rutile TiO2(110)-1×1

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, Boseong; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Szanyi, Janos; Kay, Bruce D.; Kim, Yu Kwon

    2016-02-24

    In this study, systematic temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies of NO adsorption and reactions on rutile TiO2(110)-1 × 1 surface reveal several distinct reaction channels in a temperature range of 50–500 K. NO readily reacts on TiO2(110) to form N2O, which desorbs between 50 and 200 K (LT N2O channels), which leaves the TiO2 surface populated with adsorbed oxygen atoms (Oa) as a by-product of N2O formation. In addition, we observe simultaneous desorption peaks of NO and N2O at 270 K (HT1 N2O) and 400 K (HT2 N2O), respectively, both of which are attributed to reaction-limited processes. No N-derived reaction productmore » desorbs from TiO2(110) surface above 500 K or higher, while the surface may be populated with Oa's and oxidized products such as NO2 and NO3. The adsorbate-free TiO2 surface with oxygen vacancies can be regenerated by prolonged annealing at 850 K or higher. Detailed analysis of the three N2O desorption yields reveals that the surface species for the HT channels are likely to be various forms of NO dimers.« less

  9. Medication Side Effects and Problem Behavior: A Context-Based Approach to Assessment and Intervention in Home and Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleiweiss, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Problem behavior significantly impedes multiple aspects of quality of life for individuals with developmental disabilities, and thus represents a major priority for intervention. Psychotropic medications are commonly administered to treat such behavior; however, these agents are often associated with adverse side effects that may have a negative…

  10. Impact of Witnessing Violence on Growth Curves for Problem Behaviors among Early Adolescents in Urban and Rural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Albert D.; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies used latent growth-curve analysis to examine the relation between witnessing violence and changes in problem behaviors (drug use, aggression, and delinquency) and attitudes during early adolescence. In Study 1, six waves of data covering 6th to 8th grades were collected from 731 students in urban schools serving mostly African-American…

  11. A Parenting Intervention for Childhood Behavioral Problems: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Disadvantaged Community-Based Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGilloway, Sinead; Mhaille, Grainne Ni; Bywater, Tracey; Furlong, Mairead; Leckey, Yvonne; Kelly, Paul; Comiskey, Catherine; Donnelly, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A community-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in urban areas characterized by high levels of disadvantage to test the effectiveness of the Incredible Years BASIC parent training program (IYBP) for children with behavioral problems. Potential moderators of intervention effects on child behavioral outcomes were also…

  12. Evaluation of Combined-Antecedent Variables on Functional Analysis Results and Treatment of Problem Behavior in a School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolezal, Danielle N.; Kurtz, Patricia F.

    2010-01-01

    Call, Wacker, Ringdahl, and Boelter (2005) conducted an analysis in which a single-antecedent condition was compared to a multiple-antecedent condition. The present study extended Call et al. by conducting a structured descriptive assessment (SDA) to identify the antecedent variables most associated with problem behavior in a student with…

  13. Comparison of Parent's and Teachers' Perceptions of Children's Behavior: A Study of Attentional Problems in a Natural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Lisa N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate concordance of reports of hyperactive and distractible behavior from three different sources: parents, teachers, and the child, using two different instruments, the ADHD Rating Scale and the Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS). The incidence rate of attentional problems that any of the sources reported in…

  14. Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

    2014-05-01

    Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems

  15. The Underlying Student Reasons for Rating SET Questionnaire Items: How Student Solve the Problem of Filling Out Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalayci, Nurdan

    2009-01-01

    In order to enhance the quality of teaching in higher education establishments, as "stakeholders" of the institution, the opinions of students related to the teaching they receive are given precedence. This is achieved by using mandatory SET questionnaires on a routine basis in colleges and universities throughout the world. This study reports the…

  16. Setting the stage for chronic health problems: cumulative childhood adversity among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and substance use disorders, and physical health in a sample of homeless adults with mental illness. Methods This study was conducted using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial in Vancouver, British Columbia for participants who completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale at 18 months follow-up (n = 364). Primary outcomes included current mental disorders; substance use including type, frequency and severity; physical health; duration of homelessness; and vocational functioning. Results In multivariable regression models, ACE total score independently predicted a range of mental health, physical health, and substance use problems, and marginally predicted duration of homelessness. Conclusions Adverse childhood experiences are overrepresented among homeless adults with complex comorbidities and chronic homelessness. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating that childhood traumas are potent risk factors for a number of adult health and psychiatric problems, particularly substance use problems. Results are discussed in the context of cumulative adversity and self-trauma theory. Trials registration This trial has been registered with the International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register and assigned ISRCTN42520374. PMID:24726046

  17. Ecological risk assessment for residual coal fly ash at Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee: Site setting and problem formulation.

    PubMed

    Walls, Suzanne J; Jones, Daniel S; Stojak, Amber R; Carriker, Neil E

    2015-01-01

    A baseline ecological risk assessment (BERA) was performed for residual ash in the Watts Bar Reservoir following a release of fly ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant. The site consists of parts of 3 rivers in eastern Tennessee comprising over 32 river kilometers. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if residual ash negatively impacts maintenance and reproduction of balanced communities or populations of potentially exposed ecological receptor groups in these rivers. This introductory article summarizes the site and environmental setting, assessment and measurement endpoints, risk characterization methods, and the study approach. Subsequent articles describe ecological risks to fish, benthic invertebrates, aquatic- and riparian-feeding wildlife, and aerial-feeding insectivores; and the role ecological risk characterization played in determining the most effective management of the residual ash, setting project remediation objectives and targets, and designing long-term monitoring to measure the effectiveness of the selected removal action. PMID:25234753

  18. A Comparison between a SNOMED CT Problem List and the ICD-10-CM/PCS HIPAA Code Sets

    PubMed Central

    Steindel, Steven J

    2012-01-01

    In 2013 the United States will convert from the use of the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) to the use of the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification/Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-CM/PCS). This study compares the approximately 5,000 terms in the July 2009 Clinical Observations Recording and Encoding (CORE) Problem List subset of the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine–Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) terminology produced by the National Library of Medicine with terms found in the January 2009 versions of ICD-10-CM/PCS. The comparison was done by a single individual and used the internally defined concepts of “Exact,” “Inexact,” “Model” (one SNOMED CT term to many ICD-10-CM/PCS terms), “Not Elsewhere Classified,” “Not Otherwise Specified,” “Synonym,” and “Not Found” to classify the CORE Problem List terms according to the quality of the match. Among the CORE Problem List terms, 6.0 percent were not found in ICD-10-CM/PCS, and 69.1 percent had equivalent ICD-10-CM/PCS terms. The 13.0 percent of terms classified as “Inexact” could also be used directly assuming some acceptable loss of clinical precision. The 11.9 percent of terms classified as “Model” represent differences that require rule-based mapping. The results of this study suggest that ICD-10-CM/PCS meets the intended design goal of increased clinical precision but studies are needed to precisely define the depth of coverage. PMID:22548020

  19. Fictitious domains and level sets for moving boundary problems. Applications to the numerical simulation of tumor growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmen Calzada, M.; Camacho, Gema; Fernández-Cara, Enrique; Marín, Mercedes

    2011-02-01

    In this work we present a new strategy for solving numerically a (relatively simple) model of tumor growth. In principle, this is devoted to describe avascular growth although, by choosing the parameters appropriately, it also permits to give an idea of the behavior after vascularization. The numerical methods rely on fictitious domain and level set techniques, with a combination of quadratic finite elements and finite differences approximations. We present a collection of numerical results that essentially coincide with others, previously obtained with other techniques.

  20. Dual job holding by public sector health professionals in highly resource-constrained settings: problem or solution?

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Stephen; Bian, Ying; Jumpa, Manuel; Meng, Qingyue; Nyazema, Norman; Prakongsai, Phusit; Mills, Anne

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the policy options for the regulation of dual job holding by medical professionals in highly resource-constrained settings. Such activity is generally driven by a lack of resources in the public sector and low pay, and has been associated with the unauthorized use of public resources and corruption. It is also typically poorly regulated; regulations are either lacking, or when they exist, are vague or poorly implemented because of low regulatory capacity. This paper draws on the limited evidence available on this topic to assess a number of regulatory options in relation to the objectives of quality of care and access to services, as well as some of the policy constraints that can undermine implementation in resource-poor settings. The approach taken in highlighting these broader social objectives seeks to avoid the value judgements regarding dual working and some of its associated forms of behaviour that have tended to characterize previous analyses. Dual practice is viewed as a possible system solution to issues such as limited public sector resources (and incomes), low regulatory capacity and the interplay between market forces and human resources. This paper therefore offers some support for policies that allow for the official recognition of such activity and embrace a degree of professional self-regulation. In providing clearer policy guidance, future research in this area needs to adopt a more evaluative approach than that which has been used to date. PMID:16283054

  1. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12–19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors. PMID:27176826

  2. Effects of Adolescent Childbearing on Maternal Depression and Problem Behaviors: A Prospective, Population-Based Study Using Risk-Set Propensity Scores.

    PubMed

    Hipwell, Alison E; Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate E

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12-19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors. PMID:27176826

  3. LDRD final report for improving human effectiveness for extreme-scale problem solving : assessing the effectiveness of electronic brainstorming in an industrial setting.

    SciTech Connect

    Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Davidson, George S.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2008-09-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming in order to address difficult, real world challenges. While industrial reliance on electronic communications has become ubiquitous, empirical and theoretical understanding of the bounds of its effectiveness have been limited. Previous research using short-term, laboratory experiments have engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The present experiment extends current findings beyond the laboratory to larger groups of real-world employees addressing organization-relevant challenges over the course of four days. Employees and contractors at a national security laboratory participated, either in a group setting or individually, in an electronic brainstorm to pose solutions to a 'wickedly' difficult problem. The data demonstrate that (for this design) individuals perform at least as well as groups in producing quantity of electronic ideas, regardless of brainstorming duration. However, when judged with respect to quality along three dimensions (originality, feasibility, and effectiveness), the individuals significantly (p<0.05) out-performed the group working together. When idea quality is used as the benchmark of success, these data indicate that work-relevant challenges are better solved by aggregating electronic individual responses, rather than electronically convening a group. This research suggests that industrial reliance upon electronic problem solving groups should be tempered, and large nominal groups might be the more appropriate vehicle for solving wicked corporate issues.

  4. Using the World Health Organization's 4S-Framework to Strengthen National Strategies, Policies and Services to Address Mental Health Problems in Adolescents in Resource-Constrained Settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for personal, peer and family

  5. Rarity-Weighted Richness: A Simple and Reliable Alternative to Integer Programming and Heuristic Algorithms for Minimum Set and Maximum Coverage Problems in Conservation Planning

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Fabio; Beier, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that prioritizing sites in order of rarity-weighted richness (RWR) is a simple, reliable way to identify sites that represent all species in the fewest number of sites (minimum set problem) or to identify sites that represent the largest number of species within a given number of sites (maximum coverage problem). We compared the number of species represented in sites prioritized by RWR to numbers of species represented in sites prioritized by the Zonation software package for 11 datasets in which the size of individual planning units (sites) ranged from <1 ha to 2,500 km2. On average, RWR solutions were more efficient than Zonation solutions. Integer programming remains the only guaranteed way find an optimal solution, and heuristic algorithms remain superior for conservation prioritizations that consider compactness and multiple near-optimal solutions in addition to species representation. But because RWR can be implemented easily and quickly in R or a spreadsheet, it is an attractive alternative to integer programming or heuristic algorithms in some conservation prioritization contexts. PMID:25780930

  6. Improving human effectiveness for extreme-scale problem solving : final report (assessing the effectiveness of electronic brainstorming in an industrial setting).

    SciTech Connect

    Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Bauer, Travis L.; Davidson, George S.; Forsythe, James Chris; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2007-09-01

    An experiment was conducted comparing the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming in order to address difficult, real world challenges. While industrial reliance on electronic communications has become ubiquitous, empirical and theoretical understanding of the bounds of its effectiveness have been limited. Previous research using short-term, laboratory experiments have engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The current experiment extends current findings beyond the laboratory to larger groups of real-world employees addressing organization-relevant challenges over the course of four days. Findings are twofold. First, the data demonstrate that (for this design) individuals perform at least as well as groups in producing quantity of electronic ideas, regardless of brainstorming duration. However, when judged with respect to quality along three dimensions (originality, feasibility, and effectiveness), the individuals significantly (p<0.05) out performed the group working together. The theoretical and applied (e.g., cost effectiveness) implications of this finding are discussed. Second, the current experiment yielded several viable solutions to the wickedly difficult problem that was posed.

  7. Densely-packed ZnTPPs Monolayer on the Rutile TiO2(110)-(1×1) Surface: Adsorption Behavior and Energy Level Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Rangan, Sylvie; Ruggieri, Charles; Bartynski, Robert; Martínez, José Ignacio; Flores, Fernando; Ortega, José

    2016-01-01

    The adsorption of a densely packed Zinc(II) tetraphenylporphyrin monolayer on a rutile TiO2(110)-(1×1) surface has been studied using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods, aimed at analyzing the relation between adsorption behavior and barrier height formation. The adsorption configuration of ZnTPP was determined from scanning tunnel microscopy (STM) imaging, density functional theory (DFT) calculations and STM image simulation. The corresponding energy alignment was experimentally determined from X-ray and UV-photoemission spectroscopies and inverse photoemission spectroscopy. These results were found in good agreement with an appropriately corrected DFT model, pointing to the importance of local bonding and intermolecular interactions in the establishment of barrier heights. PMID:26998188

  8. SETS. Set Equation Transformation System

    SciTech Connect

    Worrel, R.B.

    1992-01-13

    SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations, particularly the reduction of equations by the application of Boolean identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze noncoherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protection requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system.

  9. Setting the Tone: A Discursive Case Study of Problem-Based Inquiry Learning to Start a Graduate Statistics Course for In-Service Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser, Lawrence M.; Kephart, Kerrie

    2011-01-01

    The first day of a course has great potential to set the tone for the entire course, planting the seeds for habits of mind and questioning and setting in motion expectations for classroom discourse. Rather than let the first meeting contain little besides going over the syllabus, the instructor (Lesser) decided to use two sustained open-ended…

  10. Mathematics Word Problem Solving: An Investigation into Schema-Based Instruction in a Computer-Mediated Setting and a Teacher-Mediated Setting with Mathematically Low-Performing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leh, Jayne

    2011-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that teacher-delivered schema-based instruction (SBI) facilitates significant increases in mathematics word problem solving (WPS) skills for diverse students; however research is unclear whether technology affordances facilitate superior gains in computer-mediated (CM) instruction in mathematics WPS when compared to…

  11. Local density of states analysis using Bader decomposition for N2 and CO2 adsorbed on Pt(110)-(1 × 2) electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsdóttir, Sigrídur; Tang, Wenjie; Henkelman, Graeme; Jónsson, Hannes; Skúlason, Egill

    2012-10-01

    Local density of states and electric charge in regions defined for individual atoms and molecules using grid based Bader analysis is presented for N2 and CO2 adsorbed on a platinum electrode in the presence of an applied electric field. When the density of states is projected onto Bader regions, the partial density of states for the various subregions correctly sums up to the total density of states for the whole system, unlike the commonly used projection onto spheres which results in missing contributions from some regions while others are over counted, depending on the radius chosen. The electrode is represented by a slab with a missing row reconstructed Pt(110)-(1 × 2) surface to model an edge between micro-facets on the surface of a nano-particle catalyst. For both N2 and CO2, a certain electric field window leads to adsorption. The binding of N2 to the electrode is mainly due to polarization of the molecule but for CO2 hybridization occurs between the molecular states and the states of the Pt electrode.

  12. Local density of states analysis using Bader decomposition for N2 and CO2 adsorbed on Pt(110)-(1 × 2) electrodes.

    PubMed

    Gudmundsdóttir, Sigrídur; Tang, Wenjie; Henkelman, Graeme; Jónsson, Hannes; Skúlason, Egill

    2012-10-28

    Local density of states and electric charge in regions defined for individual atoms and molecules using grid based Bader analysis is presented for N(2) and CO(2) adsorbed on a platinum electrode in the presence of an applied electric field. When the density of states is projected onto Bader regions, the partial density of states for the various subregions correctly sums up to the total density of states for the whole system, unlike the commonly used projection onto spheres which results in missing contributions from some regions while others are over counted, depending on the radius chosen. The electrode is represented by a slab with a missing row reconstructed Pt(110)-(1 × 2) surface to model an edge between micro-facets on the surface of a nano-particle catalyst. For both N(2) and CO(2), a certain electric field window leads to adsorption. The binding of N(2) to the electrode is mainly due to polarization of the molecule but for CO(2) hybridization occurs between the molecular states and the states of the Pt electrode. PMID:23126735

  13. Low-Temperature Desorption of N2O from NO on Rutile TiO2(110)-1x1

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Boseong; Li, Zhenjun; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kim, Yu Kwon

    2014-05-08

    We find that NO dosed on rutile TiO2(110)-1×1 at substrate temperatures as low as 50 K readily reacts to produce N2O which desorbs promptly from the surface leaving an oxygen adatom behind. The desorption rate of N2O reaches a maximum value after 1 – 2 sec at an NO flux of 1.2 ×1014 NO/cm2∙sec and then decreases rapidly as the initially clean, reduced TiO2(110) surface with ~5% oxygen vacancies (VO’s) becomes covered with oxygen adatoms and unreacted NO. The maximum desorption rate is also found to increase as the substrate temperature is raised up to about 100 K. Interestingly, the N2O desorption during the low-temperature (LT) NO dose is strongly suppressed when molecular oxygen is predosed, whereas it persists on the surface with VO’s passivated by surface hydroxyls. Our results show that the surface charge, not the VO sites, plays a dominant role in the LT N2O desorption induced by a facile NO reduction at such low temperatures.

  14. Structure determination of the rutile-TiO2(110)-(1 × 2) surface using total-reflection high-energy positron diffraction (TRHEPD).

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, I; Ariga, H; Fukaya, Y; Wada, K; Maekawa, M; Kawasuso, A; Shidara, T; Asakura, K; Hyodo, T

    2016-03-14

    The exact structure of the rutile-TiO2(110)-(1 × 2) surface, which had been under debate over the past 30 years, was investigated using the newly developed technique of total-reflection high-energy positron diffraction (TRHEPD), which is a positron counterpart of reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The rocking-curves for the 00-spot obtained from the experimental diffraction patterns were compared to the curves for various models calculated with a full-dynamical theory. It was found that the rocking-curves matched those for a surface consisting of a Ti2O3 configuration, originally suggested by Onishi and Iwasawa [H. Onishi and Y. Iwasawa, Surf. Sci., 1994, 313, L783], but with a further modification of atomic positions close to the ones proposed by Wang et al. [Q. Wang, A. R. Oganov, Q. Zhu and X. F. Zhou, Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 266101]. This result demonstrates that TRHEPD can distinguish between the existence and absence of the oxygen atoms on the topmost surface, and between the Ti atoms residing in positions at the interstitial-vertical sites and those at interstitial-horizontal sites. PMID:26884096

  15. Anisotropic surface phonon dispersion of the hydrogen-terminated Si(110)-(1×1) surface: One-dimensional phonons propagating along the glide planes

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, Stephane Yu; Matsui, Kazuki; Kato, Hiroki; Suto, Shozo; Yamada, Taro

    2014-03-14

    We have measured the surface phonon dispersion curves on the hydrogen-terminated Si(110)-(1×1) surface with the two-dimensional space group of p2mg along the two highly symmetric and rectangular directions of ΓX{sup ¯} and ΓX{sup ′¯} using high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy. All the essential energy-loss peaks on H:Si(110) were assigned to the vibrational phonon modes by using the selection rules of inelastic electron scattering including the glide-plane symmetry. Actually, the surface phonon modes of even-symmetry to the glide plane (along ΓX{sup ¯}) were observed in the first Brillouin zone, and those of odd-symmetry to the glide plane were in the second Brillouin zone. The detailed assignment was made by referring to theoretical phonon dispersion curves of Gräschus et al. [Phys. Rev. B 56, 6482 (1997)]. We found that the H–Si stretching and bending modes, which exhibit highly anisotropic dispersion, propagate along ΓX{sup ¯} direction as a one-dimensional phonon. Judging from the surface structure as well as our classical and quantum mechanical estimations, the H–Si stretching phonon propagates by a direct repulsive interaction between the nearest neighbor H atoms facing each other along ΓX{sup ¯}, whereas the H–Si bending phonon propagates by indirect interaction through the substrate Si atomic linkage.

  16. Set covering, partition and packing

    SciTech Connect

    Hulme, B.L.; Baca, L.S.

