Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 110.1 Section 110.1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS DISCHARGE OF OIL § 110.1 Definitions. Terms not defined in this section have the same meaning given by the Section 311 of the Act....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 110.1 Section 110.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 110.1 Purpose. This part implements the Public Readiness and...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 110.1 Section 110.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 110.1 Purpose. This part implements the Public Readiness and...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 110.1 Section 110.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 110.1 Purpose. This part implements the Public Readiness and...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Purpose. 110.1 Section 110.1 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 110.1 Purpose. This part implements the Public Readiness and...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 110.1 Section 110.1 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT FAIR HOUSING FAIR......
Problem Based Learning in a Clinical Setting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rouse, Michael W.; Borsting, Eric
1990-01-01
A problem-based learning approach emphasizing problem solving and self-directed learning was designed for third-year students entering vision therapy clinic rotations. The approach's use in a clinical setting, student and faculty response, and preliminary conclusions about the approach's advantages and disadvantages are discussed. (Author/MSE)
Statistical mechanics of the hitting set problem.
Mézard, Marc; Tarzia, Marco
2007-10-01
In this paper we present a detailed study of the hitting set (HS) problem. This problem is a generalization of the standard vertex cover to hypergraphs: one seeks a configuration of particles with minimal density such that every hyperedge of the hypergraph contains at least one particle. It can also be used in important practical tasks, such as the group testing procedures where one wants to detect defective items in a large group by pool testing. Using a statistical mechanics approach based on the cavity method, we study the phase diagram of the HS problem, in the case of random regular hypergraphs. Depending on the values of the variables and tests degrees different situations can occur: The HS problem can be either in a replica symmetric phase, or in a one-step replica symmetry breaking one. In these two cases, we give explicit results on the minimal density of particles, and the structure of the phase space. These problems are thus in some sense simpler than the original vertex cover problem, where the need for a full replica symmetry breaking has prevented the derivation of exact results so far. Finally, we show that decimation procedures based on the belief propagation and the survey propagation algorithms provide very efficient strategies to solve large individual instances of the hitting set problem.
Inverting sets and the packing problem
Faber, V.; Goldberg, M.K.; Knill, E.; Spencer, T.H.
1992-12-01
Given a set V, a subset S, and a permutation {pi} of V, we say that {pi} permutes S if {pi}(S) {intersection} S = {theta}. Given a collection S = (V; S{sub 1}..., S{sub m}), where S{sub i} {improper_subset} V (i = 1,...,m), we say that S is invertible if there is a permutation {pi} of V such that {pi}(S{sub i}) {improper_subset} V -- S{sub i}. In this paper, we present necessary and sufficient conditions for the invertibility of a collection and construct a polynomial algorithm which determines whether a given collection is invertible. For an arbitrary collection, we give a lower bound for the maximum number of sets that can be inverted. Finally, we consider the problem of constructing a collection of sets such that no sub-collection of size three is invertible. Our constructions of such collections come from solutions to the packing problem with unbounded block sizes. We prove several new lower and upper bounds for the packing problem and present a new explicit construction of packing.
Inverting sets and the packing problem
Faber, V. ); Goldberg, M.K. . Dept. of Computer Science); Knill, E. . School of Computer Science); Spencer, T.H. . Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science)
1992-01-01
Given a set V, a subset S, and a permutation [pi] of V, we say that [pi] permutes S if [pi](S) [intersection] S = [theta]. Given a collection S = (V; S[sub 1]..., S[sub m]), where S[sub i] [improper subset] V (i = 1,...,m), we say that S is invertible if there is a permutation [pi] of V such that [pi](S[sub i]) [improper subset] V -- S[sub i]. In this paper, we present necessary and sufficient conditions for the invertibility of a collection and construct a polynomial algorithm which determines whether a given collection is invertible. For an arbitrary collection, we give a lower bound for the maximum number of sets that can be inverted. Finally, we consider the problem of constructing a collection of sets such that no sub-collection of size three is invertible. Our constructions of such collections come from solutions to the packing problem with unbounded block sizes. We prove several new lower and upper bounds for the packing problem and present a new explicit construction of packing.
Complex Problem Solving in a Workplace Setting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Middleton, Howard
2002-01-01
Studied complex problem solving in the hospitality industry through interviews with six office staff members and managers. Findings show it is possible to construct a taxonomy of problem types and that the most common approach can be termed "trial and error." (SLD)
Couples' Reports of Relationship Problems in a Naturalistic Therapy Setting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boisvert, Marie-Michele; Wright, John; Tremblay, Nadine; McDuff, Pierre
2011-01-01
Understanding couples' relationship problems is fundamental to couple therapy. Although research has documented common relationship problems, no study has used open-ended questions to explore problems in couples seeking therapy in naturalistic settings. The present study used a reliable coding system to explore the relationship problems reported…
Investigating the effect of mental set on insight problem solving.
Ollinger, Michael; Jones, Gary; Knoblich, Günther
2008-01-01
Mental set is the tendency to solve certain problems in a fixed way based on previous solutions to similar problems. The moment of insight occurs when a problem cannot be solved using solution methods suggested by prior experience and the problem solver suddenly realizes that the solution requires different solution methods. Mental set and insight have often been linked together and yet no attempt thus far has systematically examined the interplay between the two. Three experiments are presented that examine the extent to which sets of noninsight and insight problems affect the subsequent solutions of insight test problems. The results indicate a subtle interplay between mental set and insight: when the set involves noninsight problems, no mental set effects are shown for the insight test problems, yet when the set involves insight problems, both facilitation and inhibition can be seen depending on the type of insight problem presented in the set. A two process model is detailed to explain these findings that combines the representational change mechanism with that of proceduralization.
Individualized Math Problems in Whole Numbers. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cosler, Norma, Ed.
This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems in this set require computations involving whole numbers.…
40 CFR 211.110-1 - Testing exemption.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Testing exemption. 211.110-1 Section 211.110-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT... intended to be used solely for research, investigations, studies, demonstrations or training, and...
10 CFR 110.1 - Purpose and scope.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... commodities such as bulk zirconium, rotor and bellows equipment, maraging steel, nuclear reactor related... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 110.1 Section 110.1 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General...
10 CFR 110.1 - Purpose and scope.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... commodities such as bulk zirconium, rotor and bellows equipment, maraging steel, nuclear reactor related... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 110.1 Section 110.1 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General...
10 CFR 110.1 - Purpose and scope.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... commodities such as bulk zirconium, rotor and bellows equipment, maraging steel, nuclear reactor related... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 110.1 Section 110.1 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General...
10 CFR 110.1 - Purpose and scope.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... commodities such as bulk zirconium, rotor and bellows equipment, maraging steel, nuclear reactor related... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 110.1 Section 110.1 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General...
10 CFR 110.1 - Purpose and scope.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... zirconium, rotor and bellows equipment, maraging steel, nuclear reactor related equipment, including process... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose and scope. 110.1 Section 110.1 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL General...
41 CFR 109-40.110-1 - Small business assistance.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Small business assistance. 109-40.110-1 Section 109-40.110-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS...
Two Quantum Protocols for Oblivious Set-member Decision Problem
Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun
2015-01-01
In this paper, we defined a new secure multi-party computation problem, called Oblivious Set-member Decision problem, which allows one party to decide whether a secret of another party belongs to his private set in an oblivious manner. There are lots of important applications of Oblivious Set-member Decision problem in fields of the multi-party collaborative computation of protecting the privacy of the users, such as private set intersection and union, anonymous authentication, electronic voting and electronic auction. Furthermore, we presented two quantum protocols to solve the Oblivious Set-member Decision problem. Protocol I takes advantage of powerful quantum oracle operations so that it needs lower costs in both communication and computation complexity; while Protocol II takes photons as quantum resources and only performs simple single-particle projective measurements, thus it is more feasible with the present technology. PMID:26514668
Two Quantum Protocols for Oblivious Set-member Decision Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Run-Hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun
2015-10-01
In this paper, we defined a new secure multi-party computation problem, called Oblivious Set-member Decision problem, which allows one party to decide whether a secret of another party belongs to his private set in an oblivious manner. There are lots of important applications of Oblivious Set-member Decision problem in fields of the multi-party collaborative computation of protecting the privacy of the users, such as private set intersection and union, anonymous authentication, electronic voting and electronic auction. Furthermore, we presented two quantum protocols to solve the Oblivious Set-member Decision problem. Protocol I takes advantage of powerful quantum oracle operations so that it needs lower costs in both communication and computation complexity; while Protocol II takes photons as quantum resources and only performs simple single-particle projective measurements, thus it is more feasible with the present technology.
Individualized Math Problems in Fractions. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cosler, Norma, Ed.
This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This package contains problems involving computation with common…
Individualized Math Problems in Ratio and Proportion. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cosler, Norma, Ed.
This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This volume contains problems involving ratio and proportion. Some…
Individualized Math Problems in Decimals. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cosler, Norma, Ed.
THis is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems in this volume concern use of decimals and are related to the…
Individualized Math Problems in Simple Equations. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cosler, Norma, Ed.
This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems in this volume require solution of linear equations, systems…
Individualized Math Problems in Percent. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cosler, Norma, Ed.
This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This volume includes problems concerned with computing percents.…
Individualized Math Problems in Volume. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cosler, Norma, Ed.
This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems in this booklet require the computation of volumes of solids,…
Individualized Math Problems in Logarithms. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cosler, Norma, Ed.
THis is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This volume includes problems involving logarithms, exponents, and…
Individualized Math Problems in Geometry. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cosler, Norma, Ed.
This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. The volume contains problems in applied geometry. Measurement of…
Individualized Math Problems in Trigonometry. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cosler, Norma, Ed.
This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. Problems in this volume require the use of trigonometric and inverse…
Individualized Math Problems in Metrics. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cosler, Norma, Ed.
This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This booklet contains a problem on metric measurement in the area of…
Individualized Math Problems in Measurement and Conversion. Oregon Vo-Tech Mathematics Problem Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cosler, Norma, Ed.
This is one of eighteen sets of individualized mathematics problems developed by the Oregon Vo-Tech Math Project. Each of these problem packages is organized around a mathematical topic and contains problems related to diverse vocations. Solutions are provided for all problems. This volume includes problems involving measurement, computation of…
A Set-Oriented Perspective on Solving Counting Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lockwood, Elise
2014-01-01
In this article, I present the notion of a set-oriented perspective for solving counting problems that emerged during task-based interviews with postsecondary students. Framing the findings within Harel's "ways of thinking", I argue that students may benefit from this perspective, in which they view attending to sets of outcomes as…
System for solving diagnosis and hitting set problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fijany, Amir (Inventor); Vatan, Farrokh (Inventor)
2007-01-01
The diagnosis problem arises when a system's actual behavior contradicts the expected behavior, thereby exhibiting symptoms (a collection of conflict sets). System diagnosis is then the task of identifying faulty components that are responsible for anomalous behavior. To solve the diagnosis problem, the present invention describes a method for finding the minimal set of faulty components (minimal diagnosis set) that explain the conflict sets. The method includes acts of creating a matrix of the collection of conflict sets, and then creating nodes from the matrix such that each node is a node in a search tree. A determination is made as to whether each node is a leaf node or has any children nodes. If any given node has children nodes, then the node is split until all nodes are leaf nodes. Information gathered from the leaf nodes is used to determine the minimal diagnosis set.
A parallel genetic algorithm for the set partitioning problem
Levine, D.
1994-05-01
In this dissertation the author reports on his efforts to develop a parallel genetic algorithm and apply it to the solution of set partitioning problem -- a difficult combinatorial optimization problem used by many airlines as a mathematical model for flight crew scheduling. He developed a distributed steady-state genetic algorithm in conjunction with a specialized local search heuristic for solving the set partitioning problem. The genetic algorithm is based on an island model where multiple independent subpopulations each run a steady-state genetic algorithm on their subpopulation and occasionally fit strings migrate between the subpopulations. Tests on forty real-world set partitioning problems were carried out on up to 128 nodes of an IBM SP1 parallel computer. The authors found that performance, as measured by the quality of the solution found and the iteration on which it was found, improved as additional subpopulation found and the iteration on which it was found, improved as additional subpopulations were added to the computation. With larger numbers of subpopulations the genetic algorithm was regularly able to find the optimal solution to problems having up to a few thousand integer variables. In two cases, high-quality integer feasible solutions were found for problems with 36,699 and 43,749 integer variables, respectively. A notable limitation they found was the difficulty solving problems with many constraints.
The Impact of Problem Sets on Student Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Myeong Hwan; Cho, Moon-Heum; Leonard, Karen Moustafa
2012-01-01
The authors examined the role of problem sets on student learning in university microeconomics. A total of 126 students participated in the study in consecutive years. independent samples t test showed that students who were not given answer keys outperformed students who were given answer keys. Multiple regression analysis showed that, along with…
A parallel genetic algorithm for the set partitioning problem
Levine, D.
1996-12-31
This paper describes a parallel genetic algorithm developed for the solution of the set partitioning problem- a difficult combinatorial optimization problem used by many airlines as a mathematical model for flight crew scheduling. The genetic algorithm is based on an island model where multiple independent subpopulations each run a steady-state genetic algorithm on their own subpopulation and occasionally fit strings migrate between the subpopulations. Tests on forty real-world set partitioning problems were carried out on up to 128 nodes of an IBM SP1 parallel computer. We found that performance, as measured by the quality of the solution found and the iteration on which it was found, improved as additional subpopulations were added to the computation. With larger numbers of subpopulations the genetic algorithm was regularly able to find the optimal solution to problems having up to a few thousand integer variables. In two cases, high- quality integer feasible solutions were found for problems with 36, 699 and 43,749 integer variables, respectively. A notable limitation we found was the difficulty solving problems with many constraints.
A neural computation approach to the set covering problem
Grossman, T.
1995-07-01
This paper presents a neural network algorithm which is capable of finding approximate solutions for unicost set covering problems. The network has two types of units (neurons), with different dynamics and activation functions. One type represents the objects to be covered (the rows in the matrix representation of the problem) and another represents the ``covering`` sets (the 0,1 variables). They are connected as a bipartite graph which represents the incidence relations between objects and sets (i.e the 0,1 adjacency matrix). When the parameters of the units are correctly tuned, the stable states of the system correspond to the minimal covers. I show that in its basic mode of operation, descent dynamics, when the network is set in an arbitrary initial state it converges in less than 2n steps (where n is the number of variables), to a stable state which represents a valid solution. In this mode, the network implements a greedy heuristic in which the choice function is based on the unit inputs (which are determined by the activation functions and the network state). On top of the basic network dynamics, the algorithm applies an adaptive restart procedure which helps to search more effectively for ``good`` initial states and results in better performance.
Solving Set Cover with Pairs Problem using Quantum Annealing
Cao, Yudong; Jiang, Shuxian; Perouli, Debbie; Kais, Sabre
2016-01-01
Here we consider using quantum annealing to solve Set Cover with Pairs (SCP), an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem that plays an important role in networking, computational biology, and biochemistry. We show an explicit construction of Ising Hamiltonians whose ground states encode the solution of SCP instances. We numerically simulate the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in order to test the performance of quantum annealing for random instances and compare with that of simulated annealing. We also discuss explicit embedding strategies for realizing our Hamiltonian construction on the D-wave type restricted Ising Hamiltonian based on Chimera graphs. Our embedding on the Chimera graph preserves the structure of the original SCP instance and in particular, the embedding for general complete bipartite graphs and logical disjunctions may be of broader use than that the specific problem we deal with. PMID:27670578
Solving Set Cover with Pairs Problem using Quantum Annealing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Yudong; Jiang, Shuxian; Perouli, Debbie; Kais, Sabre
2016-09-01
Here we consider using quantum annealing to solve Set Cover with Pairs (SCP), an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem that plays an important role in networking, computational biology, and biochemistry. We show an explicit construction of Ising Hamiltonians whose ground states encode the solution of SCP instances. We numerically simulate the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in order to test the performance of quantum annealing for random instances and compare with that of simulated annealing. We also discuss explicit embedding strategies for realizing our Hamiltonian construction on the D-wave type restricted Ising Hamiltonian based on Chimera graphs. Our embedding on the Chimera graph preserves the structure of the original SCP instance and in particular, the embedding for general complete bipartite graphs and logical disjunctions may be of broader use than that the specific problem we deal with.
Problems in merging Earth sensing satellite data sets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Paul H.; Goldberg, Michael J.
1987-01-01
Satellite remote sensing systems provide a tremendous source of data flow to the Earth science community. These systems provide scientists with data of types and on a scale previously unattainable. Looking forward to the capabilities of Space Station and the Earth Observing System (EOS), the full realization of the potential of satellite remote sensing will be handicapped by inadequate information systems. There is a growing emphasis in Earth science research to ask questions which are multidisciplinary in nature and global in scale. Many of these research projects emphasize the interactions of the land surface, the atmosphere, and the oceans through various physical mechanisms. Conducting this research requires large and complex data sets and teams of multidisciplinary scientists, often working at remote locations. A review of the problems of merging these large volumes of data into spatially referenced and manageable data sets is presented.
A statistical mechanics analysis of the set covering problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fontanari, J. F.
1996-02-01
The dependence of the optimal solution average cost 0305-4470/29/3/004/img1 of the set covering problem on the density of 1's of the incidence matrix (0305-4470/29/3/004/img2) and on the number of constraints (P) is investigated in the limit where the number of items (N) goes to infinity. The annealed approximation is employed to study two stochastic models: the constant density model, where the elements of the incidence matrix are statistically independent random variables, and the Karp model, where the rows of the incidence matrix possess the same number of 1's. Lower bounds for 0305-4470/29/3/004/img1 are presented in the case that P scales with ln N and 0305-4470/29/3/004/img2 is of order 1, as well as in the case that P scales linearly with N and 0305-4470/29/3/004/img2 is of order 1/N. It is shown that in the case that P scales with exp N and 0305-4470/29/3/004/img2 is of order 1 the annealed approximation yields exact results for both models.
Basis set expansion for inverse problems in plasma diagnostic analysis.
Jones, B; Ruiz, C L
2013-07-01
A basis set expansion method [V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, and H. Reisler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2634 (2002)] is applied to recover physical information about plasma radiation sources from instrument data, which has been forward transformed due to the nature of the measurement technique. This method provides a general approach for inverse problems, and we discuss two specific examples relevant to diagnosing fast z pinches on the 20-25 MA Z machine [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats, J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, L. K. Warne, J. R. Woodworth, C. W. Mendel, K. R. Prestwich, R. W. Shoup, D. L. Johnson, J. P. Corley, K. C. Hodge, T. C. Wagoner, and P. E. Wakeland, in Proceedings of the Pulsed Power Plasma Sciences Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 979]. First, Abel inversion of time-gated, self-emission x-ray images from a wire array implosion is studied. Second, we present an approach for unfolding neutron time-of-flight measurements from a deuterium gas puff z pinch to recover information about emission time history and energy distribution. Through these examples, we discuss how noise in the measured data limits the practical resolution of the inversion, and how the method handles discontinuities in the source function and artifacts in the projected image. We add to the method a propagation of errors calculation for estimating uncertainties in the inverted solution.
Biophysics at the Boundaries: The Next Problem Sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skolnick, Malcolm
2009-03-01
The interface between physics and biology is one of the fastest growing subfields of physics. As knowledge of such topics as cellular processes and complex ecological systems advances, researchers have found that progress in understanding these and other systems requires application of more quantitative approaches. Today, there is a growing demand for quantitative and computational skills in biological research and the commercialization of that research. The fragmented teaching of science in our universities still leaves biology outside the quantitative and mathematical culture that is the foundation of physics. This is particularly inopportune at a time when the needs for quantitative thinking about biological systems are exploding. More physicists should be encouraged to become active in research and development in the growing application fields of biophysics including molecular genetics, biomedical imaging, tissue generation and regeneration, drug development, prosthetics, neural and brain function, kinetics of nonequilibrium open biological systems, metabolic networks, biological transport processes, large-scale biochemical networks and stochastic processes in biochemical systems to name a few. In addition to moving into basic research in these areas, there is increasing opportunity for physicists in industry beginning with entrepreneurial roles in taking research results out of the laboratory and in the industries who perfect and market the inventions and developments that physicists produce. In this talk we will identify and discuss emerging opportunities for physicists in biophysical and biotechnological pursuits ranging from basic research through development of applications and commercialization of results. This will include discussion of the roles of physicists in non-traditional areas apart from academia such as patent law, financial analysis and regulatory science and the problem sets assigned in education and training that will enable future
Basis set expansion for inverse problems in plasma diagnostic analysis
Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.
2013-07-15
A basis set expansion method [V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, and H. Reisler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2634 (2002)] is applied to recover physical information about plasma radiation sources from instrument data, which has been forward transformed due to the nature of the measurement technique. This method provides a general approach for inverse problems, and we discuss two specific examples relevant to diagnosing fast z pinches on the 20–25 MA Z machine [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats, J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, L. K. Warne, J. R. Woodworth, C. W. Mendel, K. R. Prestwich, R. W. Shoup, D. L. Johnson, J. P. Corley, K. C. Hodge, T. C. Wagoner, and P. E. Wakeland, in Proceedings of the Pulsed Power Plasma Sciences Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 979]. First, Abel inversion of time-gated, self-emission x-ray images from a wire array implosion is studied. Second, we present an approach for unfolding neutron time-of-flight measurements from a deuterium gas puff z pinch to recover information about emission time history and energy distribution. Through these examples, we discuss how noise in the measured data limits the practical resolution of the inversion, and how the method handles discontinuities in the source function and artifacts in the projected image. We add to the method a propagation of errors calculation for estimating uncertainties in the inverted solution.
Basis set expansion for inverse problems in plasma diagnostic analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, B.; Ruiz, C. L.
2013-07-01
A basis set expansion method [V. Dribinski, A. Ossadtchi, V. A. Mandelshtam, and H. Reisler, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 2634 (2002)], 10.1063/1.1482156 is applied to recover physical information about plasma radiation sources from instrument data, which has been forward transformed due to the nature of the measurement technique. This method provides a general approach for inverse problems, and we discuss two specific examples relevant to diagnosing fast z pinches on the 20-25 MA Z machine [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats, J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, L. K. Warne, J. R. Woodworth, C. W. Mendel, K. R. Prestwich, R. W. Shoup, D. L. Johnson, J. P. Corley, K. C. Hodge, T. C. Wagoner, and P. E. Wakeland, in Proceedings of the Pulsed Power Plasma Sciences Conference (IEEE, 2007), p. 979]. First, Abel inversion of time-gated, self-emission x-ray images from a wire array implosion is studied. Second, we present an approach for unfolding neutron time-of-flight measurements from a deuterium gas puff z pinch to recover information about emission time history and energy distribution. Through these examples, we discuss how noise in the measured data limits the practical resolution of the inversion, and how the method handles discontinuities in the source function and artifacts in the projected image. We add to the method a propagation of errors calculation for estimating uncertainties in the inverted solution.
Hydrocarbon Development from Shale: A Set of Important, Unsolved Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ingraffea, A. R.; Burchell, A.; Howarth, R.; Wilson, A.; Doe, P.; Colborn, T.; Wood, M. C.
2013-12-01
Hydraulic fracturing has become synonymous with the new technologies and processes used to develop oil and methane from shale formations. We will address the following important set of problems associated with such development and the role scientists are playing in communicating these to the public. Human Health Consequences: The health consequences of the wide-range of fugitive hydrocarbon emissions associated with methane and oil are not adequately addressed. New evidence about exposure to, and the known and possible health effects of, these toxic hitch hikers will be presented. Methane Emissions: Methane is a more powerful greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, though atmospheric residence is shorter. Methane is emitted through-out the development life-cycle, albeit there is uncertainty over the rate, and short-term effect on global warming. Leakage from Faulty Wells: Multiple industry studies show that about 5 percent of oil and gas wells immediately leak methane and other fluids into the atmosphere and water wells due to integrity issues and increasing rates of leakage over time. With millions of wells drilled worldwide, and millions more expected, this problem is neither negligible nor preventable with current technology. Federal Exemptions and Home Rule: 'Fracking' currently slips through federal environmental statutory law because of an industry-friendly exemption. However, trusts are established in US law and the Public Trust Doctrine provides a basis for courts to enjoin 'fracking' due to the potential impact on beneficiaries of the trust --present and future generations. The public trust designates government as a trustee of crucial resources and imposes a fiduciary obligation on agencies to prevent "substantial impairment" of- and protect access to- clean air, clean water and other natural resources vital for public welfare and survival. Already applied to the realm of ecology, the doctrine is reviewed as a legal and policy toot to protect communities
Bifurcation sets in the Kovalevskaya-Yehia problem
Avdreyanov, Pavel P; Dushin, Kirill E
2012-04-30
The two-parameter family of bifurcation diagrams {Sigma} of the moment map is investigated in the integrable Kovalevskaya-Yehia case for the motion of a rigid body. A method is developed which is useful for calculating the bifurcation set {Theta} in the parameter space which corresponds to bifurcations of diagrams in {Sigma} and for classifying these bifurcations. The properties of the sets {Sigma} and {Theta} are thoroughly investigated, and details of the modifications the bifurcation diagrams undergo as the value of the parameter crosses {Theta} are described. Illustrations which explain the structure of the different types of diagram and their interrelations are given. Bibliography: 22 titles.
Bifurcation sets in the Kovalevskaya-Yehia problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avdreyanov, Pavel P.; Dushin, Kirill E.
2012-04-01
The two-parameter family of bifurcation diagrams Σ of the moment map is investigated in the integrable Kovalevskaya-Yehia case for the motion of a rigid body. A method is developed which is useful for calculating the bifurcation set Θ in the parameter space which corresponds to bifurcations of diagrams in Σ and for classifying these bifurcations. The properties of the sets Σ and Θ are thoroughly investigated, and details of the modifications the bifurcation diagrams undergo as the value of the parameter crosses Θ are described. Illustrations which explain the structure of the different types of diagram and their interrelations are given. Bibliography: 22 titles.
Problems in Merging District- and Community-Based Data Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jang, Younghee; Radio, Joni L.
Integrating information from local school district and community data sources is essential to understanding the relationships between them. A major problem in merging such data concerns the geographic incongruities of the boundaries of school districts (local education agencies) and the boundaries of communities. This paper focuses on resolution…
Creativity, Problem Solving, and Solution Set Sightedness: Radically Reformulating BVSR
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simonton, Dean Keith
2012-01-01
Too often, psychological debates become polarized into dichotomous positions. Such polarization may have occurred with respect to Campbell's (1960) blind variation and selective retention (BVSR) theory of creativity. To resolve this unnecessary controversy, BVSR was radically reformulated with respect to creative problem solving. The reformulation…
A Problem in Information Retrieval with Fuzzy Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Buell, Duncan A.
1985-01-01
Discussion of problems with fuzzy subsets in document retrieval highlights attempts to invent a system of weighted fuzzy queries in which weights correspond to relative importance of each term in query as whole, and use of Kantor's Logic for Retrieval as an alternative to Boolean queries. Six references are cited. (EJS)
Supporting Advice Sharing for Technical Problems in Residential Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Poole, Erika Shehan
2010-01-01
Visions of future computing in residential settings often come with assumptions of seamless, well-functioning, properly configured devices and network connectivity. In the near term, however, processes of setup, maintenance, and troubleshooting are fraught with difficulties; householders regularly report these tasks as confusing, frustrating, and…
Application of the artificial bee colony algorithm for solving the set covering problem.
Crawford, Broderick; Soto, Ricardo; Cuesta, Rodrigo; Paredes, Fernando
2014-01-01
The set covering problem is a formal model for many practical optimization problems. In the set covering problem the goal is to choose a subset of the columns of minimal cost that covers every row. Here, we present a novel application of the artificial bee colony algorithm to solve the non-unicost set covering problem. The artificial bee colony algorithm is a recent swarm metaheuristic technique based on the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees. Experimental results show that our artificial bee colony algorithm is competitive in terms of solution quality with other recent metaheuristic approaches for the set covering problem. PMID:24883356
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klegeris, Andis; Hurren, Heather
2011-01-01
Problem-based learning (PBL) can be described as a learning environment where the problem drives the learning. This technique usually involves learning in small groups, which are supervised by tutors. It is becoming evident that PBL in a small-group setting has a robust positive effect on student learning and skills, including better…
Problem set guidelines to facilitate ATR research, development, and performance assessments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Westerkamp, Lori A.; Wild, Thomas J.; Meredith, Donna; Morrison, S. A.; Mossing, John C.; Avent, Randy K.; Bergman, Annette; Bruckheim, Arthur; Castanon, David A.; Corbett, Francis J.; Hugo, Douglas; Hummel, Robert A.; Irvine, John M.; Merle, Bruce; Otto, Louis; Reynolds, Robert; Sadowski, Charles; Schachter, Bruce J.; Simonson, Katherine M.; Smit, Gene; Walters, Clarence P.
2002-07-01
In November of 2000, the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Science and Technology Sensor Systems (DUSD (S&T/SS)) chartered the ATR Working Group (ATRWG) to develop guidelines for sanctioned Problem Sets. Such Problem Sets are intended for development and test of ATR algorithms and contain comprehensive documentation of the data in them. A problem set provides a consistent basis to examine ATR performance and growth. Problem Sets will, in general, serve multiple purposes. First, they will enable informed decisions by government agencies sponsoring ATR development and transition. Problem Sets standardize the testing and evaluation process, resulting in consistent assessment of ATR performance. Second, they will measure and guide ATR development progress within this standardized framework. Finally, they quantify the state of the art for the community. Problem Sets provide clearly defined operating condition coverage. This encourages ATR developers to consider these critical challenges and allows evaluators to assess over them. Thus the widely distributed development and self-test portions, along with a disciplined methodology documented within the Problem Set, permit ATR developers to address critical issues and describe their accomplishments, while the sequestered portion permits government assessment of state-of-the-art and of transition readiness. This paper discusses the elements of an ATR problem set as a package of data and information that presents a standardized ATR challenge relevant to one or more scenarios. The package includes training and test data containing targets and clutter, truth information, required experiments, and a standardized analytical methodology to assess performance.
Two Methods for Efficient Solution of the Hitting-Set Problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatan, Farrokh; Fijany, Amir
2005-01-01
A paper addresses much of the same subject matter as that of Fast Algorithms for Model-Based Diagnosis (NPO-30582), which appears elsewhere in this issue of NASA Tech Briefs. However, in the paper, the emphasis is more on the hitting-set problem (also known as the transversal problem), which is well known among experts in combinatorics. The authors primary interest in the hitting-set problem lies in its connection to the diagnosis problem: it is a theorem of model-based diagnosis that in the set-theory representation of the components of a system, the minimal diagnoses of a system are the minimal hitting sets of the system. In the paper, the hitting-set problem (and, hence, the diagnosis problem) is translated from a combinatorial to a computational problem by mapping it onto the Boolean satisfiability and integer- programming problems. The paper goes on to describe developments nearly identical to those summarized in the cited companion NASA Tech Briefs article, including the utilization of Boolean-satisfiability and integer- programming techniques to reduce the computation time and/or memory needed to solve the hitting-set problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raker, Jeffrey R.
Reform efforts in science education have called for instructional methods and resources that mirror the practice of science. Little research and design methods have been documented in the literature for designing such materials. The purpose of this study was to develop problems sets for sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. This research adapted an instructional design methodology from the science education literature for the creation of new curricular problem sets. The first phase of this study was to establish an understanding of current curricular problems in sophomore-level organic chemistry instruction. A sample of 792 problems was collected from four organic chemistry courses. These problems were assessed using three literature reported problem typologies. Two of these problem typologies have previously been used to understand general chemistry problems; comparisons between general and organic chemistry problems were thus made. Data from this phase was used to develop a set of five problems for practicing organic chemists. The second phase of this study was to explore practicing organic chemists' experiences solving problems in the context of organic synthesis research. Eight practicing organic chemists were interviewed and asked to solve two to three of the problems developed in phase one of this research. These participants spoke of three problem types: project level, synthetic planning, and day-to-day. Three knowledge types (internal knowledge, knowledgeable others, and literature) were used in solving these problems in research practice and in the developed problems. A set of guiding factors and implications were derived from this data and the chemistry education literature for the conversion of the problems for practicing chemists to problems for undergraduate students. A subsequent conversion process for the five problems occurred. The third, and last phase, of this study was to explore undergraduate students' experiences solving problems in
The graph representation of the problem of pairing points from two sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grzejszczak, Tomasz; Orwat, Justyna
2016-06-01
The validation procedure of hand detection algorithms required the creation of scoring method for a set of detected points according to set of ground truth points. In this paper a method of finding all points pairs with a smallest mutual distance is described. The problem of finding pairs is represented in graph form and solved with use of Dijkstra's algorithm. The problem is also described with use of an example.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Myrbakk, Even; Von Tetzchner, Stephen
2008-01-01
With the desegregation processes of services for people with intellectual disability (ID) that is taking place in most Western countries there is a need for more knowledge related to the prevalence of behavior problems among people living in community settings. This study investigates the prevalence of behavior problems among 140 adolescents and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bennett, Sue; Monsen, Jeremy J.
2011-01-01
This paper critically appraises four problem-solving approaches, based on a range of theoretical perspectives and procedures, which are currently used in educational settings to support adults to find solutions to complex problems that arise within classrooms and the wider school community. The four approaches are: Circles of Adults; Teacher…
A Problem-Solving Approach to Staff Burnout in Rehabilitation Settings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stevens, Michael J.; Pfost, Karen S.
1983-01-01
Defines burnout and its symptoms, examines recommended approaches to dealing with burnout, articulates a generic problem-solving strategy, and describes its trial application to the burnout of an interdisciplinary terminal care team. Enumerates the advantages of applying problem solving to staff burnout in rehabilitation settings. (Author/LLL)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antipin, A. S.; Vasil'Ev, F. P.; Stukalov, A. S.
2007-01-01
Unstable equilibrium problems are examined in which the objective function and the set where the equilibrium point is sought are specified inexactly. A regularized Newton method, combined with penalty functions, is proposed for solving such problems, and its convergence is analyzed. A regularizing operator is constructed.
Estimates of reachable sets of impulsive control problems with special nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filippova, T. F.
2016-10-01
The problem of estimating reachable sets of nonlinear dynamical control systems with quadratic or bilinear nonlinearity and with uncertainty in initial states is studied. We assume that the uncertainty is of a set-membership kind when we know only the bounding set for unknown items and any additional statistical information on their behavior is not available. We present here approaches that allow finding ellipsoidal estimates of reachable sets, which use the special structure of nonlinearity of studied control system. The algorithms of constructing such ellipsoidal set-valued estimates and numerical simulation results are given in two cases, for control systems with classical controls and for measure driven (impulsive) control systems.