    1984-03-01

    Set covering problems are known to be solvable by Boolean algebraic methods. This report shows that set partition and set packing problems can be solved by the same algebraic methods because these problems can be converted into covering problems. Many applications are possible including security patrol assignment which is used as an example.

  17. The effect of oxygen vacancies on the binding interactions of NH3 with rutile TiO2(110) -1×1

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Boseong; Li, Zhenjun; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kim, Yu Kwon

    2012-11-21

    A series of NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) spectra was taken after the NH3 dose at 70 K on rutile TiO2(110)-1×1 surfaces with the oxygen vacancy (VO) concentrations of ~0% (p-TiO2) and 5% (r-TiO2), respectively, to study the effect of VO’s on the desorption energy of NH3 as a function of the coverage, θ. Our results show that at zero coverage limit, the desorption energy of NH3 on r-TiO2 is 115 kJ/mol, which is 10 kJ/mol less than that on p-TiO2. The desorption energy from the Ti4+ sites decreases with increasing θ due to the repulsive NH3 - NH3 interactions and approaches ~ 55 kJ/mol upon the saturation of Ti4+ sites (θ = 1 monolayer, ML) on both p- and r-TiO2. The absolute saturation coverage is determined to be about 10% smaller on r-TiO2 than that on p-TiO2. Further, the trailing edges of the NH3 TPD spectra on the hydroxylated TiO2(110) (h-TiO2) appear to be the same as that on r-TiO2 while those on oxidized TiO2(110) (o-TiO2) shift to higher temperatures. We present the detailed analysis of the results and reconcile the observed differences based on the repulsive adsorbate-adsorbate interactions between neighboring NH3 molecules and the surface charge associated with the presence of VO’s. Besides NH3, no other reaction products are observed in the TPD spectra.

  18. On the Need for a Specialist Service within the Generic Hospital Setting for the Adult Patient with Intellectual Disability and Physical Health Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Beange, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Although the presence of intellectual disability (ID) per se is not usually regarded as a health problem, the biopsychosocial implications of cognitive impairment contribute to the vulnerability of adult patients with ID in any healthcare system. The adult patient with ID differs from a patient in the general population in terms of health…

  19. The Severely Impaired Do Profit Most: Differential Effectiveness of a Parent Management Training for Children with Externalizing Behavior Problems in a Natural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hautmann, Christopher; Stein, Petra; Eichelberger, Ilka; Hanisch, Charlotte; Pluck, Julia; Walter, Daniel; Dopfner, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the differential effectiveness of a parent management training program for children with externalizing problem behavior. The parent management training was tested using a within-subject control group design. 270 families with children aged 3-10 years were included and assessments were made at 3 months before treatment, immediately…

  20. State of the Science in the Assessment and Management of Severe Behavior Problems in School Settings: Behavior Analytic Consultation to Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael M.; Nkosi, Ajamu

    2007-01-01

    In school settings, behavior analysts are often called in to consult on severe behavioral issues that surpass the knowledge, experience, and training of local school personnel. Severe behavior such as aggression to staff, SIB, and property destruction are common severe behavior referrals. The benefits of functional assessments, functional…

  1. UpSet: Visualization of Intersecting Sets

    PubMed Central

    Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Strobelt, Hendrik; Vuillemot, Romain; Pfister, Hanspeter

    2016-01-01

    Understanding relationships between sets is an important analysis task that has received widespread attention in the visualization community. The major challenge in this context is the combinatorial explosion of the number of set intersections if the number of sets exceeds a trivial threshold. In this paper we introduce UpSet, a novel visualization technique for the quantitative analysis of sets, their intersections, and aggregates of intersections. UpSet is focused on creating task-driven aggregates, communicating the size and properties of aggregates and intersections, and a duality between the visualization of the elements in a dataset and their set membership. UpSet visualizes set intersections in a matrix layout and introduces aggregates based on groupings and queries. The matrix layout enables the effective representation of associated data, such as the number of elements in the aggregates and intersections, as well as additional summary statistics derived from subset or element attributes. Sorting according to various measures enables a task-driven analysis of relevant intersections and aggregates. The elements represented in the sets and their associated attributes are visualized in a separate view. Queries based on containment in specific intersections, aggregates or driven by attribute filters are propagated between both views. We also introduce several advanced visual encodings and interaction methods to overcome the problems of varying scales and to address scalability. UpSet is web-based and open source. We demonstrate its general utility in multiple use cases from various domains. PMID:26356912

  2. Special Problems in the Library Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Daniel P.

    1997-01-01

    Discussion of violence in the workplace focuses on libraries. Highlights include types of violence in libraries; recognizing warning signs of employee violence; preventive action; and strategies for a safer library, including appropriate security systems and other devices. (LRW)

  3. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  4. Setting Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Aaron J.

    1977-01-01

    The author questions the extent to which educators have relied on "relevance" and learner participation in objective-setting in the past decade. He describes a useful approach to learner-oriented evaluation in which content relevance was not judged by participants until after they had been exposed to it. (MF)

  5. Re-Setting Music Education's "Default Settings"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the effects and problems of one highly influential default setting of the "normal style template" of music education and proposes some alternatives. These do not require abandoning all traditional templates for school music. But re-setting the default settings does depend on reconsidering the promised function of…

  6. Quantum mechanics over sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerman, David

    2014-03-01

    In models of QM over finite fields (e.g., Schumacher's ``modal quantum theory'' MQT), one finite field stands out, Z2, since Z2 vectors represent sets. QM (finite-dimensional) mathematics can be transported to sets resulting in quantum mechanics over sets or QM/sets. This gives a full probability calculus (unlike MQT with only zero-one modalities) that leads to a fulsome theory of QM/sets including ``logical'' models of the double-slit experiment, Bell's Theorem, QIT, and QC. In QC over Z2 (where gates are non-singular matrices as in MQT), a simple quantum algorithm (one gate plus one function evaluation) solves the Parity SAT problem (finding the parity of the sum of all values of an n-ary Boolean function). Classically, the Parity SAT problem requires 2n function evaluations in contrast to the one function evaluation required in the quantum algorithm. This is quantum speedup but with all the calculations over Z2 just like classical computing. This shows definitively that the source of quantum speedup is not in the greater power of computing over the complex numbers, and confirms the idea that the source is in superposition.

  7. 33 CFR 110.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD...

  8. 33 CFR 110.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD...

  9. 33 CFR 110.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD...

  10. 33 CFR 110.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD...

  11. 33 CFR 110.1 - General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD...

  12. 40 CFR 110.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; Administrator means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Applicable water quality standards means State water quality standards adopted by the State pursuant to section 303 of the Act or... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL §...

  13. 40 CFR 110.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; Administrator means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Applicable water quality standards means State water quality standards adopted by the State pursuant to section 303 of the Act or... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL §...

  14. 40 CFR 110.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; Administrator means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Applicable water quality standards means State water quality standards adopted by the State pursuant to section 303 of the Act or... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL §...

  15. 40 CFR 110.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; Administrator means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Applicable water quality standards means State water quality standards adopted by the State pursuant to section 303 of the Act or... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL §...

  16. 40 CFR 110.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; Administrator means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Applicable water quality standards means State water quality standards adopted by the State pursuant to section 303 of the Act or... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL §...

  17. Probabilistic Open Set Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Lalit Prithviraj

    Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary

  18. Set Equation Transformation System.

    2002-03-22

    Version 00 SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations, particularly the reduction of equations by the application of Boolean identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze noncoherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protectionmore » requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system. Two auxiliary programs, SEP and FTD, are included. SEP performs the quantitative analysis of reduced Boolean equations (minimal cut sets) produced by SETS. The user can manipulate and evaluate the equations to find the probability of occurrence of any desired event and to produce an importance ranking of the terms and events in an equation. FTD is a fault tree drawing program which uses the proprietary ISSCO DISSPLA graphics software to produce an annotated drawing of a fault tree processed by SETS. The DISSPLA routines are not included.« less

  19. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  20. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as if ... related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ear. ...

  1. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  2. Use of Practice Sets in Accounting Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Charles

    1976-01-01

    A study of three methods for using practice sets concluded that no one method is best for teaching bookkeeping, and that the selected problem approach is superior to the practice set approach for teaching bookkeeping theory. (AG)

  3. Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah E.; Donham, Richard S.; Bernhardt, Stephen A.

    2011-01-01

    In problem-based learning (PBL), students working in collaborative groups learn by resolving complex, realistic problems under the guidance of faculty. There is some evidence of PBL effectiveness in medical school settings where it began, and there are numerous accounts of PBL implementation in various undergraduate contexts, replete with…

  4. Strengthening Programs through Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Describes a secondary agricultural education program that was a dumping ground for academically disadvantaged students. Discusses how such a program can be improved by identifying problems and symptoms, treating problems, and goal setting. (JOW)

  5. Childbirth Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... labor starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy Problems with the umbilical cord Problems with the position of the baby, such as ... feet first Birth injuries For some of these problems, the baby may need to be delivered surgically ...

  6. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...

  7. An adaptive level set method

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    This thesis describes a new method for the numerical solution of partial differential equations of the parabolic type on an adaptively refined mesh in two or more spatial dimensions. The method is motivated and developed in the context of the level set formulation for the curvature dependent propagation of surfaces in three dimensions. In that setting, it realizes the multiple advantages of decreased computational effort, localized accuracy enhancement, and compatibility with problems containing a range of length scales.

  8. Going beyond the hero in leadership development: the place of healthcare context, complexity and relationships: Comment on "Leadership and leadership development in healthcare settings - a simplistic solution to complex problems?".

    PubMed

    Ford, Jackie

    2015-04-01

    There remains a conviction that the torrent of publications and the financial outlay on leadership development will create managers with the skills and characters of perfect leaders, capable of guiding healthcare organisations through the challenges and crises of the 21st century. The focus of much attention continues to be the search for the (illusory) core set of heroic qualities, abilities or competencies that will enable the development of leaders to achieve levels of supreme leadership and organisational performance. This brief commentary adds support to McDonald's (1) call for recognition of the complexity of the undertaking. PMID:25844391

  9. Quantum oblivious set-member decision protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Zhang, Shun

    2015-08-01

    We present and define a privacy-preserving problem called the oblivious set-member decision problem, which allows a server to decide whether a private secret of a user is a member of his private set in an oblivious manner. Namely, if the secret belongs to his private set, he does not know which member it is. We propose a quantum solution to the oblivious set-member decision problem. Compared to classical solutions, the proposed quantum protocol achieves an exponential reduction in communication complexity, since it only needs O (1 ) communication cost.

  10. Finding the maximal membership in a fuzzy set of an element from another fuzzy set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, Ronald R.

    2010-11-01

    The problem of finding the maximal membership grade in a fuzzy set of an element from another fuzzy set is an important class of optimisation problems manifested in the real world by situations in which we try to find what is the optimal financial satisfaction we can get from a socially responsible investment. Here, we provide a solution to this problem. We then look at the proposed solution for fuzzy sets with various types of membership grades, ordinal, interval value and intuitionistic.

  11. Behavior Management in Afterschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Although behavioral management is one of the most challenging aspects of working in an afterschool setting, staff do not typically receive formal training in evidence-based approaches to handling children's behavior problems. Common approaches to behavioral management such as punishment or time-out are temporary solutions because they do not…

  12. A new MCNP{trademark} test set

    SciTech Connect

    Brockhoff, R.C.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1994-09-01

    The MCNP test set is used to test the MCNP code after installation on various computer platforms. For MCNP4 and MCNP4A this test set included 25 test problems designed to test as many features of the MCNP code as possible. A new and better test set has been devised to increase coverage of the code from 85% to 97% with 28 problems. The new test set is as fast as and shorter than the MCNP4A test set. The authors describe the methodology for devising the new test set, the features that were not covered in the MCNP4A test set, and the changes in the MCNP4A test set that have been made for MCNP4B and its developmental versions. Finally, new bugs uncovered by the new test set and a compilation of all known MCNP4A bugs are presented.

  13. Walking Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... daily activities, get around, and exercise. Having a problem with walking can make daily life more difficult. ... walk is called your gait. A variety of problems can cause an abnormal gait and lead to ...

  14. Breathing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... re not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard exercise. ... emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part ...

  15. Erection problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... cord injury In some cases, your emotions or relationship problems can lead to ED, such as: Poor ... you stressed, depressed, or anxious? Are you having relationship problems? You may have a number of different ...

  16. Joint Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... ankles and toes. Other types of arthritis include gout or pseudogout. Sometimes, there is a mechanical problem ... for more information on osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout. How Common are Joint Problems? Osteoarthritis, which affects ...

  17. Problem of hidden variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Emilio

    1992-10-01

    The problem of hidden variables in quantum mechanics is formalized as follows. A general or contextual (noncontextual) hidden-variables theory is defined as a mapping f: Q×M → C (f: Q→C) where Q is the set of projection operators in the appropriate (quantum) Hilbert space, M is the set of maximal Boolean subalgebras of Q and C is a (classical) Boolean algebra. It is shown that contextual (noncontextual) hidden-variables always exist (do not exist).

  18. On limit and limit setting.

    PubMed

    Gorney, J E

    1994-01-01

    This article investigates the role of limit and limit setting within the psychoanalytic situation. Limit is understood to be a boundary between self and others, established as an interactional dimension of experience. Disorders of limit are here understood within the context of Winnicott's conception of the "anti-social tendency." Limit setting is proposed as a necessary and authentic response to the patient's acting out via holding and empathic responsiveness, viewed here as a form of boundary delineation. It is proposed that the patient attempts to repair his or her boundary problem through a seeking of secure limits within the analyst. The setting of secure and appropriate limits must arise from a working through of the analyst's own countertransference response to the patient. It is critical that this response be evoked by, and arise from, the immediate therapeutic interaction so that the patient can experience limit setting as simultaneously personal and authentic. PMID:7972580

  19. Statistical mechanics of maximal independent sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Asta, Luca; Pin, Paolo; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl

    2009-12-01

    The graph theoretic concept of maximal independent set arises in several practical problems in computer science as well as in game theory. A maximal independent set is defined by the set of occupied nodes that satisfy some packing and covering constraints. It is known that finding minimum and maximum-density maximal independent sets are hard optimization problems. In this paper, we use cavity method of statistical physics and Monte Carlo simulations to study the corresponding constraint satisfaction problem on random graphs. We obtain the entropy of maximal independent sets within the replica symmetric and one-step replica symmetry breaking frameworks, shedding light on the metric structure of the landscape of solutions and suggesting a class of possible algorithms. This is of particular relevance for the application to the study of strategic interactions in social and economic networks, where maximal independent sets correspond to pure Nash equilibria of a graphical game of public goods allocation.

  20. Astronauts' menu problem.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesso, W. G.; Kenyon, E.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of the problems involved in choosing appropriate menus for astronauts carrying out SKYLAB missions lasting up to eight weeks. The problem of planning balanced menus on the basis of prepackaged food items within limitations on the intake of calories, protein, and certain elements is noted, as well as a number of other restrictions of both physical and arbitrary nature. The tailoring of a set of menus for each astronaut on the basis of subjective rankings of each food by the astronaut in terms of a 'measure of pleasure' is described, and a computer solution to this problem by means of a mixed integer programming code is presented.

  1. Balance Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...

  2. Parking Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Colin

    2012-01-01

    This is the story of a real problem, not a problem that is contrived, or invented for the convenience of the appropriate planning tool. This activity by a group of students, defined simply as "8FN", might be likened to an "end of term concert". If you just happened to be a delegate at the ATM Conference 2003 you might remember the analogy. Social…

  3. Solving Common Mathematical Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luz, Paul L.

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.

  4. SETS reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, R.B.

    1985-05-01

    The Set Equation Transformation System (SETS) is used to achieve the symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations. Symbolic manipulation involves changing equations from their original forms into more useful forms - particularly by applying Boolean identities. The SETS program is an interpreter which reads, interprets, and executes SETS user programs. The user writes a SETS user program specifying the processing to be achieved and submits it, along with the required data, for execution by SETS. Because of the general nature of SETS, i.e., the capability to manipulate Boolean equations regardless of their origin, the program has been used for many different kinds of analysis.

  5. Boolean computation of optimum hitting sets

    SciTech Connect

    Hulme, B.L.; Baca, L.S.; Shiver, A.W.; Worrell, R.B.

    1984-04-01

    This report presents the results of computational experience in solving weighted hitting set problems by Boolean algebraic methods. The feasible solutions are obtained by Boolean formula manipulations, and the optimum solutions are obtained by comparing the weight sums of the feasible solutions. Both the algebra and the optimization can be accomplished using the SETS language. One application is to physical protection problems. 8 references, 2 tables.

  6. Sets that Contain Their Circle Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Say that a subset S of the plane is a "circle-center set" if S is not a subset of a line, and whenever we choose three non-collinear points from S, the center of the circle through those three points is also an element of S. A problem appearing on the Macalester College Problem of the Week website stated that a finite set of points in the plane,…

  7. Measure recognition problem.

    PubMed

    Dzamonja, Mirna

    2006-12-15

    This is a paper in mathematics, specifically in set theory. On the example of the measure recognition problem (MRP), the paper highlights the phenomenon of the utility of a multidisciplinary mathematical approach to a single mathematical problem, in particular, the value of a set-theoretic analysis. MRP asks if for a given Boolean algebra, B, and a property, Phi, of measures, one can recognize by purely combinatorial means if B supports a strictly positive measure with property Phi. The most famous instance of this problem is MRP (countable additivity), and in the first part of the paper, we survey the known results on this and some other problems. We show how these results naturally lead to asking about two other specific instances of the problem MRP, namely MRP (non-atomic) and MRP (separable). Then, we show how our recent work gives an easy solution to the former of these problems and some partial information about the latter. The long-term goal of this line of research is to obtain a structure theory of Boolean algebras that support a finitely additive strictly positive measure, along the lines of Maharam theorem, which gives such a structure theorem for measure algebras. PMID:17090453

  8. Urination Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... back or groin? Yes You may have a KIDNEY STONE or another serious problem. EMERGENCY See your doctor ... the bladder, called INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS, or from a KIDNEY STONE stuck in the bladder, or a chemical in ...

  9. Kidney Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... the production of red blood cells. What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  10. Hearing Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a family ... may damage the inner ear. This kind of hearing loss is called OCCUPATIONAL. Prevent occupational hearing loss by ...

  11. Sleep Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  12. Thyroid Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... treated differently. Common thyroid disorders and problems include: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a disorder in which your thyroid doesn’ ... normal after you get better. If you have hypothyroidism, however, the levels of T4 in your blood ...

  13. Nipple problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inverted nipple; Nipple problems Images Female breast Intraductal papilloma Mammary gland Abnormal discharge from the nipple Normal ... 8. Read More Breast cancer Endocrine glands Intraductal papilloma Update Date 11/16/2014 Updated by: Cynthia ...

  14. Vision problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... which nothing can be seen) Vision loss and blindness are the most severe vision problems. Causes Vision ... that look faded. The most common cause of blindness in people over age 60. Eye infection, inflammation, ...

  15. Swallowing problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... the home Dry mouth during cancer treatment Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus Jejunostomy feeding tube Mouth and neck radiation - discharge Multiple sclerosis - discharge Stroke - discharge Update Date 5/15/2014 ...

  16. Speech Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech Disorders Stuttering is a problem that interferes with fluent ... is a language disorder, while stuttering is a speech disorder. A person who stutters has trouble getting out ...

  17. The Truck Driver's Straw Problem and Cantor Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iga, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    A colleague was moving, and someone on the professional moving crew, upon hearing she was a mathematician, asked what happens when you repeatedly transfer water back and forth between two classes using a straw. The question is simple to solve if you alternate which glass you transfer from and to, but if more general patters are allowed, some…

  18. Determining the Significance of Item Order in Randomized Problem Sets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Heffernan, Neil T.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers who make tutoring systems would like to know which sequences of educational content lead to the most effective learning by their students. The majority of data collected in many ITS systems consist of answers to a group of questions of a given skill often presented in a random sequence. Following work that identifies which items…

  19. Educational Technology Research in Postsecondary Settings: Promise, Problems, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannafin, Michael; Orrill, Chandra; Kim, Hyeonjin; Kim, Minchi

    2005-01-01

    While educational technology applications in higher education have grown dramatically during the past 20 years, significant disagreements exist as to their effectiveness and impact. Advocates and critics tend to advance competing positions, but little evidence of technology's impact derived through disciplined inquiry has been presented in support…

  20. TERMINAL ILLNESS IN AN INDIAN SETTING: PROBLEMS OF COMMUNICATION

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, R.; Singh, R.P.N.

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY A study of 50 terminally ill cancer patients revealed that 52% were uninformed regarding their diagnosis and prognosis. In almost all cases the relatives had been adequately informed. No less than 82% of the terminally ill patients showed an awareness of the fatal prognosis. Most of the patients found the communication with the doctor and the relatives as unsatisfactory. Comparing this group with another group of non-terminal medically ill patients showed striking differences between the two groups. The findings are compared with those reported from the West and the implications of the above observations discussed. PMID:21927320

  1. On the Red-Blue Set Cover Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Robert D.; Doddi, Srinivas; Konjevod, Goran; Marathe, Madhav

    1999-07-28

    Both the increased complexity of integrated circuits, resulting in six or more levels of integration, and the increasing use of flip-chip packaging have driven the development of integrated circuit (IC) failure analysis tools that can be applied to the backside of the chip. Among these new approaches are focused ion beam (FIB) tools and processes for performing chip edits/repairs from the die backside. This paper describes the use of backside FIB for a failure analysis application rather than for chip repair. Specifically, we used FIB technology to prepare an IC for inspection of voided metal interconnects (''lines'') and vias. Conventional FIB milling was combined with a super-enhanced gas assisted milling process that uses XeF{sub 2} for rapid removal of large volumes of bulk silicon. This combined approach allowed removal of the TiW underlayer from a large number of Ml lines simultaneously, enabling rapid localization and plan view imaging of voids in lines and vias with backscattered electron (BSE) imaging in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Sequential cross sections of individual voided vias enabled us to develop a 3-d reconstruction of these voids. This information clarified how the voids were formed, helping us identify the IC process steps that needed to be changed.

  2. ITOUGH2 sample problems

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains a collection of ITOUGH2 sample problems. It complements the ITOUGH2 User`s Guide [Finsterle, 1997a], and the ITOUGH2 Command Reference [Finsterle, 1997b]. ITOUGH2 is a program for parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation analysis. It is based on the TOUGH2 simulator for non-isothermal multiphase flow in fractured and porous media [Preuss, 1987, 1991a]. The report ITOUGH2 User`s Guide [Finsterle, 1997a] describes the inverse modeling framework and provides the theoretical background. The report ITOUGH2 Command Reference [Finsterle, 1997b] contains the syntax of all ITOUGH2 commands. This report describes a variety of sample problems solved by ITOUGH2. Table 1.1 contains a short description of the seven sample problems discussed in this report. The TOUGH2 equation-of-state (EOS) module that needs to be linked to ITOUGH2 is also indicated. Each sample problem focuses on a few selected issues shown in Table 1.2. ITOUGH2 input features and the usage of program options are described. Furthermore, interpretations of selected inverse modeling results are given. Problem 1 is a multipart tutorial, describing basic ITOUGH2 input files for the main ITOUGH2 application modes; no interpretation of results is given. Problem 2 focuses on non-uniqueness, residual analysis, and correlation structure. Problem 3 illustrates a variety of parameter and observation types, and describes parameter selection strategies. Problem 4 compares the performance of minimization algorithms and discusses model identification. Problem 5 explains how to set up a combined inversion of steady-state and transient data. Problem 6 provides a detailed residual and error analysis. Finally, Problem 7 illustrates how the estimation of model-related parameters may help compensate for errors in that model.

  3. The Effect of Distributed Practice in Undergraduate Statistics Homework Sets: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissinger, Bryan R.

    2015-01-01

    Most homework sets in statistics courses are constructed so that students concentrate or "mass" their practice on a certain topic in one problem set. Distributed practice homework sets include review problems in each set so that practice on a topic is distributed across problem sets. There is a body of research that points to the…

  4. Computing Minimum Diameter Color-Spanning Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, Rudolf; Xu, Xiaoming

    We study the minimum diameter color-spanning set problem which has recently drawn some attention in the database community. We show that the problem can be solved in polynomial time for L 1 and L ∞ metrics, while it is NP-hard for all other L p metrics even in two dimensions. However, we can efficiently compute a constant factor approximation.

  5. Subspace Identification with Multiple Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duchesne, Laurent; Feron, Eric; Paduano, James D.; Brenner, Marty

    1995-01-01

    Most existing subspace identification algorithms assume that a single input to output data set is available. Motivated by a real life problem on the F18-SRA experimental aircraft, we show how these algorithms are readily adapted to handle multiple data sets. We show by means of an example the relevance of such an improvement.

  6. Client Confidentiality in Police Social Work Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Patrick Almond; Lutkus, Anita M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of a survey that questioned police social workers regarding the protection of client confidentiality in police settings revealed several problems related to the unique character of the setting and to the identification of social workers with the goals and practices of police. Results raise questions about the protection of client…

  7. Simplifying Data. USMES Beginning "How To" Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agro, Sally; And Others

    In this set of three booklets on simplifying data, primary grade students learn how to round off data and to find the median and average from sets of data. The major emphasis in all Unified Sciences and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES) units is on open-ended, long-range investigations of real problems. In most instances students learn…

  8. Sets, Planets, and Comets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mark; Beltran, Jane; Buell, Jason; Conrey, Brian; Davis, Tom; Donaldson, Brianna; Detorre-Ozeki, Jeanne; Dibble, Leila; Freeman, Tom; Hammie, Robert; Montgomery, Julie; Pickford, Avery; Wong, Justine

    2013-01-01

    Sets in the game "Set" are lines in a certain four-dimensional space. Here we introduce planes into the game, leading to interesting mathematical questions, some of which we solve, and to a wonderful variation on the game "Set," in which every tableau of nine cards must contain at least one configuration for a player to pick up.

  9. Generalized emissivity inverse problem.

    PubMed

    Ming, DengMing; Wen, Tao; Dai, XianXi; Dai, JiXin; Evenson, William E

    2002-04-01

    Inverse problems have recently drawn considerable attention from the physics community due to of potential widespread applications [K. Chadan and P. C. Sabatier, Inverse Problems in Quantum Scattering Theory, 2nd ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1989)]. An inverse emissivity problem that determines the emissivity g(nu) from measurements of only the total radiated power J(T) has recently been studied [Tao Wen, DengMing Ming, Xianxi Dai, Jixin Dai, and William E. Evenson, Phys. Rev. E 63, 045601(R) (2001)]. In this paper, a new type of generalized emissivity and transmissivity inverse (GETI) problem is proposed. The present problem differs from our previous work on inverse problems by allowing the unknown (emissivity) function g(nu) to be temperature dependent as well as frequency dependent. Based on published experimental information, we have developed an exact solution formula for this GETI problem. A universal function set suggested for numerical calculation is shown to be robust, making this inversion method practical and convenient for realistic calculations. PMID:12005916

  10. Multidimensional set switching.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Sowon; Andersen, George J; Kramer, Arthur F

    2003-06-01

    The present study examined the organization of preparatory processes that underlie set switching and, more specifically, switch costs. On each trial, subjects performed one of two perceptual judgment tasks, color or shape discrimination. Subjects also responded with one of two different response sets. The task set and/or the response set switched from one to the other after 2-6 repeated trials. Response set, task set, and double set switches were performed in both blocked and randomized conditions. Subjects performed with short (100-msec) and long (800-msec) preparatory intervals. Task and response set switches had an additive effect on reaction times (RTs) in the blocked condition. Such a pattern of results suggests a serial organization of preparatory processes when the nature of switches is predictable. However, task and response set switches had an underadditive effect on RTs in the random condition when subjects performed with a brief cue-to-target interval. This pattern of results suggests overlapping task and response set preparation. These findings are discussed in terms of strategic control of preparatory processes in set switching. PMID:12921431

  11. The non-integer operation associated to random variation sets of the self-similar set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Fu-Yao; Liang, Jin-Rong

    2000-10-01

    When memory sets are random variation sets of the self-similar set and the total number of remaining states in each stage of the division of this set is normalized to unity, the corresponding flux and fractional integral are “robust” and stable under some conditions. This answers an open problem proposed by Alian Le Mehaute et al. in their book entitled Irreversibilitê Temporel et Geometrie Fractale.

  12. The Sedov Test Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Jimmy; Masser, Thomas; Morgan, Nathaniel R.

    2012-06-25

    The Sedov test is classically defined as a point blast problem. The Sedov problem has led us to advances in algorithms and in their understanding. Vorticity generation can be physical or numerical. Both play a role in Sedov calculations. The RAGE code (Eulerian) resolves the shock well, but produces vorticity. The source definition matters. For the FLAG code (Lagrange), CCH is superior to SGH by avoiding spurious vorticity generation. FLAG SGH currently has a number of options that improve results over traditional settings. Vorticity production, not shock capture, has driven the Sedov work. We are pursuing treatments with respect to the hydro discretization as well as to artificial viscosity.

  13. On-Orbit Range Set Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzinger, M.; Scheeres, D.

    2011-09-01

    History and methodology of ∆v range set computation is briefly reviewed, followed by a short summary of the ∆v optimal spacecraft servicing problem literature. Service vehicle placement is approached from a ∆v range set viewpoint, providing a framework under which the analysis becomes quite geometric and intuitive. The optimal servicing tour design problem is shown to be a specific instantiation of the metric- Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP), which in general is an NP-hard problem. The ∆v-TSP is argued to be quite similar to the Euclidean-TSP, for which approximate optimal solutions may be found in polynomial time. Applications of range sets are demonstrated using analytical and simulation results.

  14. Puzzles & Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Pat, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception, produced by Exploratorium in collaboration with other participating museums. This issue focuses on puzzles and problem solving. Brain teasers, puzzles, and the strategies for solving them are included. Features include: (1) "Homework Assignment #3" (Paul Doherty); (2) "The Case of…

  15. Heat Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Heat problems and heat cramps related to jogging can be caused by fluid imbalances, medications, dietary insufficiency, vomiting or diarrhea, among other factors. If the condition keeps reoccurring, the advice of a physician should be sought. Some preventive measures that can be taken include: (1) running during the cooler hours of the day; (2)…

  16. Acronical Risings and Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    A concept found in historical primary sources, and useful in contemporary historiography, is the acronical rising and setting of stars (or planets). Topocentric terms, they provide information about a star's relationship to the Sun and thus its visibility in the sky. Yet there remains ambiguity as to what these two phrases actually mean. "Acronical” is said to have come from the Greek akros ("point,” "summit,” or "extremity") and nux ("night"). While all sources agree that the word is originally Greek, there are alternate etymologies for it. A more serious difficulty with acronical rising and setting is that there are two competing definitions. One I call the Poetical Definition. Acronical rising (or setting) is one of the three Poetical Risings (or Settings) known to classicists. (The other two are cosmical rising/setting, discussed below, and the more familiar helical rising/setting.) The term "poetical" refers to these words use in classical poetry, e. g., that of Columella, Hesiod, Ovid, Pliny the Younger, and Virgil. The Poetical Definition of "acronical” usually is meant in this context. The Poetical Definition of "acronical” is as follows: When a star rises as the Sun sets, it rises acronically. When a star sets as the Sun sets, it sets acronically. In contrast with the Poetical Definition, there also is what I call the Astronomical Definition. The Astronomical Definition is somewhat more likely to appear in astronomical, mathematical, or navigational works. When the Astronomical Definition is recorded in dictionaries, it is often with the protasis "In astronomy, . . . ." The Astronomical Definition of "acronical” is as follows: When a star rises as the Sun sets, it rises acronically. When a star sets as the Sun rises, it sets acronically. I will attempt to sort this all out in my talk.

  17. Students' Problem Solving and Justification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…

  18. MCNP: Photon benchmark problems

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, D.J.; Hollowell, D.E.; Hendricks, J.S.

    1991-09-01

    The recent widespread, markedly increased use of radiation transport codes has produced greater user and institutional demand for assurance that such codes give correct results. Responding to these pressing requirements for code validation, the general purpose Monte Carlo transport code MCNP has been tested on six different photon problem families. MCNP was used to simulate these six sets numerically. Results for each were compared to the set's analytical or experimental data. MCNP successfully predicted the analytical or experimental results of all six families within the statistical uncertainty inherent in the Monte Carlo method. From this we conclude that MCNP can accurately model a broad spectrum of photon transport problems. 8 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Norovirus in Healthcare Settings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Fact Sheet on Noroviruses [PDF - 61 ...

  20. Effective Goal-Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Setting organizational or program objectives is seen as requiring three steps (brainstorming goals for the year, prioritizing them, and visualizing them as smaller, discrete tasks) and six principles (making goals group-specific, setting deadlines, being realistic and explicit, writing down goals, defining measurable steps, and creating…

  1. Goal Setting for Learning English Language of EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srichanyachon, Napaporn

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated goal setting for learning English language of Bangkok University students. A set of questionnaires for the assessment of goal settings and problems of learning English was administered to 370 second-year students. The study revealed that the goal setting was at a moderate level. There were statistically significant…

  2. Setting the Periodic Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  3. Level set method for microfabrication simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranski, Maciej; Kasztelanic, Rafal; Albero, Jorge; Nieradko, Lukasz; Gorecki, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    The article describes application of Level Set method for two different microfabrication processes. First is shape evolution of during reflow of the glass structure. Investigated problem were approximated by viscous flow of material thus kinetics of the process were known from physical model. Second problem is isotropic wet etching of silicon. Which is much more complicated because dynamics of the shape evolution is strongly coupled with time and geometry shapes history. In etching simulations Level Set method is coupled with Finite Element Method (FEM) that is used for calculation of etching acid concentration that determine geometry evolution of the structure. The problem arising from working with FEM with time varying boundaries was solved with the use of the dynamic mesh technique employing the Level Set formalism of higher dimensional function for geometry description. Isotropic etching was investigated in context of mico-lenses fabrication. Model was compared with experimental data obtained in etching of the silicon moulds used for micro-lenses fabrication.

  4. Colored Traveling Salesman Problem.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhou, MengChu; Sun, Qirui; Dai, Xianzhong; Yu, Xiaolong

    2015-11-01

    The multiple traveling salesman problem (MTSP) is an important combinatorial optimization problem. It has been widely and successfully applied to the practical cases in which multiple traveling individuals (salesmen) share the common workspace (city set). However, it cannot represent some application problems where multiple traveling individuals not only have their own exclusive tasks but also share a group of tasks with each other. This work proposes a new MTSP called colored traveling salesman problem (CTSP) for handling such cases. Two types of city groups are defined, i.e., each group of exclusive cities of a single color for a salesman to visit and a group of shared cities of multiple colors allowing all salesmen to visit. Evidences show that CTSP is NP-hard and a multidepot MTSP and multiple single traveling salesman problems are its special cases. We present a genetic algorithm (GA) with dual-chromosome coding for CTSP and analyze the corresponding solution space. Then, GA is improved by incorporating greedy, hill-climbing (HC), and simulated annealing (SA) operations to achieve better performance. By experiments, the limitation of the exact solution method is revealed and the performance of the presented GAs is compared. The results suggest that SAGA can achieve the best quality of solutions and HCGA should be the choice making good tradeoff between the solution quality and computing time. PMID:25494521

  5. Haplotyping Problem, A Clustering Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Eslahchi, Changiz; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Kargar, Mehdi; Poormohammadi, Hadi

    2007-09-06

    Construction of two haplotypes from a set of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) fragments is called haplotype reconstruction problem. One of the most popular computational model for this problem is Minimum Error Correction (MEC). Since MEC is an NP-hard problem, here we propose a novel heuristic algorithm based on clustering analysis in data mining for haplotype reconstruction problem. Based on hamming distance and similarity between two fragments, our iterative algorithm produces two clusters of fragments; then, in each iteration, the algorithm assigns a fragment to one of the clusters. Our results suggest that the algorithm has less reconstruction error rate in comparison with other algorithms.

  6. Settings for Suicide Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sexual Minority" Youth Finds Them at Risk of Violence September 02, 2016 The Weekly Spark Stay Connected! Subscribe Settings Schools, workplaces, hospitals, nursing homes—every place where people ...

  7. Artist Place Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Art history can be a little dry at times, but the author is always trying to incorporate new ways of teaching it. In this article, she describes a project in which students were to create a place setting out of clay that had to be unified through a famous artist's style. This place setting had to consist of at least five pieces (dinner plate, cup…

  8. Set theory and physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svozil, K.

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible “solution of supertasks,” and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvatages for physical applications are discussed: Canlorian “naive” (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author's opinion, an attitude of “suspended attention” (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to “bizarre” or “mindboggling” new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the lime of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  9. Set theory and physics

    SciTech Connect

    Svozil, K.

    1995-11-01

    Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.

  10. Tensile set behavior of Foley catheter balloons.

    PubMed

    Joseph, R; Ramesh, P; Sivakumar, R

    1999-01-01

    The removal of indwelling urinary balloon catheters from patients is usually associated with many problems. The problems such as balloon deflation failure; encrustations on balloons, eyes, and lumen; and catheter associated infections are widely discussed in the literature. The tensile set exhibited by the catheter balloon material could also play a role and further complicate the removal process. This article addresses this issue by comparing the tensile set behavior of the balloon material from three commercially available Foley catheters. The balloon materials were subjected to aging in synthetic urine at 37 degrees C for 28 days to simulate clinical conditions. The deflation time of catheter balloons aged in similar conditions were also measured. It was found that different brands of catheters exhibited statistically significant differences in their properties. The tensile set data of the aged samples could be correlated with the deflation time of the balloons. The clinical significance of the tensile set is also highlighted. PMID:10029146

  11. Evidence Based Order Sets as a Nursing Care Planning System

    PubMed Central

    LaCrosse, Lisa M.; Heermann, Judith; Azevedo, Karen; Sorrentino, Catherine; Straub, Dawn; O'Dowd, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    The process for developing the nursing care planning (NCP) function for integration into a clinical information system (CIS) will be described. This NCP system uses evidence based order sets or interventions that are specific to a problem with associated patient focused goals or outcomes. The problem, order set, goal framework will eventually be used by all disciplines in the patient focused record.

  12. Instruction set commutivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, P.

    1992-01-01

    We present a state property called congruence and show how it can be used to demonstrate commutivity of instructions in a modern load-store architecture. Our analysis is particularly important in pipelined microprocessors where instructions are frequently reordered to avoid costly delays in execution caused by hazards. Our work has significant implications to safety and security critical applications since reordering can easily change the meaning and an instruction sequence and current techniques are largely ad hoc. Our work is done in a mechanical theorem prover and results in a set of trustworthy rules for instruction reordering. The mechanization makes it practical to analyze the entire instruction set.

  13. Complex intuitionistic fuzzy sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkouri, Abdulazeez (Moh'd. Jumah) S.; Salleh, Abdul Razak

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a new concept of complex intuitionistic fuzzy set (CIFS) which is generalized from the innovative concept of a complex fuzzy set (CFS) by adding the non-membership term to the definition of CFS. The novelty of CIFS lies in its ability for membership and non-membership functions to achieve more range of values. The ranges of values are extended to the unit circle in complex plane for both membership and non-membership functions instead of [0, 1] as in the conventional intuitionistic fuzzy functions. We define basic operations namely complement, union, and intersection on CIFSs. Properties of these operations are derived.

  14. FBST for Cointegration Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniz, M.; Pereira, C. A. B.; Stern, J. M.

    2008-11-01

    In order to estimate causal relations, the time series econometrics has to be aware of spurious correlation, a problem first mentioned by Yule [21]. To solve the problem, one can work with differenced series or use multivariate models like VAR or VEC models. In this case, the analysed series are going to present a long run relation i.e. a cointegration relation. Even though the Bayesian literature about inference on VAR/VEC models is quite advanced, Bauwens et al. [2] highlight that "the topic of selecting the cointegrating rank has not yet given very useful and convincing results." This paper presents the Full Bayesian Significance Test applied to cointegration rank selection tests in multivariate (VAR/VEC) time series models and shows how to implement it using available in the literature and simulated data sets. A standard non-informative prior is assumed.

  15. Problemes de Developpement et D'Adaptation Sociale. [Problems of Development and Social Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tardif, Genevieve; Coutu, Sylvain; Lavigueur, Susanne; Dubeau, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Reviews and summarizes the literature on developmental and behavior problems displayed by young children. Focuses on the definition and classification of problems found in family or child care settings, prevalence of problems as reported by epidemiological studies, and the relative stability of behavior problems from preschool to adolescence.…

  16. Dynamical impurity problems

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.

    1993-12-31

    In the past few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dynamical impurity problems, as a result of developments in the theory of correlated electron systems. The general dynamical impurity problem is a set of conduction electrons interacting with an impurity which has internal degrees of freedom. The simplest and earliest example, the Kondo problem, has attracted interest since the mid-sixties not only because of its physical importance but also as an example of a model displaying logarithmic divergences order by order in perturbation theory. It provided one of the earliest applications of the renormalization group method, which is designed to deal with just such a situation. As we shall see, the antiferromagnetic Kondo model is controlled by a strong-coupling fixed point, and the essence of the renormalization group solution is to carry out the global renormalization numerically starting from the original (weak-coupling) Hamiltonian. In these lectures, we shall describe an alternative route in which we identify an exactly solvable model which renormalizes to the same fixed point as the original dynamical impurity problem. This approach is akin to determining the critical behavior at a second order phase transition point by solving any model in a given universality class.