Goal-Setting Interventions for Students with Behavior Problems: A Systematic Review
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bruhn, Allison L.; McDaniel, Sara C.; Fernando, Josephine; Troughton, Leonard
2016-01-01
Students with persistent behavior problems, including those with or at risk for emotional or behavioral disorders, often struggle to be self-regulated learners. To improve self-regulation skills, numerous strategies have been suggested, including goal setting. Whereas goal setting has focused mostly on academic and life skills, behavioral goal…
Development of Problem Sets for K-12 and Engineering on Pharmaceutical Particulate Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Savelski, Mariano J.; Slater, C. Stewart; Del Vecchio, Christopher A.; Kosteleski, Adrian J.; Wilson, Sarah A.
2010-01-01
Educational problem sets have been developed on structured organic particulate systems (SOPS) used in pharmaceutical technology. The sets present topics such as particle properties and powder flow and can be integrated into K-12 and college-level curricula. The materials educate students in specific areas of pharmaceutical particulate processing,…
For QSAR and QSPR modeling of biological and physicochemical properties, estimating the accuracy of predictions is a critical problem. The “distance to model” (DM) can be defined as a metric that defines the similarity between the training set molecules and the test set compound ...
Problems in the Cataloging of Large Microform Sets or, Learning to Expect the Unexpected.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Joachim, Martin D.
1989-01-01
Describes problems encountered during the cataloging of three major microform sets at the Indiana University Libraries. Areas discussed include size and contents of the sets, staffing for the project, equipment, authority work, rare book cataloging rules, serials, language of materials, musical scores, and manuscripts. (CLB)
On some transmission problems set in a biological cell, analysis and resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Labbas, Rabah; Lemrabet, Keddour; Limam, Kheira; Medeghri, Ahmed; Meisner, Maëlis
2015-10-01
Some transmission problems are set in bodies with a crown of small thickness ε > 0. For instance, those concerning the conductivity in the biological cell. By a natural change of variables, we transform them in transmission problems set in two cylindrical bodies ] - ∞, 0 [ × ] - π, π [ and ] 0, δ [ × ] - π, π [ (where δ = ln (1 + ε)) and then, in some general elliptic abstract differential equations (Pδ) δ > 0. The goal of this work is to give a complete study of these problems (Pδ) δ > 0 for every δ > 0. Existence, uniqueness and maximal regularity results are obtained for the classical solutions essentially by using the semigroups theory.
Pattern-set generation algorithm for the one-dimensional multiple stock sizes cutting stock problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Yaodong; Cui, Yi-Ping; Zhao, Zhigang
2015-09-01
A pattern-set generation algorithm (PSG) for the one-dimensional multiple stock sizes cutting stock problem (1DMSSCSP) is presented. The solution process contains two stages. In the first stage, the PSG solves the residual problems repeatedly to generate the patterns in the pattern set, where each residual problem is solved by the column-generation approach, and each pattern is generated by solving a single large object placement problem. In the second stage, the integer linear programming model of the 1DMSSCSP is solved using a commercial solver, where only the patterns in the pattern set are considered. The computational results of benchmark instances indicate that the PSG outperforms existing heuristic algorithms and rivals the exact algorithm in solution quality.
Simplified neutrosophic sets and their applications in multi-criteria group decision-making problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Juan-juan; Wang, Jian-qiang; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hong-yu; Chen, Xiao-hong
2016-07-01
As a variation of fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, neutrosophic sets have been developed to represent uncertain, imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent information that exists in the real world. Simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs) have been proposed for the main purpose of addressing issues with a set of specific numbers. However, there are certain problems regarding the existing operations of SNSs, as well as their aggregation operators and the comparison methods. Therefore, this paper defines the novel operations of simplified neutrosophic numbers (SNNs) and develops a comparison method based on the related research of intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. On the basis of these operations and the comparison method, some SNN aggregation operators are proposed. Additionally, an approach for multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM) problems is explored by applying these aggregation operators. Finally, an example to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method is provided and a comparison with some other methods is made.
A note on the estimation of the Pareto efficient set for multiobjective matrix permutation problems.
Brusco, Michael J; Steinley, Douglas
2012-02-01
There are a number of important problems in quantitative psychology that require the identification of a permutation of the n rows and columns of an n × n proximity matrix. These problems encompass applications such as unidimensional scaling, paired-comparison ranking, and anti-Robinson forms. The importance of simultaneously incorporating multiple objective criteria in matrix permutation applications is well recognized in the literature; however, to date, there has been a reliance on weighted-sum approaches that transform the multiobjective problem into a single-objective optimization problem. Although exact solutions to these single-objective problems produce supported Pareto efficient solutions to the multiobjective problem, many interesting unsupported Pareto efficient solutions may be missed. We illustrate the limitation of the weighted-sum approach with an example from the psychological literature and devise an effective heuristic algorithm for estimating both the supported and unsupported solutions of the Pareto efficient set.
A spin glass approach to the directed feedback vertex set problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hai-Jun
2016-07-01
A directed graph (digraph) is formed by vertices and arcs (directed edges) from one vertex to another. A feedback vertex set (FVS) is a set of vertices that contains at least one vertex of every directed cycle in this digraph. The directed feedback vertex set problem aims at constructing a FVS of minimum cardinality. This is a fundamental cycle-constrained hard combinatorial optimization problem with wide practical applications. In this paper we construct a spin glass model for the directed FVS problem by converting the global cycle constraints into local arc constraints, and study this model through the replica-symmetric (RS) mean field theory of statistical physics. We then implement a belief propagation-guided decimation (BPD) algorithm for single digraph instances. The BPD algorithm slightly outperforms the simulated annealing algorithm on large random graph instances. The RS mean field results and algorithmic results can be further improved by working on a more restrictive (and more difficult) spin glass model.
Forneris, Tanya; Danish, Steven J; Scott, David L
2007-01-01
The Going for the Goal (GOAL) program is designed to teach adolescents life skills. There have been few efforts to assess whether the skills that GOAL is designed to teach are being learned by adolescents involved in the program. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of GOAL on the acquisition of skills in the areas of setting goals, solving problems, and seeking social support. Interviews were conducted with twenty adolescents. Those who participated in GOAL reported that they had learned how to set goals, to solve problems effectively, and to seek the appropriate type of social support.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schaeffer, Evonne; Bhargava, Tina; Nash, John; Kerns, Charles; Stocker, Scott
A technology-mediated solution to enhance the learning experience for students in a large lecture setting was evaluated. Online problem sets were developed to engage students in the content of a human biology course and implemented in the classes of eight faculty coordinators. The weekly problem sets contained several multiple choice problems,…
A set partitioning reformulation for the multiple-choice multidimensional knapsack problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Voß, Stefan; Lalla-Ruiz, Eduardo
2016-05-01
The Multiple-choice Multidimensional Knapsack Problem (MMKP) is a well-known ?-hard combinatorial optimization problem that has received a lot of attention from the research community as it can be easily translated to several real-world problems arising in areas such as allocating resources, reliability engineering, cognitive radio networks, cloud computing, etc. In this regard, an exact model that is able to provide high-quality feasible solutions for solving it or being partially included in algorithmic schemes is desirable. The MMKP basically consists of finding a subset of objects that maximizes the total profit while observing some capacity restrictions. In this article a reformulation of the MMKP as a set partitioning problem is proposed to allow for new insights into modelling the MMKP. The computational experimentation provides new insights into the problem itself and shows that the new model is able to improve on the best of the known results for some of the most common benchmark instances.
Escape-to-Attention as a Potential Variable for Maintaining Problem Behavior in the School Setting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sarno, Jana M.; Sterling, Heather E.; Mueller, Michael M.; Dufrene, Brad; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Olmi, D. Joe
2011-01-01
Mueller, Sterling-Turner, and Moore (2005) reported a novel escape-to-attention (ETA) functional analysis condition in a school setting with one child. The current study replicates Mueller et al.'s functional analysis procedures with three elementary school-age boys referred for problem behavior. Functional analysis verified the participant's…
BEST in CLASS: A Classroom-Based Model for Ameliorating Problem Behavior in Early Childhood Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vo, Abigail; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Conroy, Maureen A.
2012-01-01
As more young children enter school settings to attend early childhood programs, early childhood teachers and school psychologists have been charged with supporting a growing number of young children with chronic problem behaviors that put them at risk for the development of emotional/behavioral disorders (EBDs). There is a need for effective,…
Useful Material Efficiency Green Metrics Problem Set Exercises for Lecture and Laboratory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Andraos, John
2015-01-01
A series of pedagogical problem set exercises are posed that illustrate the principles behind material efficiency green metrics and their application in developing a deeper understanding of reaction and synthesis plan analysis and strategies to optimize them. Rigorous, yet simple, mathematical proofs are given for some of the fundamental concepts,…
Group Problem Solving, Goal-Setting and Decision-Making. Pre-Apprenticeship Phase 1 Training.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.
One of a series of pre-apprenticeship training modules, this self-paced student training module deals with group problem solving, goal setting, and decision making. Included in the module are the following: cover sheet listing module title, goals, and performance indicators; introduction; cover sheet/study guide with directions for module…
Phase transitions in number theory: from the birthday problem to Sidon sets.
Luque, Bartolo; Torre, Iván G; Lacasa, Lucas
2013-11-01
In this work, we show how number theoretical problems can be fruitfully approached with the tools of statistical physics. We focus on g-Sidon sets, which describe sequences of integers whose pairwise sums are different, and propose a random decision problem which addresses the probability of a random set of k integers to be g-Sidon. First, we provide numerical evidence showing that there is a crossover between satisfiable and unsatisfiable phases which converts to an abrupt phase transition in a properly defined thermodynamic limit. Initially assuming independence, we then develop a mean-field theory for the g-Sidon decision problem. We further improve the mean-field theory, which is only qualitatively correct, by incorporating deviations from independence, yielding results in good quantitative agreement with the numerics for both finite systems and in the thermodynamic limit. Connections between the generalized birthday problem in probability theory, the number theory of Sidon sets and the properties of q-Potts models in condensed matter physics are briefly discussed.
Self-adaptive projection methods for the multiple-sets split feasibility problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Jinling; Yang, Qingzhi
2011-03-01
The multiple-sets split feasibility problem (MSFP) is to find a point closest to the intersection of a family of closed convex sets in one space, such that its image under a linear transformation will be closest to the intersection of another family of closed convex sets in the image space. This problem arises in many practical fields, and it can be a model for many inverse problems. Noting that some existing algorithms require estimating the Lipschitz constant or calculating the largest eigenvalue of the matrix, in this paper, we first introduce a self-adaptive projection method by adopting Armijo-like searches to solve the MSFP, then we focus on a special case of the MSFP and propose a relaxed self-adaptive method by using projections onto half-spaces instead of those onto the original convex sets, which is much more practical. Convergence results for both methods are analyzed. Preliminary numerical results show that our methods are practical and promising for solving larger scale MSFPs.
Preechasilp, Pakkapon; Wangkeeree, Rabian
2016-01-01
In this paper, the existence theorems of solutions for generalized weak vector equilibrium problems are developed in real reflexive Banach spaces. Based on recession method and scalarization technique, we derive a characterization of nonemptiness and boundedness of solution set for generalized weak vector equilibrium problems. Moreover, Painlevé-Kuratowski upper convergence of solution set is also discussed as an application, when both the objective mapping and the constraint set are perturbed by difference parameters. PMID:27588238
A set-covering based heuristic algorithm for the periodic vehicle routing problem.
Cacchiani, V; Hemmelmayr, V C; Tricoire, F
2014-01-30
We present a hybrid optimization algorithm for mixed-integer linear programming, embedding both heuristic and exact components. In order to validate it we use the periodic vehicle routing problem (PVRP) as a case study. This problem consists of determining a set of minimum cost routes for each day of a given planning horizon, with the constraints that each customer must be visited a required number of times (chosen among a set of valid day combinations), must receive every time the required quantity of product, and that the number of routes per day (each respecting the capacity of the vehicle) does not exceed the total number of available vehicles. This is a generalization of the well-known vehicle routing problem (VRP). Our algorithm is based on the linear programming (LP) relaxation of a set-covering-like integer linear programming formulation of the problem, with additional constraints. The LP-relaxation is solved by column generation, where columns are generated heuristically by an iterated local search algorithm. The whole solution method takes advantage of the LP-solution and applies techniques of fixing and releasing of the columns as a local search, making use of a tabu list to avoid cycling. We show the results of the proposed algorithm on benchmark instances from the literature and compare them to the state-of-the-art algorithms, showing the effectiveness of our approach in producing good quality solutions. In addition, we report the results on realistic instances of the PVRP introduced in Pacheco et al. (2011) [24] and on benchmark instances of the periodic traveling salesman problem (PTSP), showing the efficacy of the proposed algorithm on these as well. Finally, we report the new best known solutions found for all the tested problems.
33 CFR 110.1a - Anchorages under Ports and Waterways Safety Act.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anchorages under Ports and... HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS § 110.1a Anchorages under Ports and Waterways Safety Act. (a) The anchorages listed in this section are regulated under the Ports and Waterways Safety Act...
Planet Alsioff - A problem set for students of phase equilibria or metamorphic petrology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burt, Donald M.
1988-01-01
This paper presents a problem set that contains questions for students of phase equilibria or metamorphic petrology concerning a hypothetical planet Alsioff, for which incomplete data are given. On this panet, the SiF4 is the major volatile and Al, Si, O, and F are the only elements present. Progressive metamorphism on Alsioff mainly involves devolatilization of fluid SiF4. The problem set includes ten questions. Some of these are concerned with possible chemical reactions that should affect water, wollastonite, or Ca-SiO3 exposed to the atmosphere of Alsioff; the mechanism of controls of the O2 and F2 contents of the Alsioffian atmosphere; and the devolatilization reactions involving SiF4 with progressive thermal metamorphism.
Salekin, Randall T; Lester, Whitney S; Sellers, Mary-Kate
2012-08-01
The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of a motivational intervention on conduct problem youth with psychopathic features. Specifically, the current study examined conduct problem youths' mental set (or theory) regarding intelligence (entity vs. incremental) upon task performance. We assessed 36 juvenile offenders with psychopathic features and tested whether providing them with two different messages regarding intelligence would affect their functioning on a task related to academic performance. The study employed a MANOVA design with two motivational conditions and three outcomes including fluency, flexibility, and originality. Results showed that youth with psychopathic features who were given a message that intelligence grows over time, were more fluent and flexible than youth who were informed that intelligence is static. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of originality. The implications of these findings are discussed including the possible benefits of interventions for adolescent offenders with conduct problems and psychopathic features. PMID:22849414
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramezanpour, A.
2016-06-01
We study the inverse problem of constructing an appropriate Hamiltonian from a physically reasonable set of orthogonal wave functions for a quantum spin system. Usually, we are given a local Hamiltonian and our goal is to characterize the relevant wave functions and energies (the spectrum) of the system. Here, we take the opposite approach; starting from a reasonable collection of orthogonal wave functions, we try to characterize the associated parent Hamiltonians, to see how the wave functions and the energy values affect the structure of the parent Hamiltonian. Specifically, we obtain (quasi) local Hamiltonians by a complete set of (multilayer) product states and a local mapping of the energy values to the wave functions. On the other hand, a complete set of tree wave functions (having a tree structure) results to nonlocal Hamiltonians and operators which flip simultaneously all the spins in a single branch of the tree graph. We observe that even for a given set of basis states, the energy spectrum can significantly change the nature of interactions in the Hamiltonian. These effects can be exploited in a quantum engineering problem optimizing an objective functional of the Hamiltonian.
A PERFECT MATCH CONDITION FOR POINT-SET MATCHING PROBLEMS USING THE OPTIMAL MASS TRANSPORT APPROACH
CHEN, PENGWEN; LIN, CHING-LONG; CHERN, I-LIANG
2013-01-01
We study the performance of optimal mass transport-based methods applied to point-set matching problems. The present study, which is based on the L2 mass transport cost, states that perfect matches always occur when the product of the point-set cardinality and the norm of the curl of the non-rigid deformation field does not exceed some constant. This analytic result is justified by a numerical study of matching two sets of pulmonary vascular tree branch points whose displacement is caused by the lung volume changes in the same human subject. The nearly perfect match performance verifies the effectiveness of this mass transport-based approach. PMID:23687536
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dekorvin, Andre
1989-01-01
The main purpose is to develop a theory for multiple knowledge systems. A knowledge system could be a sensor or an expert system, but it must specialize in one feature. The problem is that we have an exhaustive list of possible answers to some query (such as what object is it). By collecting different feature values, in principle, it should be possible to give an answer to the query, or at least narrow down the list. Since a sensor, or for that matter an expert system, does not in most cases yield a precise value for the feature, uncertainty must be built into the model. Also, researchers must have a formal mechanism to be able to put the information together. Researchers chose to use the Dempster-Shafer approach to handle the problems mentioned above. Researchers introduce the concept of a state of recognition and point out that there is a relation between receiving updates and defining a set valued Markov Chain. Also, deciding what the value of the next set valued variable is can be phrased in terms of classical decision making theory such as minimizing the maximum regret. Other related problems are examined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stinner, Arthur
This article addresses the need for and the problem of organizing a science curriculum around contextual settings and science stories that serve to involve and motivate students to develop an understanding of the world that is rooted in the scientific and the humanistic traditions. A program of activities placed around contextual settings, science stories, and contemporary issues of interest is recommended in an attempt to move toward a slow and secure abolition of the gulf between scientific knowledge and common sense beliefs. A conceptual development model is described to guide the connection between theory and evidence on a level appropriate for children, from early years to senior years. For the senior years it is also important to connect the activity of teaching to a sound theoretical structure. The theoretical structure must illuminate the status of theory in science, establish what counts as evidence, clarify the relationship between experiment and explanation, and make connections to the history of science. The article concludes with a proposed program of activities in terms of a sequence of theoretical and empirical experiences that involve contextual settings, science stories, large context problems, thematic teaching, and popular science literature teaching.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hui, Liu; Ding, Liu Wen
Inspection is not only one of the most significant duties, but the important prerequisite for going through Customs. Setting the inspection rate scientifically can not only solve the contradiction between the "check on" and "service" for CIQ (CHINA ENTRY-EXIT INSPECTION AND UARANTINE)site inspection personnel, but can highlight the key of inspection and enhance the ratio of discovering, achieving the optimum allocation of CIQ's limited human and material resources. In this article, from the characteristics of inspection risk evaluation themselves, considering the setting problem of check rate at from the angle of data mining, construct an index system rationally and objectively. On the basis of Fuzzy theory, evaluate the risk of the inward and outward goods with the grey-fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, and establish the inspection rate scientifically.
Tamburrini, G.; Termini, S.
1982-01-01
The general thesis underlying the present paper is that there are very strong methodological relations among cybernetics, system science, artificial intelligence, fuzzy sets and many other related fields. Then, in order to understand better both the achievements and the weak points of all the previous disciplines, one should look for some common features for looking at them in this general frame. What will be done is to present a brief analysis of the primitive program of cybernetics, presenting it as a case study useful for developing the previous thesis. Among the discussed points are the problems of interdisciplinarity and of the unity of cybernetics. Some implications of this analysis for a new reading of general system theory and fuzzy sets are briefly outlined at the end of the paper. 3 references.
How much is enough? The recurrent problem of setting measurable objectives in conservation
Tear, T.H.; Kareiva, P.; Angermeier, P.L.; Comer, P.; Czech, B.; Kautz, R.; Landon, L.; Mehlman, D.; Murphy, K.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Scott, J.M.; Wilhere, G.
2005-01-01
International agreements, environmental laws, resource management agencies, and environmental nongovernmental organizations all establish objectives that define what they hope to accomplish. Unfortunately, quantitative objectives in conservation are typically set without consistency and scientific rigor. As a result, conservationists are failing to provide credible answers to the question "How much is enough?" This is a serious problem because objectives profoundly shape where and how limited conservation resources are spent, and help to create a shared vision for the future. In this article we develop guidelines to help steer conservation biologists and practitioners through the process of objective setting. We provide three case studies to highlight the practical challenges of objective setting in different social, political, and legal contexts. We also identify crucial gaps in our science, including limited knowledge of species distributions and of large-scale, long-term ecosystem dynamics, that must be filled if we hope to do better than setting conservation objectives through intuition and best guesses. ?? 2005 American Institute of Biological Sciences.
Direct imaging of InSb (110)-(1x1) surface grown by molecular beam epitaxy
Mishima, T. D.
2011-10-01
High-resolution transmission electron microscopy under a profile imaging condition (HR-profile TEM) was employed to determine the structural model for the InSb(110)-(1x1) relaxation surface grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). HR-profile TEM analyses indicate that the chevron model, which is widely accepted for zinc-blende-type III-V(110)-(1x1) surfaces prepared by cleavage, is also applicable to the InSb(110)-(1x1) surface prepared under an Sb-rich MBE condition. The assignment of atomic species (In or Sb) of InSb(110)-(1x1) surfaces was confirmed based on a HR-profile TEM image that captures the connected facets of InSb(110)-(1x1) and InSb(111)B-(2x2). On the basis of the well-known atomic species of InSb(111)B-(2x2), the atomic species of the InSb(110)-(1x1) surface were deduced straightforwardly: the atoms shifted upward and downward at the topmost layer of the InSb(110)-(1x1) surface are Sb and In, respectively. The atomic arrangements of the InSb(110)-(1x1)-InSb(111)B-(2x2) facet determined by HR-profile TEM may represent the atomic arrangements of zinc-blende-type III-V(331)B surfaces.
Set-shifting as a component process of goal-directed problem-solving.
Cooper, Richard P; Marsh, Verity
2016-03-01
In two experiments, we compared secondary task interference on Tower of London performance resulting from three different secondary tasks. The secondary tasks were designed to tap three different executive functions, namely set-shifting, memory monitoring and updating, and response inhibition. Previous work using individual differences methodology suggests that, all other things being equal, the response inhibition or memory tasks should result in the greatest interference. However, this was not found to be the case. Rather, in both experiments the set-shifting task resulted in significantly more interference on Tower of London performance than either of the other secondary tasks. Subsequent analyses suggest that the degree of interference could not be attributed to differences in secondary task difficulty. Results are interpreted in the light of related work which suggests that solving problems with non-transparent goal/subgoal structure requires flexible shifting between subgoals-a process that is held to be impaired by concurrent performance of a set-shifting task.
Some free boundary problems in potential flow regime usinga based level set method
Garzon, M.; Bobillo-Ares, N.; Sethian, J.A.
2008-12-09
Recent advances in the field of fluid mechanics with moving fronts are linked to the use of Level Set Methods, a versatile mathematical technique to follow free boundaries which undergo topological changes. A challenging class of problems in this context are those related to the solution of a partial differential equation posed on a moving domain, in which the boundary condition for the PDE solver has to be obtained from a partial differential equation defined on the front. This is the case of potential flow models with moving boundaries. Moreover the fluid front will possibly be carrying some material substance which will diffuse in the front and be advected by the front velocity, as for example the use of surfactants to lower surface tension. We present a Level Set based methodology to embed this partial differential equations defined on the front in a complete Eulerian framework, fully avoiding the tracking of fluid particles and its known limitations. To show the advantages of this approach in the field of Fluid Mechanics we present in this work one particular application: the numerical approximation of a potential flow model to simulate the evolution and breaking of a solitary wave propagating over a slopping bottom and compare the level set based algorithm with previous front tracking models.
Qualitative adaptation of child behaviour problem instruments in a developing-country setting.
Khan, B; Avan, B I
2014-07-08
A key barrier to epidemiological research on child behaviour problems in developing countries is the lack of culturally relevant, internationally recognized psychometric instruments. This paper proposes a model for the qualitative adaptation of psychometric instruments in developing-country settings and presents a case study of the adaptation of 3 internationally recognized instruments in Pakistan: the Child Behavior Checklist, the Youth Self-Report and the Teacher's Report Form. This model encompassed a systematic procedure with 6 distinct phases to minimize bias and ensure equivalence with the original instruments: selection, deliberation, alteration, feasibility, testing and formal approval. The process was conducted in collaboration with the instruments' developer. A multidisciplinary working group of experts identified equivalence issues and suggested modifications. Focus group discussions with informants highlighted comprehension issues. Subsequently modified instruments were thoroughly tested. Finally, the instruments' developer approval further validated the qualitative adaptation. The study proposes a rigorous and systematic model to effectively achieve cultural adaptation of psychometric instruments.
Cummings, Jorden A; Ballantyne, Elena C; Scallion, Laura M
2015-06-01
Clinical supervision should be a proactive and considered endeavor, not a reactive one. To that end, supervisors should choose supervision processes that are driven by theory, best available research, and clinical experience. These processes should be aimed at helping trainees develop as clinicians. We highlight 3 supervision processes we believe should be used at each supervision meeting: agenda setting, encouraging trainee problem-solving, and formative feedback. Although these are primarily cognitive-behavioral skills, they can be helpful in combination with other supervision models. We provide example dialogue from supervision exchanges, and discuss theoretical and research support for these processes. Using these processes not only encourages trainee development but also models for them how to use the same processes and approaches with clients.
Lumley, Mark A.; Neely, Lynn C.; Burger, Amanda J.
2010-01-01
The construct of alexithymia encompasses the characteristics of difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings, externally oriented thinking, and a limited imaginal capacity. These characteristics are thought to reflect deficits in the cognitive processing and regulation of emotions and to contribute to the onset or maintenance of several medical and psychiatric disorders. This article reviews recent methods for assessing alexithymia and examines how assessing alexithymia can inform clinical practice. Alexithymia is associated with heightened physiological arousal, the tendency to notice and report physical symptoms, and unhealthy compulsive behaviors. Alexithymic patients may respond poorly to psychological treatments, although perhaps not to cognitive-behavioral techniques, and it is unclear whether alexithymia can be improved through treatment. Interpretive problems regarding alexithymia include its overlap with other traits, whether it is secondary to illness or trauma, the possibility of subtypes, and low correlations among multiple measures. Nonetheless, we encourage the assessment of alexithymia in applied settings. PMID:18001224
Plotnikov, Mikhail G
2011-02-11
Multiple Walsh series (S) on the group G{sup m} are studied. It is proved that every at most countable set is a uniqueness set for series (S) under convergence over cubes. The recovery problem is solved for the coefficients of series (S) that converge outside countable sets or outside sets of Dirichlet type. A number of analogues of the de la Vallee Poussin theorem are established for series (S). Bibliography: 28 titles.
Spin-glass phase transitions and minimum energy of the random feedback vertex set problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Ying; Zhou, Hai-Jun
2016-08-01
A feedback vertex set (FVS) of an undirected graph contains vertices from every cycle of this graph. Constructing a FVS of sufficiently small cardinality is very difficult in the worst cases, but for random graphs this problem can be efficiently solved by converting it into an appropriate spin-glass model [H.-J. Zhou, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 455 (2013), 10.1140/epjb/e2013-40690-1]. In the present work we study the spin-glass phase transitions and the minimum energy density of the random FVS problem by the first-step replica-symmetry-breaking (1RSB) mean-field theory. For both regular random graphs and Erdös-Rényi graphs, we determine the inverse temperature βl at which the replica-symmetric mean-field theory loses its local stability, the inverse temperature βd of the dynamical (clustering) phase transition, and the inverse temperature βs of the static (condensation) phase transition. These critical inverse temperatures all change with the mean vertex degree in a nonmonotonic way, and βd is distinct from βs for regular random graphs of vertex degrees K >60 , while βd are identical to βs for Erdös-Rényi graphs at least up to mean vertex degree c =512 . We then derive the zero-temperature limit of the 1RSB theory and use it to compute the minimum FVS cardinality.
Spin-glass phase transitions and minimum energy of the random feedback vertex set problem.
Qin, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Ying; Zhou, Hai-Jun
2016-08-01
A feedback vertex set (FVS) of an undirected graph contains vertices from every cycle of this graph. Constructing a FVS of sufficiently small cardinality is very difficult in the worst cases, but for random graphs this problem can be efficiently solved by converting it into an appropriate spin-glass model [H.-J. Zhou, Eur. Phys. J. B 86, 455 (2013)EPJBFY1434-602810.1140/epjb/e2013-40690-1]. In the present work we study the spin-glass phase transitions and the minimum energy density of the random FVS problem by the first-step replica-symmetry-breaking (1RSB) mean-field theory. For both regular random graphs and Erdös-Rényi graphs, we determine the inverse temperature β_{l} at which the replica-symmetric mean-field theory loses its local stability, the inverse temperature β_{d} of the dynamical (clustering) phase transition, and the inverse temperature β_{s} of the static (condensation) phase transition. These critical inverse temperatures all change with the mean vertex degree in a nonmonotonic way, and β_{d} is distinct from β_{s} for regular random graphs of vertex degrees K>60, while β_{d} are identical to β_{s} for Erdös-Rényi graphs at least up to mean vertex degree c=512. We then derive the zero-temperature limit of the 1RSB theory and use it to compute the minimum FVS cardinality. PMID:27627285
Sushko, Iurii; Novotarskyi, Sergii; Körner, Robert; Pandey, Anil Kumar; Cherkasov, Artem; Li, Jiazhong; Gramatica, Paola; Hansen, Katja; Schroeter, Timon; Müller, Klaus-Robert; Xi, Lili; Liu, Huanxiang; Yao, Xiaojun; Öberg, Tomas; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Dao, Phuong; Sahinalp, Cenk; Todeschini, Roberto; Polishchuk, Pavel; Artemenko, Anatoliy; Kuz'min, Victor; Martin, Todd M; Young, Douglas M; Fourches, Denis; Muratov, Eugene; Tropsha, Alexander; Baskin, Igor; Horvath, Dragos; Marcou, Gilles; Muller, Christophe; Varnek, Alexander; Prokopenko, Volodymyr V; Tetko, Igor V
2010-12-27
The estimation of accuracy and applicability of QSAR and QSPR models for biological and physicochemical properties represents a critical problem. The developed parameter of "distance to model" (DM) is defined as a metric of similarity between the training and test set compounds that have been subjected to QSAR/QSPR modeling. In our previous work, we demonstrated the utility and optimal performance of DM metrics that have been based on the standard deviation within an ensemble of QSAR models. The current study applies such analysis to 30 QSAR models for the Ames mutagenicity data set that were previously reported within the 2009 QSAR challenge. We demonstrate that the DMs based on an ensemble (consensus) model provide systematically better performance than other DMs. The presented approach identifies 30-60% of compounds having an accuracy of prediction similar to the interlaboratory accuracy of the Ames test, which is estimated to be 90%. Thus, the in silico predictions can be used to halve the cost of experimental measurements by providing a similar prediction accuracy. The developed model has been made publicly available at http://ochem.eu/models/1 .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyukarev, Yu M.
2016-04-01
The ranks of the limit Weyl intervals are known to serve as the geometric measure of degeneracy of the solution set to a Stieltjes matrix moment problem. This paper puts forward the first operator measure of degeneracy for the solution set to a Stieltjes matrix moment problem in terms of the deficiency vectors of a pair of associated positive symmetric operators. A relationship between the geometric and operator measures of degeneracy for a Stieltjes matrix moment problem is established, from which some corollaries about the Stieltjes matrix moment problem are obtained.Bibliography 19 titles.
A New Ghost Cell/Level Set Method for Moving Boundary Problems: Application to Tumor Growth
Macklin, Paul
2011-01-01
In this paper, we present a ghost cell/level set method for the evolution of interfaces whose normal velocity depend upon the solutions of linear and nonlinear quasi-steady reaction-diffusion equations with curvature-dependent boundary conditions. Our technique includes a ghost cell method that accurately discretizes normal derivative jump boundary conditions without smearing jumps in the tangential derivative; a new iterative method for solving linear and nonlinear quasi-steady reaction-diffusion equations; an adaptive discretization to compute the curvature and normal vectors; and a new discrete approximation to the Heaviside function. We present numerical examples that demonstrate better than 1.5-order convergence for problems where traditional ghost cell methods either fail to converge or attain at best sub-linear accuracy. We apply our techniques to a model of tumor growth in complex, heterogeneous tissues that consists of a nonlinear nutrient equation and a pressure equation with geometry-dependent jump boundary conditions. We simulate the growth of glioblastoma (an aggressive brain tumor) into a large, 1 cm square of brain tissue that includes heterogeneous nutrient delivery and varied biomechanical characteristics (white matter, gray matter, cerebrospinal fluid, and bone), and we observe growth morphologies that are highly dependent upon the variations of the tissue characteristics—an effect observed in real tumor growth. PMID:21331304
Focusing on the Golden Ball Metaheuristic: An Extended Study on a Wider Set of Problems
Osaba, E.; Diaz, F.; Carballedo, R.; Onieva, E.; Perallos, A.
2014-01-01
Nowadays, the development of new metaheuristics for solving optimization problems is a topic of interest in the scientific community. In the literature, a large number of techniques of this kind can be found. Anyway, there are many recently proposed techniques, such as the artificial bee colony and imperialist competitive algorithm. This paper is focused on one recently published technique, the one called Golden Ball (GB). The GB is a multiple-population metaheuristic based on soccer concepts. Although it was designed to solve combinatorial optimization problems, until now, it has only been tested with two simple routing problems: the traveling salesman problem and the capacitated vehicle routing problem. In this paper, the GB is applied to four different combinatorial optimization problems. Two of them are routing problems, which are more complex than the previously used ones: the asymmetric traveling salesman problem and the vehicle routing problem with backhauls. Additionally, one constraint satisfaction problem (the n-queen problem) and one combinatorial design problem (the one-dimensional bin packing problem) have also been used. The outcomes obtained by GB are compared with the ones got by two different genetic algorithms and two distributed genetic algorithms. Additionally, two statistical tests are conducted to compare these results. PMID:25165742
Focusing on the golden ball metaheuristic: an extended study on a wider set of problems.
Osaba, E; Diaz, F; Carballedo, R; Onieva, E; Perallos, A
2014-01-01
Nowadays, the development of new metaheuristics for solving optimization problems is a topic of interest in the scientific community. In the literature, a large number of techniques of this kind can be found. Anyway, there are many recently proposed techniques, such as the artificial bee colony and imperialist competitive algorithm. This paper is focused on one recently published technique, the one called Golden Ball (GB). The GB is a multiple-population metaheuristic based on soccer concepts. Although it was designed to solve combinatorial optimization problems, until now, it has only been tested with two simple routing problems: the traveling salesman problem and the capacitated vehicle routing problem. In this paper, the GB is applied to four different combinatorial optimization problems. Two of them are routing problems, which are more complex than the previously used ones: the asymmetric traveling salesman problem and the vehicle routing problem with backhauls. Additionally, one constraint satisfaction problem (the n-queen problem) and one combinatorial design problem (the one-dimensional bin packing problem) have also been used. The outcomes obtained by GB are compared with the ones got by two different genetic algorithms and two distributed genetic algorithms. Additionally, two statistical tests are conducted to compare these results. PMID:25165742
Solving Problems in Library and Information Science Using Fuzzy Set Theory.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hood, William W.; Wilson, Concepcion S.