  17. Setting Objective Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Allan

    1997-01-01

    Examines the increase in popularity of objective testing in the United Kingdom and addresses some of the accompanying academic issues. Reports on a case study of test production and implementation to illustrate issues of time costs and benefits. Discusses question styles, marking schemes, and the problem of guesswork. (MJP)

  18. Set Straight on Bullies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbaum, Stuart; And Others

    Bullying, perhaps the most underrated problem in America's schools today, distracts minds and inhibits the learning process; if left unchecked, it can destroy lives and place society at risk. Bullying is defined as one or more individuals inflicting physical, verbal, or emotional abuse upon another individual or individuals. Subliminal abuses…

  19. Experimenting with Classroom Formats To Encourage Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Eileen; Kazimir, Jessica; Vandemeulebroeke, Lynn; Burgos, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Describes how modifying familiar classroom formats in a college geometry class helped encourage student problem solving. Demonstrates these modified formats in the context of problems students explored, which resemble the problem-solving settings of mathematicians. (KHR)

  20. Therapists in Oncology Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the author's experiences of working with cancer patients/survivors both individually and in support groups for many years, across several settings. It also documents current best-practice guidelines for the psychosocial treatment of cancer patients/survivors and their families. The author's view of the important qualities…

  1. Best of SET Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, Ian, Ed.; Izard, John, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Set: Research Information for Teachers, is published twice a year by the New Zealand Council for Educational Research and the Australian Council for Educational Research. This document draws together 16 articles on mathematics from previous issues grouped into three categories: general, primary, and secondary. The titles are: (1) "Contents and…

  2. The Crystal Set

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In past issues of this journal, the late H. R. Crane wrote a long series of articles under the running title of "How Things Work." In them, Dick dealt with many questions that physics teachers asked themselves, but did not have the time to answer. This article is my attempt to work through the physics of the crystal set, which I thought…

  3. Setting Environmental Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbein, Gershon

    1975-01-01

    Recent court decisions have pointed out the complexities involved in setting environmental standards. Environmental health is composed of multiple causative agents, most of which work over long periods of time. This makes the cause-and-effect relationship between health statistics and environmental contaminant exposures difficult to prove in…

  4. Setting and Achieving Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Provides basic guidelines which school officials and school boards may find helpful in negotiating, establishing, and managing objectives. Discusses characteristics of good objectives, specific and directional objectives, multiple objectives, participation in setting objectives, feedback on goal process and achievement, and managing a school…

  5. TRACKING ACCELERATOR SETTINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    D OTTAVIO,T.; FU, W.; OTTAVIO, D.P.

    2007-10-15

    Recording setting changes within an accelerator facility provides information that can be used to answer questions about when, why, and how changes were made to some accelerator system. This can be very useful during normal operations, but can also aid with security concerns and in detecting unusual software behavior. The Set History System (SHS) is a new client-server system developed at the Collider-Accelerator Department of Brookhaven National Laboratory to provide these capabilities. The SHS has been operational for over two years and currently stores about IOOK settings per day into a commercial database management system. The SHS system consists of a server written in Java, client tools written in both Java and C++, and a web interface for querying the database of setting changes. The design of the SHS focuses on performance, portability, and a minimal impact on database resources. In this paper, we present an overview of the system design along with benchmark results showing the performance and reliability of the SHS over the last year.

  6. Goal Setting and Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Katie; Reivich, Karen

    2011-01-01

    The science behind the mechanisms and mediators that lead to successful goal accomplishment has been a focus of research since the 1970s. When an individual desires to make a change or accomplish an outcome, research shows that he or she will be more successful if he or she attends to a number of variables that are key in goal setting.…

  7. Coaching in Community Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Saundra Murray

    1993-01-01

    Develops a framework for promoting effective coaching, in the sense of encouraging children's achievement, in community settings for children of different ages. Effective coaches perform the following tasks: (1) teach; (2) assess performance; (3) structure the learning environment; and (4) provide social support. (SLD)

  8. EXTREME -- Handling extreme data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Mark

    This package provides some utilities, background documentation, and associated files for adapting the Starlink Software Collection, and software which uses it, to handle very large data sets. The principal focus of this is to move to use of 64 bits of address space on 64-bit operating systems. This document (SSN/73) is squarely aimed at the problem of adapting the Starlink Software Collection, and consequently focuses on the three operating systems (Solaris, Linux and Tru64) supported by Starlink, the compiled languages Fortran 77 and ANSI C, and Starlink's somewhat idiosyncratic build mechanisms. However, some of the discussion here may be of interest or use to people who are considering the change from 32 to 64 bits for software in other contexts.

  9. Post's program and incomplete recursively enumerable sets.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, L; Soare, R I

    1991-01-01

    A set A of nonnegative integers is recursively enumerable (r.e.) if A can be computably listed. It is shown that there is a first-order property, Q(X), definable in E, the lattice of r.e. sets under inclusion, such that (i) if A is any r.e. set satisfying Q(A) then A is nonrecursive and Turing incomplete and (ii) there exists an r.e. set A satisfying Q(A). This resolves a long open question stemming from Post's program of 1944, and it sheds light on the fundamental problem of the relationship between the algebraic structure of an r.e. set A and the (Turing) degree of information that A encodes. PMID:11607241

  10. 26 CFR 1.110-1 - Qualified lessee construction allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provided by hair stylists, tailors, shoe repairmen, doctors, lawyers, accountants, insurance agents, stock... property owned by the lessor (for purposes of depreciation under 168(e)(2)(B) and determining gain or...

  11. 26 CFR 1.110-1 - Qualified lessee construction allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provided by hair stylists, tailors, shoe repairmen, doctors, lawyers, accountants, insurance agents, stock... property owned by the lessor (for purposes of depreciation under 168(e)(2)(B) and determining gain or...

  12. 41 CFR 109-40.110-1 - Small business assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small business... Small business assistance. Consistent with the policies of the Government with respect to small businesses, DOE shall place with small business concerns a fair proportion of the total purchases...

  13. 41 CFR 109-40.110-1 - Small business assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Small business assistance. Consistent with the policies of the Government with respect to small businesses, DOE shall place with small business concerns a fair proportion of the total purchases and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Small...

  14. 41 CFR 109-40.110-1 - Small business assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small business... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION... Small business assistance. Consistent with the policies of the Government with respect to...

  15. 41 CFR 109-40.110-1 - Small business assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small business... Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION... Small business assistance. Consistent with the policies of the Government with respect to...

  16. 10 CFR 110.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... authority of the Department of Commerce pursuant to 15 CFR part 730 et seq.; (4) Persons who import... depleted in the isotope-235 and incorporated in defense articles. These persons are subject to the... 1980. (2) Persons who export uranium depleted in the isotope-235 and incorporated in commodities...

  17. 10 CFR 110.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... authority of the Department of Commerce pursuant to 15 CFR part 730 et seq.; (4) Persons who import... depleted in the isotope-235 and incorporated in defense articles. These persons are subject to the... 1980. (2) Persons who export uranium depleted in the isotope-235 and incorporated in commodities...

  18. 10 CFR 110.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... authority of the Department of Commerce pursuant to 15 CFR part 730 et seq.; (4) Persons who import... depleted in the isotope-235 and incorporated in defense articles. These persons are subject to the... 1980. (2) Persons who export uranium depleted in the isotope-235 and incorporated in commodities...

  19. 10 CFR 110.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... authority of the Department of Commerce pursuant to 15 CFR part 730 et seq.; (4) Persons who import... depleted in the isotope-235 and incorporated in defense articles. These persons are subject to the... 1980. (2) Persons who export uranium depleted in the isotope-235 and incorporated in commodities...

  20. 10 CFR 110.1 - Purpose and scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... items, such as uranium depleted in the isotope-235 and incorporated in defense articles. These persons are subject to the controls of the Department of State pursuant to 22 CFR 120-130 “International... to the licensing authority of the Department of Commerce pursuant to 15 CFR part 799, such as...

  1. 26 CFR 1.110-1 - Qualified lessee construction allowances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provided by hair stylists, tailors, shoe repairmen, doctors, lawyers, accountants, insurance agents, stock... property owned by the lessor (for purposes of depreciation under 168(e)(2)(B) and determining gain or...

  2. Using Empirical Data to Set Cutoff Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, John R.

    Six experimental approaches to the problems of setting cutoff scores and choosing proper test length are briefly mentioned. Most of these methods share the premise that a test is a random sample of items, from a domain associated with a carefully specified objective. Each item is independent and is scored zero or one, with no provision for…

  3. Set Partitions and the Multiplication Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Elise; Caughman, John S., IV

    2016-01-01

    To further understand student thinking in the context of combinatorial enumeration, we examine student work on a problem involving set partitions. In this context, we note some key features of the multiplication principle that were often not attended to by students. We also share a productive way of thinking that emerged for several students who…

  4. Collecting Data. USMES Beginning "How To" Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agro, Sally; And Others

    In this set of four booklets on collecting data, primary grade students learn how to record data, do an experiment, make an opinion survey, and choose a sample. The major emphasis in all Unified Sciences and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES) units is on open-ended, long-range investigations of real problems. In most instances students…

  5. Homeopathic drug selection using Intuitionistic fuzzy sets.

    PubMed

    Kharal, Athar

    2009-01-01

    Using intuitionistic fuzzy set theory, Sanchez's approach to medical diagnosis has been applied to the problem of selection of single remedy from homeopathic repertorization. Two types of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations (IFRs) and three types of selection indices are discussed. I also propose a new repertory exploiting the benefits of soft-intelligence. PMID:19135957

  6. Problem-Based Methodology and Administrative Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Viviane M. J.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a conceptual analysis of administrative practice as problem solutions and outlines a postpositivist methodology (Problem-Based Methodology) that incorporates a theory of problem solving and a set of normative criteria for judging solution adequacy. Illustrates application of PBM to administrative theory in two (New Zealand) school-based…

  7. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, Christopher S; Golden, Bruce; Edward, Wasil

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  8. Boosting standard order sets utilization through clinical decision support.

    PubMed

    Li, Haomin; Zhang, Yinsheng; Cheng, Haixia; Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong

    2013-01-01

    Well-designed standard order sets have the potential to integrate and coordinate care by communicating best practices through multiple disciplines, levels of care, and services. However, there are several challenges which certainly affected the benefits expected from standard order sets. To boost standard order sets utilization, a problem-oriented knowledge delivery solution was proposed in this study to facilitate access of standard order sets and evaluation of its treatment effect. In this solution, standard order sets were created along with diagnostic rule sets which can trigger a CDS-based reminder to help clinician quickly discovery hidden clinical problems and corresponding standard order sets during ordering. Those rule set also provide indicators for targeted evaluation of standard order sets during treatment. A prototype system was developed based on this solution and will be presented at Medinfo 2013. PMID:23920727

  9. Worked Example Effects in Individual and Group Work Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retnowati, Endah; Ayres, Paul; Sweller, John

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the effects of worked example and problem-solving approaches in individual or group work settings on learning to solve geometry problems. One hundred and one seventh graders from Indonesia were randomly allocated to four experimental groups using a 2 (problem-solving vs. worked examples) x 2 (individual vs. group study) design.…

  10. Maximum independent set on diluted triangular lattices.

    PubMed

    Fay, C W; Liu, J W; Duxbury, P M

    2006-05-01

    Core percolation and maximum independent set on random graphs have recently been characterized using the methods of statistical physics. Here we present a statistical physics study of these problems on bond diluted triangular lattices. Core percolation critical behavior is found to be consistent with the standard percolation values, though there are strong finite size effects. A transfer matrix method is developed and applied to find accurate values of the density and degeneracy of the maximum independent set on lattices of limited width but large length. An extrapolation of these results to the infinite lattice limit yields high precision results, which are tabulated. These results are compared to results found using both vertex based and edge based local probability recursion algorithms, which have proven useful in the analysis of hard computational problems, such as the satisfiability problem. PMID:16803003

  11. The Crystal Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2014-04-01

    In past issues of this journal, the late H. R. Crane wrote a long series of articles under the running title of "How Things Work." In them, Dick dealt with many questions that physics teachers asked themselves, but did not have the time to answer. This article is my attempt to work through the physics of the crystal set, which I thought I knew, but actually did not.

  12. Distributed instruction set computer

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.

    1989-01-01

    The Distributed Instruction Set Computer, or DISC for short, is an experimental computer system for fine-grained parallel processing. DISC employs a new parallel instruction set, an Early Binding and Scheduling data tagging scheme, and a distributed control mechanism to explore a software dataflow control method in a multiple-functional unit system. With zero system control overhead, multiple instructions are executed in parallel and/or out of order at the highest speed of n instructions/cycle, where n is the number of functional units. The quantitative simulation result indicates that a DISC system with 16 functional units can deliverer a maximal 7.7X performance speedup over a single functional-unit system at the same clock speed. Exploring a new parallel instruction set and distributed control mechanism, DISC represents three major breakthroughs in the domain of fine-grained parallel processing: (1) Fast multiple instruction issuing mechanism; (2) Parallel and/or out-of-order execution; (3) Software dataflow control scheme.

  13. General aviation IFR operational problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolz, E. H.; Eisele, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Operational problems of general aviation IFR operators (particularly single pilot operators) were studied. Several statistical bases were assembled and utilized to identify the more serious problems and to demonstrate their magnitude. These bases include official activity projections, historical accident data and delay data, among others. The GA operating environment and cockpit environment were analyzed in detail. Solutions proposed for each of the problem areas identified are based on direct consideration of currently planned enhancements to the ATC system, and on a realistic assessment of the present and future limitations of general aviation avionics. A coordinated set of research program is suggested which would provide the developments necessary to implement the proposed solutions.

  14. m-Polar Fuzzy Sets: An Extension of Bipolar Fuzzy Sets

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Juanjuan; Li, Shenggang; Ma, Shengquan; Wang, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Recently, bipolar fuzzy sets have been studied and applied a bit enthusiastically and a bit increasingly. In this paper we prove that bipolar fuzzy sets and [0,1]2-sets (which have been deeply studied) are actually cryptomorphic mathematical notions. Since researches or modelings on real world problems often involve multi-agent, multi-attribute, multi-object, multi-index, multi-polar information, uncertainty, or/and limit process, we put forward (or highlight) the notion of m-polar fuzzy set (actually, [0,1]m-set which can be seen as a generalization of bipolar fuzzy set, where m is an arbitrary ordinal number) and illustrate how many concepts have been defined based on bipolar fuzzy sets and many results which are related to these concepts can be generalized to the case of m-polar fuzzy sets. We also give examples to show how to apply m-polar fuzzy sets in real world problems. PMID:25025087

  15. Development of adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Ary, D V; Duncan, T E; Biglan, A; Metzler, C W; Noell, J W; Smolkowski, K

    1999-04-01

    The developmental model of adolescent antisocial behavior advanced by Patterson and colleagues (e.g., Patterson, Reid, & Dishion, 1992) appears to generalize the development of a diverse set of problem behaviors. Structural equation modeling methods were applied to 18-month longitudinal data from 523 adolescents. The problem behavior construct included substance use, antisocial behavior, academic failure, and risky sexual behavior. Families with high levels of conflict were less likely to have high levels of parent-child involvement. Such family conditions resulted in less adequate parental monitoring of adolescent behavior, making associations with deviant peers more likely. Poor parental monitoring and associations with deviant peers were strong predictors of engagement in problem behavior. These constructs accounted for 46% of the variance in problem behavior. Although association with deviant peers was the most proximal social influence on problem behavior, parental monitoring and family factors (conflict and involvement) were key parenting practices that influenced this developmental process. PMID:10400060

  16. 30 Years of Wahba's Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses a problem proposed by Grace Wahba: Find the orthogonal matrix A with determinant +1 that minimizes the loss function L(A) is identical with the 1/2(summation from i( a(sub i) * absolute value of (b(sub i)- Ar(sub i))squared). where {b(sub i)} is a set of unit vectors measured in a spacecraft's body frame, {r(sub i)} e the corresponding unit vectors in a reference frame and {a(sub i) are non-negative weights). The orthogonal Procrustes problem is to find the orthogonal matrix A that is closest to B in the sense of the Fobenius norm, so that Wahba's Problem is equivalent to the orthogonal Procrustes problem with the provision that the determinant of A must be +1. The article reviews various solutions to this problem and the implementations of the various solutions.

  17. Setting Goals for Achievement in Physical Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baghurst, Timothy; Tapps, Tyler; Kensinger, Weston

    2015-01-01

    Goal setting has been shown to improve student performance, motivation, and task completion in academic settings. Although goal setting is utilized by many education professionals to help students set realistic and proper goals, physical educators may not be using goal setting effectively. Without incorporating all three types of goals and…

  18. TARA diagnostic set

    SciTech Connect

    Sevillano, E.; Brau, K.; Goodrich, P.; Irby, J.; Mauel, M.; Post, R.S.; Smith, D.K.; Sullivan, J.

    1985-05-01

    The TARA Tandem Mirror Experiment has recently begun operation. The set of diagnostics available at this time is discussed. The following diagnostics are now in use: diamagnetic loops, a multichord microwave interferometer, Langmuir and emissive probes, pick-up loops, and secondary-emission detectors. End-loss diagnostics include net current detector arrays, Faraday cup arrays, swept particle analyzer arrays, and calorimetry. Light-emission measurements are made in the visible and VUV regions. A multichord fiber-optic array for plasma position detection is also used. In addition, a three-channel charge exchange analyzer, a hard x-ray system, and fast pressure gauges are available.

  19. Polyomino Problems to Confuse Computers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffin, Stewart

    2009-01-01

    Computers are very good at solving certain types combinatorial problems, such as fitting sets of polyomino pieces into square or rectangular trays of a given size. However, most puzzle-solving programs now in use assume orthogonal arrangements. When one departs from the usual square grid layout, complications arise. The author--using a computer,…

  20. Lagrange duality theory for convex control problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, W. W.; Mitter, S. K.

    1976-01-01

    The Lagrange dual to a control problem is studied. The principal result based on the Hahn-Banach theorem proves that the dual problem has an optimal solution if there exists an interior point for the constraint set. A complementary slackness condition holds, if the primal problem has an optimal solution. A necessary and sufficient condition for the optimality of solutions to the primal and the dual problem is also presented.

  1. Index Sets and Vectorization

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  2. Learning User Preferences for Sets of Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2006-01-01

    Most work on preference learning has focused on pairwise preferences or rankings over individual items. In this paper, we present a method for learning preferences over sets of items. Our learning method takes as input a collection of positive examples--that is, one or more sets that have been identified by a user as desirable. Kernel density estimation is used to estimate the value function for individual items, and the desired set diversity is estimated from the average set diversity observed in the collection. Since this is a new learning problem, we introduce a new evaluation methodology and evaluate the learning method on two data collections: synthetic blocks-world data and a new real-world music data collection that we have gathered.

  3. Preschoolers' Cooperative Problem Solving: Integrating Play and Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Brownell, Celia A.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children's cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings are…

  4. Tool setting device

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Raymond J.

    1977-01-01

    The present invention relates to a tool setting device for use with numerically controlled machine tools, such as lathes and milling machines. A reference position of the machine tool relative to the workpiece along both the X and Y axes is utilized by the control circuit for driving the tool through its program. This reference position is determined for both axes by displacing a single linear variable displacement transducer (LVDT) with the machine tool through a T-shaped pivotal bar. The use of the T-shaped bar allows the cutting tool to be moved sequentially in the X or Y direction for indicating the actual position of the machine tool relative to the predetermined desired position in the numerical control circuit by using a single LVDT.

  5. The three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, Christian

    Recent research on the theory of perturbations, the analytical approach and the quantitative analysis of the three-body problem have reached a high degree of perfection. The use of electronics has aided developments in quantitative analysis and has helped to disclose the extreme complexity of the set of solutions. This accelerated progress has given new orientation and impetus to the qualitative analysis that is so complementary to the quantitative analysis. The book begins with the various formulations of the three-body problem, the main classical results and the important questions and conjectures involved in this subject. The main part of the book describes the remarkable progress achieved in qualitative analysis which has shed new light on the three-body problem. It deals with questions such as escapes, captures, periodic orbits, stability, chaotic motions, Arnold diffusion, etc. The most recent tests of escape have yielded very impressive results and border very close on the true limits of escape, showing the domain of bounded motions to be much smaller than was expected. An entirely new picture of the three-body problem is emerging, and the book reports on this recent progress. The structure of the solutions for the three-body problem lead to a general conjecture governing the picture of solutions for all Hamiltonian problems. The periodic, quasi-periodic and almost-periodic solutions form the basis for the set of solutions and separate the chaotic solutions from the open solutions.

  6. Choosing efficient feature sets for video classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Stephan; Steinmetz, Ralf

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of choosing appropriate features to describe the content of still pictures or video sequences, including audio. As the computational analysis of these features is often time- consuming, it is useful to identify a minimal set allowing for an automatic classification of some class or genre. Further, it can be shown that deleting the coherence of the features characterizing some class, is not suitable to guarantee an optimal classification result. The central question of the paper is thus, which features should be selected, and how they should be weighted to optimize a classification problem.

  7. The problem of choice

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Hassan R; Mathur, Shawn; Covarrubias, David; Curcio, Josephine A; Schmidt, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Convictions are a driving force for actions. Considering that every individual has a different set of convictions and larger groups act once a consensus decision is reached, one can see that debate is an inherent exercise in decision-making. This requires a sustainably generated surplus to allow time for intellectual exchange, gathering of information and dissemination of findings. It is essential that the full spectrum of options remain treated equally. At the end of this process, a choice has to be made. Looking back at a later time point, a retrospective analysis sometimes reveals that the choice was neither completely free nor a truly conscious one. Leaving the issue of consequences of a once made decision aside, we wish to contribute to the debate of the problem of choice. PMID:19025607

  8. The continuation inverse problem revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, Stephen P.

    1998-06-01

    The non-uniqueness of the continuation of a finite collection of harmonic potential field data to a level surface in the source-free region forces its treatment as an inverse problem. A formalism is proposed for the construction of continuation functions which are extremal by various measures. The problem is cast in such a form that the inverse problem solution is the potential function on the lowest horizontal surface above all sources, serving as the boundary function for the Dirichlet problem in the upper half-plane. The desired continuation, at the higher level of interest, must then be in the range of the upward continuation operator acting on this boundary function, rather than being allowed the full freedom of itself being part of a Dirichlet problem boundary function. Extremal solutions minimize non-linear functionals of the continuation function, which are re-expressed as different functionals of the boundary function. A crux of the method is that there is no essential distinction between the upward and downward continuation inverse problems to levels above or below data locations. Casting the optimization as a Lagrange multiplier problem leads to an integral equation for the boundary function, which is readily solved in the Fourier domain for a certain class of functionals. The desired extremal continuation is then given by upward continuation. It is found that for some functionals, application of the Lagrange multiplier theorem requires a further restriction on the set of allowable boundary functions: bandlimitedness is a natural choice for the continuation problem. With this imposition, the theory is developed in detail for semi-norm functionals penalizing departure from a constant potential, in the 2-norm and Sobelev norm senses, and illustrated by application for a small synthetic Deep Tow magnetic field data set.

  9. Aquarium Problems: How To Solve Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFilippo, Shirley

    1975-01-01

    Presents some solutions to problems commonly encountered in maintaining a classroom aquarium: pH control, overfeeding, overcrowding of tank populations, incorrect temperature settings, faulty introduction of fish into the tank, and the buildup of too many nitrogenous wastes. (PB)

  10. Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barduhn, Allen J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses how pressure setting is determined for distillation columns, examining factors which must be considered when optimizing design for economical balance. Also discusses the basics of heat exchangers and cites a common problem with pressure differences. (JM)

  11. The Research of Tax Text Categorization based on Rough Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Xu, Guang; Xu, Qian; Zhang, Nan

    To solve the problem of effective of categorization of text data in taxation system, the paper analyses the text data and the size calculation of key issues first, then designs text categorization based on rough set model.

  12. Handling Imbalanced Data Sets in Multistage Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, M.

    Multistage classification is a logical approach, based on a divide-and-conquer solution, for dealing with problems with a high number of classes. The classification problem is divided into several sequential steps, each one associated to a single classifier that works with subgroups of the original classes. In each level, the current set of classes is split into smaller subgroups of classes until they (the subgroups) are composed of only one class. The resulting chain of classifiers can be represented as a tree, which (1) simplifies the classification process by using fewer categories in each classifier and (2) makes it possible to combine several algorithms or use different attributes in each stage. Most of the classification algorithms can be biased in the sense of selecting the most populated class in overlapping areas of the input space. This can degrade a multistage classifier performance if the training set sample frequencies do not reflect the real prevalence in the population. Several techniques such as applying prior probabilities, assigning weights to the classes, or replicating instances have been developed to overcome this handicap. Most of them are designed for two-class (accept-reject) problems. In this article, we evaluate several of these techniques as applied to multistage classification and analyze how they can be useful for astronomy. We compare the results obtained by classifying a data set based on Hipparcos with and without these methods.

  13. Civil law problems and morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Pleasence, P; Balmer, N; Buck, A; O'Grady, A; Genn, H

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: In the United Kingdom, recognition of the links between social and health problems has led to government initiatives such as health action zones. The principles of civil law apply to many types of social problem, and the civil justice system provides one means through which they can be tackled. However, little research has been undertaken into the particular links between problems to which civil legal principles and processes can be applied and morbidity. This study examines these links, and the role of legal advice and services in preventing ill health. Design: This study examined survey respondents' self reports of longstanding illness/disability and experience of 18 problems to which legal principles can be applied. Setting: A random national survey conducted across England and Wales. Participants: 5611 adults drawn from 3348 residential households. Main results: Significant associations were found between illness/disability and 13 of the problem types. Moreover, experience of greater numbers of problems increased the likelihood of reported illness/disability. In attempting to resolve problems respondents' health also frequently suffered. Conclusions: This study highlights the contribution that public legal education and legal advice can make to the promotion of public health, and the importance of further integration of health and civil justice initiatives through health action zones, community legal service partnerships, etc, to further this end. PMID:15194714

  14. Problems with "n"th-Term Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Shirley M.

    2010-01-01

    An nth-term problem involves a sequence. Students must determine which expression will allow them to calculate the nth position of the sequence. To solve such problems, students are to find "a rule that determines the number of elements in a step from the step number." These types of problems help students develop concepts of functions, variables,…

  15. Class and Home Problems: Optimization Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brian J.; Hissam, Robin S.; Shaeiwitz, Joseph A.; Turton, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Optimization problems suitable for all levels of chemical engineering students are available. These problems do not require advanced mathematical techniques, since they can be solved using typical software used by students and practitioners. The method used to solve these problems forces students to understand the trends for the different terms…

  16. Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Schild, Aaron V

    2012-07-30

    The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.

  17. On the hybrid localization/envelopment problem

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Y.X.; Gou, J.B.; Li, Z.X.

    1999-05-01

    The problem of aligning the CAD model of a workpiece such that all points measured on the finished surfaces of the workpiece match closely to corresponding surfaces on the model while all unmachined surfaces lie outside the model is referred to as the hybrid localization/envelopment problem. The hybrid problem has important applications in setting up for machining of partially finished workpieces. This paper gives a formulation of the hybrid localization/envelopment problem, and presents a simple algorithm for computing its solutions. First, the authors show that when the finished surfaces of a workpiece are inadequate to fully constrain the rigid motions of the workpiece, then the set of free motions remaining must form a subgroup G{sub 0} of the Euclidean group SE(3). This allows the authors to decompose the hybrid problem into a (symmetric) localization problem on G{sub 0}. While the symmetric localization problem is solved using the fast symmetric localization (FSL) algorithm developed in one of the earlier papers, the envelopment problem is solved by computing the solutions of a sequence of linear programming (LP) problems. The authors derive explicitly the LP problems, and apply standard linear programming techniques to solve the LP problems. They present simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method for the hybrid problem.

  18. Peaks theory and the excursion set approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2012-11-01

    We describe a model of dark matter halo abundances and clustering which combines the two most widely used approaches to this problem: that based on peaks and the other based on excursion sets. Our approach can be thought of as addressing the cloud-in-cloud problem for peaks and/or modifying the excursion set approach so that it averages over a special subset, rather than all possible walks. In this respect, it seeks to account for correlations between steps in the walk as well as correlations between walks. We first show how the excursion set and peaks models can be written in the same formalism, and then use this correspondence to write our combined excursion set peaks model. We then give simple expressions for the mass function and bias, showing that even the linear halo bias factor is predicted to be k-dependent as a consequence of the non-locality associated with the peak constraint. At large masses, our model has little or no need to rescale the variable δc from the value associated with spherical collapse, and suggests a simple explanation for why the linear halo bias factor appears to lie above that based on the peak-background split at high masses when such a rescaling is assumed. Although we have concentrated on peaks, our analysis is more generally applicable to other traditionally single-scale analyses of large-scale structure.

  19. A Set of Questions, A Question of Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics in School, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Two versions of a page of exercises using set ideas are presented, one in plain language and one in technical language. Some questions and answers about the appropriateness of set terminology and symbols are then given. (MNS)

  20. Genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volna, Eva

    2016-06-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the most challenging combinatorial optimization tasks. This problem consists in designing the optimal set of routes for fleet of vehicles in order to serve a given set of customers. Evolutionary algorithms are general iterative algorithms for combinatorial optimization. These algorithms have been found to be very effective and robust in solving numerous problems from a wide range of application domains. This problem is known to be NP-hard; hence many heuristic procedures for its solution have been suggested. For such problems it is often desirable to obtain approximate solutions, so they can be found fast enough and are sufficiently accurate for the purpose. In this paper we have performed an experimental study that indicates the suitable use of genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem.

  1. Some Partial Models for Urban Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Harold W.

    This paper focuses on partial models for solving urban problems to contrast our achievements as social scientists with our aspirations as prescribers of public policy. The objectives of this paper are (1) to review some of the reasons that an ideal set of solutions for urban problems has not been produced by social scientists and (2) to describe…

  2. Problem-Solving Competitions: Just the Solution!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracy L.; Karnes, Frances A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes competitions across a range of curricular areas that develop students' problem solving skills by setting authentic, real-world tasks. As individuals or members of a team, students in these competitions are challenged with finding solutions to problems faced not only in today's scientific and technological world, but also in…

  3. A set oriented definition of finite-time Lyapunov exponents and coherent sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallapragada, Phanindra; Ross, Shane D.

    2013-05-01

    The problem of phase space transport, which is of interest from both the theoretical and practical point of view, has been investigated extensively using geometric and probabilistic methods. Two important tools to study this problem that have emerged in recent years are finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) and the Perron-Frobenius operator. The FTLE measures the averaged local stretching around reference trajectories. Regions with high stretching are used to identify phase space transport barriers. One probabilistic method is to consider the spectrum of the Perron-Frobenius operator of the flow to identify almost-invariant densities. These almost-invariant densities are used to identify almost invariant sets. In this paper, a set-oriented definition of the FTLE is proposed which is applicable to phase space sets of finite size and reduces to the usual definition of FTLE in the limit of infinitesimal phase space elements. This definition offers a straightforward connection between the evolution of probability densities and finite-time stretching experienced by phase space curves. This definition also addresses some concerns with the standard computation of the FTLE. For the case of autonomous and periodic vector fields we provide a simplified method to calculate the set-oriented FTLE using the Perron-Frobenius operator. Based on the new definition of the FTLE we propose a simple definition of finite-time coherent sets applicable to vector fields of general time-dependence, which are the analogues of almost-invariant sets in autonomous and time-periodic vector fields. The coherent sets we identify will necessarily be separated from one another by ridges of high FTLE, providing a link between the framework of coherent sets and that of codimension one Lagrangian coherent structures. Our identification of coherent sets is applied to three examples.

  4. An overview of unconstrained free boundary problems

    PubMed Central

    Figalli, Alessio; Shahgholian, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a survey concerning unconstrained free boundary problems of type where B1 is the unit ball, Ω is an unknown open set, F1 and F2 are elliptic operators (admitting regular solutions), and is a functions space to be specified in each case. Our main objective is to discuss a unifying approach to the optimal regularity of solutions to the above matching problems, and list several open problems in this direction. PMID:26261367

  5. Confidence set interference with a prior quadratic bound. [in geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, George E.

    1989-01-01

    Neyman's (1937) theory of confidence sets is developed as a replacement for Bayesian interference (BI) and stochastic inversion (SI) when the prior information is a hard quadratic bound. It is recommended that BI and SI be replaced by confidence set interference (CSI) only in certain circumstances. The geomagnetic problem is used to illustrate the general theory of CSI.

  6. Radial sets: interactive visual analysis of large overlapping sets.

    PubMed

    Alsallakh, Bilal; Aigner, Wolfgang; Miksch, Silvia; Hauser, Helwig

    2013-12-01

    In many applications, data tables contain multi-valued attributes that often store the memberships of the table entities to multiple sets such as which languages a person masters, which skills an applicant documents, or which features a product comes with. With a growing number of entities, the resulting element-set membership matrix becomes very rich of information about how these sets overlap. Many analysis tasks targeted at set-typed data are concerned with these overlaps as salient features of such data. This paper presents Radial Sets, a novel visual technique to analyze set memberships for a large number of elements. Our technique uses frequency-based representations to enable quickly finding and analyzing different kinds of overlaps between the sets, and relating these overlaps to other attributes of the table entities. Furthermore, it enables various interactions to select elements of interest, find out if they are over-represented in specific sets or overlaps, and if they exhibit a different distribution for a specific attribute compared to the rest of the elements. These interactions allow formulating highly-expressive visual queries on the elements in terms of their set memberships and attribute values. As we demonstrate via two usage scenarios, Radial Sets enable revealing and analyzing a multitude of overlapping patterns between large sets, beyond the limits of state-of-the-art techniques. PMID:24051816

  7. Global and Local Optimization Algorithms for Optimal Signal Set Design

    PubMed Central

    Kearsley, Anthony J.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of choosing an optimal signal set for non-Gaussian detection was reduced to a smooth inequality constrained mini-max nonlinear programming problem by Gockenbach and Kearsley. Here we consider the application of several optimization algorithms, both global and local, to this problem. The most promising results are obtained when special-purpose sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithms are embedded into stochastic global algorithms.

  8. The Chicken Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Charles A.

    2000-01-01

    Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)

  9. Screening for Breast Problems

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ178 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Mammography and Other Screening Tests for Breast Problems • What ... used to screen for breast problems? • What is mammography? • Why is mammography done? • When should I start ...

  10. Problems with Smell

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Problems with Smell About Problems with Smell Our sense of smell helps us enjoy life. ... sec Click to watch this video Aging and Smell Loss Problems with smell increase as people get ...

  11. Sexual Problems in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems may also be factors. Occasional problems with sexual function are common. If problems last more than a few months or cause distress for you or your partner, you should see your health care provider.

  12. The Effects of Spacing and Mixing Practice Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Doug

    2009-01-01

    Sets of mathematics problems are generally arranged in 1 of 2 ways. With "blocked practice," all problems are drawn from the preceding lesson. With "mixed review," students encounter a mixture of problems drawn from different lessons. Mixed review has 2 features that distinguish it from blocked practice: Practice problems on the same topic are…

  13. On the Nature of Problems in Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonstone, John

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to explore the nature of problems in action learning. Beginning with Revans' distinction between problems and puzzles, it draws parallels with the notion of wicked and tame problems. It offers four means of considering problems in action learning--in terms of the locus of a set's work; from the viewpoint of an…

  14. Beyond Problem-Based Learning: Using Dynamic PBL in Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overton, Tina L.; Randles, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of a novel pedagogy, dynamic problem-based learning. The pedagogy utilises real-world problems that evolve throughout the problem-based learning activity and provide students with choice and different data sets. This new dynamic problem-based learning approach was utilised to teach…

  15. Fuzzy Sets and Mathematical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsina, C.; Trillas, E.

    1991-01-01

    Presents the concept of "Fuzzy Sets" and gives some ideas for its potential interest in mathematics education. Defines what a Fuzzy Set is, describes why we need to teach fuzziness, gives some examples of fuzzy questions, and offers some examples of activities related to fuzzy sets. (MDH)

  16. MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Richard K.

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…

  17. Multiclass Reduced-Set Support Vector Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Benyang; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    There are well-established methods for reducing the number of support vectors in a trained binary support vector machine, often with minimal impact on accuracy. We show how reduced-set methods can be applied to multiclass SVMs made up of several binary SVMs, with significantly better results than reducing each binary SVM independently. Our approach is based on Burges' approach that constructs each reduced-set vector as the pre-image of a vector in kernel space, but we extend this by recomputing the SVM weights and bias optimally using the original SVM objective function. This leads to greater accuracy for a binary reduced-set SVM, and also allows vectors to be 'shared' between multiple binary SVMs for greater multiclass accuracy with fewer reduced-set vectors. We also propose computing pre-images using differential evolution, which we have found to be more robust than gradient descent alone. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and find that this new approach is consistently better than previous multiclass reduced-set methods, sometimes with a dramatic difference.

  18. Pelvic Support Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... correct pelvic support problems? • Glossary What are pelvic support problems? The pelvic organs include the vagina , cervix , uterus , bladder , urethra , small intestines, and rectum . The pelvic ...

  19. Challenge problems for artificial intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Selman, B.; Brooks, R.A.; Dean, T.

    1996-12-31

    AI textbooks and papers of ten discuss the big questions, such as {open_quotes}how to reason with uncertainty{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}how to reason efficiently{close_quotes}, or {open_quotes}how to improve performance through learning.{close_quotes} It is more difficult, however, to find descriptions of concrete problems or challenges that are still ambitious and interesting, yet not so open-ended. The goal of this panel is to formulate a set of such challenge problems for the field. Each panelist was asked to formulate one or more challenges. The emphasis is on problems for which there is a good chance that they will be resolved within the next five to ten years.

  20. Set-based corral control in stochastic dynamical systems: Making almost invariant sets more invariant

    PubMed Central

    Forgoston, Eric; Billings, Lora; Yecko, Philip; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of stochastic prediction and control in a time-dependent stochastic environment, such as the ocean, where escape from an almost invariant region occurs due to random fluctuations. We determine high-probability control-actuation sets by computing regions of uncertainty, almost invariant sets, and Lagrangian coherent structures. The combination of geometric and probabilistic methods allows us to design regions of control, which provide an increase in loitering time while minimizing the amount of control actuation. We show how the loitering time in almost invariant sets scales exponentially with respect to the control actuation, causing an exponential increase in loitering times with only small changes in actuation force. The result is that the control actuation makes almost invariant sets more invariant. PMID:21456830

  1. Machine Tool Technology. Automatic Screw Machine Troubleshooting & Set-Up Training Outlines [and] Basic Operator's Skills Set List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Technical Coll., Minneapolis, MN.

    This set of two training outlines and one basic skills set list are designed for a machine tool technology program developed during a project to retrain defense industry workers at risk of job loss or dislocation because of conversion of the defense industry. The first troubleshooting training outline lists the categories of problems that develop…

  2. Bi-directional evolutionary level set method for topology optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Benliang; Zhang, Xianmin; Fatikow, Sergej; Wang, Nianfeng

    2015-03-01

    A bi-directional evolutionary level set method for solving topology optimization problems is presented in this article. The proposed method has three main advantages over the standard level set method. First, new holes can be automatically generated in the design domain during the optimization process. Second, the dependency of the obtained optimized configurations upon the initial configurations is eliminated. Optimized configurations can be obtained even being started from a minimum possible initial guess. Third, the method can be easily implemented and is computationally more efficient. The validity of the proposed method is tested on the mean compliance minimization problem and the compliant mechanisms topology optimization problem.

  3. Efficient algorithms for proximity problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wee, Y.C.

    1989-01-01

    Computational geometry is currently a very active area of research in computer science because of its applications to VLSI design, database retrieval, robotics, pattern recognition, etc. The author studies a number of proximity problems which are fundamental in computational geometry. Optimal or improved sequential and parallel algorithms for these problems are presented. Along the way, some relations among the proximity problems are also established. Chapter 2 presents an O(N log{sup 2} N) time divide-and-conquer algorithm for solving the all pairs geographic nearest neighbors problem (GNN) for a set of N sites in the plane under any L{sub p} metric. Chapter 3 presents an O(N log N) divide-and-conquer algorithm for computing the angle restricted Voronoi diagram for a set of N sites in the plane. Chapter 4 introduces a new data structure for the dynamic version of GNN. Chapter 5 defines a new formalism called the quasi-valid range aggregation. This formalism leads to a new and simple method for reducing non-range query-like problems to range queries and often to orthogonal range queries, with immediate applications to the attracted neighbor and the planar all-pairs nearest neighbors problem. Chapter 6 introduces a new approach for the construction of the Voronoi diagram. Using this approach, we design an O(log N) time O (N) processor algorithm for constructing the Voronoi diagram with L{sub 1} and L. metrics on a CREW PRAM machine. Even though the GNN and the Delaunay triangulation (DT) do not have an inclusion relation, we show, using some range type queries, how to efficiently construct DT from the GNN relations over a constant number of angular ranges.