2002-01-01
Discussion of the use of mathematical tools in library and information science focuses on information retrieval applications of fuzzy set theory. Topics include fuzzy set theory in informetrics and bibliometrics; and the literature of fuzzy set theory. (Contains 87 references.) (LRW)
TOUGH Simulations of the Updegraff's Set of Fluid and Heat Flow Problems
Moridis, G.J.; Pruess , K.
1992-11-01
The TOUGH code [Pruess, 1987] for two-phase flow of water, air, and heat in penneable media has been exercised on a suite of test problems originally selected and simulated by C. D. Updegraff [1989]. These include five 'verification' problems for which analytical or numerical solutions are available, and three 'validation' problems that model laboratory fluid and heat flow experiments. All problems could be run without any code modifications (*). Good and efficient numerical performance, as well as accurate results were obtained throughout. Additional code verification and validation problems from the literature are briefly summarized, and suggestions are given for proper applications of TOUGH and related codes.
Quality of Rapport as a Setting Event for Problem Behavior: Assessment and Intervention
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McLaughlin, Darlene Magito; Carr, Edward G.
2005-01-01
Relationship quality (rapport) between people with developmental disabilities and their caregivers has long been suggested as an important variable influencing the likelihood of problem behavior. However, to date, the association between rapport and problem behavior has not been systematically investigated. The authors evaluated a multimethod…
The Timing of Feedback on Mathematics Problem Solving in a Classroom Setting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fyfe, Emily R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany
2015-01-01
Feedback is a ubiquitous learning tool that is theorized to help learners detect and correct their errors. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of feedback in a classroom context for children solving math equivalence problems (problems with operations on both sides of the equal sign). The authors worked with children in 7 second-grade…
Vibrational properties at the ordered metallic surface alloy system Au(110)-1×2-Pd
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kheffache, Sedik; Chadli, Rabah; Khater, Antoine
2016-06-01
We present a calculation for the vibrational properties of the ordered surface alloy Au(110)-1×2-Pd on a crystalline substrate of Au. The surface phonon dispersion curves and the local vibrations densities of states (LDOS) are calculated in the harmonic approximation for the system, using the phase field matching theory (PFMT) method and associated real space Green’s functions. In particular, it is shown that the surface alloy presents optic vibrational modes above the Au bulk bands, along the directions of high-symmetry ΓX¯, XS¯, SY¯ and Y Γ¯ of the corresponding two-dimensional Brillouin zone. Measurements of the surface phonon dispersion branches can hence be made by different techniques such as helium atom scattering (HAS) to compare with. The calculated LDOS for Au and Pd atomic sites in the four top surface atomic layers span a wider range of frequencies than those for the individual Au(110) or Pd(110) metallic surfaces. These LDOS provide a spectral signature for the progressive transition from the surface dynamics to that of the Au crystal bulk. Knowledge of these LDOS for the surface alloy can also serve as an input for modeling the diffusion and reaction rates of chemical species at its surface.
A comparison of limit setting methods for the on-off problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rolke, Wolfgang A.
2016-01-01
We study the frequentist properties of confidence intervals found with various methods previously proposed for the On-Off problem. We derive explicit formulas for the limits and calculate the true coverage and the expected lengths of these methods.
Early identification of emotional and behavioral problems in a primary care setting.
Hack, S; Jellinek, M S
1998-06-01
Adolescence is a time when many psychiatric disorders first manifest themselves. The challenge to pediatricians is to recognize early signs of behavioral problems in their adolescent patients. This review suggests several practical approaches to the detection, assessment, and treatment of emotional problems in adolescents within the time limits of a typical pediatric exam. The approaches presented range from general health supervision of all adolescents to more intensive evaluation of at-risk adolescents.
Evidence-based care: 2. Setting guidelines: how should we manage this problem?
1994-01-01
There are four steps in determining how to manage a clinical problem. The first is to formulate questions that are answerable; the second is to locate and synthesize the evidence needed to answer the questions; the third is to estimate the expected benefits, harms and costs of each option based on the evidence; and the fourth is to judge the relative value of the expected outcomes to conclude whether the benefits are worth the harms and costs. It is impractical to repeat these steps for every clinical decision. Therefore, implicitly or explicitly, physicians rely on guidelines, "rules" that simplify decision making about complex problems. If the methods used to develop a guideline are not explicit it is difficult or impossible to know how much confidence to place in it. Therefore, for common and important clinical problems, physicians should rely on guidelines that are systematically developed using explicit methods. PMID:8168005
Reducing Teacher Stress by Implementing Collaborative Problem Solving in a School Setting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schaubman, Averi; Stetson, Erica; Plog, Amy
2011-01-01
Student behavior affects teacher stress levels and the student-teacher relationship. In this pilot study, teachers were trained in Collaborative Problem Solving (CPS), a cognitive-behavioral model that explains challenging behavior as the result of underlying deficits in the areas of flexibility/adaptability, frustration tolerance, and problem…
Summary of the setting, air quality problems, and meteorological activities in the oil shale region
Barr, S.; Clements, W.E.
1981-01-01
This document discusses air quality problems that may arise in the valleys of the Uinta mountains and the Roan Ridge in the oil shale area in western Colorado and eastern Utah. A meteorological field expedition that was undertaken in August 1980 by LASL and PNL is described. (DLC)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oakes, Jane; Gardiner, Paula; McLaughlin, Kristin; Battersby, Malcolm
2012-01-01
An innovative pilot treatment program was developed for problem gamblers living in rural areas of Australia using cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) modified from an established specialist therapy service. The standard 12 weekly group program was delivered on site by adapting it to two 1 week blocks with daily group sessions and 1 week of patient…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hutchinson, Susan L.; LeBlanc, Adrienne; Booth, Rhonda
2002-01-01
Reviews literature on the concept and practice of clinical reasoning, presenting evidence of clinical reasoning in a therapeutic recreation setting. Data from observations of and interviews with recreation therapists and clients in a Canadian rehabilitation hospital provided evidence of therapists' clinical reasoning practices which supported the…
Data Literacy: Real-World Learning through Problem-Solving with Data Sets
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Erwin, Robin W., Jr.
2015-01-01
The achievement of deep learning by secondary students requires teaching approaches that draw students into task commitment, integrated curricula, and analytical thinking. By using real-world data sets in project based instructional units, teachers can guide students in analyzing, interpreting, and reporting quantitative data. Working with…
Ezhilarasu, Punitha
2012-01-01
Clinical Problem Solving Ability (CPSA) is an important skill essential for nurses to achieve professional excellence which is developed during the educational process. A sample of 215 students from BSc and Diploma nursing educational programmes were studied to determine their CPSA and the differences were compared. A written simulation instrument (Ezhilarasu, 2000) with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.81 was used to measure the CPSA. BSc students scored significantly higher than Diploma students (p = 0). Final year students from both the programmes scored higher than the first year students (p = 0.01). The least commonly used step in clinical problem solving is evaluation. Along with other studies, this study also supports the influence of the educational process in the development of CPSA. Appropriate teaching strategies and role modelling by faculty should become an essential part in all nursing educational institutions.
Multilevel water governance and problems of scale: setting the stage for a broader debate.
Moss, Timothy; Newig, Jens
2010-07-01
Environmental governance and management are facing a multiplicity of challenges related to spatial scales and multiple levels of governance. Water management is a field particularly sensitive to issues of scale because the hydrological system with its different scalar levels from small catchments to large river basins plays such a prominent role. It thus exemplifies fundamental issues and dilemmas of scale in modern environmental management and governance. In this introductory article to an Environmental Management special feature on "Multilevel Water Governance: Coping with Problems of Scale," we delineate our understanding of problems of scale and the dimensions of scalar politics that are central to water resource management. We provide an overview of the contributions to this special feature, concluding with a discussion of how scalar research can usefully challenge conventional wisdom on water resource management. We hope that this discussion of water governance stimulates a broader debate and inquiry relating to the scalar dimensions of environmental governance and management in general.
Null subjects: a problem for parameter-setting models of language acquisition.
Valian, V
1990-05-01
Some languages, like English, require overt surface subjects, while others, like Italian and Spanish, allow "null" subjects. How does the young child determine whether or not her language allows null subjects? Modern parameter-setting theory has proposed a solution, in which the child begins acquisition with the null subject parameter set for either the English-like value or the Italian-like value. Incoming data, or the absence thereof, force a resetting of the parameter if the original value was incorrect. This paper argues that the single-value solution cannot work, no matter which value is chosen as the initial one, because of inherent limitations in the child's parser, and because of the presence of misleading input. An alternative dual-value solution is proposed, in which the child begins acquisition with both values available, and uses theory-confirmation procedures to decide which value is best supported by the available data.
Multiplicity of inhabited worlds and the problem of setting up contacts among them
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shklovskiy, I. S.
1974-01-01
The numerous planetary systems in our galaxy appear to a high degree of probability to contain some planets with a biosphere similar to earth' environment. The possibility of communicating with those extraterrestrial alien planetary civilizations centers on the high level of technological development that is required to overcome the problem of distance. It is conceivable that advanced civilizations can produce energy at a level of 10 to the 43rd power erg/year and that an artificial biosphere can be developed within the limits of 10 to the 22nd power to 10 to the 23rd power cm.
The treatment of severe behavior problems in school settings using a technical assistance model.
Northup, J; Wacker, D P; Berg, W K; Kelly, L; Sasso, G; DeRaad, A
1994-01-01
We evaluated the feasibility of local school personnel conducting functional analysis and reinforcement-based treatment procedures within actual classroom settings. Following an initial in-service workshop on functional assessment and differential reinforcement procedures, on-site technical assistance was provided two to four times per month to local school personnel working in transdisciplinary teams. Overall results suggest that local school personnel were able to implement all procedures adequately with periodic technical assistance. In addition, functional analysis was effective in identifying individual maintaining contingencies, the derived treatments were effective, and the results were maintained throughout the approximate 18 months of this investigation.
Medium-energy ion-scattering study of the structure of clean TiO{sub 2}(110)-(1x1)
Parkinson, G. S.; Munoz-Marquez, M. A.; Quinn, P. D.; Gladys, M. J.; Tanner, R. E.; Woodruff, D. P.; Bailey, P.; Noakes, T. C. Q.
2006-06-15
100 keV H{sup +} medium-energy ion scattering has been applied to investigate the surface relaxations of the clean rutile TiO{sub 2}(110)-(1x1) surface structure. A set of blocking curves in four different incident directions show clear differences between the surface and bulk attributable to surface relaxation. Optimized values of the surface relaxation parameters to give the best fit to the surface structure are generally in quite good agreement with a recent experimental determination of this structure using quantitative low-energy electron diffraction. In particular, both solutions favor an outward relaxation of the bridging O atoms on the surface rather than the strong inward displacement favored by the only previous experimental structure determination based on surface x-ray diffraction.
Cognitive work analysis to evaluate the problem of patient falls in an inpatient setting
Lopez, Karen Dunn; Cary, Michael P; Kanak, Mary F
2010-01-01
Objective To identify factors in the nursing work domain that contribute to the problem of inpatient falls, aside from patient risk, using cognitive work analysis. Design A mix of qualitative and quantitative methods were used to identify work constraints imposed on nurses, which may underlie patient falls. Measurements Data collection was done on a neurology unit staffed by 27 registered nurses and utilized field observations, focus groups, time–motion studies and written surveys (AHRQ Hospital Survey on Patient Culture, NASA-TLX, and custom Nursing Knowledge of Fall Prevention Subscale). Results Four major constraints were identified that inhibit nurses' ability to prevent patient falls. All constraints relate to work processes and the physical work environment, opposed to safety culture or nursing knowledge, as currently emphasized. The constraints were: cognitive ‘head data’, temporal workload, inconsistencies in written and verbal transfer of patient data, and limitations in the physical environment. To deal with these constraints, the nurses tend to employ four workarounds: written and mental chunking schemas, bed alarms, informal querying of the previous care nurse, and informal video and audio surveillance. These workarounds reflect systemic design flaws and may only be minimally effective in decreasing risk to patients. Conclusion Cognitive engineering techniques helped identify seemingly hidden constraints in the work domain that impact the problem of patient falls. System redesign strategies aimed at improving work processes and environmental limitations hold promise for decreasing the incidence of falls in inpatient nursing units. PMID:20442150
Ideal basis sets for the Dirac Coulomb problem: Eigenvalue bounds and convergence proofs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munger, Charles Thomas
2007-02-01
Basis sets are developed for the Dirac Coulomb Hamiltonian for which the resulting numerical eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are proved mathematically to have all the following properties: to converge to the exact eigenfunctions and eigenvalues, with necessary and sufficient conditions for convergence being known; to have neither missing nor spurious states; to maintain the Coulomb symmetries between eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the opposite sign of the Dirac quantum number κ; to have positive eigenvalues bounded from below by the corresponding exact eigenvalues; and to have negative eigenvalues bounded from above by -mc2. All these properties are maintained using functions that may be analytic or nonanalytic (e.g., Slater functions or splines); that match the noninteger power dependence of the exact eigenfunctions at the origin, or that do not; or that extend to +∞ as do the exact eigenfunctions, or that vanish outside a cavity of large radius R (convergence then occurring after a second limit, R →∞). The same basis sets can be used without modification for potentials other than the Coulomb, such as the potential of a finite distribution of nuclear charge, or a screened Coulomb potential; the error in a numerical eigenvalue is shown to be second order in the departure of the potential from the Coulomb. In certain bases of Sturmian functions the numerical eigenvalues can be related to the zeros of the Pollaczek polynomials.
McDonald, Ruth
2014-10-01
There is a trend in health systems around the world to place great emphasis on and faith in improving 'leadership'. Leadership has been defined in many ways and the elitist implications of traditional notions of leadership sit uncomfortably with modern healthcare organisations. The concept of distributed leadership incorporates inclusivity, collectiveness and collaboration, with the result that, to some extent, all staff, not just those in senior management roles, are viewed as leaders. Leadership development programmes are intended to equip individuals to improve leadership skills, but we know little about their effectiveness. Furthermore, the content of these programmes varies widely and the fact that many lack a sense of how they fit with individual or organisational goals raises questions about how they are intended to achieve their aims. It is important to avoid simplistic assumptions about the ability of improved leadership to solve complex problems. It is also important to evaluate leadership development programmes in ways that go beyond descriptive accounts.
The effect of Problem/Project-Based Learning on a desired skill set for construction professionals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sirotiak, Todd L.
The purpose of this study was to investigate if a Problem/Project-Based Learning (PBL) approach can affect certain non-technical, "soft" skills of construction engineers. Such skills include leadership, adaptability, and stress management. In mixed design research, quantitative and qualitative data are assembled and analyzed collectively. For this study, two separate assessment tools were used for the quantitative portion, while open-ended written reflections and a partially closed-ended senior questionnaire were implemented for the qualitative portion. A hypothetical model was used to investigate certain soft skills based on prior research documenting need. Skills investigated were confidence, stress coping, leadership, communication skills, adaptability, and management skills. Descriptive statistics, open-ended final written reflections, and a partially closed-ended senior questionnaire were used to analyze the data. PBL is a process in which the students are challenged to develop realistic solutions on open, less structured, real world type problems. The results of this study performed with the combined count of nearly 60 students suggest that PBL can influence several soft skills of senior construction engineers. Specifically, these findings demonstrate the following: (a) PBL appears to affect students' soft skills; (b) students appear to recognize the realism and "real world" applicability that PBL brings to their skill development; and (c) the data suggest that the experience is holistic and offers opportunities for balanced growth in several ways. Some key competencies such as communication and leadership indicated significant enhancements. Although this study was limited to one academic year of the university's construction engineering program, it provides interesting insight to changes within the time period investigated. This study should be replicated in other construction engineering environments to investigate a larger population sample. In addition
Avasarala, Atchuta Kameswararao; Panchangam, Saibharghavi
2008-01-01
Context: It is well-known that every health problem, not only presents itself with different epidemiological profiles in different population settings, but is also perceived and managed differently. Having knowledge of these variations in its presentations and perceptions in different population settings, for example, in urban and rural settings, will be useful for its successful management. Aim: To study differences in epidemiological profiles, perceptions, socio economic losses, and quality-of-life losses and management of dysmenorrhoea in different settings for effective management. Design and Setting: A comparative cross-sectional study among adolescent school girls (101 girls in urban areas and 79 girls in rural areas) in the district of Karimnagar. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey using a pretested questionnaire was conducted among 180 adolescent girls in urban and rural settings. Statistical Analyses Used: Proportions and X2 test. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhoea is 54% (53% in girls in urban areas and 56% in girls in rural areas) (X2 df = 0.1, P = 0.05). Sickness absenteeism (28–48%), socio economic losses, and perceived quality of life losses are more prevalent among girls in urban areas than in girls in rural areas. Girls in rural areas resort to physical labor and other natural methods to obtain relief while the girls in urban areas are mainly depending on medications. Conclusions: Dysmenorrhoea can also be managed effectively by natural methods without resorting to medicines, provided one is psychologically prepared to face it without anxiety. PMID:19876499
The Karoo igneous province — A problem area for inferring tectonic setting from basalt geochemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duncan, Andrew R.
1987-06-01
Tholeiitic basalts and associated intrusives are the major component of the Karoo igneous province. They are of Mesozoic age and constitute one of the world's classic continental flood basalt (CFB) provinces. It has been argued that most Karoo basalts have not undergone significant contamination with continental crust and that their lithospheric mantle source areas were enriched in incompatible minor and trace elements during the Proterozoic. The only exceptions to this are late-stage MORB-like dolerites near the present-day continental margins which are considered to be of asthenospheric origin. When data for the "southern" Karoo basalts are plotted on many of the geochemical discriminant diagrams which have been used to infer tectonic setting, essentially all of them would be classified as calc-alkali basalts (CAB's) or low-K tholeiites. Virtually none of them plot in the compositional fields designated as characteristic of "within-plate" basalts. There is little likelihood that the compositions of the Karoo basalts can be controlled by active subduction at the time of their eruption and no convincing evidence that a "subduction component" has been added to the subcontinental lithospheric mantle under the entire area in which the basalts crop out. It must be concluded that the mantle source areas for CAB's and the southern Karoo basalts have marked similarities. In contrast, the data for "northern" Karoo basalts largely plot in the "within-plate" field on geochemical discriminant diagrams. Available data suggest that the source composition and/or the restite mineralogy and degree of partial melting are different for southern and northern Karoo basalts. There is no evidence for any difference in tectonic setting between the southern and northern Karoo basalts at the time they were erupted. This appears to be clear evidence that specific mantle source characteristics and/or magmatic processes can vary within a single CFB province to an extent that renders at least
McDonald, Ruth
2014-01-01
There is a trend in health systems around the world to place great emphasis on and faith in improving ‘leadership’. Leadership has been defined in many ways and the elitist implications of traditional notions of leadership sit uncomfortably with modern healthcare organisations. The concept of distributed leadership incorporates inclusivity, collectiveness and collaboration, with the result that, to some extent, all staff, not just those in senior management roles, are viewed as leaders. Leadership development programmes are intended to equip individuals to improve leadership skills, but we know little about their effectiveness. Furthermore, the content of these programmes varies widely and the fact that many lack a sense of how they fit with individual or organisational goals raises questions about how they are intended to achieve their aims. It is important to avoid simplistic assumptions about the ability of improved leadership to solve complex problems. It is also important to evaluate leadership development programmes in ways that go beyond descriptive accounts. PMID:25337595
Problem-based learning: facilitating multiple small teams in a large group setting.
Hyams, Jennifer H; Raidal, Sharanne L
2013-01-01
Problem-based learning (PBL) is often described as resource demanding due to the high staff-to-student ratio required in a traditional PBL tutorial class where there is commonly one facilitator to every 5-16 students. The veterinary science program at Charles Sturt University, Australia, has developed a method of group facilitation which readily allows one or two staff members to facilitate up to 30 students at any one time while maintaining the benefits of a small PBL team of six students. Multi-team facilitation affords obvious financial and logistic advantages, but there are also important pedagogical benefits derived from uniform facilitation across multiple groups, enhanced discussion and debate between groups, and the development of self-facilitation skills in students. There are few disadvantages to the roaming facilitator model, provided that several requirements are addressed. These requirements include a suitable venue, large whiteboards, a structured approach to support student engagement with each disclosure, a detailed facilitator guide, and an open, collaborative, and communicative environment.
Ultra-sensitive γ-ray spectroscopy set-up for investigating primordial lithium problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gervino, G.; Gustavino, C.; Trezzi, D.; Aliotta, M.; Anders, M.; Boeltzig, A.; Bemmerer, D.; Best, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C.; Caciolli, A.; Cavanna, F.; Corvisiero, P.; Davinson, T.; Depalo, R.; DiLeva, A.; Elekes, Z.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Zs.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gyürky, Gy.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Scott, D. A.; Straniero, O.; Szücs, T.
2016-07-01
To precisely determine BBN 6Li production, the cross-section of the nuclear reaction 2H(α, γ)6Li must be directly measured within the astrophysical energy range of 30-400 keV. This measure requires an ultra-low γ-ray background in the experimental set-up. We have realized the conditions matching these very strict requirements at LUNA, the deep underground accelerator laboratory active in the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS), Italy: the γ-ray spectrometer background has been reduced down to reach unmatched low levels, comparable to the good ones experienced in dedicated off-line underground ultra low γ counting rate. We present and discuss the γ-ray background reduction reached in the HpGe spectrometer, where most of the remaining γ-ray background seen in the spectra are coming from the energetic deuterons scattered in the gas target by the α beam. Thanks to the low neutron environmental background at LUNA, the effect of this weak flux of 2-3 MeV neutrons on HpGe detectors has been studied in details and the results are presented and discussed.
Social, political, and institutional setting: Water management problems of the Rio Grande
Douglas, A.J.
2009-01-01
This paper discusses various water management issues facing federal, state, and local agencies charged with managing the water resources of the Rio Grande River Basin and its major tributaries. The Rio Grande - 3,058 km (=1,900 mi) long - is the fourth longest river in the United States. The river's basin is 870,236 km2 (=336,000 mi2) and for roughly two-thirds of its length it forms the United States-Mexican border. It is a major recreational resource providing world class trout fishing near its headwaters in Colorado's San Juan Mountains and shoreline, angling, and boating opportunities near the Colorado-New Mexico border. The Rio Grande is the principal tourist attraction of Big Bend National Park and flows through downtown Albuquerque and El Paso. Many reaches are wide and broad, but almost all are relatively shallow and not navigable by commercial ships. Nevertheless, it is one of the most important renewable water resources of the southwestern United States and North America. The issue of the "manageability" of the river in the face of social forces and disparate administrative jurisdictions that adversely impact Rio Grande flows is a thread linking various sections of the paper together. The length of the river; the fact that major reaches lie in Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas; and its unique role as an international boundary pose complex management problems. The allocation status quo formed by the complex nexus of existing river laws make it difficult to reshape Rio Grande management. ?? 2009 ASCE.
Piskozub, J.
1994-12-31
The multifrequency lidar inverse problem discussed consists of calculating the size distribution of sol particles from backscattered lidar data. Sea-water (marine) aerosol is particularly well suited for this kind of study as its scattering characteristics can be accurately represented by Mie theory as its particles are almost spherical and their complex index of refraction is well known. Here, a solution of the inverse problem concerning finding aerosol size distribution for a multifrequency lidar system working on a small number of wavelengths is proposed. The solution involves a best-fit method of finding parameters in a pre-set formula of particle size distribution. A comparison of results calculated with the algorithm from experimental lidar profiles with PMS data collected in Baltic Sea coastal zone is given.
Wood, Jeffrey J; Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D; Langer, David A; Wood, Patricia A; Clark, Shaunna L; Eddy, J Mark; Ialongo, Nick
2012-01-01
This study tests a model of reciprocal influences between absenteeism and youth psychopathology using 3 longitudinal datasets (Ns = 20,745, 2,311, and 671). Participants in 1st through 12th grades were interviewed annually or biannually. Measures of psychopathology include self-, parent-, and teacher-report questionnaires. Structural cross-lagged regression models were tested. In a nationally representative data set (Add Health), middle school students with relatively greater absenteeism at Study Year 1 tended toward increased depression and conduct problems in Study Year 2, over and above the effects of autoregressive associations and demographic covariates. The opposite direction of effects was found for both middle and high school students. Analyses with 2 regionally representative data sets were also partially supportive. Longitudinal links were more evident in adolescence than in childhood.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nielsen, Bjørn Fredrik; Lysaker, Marius; Tveito, Aslak
2007-01-01
The electrical activity in the heart is modeled by a complex, nonlinear, fully coupled system of differential equations. Several scientists have studied how this model, referred to as the bidomain model, can be modified to incorporate the effect of heart infarctions on simulated ECG (electrocardiogram) recordings. We are concerned with the associated inverse problem; how can we use ECG recordings and mathematical models to identify the position, size and shape of heart infarctions? Due to the extreme CPU efforts needed to solve the bidomain equations, this model, in its full complexity, is not well-suited for this kind of problems. In this paper we show how biological knowledge about the resting potential in the heart and level set techniques can be combined to derive a suitable stationary model, expressed in terms of an elliptic PDE, for such applications. This approach leads to a nonlinear ill-posed minimization problem, which we propose to regularize and solve with a simple iterative scheme. Finally, our theoretical findings are illuminated through a series of computer simulations for an experimental setup involving a realistic heart in torso geometry. More specifically, experiments with synthetic ECG recordings, produced by solving the bidomain model, indicate that our method manages to identify the physical characteristics of the ischemic region(s) in the heart. Furthermore, the ill-posed nature of this inverse problem is explored, i.e. several quantitative issues of our scheme are explored.
Reuter, Matthew G; Harrison, Robert J
2013-09-21
We revisit the derivation of electron transport theories with a focus on the projection operators chosen to partition the system. The prevailing choice of assigning each computational basis function to a region causes two problems. First, this choice generally results in oblique projection operators, which are non-Hermitian and violate implicit assumptions in the derivation. Second, these operators are defined with the physically insignificant basis set and, as such, preclude a well-defined basis set limit. We thus advocate for the selection of physically motivated, orthogonal projection operators (which are Hermitian) and present an operator-based derivation of electron transport theories. Unlike the conventional, matrix-based approaches, this derivation requires no knowledge of the computational basis set. In this process, we also find that common transport formalisms for nonorthogonal basis sets improperly decouple the exterior regions, leading to a short circuit through the system. We finally discuss the implications of these results for first-principles calculations of electron transport.
Chou, Sheng-Kai; Jiau, Ming-Kai; Huang, Shih-Chia
2016-08-01
The growing ubiquity of vehicles has led to increased concerns about environmental issues. These concerns can be mitigated by implementing an effective carpool service. In an intelligent carpool system, an automated service process assists carpool participants in determining routes and matches. It is a discrete optimization problem that involves a system-wide condition as well as participants' expectations. In this paper, we solve the carpool service problem (CSP) to provide satisfactory ride matches. To this end, we developed a particle swarm carpool algorithm based on stochastic set-based particle swarm optimization (PSO). Our method introduces stochastic coding to augment traditional particles, and uses three terminologies to represent a particle: 1) particle position; 2) particle view; and 3) particle velocity. In this way, the set-based PSO (S-PSO) can be realized by local exploration. In the simulation and experiments, two kind of discrete PSOs-S-PSO and binary PSO (BPSO)-and a genetic algorithm (GA) are compared and examined using tested benchmarks that simulate a real-world metropolis. We observed that the S-PSO outperformed the BPSO and the GA thoroughly. Moreover, our method yielded the best result in a statistical test and successfully obtained numerical results for meeting the optimization objectives of the CSP.
Metalation of tetraphenylporphyrin with nickel on a TiO2(110)-1 × 2 surface.
Wang, Cici; Fan, Qitang; Han, Yong; Martínez, José I; Martín-Gago, José A; Wang, Weijia; Ju, Huanxin; Gottfried, J Michael; Zhu, Junfa
2016-01-14
The in situ metalation of tetraphenylporphyrin (2HTPP) with Ni on the reconstructed TiO2(110)-1 × 2 surface, resulting in the formation of adsorbed nickel(II)-tetraphenylporphyrin (NiTPP), has been investigated by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SRPES), scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The metalation can be realized at room temperature irrespective of the deposition order of Ni and 2HTPP, which however leads to different metalation degrees. Increasing the substrate temperature or Ni : 2HTPP ratio results in higher metalation degree, which ultimately reaches its limit at ∼85% (Ni : 2HTPP = 3 : 1) and ∼49% (Ni : 2HTPP = 1 : 1) for post- and pre-deposition of Ni, respectively. The reaction from 2HTPP to NiTPP is accompanied by changes of the molecular adsorption conformation and the adsorption site from a tilted two-lobed feature on added Ti2O3 rows to a four-lobed feature on top of troughs or cross-links of the TiO2(110)-1 × 2 surface. This interpretation of the STM data is supported by DFT-based STM simulations.
Metalation of tetraphenylporphyrin with nickel on a TiO2(110)-1 × 2 surface†
Han, Yong; Martínez, José I.; Martín-Gago, José A.; Wang, Weijia; Ju, Huanxin; Gottfried, J. Michael; Zhu, Junfa
2015-01-01
The in situ metalation of tetraphenylporphyrin (2HTPP) with Ni on the reconstructed TiO2(110)-1 × 2 surface, resulting in the formation of adsorbed nickel(II)-tetraphenylporphyrin (NiTPP), has been investigated by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SRPES), scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations. The metalation can be realized at room temperature irrespective of the deposition order of Ni and 2HTPP, which however leads to different metalation degrees. Increasing the substrate temperature or Ni : 2HTPP ratio results in higher metalation degree, which ultimately reaches its limit at ~85% (Ni : 2HTPP = 3 : 1) and ~49% (Ni : 2HTPP = 1 : 1) for post- and pre-deposition of Ni, respectively. The reaction from 2HTPP to NiTPP is accompanied by changes of the molecular adsorption conformation and the adsorption site from a tilted two-lobed feature on added Ti2O3 rows to a four-lobed feature on top of troughs or cross-links of the TiO2(110)-1 × 2 surface. This interpretation of the STM data is supported by DFT-based STM simulations. PMID:26667953
H atom adsorption and diffusion on Si(110)-(1×1) and (2×1) surfaces.
Brázdová, Veronika; Bowler, David R
2011-06-21
We present a periodic density-functional study of hydrogen adsorption and diffusion on the Si(110)-(1×1) and (2×1) surfaces, and identify a local reconstruction that stabilizes the clean Si(110)-(1×1) by 0.51 eV. Hydrogen saturates the dangling bonds of surface Si atoms on both reconstructions and the different structures can be identified from their simulated scanning tunneling microscopy/current image tunneling spectroscopy (STM/CITS) images. Hydrogen diffusion on both reconstructions will proceed preferentially along zigzag rows, in between two adjacent rows. The mobility of the hydrogen atom is higher on the (2×1) reconstruction. Diffusion of a hydrogen vacancy on a monohydride Si(110) surface will proceed along one zigzag row and is slightly more difficult (0.2 eV and 0.6 eV on (1×1) and (2×1), respectively) than hydrogen atom diffusion on the clean surface.
Mpofu, D J; Lanphear, J; Stewart, T; Das, M; Ridding, P; Dunn, E
1998-09-01
The Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences (FMHS), United Arab Emirates (UAE) University is in a unique position to explore issues related to English language proficiency and medical student performance. All students entering the FMHS have English as a second language. This study focused on the issues of students' proficiency in English as measured by the TOEFL test, student background factors and interaction in problem-based learning (PBL) groups. Using a modification of Bales Interaction Process Analysis, four problem-based learning groups were observed over four thematic units, to measure the degree of student interaction within PBL groups and to compare this to individual TOEFL scores and key background variables. The students' contributions correlated highly with TOEFL test results in the giving of information (range r = 0.67-0.74). The female students adhered to interacting in English during group sessions, whereas the male students were more likely to revert to using Arabic in elaborating unclear phenomena (p < 0.01). The educational level of the student's mother was highly predictive of TOEFL scores for the male students, but not for female students. Multivariate analysis was undertaken to analyse the relative contribution of the TOEFL, parental education and years of studying in English. The best predictor of students' contributions in PBL groups was identified as TOEFL scores. The study demonstrates the importance of facilitating a locally acceptable level of English proficiency prior to admission to the FMHS. However, it also highlights the importance of not focusing only on English proficiency but paying attention to additional factors in facilitating medical students in maximizing benefits from interactions in PBL settings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Verduin, John R., Jr.
Much of the emphasis in this handbook is on helping students develop investigative, problem-solving, and thinking skills, but the importance of students' working together in a cooperative and democratic setting to solve problems is also stressed. Cooperative learning is an instructional tool that can often be used to the student's advantage. Part…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hargrove, W. W.; Hoffman, F. M.; Kumar, J.; Spruce, J.; Norman, S. P.
2013-12-01
Here we present diverse examples where empirical mining and statistical analysis of large data sets have already been shown to be useful for a wide variety of practical decision-making problems within the realm of large-scale ecology. Because a full understanding and appreciation of particular ecological phenomena are possible only after hypothesis-directed research regarding the existence and nature of that process, some ecologists may feel that purely empirical data harvesting may represent a less-than-satisfactory approach. Restricting ourselves exclusively to process-driven approaches, however, may actually slow progress, particularly for more complex or subtle ecological processes. We may not be able to afford the delays caused by such directed approaches. Rather than attempting to formulate and ask every relevant question correctly, empirical methods allow trends, relationships and associations to emerge freely from the data themselves, unencumbered by a priori theories, ideas and prejudices that have been imposed upon them. Although they cannot directly demonstrate causality, empirical methods can be extremely efficient at uncovering strong correlations with intermediate "linking" variables. In practice, these correlative structures and linking variables, once identified, may provide sufficient predictive power to be useful themselves. Such correlation "shadows" of causation can be harnessed by, e.g., Bayesian Belief Nets, which bias ecological management decisions, made with incomplete information, toward favorable outcomes. Empirical data-harvesting also generates a myriad of testable hypotheses regarding processes, some of which may even be correct. Quantitative statistical regionalizations based on quantitative multivariate similarity have lended insights into carbon eddy-flux direction and magnitude, wildfire biophysical conditions, phenological ecoregions useful for vegetation type mapping and monitoring, forest disease risk maps (e.g., sudden oak
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maas, A. P. H. M.; Didden, R.; de Moor, J. M. H.; Renier, W. O.; Curfs, L. M. G.