  4. Characterization of X-ray data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Zwart, Peter H.; Grosse-Kunsteleve, Ralf W.; Adams, Paul D.

    2005-07-21

    With the emergence of structural genomics, more effort is being invested into developing methods that incorporate basic crystallographic knowledge to enhance decision making procedures (e.g. Panjikar, 2005). A key area where some crystallographic knowledge is often vital for the smooth progress of structure solution is that of judging the quality or characteristics of an X-ray dataset. For instance, detecting the presence of anisotropic diffraction or twinning while a crystal is on the beam line, may allow the user to change the data collection strategy in order to obtain a better or a more complete data set. In post-collection analyses, the presence of (for instance) non-crystallographic translational symmetry might help the user (or program!) to solve the structure more easily. Of course, the identification of problems is by no means a guarantee that the problems can be overcome, but knowledge of the idiosyncrasies of a given X-ray data set permits the user or software pipeline to tailor the structure solution and refinement procedures to increase the chances of success. In this report, a number of routines are presented that assist the user in detecting specific problems or features within a given dataset. The routines are made available via the open source CCTBX libraries (http://cctbx.sourceforge.net) and will also be included in the next available PHENIX (Adams, et al., 2004) release.

  5. Test Result Management in Global Health Settings

    PubMed Central

    Palazuelos, Daniel; Payne, Jonathan D.

    2012-01-01

    OVERVIEW Across the globe, the ways in which patients' test results are managed are as varied as the many different types of healthcare systems that manage these data. The outcomes, however, are often not too dissimilar: too many clinically significant test results fall through the cracks. The consequences of not following up test results in a timely manner are serious and often devastating to patients: diagnoses are delayed, treatments are not initiated or altered in time, and diseases progress. In resource-poor settings, test results too commonly get filed away within the paper chart in ways that isolate them and prevent passage to future providers caring for a patient. To make matters worse, the onus to act upon these test results often rests on patients who need to return to the clinic within a specified timeframe in order to obtain their results but who may not have the means or are too ill to do so. Even in more developed healthcare settings that use electronic records, clinical data residing in the electronic medical record (EMR) are often stubbornly “static”—key pieces of clinical information are frequently not recognized, retrieved, or shared easily. In this way, EMRs are not unlike paper record systems, and therefore, EMRs alone will not solve this problem. To illustrate this problem, consider the case of a patient newly diagnosed with HIV in 3 different healthcare delivery settings. PMID:24278831

  6. The communication process in clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Mathews, J J

    1983-01-01

    The communication of information in clinical settings is fraught with problems despite avowed common aims of practitioners and patients. Some reasons for the problematic nature of clinical communication are incongruent frames of reference about what information ought to be shared, sociolinguistic differences and social distance between practitioners and patients. Communication between doctors and nurses is also problematic, largely due to differences in ideology between the professions about what ought to be communicated to patients about their illness and who is ratified to give such information. Recent social changes, such as the Patient Bill of Rights and informed consent which assure access to information, and new conceptualizations of the nurse's role, warrant continued study of the communication process especially in regard to what constitutes appropriate and acceptable information about a patient's illness and who ought to give such information to patients. The purpose of this paper is to outline characteristics of communication in clinical settings and to provide a literature review of patient and practitioner interaction studies in order to reflect on why information exchange is problematic in clinical settings. A framework for presentation of the problems employs principles from interaction and role theory to investigate clinical communication from three viewpoints: (1) the level of shared knowledge between participants; (2) the effect of status, role and ideology on transactions; and (3) the regulation of communication imposed by features of the institution. PMID:6359453

  7. Dissociating Stimulus-Set and Response-Set in the Context of Task-Set Switching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffaber, Paul D.; Kruschke, John K.; Cho, Raymond Y.; Walker, Philip M.; Hetrick, William P.

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of the present research was to determine how "stimulus-set" and "response-set" components of task-set contribute to switch costs and conflict processing. Three experiments are described wherein participants completed an explicitly cued task-switching procedure. Experiment 1 established that task switches requiring a reconfiguration…

  8. Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor

    2007-01-01

    TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…

  9. Abstraction and Problem Reformulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giunchiglia, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are

  10. Utilizing Maximal Independent Sets as Dominating Sets in Scale-Free Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derzsy, N.; Molnar, F., Jr.; Szymanski, B. K.; Korniss, G.

    Dominating sets provide key solution to various critical problems in networked systems, such as detecting, monitoring, or controlling the behavior of nodes. Motivated by graph theory literature [Erdos, Israel J. Math. 4, 233 (1966)], we studied maximal independent sets (MIS) as dominating sets in scale-free networks. We investigated the scaling behavior of the size of MIS in artificial scale-free networks with respect to multiple topological properties (size, average degree, power-law exponent, assortativity), evaluated its resilience to network damage resulting from random failure or targeted attack [Molnar et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 8321 (2015)], and compared its efficiency to previously proposed dominating set selection strategies. We showed that, despite its small set size, MIS provides very high resilience against network damage. Using extensive numerical analysis on both synthetic and real-world (social, biological, technological) network samples, we demonstrate that our method effectively satisfies four essential requirements of dominating sets for their practical applicability on large-scale real-world systems: 1.) small set size, 2.) minimal network information required for their construction scheme, 3.) fast and easy computational implementation, and 4.) resiliency to network damage. Supported by DARPA, DTRA, and NSF.

  11. Quadratic eigenvalue problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, Timothy Francis; Day, David Minot

    2007-04-01

    In this report we will describe some nonlinear eigenvalue problems that arise in the areas of solid mechanics, acoustics, and coupled structural acoustics. We will focus mostly on quadratic eigenvalue problems, which are a special case of nonlinear eigenvalue problems. Algorithms for solving the quadratic eigenvalue problem will be presented, along with some example calculations.

  12. Optimization and geophysical inverse problems

    SciTech Connect

    Barhen, J.; Berryman, J.G.; Borcea, L.; Dennis, J.; de Groot-Hedlin, C.; Gilbert, F.; Gill, P.; Heinkenschloss, M.; Johnson, L.; McEvilly, T.; More, J.; Newman, G.; Oldenburg, D.; Parker, P.; Porto, B.; Sen, M.; Torczon, V.; Vasco, D.; Woodward, N.B.

    2000-10-01

    A fundamental part of geophysics is to make inferences about the interior of the earth on the basis of data collected at or near the surface of the earth. In almost all cases these measured data are only indirectly related to the properties of the earth that are of interest, so an inverse problem must be solved in order to obtain estimates of the physical properties within the earth. In February of 1999 the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a workshop that was intended to examine the methods currently being used to solve geophysical inverse problems and to consider what new approaches should be explored in the future. The interdisciplinary area between inverse problems in geophysics and optimization methods in mathematics was specifically targeted as one where an interchange of ideas was likely to be fruitful. Thus about half of the participants were actively involved in solving geophysical inverse problems and about half were actively involved in research on general optimization methods. This report presents some of the topics that were explored at the workshop and the conclusions that were reached. In general, the objective of a geophysical inverse problem is to find an earth model, described by a set of physical parameters, that is consistent with the observational data. It is usually assumed that the forward problem, that of calculating simulated data for an earth model, is well enough understood so that reasonably accurate synthetic data can be generated for an arbitrary model. The inverse problem is then posed as an optimization problem, where the function to be optimized is variously called the objective function, misfit function, or fitness function. The objective function is typically some measure of the difference between observational data and synthetic data calculated for a trial model. However, because of incomplete and inaccurate data, the objective function often incorporates some additional form of regularization, such as a measure of smoothness

  13. One-dimensional Gromov minimal filling problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Alexandr O; Tuzhilin, Alexey A

    2012-05-31

    The paper is devoted to a new branch in the theory of one-dimensional variational problems with branching extremals, the investigation of one-dimensional minimal fillings introduced by the authors. On the one hand, this problem is a one-dimensional version of a generalization of Gromov's minimal fillings problem to the case of stratified manifolds. On the other hand, this problem is interesting in itself and also can be considered as a generalization of another classical problem, the Steiner problem on the construction of a shortest network connecting a given set of terminals. Besides the statement of the problem, we discuss several properties of the minimal fillings and state several conjectures. Bibliography: 38 titles.

  14. The nanostructure problem

    SciTech Connect

    Billinge, S.

    2010-03-22

    (rather than just the density distribution) by Fourier transforming the measured intensity leaves us with a very tricky inverse problem: we have to extract the density from its autocorrelation function. The direct problem of predicting the diffraction intensity given a particular density distribution is trivial, but the inverse, unraveling from the intensity distribution the density that gives rise to it, is a highly nontrivial problem in global optimization. In crystallography, this challenging, nontrivial task is sometimes referred to as the 'phase problem.' The diffraction pattern is a wave-interference pattern, but we measure only the intensities (the squares of the waves) not the wave amplitudes. To get the amplitude, you take the square root of the intensity I, but in so doing you lose any knowledge of the phase of the wave {phi}, and half the information needed to reconstruct the density is lost. When solving such inverse problems, you hope you can start with a uniqueness theorem that reassures you that, under ideal conditions, there is only one solution: one density distribution that corresponds to the measured intensity. Then you have to establish that your data set contains sufficient information to constrain that unique solution. This is a problem from information theory that originated with Reverend Thomas Bayes work in the 18th century, and the work of Nyquist and Shannon in the 20 th century, and describes the fact that the degrees of freedom in the model must not exceed the number of pieces of independent information in the data. Finally, you need an efficient algorithm for doing the reconstruction. This is exactly how crystallography works. The information is in the form of Bragg peak intensities and the degrees of freedom are the atomic coordinates. Crystal symmetry lets us confine the model to the contents of a unit cell, rather than all of the atoms in the crystal, keeping the degrees of freedom admirably small in number. A measurement yields a

  15. Integrated network design and scheduling problems :

    SciTech Connect

    Nurre, Sarah G.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the class of integrated network design and scheduling problems. These problems focus on selecting and scheduling operations that will change the characteristics of a network, while being speci cally concerned with the performance of the network over time. Motivating applications of INDS problems include infrastructure restoration after extreme events and building humanitarian distribution supply chains. While similar models have been proposed, no one has performed an extensive review of INDS problems from their complexity, network and scheduling characteristics, information, and solution methods. We examine INDS problems under a parallel identical machine scheduling environment where the performance of the network is evaluated by solving classic network optimization problems. We classify that all considered INDS problems as NP-Hard and propose a novel heuristic dispatching rule algorithm that selects and schedules sets of arcs based on their interactions in the network. We present computational analysis based on realistic data sets representing the infrastructures of coastal New Hanover County, North Carolina, lower Manhattan, New York, and a realistic arti cial community CLARC County. These tests demonstrate the importance of a dispatching rule to arrive at near-optimal solutions during real-time decision making activities. We extend INDS problems to incorporate release dates which represent the earliest an operation can be performed and exible release dates through the introduction of specialized machine(s) that can perform work to move the release date earlier in time. An online optimization setting is explored where the release date of a component is not known.

  16. The Inverse Phase Stability Problem as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem: Application to Materials Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arróyave, R.; Gibbons, S. L.; Galvan, E.; Malak, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    In general, the forward phase stability problem consists of mapping thermodynamic conditions (e.g., composition, temperature, pressure) to corresponding equilibrium states. In this paper, we instead focus on the generalized inverse phase stability problem (GIPSP) that deals with mapping a set of phase constitutions to a set of corresponding thermodynamic conditions. Specifically, we define the GIPSP as mapping of sets of phase constitution definitions in a multidimensional phase constitution search space to corresponding ranges of thermodynamic conditions. Mathematically, the solution to the GIPSP corresponds to all solutions to a continuous constraint satisfaction problem (CCSP). We present novel algorithms combining computational thermodynamics, evolutionary computation, and machine learning to approximate solution sets to the GIPSP as a CCSP. Some preliminary examples demonstrating the algorithms are presented. Moreover, the implications of the proposed framework for the larger problem of materials design are discussed, and future work is suggested.

  17. PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set consists of a Worthington Pump and a General Electric motor - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. Approximating random quantum optimization problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, B.; Laumann, C. R.; Läuchli, A. M.; Moessner, R.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2013-06-01

    We report a cluster of results regarding the difficulty of finding approximate ground states to typical instances of the quantum satisfiability problem k-body quantum satisfiability (k-QSAT) on large random graphs. As an approximation strategy, we optimize the solution space over “classical” product states, which in turn introduces a novel autonomous classical optimization problem, PSAT, over a space of continuous degrees of freedom rather than discrete bits. Our central results are (i) the derivation of a set of bounds and approximations in various limits of the problem, several of which we believe may be amenable to a rigorous treatment; (ii) a demonstration that an approximation based on a greedy algorithm borrowed from the study of frustrated magnetism performs well over a wide range in parameter space, and its performance reflects the structure of the solution space of random k-QSAT. Simulated annealing exhibits metastability in similar “hard” regions of parameter space; and (iii) a generalization of belief propagation algorithms introduced for classical problems to the case of continuous spins. This yields both approximate solutions, as well as insights into the free energy “landscape” of the approximation problem, including a so-called dynamical transition near the satisfiability threshold. Taken together, these results allow us to elucidate the phase diagram of random k-QSAT in a two-dimensional energy-density-clause-density space.

  19. Challenging Aerospace Problems for Intelligent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Kanashige, John; Satyadas, A.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we highlight four problem domains that are well suited and challenging for intelligent system technologies. The problems are defined and an outline of a probable approach is presented. No attempt is made to define the problems as test cases. In other words, no data or set of equations that a user can code and get results are provided. The main idea behind this paper is to motivate intelligent system researchers to examine problems that will elevate intelligent system technologies and applications to a higher level.

  20. Closed sets of nonlocal correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Allcock, Jonathan; Linden, Noah; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu; Skrzypczyk, Paul; Vertesi, Tamas

    2009-12-15

    We present a fundamental concept - closed sets of correlations - for studying nonlocal correlations. We argue that sets of correlations corresponding to information-theoretic principles, or more generally to consistent physical theories, must be closed under a natural set of operations. Hence, studying the closure of sets of correlations gives insight into which information-theoretic principles are genuinely different, and which are ultimately equivalent. This concept also has implications for understanding why quantum nonlocality is limited, and for finding constraints on physical theories beyond quantum mechanics.

  1. Quantum set theory and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, E.

    1984-01-01

    The work of von Neumann tells us that the logic of quantum mechanics is not Boolenan. This suggests the formulation of a quantum theory of sets based on quantum logic much as modern set theory is based on Boolean logic. In the first part of this dissertation such a quantum set theory is developed. In the second part, quantum set theory is proposed as a universal language for physics. A quantum topology and the beginnings of a quantum geometry are developed in this language. Finally, a toy model is studied. It gives indications of possible lines for progress in this program.

  2. Priority setting for new technologies in medicine: A transdisciplinary study

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Jennifer L; Martin, Douglas K; Singer, Peter A

    2002-01-01

    Background Decision makers in health care organizations struggle with how to set priorities for new technologies in medicine. Traditional approaches to priority setting for new technologies in medicine are insufficient and there is no widely accepted model that can guide decision makers. Discussion Daniels and Sabin have developed an ethically based account about how priority setting decisions should be made. We have developed an empirically based account of how priority setting decisions are made. In this paper, we integrate these two accounts into a transdisciplinary model of priority setting for new technologies in medicine that is both ethically and empirically based. Summary We have developed a transdisciplinary model of priority setting that provides guidance to decision makers that they can operationalize to help address priority setting problems in their institution. PMID:12126482

  3. Sparse Substring Pattern Set Discovery Using Linear Programming Boosting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashihara, Kazuaki; Hatano, Kohei; Bannai, Hideo; Takeda, Masayuki

    In this paper, we consider finding a small set of substring patterns which classifies the given documents well. We formulate the problem as 1 norm soft margin optimization problem where each dimension corresponds to a substring pattern. Then we solve this problem by using LPBoost and an optimal substring discovery algorithm. Since the problem is a linear program, the resulting solution is likely to be sparse, which is useful for feature selection. We evaluate the proposed method for real data such as movie reviews.

  4. An efficient quantum scheme for Private Set Intersection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun

    2016-01-01

    Private Set Intersection allows a client to privately compute set intersection with the collaboration of the server, which is one of the most fundamental and key problems within the multiparty collaborative computation of protecting the privacy of the parties. In this paper, we first present a cheat-sensitive quantum scheme for Private Set Intersection. Compared with classical schemes, our scheme has lower communication complexity, which is independent of the size of the server's set. Therefore, it is very suitable for big data services in Cloud or large-scale client-server networks.

  5. SPAR data set contents. [finite element structural analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, S. W.

    1981-01-01

    The contents of the stored data sets of the SPAR (space processing applications rocket) finite element structural analysis system are documented. The data generated by each of the system's processors are stored in a data file organized as a library. Each data set, containing a two-dimensional table or matrix, is identified by a four-word name listed in a table of contents. The creating SPAR processor, number of rows and columns, and definitions of each of the data items are listed for each data set. An example SPAR problem using these data sets is also presented.

  6. [The mind -- body problem].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Diana I

    2005-01-01

    In this paper I present, in the first place, two of the main problems in the philosophy of mind: 1) the problem of the criteria of the mental, and 2) the problem of the relationship between the mental and the physical. In the last part, I mention two problems highly discussed nowadays which, in my view, will produce the most important advance in the knowledge of our minds in the next decades: the problem of consciousness and its neural basis, and the problem of the origin and development of a theory of mind. PMID:16220149

  7. The Algorithm Selection Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Steve; Allen, John; Deiss, Ron (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Work on NP-hard problems has shown that many instances of these theoretically computationally difficult problems are quite easy. The field has also shown that choosing the right algorithm for the problem can have a profound effect on the time needed to find a solution. However, to date there has been little work showing how to select the right algorithm for solving any particular problem. The paper refers to this as the algorithm selection problem. It describes some of the aspects that make this problem difficult, as well as proposes a technique for addressing it.

  8. The Visible Cement Data Set

    PubMed Central

    Bentz, Dale P.; Mizell, Symoane; Satterfield, Steve; Devaney, Judith; George, William; Ketcham, Peter; Graham, James; Porterfield, James; Quenard, Daniel; Vallee, Franck; Sallee, Hebert; Boller, Elodie; Baruchel, Jose

    2002-01-01

    With advances in x-ray microtomography, it is now possible to obtain three-dimensional representations of a material’s microstructure with a voxel size of less than one micrometer. The Visible Cement Data Set represents a collection of 3-D data sets obtained using the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France in September 2000. Most of the images obtained are for hydrating portland cement pastes, with a few data sets representing hydrating Plaster of Paris and a common building brick. All of these data sets are being made available on the Visible Cement Data Set website at http://visiblecement.nist.gov. The website includes the raw 3-D datafiles, a description of the material imaged for each data set, example two-dimensional images and visualizations for each data set, and a collection of C language computer programs that will be of use in processing and analyzing the 3-D microstructural images. This paper provides the details of the experiments performed at the ESRF, the analysis procedures utilized in obtaining the data set files, and a few representative example images for each of the three materials investigated. PMID:27446723

  9. Substructure Search by Set Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueras, John

    1972-01-01

    The set reduction algorithm is based on set theory and Boolean algebra rather than the graph-theoretic approach. Time trials with a small file of organic chemical structures indicate that the algorithm can be economically used for substructure (or complete structure) sequential searches on a file containing 30,000-50,000 computer-coded structures.…

  10. The Mapmark Standard Setting Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, E. Matthew; Mitzel, Howard C.

    2005-01-01

    A new standard setting method, Mapmark, was recently developed by ACT Inc. in the course of a contract with the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) to set achievement levels for the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Grade 12 mathematics. Mapmark includes elements of the bookmark method (Lewis, Mitzel, & Green, 1996;…

  11. Wavelet Representation of Contour Sets

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, M; Laney, D E; Duchaineau, M A; Hansen, C D; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2001-07-19

    We present a new wavelet compression and multiresolution modeling approach for sets of contours (level sets). In contrast to previous wavelet schemes, our algorithm creates a parametrization of a scalar field induced by its contoum and compactly stores this parametrization rather than function values sampled on a regular grid. Our representation is based on hierarchical polygon meshes with subdivision connectivity whose vertices are transformed into wavelet coefficients. From this sparse set of coefficients, every set of contours can be efficiently reconstructed at multiple levels of resolution. When applying lossy compression, introducing high quantization errors, our method preserves contour topology, in contrast to compression methods applied to the corresponding field function. We provide numerical results for scalar fields defined on planar domains. Our approach generalizes to volumetric domains, time-varying contours, and level sets of vector fields.

  12. Understanding Individual Problem-Solving Style: A Key to Learning and Applying Creative Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.

    2008-01-01

    More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…

  13. Liner setting tool and method

    SciTech Connect

    Baugh, J.L.; Fraser, J.M. III; Melenyzer, G.J.

    1989-07-18

    This paper describes a liner setting apparatus for setting a liner suspended from a tubular string in a subterranean well and for releasing from a set liner hanger to permit retrieval of the liner setting apparatus and the tubular string. The liner hanger including gripping members for bitting engagement with side walls of the wellbore in response to axial movement of the tubular string, the liner setting apparatus, and the liner within the well bore, and interior threads for threaded engagement and disengagement with the liner setting apparatus. The liner setting apparatus comprising: a tubular mandrel; a nut positioned about the tubular mandrel; a setting ring assembly positioned about the tubular mandrel and axially spaced between the nut and the upper end of the tubular mandrel. The setting ring assembly including: an annular torque control ring, one or more fingers each axially movable with respect to the torque control ring; a plurality of sleeves each positioned about the tubular mandrel and axially movable with respect to the torque control ring and with respect to each other, an actuating member radially moveable from a lock position such that the actuating member is within one of the plurality of locking recesses and the locking sleeves are axially adjacent each other, to an unlock position such that the actuating member is moved radially outwardly by engagement with the ramp surface during axial movement of the annular setting ring assembly, such that the actuating member separates the sleeves axially during radially outward movement thereof and thereby axially moves each of the one or more fingers to the unlock position.

  14. Property-optimized Gaussian basis sets for molecular response calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappoport, Dmitrij; Furche, Filipp

    2010-10-01

    With recent advances in electronic structure methods, first-principles calculations of electronic response properties, such as linear and nonlinear polarizabilities, have become possible for molecules with more than 100 atoms. Basis set incompleteness is typically the main source of error in such calculations since traditional diffuse augmented basis sets are too costly to use or suffer from near linear dependence. To address this problem, we construct the first comprehensive set of property-optimized augmented basis sets for elements H-Rn except lanthanides. The new basis sets build on the Karlsruhe segmented contracted basis sets of split-valence to quadruple-zeta valence quality and add a small number of moderately diffuse basis functions. The exponents are determined variationally by maximization of atomic Hartree-Fock polarizabilities using analytical derivative methods. The performance of the resulting basis sets is assessed using a set of 313 molecular static Hartree-Fock polarizabilities. The mean absolute basis set errors are 3.6%, 1.1%, and 0.3% for property-optimized basis sets of split-valence, triple-zeta, and quadruple-zeta valence quality, respectively. Density functional and second-order Møller-Plesset polarizabilities show similar basis set convergence. We demonstrate the efficiency of our basis sets by computing static polarizabilities of icosahedral fullerenes up to C720 using hybrid density functional theory.

  15. Multicriteria Decision Making Method Based on the Higher Order Hesitant Fuzzy Soft Set

    PubMed Central

    Farhadinia, B.

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this contribution is to introduce the concept of higher order hesitant fuzzy soft set as an extension of fuzzy soft set that encompasses most of the existing extensions of fuzzy soft set as special cases. Furthermore, this new concept provides us with a method for dealing with multicriteria fuzzy decision making problems which are difficult to explain in other existing extensions of fuzzy soft set theory, especially when problems involve parameters with different-dimensional levels. PMID:27437496

  16. Locating Problems with Quality Circles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Donald D.; Bednar, David A.

    1985-01-01

    Five categories of common quality circles problems are identified to help firms anticipate difficulties and avert circle failures. These categories include encountered internal problems, encountered external problems, created internal problems, created external problems, and interface problems. Solutions are suggested. (CT)

  17. Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.

    PubMed

    Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John

    2010-02-01

    This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the

  18. Problem: Heart Valve Regurgitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Problem: Heart Valve Regurgitation Updated:May 26,2016 What ... content was last reviewed May 2016. Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • Heart Valve ...

  19. Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Problem: Heart Valve Stenosis Updated:Aug 10,2016 About ... content was last reviewed May 2016. Heart Valve Problems and Disease • Home • About Heart Valves • Heart Valve ...

  20. Women and sexual problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000663.htm Women and sexual problems To use the sharing features on this page, ... feel better about your sex life. Common Sexual Problems You may have sexual dysfunction if you are ...

  1. Increases in Problem Drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Increases in Problem Drinking Alcohol use disorder is becoming more common, a ... the need to better educate people about problem drinking and its treatment. Alcohol use disorder, or AUD, ...

  2. Sexual Problems in Women

    MedlinePlus

    There are many problems that can keep a woman from enjoying sex. They include Lack of sexual desire Inability to become aroused Lack of orgasm, or sexual climax Painful intercourse These problems may have physical or psychological causes. Physical causes ...

  3. Diabetic Eye Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause ... surgery, with follow-up care. Two other eye problems can happen to people with diabetes. A cataract ...

  4. IT Problem Management

    NASA Video Gallery

    IT Problem Management – process responsible for managing Lifecycle of all IT problems. The primary objective is to prevent incidents from occurring and to minimize impact of incidents that cannot...

  5. Study the Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choate, Joyce S.

    1990-01-01

    The initial step of a strategic process for solving mathematical problems, "studying the question," is discussed. A lesson plan for teaching students to identify and revise arithmetic problems is presented, involving directed instruction and supervised practice. (JDD)

  6. Puzzles Pastimes Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eperson, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    This section includes eight problems to which the journal invites readers to respond. Problem topics include angles in alternate segments, pentominoes, a new triangle of numbers, cricket scores, symmetrical pentagons, inequalities, a pythagorean dissection, and magic squares. (MDH)

  7. Solving Word Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karrison, Joan; Carroll, Margaret Kelly

    1991-01-01

    Students with language and learning disabilities may have difficulty solving mathematics word problems. Use of a sequential checklist, identifying clues and keywords, and illustrating a problem can all help the student identify and implement the correct computational process. (DB)

  8. Traveling with breathing problems

    MedlinePlus

    If you have breathing problems and you: Are short of breath most of the time Get short of breath when you walk 150 ... or less Have been in the hospital for breathing problems recently Use oxygen at home, even if ...

  9. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease, and Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Diabetes and Foot Problems How can diabetes affect my feet? Too much glucose, also called ... you have any of these signs. How can diabetes change the shape of my feet? Nerve damage ...

  10. BASIC Application Programs. Set 1 (15 Programs); Set 2 (19 Programs); Set 3 (12 Programs).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, MA.

    The programs in these three booklets are designed to demonstrate how the computer can be applied to the problems of many disciplines. The problems and the corresponding computer programs are, for the most part, quite simple and are designed to be "jumping-off points" for students from the high school level up. Programs include one or more from…

  11. The molecular matching problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular chemistry contains many difficult optimization problems that have begun to attract the attention of optimizers in the Operations Research community. Problems including protein folding, molecular conformation, molecular similarity, and molecular matching have been addressed. Minimum energy conformations for simple molecular structures such as water clusters, Lennard-Jones microclusters, and short polypeptides have dominated the literature to date. However, a variety of interesting problems exist and we focus here on a molecular structure matching (MSM) problem.

  12. Discrete Ordinate Quadrature Selection for Reactor-based Eigenvalue Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, Joshua J; Evans, Thomas M; Davidson, Gregory G

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the effect of various quadrature sets on the eigenvalues of several reactor-based problems, including a two-dimensional (2D) fuel pin, a 2D lattice of fuel pins, and a three-dimensional (3D) reactor core problem. While many quadrature sets have been applied to neutral particle discrete ordinate transport calculations, the Level Symmetric (LS) and the Gauss-Chebyshev product (GC) sets are the most widely used in production-level reactor simulations. Other quadrature sets, such as Quadruple Range (QR) sets, have been shown to be more accurate in shielding applications. In this paper, we compare the LS, GC, QR, and the recently developed linear-discontinuous finite element (LDFE) sets, as well as give a brief overview of other proposed quadrature sets. We show that, for a given number of angles, the QR sets are more accurate than the LS and GC in all types of reactor problems analyzed (2D and 3D). We also show that the LDFE sets are more accurate than the LS and GC sets for these problems. We conclude that, for problems where tens to hundreds of quadrature points (directions) per octant are appropriate, QR sets should regularly be used because they have similar integration properties as the LS and GC sets, have no noticeable impact on the speed of convergence of the solution when compared with other quadrature sets, and yield more accurate results. We note that, for very high-order scattering problems, the QR sets exactly integrate fewer angular flux moments over the unit sphere than the GC sets. The effects of those inexact integrations have yet to be analyzed. We also note that the LDFE sets only exactly integrate the zeroth and first angular flux moments. Pin power comparisons and analyses are not included in this paper and are left for future work.

  13. The problem of simultaneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, G.

    Drake's formula for the possible number of independent civilizations in the Galaxy is discussed in the light of several new hypotheses (e.g., Lovelock's Gaia hypothesis). Emphasis is placed on ways to overcome the time problem, i.e., the problem of how to communicate with civilizations that may arise in the future. Electronic, nucleonic, and bionic approaches to this problem are discussed.

  14. TRAINING IN PROBLEM SOLVING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DEVANE, J.R.; RIMOLDI, H.J.A.

    CHANGES WERE STUDIED IN THE PROBLEM-SOLVING BEHAVIOR OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AS A FUNCTION OF A CAREFULLY DESIGNED TRAINING PROGRAM. TRAINING WAS DEFINED AS THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENT AWARENESS OF PROBLEM-SOLVING STRATEGIES USED. INSTRUMENTS WERE DEVELOPED AND REFINED TO MEASURE PROBLEM-SOLVING BEHAVIOR. SPECIFICALLY TESTED WAS THE FOLLOWING…

  15. Exploratory Problems in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Frederick W.

    This book attempts to introduce students to the creative aspects of mathematics through exploratory problems. The introduction presents the criteria for the selection of the problems in the book. Criteria indicate that problems should: be immediately attractive, require data to be generated or gathered, appeal to students from junior high school…

  16. Grievance Procedure Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Gary J.

    This paper presents two actual problems involving grievance procedures. Both problems involve pending litigation and one of them involves pending arbitration. The first problem occurred in a wealthy Minnesota school district and involved a seniority list. Because of changes in the financial basis for supporting public schools, it became necessary…

  17. Problem Solving by Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…

  18. Techniques of Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Steven G.

    The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…

  19. Mathematics as Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soifer, Alexander

    This book contains about 200 problems. It is suggested that it be used by students, teachers or anyone interested in exploring mathematics. In addition to a general discussion on problem solving, there are problems concerned with number theory, algebra, geometry, and combinatorics. (PK)

  20. Penrose tilings as model sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutov, A. V.; Maleev, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    The Baake construction, based on generating a set of vertices of Penrose tilings as a model set, is refined. An algorithm and a corresponding computer program for constructing an uncountable set of locally indistinguishable Penrose tilings are developed proceeding from this refined construction. Based on an analysis of the parameters of tiling vertices, 62 versions of rhomb combinations at the tiling center are determined. The combinatorial structure of Penrose tiling worms is established. A concept of flip transformations of tilings is introduced that makes it possible to construct Penrose tilings that cannot be implemented in the Baake construction.

  1. Outbreaks in Health Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Sood, Geeta; Perl, Trish M

    2016-09-01

    Outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks in health care settings can be complex and should be evaluated systematically using epidemiologic tools. Laboratory testing is an important part of an outbreak evaluation. Health care personnel, equipment, supplies, water, ventilation systems, and the hospital environment have been associated with health care outbreaks. Settings including the neonatal intensive care unit, endoscopy, oncology, and transplant units are areas that have specific issues which impact the approach to outbreak investigation and control. Certain organisms have a predilection for health care settings because of the illnesses of patients, the procedures performed, and the care provided. PMID:27515142

  2. Vortex shedding and Maxwell's problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelin, Sebastien; Smith, Stefan Llewellyn

    2006-11-01

    The coupled problem of a flow around a solid body has applications from the fall of objects in a fluid to the computation of forces on wind-exposed structures. A simplified 2D model is proposed here for the interaction between solid bodies and potential flows. Potential flows over sharp edges generate singular velocities at the edges. To satisfy the Kutta condition, vorticity sheets must be shed from the edges to remove these singularities. Here 2D vorticity sheets are represented as discrete point-vortices with monotically varying intensity. From the fluid momentum conservation, an equation of motion for these vortices, the Brown and Michael equation, is derived and mechanical efforts applied by the fluid on the body are computed. The set of dynamical equations obtained for the fluid-body system is closed and is applied to Maxwell's problem of the 2D fall of a plate in an inviscid fluid initially at rest.

  3. Inverse problem in radionuclide transport

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.

    1988-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive waste must comply with the performance objectives set forth in 10 CFR 61 for low-level waste (LLW) and 10 CFR 60 for high-level waste (HLW). To determine probable compliance, the proposed disposal system can be modeled to predict its performance. One of the difficulties encountered in such a study is modeling the migration of radionuclides through a complex geologic medium for the long term. Although many radionuclide transport models exist in the literature, the accuracy of the model prediction is highly dependent on the model parameters used. The problem of using known parameters in a radionuclide transport model to predict radionuclide concentrations is a direct problem (DP); whereas the reverse of DP, i.e., the parameter identification problem of determining model parameters from known radionuclide concentrations, is called the inverse problem (IP). In this study, a procedure to solve IP is tested, using the regression technique. Several nonlinear regression programs are examined, and the best one is recommended. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  4. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    PubMed

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  5. Language Interventions in Natural Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallaro, Claire C.

    1983-01-01

    Described is a milieu teaching approach to language development of young handicapped children. The method involves prompting and contingent delivery of reinforcers during normal language interactions in such classroom settings as free play, lunch, or instructional periods. (MC)

  6. Introduction to Fuzzy Set Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosko, Bart

    1990-01-01

    An introduction to fuzzy set theory is described. Topics covered include: neural networks and fuzzy systems; the dynamical systems approach to machine intelligence; intelligent behavior as adaptive model-free estimation; fuzziness versus probability; fuzzy sets; the entropy-subsethood theorem; adaptive fuzzy systems for backing up a truck-and-trailer; product-space clustering with differential competitive learning; and adaptive fuzzy system for target tracking.

  7. Boundary terms for causal sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Michel; Dowker, Fay; Jubb, Ian; Surya, Sumati

    2015-10-01

    We propose a family of boundary terms for the action of a causal set with a spacelike boundary. We show that in the continuum limit one recovers the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term in the mean. We also calculate the continuum limit of the mean causal set action for an Alexandrov interval in flat spacetime. We find that it is equal to the volume of the codimension-2 intersection of the two light-cone boundaries of the interval.

  8. Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Chandrasekaran, V; Gamarmik, D; Shah, D; Sin, J

    2009-01-01

    The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.

  9. An inability to set independent attentional control settings by hemifield.

    PubMed

    Becker, Mark W; Ravizza, Susan M; Peltier, Chad

    2015-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that people can simultaneously activate attentional control setting for two distinct colors. However, it is unclear whether both attentional control settings must operate globally across the visual field or whether each can be constrained to a particular spatial location. Using two different paradigms, we investigated participants' ability to apply independent color attentional control settings to distinct regions of space. In both experiments, participants were told to identify red letters in one hemifield and green letters in the opposite hemifield. Additionally, some trials used a "relevant distractor"-a letter that matched the opposite side's target color. In Experiment 1, eight letters appeared (four per hemifield) simultaneously for a brief amount of time and then were masked. Relevant distractors increased the error rate and resulted in a greater number of distractor intrusions than irrelevant distractors. Similar results were observed in Experiment 2 in which red and green targets were presented in two rapid serial visual presentation streams. Relevant distractors were found to produce an attentional blink similar in magnitude to an actual target. The results of both experiments suggest that letters matching either attentional control setting were selected by attention and were processed as if they were targets, providing strong evidence that both attentional control settings were applied globally, rather than being constrained to a particular location. PMID:26220268

  10. On Jack Hale's problem for impulsive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonotto, E. M.; Gimenes, L. P.; Souto, G. M.

    2015-07-01

    An interesting problem of Jack Hale deals with the existence of a maximal compact invariant set in discrete dynamical systems. A solution for this problem is known for locally bounded dynamical systems. Following this line of research, we consider in this paper a class of systems whose continuous dynamics are interrupted by abrupt changes of state and we present sufficient conditions to obtain the existence of a maximal compact invariant set for a system in this class. We use the theory of asymptotic compactness to get the results.

  11. Linear stochastic optimal control and estimation problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geyser, L. C.; Lehtinen, F. K. B.

    1980-01-01

    Problem involves design of controls for linear time-invariant system disturbed by white noise. Solution is Kalman filter coupled through set of optimal regulator gains to produce desired control signal. Key to solution is solving matrix Riccati differential equation. LSOCE effectively solves problem for wide range of practical applications. Program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on IBM 360.

  12. Solving bi-objective optimal control problems with rectangular framing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijaya, Karunia Putra; Götz, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Optimization problems, e.g. arising from epidemiology models, often ask for solutions minimizing multi-criteria objective functions. In this paper we discuss a novel approach for solving bi-objective optimal control problems. The set of non-dominated points is constructed via a decreasing sequence of rectangles. Particular attention is paid to a problem with disconnected set of non-dominated points. Several examples from epidemiology are investigated and show the applicability of the method.

  13. Scaling random walks on arbitrary sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Simon C.; Williams, David; Sibson, Robin

    1999-01-01

    Let I be a countably infinite set of points in [open face R] which we can write as I={ui: i[set membership][open face Z]}, with uiset I under suitable space-time scalings. Later, we consider some cases when the set I consists of the points of a renewal process and the jump rates assigned to each state in I are perhaps also randomly chosen.This work sprang from a question asked by one of us (Sibson) about ‘driftless nearest-neighbour’ Markov chains on countable subsets I of [open face R]d, work of Sibson [7] and of Christ, Friedberg and Lee [2] having identified examples of such chains in terms of the Dirichlet tessellation associated with I. Amongst methods which can be brought to bear on this d-dimensional problem is the theory of Dirichlet forms. There are potential problems in doing this because we wish I to be random (for example, a realization of a Poisson point process), we do not wish to impose artificial boundedness conditions which would clearly make things work for certain deterministic sets I. In the 1-dimensional case discussed here and in the following paper by Harris, much simpler techniques (where we embed the Markov chain in a Brownian motion using local time) work very effectively; and it is these, rather than the theory of Dirichlet forms, that we use.

  14. Adaptive quantum gate-set tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blume-Kohout, Robin

    2013-03-01

    Quantum information hardware needs to be characterized and calibrated. This is the job of quantum state and process tomography, but standard tomographic methods have an Achilles heel: to characterize an unknown process, they rely on a set of absolutely calibrated measurements. But many technologies (e.g., solid-state qubits) admit only a single native measurement basis, and other bases are measured using unitary control. So tomography becomes circular - tomographic protocols are using gates to calibrate themselves! Gate-set tomography confronts this problem head-on and resolves it by treating gates relationally. We abandon all assumptions about what a given gate operation does, and characterize entire universal gate sets from the ground up using only the observed statistics of an [unknown] 2-outcome measurement after various strings of [unknown] gate operations. The accuracy and reliability of the resulting estimate depends critically on which gate strings are used, and benefits greatly from adaptivity. Sandia National Labs is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000

  15. Intrusion detection using rough set classification.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lian-hua; Zhang, Guan-hua; Zhang, Jie; Bai, Ying-cai

    2004-09-01

    Recently machine learning-based intrusion detection approaches have been subjected to extensive researches because they can detect both misuse and anomaly. In this paper, rough set classification (RSC), a modern learning algorithm, is used to rank the features extracted for detecting intrusions and generate intrusion detection models. Feature ranking is a very critical step when building the model. RSC performs feature ranking before generating rules, and converts the feature ranking to minimal hitting set problem addressed by using genetic algorithm (GA). This is done in classical approaches using Support Vector Machine (SVM) by executing many iterations, each of which removes one useless feature. Compared with those methods, our method can avoid many iterations. In addition, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed to increase the convergence speed and decrease the training time of RSC. The models generated by RSC take the form of "IF-THEN" rules, which have the advantage of explication. Tests and comparison of RSC with SVM on DARPA benchmark data showed that for Probe and DoS attacks both RSC and SVM yielded highly accurate results (greater than 99% accuracy on testing set). PMID:15323002

  16. An active set algorithm for nonlinear optimization with polyhedral constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, William W.; Zhang, Hongchao

    2016-08-01

    A polyhedral active set algorithm PASA is developed for solving a nonlinear optimization problem whose feasible set is a polyhedron. Phase one of the algorithm is the gradient projection method, while phase two is any algorithm for solving a linearly constrained optimization problem. Rules are provided for branching between the two phases. Global convergence to a stationary point is established, while asymptotically PASA performs only phase two when either a nondegeneracy assumption holds, or the active constraints are linearly independent and a strong second-order sufficient optimality condition holds.