2005-01-01
Sleep problems such as bedtime difficulties, frequent night waking and excessive daytime sleepiness are prevalent in children with epilepsy. In the present study, functional assessment of sleep onset problems in two young children with epilepsy was performed. Effects of bedtime fading and antipsychotic medication (pipamperon) in a 6-year-old boy,…
Temperature-programmed desorption study of NO reactions on rutile TiO2(110)-1 × 1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Boseong; Dohnálek, Zdenek; Szanyi, János; Kay, Bruce D.; Kim, Yu Kwon
2016-10-01
Systematic temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies of NO adsorption and reactions on rutile TiO2(110)-1 × 1 surface reveal several distinct reaction channels in a temperature range of 50-500 K. NO readily reacts on TiO2(110) to form N2O, which desorbs between 50 and 200 K (LT N2O channels), which leaves the TiO2 surface populated with adsorbed oxygen atoms (Oa) as a by-product of N2O formation. In addition, we observe simultaneous desorption peaks of NO and N2O at 270 K (HT1 N2O) and 400 K (HT2 N2O), respectively, both of which are attributed to reaction-limited processes. No N-derived reaction product desorbs from TiO2(110) surface above 500 K or higher, while the surface may be populated with Oa's and oxidized products such as NO2 and NO3. The adsorbate-free TiO2 surface with oxygen vacancies can be regenerated by prolonged annealing at 850 K or higher. Detailed analysis of the three N2O desorption yields reveals that the surface species for the HT channels are likely to be various forms of NO dimers.
Ammonia formation from NO reaction with surface hydroxyls on rutile TiO2 (110) - 1×1
Kim, Boseong; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kim, Yu Kwon
2015-01-15
The reaction of NO with hydroxylated rutile TiO2(110)-1×1 surface (h-TiO2) was investigated as a function of NO coverage using temperature-programmed desorption. Our results show that NO reaction with h-TiO2 leads to formation of NH3 which is observed to desorb at ~ 400 K. Interestingly, the amount of NH3 produced depends nonlinearly on the coverage of NO. The yield increases up to a saturation value of ~1.3×1013 NH3/cm2 at a NO dose of 5×1013 NO/cm2, but subsequently decreases at higher NO doses. Preadsorbed H2O is found to have a negligible effect on the NH3 desorption yield. Additionally, no NH3 is formed in the absence of surface hydroxyls (HOb’s) upon coadsorption of NO and H2O on a stoichiometric TiO2(110) (s-TiO2(110)). Based on these observations, we conclude that nitrogen from NO has a strong preference to react with HOb’s on the bridge-bonded oxygen rows (but not with H2O) to form NH3. The absolute NH3 yield is limited by competing reactions of HOb species with titanium-bound oxygen adatoms to form H2O. Our results provide new mechanistic insight about the interactions of NO with hydroxyl groups on TiO2(110) .
Temperature-programmed desorption study of NO reactions on rutile TiO2(110)-1×1
Kim, Boseong; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Szanyi, Janos; Kay, Bruce D.; Kim, Yu Kwon
2016-02-24
In this study, systematic temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies of NO adsorption and reactions on rutile TiO2(110)-1 × 1 surface reveal several distinct reaction channels in a temperature range of 50–500 K. NO readily reacts on TiO2(110) to form N2O, which desorbs between 50 and 200 K (LT N2O channels), which leaves the TiO2 surface populated with adsorbed oxygen atoms (Oa) as a by-product of N2O formation. In addition, we observe simultaneous desorption peaks of NO and N2O at 270 K (HT1 N2O) and 400 K (HT2 N2O), respectively, both of which are attributed to reaction-limited processes. No N-derived reaction productmore » desorbs from TiO2(110) surface above 500 K or higher, while the surface may be populated with Oa's and oxidized products such as NO2 and NO3. The adsorbate-free TiO2 surface with oxygen vacancies can be regenerated by prolonged annealing at 850 K or higher. Detailed analysis of the three N2O desorption yields reveals that the surface species for the HT channels are likely to be various forms of NO dimers.« less
Sirota, Miroslav; Kostovičová, Lenka; Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric
2015-10-01
People appear to be Bayesian when statistical information is presented in terms of natural frequencies and non-Bayesian when presented in terms of single-event probabilities, unless the probabilities resemble natural frequencies, for example, as chances. The isomorphic format of chances, however, does not always facilitate performance to the extent that the format of natural frequencies does. Prior research has not addressed the underlying mechanism that accounts for this gap despite its theoretical significance. The mechanism explaining this external format gap could lie in the interpretation of the problem as a set-problem, which cues relevant problem model and arithmetic operations (the problem interpretation hypothesis) and/or in the interpretation of the format as frequencies, which may be easier to process (the format interpretation hypothesis). In two parallel experiments, we found support for the problem interpretation hypothesis only: set representations mediated solely the isomorphic format gap (Experiment 1: part A) and accounted for the transfer effect to natural frequencies (Experiment 1: part B); priming set representations improved performance with chances (Experiment 2). We discuss how the supported explanation corroborates the nested-sets rather than the ecological rationality account of statistical reasoning and how it helps explain individual differences in Bayesian reasoning.
Klegeris, Andis; Bahniwal, Manpreet; Hurren, Heather
2013-01-01
Problem-based learning (PBL) was originally introduced in medical education programs as a form of small-group learning, but its use has now spread to large undergraduate classrooms in various other disciplines. Introduction of new teaching techniques, including PBL-based methods, needs to be justified by demonstrating the benefits of such techniques over classical teaching styles. Previously, we demonstrated that introduction of tutor-less PBL in a large third-year biochemistry undergraduate class increased student satisfaction and attendance. The current study assessed the generic problem-solving abilities of students from the same class at the beginning and end of the term, and compared student scores with similar data obtained in three classes not using PBL. Two generic problem-solving tests of equal difficulty were administered such that students took different tests at the beginning and the end of the term. Blinded marking showed a statistically significant 13% increase in the test scores of the biochemistry students exposed to PBL, while no trend toward significant change in scores was observed in any of the control groups not using PBL. Our study is among the first to demonstrate that use of tutor-less PBL in a large classroom leads to statistically significant improvement in generic problem-solving skills of students.
Oja, Kenneth J
2011-03-01
In preparation for the progressive nature of today's acute care hospital environments and the requirements for safe and effective patient care, it is essential that nursing students learn how to think critically. Problem-based learning is a method of education designed to encourage critical thinking. This article examines the evidence regarding the use of problem-based learning to improve critical thinking. A review of published literature was conducted using the CINAHL, ERIC, PsychInfo, and PubMed databases with the keywords nursing, problem-based learning, and critical thinking. Although the evidence is still accumulating, the studies reviewed indicate a positive relationship between problem-based learning and improved critical thinking in nursing students. There is a need for more rigorous research on the use of problem-based learning to examine the effects on critical thinking. Until this occurs, nursing instructors must rely on the extant evidence to guide their practice or continue to use the traditional model of clinical nursing education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lerman, Dorothea C.; And Others
1996-01-01
This study examined whether problem behaviors of three adults with profound mental retardation, which had been maintained by continuous reinforcement schedules, could be extinguished more rapidly than those maintained on an intermittent schedule of reinforcement. No significant differences in extinction rate were found between the two conditions.…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lavy, Ilana; Shriki, Atara
2010-01-01
In the present study we explore changes in perceptions of our class of prospective mathematics teachers (PTs) regarding their mathematical knowledge. The PTs engaged in problem posing activities in geometry, using the "What If Not?" (WIN) strategy, as part of their work on computerized inquiry-based activities. Data received from the PTs'…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol
2014-05-01
Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems
Walls, Suzanne J; Jones, Daniel S; Stojak, Amber R; Carriker, Neil E
2015-01-01
A baseline ecological risk assessment (BERA) was performed for residual ash in the Watts Bar Reservoir following a release of fly ash from the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Kingston Fossil Plant. The site consists of parts of 3 rivers in eastern Tennessee comprising over 32 river kilometers. The purpose of the assessment was to determine if residual ash negatively impacts maintenance and reproduction of balanced communities or populations of potentially exposed ecological receptor groups in these rivers. This introductory article summarizes the site and environmental setting, assessment and measurement endpoints, risk characterization methods, and the study approach. Subsequent articles describe ecological risks to fish, benthic invertebrates, aquatic- and riparian-feeding wildlife, and aerial-feeding insectivores; and the role ecological risk characterization played in determining the most effective management of the residual ash, setting project remediation objectives and targets, and designing long-term monitoring to measure the effectiveness of the selected removal action. PMID:25234753
Reuter, Matthew G; Harrison, Robert J
2014-05-01
The thesis of Brandbyge's comment [J. Chem. Phys. 140, 177103 (2014)] is that our operator decoupling condition is immaterial to transport theories, and it appeals to discussions of nonorthogonal basis sets in transport calculations in its arguments. We maintain that the operator condition is to be preferred over the usual matrix conditions and subsequently detail problems in the existing approaches. From this operator perspective, we conclude that nonorthogonal projectors cannot be used and that the projectors must be selected to satisfy the operator decoupling condition. Because these conclusions pertain to operators, the choice of basis set is not germane.
Jan, Stephen; Bian, Ying; Jumpa, Manuel; Meng, Qingyue; Nyazema, Norman; Prakongsai, Phusit; Mills, Anne
2005-01-01
This paper examines the policy options for the regulation of dual job holding by medical professionals in highly resource-constrained settings. Such activity is generally driven by a lack of resources in the public sector and low pay, and has been associated with the unauthorized use of public resources and corruption. It is also typically poorly regulated; regulations are either lacking, or when they exist, are vague or poorly implemented because of low regulatory capacity. This paper draws on the limited evidence available on this topic to assess a number of regulatory options in relation to the objectives of quality of care and access to services, as well as some of the policy constraints that can undermine implementation in resource-poor settings. The approach taken in highlighting these broader social objectives seeks to avoid the value judgements regarding dual working and some of its associated forms of behaviour that have tended to characterize previous analyses. Dual practice is viewed as a possible system solution to issues such as limited public sector resources (and incomes), low regulatory capacity and the interplay between market forces and human resources. This paper therefore offers some support for policies that allow for the official recognition of such activity and embrace a degree of professional self-regulation. In providing clearer policy guidance, future research in this area needs to adopt a more evaluative approach than that which has been used to date. PMID:16283054
Jan, Stephen; Bian, Ying; Jumpa, Manuel; Meng, Qingyue; Nyazema, Norman; Prakongsai, Phusit; Mills, Anne
2005-10-01
This paper examines the policy options for the regulation of dual job holding by medical professionals in highly resource-constrained settings. Such activity is generally driven by a lack of resources in the public sector and low pay, and has been associated with the unauthorized use of public resources and corruption. It is also typically poorly regulated; regulations are either lacking, or when they exist, are vague or poorly implemented because of low regulatory capacity. This paper draws on the limited evidence available on this topic to assess a number of regulatory options in relation to the objectives of quality of care and access to services, as well as some of the policy constraints that can undermine implementation in resource-poor settings. The approach taken in highlighting these broader social objectives seeks to avoid the value judgements regarding dual working and some of its associated forms of behaviour that have tended to characterize previous analyses. Dual practice is viewed as a possible system solution to issues such as limited public sector resources (and incomes), low regulatory capacity and the interplay between market forces and human resources. This paper therefore offers some support for policies that allow for the official recognition of such activity and embrace a degree of professional self-regulation. In providing clearer policy guidance, future research in this area needs to adopt a more evaluative approach than that which has been used to date.
Godoy, Leandra; Carter, Alice S
2013-01-01
Young children, particularly uninsured children of color, suffer from mental health disturbances at rates similar to older children and adults, yet they have higher rates of unmet needs. To address unmet needs, efforts to identify mental health problems in primary care pediatric settings have grown in recent years, thanks in large part to expanded screening efforts. Yet, health disparities in early detection remain. Enhancing understanding of how early childhood mental health problems can be identified and addressed within pediatric settings is an important and growing area of research. The authors draw on theoretical models from public health policy, health psychology, and child development, including health beliefs, help seeking, transtheoretical, motivation to change, and dynamic systems, to better understand and address challenges to and disparities in identifying and addressing mental health problems in pediatric settings. These theories have not previously been applied to early mental health screening and identification efforts. Developmental and sociocultural considerations are highlighted in an effort to address and reduce higher rates of unmet needs among young, uninsured children of color.
Hipwell, Alison E; Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate E
2016-01-01
Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12-19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors. PMID:27176826
Murray, Joseph; Xiong, Shuangyan; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Keenan, Kate E.
2016-01-01
Adolescent mothers are reportedly at risk for depression and problem behaviors in the postpartum period, but studies have rarely considered developmental context and have yet to disentangle the effects of childbearing on adolescent functioning from selection effects that are associated with early pregnancy. The current study examined changes in adolescent depression, conduct problems and substance use (alcohol, tobacco and marijuana) across the peripartum period using risk-set propensity scores derived from a population-based, prospective study that began in childhood (the Pittsburgh Girls Study, PGS). Each of 147 childbearing adolescents (ages 12–19) was matched with two same-age, non-childbearing adolescents (n = 294) on pregnancy propensity using 15 time-varying risk variables derived from sociodemographic, psychopathology, substance use, family, peer and neighborhood domains assessed in the PGS wave prior to each pregnancy (T1). Postpartum depression and problem behaviors were assessed within the first 6 months following delivery (T2); data gathered from the non-childbearing adolescent controls spanned the same interval. Within the childbearing group, conduct problems and marijuana use reduced from T1 to T2, but depression severity and frequency of alcohol or tobacco use showed no change. When change was compared across the matched groups, conduct problems showed a greater reduction among childbearing adolescents. Relative to non-childbearing adolescents who reported more frequent substance use with time, childbearing adolescents reported no change in alcohol use and less frequent use of marijuana across the peripartum period. There were no group differences in patterns of change for depression severity and tobacco use. The results do not support the notion that adolescent childbearing represents a period of heightened risk for depression or problem behaviors. PMID:27176826
Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Davidson, George S.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt
2008-09-01
An experiment was conducted comparing the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming in order to address difficult, real world challenges. While industrial reliance on electronic communications has become ubiquitous, empirical and theoretical understanding of the bounds of its effectiveness have been limited. Previous research using short-term, laboratory experiments have engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The present experiment extends current findings beyond the laboratory to larger groups of real-world employees addressing organization-relevant challenges over the course of four days. Employees and contractors at a national security laboratory participated, either in a group setting or individually, in an electronic brainstorm to pose solutions to a 'wickedly' difficult problem. The data demonstrate that (for this design) individuals perform at least as well as groups in producing quantity of electronic ideas, regardless of brainstorming duration. However, when judged with respect to quality along three dimensions (originality, feasibility, and effectiveness), the individuals significantly (p<0.05) out-performed the group working together. When idea quality is used as the benchmark of success, these data indicate that work-relevant challenges are better solved by aggregating electronic individual responses, rather than electronically convening a group. This research suggests that industrial reliance upon electronic problem solving groups should be tempered, and large nominal groups might be the more appropriate vehicle for solving wicked corporate issues.
2011-01-01
Background Most adolescents live in resource-constrained countries and their mental health has been less well recognised than other aspects of their health. The World Health Organization's 4-S Framework provides a structure for national initiatives to improve adolescent health through: gathering and using strategic information; developing evidence-informed policies; scaling up provision and use of health services; and strengthening linkages with other government sectors. The aim of this paper is to discuss how the findings of a recent systematic review of mental health problems in adolescents in resource-constrained settings might be applied using the 4-S Framework. Method Analysis of the implications of the findings of a systematic search of the English-language literature for national strategies, policies, services and cross-sectoral linkages to improve the mental health of adolescents in resource-constrained settings. Results Data are available for only 33/112 [29%] resource-constrained countries, but in all where data are available, non-psychotic mental health problems in adolescents are identifiable, prevalent and associated with reduced quality of life, impaired participation and compromised development. In the absence of evidence about effective interventions in these settings expert opinion is that a broad public policy response which addresses direct strategies for prevention, early intervention and treatment; health service and health workforce requirements; social inclusion of marginalised groups of adolescents; and specific education is required. Specific endorsed strategies include public education, parent education, training for teachers and primary healthcare workers, psycho-educational curricula, identification through periodic screening of the most vulnerable and referral for care, and the availability of counsellors or other identified trained staff members in schools from whom adolescents can seek assistance for personal, peer and family
Albuquerque, Fabio; Beier, Paul
2015-01-01
Here we report that prioritizing sites in order of rarity-weighted richness (RWR) is a simple, reliable way to identify sites that represent all species in the fewest number of sites (minimum set problem) or to identify sites that represent the largest number of species within a given number of sites (maximum coverage problem). We compared the number of species represented in sites prioritized by RWR to numbers of species represented in sites prioritized by the Zonation software package for 11 datasets in which the size of individual planning units (sites) ranged from <1 ha to 2,500 km2. On average, RWR solutions were more efficient than Zonation solutions. Integer programming remains the only guaranteed way find an optimal solution, and heuristic algorithms remain superior for conservation prioritizations that consider compactness and multiple near-optimal solutions in addition to species representation. But because RWR can be implemented easily and quickly in R or a spreadsheet, it is an attractive alternative to integer programming or heuristic algorithms in some conservation prioritization contexts. PMID:25780930
Rangan, Sylvie; Ruggieri, Charles; Bartynski, Robert; Martínez, José Ignacio; Flores, Fernando; Ortega, José
2016-01-01
The adsorption of a densely packed Zinc(II) tetraphenylporphyrin monolayer on a rutile TiO2(110)-(1×1) surface has been studied using a combination of experimental and theoretical methods, aimed at analyzing the relation between adsorption behavior and barrier height formation. The adsorption configuration of ZnTPP was determined from scanning tunnel microscopy (STM) imaging, density functional theory (DFT) calculations and STM image simulation. The corresponding energy alignment was experimentally determined from X-ray and UV-photoemission spectroscopies and inverse photoemission spectroscopy. These results were found in good agreement with an appropriately corrected DFT model, pointing to the importance of local bonding and intermolecular interactions in the establishment of barrier heights. PMID:26998188
Dornburg, Courtney C.; Stevens, Susan Marie; Bauer, Travis L.; Davidson, George S.; Forsythe, James Chris; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt
2007-09-01
An experiment was conducted comparing the effectiveness of individual versus group electronic brainstorming in order to address difficult, real world challenges. While industrial reliance on electronic communications has become ubiquitous, empirical and theoretical understanding of the bounds of its effectiveness have been limited. Previous research using short-term, laboratory experiments have engaged small groups of students in answering questions irrelevant to an industrial setting. The current experiment extends current findings beyond the laboratory to larger groups of real-world employees addressing organization-relevant challenges over the course of four days. Findings are twofold. First, the data demonstrate that (for this design) individuals perform at least as well as groups in producing quantity of electronic ideas, regardless of brainstorming duration. However, when judged with respect to quality along three dimensions (originality, feasibility, and effectiveness), the individuals significantly (p<0.05) out performed the group working together. The theoretical and applied (e.g., cost effectiveness) implications of this finding are discussed. Second, the current experiment yielded several viable solutions to the wickedly difficult problem that was posed.
Thomas, Lisa; Bennett, Sue; Lockyer, Lori
2016-09-01
Problem-based learning (PBL) in medical education focuses on preparing independent learners for continuing, self-directed, professional development beyond the classroom. Skills in self-regulated learning (SRL) are important for success in PBL and ongoing professional practice. However, the development of SRL skills is often left to chance. This study presents the investigated outcomes for students when support for the development of SRL was embedded in a PBL medical curriculum. This investigation involved design, delivery and testing of SRL support, embedded into the first phase of a four-year, graduate-entry MBBS degree. The intervention included concept mapping and goal-setting activities through iterative processes of planning, monitoring and reflecting on learning. A mixed-methods approach was used to collect data from seven students to develop case studies of engagement with, and outcomes from, the SRL support. The findings indicate that students who actively engaged with support for SRL demonstrated increases in cognitive and metacognitive functioning. Students also reported a greater sense of confidence in and control over their approaches to learning in PBL. This study advances understanding about how the development of SRL can be integrated into PBL.
SETS. Set Equation Transformation System
Worrell, R.B.
1992-01-13
SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations, particularly the reduction of equations by the application of Boolean identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze noncoherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protection requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gudmundsdóttir, Sigrídur; Tang, Wenjie; Henkelman, Graeme; Jónsson, Hannes; Skúlason, Egill
2012-10-01
Local density of states and electric charge in regions defined for individual atoms and molecules using grid based Bader analysis is presented for N2 and CO2 adsorbed on a platinum electrode in the presence of an applied electric field. When the density of states is projected onto Bader regions, the partial density of states for the various subregions correctly sums up to the total density of states for the whole system, unlike the commonly used projection onto spheres which results in missing contributions from some regions while others are over counted, depending on the radius chosen. The electrode is represented by a slab with a missing row reconstructed Pt(110)-(1 × 2) surface to model an edge between micro-facets on the surface of a nano-particle catalyst. For both N2 and CO2, a certain electric field window leads to adsorption. The binding of N2 to the electrode is mainly due to polarization of the molecule but for CO2 hybridization occurs between the molecular states and the states of the Pt electrode.
Gudmundsdóttir, Sigrídur; Tang, Wenjie; Henkelman, Graeme; Jónsson, Hannes; Skúlason, Egill
2012-10-28
Local density of states and electric charge in regions defined for individual atoms and molecules using grid based Bader analysis is presented for N(2) and CO(2) adsorbed on a platinum electrode in the presence of an applied electric field. When the density of states is projected onto Bader regions, the partial density of states for the various subregions correctly sums up to the total density of states for the whole system, unlike the commonly used projection onto spheres which results in missing contributions from some regions while others are over counted, depending on the radius chosen. The electrode is represented by a slab with a missing row reconstructed Pt(110)-(1 × 2) surface to model an edge between micro-facets on the surface of a nano-particle catalyst. For both N(2) and CO(2), a certain electric field window leads to adsorption. The binding of N(2) to the electrode is mainly due to polarization of the molecule but for CO(2) hybridization occurs between the molecular states and the states of the Pt electrode. PMID:23126735
Matsushita, Stephane Yu; Matsui, Kazuki; Kato, Hiroki; Suto, Shozo; Yamada, Taro
2014-03-14
We have measured the surface phonon dispersion curves on the hydrogen-terminated Si(110)-(1×1) surface with the two-dimensional space group of p2mg along the two highly symmetric and rectangular directions of ΓX{sup ¯} and ΓX{sup ′¯} using high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy. All the essential energy-loss peaks on H:Si(110) were assigned to the vibrational phonon modes by using the selection rules of inelastic electron scattering including the glide-plane symmetry. Actually, the surface phonon modes of even-symmetry to the glide plane (along ΓX{sup ¯}) were observed in the first Brillouin zone, and those of odd-symmetry to the glide plane were in the second Brillouin zone. The detailed assignment was made by referring to theoretical phonon dispersion curves of Gräschus et al. [Phys. Rev. B 56, 6482 (1997)]. We found that the H–Si stretching and bending modes, which exhibit highly anisotropic dispersion, propagate along ΓX{sup ¯} direction as a one-dimensional phonon. Judging from the surface structure as well as our classical and quantum mechanical estimations, the H–Si stretching phonon propagates by a direct repulsive interaction between the nearest neighbor H atoms facing each other along ΓX{sup ¯}, whereas the H–Si bending phonon propagates by indirect interaction through the substrate Si atomic linkage.
Low-Temperature Desorption of N2O from NO on Rutile TiO2(110)-1x1
Kim, Boseong; Li, Zhenjun; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kim, Yu Kwon
2014-05-08
We find that NO dosed on rutile TiO2(110)-1×1 at substrate temperatures as low as 50 K readily reacts to produce N2O which desorbs promptly from the surface leaving an oxygen adatom behind. The desorption rate of N2O reaches a maximum value after 1 – 2 sec at an NO flux of 1.2 ×1014 NO/cm2∙sec and then decreases rapidly as the initially clean, reduced TiO2(110) surface with ~5% oxygen vacancies (VO’s) becomes covered with oxygen adatoms and unreacted NO. The maximum desorption rate is also found to increase as the substrate temperature is raised up to about 100 K. Interestingly, the N2O desorption during the low-temperature (LT) NO dose is strongly suppressed when molecular oxygen is predosed, whereas it persists on the surface with VO’s passivated by surface hydroxyls. Our results show that the surface charge, not the VO sites, plays a dominant role in the LT N2O desorption induced by a facile NO reduction at such low temperatures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leh, Jayne
2011-01-01
Substantial evidence indicates that teacher-delivered schema-based instruction (SBI) facilitates significant increases in mathematics word problem solving (WPS) skills for diverse students; however research is unclear whether technology affordances facilitate superior gains in computer-mediated (CM) instruction in mathematics WPS when compared to…
The effect of oxygen vacancies on the binding interactions of NH3 with rutile TiO2(110) -1×1
Kim, Boseong; Li, Zhenjun; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kim, Yu Kwon
2012-11-21
A series of NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) spectra was taken after the NH3 dose at 70 K on rutile TiO2(110)-1×1 surfaces with the oxygen vacancy (VO) concentrations of ~0% (p-TiO2) and 5% (r-TiO2), respectively, to study the effect of VO’s on the desorption energy of NH3 as a function of the coverage, θ. Our results show that at zero coverage limit, the desorption energy of NH3 on r-TiO2 is 115 kJ/mol, which is 10 kJ/mol less than that on p-TiO2. The desorption energy from the Ti4+ sites decreases with increasing θ due to the repulsive NH3 - NH3 interactions and approaches ~ 55 kJ/mol upon the saturation of Ti4+ sites (θ = 1 monolayer, ML) on both p- and r-TiO2. The absolute saturation coverage is determined to be about 10% smaller on r-TiO2 than that on p-TiO2. Further, the trailing edges of the NH3 TPD spectra on the hydroxylated TiO2(110) (h-TiO2) appear to be the same as that on r-TiO2 while those on oxidized TiO2(110) (o-TiO2) shift to higher temperatures. We present the detailed analysis of the results and reconcile the observed differences based on the repulsive adsorbate-adsorbate interactions between neighboring NH3 molecules and the surface charge associated with the presence of VO’s. Besides NH3, no other reaction products are observed in the TPD spectra.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-Torre, Delia; Yurtsever, Ayhan; Onoda, Jo; Abe, Masayuki; Morita, Seizo; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Pérez, Rubén
2015-02-01
We have studied the local properties of single Pt atoms adsorbed on hydroxylated TiO2(110 ) -(1 ×1 ) by combining noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) and first-principles calculations. Room-temperature high-resolution nc-AFM images for the most frequently observed contrast modes reveal bright and elongated protrusions that can be traced back to the Pt atoms, and that are centered on the fivefold coordinated titanium rows, confined between two bridging oxygen rows. These observations are in line with the theoretical results, as the lowest energy sites for the Pt atom on the TiO2(110 ) surface are in the neighborhood of the titanium rows, and high energy barriers have to be overcome to displace the Pt atom over the bridging oxygen rows. Single Pt atoms can be distinguished from H adsorbates (OH defects) due to their characteristic shape and binding site and, because they appear as the brightest surface features in all of the contrast modes. Force spectroscopy data over the protrusion and hole imaging modes and the corresponding tip-sample forces, simulated with O and OH terminated TiO2 nanoclusters, provide an explanation for this puzzling result in terms of the intrinsic strength of the interaction with the Pt adatom and the adatom and tip apex relaxations induced by the tip-sample interaction. These imaging mechanisms can be extended to other electropositive metal dopants and support the use of nc-AFM not only to characterize their adsorption structure but also to directly probe their chemical reactivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Donna; Zhou, Jing; Kang, Yong-Cheol
2003-03-01
We have investigated the growth of Cu and Ni islands on rutile TiO_2(110)-(1x1) surfaces using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Both Cu and Ni islands grow 3-dimensionally at room temperature even at low coverages. The narrowness of the size distributions for both Ni and Cu islands are controlled by the diffusion (D) to deposition flux (F) ratios, with the smallest values for D/F corresponding to most uniform size distributions. Increasing the deposition flux resulted in smaller islands with higher island densities, while increasing the diffusion rate at elevated deposition temperatures produced larger islands with lower island densities. As the metal coverage is increased, the island density increases even up to coverages as high as 2-3 ML, whereas the island diameters do not change much throughout entire coverage range. Islands do grow with increasing coverage, but this growth is mainly due to an increase in island height. Based on the stronger admetal-oxide interaction for Ni compared to Cu, it was expected that the Ni islands might have smaller aspect ratios compared to the Cu islands. Furthermore, the stronger admetal-oxide interactions could result in decreased diffusion rates for Ni compared to Cu. However, we found that Ni islands do not grow flatter on the surface compared to Cu, and there is no evidence for slower Ni adatom diffusion at room temperature. A major difference between Ni and Cu island growth is that the sintering of Ni islands occurs at much higher temperatures. We have shown that the rate limiting step in the sintering of Ni and Cu islands is adatom detachment, not adatom diffusion. Therefore, the slower sintering of Ni islands compared to Cu can be explained by the stronger metal-metal bond strength for Ni.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandbyge, Mads
2014-05-01
In a recent paper Reuter and Harrison [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 114104 (2013)] question the widely used mean-field electron transport theories, which employ nonorthogonal localized basis sets. They claim these can violate an "implicit decoupling assumption," leading to wrong results for the current, different from what would be obtained by using an orthogonal basis, and dividing surfaces defined in real-space. We argue that this assumption is not required to be fulfilled to get exact results. We show how the current/transmission calculated by the standard Greens function method is independent of whether or not the chosen basis set is nonorthogonal, and that the current for a given basis set is consistent with divisions in real space. The ambiguity known from charge population analysis for nonorthogonal bases does not carry over to calculations of charge flux.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hautmann, Christopher; Stein, Petra; Eichelberger, Ilka; Hanisch, Charlotte; Pluck, Julia; Walter, Daniel; Dopfner, Manfred
2011-01-01
We investigated the differential effectiveness of a parent management training program for children with externalizing problem behavior. The parent management training was tested using a within-subject control group design. 270 families with children aged 3-10 years were included and assessments were made at 3 months before treatment, immediately…
Harries, A. D.; Maher, D.; Nunn, P.
1998-01-01
The overlap between the populations in sub-Saharan Africa infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis has led to an upsurge in tuberculosis cases over the last 10 years. The relative increase in the proportion of notified sputum-smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases is greater than that of sputum-smear-positive PTB cases. This is a consequence of the following: the association between decreased host immunity and reduced sputum smear positivity; the difficulty in excluding other HIV-related diseases when making the diagnosis of smear-negative PTB; and an increase in false-negative sputum smears because of overstretched resources. This article examines problems in the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative PTB in high-HIV-prevalence areas in sub-Saharan Africa. The main issues in diagnosis include: the criteria used to diagnose smear-negative PTB; the degree to which clinicians actually follow these criteria in practice; and the problem of how to exclude other respiratory diseases that can resemble, and be misdiagnosed as, smear-negative PTB. The most important aspect of the treatment of smear-negative PTB patients is abandoning 12-month "standard" treatment regimens in favour of short-course chemotherapy. Operational research is necessary to determine the most cost-effective approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of smear-negative PTB. Nevertheless, substantial improvement could be obtained by implementing the effective measures already available, such as improved adherence to diagnostic and treatment guidelines. PMID:10191561
Brinkmann, Henner; Denk, Angelika; Zitzler, Jürgen; Joss, Jean J; Meyer, Axel
2004-12-01
We determined the complete nucleotide sequences (16403 and 16572 base pairs, respectively) of the mitochondrial genomes of the South American lungfish, Lepidosiren paradoxa, and the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri (Sarcopterygii, Dipnoi). The mitochondrial DNA sequences were established in an effort to resolve the debated evolutionary positions of the lungfish and the coelacanth relative to land vertebrates. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on complete mtDNA sequences, including only the African lungfish, Protopterus dolloi, sequence were able to strongly reject the traditional textbook hypothesis that coelacanths are the closest relatives of land vertebrates. However, these studies were unable to statistically significantly distinguish between the two remaining scenarios: lungfish as the closest relatives to land vertebrates and lungfish and coelacanths jointly as their sister group (Cao et al. 1998; Zardoya et al. 1998; Zardoya and Meyer 1997a). Lungfish, coelacanths, and the fish ancestors of the tetrapod lineage all originated within a short time window of about 20 million years, back in the early Devonian (about 380 to 400 million years ago). This short divergence time makes the determination of the phylogenetic relationships among these three lineages difficult. In this study, we attempted to break the long evolutionary branch of lungfish, in an effort to better resolve the phylogenetic relationships among the three extant sarcopterygian lineages. The gene order of the mitochondrial genomes of the South American and Australian lungfish conforms to the consensus gene order among gnathostome vertebrates. The phylogenetic analyses of the complete set of mitochondrial proteins (without ND6) suggest that the lungfish are the closest relatives of the tetrapods, although the support in favor of this scenario is not statistically significant. The two other smaller data sets (tRNA and rRNA genes) give inconsistent results depending on the
Singh, D.; Wagh, A.; Knox, L.; Mayberry, J.
1994-03-01
Chemically bonded phosphate ceramics are proposed as candidates for solidification and stabilization of some of the {open_quotes}problem{close_quotes} DOE low-level mixed wastes at low-temperatures. Development of these materials is crucial for stabilization of waste streams which have volatile species and any use of high-temperature technology leads to generation of off-gas secondary waste streams. Several phosphates of Mg, Al, and Zr have been investigated as candidate materials. Monoliths of these phosphates were synthesized using chemical routes at room or slightly elevated temperatures. Detailed physical and chemical characterizations have been conducted on some of these phosphates to establish their durability. Magnesium ammonium phosphate has shown to possess excellent mechanical and as well chemical properties. These phosphates were also used to stabilize a surrogate ash waste with a loading ranging from 25-35 wt.%. Characterization of the final waste forms show that waste immobilization is due to both chemical stabilization and physical encapsulation of the surrogate waste which is desirable for waste immobilization.
UpSet: Visualization of Intersecting Sets
Lex, Alexander; Gehlenborg, Nils; Strobelt, Hendrik; Vuillemot, Romain; Pfister, Hanspeter
2016-01-01
Understanding relationships between sets is an important analysis task that has received widespread attention in the visualization community. The major challenge in this context is the combinatorial explosion of the number of set intersections if the number of sets exceeds a trivial threshold. In this paper we introduce UpSet, a novel visualization technique for the quantitative analysis of sets, their intersections, and aggregates of intersections. UpSet is focused on creating task-driven aggregates, communicating the size and properties of aggregates and intersections, and a duality between the visualization of the elements in a dataset and their set membership. UpSet visualizes set intersections in a matrix layout and introduces aggregates based on groupings and queries. The matrix layout enables the effective representation of associated data, such as the number of elements in the aggregates and intersections, as well as additional summary statistics derived from subset or element attributes. Sorting according to various measures enables a task-driven analysis of relevant intersections and aggregates. The elements represented in the sets and their associated attributes are visualized in a separate view. Queries based on containment in specific intersections, aggregates or driven by attribute filters are propagated between both views. We also introduce several advanced visual encodings and interaction methods to overcome the problems of varying scales and to address scalability. UpSet is web-based and open source. We demonstrate its general utility in multiple use cases from various domains. PMID:26356912
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.