  17. Care of spinal cord injury in non-specialist settings.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Sian

    Patient with spinal cord injuries have individualised care routines to help prevent complications. Disruption to these routines following admission to non-specialist settings can have long-term consequences. This article focuses on the key long-term problems of pressure ulcers, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and autonomic dysreflexia. Nurses working on general wards need to consider how to manage these problems when caring for patients with spinal cord injury. PMID:27544957

  18. Development of the PEBLebl Traveling Salesman Problem Computerized Testbed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Shane T.; Perelman, Brandon S.; Tan, Yin Yin; Thanasuan, Kejkaew

    2015-01-01

    The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is a combinatorial optimization problem that requires finding the shortest path through a set of points ("cities") that returns to the starting point. Because humans provide heuristic near-optimal solutions to Euclidean versions of the problem, it has sometimes been used to investigate human visual…

  19. Incorporating Problem-Based Learning in Physical Education Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hushman, Glenn; Napper-Owen, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an educational method that identifies a problem as a context for student learning. Critical-thinking skills, deductive reasoning, knowledge, and behaviors are developed as students learn how theory can be applied to practical settings. Problem-based learning encourages self-direction, lifelong learning, and sharing…

  20. Don't Just Stand There--Teach Fermi Problems!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, A. W.

    2008-01-01

    Fermi problems, or order of magnitude estimates, are often used in introductory physics courses. In this paper I will show that first year students studying physics at university do not arrive with the skill set to solve these problems, and they have to be actively taught how to solve them. Once they have been shown how to solve Fermi problems,…

  1. Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University

    1997-01-01

    Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and considerations of…

  2. Using Problem Fields as a Method of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pehkonen, Erkki

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the rationale and use of problem fields which are sets of related and/or connected open-ended problem-solving tasks within mathematics instruction. Polygons with matchsticks and the number triangle are two examples of problem fields presented along with variations in conditions that promote other matchstick puzzles. (11 references) (JJK)

  3. Bugs, Planes, and Ferris Wheels: A Problem-Centered Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, William E.; Kemp, Joyce C.; Zia, Joan H.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a problem-centered curriculum for grades 9-12, using problem sets developed by a mathematics department and designed to take the place of textbooks. The students discover mathematical concepts in the context of the problems and activities in the materials.

  4. Fuzzy set applications in engineering optimization: Multilevel fuzzy optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaz, Alejandro R.

    1989-01-01

    A formulation for multilevel optimization with fuzzy objective functions is presented. With few exceptions, formulations for fuzzy optimization have dealt with a one-level problem in which the objective is the membership function of a fuzzy set formed by the fuzzy intersection of other sets. In the problem examined here, the goal set G is defined in a more general way, using an aggregation operator H that allows arbitrary combinations of set operations (union, intersection, addition) on the individual sets Gi. This is a straightforward extension of the standard form, but one that makes possible the modeling of interesting evaluation strategies. A second, more important departure from the standard form will be the construction of a multilevel problem analogous to the design decomposition problem in optimization. This arrangement facilitates the simulation of a system design process in which different components of the system are designed by different teams, and different levels of design detail become relevant at different time stages in the process: global design features early, local features later in the process.

  5. Looking at large data sets using binned data plots

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, D.B.

    1990-04-01

    This report addresses the monumental challenge of developing exploratory analysis methods for large data sets. The goals of the report are to increase awareness of large data sets problems and to contribute simple graphical methods that address some of the problems. The graphical methods focus on two- and three-dimensional data and common task such as finding outliers and tail structure, assessing central structure and comparing central structures. The methods handle large sample size problems through binning, incorporate information from statistical models and adapt image processing algorithms. Examples demonstrate the application of methods to a variety of publicly available large data sets. The most novel application addresses the too many plots to examine'' problem by using cognostics, computer guiding diagnostics, to prioritize plots. The particular application prioritizes views of computational fluid dynamics solution sets on the fly. That is, as each time step of a solution set is generated on a parallel processor the cognostics algorithms assess virtual plots based on the previous time step. Work in such areas is in its infancy and the examples suggest numerous challenges that remain. 35 refs., 15 figs.

  6. Decision-problem state analysis methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dieterly, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    A methodology for analyzing a decision-problem state is presented. The methodology is based on the analysis of an incident in terms of the set of decision-problem conditions encountered. By decomposing the events that preceded an unwanted outcome, such as an accident, into the set of decision-problem conditions that were resolved, a more comprehensive understanding is possible. All human-error accidents are not caused by faulty decision-problem resolutions, but it appears to be one of the major areas of accidents cited in the literature. A three-phase methodology is presented which accommodates a wide spectrum of events. It allows for a systems content analysis of the available data to establish: (1) the resolutions made, (2) alternatives not considered, (3) resolutions missed, and (4) possible conditions not considered. The product is a map of the decision-problem conditions that were encountered as well as a projected, assumed set of conditions that should have been considered. The application of this methodology introduces a systematic approach to decomposing the events that transpired prior to the accident. The initial emphasis is on decision and problem resolution. The technique allows for a standardized method of accident into a scenario which may used for review or the development of a training simulation.

  7. Internal ellipsoidal estimates of reachable set of impulsive control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Matviychuk, Oksana G.

    2014-11-18

    A problem of estimating reachable sets of linear impulsive control system with uncertainty in initial data is considered. The impulsive controls in the dynamical system belong to the intersection of a special cone with a generalized ellipsoid both taken in the space of functions of bounded variation. Assume that an ellipsoidal state constraints are imposed. The algorithms for constructing internal ellipsoidal estimates of reachable sets for such control systems and numerical simulation results are given.

  8. Learning trees and rules with set-valued features

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, W.W.

    1996-12-31

    In most learning systems examples are represented as fixed-length {open_quotes}feature vectors{close_quotes}, the components of which are either real numbers or nominal values. We propose an extension of the feature-vector representation that allows the value of a feature to be a set of strings; for instance, to represent a small white and black dog with the nominal features size and species and the set-valued feature color, one might use a feature vector with size-small, species-canis-familiaris and color-(white, black). Since we make no assumptions about the number of possible set elements, this extension of the traditional feature-vector representation is closely connected to Blum`s {open_quotes}infinite attribute{close_quotes} representation. We argue that many decision tree and rule learning algorithms can be easily extended to set-valued features. We also show by example that many real-world learning problems can be efficiently and naturally represented with set-valued features; in particular, text categorization problems and problems that arise in propositionalizing first-order representations lend themselves to set-valued features.

  9. Intelligent virtual reality in the setting of fuzzy sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dockery, John; Littman, David

    1992-01-01

    The authors have previously introduced the concept of virtual reality worlds governed by artificial intelligence. Creation of an intelligent virtual reality was further proposed as a universal interface for the handicapped. This paper extends consideration of intelligent virtual realty to a context in which fuzzy set principles are explored as a major tool for implementing theory in the domain of applications to the disabled.

  10. Vocabulary Mining for Information Retrieval: Rough Sets and Fuzzy Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Padmini; Ruiz, Miguel E.; Kraft, Donald H.; Chen, Jianhua

    2001-01-01

    Explains vocabulary mining in information retrieval and describes a framework for vocabulary mining that allows the use of rough set-based approximations even when documents and queries are described using weighted, or fuzzy, representations. Examines coordination between multiple vocabulary views and applies the framework to the Unified Medical…

  11. Matrix interdiction problem

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Feng; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva

    2010-01-01

    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  12. Setting up terminal care units *

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Bridget

    1980-01-01

    From my experience the main problems found by developing terminal care units have been: initial acceptance from existing medical disciplines; communication difficulties and misunderstandings because of them; mistakes in planning and design, possibly due to lack of experience or attention to detail; occasionally, the appointment of staff that have proved unsuitable; problems in the siting of a unit, usually due to shortage of available land. The ideal site is centrally placed in the community it serves and easily accessible to public transport. PMID:7452580

  13. ROV overcomes deepwater problems

    SciTech Connect

    Frisbie, F.R.; Hughes, E.W.

    1984-09-01

    The use of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in supportive drill ships operating in more than 200 meters of water poses severe technical and operational problems. Defining these problems beforehand and addressing them during design, manufacture, testing and installation ensures a functional and effective support capability. Such problems as the availability of desk space, and the subsequent installation, maintenance, and the launch/recovery of the system are described.

  14. Segmenting data sets for RIP.

    PubMed

    de Sanctis, Daniele; Nanao, Max H

    2012-09-01

    Specific radiation damage can be used for the phasing of macromolecular crystal structures. In practice, however, the optimization of the X-ray dose used to `burn' the crystal to induce specific damage can be difficult. Here, a method is presented in which a single large data set that has not been optimized in any way for radiation-damage-induced phasing (RIP) is segmented into multiple sub-data sets, which can then be used for RIP. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated using two model systems and two test systems. A method to improve the success of this type of phasing experiment by varying the composition of the two sub-data sets with respect to their separation by image number, and hence by absorbed dose, as well as their individual completeness is illustrated. PMID:22948916

  15. On Euler's problem

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, Yurii V

    2013-04-30

    We consider the classical problem on the tallest column which was posed by Euler in 1757. Bernoulli-Euler theory serves today as the basis for the design of high buildings. This problem is reduced to the problem of finding the potential for the Sturm-Liouville equation corresponding to the maximum of the first eigenvalue. The problem has been studied by many mathematicians but we give the first rigorous proof of the existence and uniqueness of the optimal column and we give new formulae which let us find it. Our method is based on a new approach consisting in the study of critical points of a related nonlinear functional. Bibliography: 6 titles.

  16. Known TCP Implementation Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Vern (Editor); Allman, Mark; Dawson, Scott; Fenner, William; Griner, Jim; Heavens, Ian; Lahey, K.; Semke, J.; Volz, B.

    1999-01-01

    This memo catalogs a number of known TCP implementation problems. The goal in doing so is to improve conditions in the existing Internet by enhancing the quality of current TCP/IP implementations. It is hoped that both performance and correctness issues can be resolved by making implementors aware of the problems and their solutions. In the long term, it is hoped that this will provide a reduction in unnecessary traffic on the network, the rate of connection failures due to protocol errors, and load on network servers due to time spent processing both unsuccessful connections and retransmitted data. This will help to ensure the stability of the global Internet. Each problem is defined as follows: Name of Problem The name associated with the problem. In this memo, the name is given as a subsection heading. Classification one or more problem categories for which the problem is classified: "congestion control", "performance", "reliability", "resource management". Description A definition of the problem, succinct but including necessary background material. Significance A brief summary of the sorts of environments for which the problem is significant.

  17. Tactical missile turbulence problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, Richard E.

    1987-01-01

    Of particular interest is atmospheric turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer, since this affects both the launch and terminal phase of flight, and the total flight for direct fire systems. Brief discussions are presented on rocket artillery boost wind problems, mean wind correction, turbulent boost wind correction, the Dynamically Aimed Free Flight Rocket (DAFFR) wind filter, the DAFFR test, and rocket wake turbulence problems. It is concluded that many of the turbulence problems of rockets and missiles are common to those of aircraft, such as structural loading and control system design. However, these problems have not been solved at this time.

  18. Specific Pronunciation Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Peter; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Reviews common pronunciation problems experienced by learners of English as a second language who are native speakers of Vietnamese, Cantonese, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Polish, Greek, and Punjabi. (CB)

  19. On the estimation of the attainability set of nonlinear control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ekimov, A.V.; Balykina, Yu.E.; Svirkin, M.V.

    2015-03-10

    Analysis of the attainability set and construction of its estimates greatly facilitates the solution of a variety of problems in mathematical control theory. In the paper, the problem of boundedness of the integral funnel of nonlinear controlled system is considered. Some estimates of the attainability sets for a nonlinear controlled system are presented. Theorems on the boundedness of considered integral funnels are proved.

  20. Support vector machine classifiers for large data sets.

    SciTech Connect

    Gertz, E. M.; Griffin, J. D.

    2006-01-31

    This report concerns the generation of support vector machine classifiers for solving the pattern recognition problem in machine learning. Several methods are proposed based on interior point methods for convex quadratic programming. Software implementations are developed by adapting the object-oriented packaging OOQP to the problem structure and by using the software package PETSc to perform time-intensive computations in a distributed setting. Linear systems arising from classification problems with moderately large numbers of features are solved by using two techniques--one a parallel direct solver, the other a Krylov-subspace method incorporating novel preconditioning strategies. Numerical results are provided, and computational experience is discussed.

  1. Discrete Optimization with Polynomially Detectable Boundaries and Restricted Level Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinder, Yakov; Memar, Julia; Singh, Gaurav

    The paper describes an optimization procedure for a class of discrete optimization problems which is defined by certain properties of the boundary of the feasible region and level sets of the objective function. It is shown that these properties are possessed, for example, by various scheduling problems, including a number of well-known NP-hard problems which play an important role in scheduling theory. For an important particular case the presented optimization procedure is compared with a version of the branch-and-bound algorithm by means of computational experiments.

  2. Problem Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Don; Serian, Charles; Sweet, Robert; Sapir, Babak; Gamez, Enrique; Mays, David

    2008-01-01

    The Problem Reporting System (PRS) is a Web application, running on two Web servers (load-balanced) and two database servers (RAID-5), which establishes a system for submission, editing, and sharing of reports to manage risk assessment of anomalies identified in NASA's flight projects. PRS consolidates diverse anomaly-reporting systems, maintains a rich database set, and incorporates a robust engine, which allows tracking of any hardware, software, or paper process by configuring an appropriate life cycle. Global and specific project administration and setup tools allow lifecycle tailoring, along with customizable controls for user, e-mail, notifications, and more. PRS is accessible via the World Wide Web for authorized user at most any location. Upon successful log-in, the user receives a customizable window, which displays time-critical 'To Do' items (anomalies requiring the user s input before the system moves the anomaly to the next phase of the lifecycle), anomalies originated by the user, anomalies the user has addressed, and custom queries that can be saved for future use. Access controls exist depending on a user's role as system administrator, project administrator, user, or developer, and then, further by association with user, project, subsystem, company, or item with provisions for business-to-business exclusions, limitations on access according to the covert or overt nature of a given project, all with multiple layers of filtration, as needed. Reporting of metrics is built in. There is a provision for proxy access (in which the user may choose to grant one or more other users to view screens and perform actions as though they were the user, during any part of a tracking life cycle - especially useful during tight build schedules and vacations to keep things moving). The system also provides users the ability to have an anomaly link to or notify other systems, including QA Inspection Reports, Safety, GIDEP (Government-Industry Data Exchange Program

  3. Resolvent-Techniques for Multiple Exercise Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Sören; Lempa, Jukka

    2015-02-15

    We study optimal multiple stopping of strong Markov processes with random refraction periods. The refraction periods are assumed to be exponentially distributed with a common rate and independent of the underlying dynamics. Our main tool is using the resolvent operator. In the first part, we reduce infinite stopping problems to ordinary ones in a general strong Markov setting. This leads to explicit solutions for wide classes of such problems. Starting from this result, we analyze problems with finitely many exercise rights and explain solution methods for some classes of problems with underlying Lévy and diffusion processes, where the optimal characteristics of the problems can be identified more explicitly. We illustrate the main results with explicit examples.

  4. On the structure of invariant measures for set-valued maps

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbachev, Aleksei N; Stepin, Anatolii M

    2011-09-30

    Properties of measures invariant with respect to set-valued maps are studied. It is shown that an absolutely continuous invariant measure for a set-valued map need not be unique, and the set of all invariant measures need not be a Choquet simplex. The problem concerning the existence of invariant measures with respect to set-valued maps parametrized by single-valued and set-valued maps of the circle having various smoothness classes is studied. Bibliography: 13 titles.

  5. Loneliness in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause-Parello, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    Loneliness is a phenomenon that has been recorded in literature throughout the ages. It is now being recognized as problem not only in adults but in children and adolescents as well. Loneliness is an emotional state that can be a barrier to a student's social development and affect their physical and mental health. Various contributing factors and…

  6. Overview and literature survey of fuzzy set theory in power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Momoh, J.A.; Ma, X.W.; Tomsovic, K.

    1995-08-01

    Increasing interest has been seen in applying fuzzy set theory to power systems problems from the number of publications on this topic in recent years. As a relatively new research topic a need is felt to pay more attention to the understanding of the basic principles of the theory and the identification of problems suitable for solving by this method. This paper presents a survey of recent publications on applications of fuzzy set theory to power systems and the basic procedures for fuzzy set based methods to solve specific power systems problems. Simple numerical examples are used to show the practical procedures of problem formulation and solution.

  7. Learning to Relate Qualitative and Quantitative Problem Representations in a Model-Based Setting for Collaborative Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploetzner, Rolf; Fehse, Eric; Kneser, Cornelia; Spada, Hans

    1999-01-01

    Investigates how 10th-grade students acquire, extend, and successively relate knowledge about qualitative and quantitative aspects of classical mechanics. Analysis of the multicomponent tests revealed that qualitative, as well as quantitative, knowledge can be taught successfully using concept maps. (Author/CCM)

  8. Setting up a postmortem service.

    PubMed

    der Burgt, Guda van

    2016-06-25

    Pets and pony camp, and a wish for a career that involved working with her hands, led Guda van der Burgt to study veterinary medicine at Utrecht. Starting her working life with a cattle breeding company, she moved into large animal work, industry and state veterinary medicine, all of which gave her the skills to set up a postmortem examination service. PMID:27339933

  9. Setting Time Limits on Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown how the time limit on a test can be set to control the probability of a test taker running out of time before completing it. The probability is derived from the item parameters in the lognormal model for response times. Examples of curves representing the probability of running out of time on a test with given parameters as a function…

  10. Teaching Quality across School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Julie; Brown, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Districts are increasingly making personnel decisions based on teachers' impact on student-achievement gains and classroom observations. In some schools, however, a teacher's practices and their students' achievement may reflect not just individual but collaborative efforts. In other settings, teachers' instruction benefits less from the insights…

  11. A distributed telerobotics construction set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, James D.

    1994-01-01

    During the course of our research on distributed telerobotic systems, we have assembled a collection of generic, reusable software modules and an infrastructure for connecting them to form a variety of telerobotic configurations. This paper describes the structure of this 'Telerobotics Construction Set' and lists some of the components which comprise it.

  12. Bullying in Early Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirves, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of bullying in early educational settings in Finnish kindergartens. In addition, the study investigated whether bullying in kindergartens differs from school bullying and what forms bullying takes among under-school-age children. Two kinds of data were collected for the study: data from a survey…

  13. Entrepreneurism in the Academic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mossberg, Howard E.

    1994-01-01

    The literature on entrepreneurship is reviewed as it relates to the university setting. Academic entrepreneurship is defined as actions designed to increase individual or institutional profit or prestige through development and marketing of research ideas or products. Case studies in the fields of pharmacy and biochemistry are presented. (MSE)

  14. Goal Setting to Achieve Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Rich

    2012-01-01

    Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…

  15. Families & School. Best of "set."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podmore, Valerie N., Ed.; Richards, Llyn, Ed.

    Published to celebrate the United Nations' International Year of the Family, this special issue presents selected articles from "set," a twice yearly journal of research information for teachers. These articles look at the contribution of educational research on the relationships between schools and families, and families and learning in Australia…

  16. National Priorities List book set

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The report provides general Superfund background information and descriptions of activities at each State National Priorities List (NPL) sites. The set of documents compiles State-Specific site summary fact sheets on each site being cleaned up under the Superfund program. The individual state sites are available as PB91-921207, and PB91-921209 thru PB91-921258.

  17. Assessing After-School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Goldsmith, Julie; Sheldon, Jessica; Arbreton, Amy J. A.

    2009-01-01

    According to previous research, three point-of-service features--strong youth engagement, well-conceived and well-delivered content, and a conducive learning environment--lead to positive impacts in after-school settings, the ultimate gauge of quality. To assess quality at a program's point of service, researchers and program administrators should…

  18. Grading Students in Inclusive Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.; Duhaney, Laurel M. Garrick

    2002-01-01

    This article offers guidelines for determining equitable, accountable, and effective grading practices and policies for all students that balance the need for a common set of standards and the individual needs of the students. Purposes of grading, grading systems, and effective instructional practices that support grading processes are discussed.…

  19. Criteria for Developing Criteria Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James L.

    Criteria sets are a necessary step in the systematic development of evaluation in education. Evaluation results from the combination of criteria and evidence. There is a need to develop explicit tools for evaluating criteria, similar to those used in evaluating evidence. The formulation of such criteria depends on distinguishing between terms…

  20. Organizational Constraints and Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putney, Frederick B.; Wotman, Stephen

    1978-01-01

    Management modeling techniques are applied to setting operational and capital goals using cost analysis techniques in this case study at the Columbia University School of Dental and Oral Surgery. The model was created as a planning tool used in developing a financially feasible operating plan and a 100 percent physical renewal plan. (LBH)