2002-01-01
Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teutsch, Jason
2007-01-01
It is possible to enumerate all computer programs. In particular, for every partial computable function, there is a shortest program which computes that function. f-MIN is the set of indices for shortest programs. In 1972, Meyer showed that f-MIN is Turing equivalent to 0'', the halting set with halting set oracle. This paper generalizes the notion of shortest programs, and we use various measures from computability theory to describe the complexity of the resulting "spectral sets." We show that under certain Godel numberings, the spectral sets are exactly the canonical sets 0', 0'', 0''', ... up to Turing equivalence. This is probably not true in general, however we show that spectral sets always contain some useful information. We show that immunity, or "thinness" is a useful characteristic for distinguishing between spectral sets. In the final chapter, we construct a set which neither contains nor is disjoint from any infinite arithmetic set, yet it is 0-majorized and contains a natural spectral set. Thus a pathological set becomes a bit more friendly. Finally, a number of interesting open problems are left for the inspired reader.
Re-Setting Music Education's "Default Settings"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Regelski, Thomas A.
2013-01-01
This paper explores the effects and problems of one highly influential default setting of the "normal style template" of music education and proposes some alternatives. These do not require abandoning all traditional templates for school music. But re-setting the default settings does depend on reconsidering the promised function of…
Setting conservation priorities.
Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P
2009-04-01
A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., also known as the Clean Water Act... Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto, Annex I, which regulates pollution from oil and which entered into force on October 2, 1983; Navigable...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., also known as the Clean Water Act... Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto, Annex I, which regulates pollution from oil and which entered into force on October 2, 1983; Navigable...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., also known as the Clean Water Act... Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto, Annex I, which regulates pollution from oil and which entered into force on October 2, 1983; Navigable...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... Water Pollution Control Act, as amended, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., also known as the Clean Water Act... Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto, Annex I, which regulates pollution from oil and which entered into force on October 2, 1983; Navigable...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... part are referred to true meridian. (d) Geographic coordinates expressed in terms of latitude or... North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83), unless such geographic coordinates are expressly labeled NAD 83. Geographic coordinates without the NAD 83 reference may be plotted on maps or charts referenced to NAD...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nerlov, Jesper; Christensen, Søren V.; Weichel, Steen; Pedersen, Eddie H.; Møller, Preben J.
1997-02-01
The coadsorption of CO 2 and Na on TiO 2(110)-(1 × 1) and -(1 × 2) surfaces have been investigated by synchrotron-radiation based core-level and valence band photoemission. We find that the initially adsorbed Na exhibits a core-level shift of 1.15 eV when the two surfaces are compared. From a simple adsorption model this binding energy shift is understood in terms of a difference in initial Na adsorption site on these surfaces. While the (1 × 1) surface seems to favor Na adsorption in a hollow site "between" bridging surface oxygen atoms, it is found that the (1 × 2) surface facilitates a chemically more advantageous Na adsorption "adjacent to" the bridging oxygen atoms. Valence band measurements support this model since Na adsorption on the (1 × 2) surface leads to emission characteristic of alkali-oxygen-like compounds while this is not the case for the {Na}/{TiO2(110) }-(1 × 1) system. Finally, the relatively high resolution of the core-level emission allows in a direct way the various features contributing to the Na 2p core-level emission to be determined. With respect to adsorption of CO 2 we find for the (1 × 2) surface that CO 2 uptake saturates around 0.5 ML Na coverage compared to 1 ML for the (1 × 1) surface, indicating that the Na coverage required for saturation of CO 2 uptake is proportional to the density of protruded oxygen rows present at the surface. The CO 2 uptake, however, increases as the density of the oxygen rows decreases. Valence band photoemission data obtained from both interfaces show that a surface carbonate species is formed. At lower coverages/exposures there are, however, indications of the presence of a CO -2 species rather than carbonate, thereby suggesting that the carbonate species is formed through the surface reaction: 2CO -2→CO 2-3 + CO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellerman, David
2014-03-01
In models of QM over finite fields (e.g., Schumacher's ``modal quantum theory'' MQT), one finite field stands out, Z2, since Z2 vectors represent sets. QM (finite-dimensional) mathematics can be transported to sets resulting in quantum mechanics over sets or QM/sets. This gives a full probability calculus (unlike MQT with only zero-one modalities) that leads to a fulsome theory of QM/sets including ``logical'' models of the double-slit experiment, Bell's Theorem, QIT, and QC. In QC over Z2 (where gates are non-singular matrices as in MQT), a simple quantum algorithm (one gate plus one function evaluation) solves the Parity SAT problem (finding the parity of the sum of all values of an n-ary Boolean function). Classically, the Parity SAT problem requires 2n function evaluations in contrast to the one function evaluation required in the quantum algorithm. This is quantum speedup but with all the calculations over Z2 just like classical computing. This shows definitively that the source of quantum speedup is not in the greater power of computing over the complex numbers, and confirms the idea that the source is in superposition.
Probabilistic Open Set Recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jain, Lalit Prithviraj
Real-world tasks in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning often touch upon the open set recognition problem: multi-class recognition with incomplete knowledge of the world and many unknown inputs. An obvious way to approach such problems is to develop a recognition system that thresholds probabilities to reject unknown classes. Traditional rejection techniques are not about the unknown; they are about the uncertain boundary and rejection around that boundary. Thus traditional techniques only represent the "known unknowns". However, a proper open set recognition algorithm is needed to reduce the risk from the "unknown unknowns". This dissertation examines this concept and finds existing probabilistic multi-class recognition approaches are ineffective for true open set recognition. We hypothesize the cause is due to weak adhoc assumptions combined with closed-world assumptions made by existing calibration techniques. Intuitively, if we could accurately model just the positive data for any known class without overfitting, we could reject the large set of unknown classes even under this assumption of incomplete class knowledge. For this, we formulate the problem as one of modeling positive training data by invoking statistical extreme value theory (EVT) near the decision boundary of positive data with respect to negative data. We provide a new algorithm called the PI-SVM for estimating the unnormalized posterior probability of class inclusion. This dissertation also introduces a new open set recognition model called Compact Abating Probability (CAP), where the probability of class membership decreases in value (abates) as points move from known data toward open space. We show that CAP models improve open set recognition for multiple algorithms. Leveraging the CAP formulation, we go on to describe the novel Weibull-calibrated SVM (W-SVM) algorithm, which combines the useful properties of statistical EVT for score calibration with one-class and binary
Set Equation Transformation System.
2002-03-22
Version 00 SETS is used for symbolic manipulation of Boolean equations, particularly the reduction of equations by the application of Boolean identities. It is a flexible and efficient tool for performing probabilistic risk analysis (PRA), vital area analysis, and common cause analysis. The equation manipulation capabilities of SETS can also be used to analyze noncoherent fault trees and determine prime implicants of Boolean functions, to verify circuit design implementation, to determine minimum cost fire protectionmore » requirements for nuclear reactor plants, to obtain solutions to combinatorial optimization problems with Boolean constraints, and to determine the susceptibility of a facility to unauthorized access through nullification of sensors in its protection system. Two auxiliary programs, SEP and FTD, are included. SEP performs the quantitative analysis of reduced Boolean equations (minimal cut sets) produced by SETS. The user can manipulate and evaluate the equations to find the probability of occurrence of any desired event and to produce an importance ranking of the terms and events in an equation. FTD is a fault tree drawing program which uses the proprietary ISSCO DISSPLA graphics software to produce an annotated drawing of a fault tree processed by SETS. The DISSPLA routines are not included.« less
... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady or as ... fall-related injuries, such as hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...
Note Taking in Multi-Media Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Black, Kelly; Yao, Guangming
2014-01-01
We provide a preliminary exploration into the use of note taking when combined with video examples. Student volunteers were divided into three groups and asked to perform two problems. The first problem was explored in a classroom setting and the other problem was a novel problem. The students were asked to complete the two questions. Furthermore,…
Fomin, Eduard
2016-09-01
The problem of the reconstruction of the order of sequence elements in de novo sequencing of linear and cyclic peptides is reduced to the known turnpike and beltway problems, the latter of which having no polynomial time algorithm in the general case. A new simple approach is proposed to solve both problems. It is based on sequential removal of redundancy from the inputs. For the error-free inputs that simulate mass spectra with accuracy to [Formula: see text] Da, the size of inputs decreases from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]. In this way, exhaustive search can be almost completely removed from the algorithms, and the number of steps to reconstruct a sequence is in direct ratio to the input size, [Formula: see text].
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allen, Deborah E.; Donham, Richard S.; Bernhardt, Stephen A.
2011-01-01
In problem-based learning (PBL), students working in collaborative groups learn by resolving complex, realistic problems under the guidance of faculty. There is some evidence of PBL effectiveness in medical school settings where it began, and there are numerous accounts of PBL implementation in various undergraduate contexts, replete with…
Strengthening Programs through Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dyer, Jim
1993-01-01
Describes a secondary agricultural education program that was a dumping ground for academically disadvantaged students. Discusses how such a program can be improved by identifying problems and symptoms, treating problems, and goal setting. (JOW)
Analyzing and Solving Productivity Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Walsh, David S.; Johnson, Thomas J.
1980-01-01
The authors discuss ways to define a company's position on productivity, and explain productivity concepts. They describe a problem cause/solution set matrix with which to identify accurately the most probable cause of productivity problems. (SK)
... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Balance Problems About Balance Problems Have you ever felt dizzy, lightheaded, or ... dizziness problem during the past year. Why Good Balance is Important Having good balance means being able ...
Milne, R.B.
1995-12-01
This thesis describes a new method for the numerical solution of partial differential equations of the parabolic type on an adaptively refined mesh in two or more spatial dimensions. The method is motivated and developed in the context of the level set formulation for the curvature dependent propagation of surfaces in three dimensions. In that setting, it realizes the multiple advantages of decreased computational effort, localized accuracy enhancement, and compatibility with problems containing a range of length scales.
Ford, Jackie
2015-04-01
There remains a conviction that the torrent of publications and the financial outlay on leadership development will create managers with the skills and characters of perfect leaders, capable of guiding healthcare organisations through the challenges and crises of the 21st century. The focus of much attention continues to be the search for the (illusory) core set of heroic qualities, abilities or competencies that will enable the development of leaders to achieve levels of supreme leadership and organisational performance. This brief commentary adds support to McDonald's (1) call for recognition of the complexity of the undertaking. PMID:25844391
Ford, Jackie
2015-04-01
There remains a conviction that the torrent of publications and the financial outlay on leadership development will create managers with the skills and characters of perfect leaders, capable of guiding healthcare organisations through the challenges and crises of the 21st century. The focus of much attention continues to be the search for the (illusory) core set of heroic qualities, abilities or competencies that will enable the development of leaders to achieve levels of supreme leadership and organisational performance. This brief commentary adds support to McDonald's (1) call for recognition of the complexity of the undertaking.
Quantum oblivious set-member decision protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Zhang, Shun
2015-08-01
We present and define a privacy-preserving problem called the oblivious set-member decision problem, which allows a server to decide whether a private secret of a user is a member of his private set in an oblivious manner. Namely, if the secret belongs to his private set, he does not know which member it is. We propose a quantum solution to the oblivious set-member decision problem. Compared to classical solutions, the proposed quantum protocol achieves an exponential reduction in communication complexity, since it only needs O (1 ) communication cost.
Behavior Management in Afterschool Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mahoney, Joseph L.
2014-01-01
Although behavioral management is one of the most challenging aspects of working in an afterschool setting, staff do not typically receive formal training in evidence-based approaches to handling children's behavior problems. Common approaches to behavioral management such as punishment or time-out are temporary solutions because they do not…
"Trap Setting" in Didactic Materials.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Urdal, Pamela
1984-01-01
Trap setting is a concept based on a psycholinguistic explanation of the acquisition of second language skills emphasizing cognitive and creative processes over the auditory, visual, and imitative. It proposes that opportunities for repeated attempts at solving new problems through constant testing and retesting of creative hypotheses bring the…
A new MCNP{trademark} test set
Brockhoff, R.C.; Hendricks, J.S.
1994-09-01
The MCNP test set is used to test the MCNP code after installation on various computer platforms. For MCNP4 and MCNP4A this test set included 25 test problems designed to test as many features of the MCNP code as possible. A new and better test set has been devised to increase coverage of the code from 85% to 97% with 28 problems. The new test set is as fast as and shorter than the MCNP4A test set. The authors describe the methodology for devising the new test set, the features that were not covered in the MCNP4A test set, and the changes in the MCNP4A test set that have been made for MCNP4B and its developmental versions. Finally, new bugs uncovered by the new test set and a compilation of all known MCNP4A bugs are presented.
... daily activities, get around, and exercise. Having a problem with walking can make daily life more difficult. ... walk is called your gait. A variety of problems can cause an abnormal gait and lead to ...
... re not getting enough air. Sometimes mild breathing problems are from a stuffy nose or hard exercise. ... emphysema or pneumonia cause breathing difficulties. So can problems with your trachea or bronchi, which are part ...
... ankles and toes. Other types of arthritis include gout or pseudogout. Sometimes, there is a mechanical problem ... for more information on osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gout. How Common are Joint Problems? Osteoarthritis, which affects ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hale, Norman; Lindelow, John
Chapter 12 in a volume on school leadership, this chapter cites the work of several authorities concerning problem-solving or decision-making techniques based on the belief that group problem-solving effort is preferable to individual effort. The first technique, force-field analysis, is described as a means of dissecting complex problems into…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amaral, Marcelo D.; Teixeira, Eduardo V.
2015-08-01
We study transmission problems with free interfaces from one random medium to another. Solutions are required to solve distinct partial differential equations, and , within their positive and negative sets respectively. A corresponding flux balance from one phase to another is also imposed. We establish existence and bounds of solutions. We also prove that variational solutions are non-degenerate and develop the regularity theory for solutions of such free boundary problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lesso, W. G.; Kenyon, E.
1972-01-01
Consideration of the problems involved in choosing appropriate menus for astronauts carrying out SKYLAB missions lasting up to eight weeks. The problem of planning balanced menus on the basis of prepackaged food items within limitations on the intake of calories, protein, and certain elements is noted, as well as a number of other restrictions of both physical and arbitrary nature. The tailoring of a set of menus for each astronaut on the basis of subjective rankings of each food by the astronaut in terms of a 'measure of pleasure' is described, and a computer solution to this problem by means of a mixed integer programming code is presented.
Solving Common Mathematical Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luz, Paul L.
2005-01-01
Mathematical Solutions Toolset is a collection of five software programs that rapidly solve some common mathematical problems. The programs consist of a set of Microsoft Excel worksheets. The programs provide for entry of input data and display of output data in a user-friendly, menu-driven format, and for automatic execution once the input data has been entered.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huntsman, Jeffrey F.
The problems confronting the translator of American Indian literature are immense. The history of European Indian relations has obscured many original Indian values and attitudes and has substituted a set of simplistic and unreal Anglo attitudes that translators must transcend. Unlike most Western literature, Indian literature does not instruct,…
... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Balance Problems Basic Facts & Information What are Balance Problems? Having good balance means being able to ... Only then can you “keep your balance.” Why Balance is Important Your feelings of dizziness may last ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Foster, Colin
2012-01-01
This is the story of a real problem, not a problem that is contrived, or invented for the convenience of the appropriate planning tool. This activity by a group of students, defined simply as "8FN", might be likened to an "end of term concert". If you just happened to be a delegate at the ATM Conference 2003 you might remember the analogy. Social…
Teaching Nursing Research Using Large Data Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brosnan, Christine A.; Eriksen, Lillian R.; Lin, Yu-Feng
2002-01-01
Describes a process for teaching nursing research via secondary analysis of data sets from the National Center for Health Statistics. Addresses advantages, potential problems and limitations, guidelines for students, and evaluation methods. (Contains 32 references.) (SK)
Sets that Contain Their Circle Centers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, Greg
2008-01-01
Say that a subset S of the plane is a "circle-center set" if S is not a subset of a line, and whenever we choose three non-collinear points from S, the center of the circle through those three points is also an element of S. A problem appearing on the Macalester College Problem of the Week website stated that a finite set of points in the plane,…
... This flow chart will help direct you if hearing loss is a problem for you or a family ... may damage the inner ear. This kind of hearing loss is called OCCUPATIONAL. Prevent occupational hearing loss by ...
... treated differently. Common thyroid disorders and problems include: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a disorder in which your thyroid doesn’ ... normal after you get better. If you have hypothyroidism, however, the levels of T4 in your blood ...
... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... the production of red blood cells. What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...
... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...
... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech Disorders Stuttering is a problem that interferes with fluent ... is a language disorder, while stuttering is a speech disorder. A person who stutters has trouble getting out ...
... Inverted nipple; Nipple problems Images Female breast Intraductal papilloma Mammary gland Abnormal discharge from the nipple Normal ... 8. Read More Breast cancer Endocrine glands Intraductal papilloma Update Date 11/16/2014 Updated by: Cynthia ...
Determining the Significance of Item Order in Randomized Problem Sets
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pardos, Zachary A.; Heffernan, Neil T.
2009-01-01
Researchers who make tutoring systems would like to know which sequences of educational content lead to the most effective learning by their students. The majority of data collected in many ITS systems consist of answers to a group of questions of a given skill often presented in a random sequence. Following work that identifies which items…
The Truck Driver's Straw Problem and Cantor Sets
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iga, Kevin
2008-01-01
A colleague was moving, and someone on the professional moving crew, upon hearing she was a mathematician, asked what happens when you repeatedly transfer water back and forth between two classes using a straw. The question is simple to solve if you alternate which glass you transfer from and to, but if more general patters are allowed, some…
On the Red-Blue Set Cover Problem
Carr, Robert D.; Doddi, Srinivas; Konjevod, Goran; Marathe, Madhav
1999-07-28
Both the increased complexity of integrated circuits, resulting in six or more levels of integration, and the increasing use of flip-chip packaging have driven the development of integrated circuit (IC) failure analysis tools that can be applied to the backside of the chip. Among these new approaches are focused ion beam (FIB) tools and processes for performing chip edits/repairs from the die backside. This paper describes the use of backside FIB for a failure analysis application rather than for chip repair. Specifically, we used FIB technology to prepare an IC for inspection of voided metal interconnects (''lines'') and vias. Conventional FIB milling was combined with a super-enhanced gas assisted milling process that uses XeF{sub 2} for rapid removal of large volumes of bulk silicon. This combined approach allowed removal of the TiW underlayer from a large number of Ml lines simultaneously, enabling rapid localization and plan view imaging of voids in lines and vias with backscattered electron (BSE) imaging in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Sequential cross sections of individual voided vias enabled us to develop a 3-d reconstruction of these voids. This information clarified how the voids were formed, helping us identify the IC process steps that needed to be changed.
TERMINAL ILLNESS IN AN INDIAN SETTING: PROBLEMS OF COMMUNICATION
Khanna, R.; Singh, R.P.N.
1988-01-01
SUMMARY A study of 50 terminally ill cancer patients revealed that 52% were uninformed regarding their diagnosis and prognosis. In almost all cases the relatives had been adequately informed. No less than 82% of the terminally ill patients showed an awareness of the fatal prognosis. Most of the patients found the communication with the doctor and the relatives as unsatisfactory. Comparing this group with another group of non-terminal medically ill patients showed striking differences between the two groups. The findings are compared with those reported from the West and the implications of the above observations discussed. PMID:21927320
The Effect of Distributed Practice in Undergraduate Statistics Homework Sets: A Randomized Trial
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crissinger, Bryan R.
2015-01-01
Most homework sets in statistics courses are constructed so that students concentrate or "mass" their practice on a certain topic in one problem set. Distributed practice homework sets include review problems in each set so that practice on a topic is distributed across problem sets. There is a body of research that points to the…
Subspace Identification with Multiple Data Sets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duchesne, Laurent; Feron, Eric; Paduano, James D.; Brenner, Marty
1995-01-01
Most existing subspace identification algorithms assume that a single input to output data set is available. Motivated by a real life problem on the F18-SRA experimental aircraft, we show how these algorithms are readily adapted to handle multiple data sets. We show by means of an example the relevance of such an improvement.
Client Confidentiality in Police Social Work Settings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Curtis, Patrick Almond; Lutkus, Anita M.
1985-01-01
Results of a survey that questioned police social workers regarding the protection of client confidentiality in police settings revealed several problems related to the unique character of the setting and to the identification of social workers with the goals and practices of police. Results raise questions about the protection of client…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker, Mark; Beltran, Jane; Buell, Jason; Conrey, Brian; Davis, Tom; Donaldson, Brianna; Detorre-Ozeki, Jeanne; Dibble, Leila; Freeman, Tom; Hammie, Robert; Montgomery, Julie; Pickford, Avery; Wong, Justine
2013-01-01
Sets in the game "Set" are lines in a certain four-dimensional space. Here we introduce planes into the game, leading to interesting mathematical questions, some of which we solve, and to a wonderful variation on the game "Set," in which every tableau of nine cards must contain at least one configuration for a player to pick up.
Generalized emissivity inverse problem.
Ming, DengMing; Wen, Tao; Dai, XianXi; Dai, JiXin; Evenson, William E
2002-04-01
Inverse problems have recently drawn considerable attention from the physics community due to of potential widespread applications [K. Chadan and P. C. Sabatier, Inverse Problems in Quantum Scattering Theory, 2nd ed. (Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1989)]. An inverse emissivity problem that determines the emissivity g(nu) from measurements of only the total radiated power J(T) has recently been studied [Tao Wen, DengMing Ming, Xianxi Dai, Jixin Dai, and William E. Evenson, Phys. Rev. E 63, 045601(R) (2001)]. In this paper, a new type of generalized emissivity and transmissivity inverse (GETI) problem is proposed. The present problem differs from our previous work on inverse problems by allowing the unknown (emissivity) function g(nu) to be temperature dependent as well as frequency dependent. Based on published experimental information, we have developed an exact solution formula for this GETI problem. A universal function set suggested for numerical calculation is shown to be robust, making this inversion method practical and convenient for realistic calculations.
Fung, Jimmy; Masser, Thomas; Morgan, Nathaniel R.
2012-06-25
The Sedov test is classically defined as a point blast problem. The Sedov problem has led us to advances in algorithms and in their understanding. Vorticity generation can be physical or numerical. Both play a role in Sedov calculations. The RAGE code (Eulerian) resolves the shock well, but produces vorticity. The source definition matters. For the FLAG code (Lagrange), CCH is superior to SGH by avoiding spurious vorticity generation. FLAG SGH currently has a number of options that improve results over traditional settings. Vorticity production, not shock capture, has driven the Sedov work. We are pursuing treatments with respect to the hydro discretization as well as to artificial viscosity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murphy, Pat, Ed.
1993-01-01
"Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception, produced by Exploratorium in collaboration with other participating museums. This issue focuses on puzzles and problem solving. Brain teasers, puzzles, and the strategies for solving them are included. Features include: (1) "Homework Assignment #3" (Paul Doherty); (2) "The Case of…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Connors, G. Patrick
Heat problems and heat cramps related to jogging can be caused by fluid imbalances, medications, dietary insufficiency, vomiting or diarrhea, among other factors. If the condition keeps reoccurring, the advice of a physician should be sought. Some preventive measures that can be taken include: (1) running during the cooler hours of the day; (2)…
Students' Problem Solving and Justification
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glass, Barbara; Maher, Carolyn A.
2004-01-01
This paper reports on methods of students' justifications of their solution to a problem in the area of combinatorics. From the analysis of the problem solving of 150 students in a variety of settings from high-school to graduate study, four major forms of reasoning evolved: (1) Justification by Cases, (2) Inductive Argument, (3) Elimination…
Sex Differences in Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Edward S.
1984-01-01
Nine experiments were performed to verify and extend studies on sex differences in problem solving conducted in the 1950s by Sweeney, Carey, Milton, Nakamura, and Berry. A 20-item problem set was administered to over 1,000 college students. Results indicated a male advantage, averaging 35 percent, virtually identical with 1950s results. (Author/BS)
Acronical Risings and Settings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hockey, Thomas A.
2012-01-01
A concept found in historical primary sources, and useful in contemporary historiography, is the acronical rising and setting of stars (or planets). Topocentric terms, they provide information about a star's relationship to the Sun and thus its visibility in the sky. Yet there remains ambiguity as to what these two phrases actually mean. "Acronical” is said to have come from the Greek akros ("point,” "summit,” or "extremity") and nux ("night"). While all sources agree that the word is originally Greek, there are alternate etymologies for it. A more serious difficulty with acronical rising and setting is that there are two competing definitions. One I call the Poetical Definition. Acronical rising (or setting) is one of the three Poetical Risings (or Settings) known to classicists. (The other two are cosmical rising/setting, discussed below, and the more familiar helical rising/setting.) The term "poetical" refers to these words use in classical poetry, e. g., that of Columella, Hesiod, Ovid, Pliny the Younger, and Virgil. The Poetical Definition of "acronical” usually is meant in this context. The Poetical Definition of "acronical” is as follows: When a star rises as the Sun sets, it rises acronically. When a star sets as the Sun sets, it sets acronically. In contrast with the Poetical Definition, there also is what I call the Astronomical Definition. The Astronomical Definition is somewhat more likely to appear in astronomical, mathematical, or navigational works. When the Astronomical Definition is recorded in dictionaries, it is often with the protasis "In astronomy, . . . ." The Astronomical Definition of "acronical” is as follows: When a star rises as the Sun sets, it rises acronically. When a star sets as the Sun rises, it sets acronically. I will attempt to sort this all out in my talk.
Norovirus in Healthcare Settings
... Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Fact Sheet on Noroviruses [PDF - 61 ...
Reid, David D.
2009-07-06
A key postulate of the causal set program is that this discrete partial order offers a sufficiently rich structure to make it a viable model of spacetime for quantum gravity. If the deep structure of spacetime is that of a causal set, then the correspondence principle (with the spacetimes of general relativity) must be obeyed. Therefore, one of the requirements of this program is to establish that the causal set structure is in fact, not just in principle, fully consistent with our macroscopic notion of spacetime as a Lorentzian manifold. An important component of any such 'manifold test' is the ability to find embeddings of causal sets into Lorentzian manifolds.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kussner, H G
1937-01-01
The present report deals with a number of the main problems requiring solution in the development of helicopters and concerning the lift, flying performance, stability, and drive. A complete solution is given for the stability of the helicopter with rigid blades and control surfaces. With a view to making a direct-lift propeller sufficient without the addition of auxiliary propellers, the "flapping drive" is assessed and its efficiency calculated.
Consecutive projections onto convex sets.
Degenhard, A; Hayes, C; Leach, M O
2002-03-21
In this note we describe and evaluate the performance of a novel approach to information recovery that involves consecutive projection onto convex sets (POCS). The method is applied to a time series of medical image data and the results are compared to images reconstructed using the standard POCS reconstruction method. The consecutive POCS method converges in a desired step-wise manner producing reconstructed images of superior quality compared to the standard scheme and can speed up the reconstruction process. The proposed method is of value for many finite sampling imaging problems including, in particular, fast-scan magnetic resonance imaging applications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilby, W. A.; Brett, A. R. H.
Frequency set on techniques used in ECM applications include repeater jammers, frequency memory loops (RF and optical), coherent digital RF memories, and closed loop VCO set on systems. Closed loop frequency set on systems using analog phase and frequency locking are considered to have a number of cost and performance advantages. Their performance is discussed in terms of frequency accuracy, bandwidth, locking time, stability, and simultaneous signals. Some experimental results are presented which show typical locking performance. Future ECM systems might require a response to very short pulses. Acoustooptic and fiber-optic pulse stretching techniques can be used to meet such requirements.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saturnelli, Annette
1985-01-01
Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)
Setting standards: Legislative proposals
Pontius, F.W.
1995-11-01
This article, second of a two-part series examining the standard-setting process reviews legislative proposals that would change the way drinking water standards are set. How drinking water standards should be set and which contaminants should be regulated is a central issue for Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) reauthorization. Suggested amendments to the standard-setting provisions of the SDWA cover a broad spectrum of issues. In general, environmental groups argue that standards are not strict enough and that greater consideration should be given to sensitive subpopulations. Others note that the high costs associated with meeting increasingly strict standards are not justified in light of the uncertain and sometimes nonexistent incremental benefits.
Settings for Suicide Prevention
... Sexual Minority" Youth Finds Them at Risk of Violence September 02, 2016 The Weekly Spark Stay Connected! Subscribe Settings Schools, workplaces, hospitals, nursing homes—every place where people ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pellegrino, Linda
2009-01-01
Art history can be a little dry at times, but the author is always trying to incorporate new ways of teaching it. In this article, she describes a project in which students were to create a place setting out of clay that had to be unified through a famous artist's style. This place setting had to consist of at least five pieces (dinner plate, cup…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blume-Kohout, Robin
2014-03-01
Quantum information technology is built on (1) physical qubits and (2) precise, accurate quantum logic gates that transform their states. Developing quantum logic gates requires good characterization - both in the development phase, where we need to identify a device's flaws so as to fix them, and in the production phase, where we need to make sure that the device works within specs and predict residual error rates and types. This task falls to quantum state and process tomography. But until recently, protocols for tomography relied on a pre-existing and perfectly calibrated reference frame comprising the measurements (and, for process tomography, input states) used to characterize the device. In practice, these measurements are neither independent nor perfectly known - they are usually implemented via exactly the same gates that we are trying to characterize! In the past year, several partial solutions to this self-consistency problem have been proposed. I will present a framework (gate set tomography, or GST) that addresses and resolves this problem, by self-consistently characterizing an entire set of quantum logic gates on a black-box quantum device. In particular, it contains an explicit closed-form protocol for linear-inversion gate set tomography (LGST), which is immune to both calibration error and technical pathologies like local maxima of the likelihood (which plagued earlier methods). GST also demonstrates significant (multiple orders of magnitude) improvements in efficiency over standard tomography by using data derived from long sequences of gates (much like randomized benchmarking). GST has now been applied to qubit devices in multiple technologies. I will present and discuss results of GST experiments in technologies including a single trapped-ion qubit and a silicon quantum dot qubit. Sandia National Laboratories is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Svozil, K.
1995-11-01
Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible “solution of supertasks,” and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvatages for physical applications are discussed: Canlorian “naive” (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author's opinion, an attitude of “suspended attention” (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to “bizarre” or “mindboggling” new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the lime of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.
Svozil, K.
1995-11-01
Inasmuch as physical theories are formalizable, set theory provides a framework for theoretical physics. Four speculations about the relevance of set theoretical modeling for physics are presented: the role of transcendental set theory (i) in chaos theory, (ii) for paradoxical decompositions of solid three-dimensional objects, (iii) in the theory of effective computability (Church-Turing thesis) related to the possible {open_quotes}solution of supertasks,{close_quotes} and (iv) for weak solutions. Several approaches to set theory and their advantages and disadvantages for physical applications are discussed: Cantorian {open_quotes}naive{close_quotes} (i.e., nonaxiomatic) set theory, contructivism, and operationalism. In the author`s opinion, an attitude, of {open_quotes}suspended attention{close_quotes} (a term borrowed from psychoanalysis) seems most promising for progress. Physical and set theoretical entities must be operationalized wherever possible. At the same time, physicists should be open to {open_quotes}bizarre{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}mindboggling{close_quotes} new formalisms, which need not be operationalizable or testable at the time of their creation, but which may successfully lead to novel fields of phenomenology and technology.
Tensile set behavior of Foley catheter balloons.
Joseph, R; Ramesh, P; Sivakumar, R
1999-01-01
The removal of indwelling urinary balloon catheters from patients is usually associated with many problems. The problems such as balloon deflation failure; encrustations on balloons, eyes, and lumen; and catheter associated infections are widely discussed in the literature. The tensile set exhibited by the catheter balloon material could also play a role and further complicate the removal process. This article addresses this issue by comparing the tensile set behavior of the balloon material from three commercially available Foley catheters. The balloon materials were subjected to aging in synthetic urine at 37 degrees C for 28 days to simulate clinical conditions. The deflation time of catheter balloons aged in similar conditions were also measured. It was found that different brands of catheters exhibited statistically significant differences in their properties. The tensile set data of the aged samples could be correlated with the deflation time of the balloons. The clinical significance of the tensile set is also highlighted.
26 CFR 1.110-1 - Qualified lessee construction allowances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...) Under a short-term lease of retail space; (ii) For the purpose of constructing or improving qualified... section 1245(a)(3). (ii) Short-term lease is a lease (or other agreement for occupancy or use) of retail... in its trade or business of selling tangible personal property or services to the general public....
41 CFR 109-40.110-1 - Small business assistance.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small business... Small business assistance. Consistent with the policies of the Government with respect to small businesses, DOE shall place with small business concerns a fair proportion of the total purchases...
41 CFR 109-40.110-1 - Small business assistance.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small business... Small business assistance. Consistent with the policies of the Government with respect to small businesses, DOE shall place with small business concerns a fair proportion of the total purchases...
26 CFR 1.110-1 - Qualified lessee construction allowances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... provided by hair stylists, tailors, shoe repairmen, doctors, lawyers, accountants, insurance agents, stock... property owned by the lessor (for purposes of depreciation under 168(e)(2)(B) and determining gain or...
26 CFR 1.110-1 - Qualified lessee construction allowances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... (including mall or strip center name, if applicable, and store name). (E) The amount of the construction... of the lessor. (D) The location of the retail space (including mall or strip center name,...
26 CFR 1.110-1 - Qualified lessee construction allowances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... (including mall or strip center name, if applicable, and store name). (E) The amount of the construction... of the lessor. (D) The location of the retail space (including mall or strip center name,...
26 CFR 1.110-1 - Qualified lessee construction allowances.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... (including mall or strip center name, if applicable, and store name). (E) The amount of the construction... of the lessor. (D) The location of the retail space (including mall or strip center name,...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1979-01-01
The corrosion problem, it turned out, stemmed from the process called electrolysis. When two different metals are in contact, an electrical potential is set up between them; when the metals are surrounded by an electrolyte, or a conducting medium, the resulting reaction causes corrosion, often very rapid corrosion. In this case the different metals were the copper grounding system and the ferry's aluminum hull; the dockside salt water in which the hull was resting served as the electrolyte. After identifying the source of the trouble, the Ames engineer provided a solution: a new wire-and-rod grounding system made of aluminum like the ferry's hull so there would no longer be dissimilar metals in contact. Ames research on the matter disclosed that the problem was not unique to the Golden Gate ferries. It is being experienced by many pleasure boat operators who are probably as puzzled about it as was the Golden Gate Transit Authority.
FBST for Cointegration Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diniz, M.; Pereira, C. A. B.; Stern, J. M.
2008-11-01
In order to estimate causal relations, the time series econometrics has to be aware of spurious correlation, a problem first mentioned by Yule [21]. To solve the problem, one can work with differenced series or use multivariate models like VAR or VEC models. In this case, the analysed series are going to present a long run relation i.e. a cointegration relation. Even though the Bayesian literature about inference on VAR/VEC models is quite advanced, Bauwens et al. [2] highlight that "the topic of selecting the cointegrating rank has not yet given very useful and convincing results." This paper presents the Full Bayesian Significance Test applied to cointegration rank selection tests in multivariate (VAR/VEC) time series models and shows how to implement it using available in the literature and simulated data sets. A standard non-informative prior is assumed.
Problemes de Developpement et D'Adaptation Sociale. [Problems of Development and Social Adjustment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tardif, Genevieve; Coutu, Sylvain; Lavigueur, Susanne; Dubeau, Diane
2002-01-01
Reviews and summarizes the literature on developmental and behavior problems displayed by young children. Focuses on the definition and classification of problems found in family or child care settings, prevalence of problems as reported by epidemiological studies, and the relative stability of behavior problems from preschool to adolescence.…
Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.
1993-12-31
In the past few years there has been a resurgence of interest in dynamical impurity problems, as a result of developments in the theory of correlated electron systems. The general dynamical impurity problem is a set of conduction electrons interacting with an impurity which has internal degrees of freedom. The simplest and earliest example, the Kondo problem, has attracted interest since the mid-sixties not only because of its physical importance but also as an example of a model displaying logarithmic divergences order by order in perturbation theory. It provided one of the earliest applications of the renormalization group method, which is designed to deal with just such a situation. As we shall see, the antiferromagnetic Kondo model is controlled by a strong-coupling fixed point, and the essence of the renormalization group solution is to carry out the global renormalization numerically starting from the original (weak-coupling) Hamiltonian. In these lectures, we shall describe an alternative route in which we identify an exactly solvable model which renormalizes to the same fixed point as the original dynamical impurity problem. This approach is akin to determining the critical behavior at a second order phase transition point by solving any model in a given universality class.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenbaum, Stuart; And Others
Bullying, perhaps the most underrated problem in America's schools today, distracts minds and inhibits the learning process; if left unchecked, it can destroy lives and place society at risk. Bullying is defined as one or more individuals inflicting physical, verbal, or emotional abuse upon another individual or individuals. Subliminal abuses…
Generalized minimum dominating set and application in automatic text summarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yi-Zhi; Zhou, Hai-Jun
2016-03-01
For a graph formed by vertices and weighted edges, a generalized minimum dominating set (MDS) is a vertex set of smallest cardinality such that the summed weight of edges from each outside vertex to vertices in this set is equal to or larger than certain threshold value. This generalized MDS problem reduces to the conventional MDS problem in the limiting case of all the edge weights being equal to the threshold value. We treat the generalized MDS problem in the present paper by a replica-symmetric spin glass theory and derive a set of belief-propagation equations. As a practical application we consider the problem of extracting a set of sentences that best summarize a given input text document. We carry out a preliminary test of the statistical physics-inspired method to this automatic text summarization problem.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
2014-01-01
In past issues of this journal, the late H. R. Crane wrote a long series of articles under the running title of "How Things Work." In them, Dick dealt with many questions that physics teachers asked themselves, but did not have the time to answer. This article is my attempt to work through the physics of the crystal set, which I thought…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sparks, Dennis C.
1978-01-01
Action goal setting uses power of peer influence in a healthy and constructive manner, and provides appropriate follow-up for many counseling and classroom activities. This process could help individuals of all ages to take more control over their behavior and create life-styles congruent with their abilities, interests, and values. (Author)
Setting Environmental Standards
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fishbein, Gershon
1975-01-01
Recent court decisions have pointed out the complexities involved in setting environmental standards. Environmental health is composed of multiple causative agents, most of which work over long periods of time. This makes the cause-and-effect relationship between health statistics and environmental contaminant exposures difficult to prove in…
TRACKING ACCELERATOR SETTINGS.
D OTTAVIO,T.; FU, W.; OTTAVIO, D.P.
2007-10-15
Recording setting changes within an accelerator facility provides information that can be used to answer questions about when, why, and how changes were made to some accelerator system. This can be very useful during normal operations, but can also aid with security concerns and in detecting unusual software behavior. The Set History System (SHS) is a new client-server system developed at the Collider-Accelerator Department of Brookhaven National Laboratory to provide these capabilities. The SHS has been operational for over two years and currently stores about IOOK settings per day into a commercial database management system. The SHS system consists of a server written in Java, client tools written in both Java and C++, and a web interface for querying the database of setting changes. The design of the SHS focuses on performance, portability, and a minimal impact on database resources. In this paper, we present an overview of the system design along with benchmark results showing the performance and reliability of the SHS over the last year.
Therapists in Oncology Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hendrick, Susan S.
2013-01-01
This article describes the author's experiences of working with cancer patients/survivors both individually and in support groups for many years, across several settings. It also documents current best-practice guidelines for the psychosocial treatment of cancer patients/survivors and their families. The author's view of the important qualities…
Problem-Based Methodology and Administrative Practice.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Robinson, Viviane M. J.
1996-01-01
Presents a conceptual analysis of administrative practice as problem solutions and outlines a postpositivist methodology (Problem-Based Methodology) that incorporates a theory of problem solving and a set of normative criteria for judging solution adequacy. Illustrates application of PBM to administrative theory in two (New Zealand) school-based…
Homeopathic drug selection using Intuitionistic fuzzy sets.
Kharal, Athar
2009-01-01
Using intuitionistic fuzzy set theory, Sanchez's approach to medical diagnosis has been applied to the problem of selection of single remedy from homeopathic repertorization. Two types of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations (IFRs) and three types of selection indices are discussed. I also propose a new repertory exploiting the benefits of soft-intelligence.
A rough set approach to speech recognition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Zhigang
1992-09-01
Speech recognition is a very difficult classification problem due to the variations in loudness, speed, and tone of voice. In the last 40 years, many methodologies have been developed to solve this problem, but most lack learning ability and depend fully on the knowledge of human experts. Systems of this kind are hard to develop and difficult to maintain and upgrade. A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using a machine learning approach in solving speech recognition problems. The system is based on rough set theory. It first generates a set of decision rules using a set of reference words called training samples, and then uses the decision rules to recognize new words. The main feature of this system is that, under the supervision of human experts, the machine learns and applies knowledge on its own to the designated tasks. The main advantages of this system over a traditional system are its simplicity and adaptiveness, which suggest that it may have significant potential in practical applications of computer speech recognition. Furthermore, the studies presented demonstrate the potential application of rough-set based learning systems in solving other important pattern classification problems, such as character recognition, system fault detection, and trainable robotic control.
Set Partitions and the Multiplication Principle
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lockwood, Elise; Caughman, John S., IV
2016-01-01
To further understand student thinking in the context of combinatorial enumeration, we examine student work on a problem involving set partitions. In this context, we note some key features of the multiplication principle that were often not attended to by students. We also share a productive way of thinking that emerged for several students who…
Managing Challenging Behaviors in Preschool Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchell, Bridgitt Lenore
2014-01-01
Despite state mandated early childhood education (ECE) teacher competencies, many children are removed from preschool settings for behaviors related to socioemotional problems. This study's rationale was the propensity of expulsions among children exhibiting challenging behaviors in preschool programs. Guided by Bronfenbrenner's ecological model…
Practice Setting Modification and Skill Acquisition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coker, Cheryl A.
2005-01-01
One hindrance to maximizing the amount of time students are actively engaged in quality practice is the wait time that results from limited equipment (e.g. basketball goals) and/or facilities (e.g. shot put ring). A possible solution to counteract this problem would be to modify the natural performance setting. Empirical evidence regarding the…
Worked Example Effects in Individual and Group Work Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Retnowati, Endah; Ayres, Paul; Sweller, John
2010-01-01
This study compared the effects of worked example and problem-solving approaches in individual or group work settings on learning to solve geometry problems. One hundred and one seventh graders from Indonesia were randomly allocated to four experimental groups using a 2 (problem-solving vs. worked examples) x 2 (individual vs. group study) design.…
Maximum independent set on diluted triangular lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fay, C. W., IV; Liu, J. W.; Duxbury, P. M.
2006-05-01
Core percolation and maximum independent set on random graphs have recently been characterized using the methods of statistical physics. Here we present a statistical physics study of these problems on bond diluted triangular lattices. Core percolation critical behavior is found to be consistent with the standard percolation values, though there are strong finite size effects. A transfer matrix method is developed and applied to find accurate values of the density and degeneracy of the maximum independent set on lattices of limited width but large length. An extrapolation of these results to the infinite lattice limit yields high precision results, which are tabulated. These results are compared to results found using both vertex based and edge based local probability recursion algorithms, which have proven useful in the analysis of hard computational problems, such as the satisfiability problem.
Keyworth urges setting priorities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
A strong advocate of scientists setting priorities within their disciplines, George A. Keyworth, II, President Reagan's science advisor and director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy, recently offered three possible consequences if such priorities are not set.‘I'm especially worried about the continued inability—or unwillingness—of the science community to agree among themselves about priorities—or to abide by their decisions when they can agree,’ he said [emphasis his]. ‘I wouldn't think it necessary that I remind them that these are tough times. I'll add that for anyone depending on federal funding, they're going to remain tough, times for quite a while,’ Keyworth told the American Physical Society at its mid-April meeting in Baltimore, Md.
Setting mastery learning standards.
Yudkowsky, Rachel; Park, Yoon Soo; Lineberry, Matthew; Knox, Aaron; Ritter, E Matthew
2015-11-01
Mastery learning is an instructional approach in which educational progress is based on demonstrated performance, not curricular time. Learners practice and retest repeatedly until they reach a designated mastery level; the final level of achievement is the same for all, although time to mastery may vary. Given the unique properties of mastery learning assessments, a thoughtful approach to establishing the performance levels and metrics that determine when a learner has demonstrated mastery is essential.Standard-setting procedures require modification when used for mastery learning settings in health care, particularly regarding the use of evidence-based performance data, the determination of appropriate benchmark or comparison groups, and consideration of patient safety consequences. Information about learner outcomes and past performance data of learners successful at the subsequent level of training can be more helpful than traditional information about test performance of past examinees. The marginally competent "borderline student" or "borderline group" referenced in traditional item-based and examinee-based procedures will generally need to be redefined in mastery settings. Patient safety considerations support conjunctive standards for key knowledge and skill subdomains and for items that have an impact on clinical outcomes. Finally, traditional psychometric indices used to evaluate the quality of standards do not necessarily reflect critical measurement properties of mastery assessments. Mastery learning and testing are essential to the achievement and assessment of entrustable professional activities and residency milestones. With careful attention, sound mastery standard-setting procedures can provide an essential step toward improving the effectiveness of health professions education, patient safety, and patient care. PMID:26375263
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenslade, Thomas B.
2014-04-01
In past issues of this journal, the late H. R. Crane wrote a long series of articles under the running title of "How Things Work." In them, Dick dealt with many questions that physics teachers asked themselves, but did not have the time to answer. This article is my attempt to work through the physics of the crystal set, which I thought I knew, but actually did not.
Tilford, Charles A; Siemers, Nathan O
2009-01-01
Set enrichment analytical methods have become commonplace tools applied to the analysis and interpretation of biological data. The statistical techniques are used to identify categorical biases within lists of genes, proteins, or metabolites. The goal is to discover the shared functions or properties of the biological items represented within the lists. Application of these methods can provide great biological insight, including the discovery of participation in the same biological activity or pathway, shared interacting genes or regulators, common cellular compartmentalization, or association with disease. The methods require ordered or unordered lists of biological items as input, understanding of the reference set from which the lists were selected, categorical classifiers describing the items, and a statistical algorithm to assess bias of each classifier. Due to the complexity of most algorithms and the number of calculations performed, computer software is almost always used for execution of the algorithm, as well as for presentation of the results. This chapter will provide an overview of the statistical methods used to perform an enrichment analysis. Guidelines for assembly of the requisite information will be presented, with a focus on careful definition of the sets used by the statistical algorithms. The need for multiple test correction when working with large libraries of classifiers is emphasized, and we outline several options for performing the corrections. Finally, interpreting the results of such analysis will be discussed along with examples of recent research utilizing the techniques.
General aviation IFR operational problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bolz, E. H.; Eisele, J. E.
1979-01-01
Operational problems of general aviation IFR operators (particularly single pilot operators) were studied. Several statistical bases were assembled and utilized to identify the more serious problems and to demonstrate their magnitude. These bases include official activity projections, historical accident data and delay data, among others. The GA operating environment and cockpit environment were analyzed in detail. Solutions proposed for each of the problem areas identified are based on direct consideration of currently planned enhancements to the ATC system, and on a realistic assessment of the present and future limitations of general aviation avionics. A coordinated set of research program is suggested which would provide the developments necessary to implement the proposed solutions.
Setting Goals for Achievement in Physical Education Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baghurst, Timothy; Tapps, Tyler; Kensinger, Weston
2015-01-01
Goal setting has been shown to improve student performance, motivation, and task completion in academic settings. Although goal setting is utilized by many education professionals to help students set realistic and proper goals, physical educators may not be using goal setting effectively. Without incorporating all three types of goals and…
Polyomino Problems to Confuse Computers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Coffin, Stewart
2009-01-01
Computers are very good at solving certain types combinatorial problems, such as fitting sets of polyomino pieces into square or rectangular trays of a given size. However, most puzzle-solving programs now in use assume orthogonal arrangements. When one departs from the usual square grid layout, complications arise. The author--using a computer,…
Coping with School Adaptation Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cowen, Emory L.
1971-01-01
Strategems to cope with maladaptation have been limited in effectiveness. Presented are some key problems they present as well as guidelines for a conceptually preferable set of strategems emphasizing principles which should serve to cut down materially on school maladjustment and restore children to effective school function. (Author/BY)
Telemedicine in educational settings.
Newton, Heather
The use of telemedicine to enhance patient care is well documented in the literature (Currell et al 2001); however, its use in educational settings requires further exploration. Technological advances in electronic communication have been the catalyst for enabling the transmission and storage of large volumes of data. This, in turn, has allowed still and video images to be used for clinical consultation and the advancement of healthcare professionals' knowledge and skills. This article discusses the use of telemedicine in healthcare practices and explores its value as an educational tool, particularly in the field of wound care.
Lagrange duality theory for convex control problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hager, W. W.; Mitter, S. K.
1976-01-01
The Lagrange dual to a control problem is studied. The principal result based on the Hahn-Banach theorem proves that the dual problem has an optimal solution if there exists an interior point for the constraint set. A complementary slackness condition holds, if the primal problem has an optimal solution. A necessary and sufficient condition for the optimality of solutions to the primal and the dual problem is also presented.
Keasler, J A
2012-03-27
Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.
An observation on the structure of production sets with indivisibilities
Scarf, Herbert E.
1977-01-01
A subset of the constraints of an integer programming problem is said to be binding if, when the remaining constraints are eliminated, the smaller problem has the same optimal solution as the original problem. It is shown that an integer programming problem with n variables has a set of binding constraints of cardinality less than or equal to 2n-1. The bound is sharp. PMID:16592435
Preschoolers' Cooperative Problem Solving: Integrating Play and Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ramani, Geetha B.; Brownell, Celia A.
2014-01-01
Cooperative problem solving with peers plays a central role in promoting children's cognitive and social development. This article reviews research on cooperative problem solving among preschool-age children in experimental settings and social play contexts. Studies suggest that cooperative interactions with peers in experimental settings are…
Learning User Preferences for Sets of Objects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
desJardins, Marie; Eaton, Eric; Wagstaff, Kiri L.
2006-01-01
Most work on preference learning has focused on pairwise preferences or rankings over individual items. In this paper, we present a method for learning preferences over sets of items. Our learning method takes as input a collection of positive examples--that is, one or more sets that have been identified by a user as desirable. Kernel density estimation is used to estimate the value function for individual items, and the desired set diversity is estimated from the average set diversity observed in the collection. Since this is a new learning problem, we introduce a new evaluation methodology and evaluate the learning method on two data collections: synthetic blocks-world data and a new real-world music data collection that we have gathered.
New 5-adic Cantor sets and fractal string.
Kumar, Ashish; Rani, Mamta; Chugh, Renu
2013-01-01
In the year (1879-1884), George Cantor coined few problems and consequences in the field of set theory. One of them was the Cantor ternary set as a classical example of fractals. In this paper, 5-adic Cantor one-fifth set as an example of fractal string have been introduced. Moreover, the applications of 5-adic Cantor one-fifth set in string theory have also been studied. PMID:24386616
New 5-adic Cantor sets and fractal string.
Kumar, Ashish; Rani, Mamta; Chugh, Renu
2013-01-01
In the year (1879-1884), George Cantor coined few problems and consequences in the field of set theory. One of them was the Cantor ternary set as a classical example of fractals. In this paper, 5-adic Cantor one-fifth set as an example of fractal string have been introduced. Moreover, the applications of 5-adic Cantor one-fifth set in string theory have also been studied.
Brown, Raymond J.
1977-01-01
The present invention relates to a tool setting device for use with numerically controlled machine tools, such as lathes and milling machines. A reference position of the machine tool relative to the workpiece along both the X and Y axes is utilized by the control circuit for driving the tool through its program. This reference position is determined for both axes by displacing a single linear variable displacement transducer (LVDT) with the machine tool through a T-shaped pivotal bar. The use of the T-shaped bar allows the cutting tool to be moved sequentially in the X or Y direction for indicating the actual position of the machine tool relative to the predetermined desired position in the numerical control circuit by using a single LVDT.
Einstellung defused: Interactivity and mental set.
Vallée-Tourangeau, Frédéric; Euden, Gemma; Hearn, Vanessa
2011-10-01
Mental set is observed when a familiar problem-solving strategy is applied to new problems that can be solved in simpler, more efficient ways. It is most famously illustrated in the water jar problems (Luchins, 1942 ). In these volume measurement problems, participants learn a rule to obtain an exact volume of liquid involving a complex combination of liquid transfer. Participants persevere in using this rule for new problems that can be solved with a much simpler rule. In two experiments presented here, participants completed the water jar task either in interactive conditions with actual water jars at a sink or in noninteractive conditions, with the problems presented on paper, as in the original Luchins procedure. Interactivity significantly reduced the degree of perseverance. In addition, participants' visuospatial skills significantly predicted the rate of perseverance (and the latencies to solution) in interactive but not in noninteractive conditions. These results underscore the importance of designing problem-solving experiments that engineer distributed cognitive systems in which participants coordinate internal and external resources in thinking.
Aneesur Rahman Prize: The Inverse Ising Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swendsen, Robert
2014-03-01
Many methods are available for carrying out computer simulations of a model Hamiltonian to obtain thermodynamic information by generating a set of configurations. The inverse problem consists of recreating the parameters of the Hamiltonian, given a set of configurations. The problem arises in a variety of contexts, and there has been much interest recently in the inverse Ising problem, in which the configurations consist of Ising spins. I will discuss an efficient method for solving the problem and what it can tell us about the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model.
Choosing efficient feature sets for video classification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischer, Stephan; Steinmetz, Ralf
1998-12-01
In this paper, we address the problem of choosing appropriate features to describe the content of still pictures or video sequences, including audio. As the computational analysis of these features is often time- consuming, it is useful to identify a minimal set allowing for an automatic classification of some class or genre. Further, it can be shown that deleting the coherence of the features characterizing some class, is not suitable to guarantee an optimal classification result. The central question of the paper is thus, which features should be selected, and how they should be weighted to optimize a classification problem.
Unraveling the signal scenario of fruit set.
Sotelo-Silveira, Mariana; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; de Folter, Stefan
2014-06-01
Long-term goals to impact or modify fruit quality and yield have been the target of researchers for many years. Different approaches such as traditional breeding,mutation breeding, and transgenic approaches have revealed a regulatory network where several hormones concur in a complex way to regulate fruit set and development,and these networks are shared in some way among species with different kinds of fruits. Understanding the molecular and biochemical networks of fruit set and development could be very useful for breeders to meet the current and future challenges of agricultural problems. PMID:24659051
Naqvi, Hassan R; Mathur, Shawn; Covarrubias, David; Curcio, Josephine A; Schmidt, Christian
2008-01-01
Convictions are a driving force for actions. Considering that every individual has a different set of convictions and larger groups act once a consensus decision is reached, one can see that debate is an inherent exercise in decision-making. This requires a sustainably generated surplus to allow time for intellectual exchange, gathering of information and dissemination of findings. It is essential that the full spectrum of options remain treated equally. At the end of this process, a choice has to be made. Looking back at a later time point, a retrospective analysis sometimes reveals that the choice was neither completely free nor a truly conscious one. Leaving the issue of consequences of a once made decision aside, we wish to contribute to the debate of the problem of choice. PMID:19025607
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lowry, Deborah
2016-01-01
What should activist-scholars teach in the social problems classroom? In this conversation, I challenge the assertion that advancing a sociology of social problems is an overly academic enterprise of little use to students and other publics. I introduce the potential of a pedagogical framework for promoting social problems literacy: a set of…
Telemedicine in clinical setting
Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Peiying
2016-01-01
The telemedicine department of a hospital is an emerging branch in upcoming hospitals and may become an essential component of every hospital. It basically utilizes the information technologies along with telecommunication systems in order to provide clinical care and assistance. Furthermore, the branch of telemedicine offers significant opportunities for the process of developmental freedom from illness, early death, and preventable diseases. It advances development by providing relevant drugs and the necessary care aimed to alleviate patient suffering. It is also beneficial for patients in rural remote areas who usually do not have adequate access to advanced hospitals. Telemedicine in these remote areas allows for timely treatment of emergency cases. Thus, it contributes towards remote emergency critical care in order to save lives in crucial cases. Additionally, the emerging advances have now enabled telemedicine to transfer large amounts of clinical informatics data including images, and test reports to the specifically specialized health professionals in some serious cases. However, as in the case of many emerging technologies, organizing information and understanding the field has significant challenges. The present review article aimed to discuss important aspects of the field with regard to the better management of patients in clinical settings. PMID:27703503
Aquarium Problems: How To Solve Them
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeFilippo, Shirley
1975-01-01
Presents some solutions to problems commonly encountered in maintaining a classroom aquarium: pH control, overfeeding, overcrowding of tank populations, incorrect temperature settings, faulty introduction of fish into the tank, and the buildup of too many nitrogenous wastes. (PB)
The Research of Tax Text Categorization based on Rough Set
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bin; Xu, Guang; Xu, Qian; Zhang, Nan
To solve the problem of effective of categorization of text data in taxation system, the paper analyses the text data and the size calculation of key issues first, then designs text categorization based on rough set model.
Analytical Benchmark Test Set for Criticality Code Verification
Sood, A.; Forster, R.A.; Parson, D.K.
1999-09-20
A number of published numerical solutions to analytic eigenvalue (k{sub eff}) and eigenfunction equations are summarized for the purpose of creating a criticality verification benchmark test set. The 75-problem test set allows the user to verify the correctness of a criticality code for infinite medium and simple geometries in one- and two-energy groups, one- and two-media, and both isotropic and linearly anisotropic neutron scattering. A three- and six-energy group infinite medium problem are also included in the test set. The problem specifications will produce both k{sub eff}=1 and the quoted k{sub {infinity}} to at least five decimal places. Additional uses of the test set for code verification are also discussed. Los Alamos report LA-13511 contains the details of all 75 test problems.
Setting the Pressure at Which to Conduct a Distillation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barduhn, Allen J.
1984-01-01
Discusses how pressure setting is determined for distillation columns, examining factors which must be considered when optimizing design for economical balance. Also discusses the basics of heat exchangers and cites a common problem with pressure differences. (JM)
Civil law problems and morbidity
Pleasence, P; Balmer, N; Buck, A; O'Grady, A; Genn, H
2004-01-01
Study objective: In the United Kingdom, recognition of the links between social and health problems has led to government initiatives such as health action zones. The principles of civil law apply to many types of social problem, and the civil justice system provides one means through which they can be tackled. However, little research has been undertaken into the particular links between problems to which civil legal principles and processes can be applied and morbidity. This study examines these links, and the role of legal advice and services in preventing ill health. Design: This study examined survey respondents' self reports of longstanding illness/disability and experience of 18 problems to which legal principles can be applied. Setting: A random national survey conducted across England and Wales. Participants: 5611 adults drawn from 3348 residential households. Main results: Significant associations were found between illness/disability and 13 of the problem types. Moreover, experience of greater numbers of problems increased the likelihood of reported illness/disability. In attempting to resolve problems respondents' health also frequently suffered. Conclusions: This study highlights the contribution that public legal education and legal advice can make to the promotion of public health, and the importance of further integration of health and civil justice initiatives through health action zones, community legal service partnerships, etc, to further this end. PMID:15194714
Handling Imbalanced Data Sets in Multistage Classification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López, M.
Multistage classification is a logical approach, based on a divide-and-conquer solution, for dealing with problems with a high number of classes. The classification problem is divided into several sequential steps, each one associated to a single classifier that works with subgroups of the original classes. In each level, the current set of classes is split into smaller subgroups of classes until they (the subgroups) are composed of only one class. The resulting chain of classifiers can be represented as a tree, which (1) simplifies the classification process by using fewer categories in each classifier and (2) makes it possible to combine several algorithms or use different attributes in each stage. Most of the classification algorithms can be biased in the sense of selecting the most populated class in overlapping areas of the input space. This can degrade a multistage classifier performance if the training set sample frequencies do not reflect the real prevalence in the population. Several techniques such as applying prior probabilities, assigning weights to the classes, or replicating instances have been developed to overcome this handicap. Most of them are designed for two-class (accept-reject) problems. In this article, we evaluate several of these techniques as applied to multistage classification and analyze how they can be useful for astronomy. We compare the results obtained by classifying a data set based on Hipparcos with and without these methods.
Problems with "n"th-Term Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matteson, Shirley M.
2010-01-01
An nth-term problem involves a sequence. Students must determine which expression will allow them to calculate the nth position of the sequence. To solve such problems, students are to find "a rule that determines the number of elements in a step from the step number." These types of problems help students develop concepts of functions, variables,…
Class and Home Problems: Optimization Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, Brian J.; Hissam, Robin S.; Shaeiwitz, Joseph A.; Turton, Richard
2011-01-01
Optimization problems suitable for all levels of chemical engineering students are available. These problems do not require advanced mathematical techniques, since they can be solved using typical software used by students and practitioners. The method used to solve these problems forces students to understand the trends for the different terms…
Constrained Graph Optimization: Interdiction and Preservation Problems
Schild, Aaron V
2012-07-30
The maximum flow, shortest path, and maximum matching problems are a set of basic graph problems that are critical in theoretical computer science and applications. Constrained graph optimization, a variation of these basic graph problems involving modification of the underlying graph, is equally important but sometimes significantly harder. In particular, one can explore these optimization problems with additional cost constraints. In the preservation case, the optimizer has a budget to preserve vertices or edges of a graph, preventing them from being deleted. The optimizer wants to find the best set of preserved edges/vertices in which the cost constraints are satisfied and the basic graph problems are optimized. For example, in shortest path preservation, the optimizer wants to find a set of edges/vertices within which the shortest path between two predetermined points is smallest. In interdiction problems, one deletes vertices or edges from the graph with a particular cost in order to impede the basic graph problems as much as possible (for example, delete edges/vertices to maximize the shortest path between two predetermined vertices). Applications of preservation problems include optimal road maintenance, power grid maintenance, and job scheduling, while interdiction problems are related to drug trafficking prevention, network stability assessment, and counterterrorism. Computational hardness results are presented, along with heuristic methods for approximating solutions to the matching interdiction problem. Also, efficient algorithms are presented for special cases of graphs, including on planar graphs. The graphs in many of the listed applications are planar, so these algorithms have important practical implications.
A Set of Questions, A Question of Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mathematics in School, 1985
1985-01-01
Two versions of a page of exercises using set ideas are presented, one in plain language and one in technical language. Some questions and answers about the appropriateness of set terminology and symbols are then given. (MNS)
Genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volna, Eva
2016-06-01
The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the most challenging combinatorial optimization tasks. This problem consists in designing the optimal set of routes for fleet of vehicles in order to serve a given set of customers. Evolutionary algorithms are general iterative algorithms for combinatorial optimization. These algorithms have been found to be very effective and robust in solving numerous problems from a wide range of application domains. This problem is known to be NP-hard; hence many heuristic procedures for its solution have been suggested. For such problems it is often desirable to obtain approximate solutions, so they can be found fast enough and are sufficiently accurate for the purpose. In this paper we have performed an experimental study that indicates the suitable use of genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem.
Some Partial Models for Urban Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guthrie, Harold W.
This paper focuses on partial models for solving urban problems to contrast our achievements as social scientists with our aspirations as prescribers of public policy. The objectives of this paper are (1) to review some of the reasons that an ideal set of solutions for urban problems has not been produced by social scientists and (2) to describe…
Problem-Solving Exercises and Evolution Teaching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Angseesing, J. P. A.
1978-01-01
It is suggested that the work of Kammerer provides suitable material, in the form of case studies on which to base discussions of Lamarckism versus Darwinism. A set of structured problems is described as an example of possible problem-solving exercises, and further experiments to extend Kammerer's work are outlined. (Author/MA)
A set oriented definition of finite-time Lyapunov exponents and coherent sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tallapragada, Phanindra; Ross, Shane D.
2013-05-01
The problem of phase space transport, which is of interest from both the theoretical and practical point of view, has been investigated extensively using geometric and probabilistic methods. Two important tools to study this problem that have emerged in recent years are finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) and the Perron-Frobenius operator. The FTLE measures the averaged local stretching around reference trajectories. Regions with high stretching are used to identify phase space transport barriers. One probabilistic method is to consider the spectrum of the Perron-Frobenius operator of the flow to identify almost-invariant densities. These almost-invariant densities are used to identify almost invariant sets. In this paper, a set-oriented definition of the FTLE is proposed which is applicable to phase space sets of finite size and reduces to the usual definition of FTLE in the limit of infinitesimal phase space elements. This definition offers a straightforward connection between the evolution of probability densities and finite-time stretching experienced by phase space curves. This definition also addresses some concerns with the standard computation of the FTLE. For the case of autonomous and periodic vector fields we provide a simplified method to calculate the set-oriented FTLE using the Perron-Frobenius operator. Based on the new definition of the FTLE we propose a simple definition of finite-time coherent sets applicable to vector fields of general time-dependence, which are the analogues of almost-invariant sets in autonomous and time-periodic vector fields. The coherent sets we identify will necessarily be separated from one another by ridges of high FTLE, providing a link between the framework of coherent sets and that of codimension one Lagrangian coherent structures. Our identification of coherent sets is applied to three examples.
An overview of unconstrained free boundary problems
Figalli, Alessio; Shahgholian, Henrik
2015-01-01
In this paper, we present a survey concerning unconstrained free boundary problems of type where B1 is the unit ball, Ω is an unknown open set, F1 and F2 are elliptic operators (admitting regular solutions), and is a functions space to be specified in each case. Our main objective is to discuss a unifying approach to the optimal regularity of solutions to the above matching problems, and list several open problems in this direction. PMID:26261367
Improving Case Discussion with an Improv Mind-Set
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aylesworth, Andy
2008-01-01
Improvisational comedy emphasizes collaboration over competition. This leads to creative ideas and solutions to problems. By establishing this "improv mind-set" in the business classroom, an instructor may be able to overcome some of the problems associated with the case method (e.g., shy students, dominating students). By doing so, the learning…
Elites, Bureaucrats, Ostriches, and Pussycats: Managing Research in Policy Settings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marshall, Catherine
Female researchers conducting field research in educational politics encounter special problems of access, entry, reciprocity, and ethics. Accordingly, this study focuses first on field research methods in policy settings as a general topic, then on problems specific to women in this area. A researcher must be aware of informal coalitions or…
Direct Behavioral Observation in School Settings: Bringing Science to Practice
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nock, Matthew K.; Kurtz, Steven M. S.
2005-01-01
Schools provide a useful, controlled setting for evaluating child behavior problems, yet direct observational coding procedures evaluated by child researchers have not been widely incorporated by practicing clinicians. This article provides a summary of procedures useful to clinicians performing direct behavioral observation in school settings. We…
Introduction of a Novel Dimension in Young Children's Learning Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Deborah Anne; Cameron, Catherine Ann
The effect of stimulus novelty, an attentional variable, on learning set acquisition was investigated. Learning set (LS) acquisition refers to an improvement in performance across a series of problems which have a common basis of solution. The design of this study involved two groups, one in which the positive stimulus on Trial 2 involved the…
Elites, Bureaucrats, Ostriches, and Pussycats: Managing Research in Policy Settings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Marshall, Catherine
1984-01-01
Examines problems of field research conducted by female researchers in policy settings. Proposes ways to manage role, entree and access, data gathering, reciprocity, and reporting. Raises issue of male-female dynamics in field research, and suggests appropriate roles for female researchers in policy settings. (Author/KH)
Confidence set interference with a prior quadratic bound. [in geophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Backus, George E.
1989-01-01
Neyman's (1937) theory of confidence sets is developed as a replacement for Bayesian interference (BI) and stochastic inversion (SI) when the prior information is a hard quadratic bound. It is recommended that BI and SI be replaced by confidence set interference (CSI) only in certain circumstances. The geomagnetic problem is used to illustrate the general theory of CSI.
Digit Delight: Problem-solving Activities Using 0 through 9.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Balka, Don S.
1988-01-01
Several problem-solving activities involving only 0-9 to be used with sets of ceramic tiles are presented. Finding specified sums, differences, or products is the object of most of the problems. (MNS)
Priority setting: what constitutes success? A conceptual framework for successful priority setting
Sibbald, Shannon L; Singer, Peter A; Upshur, Ross; Martin, Douglas K
2009-01-01
Background The sustainability of healthcare systems worldwide is threatened by a growing demand for services and expensive innovative technologies. Decision makers struggle in this environment to set priorities appropriately, particularly because they lack consensus about which values should guide their decisions. One way to approach this problem is to determine what all relevant stakeholders understand successful priority setting to mean. The goal of this research was to develop a conceptual framework for successful priority setting. Methods Three separate empirical studies were completed using qualitative data collection methods (one-on-one interviews with healthcare decision makers from across Canada; focus groups with representation of patients, caregivers and policy makers; and Delphi study including scholars and decision makers from five countries). Results This paper synthesizes the findings from three studies into a framework of ten separate but interconnected elements germane to successful priority setting: stakeholder understanding, shifted priorities/reallocation of resources, decision making quality, stakeholder acceptance and satisfaction, positive externalities, stakeholder engagement, use of explicit process, information management, consideration of values and context, and revision or appeals mechanism. Conclusion The ten elements specify both quantitative and qualitative dimensions of priority setting and relate to both process and outcome components. To our knowledge, this is the first framework that describes successful priority setting. The ten elements identified in this research provide guidance for decision makers and a common language to discuss priority setting success and work toward improving priority setting efforts. PMID:19265518
Children's health in slum settings.
Unger, Alon
2013-10-01
Rapid urbanisation in the 20th century has been accompanied by the development of slums. Nearly one-third of the world's population and more than 60% of urban populations in the least developed countries live in slums, including hundreds of millions of children. Slums are areas of broad social and health disadvantage to children and their families due to extreme poverty, overcrowding, poor water and sanitation, substandard housing, limited access to basic health and education services, and other hardships (eg, high unemployment, violence). Despite the magnitude of this problem, very little is known about the potential impact of slum life on the health of children and adolescents. Statistics that show improved mortality and health outcomes in cities are based on aggregated data and may miss important intraurban disparities. Limited but consistent evidence suggests higher infant and under-five years mortality for children residing in slums compared with non-slum areas. Children suffer from higher rates of diarrhoeal and respiratory illness, malnutrition and have lower vaccination rates. Mothers residing in slums are more poorly educated and less likely to receive antenatal care and skilled birth assistance. Adolescents have earlier sexual debut and higher rates of HIV, and adopt risky behaviours influenced by their social environment. We also know little about the consequences of this form of early childhood on long-term health-related behaviour (eg, diet and exercise) and non-communicable disease outcomes, such as obesity, heart disease and mental illness. Further attention to understanding and addressing child health in slum settings is an important priority for paediatricians and those committed to child health worldwide.
Radial sets: interactive visual analysis of large overlapping sets.
Alsallakh, Bilal; Aigner, Wolfgang; Miksch, Silvia; Hauser, Helwig
2013-12-01
In many applications, data tables contain multi-valued attributes that often store the memberships of the table entities to multiple sets such as which languages a person masters, which skills an applicant documents, or which features a product comes with. With a growing number of entities, the resulting element-set membership matrix becomes very rich of information about how these sets overlap. Many analysis tasks targeted at set-typed data are concerned with these overlaps as salient features of such data. This paper presents Radial Sets, a novel visual technique to analyze set memberships for a large number of elements. Our technique uses frequency-based representations to enable quickly finding and analyzing different kinds of overlaps between the sets, and relating these overlaps to other attributes of the table entities. Furthermore, it enables various interactions to select elements of interest, find out if they are over-represented in specific sets or overlaps, and if they exhibit a different distribution for a specific attribute compared to the rest of the elements. These interactions allow formulating highly-expressive visual queries on the elements in terms of their set memberships and attribute values. As we demonstrate via two usage scenarios, Radial Sets enable revealing and analyzing a multitude of overlapping patterns between large sets, beyond the limits of state-of-the-art techniques. PMID:24051816
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ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reeves, Charles A.
2000-01-01
Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)
Beyond Problem-Based Learning: Using Dynamic PBL in Chemistry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Overton, Tina L.; Randles, Christopher A.
2015-01-01
This paper describes the development and implementation of a novel pedagogy, dynamic problem-based learning. The pedagogy utilises real-world problems that evolve throughout the problem-based learning activity and provide students with choice and different data sets. This new dynamic problem-based learning approach was utilised to teach…
On the Nature of Problems in Action Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edmonstone, John
2014-01-01
The article aims to explore the nature of problems in action learning. Beginning with Revans' distinction between problems and puzzles, it draws parallels with the notion of wicked and tame problems. It offers four means of considering problems in action learning--in terms of the locus of a set's work; from the viewpoint of an…
MOTIVATION: Goals and Goal Setting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stratton, Richard K.
2005-01-01
Goal setting has great impact on a team's performance. Goals enable a team to synchronize their efforts to achieve success. In this article, the author talks about goals and goal setting. This articles complements Domain 5--Teaching and Communication (p.14) and discusses one of the benchmarks listed therein: "Teach the goal setting process and…
Motivating Athletes Through Goal Setting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weinberg, Robert S.
1982-01-01
This article provides some guidelines for coaches and athletes for goal setting strategies: (1) set realistic goals; (2) write down goals, so that they are remembered and understood by all persons involved; (3) set measurable objective goals; and (4) have coach act as facilitator. (CJ)
Fuzzy Sets and Mathematical Education.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alsina, C.; Trillas, E.
1991-01-01
Presents the concept of "Fuzzy Sets" and gives some ideas for its potential interest in mathematics education. Defines what a Fuzzy Set is, describes why we need to teach fuzziness, gives some examples of fuzzy questions, and offers some examples of activities related to fuzzy sets. (MDH)
Challenge problems for artificial intelligence
Selman, B.; Brooks, R.A.; Dean, T.
1996-12-31
AI textbooks and papers of ten discuss the big questions, such as {open_quotes}how to reason with uncertainty{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}how to reason efficiently{close_quotes}, or {open_quotes}how to improve performance through learning.{close_quotes} It is more difficult, however, to find descriptions of concrete problems or challenges that are still ambitious and interesting, yet not so open-ended. The goal of this panel is to formulate a set of such challenge problems for the field. Each panelist was asked to formulate one or more challenges. The emphasis is on problems for which there is a good chance that they will be resolved within the next five to ten years.
Multiclass Reduced-Set Support Vector Machines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tang, Benyang; Mazzoni, Dominic
2006-01-01
There are well-established methods for reducing the number of support vectors in a trained binary support vector machine, often with minimal impact on accuracy. We show how reduced-set methods can be applied to multiclass SVMs made up of several binary SVMs, with significantly better results than reducing each binary SVM independently. Our approach is based on Burges' approach that constructs each reduced-set vector as the pre-image of a vector in kernel space, but we extend this by recomputing the SVM weights and bias optimally using the original SVM objective function. This leads to greater accuracy for a binary reduced-set SVM, and also allows vectors to be 'shared' between multiple binary SVMs for greater multiclass accuracy with fewer reduced-set vectors. We also propose computing pre-images using differential evolution, which we have found to be more robust than gradient descent alone. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and find that this new approach is consistently better than previous multiclass reduced-set methods, sometimes with a dramatic difference.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anoka-Hennepin Technical Coll., Minneapolis, MN.
This set of two training outlines and one basic skills set list are designed for a machine tool technology program developed during a project to retrain defense industry workers at risk of job loss or dislocation because of conversion of the defense industry. The first troubleshooting training outline lists the categories of problems that develop…
Forgoston, Eric; Billings, Lora; Yecko, Philip; Schwartz, Ira B.
2011-01-01
We consider the problem of stochastic prediction and control in a time-dependent stochastic environment, such as the ocean, where escape from an almost invariant region occurs due to random fluctuations. We determine high-probability control-actuation sets by computing regions of uncertainty, almost invariant sets, and Lagrangian coherent structures. The combination of geometric and probabilistic methods allows us to design regions of control, which provide an increase in loitering time while minimizing the amount of control actuation. We show how the loitering time in almost invariant sets scales exponentially with respect to the control actuation, causing an exponential increase in loitering times with only small changes in actuation force. The result is that the control actuation makes almost invariant sets more invariant. PMID:21456830
Test result management in global health settings.
Palazuelos, Daniel; Payne, Jonathan D; Dalal, Anuj K
2012-09-01
Across the globe, the ways in which patients' test results are managed are as varied as the many different types of healthcare systems that manage these data. The outcomes, however, are often not too dissimilar: too many clinically significant test results fall through the cracks. The consequences of not following up test results in a timely manner are serious and often devastating to patients: diagnoses are delayed, treatments are not initiated or altered in time, and diseases progress. In resource-poor settings, test results too commonly get filed away within the paper chart in ways that isolate them and prevent passage to future providers caring for a patient. To make matters worse, the onus to act upon these test results often rests on patients who need to return to the clinic within a specified timeframe in order to obtain their results but who may not have the means or are too ill to do so. Even in more developed healthcare settings that use electronic records, clinical data residing in the electronic medical record (EMR) are often stubbornly "static"-key pieces of clinical information are frequently not recognized, retrieved, or shared easily. In this way, EMRs are not unlike paper record systems, and therefore, EMRs alone will not solve this problem. To illustrate this problem, consider the case of a patient newly diagnosed with HIV in 3 different healthcare delivery settings.
Test Result Management in Global Health Settings
Palazuelos, Daniel; Payne, Jonathan D.
2012-01-01
OVERVIEW Across the globe, the ways in which patients' test results are managed are as varied as the many different types of healthcare systems that manage these data. The outcomes, however, are often not too dissimilar: too many clinically significant test results fall through the cracks. The consequences of not following up test results in a timely manner are serious and often devastating to patients: diagnoses are delayed, treatments are not initiated or altered in time, and diseases progress. In resource-poor settings, test results too commonly get filed away within the paper chart in ways that isolate them and prevent passage to future providers caring for a patient. To make matters worse, the onus to act upon these test results often rests on patients who need to return to the clinic within a specified timeframe in order to obtain their results but who may not have the means or are too ill to do so. Even in more developed healthcare settings that use electronic records, clinical data residing in the electronic medical record (EMR) are often stubbornly “static”—key pieces of clinical information are frequently not recognized, retrieved, or shared easily. In this way, EMRs are not unlike paper record systems, and therefore, EMRs alone will not solve this problem. To illustrate this problem, consider the case of a patient newly diagnosed with HIV in 3 different healthcare delivery settings. PMID:24278831
Abstraction and Problem Reformulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giunchiglia, Fausto
1992-01-01
In work done jointly with Toby Walsh, the author has provided a sound theoretical foundation to the process of reasoning with abstraction (GW90c, GWS9, GW9Ob, GW90a). The notion of abstraction formalized in this work can be informally described as: (property 1), the process of mapping a representation of a problem, called (following historical convention (Sac74)) the 'ground' representation, onto a new representation, called the 'abstract' representation, which, (property 2) helps deal with the problem in the original search space by preserving certain desirable properties and (property 3) is simpler to handle as it is constructed from the ground representation by "throwing away details". One desirable property preserved by an abstraction is provability; often there is a relationship between provability in the ground representation and provability in the abstract representation. Another can be deduction or, possibly inconsistency. By 'throwing away details' we usually mean that the problem is described in a language with a smaller search space (for instance a propositional language or a language without variables) in which formulae of the abstract representation are obtained from the formulae of the ground representation by the use of some terminating rewriting technique. Often we require that the use of abstraction results in more efficient .reasoning. However, it might simply increase the number of facts asserted (eg. by allowing, in practice, the exploration of deeper search spaces or by implementing some form of learning). Among all abstractions, three very important classes have been identified. They relate the set of facts provable in the ground space to those provable in the abstract space. We call: TI abstractions all those abstractions where the abstractions of all the provable facts of the ground space are provable in the abstract space; TD abstractions all those abstractions wllere the 'unabstractions' of all the provable facts of the abstract space are
Performance Contracting: Problem Definition and Problem Resolution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zaharis, James K.; And Others
This skill laboratory provides a technique for problem definition and alternative methods to gather pertinent data that surrounds a given situation. Seven skills are discussed including Kaufman's tri-level needs assessment model, intergroup building, organizational slice, force field analysis, brainstorming, problem definition, and conflict…
Problem? "No Problem!" Solving Technical Contradictions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kutz, K. Scott; Stefan, Victor
2007-01-01
TRIZ (pronounced TREES), the Russian acronym for the theory of inventive problem solving, enables a person to focus his attention on finding genuine, potential solutions in contrast to searching for ideas that "may" work through a happenstance way. It is a patent database-backed methodology that helps to reduce time spent on the problem,…
Dissociating Stimulus-Set and Response-Set in the Context of Task-Set Switching
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kieffaber, Paul D.; Kruschke, John K.; Cho, Raymond Y.; Walker, Philip M.; Hetrick, William P.
2013-01-01
The primary aim of the present research was to determine how "stimulus-set" and "response-set" components of task-set contribute to switch costs and conflict processing. Three experiments are described wherein participants completed an explicitly cued task-switching procedure. Experiment 1 established that task switches requiring a reconfiguration…
Quadratic eigenvalue problems.
Walsh, Timothy Francis; Day, David Minot
2007-04-01
In this report we will describe some nonlinear eigenvalue problems that arise in the areas of solid mechanics, acoustics, and coupled structural acoustics. We will focus mostly on quadratic eigenvalue problems, which are a special case of nonlinear eigenvalue problems. Algorithms for solving the quadratic eigenvalue problem will be presented, along with some example calculations.
Utilizing Maximal Independent Sets as Dominating Sets in Scale-Free Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derzsy, N.; Molnar, F., Jr.; Szymanski, B. K.; Korniss, G.
Dominating sets provide key solution to various critical problems in networked systems, such as detecting, monitoring, or controlling the behavior of nodes. Motivated by graph theory literature [Erdos, Israel J. Math. 4, 233 (1966)], we studied maximal independent sets (MIS) as dominating sets in scale-free networks. We investigated the scaling behavior of the size of MIS in artificial scale-free networks with respect to multiple topological properties (size, average degree, power-law exponent, assortativity), evaluated its resilience to network damage resulting from random failure or targeted attack [Molnar et al., Sci. Rep. 5, 8321 (2015)], and compared its efficiency to previously proposed dominating set selection strategies. We showed that, despite its small set size, MIS provides very high resilience against network damage. Using extensive numerical analysis on both synthetic and real-world (social, biological, technological) network samples, we demonstrate that our method effectively satisfies four essential requirements of dominating sets for their practical applicability on large-scale real-world systems: 1.) small set size, 2.) minimal network information required for their construction scheme, 3.) fast and easy computational implementation, and 4.) resiliency to network damage. Supported by DARPA, DTRA, and NSF.
Billinge, S.
2010-03-22
(rather than just the density distribution) by Fourier transforming the measured intensity leaves us with a very tricky inverse problem: we have to extract the density from its autocorrelation function. The direct problem of predicting the diffraction intensity given a particular density distribution is trivial, but the inverse, unraveling from the intensity distribution the density that gives rise to it, is a highly nontrivial problem in global optimization. In crystallography, this challenging, nontrivial task is sometimes referred to as the 'phase problem.' The diffraction pattern is a wave-interference pattern, but we measure only the intensities (the squares of the waves) not the wave amplitudes. To get the amplitude, you take the square root of the intensity I, but in so doing you lose any knowledge of the phase of the wave {phi}, and half the information needed to reconstruct the density is lost. When solving such inverse problems, you hope you can start with a uniqueness theorem that reassures you that, under ideal conditions, there is only one solution: one density distribution that corresponds to the measured intensity. Then you have to establish that your data set contains sufficient information to constrain that unique solution. This is a problem from information theory that originated with Reverend Thomas Bayes work in the 18th century, and the work of Nyquist and Shannon in the 20 th century, and describes the fact that the degrees of freedom in the model must not exceed the number of pieces of independent information in the data. Finally, you need an efficient algorithm for doing the reconstruction. This is exactly how crystallography works. The information is in the form of Bragg peak intensities and the degrees of freedom are the atomic coordinates. Crystal symmetry lets us confine the model to the contents of a unit cell, rather than all of the atoms in the crystal, keeping the degrees of freedom admirably small in number. A measurement yields a
Integrated network design and scheduling problems :
Nurre, Sarah G.; Carlson, Jeffrey J.
2014-01-01
We consider the class of integrated network design and scheduling problems. These problems focus on selecting and scheduling operations that will change the characteristics of a network, while being speci cally concerned with the performance of the network over time. Motivating applications of INDS problems include infrastructure restoration after extreme events and building humanitarian distribution supply chains. While similar models have been proposed, no one has performed an extensive review of INDS problems from their complexity, network and scheduling characteristics, information, and solution methods. We examine INDS problems under a parallel identical machine scheduling environment where the performance of the network is evaluated by solving classic network optimization problems. We classify that all considered INDS problems as NP-Hard and propose a novel heuristic dispatching rule algorithm that selects and schedules sets of arcs based on their interactions in the network. We present computational analysis based on realistic data sets representing the infrastructures of coastal New Hanover County, North Carolina, lower Manhattan, New York, and a realistic arti cial community CLARC County. These tests demonstrate the importance of a dispatching rule to arrive at near-optimal solutions during real-time decision making activities. We extend INDS problems to incorporate release dates which represent the earliest an operation can be performed and exible release dates through the introduction of specialized machine(s) that can perform work to move the release date earlier in time. An online optimization setting is explored where the release date of a component is not known.
Benchmark problems and solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tam, Christopher K. W.
1995-01-01
The scientific committee, after careful consideration, adopted six categories of benchmark problems for the workshop. These problems do not cover all the important computational issues relevant to Computational Aeroacoustics (CAA). The deciding factor to limit the number of categories to six was the amount of effort needed to solve these problems. For reference purpose, the benchmark problems are provided here. They are followed by the exact or approximate analytical solutions. At present, an exact solution for the Category 6 problem is not available.
Approximating random quantum optimization problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, B.; Laumann, C. R.; Läuchli, A. M.; Moessner, R.; Sondhi, S. L.
2013-06-01
We report a cluster of results regarding the difficulty of finding approximate ground states to typical instances of the quantum satisfiability problem k-body quantum satisfiability (k-QSAT) on large random graphs. As an approximation strategy, we optimize the solution space over “classical” product states, which in turn introduces a novel autonomous classical optimization problem, PSAT, over a space of continuous degrees of freedom rather than discrete bits. Our central results are (i) the derivation of a set of bounds and approximations in various limits of the problem, several of which we believe may be amenable to a rigorous treatment; (ii) a demonstration that an approximation based on a greedy algorithm borrowed from the study of frustrated magnetism performs well over a wide range in parameter space, and its performance reflects the structure of the solution space of random k-QSAT. Simulated annealing exhibits metastability in similar “hard” regions of parameter space; and (iii) a generalization of belief propagation algorithms introduced for classical problems to the case of continuous spins. This yields both approximate solutions, as well as insights into the free energy “landscape” of the approximation problem, including a so-called dynamical transition near the satisfiability threshold. Taken together, these results allow us to elucidate the phase diagram of random k-QSAT in a two-dimensional energy-density-clause-density space.
Challenging Aerospace Problems for Intelligent Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Kanashige, John; Satyadas, A.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
In this paper we highlight four problem domains that are well suited and challenging for intelligent system technologies. The problems are defined and an outline of a probable approach is presented. No attempt is made to define the problems as test cases. In other words, no data or set of equations that a user can code and get results are provided. The main idea behind this paper is to motivate intelligent system researchers to examine problems that will elevate intelligent system technologies and applications to a higher level.
PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set ...
PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set consists of a Worthington Pump and a General Electric motor - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA
The problem with the species problem.
Ellis, Mark W
2011-01-01
When Charles Darwin convinced the scientific community that species evolve, the long-held essentialist view of each species as fixed was rejected and a clear conceptual understanding of the term was lost. For the next century, a real species problem existed that became culturally entrenched within the scientific community. Although largely solved decades ago, the species problem remains entrenched today due to a suite of factors. Most of the factors that help maintain its perceived intractability have been revealed and logically dismissed; yet this is not widely known so those factors continue to be influential. It is time to recognize this false foundation and relegate the species problem to history.
Six common mistakes in conservation priority setting.
Game, Edward T; Kareiva, Peter; Possingham, Hugh P
2013-06-01
A vast number of prioritization schemes have been developed to help conservation navigate tough decisions about the allocation of finite resources. However, the application of quantitative approaches to setting priorities in conservation frequently includes mistakes that can undermine their authors' intention to be more rigorous and scientific in the way priorities are established and resources allocated. Drawing on well-established principles of decision science, we highlight 6 mistakes commonly associated with setting priorities for conservation: not acknowledging conservation plans are prioritizations; trying to solve an ill-defined problem; not prioritizing actions; arbitrariness; hidden value judgments; and not acknowledging risk of failure. We explain these mistakes and offer a path to help conservation planners avoid making the same mistakes in future prioritizations.
The problem of completing partial matrix functions as a classical interpolation problem
Katsnelson, V.E.
1995-09-01
In this paper we consider the problem of completing a {open_quotes}partial{close_quotes}matrix function of the form that is holomorphic inside the unit disc to a {open_quotes}complete{close_quotes} matrix function that is holomorphic inside the unit disc and has a nonnegative real part in that region. This problem can be treated as a generalization of the problem of weighted approximation in a uniform metric of an antianalytic function by analytic functions. This is the so-called classical interpolation problem. The simplest and best known representatives of the class of classical interpolation problems are the Nevanlinna-Pik problem and the step and trigonometric moments problems. The classical interpolation problems are usually discussed within classes of contracting analytic functions, functions with positive real (:or imaginary) parts, or related classes. A distinguishing characteristic of these problems is the fact that a criterion for their solvability is positivity of some kernel (matrix), and the set of solutions is described in terms of a linear fractional transformation. The positivity of some kernel (matrix), and the set of solutions is described in terms of a linear fractional transformation. The term {open_quotes}classical interpolation problem{close_quotes} prompted Akhiezer to name a monograph {open_quotes}The Classical Moments Problem{open_quotes}; this book was introduced to the mathematicans of the Odessa school about fifteen years ago, and has become a standard text. One of the most effective means of investigating such problems is a method based on the theory of extensions of operators in Hilbert spaces. The goal of the present paper is to include the completion problem in the theory of classical interpolation problems, which we have already reduced to an abstract schema, and to use this schema to provide criteria for solvability of problems on completion and description of solution sets. Of necessity, our presentation does not stand alone.
Distance sets for shape filters and shape recognition.
Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nicolai
2003-01-01
We introduce a novel rich local descriptor of an image point, we call the (labeled) distance set, which is determined by the spatial arrangement of image features around that point. We describe a two-dimensional (2D) visual object by the set of (labeled) distance sets associated with the feature points of that object. Based on a dissimilarity measure between (labeled) distance sets and a dissimilarity measure between sets of (labeled) distance sets, we address two problems that are often encountered in object recognition: object segmentation, for which we formulate a distance sets shape filter, and shape matching. The use of the shape filter is illustrated on printed and handwritten character recognition and detection of traffic signs in complex scenes. The shape comparison procedure is illustrated on handwritten character classification, COIL-20 database object recognition and MPEG-7 silhouette database retrieval. PMID:18237892
SPAR data set contents. [finite element structural analysis system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, S. W.
1981-01-01
The contents of the stored data sets of the SPAR (space processing applications rocket) finite element structural analysis system are documented. The data generated by each of the system's processors are stored in a data file organized as a library. Each data set, containing a two-dimensional table or matrix, is identified by a four-word name listed in a table of contents. The creating SPAR processor, number of rows and columns, and definitions of each of the data items are listed for each data set. An example SPAR problem using these data sets is also presented.
An efficient quantum scheme for Private Set Intersection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Run-hua; Mu, Yi; Zhong, Hong; Cui, Jie; Zhang, Shun
2016-01-01
Private Set Intersection allows a client to privately compute set intersection with the collaboration of the server, which is one of the most fundamental and key problems within the multiparty collaborative computation of protecting the privacy of the parties. In this paper, we first present a cheat-sensitive quantum scheme for Private Set Intersection. Compared with classical schemes, our scheme has lower communication complexity, which is independent of the size of the server's set. Therefore, it is very suitable for big data services in Cloud or large-scale client-server networks.
The Mapmark Standard Setting Method
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schulz, E. Matthew; Mitzel, Howard C.
2005-01-01
A new standard setting method, Mapmark, was recently developed by ACT Inc. in the course of a contract with the National Assessment Governing Board (NAGB) to set achievement levels for the 2005 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) in Grade 12 mathematics. Mapmark includes elements of the bookmark method (Lewis, Mitzel, & Green, 1996;…
Chemistry Sets Face Uncertain Future.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stinson, Stephen C.
1979-01-01
Chemistry sets, often a child's first contact with chemistry, are becoming less attractive to manufacturers as the market for these items decreases. There is a tendency for recently manufactured chemistry sets to be less adequate than those selling in the same price range in past years. Manuals vary in quality among manufacturers. (RE)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Treffinger, Donald J.; Selby, Edwin C.; Isaksen, Scott G.
2008-01-01
More than five decades of research and development have focused on making the Creative Problem Solving process and tools accessible across a wide range of ages and contexts. Recent evidence indicates that when individuals, in both school and corporate settings, understand their own style of problem solving, they are able to learn and apply process…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Danek, Amory H.; Wiley, Jennifer; Öllinger, Michael
2016-01-01
Insightful problem solving is a vital part of human thinking, yet very difficult to grasp. Traditionally, insight has been investigated by using a set of established "insight tasks," assuming that insight has taken place if these problems are solved. Instead of assuming that insight takes place during every solution of the 9 Dot, 8 Coin,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsai, Shu-Er
Students with a semester or more of instruction often display remarkable naivety about the language that they have been studying and often prove unable to manage simple programming problems. The main purpose of this study was to create a set of problem-plan-program types for the BASIC programming language to help high school students build plans…
Wavelet Representation of Contour Sets
Bertram, M; Laney, D E; Duchaineau, M A; Hansen, C D; Hamann, B; Joy, K I
2001-07-19
We present a new wavelet compression and multiresolution modeling approach for sets of contours (level sets). In contrast to previous wavelet schemes, our algorithm creates a parametrization of a scalar field induced by its contoum and compactly stores this parametrization rather than function values sampled on a regular grid. Our representation is based on hierarchical polygon meshes with subdivision connectivity whose vertices are transformed into wavelet coefficients. From this sparse set of coefficients, every set of contours can be efficiently reconstructed at multiple levels of resolution. When applying lossy compression, introducing high quantization errors, our method preserves contour topology, in contrast to compression methods applied to the corresponding field function. We provide numerical results for scalar fields defined on planar domains. Our approach generalizes to volumetric domains, time-varying contours, and level sets of vector fields.
Property-optimized Gaussian basis sets for molecular response calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rappoport, Dmitrij; Furche, Filipp
2010-10-01
With recent advances in electronic structure methods, first-principles calculations of electronic response properties, such as linear and nonlinear polarizabilities, have become possible for molecules with more than 100 atoms. Basis set incompleteness is typically the main source of error in such calculations since traditional diffuse augmented basis sets are too costly to use or suffer from near linear dependence. To address this problem, we construct the first comprehensive set of property-optimized augmented basis sets for elements H-Rn except lanthanides. The new basis sets build on the Karlsruhe segmented contracted basis sets of split-valence to quadruple-zeta valence quality and add a small number of moderately diffuse basis functions. The exponents are determined variationally by maximization of atomic Hartree-Fock polarizabilities using analytical derivative methods. The performance of the resulting basis sets is assessed using a set of 313 molecular static Hartree-Fock polarizabilities. The mean absolute basis set errors are 3.6%, 1.1%, and 0.3% for property-optimized basis sets of split-valence, triple-zeta, and quadruple-zeta valence quality, respectively. Density functional and second-order Møller-Plesset polarizabilities show similar basis set convergence. We demonstrate the efficiency of our basis sets by computing static polarizabilities of icosahedral fullerenes up to C720 using hybrid density functional theory.
Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.
Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John
2010-02-01
This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the
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ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Eperson, D. B.
1991-01-01
This section includes eight problems to which the journal invites readers to respond. Problem topics include angles in alternate segments, pentominoes, a new triangle of numbers, cricket scores, symmetrical pentagons, inequalities, a pythagorean dissection, and magic squares. (MDH)
Discrete Ordinate Quadrature Selection for Reactor-based Eigenvalue Problems
Jarrell, Joshua J; Evans, Thomas M; Davidson, Gregory G
2013-01-01
In this paper we analyze the effect of various quadrature sets on the eigenvalues of several reactor-based problems, including a two-dimensional (2D) fuel pin, a 2D lattice of fuel pins, and a three-dimensional (3D) reactor core problem. While many quadrature sets have been applied to neutral particle discrete ordinate transport calculations, the Level Symmetric (LS) and the Gauss-Chebyshev product (GC) sets are the most widely used in production-level reactor simulations. Other quadrature sets, such as Quadruple Range (QR) sets, have been shown to be more accurate in shielding applications. In this paper, we compare the LS, GC, QR, and the recently developed linear-discontinuous finite element (LDFE) sets, as well as give a brief overview of other proposed quadrature sets. We show that, for a given number of angles, the QR sets are more accurate than the LS and GC in all types of reactor problems analyzed (2D and 3D). We also show that the LDFE sets are more accurate than the LS and GC sets for these problems. We conclude that, for problems where tens to hundreds of quadrature points (directions) per octant are appropriate, QR sets should regularly be used because they have similar integration properties as the LS and GC sets, have no noticeable impact on the speed of convergence of the solution when compared with other quadrature sets, and yield more accurate results. We note that, for very high-order scattering problems, the QR sets exactly integrate fewer angular flux moments over the unit sphere than the GC sets. The effects of those inexact integrations have yet to be analyzed. We also note that the LDFE sets only exactly integrate the zeroth and first angular flux moments. Pin power comparisons and analyses are not included in this paper and are left for future work.
The molecular matching problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kincaid, Rex K.
1993-01-01
Molecular chemistry contains many difficult optimization problems that have begun to attract the attention of optimizers in the Operations Research community. Problems including protein folding, molecular conformation, molecular similarity, and molecular matching have been addressed. Minimum energy conformations for simple molecular structures such as water clusters, Lennard-Jones microclusters, and short polypeptides have dominated the literature to date. However, a variety of interesting problems exist and we focus here on a molecular structure matching (MSM) problem.
BASIC Application Programs. Set 1 (15 Programs); Set 2 (19 Programs); Set 3 (12 Programs).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Digital Equipment Corp., Maynard, MA.
The programs in these three booklets are designed to demonstrate how the computer can be applied to the problems of many disciplines. The problems and the corresponding computer programs are, for the most part, quite simple and are designed to be "jumping-off points" for students from the high school level up. Programs include one or more from…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
King, James C.
1988-01-01
This pamphlet discusses group problem solving in schools. Its point of departure is that teachers go at problems from a number of different directions and that principals need to capitalize on those differences and bring a whole range of skills and perceptions to the problem-solving process. Rather than trying to get everyone to think alike,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capobianco, Brenda M.; Tyrie, Nancy
2009-01-01
In a unique school-university partnership, methods students collaborated with fifth graders to use the engineering design process to build their problem-solving skills. By placing the problem in the context of a client having particular needs, the problem took on a real-world appeal that students found intriguing and inviting. In this article, the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Linton, Marigold
Previous approaches to the learning problems of American Indian children are viewed as inadequate. An alternative is suggested which emphasizes the problem solution strategies which these children bring to the school situation. Solutions were analyzed in terms of: (1) their probability; (2) their efficiency at permitting a present problem to be…
Exploratory Problems in Mathematics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stevenson, Frederick W.
This book attempts to introduce students to the creative aspects of mathematics through exploratory problems. The introduction presents the criteria for the selection of the problems in the book. Criteria indicate that problems should: be immediately attractive, require data to be generated or gathered, appeal to students from junior high school…
Mathematics as Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Soifer, Alexander
This book contains about 200 problems. It is suggested that it be used by students, teachers or anyone interested in exploring mathematics. In addition to a general discussion on problem solving, there are problems concerned with number theory, algebra, geometry, and combinatorics. (PK)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Gary J.
This paper presents two actual problems involving grievance procedures. Both problems involve pending litigation and one of them involves pending arbitration. The first problem occurred in a wealthy Minnesota school district and involved a seniority list. Because of changes in the financial basis for supporting public schools, it became necessary…
Techniques of Problem Solving.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krantz, Steven G.
The purpose of this book is to teach the basic principles of problem solving in both mathematical and non-mathematical problems. The major components of the book consist of learning to translate verbal discussion into analytical data, learning problem solving methods for attacking collections of analytical questions or data, and building a…
Regression problems for magnitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellaro, S.; Mulargia, F.; Kagan, Y. Y.
2006-06-01
Least-squares linear regression is so popular that it is sometimes applied without checking whether its basic requirements are satisfied. In particular, in studying earthquake phenomena, the conditions (a) that the uncertainty on the independent variable is at least one order of magnitude smaller than the one on the dependent variable, (b) that both data and uncertainties are normally distributed and (c) that residuals are constant are at times disregarded. This may easily lead to wrong results. As an alternative to least squares, when the ratio between errors on the independent and the dependent variable can be estimated, orthogonal regression can be applied. We test the performance of orthogonal regression in its general form against Gaussian and non-Gaussian data and error distributions and compare it with standard least-square regression. General orthogonal regression is found to be superior or equal to the standard least squares in all the cases investigated and its use is recommended. We also compare the performance of orthogonal regression versus standard regression when, as often happens in the literature, the ratio between errors on the independent and the dependent variables cannot be estimated and is arbitrarily set to 1. We apply these results to magnitude scale conversion, which is a common problem in seismology, with important implications in seismic hazard evaluation, and analyse it through specific tests. Our analysis concludes that the commonly used standard regression may induce systematic errors in magnitude conversion as high as 0.3-0.4, and, even more importantly, this can introduce apparent catalogue incompleteness, as well as a heavy bias in estimates of the slope of the frequency-magnitude distributions. All this can be avoided by using the general orthogonal regression in magnitude conversions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shutov, A. V.; Maleev, A. V.
2015-11-01
The Baake construction, based on generating a set of vertices of Penrose tilings as a model set, is refined. An algorithm and a corresponding computer program for constructing an uncountable set of locally indistinguishable Penrose tilings are developed proceeding from this refined construction. Based on an analysis of the parameters of tiling vertices, 62 versions of rhomb combinations at the tiling center are determined. The combinatorial structure of Penrose tiling worms is established. A concept of flip transformations of tilings is introduced that makes it possible to construct Penrose tilings that cannot be implemented in the Baake construction.
Outbreaks in Health Care Settings.
Sood, Geeta; Perl, Trish M
2016-09-01
Outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks in health care settings can be complex and should be evaluated systematically using epidemiologic tools. Laboratory testing is an important part of an outbreak evaluation. Health care personnel, equipment, supplies, water, ventilation systems, and the hospital environment have been associated with health care outbreaks. Settings including the neonatal intensive care unit, endoscopy, oncology, and transplant units are areas that have specific issues which impact the approach to outbreak investigation and control. Certain organisms have a predilection for health care settings because of the illnesses of patients, the procedures performed, and the care provided. PMID:27515142
The Born transmission eigenvalue problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cakoni, Fioralba; Colton, David; Rezac, Jacob D.
2016-10-01
In this paper we study the distribution of transmission eigenvalues in the complex plane for obstacles whose contrast is small in magnitude. We use a first order approximation of the refractive index to derive and study an approximate interior transmission problem. In the case of spherically stratified media, we prove existence and discreteness of transmission eigenvalues and derive a condition under which the complex part of transmission eigenvalues cannot lie in a strip parallel to the real axis. For obstacles with general shape, we demonstrate that if transmission eigenvalues exist then they form a discrete set.
The Second Parameter Problem(s)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dotter, Aaron
The Second Parameter (2ndP) Problem recognizes the remarkable role played by horizontal branch (HB) morphology in the development of our understanding of globular clusters, and the Galaxy, over the last 50 years. I will describe the historical development of the 2ndP and discuss recent advances that are finally providing some answers. I will discuss how the controversies surrounding the nature of the 2ndP can be reconciled if we acknowledge that there are actually two distinct problems with entirely different solutions.
Atmospheric Science Data Center
2013-07-26
FIRE II - Cirrus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) II ... stratocumulus systems, the radiative properties of these clouds and their interactions. Relevant Documents: FIRE Project Guide FIRE II - Cirrus Home Page FIRE II - Cirrus Mission Summaries ...
On Jack Hale's problem for impulsive systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonotto, E. M.; Gimenes, L. P.; Souto, G. M.
2015-07-01
An interesting problem of Jack Hale deals with the existence of a maximal compact invariant set in discrete dynamical systems. A solution for this problem is known for locally bounded dynamical systems. Following this line of research, we consider in this paper a class of systems whose continuous dynamics are interrupted by abrupt changes of state and we present sufficient conditions to obtain the existence of a maximal compact invariant set for a system in this class. We use the theory of asymptotic compactness to get the results.
Linear stochastic optimal control and estimation problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geyser, L. C.; Lehtinen, F. K. B.
1980-01-01
Problem involves design of controls for linear time-invariant system disturbed by white noise. Solution is Kalman filter coupled through set of optimal regulator gains to produce desired control signal. Key to solution is solving matrix Riccati differential equation. LSOCE effectively solves problem for wide range of practical applications. Program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on IBM 360.
Introduction to Fuzzy Set Theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kosko, Bart
1990-01-01
An introduction to fuzzy set theory is described. Topics covered include: neural networks and fuzzy systems; the dynamical systems approach to machine intelligence; intelligent behavior as adaptive model-free estimation; fuzziness versus probability; fuzzy sets; the entropy-subsethood theorem; adaptive fuzzy systems for backing up a truck-and-trailer; product-space clustering with differential competitive learning; and adaptive fuzzy system for target tracking.
Solving bi-objective optimal control problems with rectangular framing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wijaya, Karunia Putra; Götz, Thomas
2016-06-01
Optimization problems, e.g. arising from epidemiology models, often ask for solutions minimizing multi-criteria objective functions. In this paper we discuss a novel approach for solving bi-objective optimal control problems. The set of non-dominated points is constructed via a decreasing sequence of rectangles. Particular attention is paid to a problem with disconnected set of non-dominated points. Several examples from epidemiology are investigated and show the applicability of the method.
Counting independent sets using the Bethe approximation
Chertkov, Michael; Chandrasekaran, V; Gamarmik, D; Shah, D; Sin, J
2009-01-01
The authors consider the problem of counting the number of independent sets or the partition function of a hard-core model in a graph. The problem in general is computationally hard (P hard). They study the quality of the approximation provided by the Bethe free energy. Belief propagation (BP) is a message-passing algorithm can be used to compute fixed points of the Bethe approximation; however, BP is not always guarantee to converge. As the first result, they propose a simple message-passing algorithm that converges to a BP fixed pont for any grapy. They find that their algorithm converges within a multiplicative error 1 + {var_epsilon} of a fixed point in {Omicron}(n{sup 2}E{sup -4} log{sup 3}(nE{sup -1})) iterations for any bounded degree graph of n nodes. In a nutshell, the algorithm can be thought of as a modification of BP with 'time-varying' message-passing. Next, they analyze the resulting error to the number of independent sets provided by such a fixed point of the Bethe approximation. Using the recently developed loop calculus approach by Vhertkov and Chernyak, they establish that for any bounded graph with large enough girth, the error is {Omicron}(n{sup -{gamma}}) for some {gamma} > 0. As an application, they find that for random 3-regular graph, Bethe approximation of log-partition function (log of the number of independent sets) is within o(1) of corret log-partition - this is quite surprising as previous physics-based predictions were expecting an error of o(n). In sum, their results provide a systematic way to find Bethe fixed points for any graph quickly and allow for estimating error in Bethe approximation using novel combinatorial techniques.
An inability to set independent attentional control settings by hemifield.
Becker, Mark W; Ravizza, Susan M; Peltier, Chad
2015-11-01
Recent evidence suggests that people can simultaneously activate attentional control setting for two distinct colors. However, it is unclear whether both attentional control settings must operate globally across the visual field or whether each can be constrained to a particular spatial location. Using two different paradigms, we investigated participants' ability to apply independent color attentional control settings to distinct regions of space. In both experiments, participants were told to identify red letters in one hemifield and green letters in the opposite hemifield. Additionally, some trials used a "relevant distractor"-a letter that matched the opposite side's target color. In Experiment 1, eight letters appeared (four per hemifield) simultaneously for a brief amount of time and then were masked. Relevant distractors increased the error rate and resulted in a greater number of distractor intrusions than irrelevant distractors. Similar results were observed in Experiment 2 in which red and green targets were presented in two rapid serial visual presentation streams. Relevant distractors were found to produce an attentional blink similar in magnitude to an actual target. The results of both experiments suggest that letters matching either attentional control setting were selected by attention and were processed as if they were targets, providing strong evidence that both attentional control settings were applied globally, rather than being constrained to a particular location. PMID:26220268
Computing complex metabolic intervention strategies using constrained minimal cut sets.
Hädicke, Oliver; Klamt, Steffen
2011-03-01
The model-driven search for gene deletion strategies that increase the production performance of microorganisms is an essential part of metabolic engineering. One theoretical approach is based on Minimal Cut Sets (MCSs) which are minimal sets of knockouts disabling the operation of a specified set of target elementary modes. A limitation of the current approach is that MCSs can induce side effects disabling also desired functionalities. We, therefore, generalize MCSs to Constrained MCSs (cMCSs) allowing for the additional definition of a set of desired modes of which a minimum number must be preserved. Exemplarily for ethanol production by Escherichia coli, we demonstrate that this approach offers enormous flexibility in defining and solving knockout problems. Moreover, many existing methods can be reformulated as special cMCS problems. The cMCSs approach allows systematic enumeration of all equivalent gene deletion combinations and also helps to determine robust knockout strategies for coupled product and biomass synthesis. PMID:21147248
Simulated annealing approach to the max cut problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen, Sandip
1993-03-01
In this paper we address the problem of partitioning the nodes of a random graph into two sets, so as to maximize the sum of the weights on the edges connecting nodes belonging to different sets. This problem has important real-life counterparts, but has been proven to be NP-complete. As such, a number of heuristic solution techniques have been proposed in literature to address this problem. We propose a stochastic optimization technique, simulated annealing, to find solutions for the max cut problem. Our experiments verify that good solutions to the problem can be found using this algorithm in a reasonable amount of time.
Intrusion detection using rough set classification.
Zhang, Lian-hua; Zhang, Guan-hua; Zhang, Jie; Bai, Ying-cai
2004-09-01
Recently machine learning-based intrusion detection approaches have been subjected to extensive researches because they can detect both misuse and anomaly. In this paper, rough set classification (RSC), a modern learning algorithm, is used to rank the features extracted for detecting intrusions and generate intrusion detection models. Feature ranking is a very critical step when building the model. RSC performs feature ranking before generating rules, and converts the feature ranking to minimal hitting set problem addressed by using genetic algorithm (GA). This is done in classical approaches using Support Vector Machine (SVM) by executing many iterations, each of which removes one useless feature. Compared with those methods, our method can avoid many iterations. In addition, a hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed to increase the convergence speed and decrease the training time of RSC. The models generated by RSC take the form of "IF-THEN" rules, which have the advantage of explication. Tests and comparison of RSC with SVM on DARPA benchmark data showed that for Probe and DoS attacks both RSC and SVM yielded highly accurate results (greater than 99% accuracy on testing set).
Development of the PEBLebl Traveling Salesman Problem Computerized Testbed
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mueller, Shane T.; Perelman, Brandon S.; Tan, Yin Yin; Thanasuan, Kejkaew
2015-01-01
The traveling salesman problem (TSP) is a combinatorial optimization problem that requires finding the shortest path through a set of points ("cities") that returns to the starting point. Because humans provide heuristic near-optimal solutions to Euclidean versions of the problem, it has sometimes been used to investigate human visual…
Facilitating Problem Framing in Project-Based Learning
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Svihla, Vanessa; Reeve, Richard
2016-01-01
While problem solving is a relatively well understood process, problem framing is less well understood, particularly with regard to supporting students to learn as they frame problems. Project-based learning classrooms are an ideal setting to investigate how teachers facilitate this process. Using participant observation, this study investigated…
Using Problem Fields as a Method of Change.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pehkonen, Erkki
1992-01-01
Discusses the rationale and use of problem fields which are sets of related and/or connected open-ended problem-solving tasks within mathematics instruction. Polygons with matchsticks and the number triangle are two examples of problem fields presented along with variations in conditions that promote other matchstick puzzles. (11 references) (JJK)
Complex Mathematical Problem Solving by Individuals and Dyads.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vye, Nancy J.; Goldman, Susan R.; Voss, James F.; Hmelo, Cindy; Williams, Susan; Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt University
1997-01-01
Describes two studies of mathematical problem solving using an episode from "The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury," a set of curriculum materials that afford complex problem-solving opportunities. Discussion focuses on characteristics of problems that make solutions difficult, kinds of reasoning that dyadic interactions support, and considerations of…
Skill Acquisition: Compilation of Weak-Method Problem Solutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Anderson, John R.
According to the ACT theory of skill acquisition, cognitive skills are encoded by a set of productions, which are organized according to a hierarchical goal structure. People solve problems in new domains by applying weak problem-solving procedures to declarative knowledge they have about this domain. From these initial problem solutions,…
Management of starvation in a Role 1 setting.
Jeffery, S M T; Freshwater, D A
2012-01-01
Historical reports from war and natural disasters first identified the dangers of reintroducing food after a period of starvation or malnutrition. The development of advanced nutritional support for hospitalised patients gave rise to the concept of refeeding syndrome, further highlighting the problems and leading to the development of guidelines and protocols for managing malnutrition. In this paper we present a case of starvation in the maritime setting and review the pathophysiology of starvation and refeeding. We discuss the problems associated with managing acute starvation in a Role 1 setting without access to higher medical care, and present guidance for its management.
Decision-problem state analysis methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dieterly, D. L.
1980-01-01
A methodology for analyzing a decision-problem state is presented. The methodology is based on the analysis of an incident in terms of the set of decision-problem conditions encountered. By decomposing the events that preceded an unwanted outcome, such as an accident, into the set of decision-problem conditions that were resolved, a more comprehensive understanding is possible. All human-error accidents are not caused by faulty decision-problem resolutions, but it appears to be one of the major areas of accidents cited in the literature. A three-phase methodology is presented which accommodates a wide spectrum of events. It allows for a systems content analysis of the available data to establish: (1) the resolutions made, (2) alternatives not considered, (3) resolutions missed, and (4) possible conditions not considered. The product is a map of the decision-problem conditions that were encountered as well as a projected, assumed set of conditions that should have been considered. The application of this methodology introduces a systematic approach to decomposing the events that transpired prior to the accident. The initial emphasis is on decision and problem resolution. The technique allows for a standardized method of accident into a scenario which may used for review or the development of a training simulation.
Looking at large data sets using binned data plots
Carr, D.B.
1990-04-01
This report addresses the monumental challenge of developing exploratory analysis methods for large data sets. The goals of the report are to increase awareness of large data sets problems and to contribute simple graphical methods that address some of the problems. The graphical methods focus on two- and three-dimensional data and common task such as finding outliers and tail structure, assessing central structure and comparing central structures. The methods handle large sample size problems through binning, incorporate information from statistical models and adapt image processing algorithms. Examples demonstrate the application of methods to a variety of publicly available large data sets. The most novel application addresses the too many plots to examine'' problem by using cognostics, computer guiding diagnostics, to prioritize plots. The particular application prioritizes views of computational fluid dynamics solution sets on the fly. That is, as each time step of a solution set is generated on a parallel processor the cognostics algorithms assess virtual plots based on the previous time step. Work in such areas is in its infancy and the examples suggest numerous challenges that remain. 35 refs., 15 figs.
Discrepancy sets and pseudorandom generators for combinatorial rectangles
Armoni, R.; Saks, M.; Zhou, Shiyu; Wigderson, A.
1996-12-31
A common subproblem of DNF approximate counting and derandomizing RL is the discrepancy problem for combinatorial rectangles. We explicitly construct a poly(n)-size sample space that approximates the volume of any combinatorial rectangle in [n]{sup n} to within o(1) error (improving on the constructions of [EGLNV92]). The construction extends the techniques of [LLSZ95] for the analogous hitting set problem most notably via discrepancy preserving reductions.
Care of spinal cord injury in non-specialist settings.
Rodger, Sian
Patient with spinal cord injuries have individualised care routines to help prevent complications. Disruption to these routines following admission to non-specialist settings can have long-term consequences. This article focuses on the key long-term problems of pressure ulcers, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and autonomic dysreflexia. Nurses working on general wards need to consider how to manage these problems when caring for patients with spinal cord injury. PMID:27544957
Internal ellipsoidal estimates of reachable set of impulsive control systems
Matviychuk, Oksana G.
2014-11-18
A problem of estimating reachable sets of linear impulsive control system with uncertainty in initial data is considered. The impulsive controls in the dynamical system belong to the intersection of a special cone with a generalized ellipsoid both taken in the space of functions of bounded variation. Assume that an ellipsoidal state constraints are imposed. The algorithms for constructing internal ellipsoidal estimates of reachable sets for such control systems and numerical simulation results are given.
Suicide in the Medical Setting
Ballard, Elizabeth D.; Pao, Maryland; Henderson, David; Lee, Laura M.; Bostwick, J. Michael; Rosenstein, Donald L.
2009-01-01
Article-at-a-Glance Background Little is known about suicide in the hospital setting. Although suicide is a major public health concern, the literature on suicide in the medical setting is limited, and accurate data on hospital-based suicides are unavailable. Consequently, the prevalence, demographic characteristics, and risk factors for suicide in this population are unknown. The literature on completed suicides in medical or surgical wards of a general hospital was summarized to generate hypotheses for further investigation regarding in-hospital suicides. Methods MEDLINE, PsycINFO, IndexCat, and Scopus were queried for English-language articles on inpatient suicides in a general hospital. These data were compared with reports of suicide by psychiatric inpatients and the annual suicide statistics from the U.S. general population. Results Twelve articles detailing 335 suicides in the medical setting were included. Published data on hospital-based suicides are limited by selection bias, incomplete reporting, and a small number of completed suicides. Consequently, no significant setting-specific findings emerge from the existing literature. Reported cases suggest that inpatients who commit suicide in the medical setting may have a different demographic profile and employ different methods of suicide in comparison with individuals who commit suicide in psychiatric settings or the general population. Discussion Given the absence of systematic data collection and the highly variable nature of reported suicides, it coult not be determined if clinically relevant distinctions exist between suicides in different health care settings. Prospective and more detailed data collection are needed because a more complete characterization of suicide in medical inpatients may be useful in both prevention approaches and institutional policies with respect to hospital-based suicides. PMID:18714750
Learning trees and rules with set-valued features
Cohen, W.W.
1996-12-31
In most learning systems examples are represented as fixed-length {open_quotes}feature vectors{close_quotes}, the components of which are either real numbers or nominal values. We propose an extension of the feature-vector representation that allows the value of a feature to be a set of strings; for instance, to represent a small white and black dog with the nominal features size and species and the set-valued feature color, one might use a feature vector with size-small, species-canis-familiaris and color-(white, black). Since we make no assumptions about the number of possible set elements, this extension of the traditional feature-vector representation is closely connected to Blum`s {open_quotes}infinite attribute{close_quotes} representation. We argue that many decision tree and rule learning algorithms can be easily extended to set-valued features. We also show by example that many real-world learning problems can be efficiently and naturally represented with set-valued features; in particular, text categorization problems and problems that arise in propositionalizing first-order representations lend themselves to set-valued features.
Pan, Feng; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva
2010-01-01
In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.
The Inverse Problem in Jet Acoustics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wooddruff, S. L.; Hussaini, M. Y.
2001-01-01
The inverse problem for jet acoustics, or the determination of noise sources from far-field pressure information, is proposed as a tool for understanding the generation of noise by turbulence and for the improved prediction of jet noise. An idealized version of the problem is investigated first to establish the extent to which information about the noise sources may be determined from far-field pressure data and to determine how a well-posed inverse problem may be set up. Then a version of the industry-standard MGB code is used to predict a jet noise source spectrum from experimental noise data.
Intelligent virtual reality in the setting of fuzzy sets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dockery, John; Littman, David
1992-01-01
The authors have previously introduced the concept of virtual reality worlds governed by artificial intelligence. Creation of an intelligent virtual reality was further proposed as a universal interface for the handicapped. This paper extends consideration of intelligent virtual realty to a context in which fuzzy set principles are explored as a major tool for implementing theory in the domain of applications to the disabled.
Vocabulary Mining for Information Retrieval: Rough Sets and Fuzzy Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Srinivasan, Padmini; Ruiz, Miguel E.; Kraft, Donald H.; Chen, Jianhua
2001-01-01
Explains vocabulary mining in information retrieval and describes a framework for vocabulary mining that allows the use of rough set-based approximations even when documents and queries are described using weighted, or fuzzy, representations. Examines coordination between multiple vocabulary views and applies the framework to the Unified Medical…
ROV overcomes deepwater problems
Frisbie, F.R.; Hughes, E.W.
1984-09-01
The use of remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) in supportive drill ships operating in more than 200 meters of water poses severe technical and operational problems. Defining these problems beforehand and addressing them during design, manufacture, testing and installation ensures a functional and effective support capability. Such problems as the availability of desk space, and the subsequent installation, maintenance, and the launch/recovery of the system are described.
Tactical missile turbulence problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dickson, Richard E.
1987-01-01
Of particular interest is atmospheric turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer, since this affects both the launch and terminal phase of flight, and the total flight for direct fire systems. Brief discussions are presented on rocket artillery boost wind problems, mean wind correction, turbulent boost wind correction, the Dynamically Aimed Free Flight Rocket (DAFFR) wind filter, the DAFFR test, and rocket wake turbulence problems. It is concluded that many of the turbulence problems of rockets and missiles are common to those of aircraft, such as structural loading and control system design. However, these problems have not been solved at this time.
Egorov, Yurii V
2013-04-30
We consider the classical problem on the tallest column which was posed by Euler in 1757. Bernoulli-Euler theory serves today as the basis for the design of high buildings. This problem is reduced to the problem of finding the potential for the Sturm-Liouville equation corresponding to the maximum of the first eigenvalue. The problem has been studied by many mathematicians but we give the first rigorous proof of the existence and uniqueness of the optimal column and we give new formulae which let us find it. Our method is based on a new approach consisting in the study of critical points of a related nonlinear functional. Bibliography: 6 titles.
Known TCP Implementation Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paxson, Vern (Editor); Allman, Mark; Dawson, Scott; Fenner, William; Griner, Jim; Heavens, Ian; Lahey, K.; Semke, J.; Volz, B.
1999-01-01
This memo catalogs a number of known TCP implementation problems. The goal in doing so is to improve conditions in the existing Internet by enhancing the quality of current TCP/IP implementations. It is hoped that both performance and correctness issues can be resolved by making implementors aware of the problems and their solutions. In the long term, it is hoped that this will provide a reduction in unnecessary traffic on the network, the rate of connection failures due to protocol errors, and load on network servers due to time spent processing both unsuccessful connections and retransmitted data. This will help to ensure the stability of the global Internet. Each problem is defined as follows: Name of Problem The name associated with the problem. In this memo, the name is given as a subsection heading. Classification one or more problem categories for which the problem is classified: "congestion control", "performance", "reliability", "resource management". Description A definition of the problem, succinct but including necessary background material. Significance A brief summary of the sorts of environments for which the problem is significant.
Specific Pronunciation Problems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Avery, Peter; And Others
1987-01-01
Reviews common pronunciation problems experienced by learners of English as a second language who are native speakers of Vietnamese, Cantonese, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, Polish, Greek, and Punjabi. (CB)
On the estimation of the attainability set of nonlinear control systems
Ekimov, A.V.; Balykina, Yu.E.; Svirkin, M.V.
2015-03-10
Analysis of the attainability set and construction of its estimates greatly facilitates the solution of a variety of problems in mathematical control theory. In the paper, the problem of boundedness of the integral funnel of nonlinear controlled system is considered. Some estimates of the attainability sets for a nonlinear controlled system are presented. Theorems on the boundedness of considered integral funnels are proved.
Crystalline silica: Old problem, new problem
Burst, J.F. )
1993-03-01
Known as an industrial health hazard for centuries, crystalline silica has recently gained enhanced recognition as a threat to human health by being classified as a 2A probable carcinogen'' by The International Agency for Research on Cancer. Its maximum allowable concentration as an impurity is established as 0.1%. This has led to consternation in the mining and mineral industries inasmuch as the accuracy of methodology available to measure crystalline silica content at this level in heterogeneous matrices has been severely questioned and unlabeled products distributed with crystalline silica contents in excess of 0.1% are considered in violation of the Hazard Communication Standard. Three problems exist: (1) defining acceptable reference standards; (2) establishing adequate measurement procedures; (3) marketing products in compliance with State and Federal regulations. A review and update of these problems has been developed for the guidance of quarry operators and mineral product manufacturers.
de Sanctis, Daniele; Nanao, Max H
2012-09-01
Specific radiation damage can be used for the phasing of macromolecular crystal structures. In practice, however, the optimization of the X-ray dose used to `burn' the crystal to induce specific damage can be difficult. Here, a method is presented in which a single large data set that has not been optimized in any way for radiation-damage-induced phasing (RIP) is segmented into multiple sub-data sets, which can then be used for RIP. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated using two model systems and two test systems. A method to improve the success of this type of phasing experiment by varying the composition of the two sub-data sets with respect to their separation by image number, and hence by absorbed dose, as well as their individual completeness is illustrated. PMID:22948916
de Sanctis, Daniele; Nanao, Max H
2012-09-01
Specific radiation damage can be used for the phasing of macromolecular crystal structures. In practice, however, the optimization of the X-ray dose used to `burn' the crystal to induce specific damage can be difficult. Here, a method is presented in which a single large data set that has not been optimized in any way for radiation-damage-induced phasing (RIP) is segmented into multiple sub-data sets, which can then be used for RIP. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated using two model systems and two test systems. A method to improve the success of this type of phasing experiment by varying the composition of the two sub-data sets with respect to their separation by image number, and hence by absorbed dose, as well as their individual completeness is illustrated.
Setting standards: Risk assessment issues
Pontius, F.W.
1995-07-01
How drinking water standards are set and which contaminants should be regulated are central issues in reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Suggested amendments to the standard-setting provisions of the SDWA cover a broad spectrum. In general, environmental groups argue that standards are not strict enough and that greater consideration should be given to sensitive subpopulations. Other note that the high cost associated with meeting increasingly strict standards is unjustified in light of the uncertain and sometimes nonexistent incremental benefits. This article takes a look at the issues involved in developing a rational approach for establishing drinking water standards. It reviews the current approach used by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to set standards.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Potter, Don; Serian, Charles; Sweet, Robert; Sapir, Babak; Gamez, Enrique; Mays, David
2008-01-01
The Problem Reporting System (PRS) is a Web application, running on two Web servers (load-balanced) and two database servers (RAID-5), which establishes a system for submission, editing, and sharing of reports to manage risk assessment of anomalies identified in NASA's flight projects. PRS consolidates diverse anomaly-reporting systems, maintains a rich database set, and incorporates a robust engine, which allows tracking of any hardware, software, or paper process by configuring an appropriate life cycle. Global and specific project administration and setup tools allow lifecycle tailoring, along with customizable controls for user, e-mail, notifications, and more. PRS is accessible via the World Wide Web for authorized user at most any location. Upon successful log-in, the user receives a customizable window, which displays time-critical 'To Do' items (anomalies requiring the user s input before the system moves the anomaly to the next phase of the lifecycle), anomalies originated by the user, anomalies the user has addressed, and custom queries that can be saved for future use. Access controls exist depending on a user's role as system administrator, project administrator, user, or developer, and then, further by association with user, project, subsystem, company, or item with provisions for business-to-business exclusions, limitations on access according to the covert or overt nature of a given project, all with multiple layers of filtration, as needed. Reporting of metrics is built in. There is a provision for proxy access (in which the user may choose to grant one or more other users to view screens and perform actions as though they were the user, during any part of a tracking life cycle - especially useful during tight build schedules and vacations to keep things moving). The system also provides users the ability to have an anomaly link to or notify other systems, including QA Inspection Reports, Safety, GIDEP (Government-Industry Data Exchange Program
Evaluating the problem gambling severity index.
Holtgraves, Thomas
2009-03-01
A large, integrated survey data set provided by the Ontario Problem Gambling Centre was used to investigate psychometric properties of the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). This nine-item self-report instrument was designed to measure a single, problem gambling construct. Unlike its nearest competitor--the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS)--the PGSI was designed specifically for use with a general population rather than in a clinical context. The present analyses demonstrated that the PGSI does assess a single, underlying, factor, but that this is complicated by different, multiple factor structures for respondents with differing levels of problem gambling severity. The PGSI also demonstrated small to moderate correlations with measures of gambling frequency and faulty cognitions. Overall, the PGSI presents a viable alternative to the SOGS for assessing degrees of problem gambling severity in a non-clinical context.
Resolvent-Techniques for Multiple Exercise Problems
Christensen, Sören; Lempa, Jukka
2015-02-15
We study optimal multiple stopping of strong Markov processes with random refraction periods. The refraction periods are assumed to be exponentially distributed with a common rate and independent of the underlying dynamics. Our main tool is using the resolvent operator. In the first part, we reduce infinite stopping problems to ordinary ones in a general strong Markov setting. This leads to explicit solutions for wide classes of such problems. Starting from this result, we analyze problems with finitely many exercise rights and explain solution methods for some classes of problems with underlying Lévy and diffusion processes, where the optimal characteristics of the problems can be identified more explicitly. We illustrate the main results with explicit examples.
Filimonov, V P
2014-08-31
The paper investigates questions related to Borsuk's classical problem of partitioning a set in Euclidean space into subsets of smaller diameter, as well as to the well-known Nelson-Erdős-Hadwiger problem on the chromatic number of a Euclidean space. The results of the work are obtained using combinatorial and geometric methods alike. A new approach to the investigation of such problems is suggested; it leads to a collection of results which significantly improve all results known so far. Bibliography: 58 titles.
Support vector machine classifiers for large data sets.
Gertz, E. M.; Griffin, J. D.
2006-01-31
This report concerns the generation of support vector machine classifiers for solving the pattern recognition problem in machine learning. Several methods are proposed based on interior point methods for convex quadratic programming. Software implementations are developed by adapting the object-oriented packaging OOQP to the problem structure and by using the software package PETSc to perform time-intensive computations in a distributed setting. Linear systems arising from classification problems with moderately large numbers of features are solved by using two techniques--one a parallel direct solver, the other a Krylov-subspace method incorporating novel preconditioning strategies. Numerical results are provided, and computational experience is discussed.
Telepsychiatry in juvenile justice settings.
Kaliebe, Kristopher E; Heneghan, James; Kim, Thomas J
2011-01-01
Telepsychiatry is emerging as a valuable means of providing mental health care in juvenile justice settings. Youth in the juvenile justice system have high levels of psychiatric morbidity. State and local juvenile justice systems frequently struggle to provide specialized psychiatric care, as these systems have limited resources and often operate in remote locations. Case studies in the use of telepsychiatry to provide improved care in juvenile corrections in 4 states are described, along with a review of advantages and disadvantages of telepsychiatry in these settings. PMID:21092916
Telepsychiatry in juvenile justice settings.
Kaliebe, Kristopher E; Heneghan, James; Kim, Thomas J
2011-01-01
Telepsychiatry is emerging as a valuable means of providing mental health care in juvenile justice settings. Youth in the juvenile justice system have high levels of psychiatric morbidity. State and local juvenile justice systems frequently struggle to provide specialized psychiatric care, as these systems have limited resources and often operate in remote locations. Case studies in the use of telepsychiatry to provide improved care in juvenile corrections in 4 states are described, along with a review of advantages and disadvantages of telepsychiatry in these settings.
Causal Sets: An Alternative View of Spacetime Structure
Reid, David D.
2008-03-13
The causal set program is one of a number of discrete spacetime approaches to the problem of quantum gravity. It proposes that the microstructure of spacetime is that of a partially ordered set, a causal set, in which the partial order encodes information about the causal structure of spacetime. Herein, I will introduce the main hypothesis of this program and discuss some of the developments that have taken place over its approximate 20-year history. This semi-technical paper is intended for general physics students and specialists in other areas of physics.
Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems
Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny
2013-01-01
Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; χ2 = 17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501
Inverse Problem of Vortex Reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Protas, Bartosz; Danaila, Ionut
2014-11-01
This study addresses the following question: given incomplete measurements of the velocity field induced by a vortex, can one determine the structure of the vortex? Assuming that the flow is incompressible, inviscid and stationary in the frame of reference moving with the vortex, the ``structure'' of the vortex is uniquely characterized by the functional relation between the streamfunction and vorticity. To focus attention, 3D axisymmetric vortex rings are considered. We show how this inverse problem can be framed as an optimization problem which can then be efficiently solved using variational techniques. More precisely, we use measurements of the tangential velocity on some contour to reconstruct the function defining the streamfunction-vorticity relation in a continuous setting. Two test cases are presented, involving Hill's and Norbury vortices, in which very good reconstructions are obtained. A key result of this study is the application of our approach to obtain an optimal inviscid vortex model in an actual viscous flow problem based on DNS data which leads to a number of nonintuitive findings.
Node weighted network upgrade problems
Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Marathe, M.V.; Ravi, S.S.
1996-09-01
Consider a network where nodes represent processors and edges represent bidirectional communication links. The processor at a node v can be upgraded at an expense of cost(v). Such an upgrade reduces the delay of each link emanating from v by a fixed factor x, where 0 < x < 1. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has a spanning tree in which edge is of delay at most a given value {delta}. The authors provide both hardness and approximation results for the problem. They show that the problem is NP-hard and cannot be approximated within any factor {beta} < ln n, unless NP {improper_subset} DTIME(n{sup log log n}), where n is the number of nodes in the network. They then present the first polynomial time approximation algorithms for the problem. For the general case, the approximation algorithm comes within a factor of 2 ln n of the minimum upgrading cost. When the cost of upgrading each node is 1, they present an approximation algorithm with a performance guarantee of 4(2 + ln {Delta}), where {Delta} is the maximum node degree. Finally, they present a polynomial time algorithm for the class of treewidth-bounded graphs.
Acid deposition: a national problem
Hendrey, G.R.
1985-01-01
The deposition of excessive quantities of sulfur and nitrogen from the atmosphere constitutes a problem encompassing all of the United States east of the Mississippi River. It also occurs in some areas of the western US. Calculations based on emission inventories and simplifying assumptions indicate electric utilities account for 66% of SO/sub 2/ emissions, 29% of NO/sub x/ emissions and about half of precipitation acidity. Acidification of clearwater lakes and streams is a widespread problem only in areas receiving rain with an average acidity less than or equal to 4.7. The dominant anion in such waters is SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ and concentrations of aluminum derived from watershed acidification may exceed 200 ..mu..g 1/sup -1/. Changes in assemblages of aquatic biota become increasingly apparent as pH decreases below 6.0, and elimination of fish from some waters has been documented. The sensitivity of surface waters is controlled by and represents an integration of biogeochemical processes in their edaphic settings. Changes in surface water chemistry imply changes in the terrestrial environment. Direct evidence of changes in terrestrial environments is sparse. Nevertheless, observations of forest dieback in the US and abroad suggest that acid deposition may contribute to the problem. Very few credible studies are available which allow an evaluation of acid precipitation effects on crops.
The Fuzzy Set Called 'Imitations.'
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moerk, Ernst L.
This investigation addresses problems of defining verbal imitation, and suggests solutions by analyzing verbal interactions between two children and their mothers. Children were between 18 and 35 months old, with a mean length of utterance between 1.4 and 4.2 morphemes. Analyses focus upon the uses these children made of maternal models; 10…
Loneliness in the School Setting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krause-Parello, Cheryl A.
2008-01-01
Loneliness is a phenomenon that has been recorded in literature throughout the ages. It is now being recognized as problem not only in adults but in children and adolescents as well. Loneliness is an emotional state that can be a barrier to a student's social development and affect their physical and mental health. Various contributing factors and…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ploetzner, Rolf; Fehse, Eric; Kneser, Cornelia; Spada, Hans
1999-01-01
Investigates how 10th-grade students acquire, extend, and successively relate knowledge about qualitative and quantitative aspects of classical mechanics. Analysis of the multicomponent tests revealed that qualitative, as well as quantitative, knowledge can be taught successfully using concept maps. (Author/CCM)
Problem-Solving Strategies for Career Planning.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McBryde, Merry J.; Karr-Kidwell, PJ
The need for new expertise in problem solving in the work setting has emerged as a woman's issue because work outside the home has become a primary means for personal goal attainment for about half the women in the United States and because traditional career patterns and norms are ineffective. Career planning is the process of individual career…
Automatic Item Generation of Probability Word Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Holling, Heinz; Bertling, Jonas P.; Zeuch, Nina
2009-01-01
Mathematical word problems represent a common item format for assessing student competencies. Automatic item generation (AIG) is an effective way of constructing many items with predictable difficulties, based on a set of predefined task parameters. The current study presents a framework for the automatic generation of probability word problems…
Student Problem Solving in High School Genetics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, James
1983-01-01
Describes set of specific steps (procedural knowledge) used when solving monohybrid/dihybrid cross problems and extent to which students could justify execution of each step in terms of their conceptual knowledge of genetics and meiosis. Implications for genetics instruction are discussed. (JN)
Digesting Student-Authored Story Problems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Alexander, Cathleen M.; Ambrose, Rebecca C.
2010-01-01
When students are asked to write original story problems about fractional amounts, it can illustrate their misunderstandings about fractions. Think about the situations students would describe to model 1/2 + 2/3. Three elements, in particular, challenge students: (1) Which of three models (region, or area; measure; or set) is best suited for a…
Input in an Institutional Setting.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bardovi-Harlig, Kathleen; Hartford, Beverly S.
1996-01-01
Investigates the nature of input available to learners in the institutional setting of the academic advising session. Results indicate that evidence for the realization of speech acts, positive evidence from peers and status unequals, the effect of stereotypes, and limitations of a learner's pragmatic and grammatical competence are influential…
Conversational Competence in Academic Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bowman, Richard F.
2014-01-01
Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…
Ethical Issues in Clinical Settings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bain, Linda L.; And Others
1993-01-01
Four papers on ethical issues in physical education clinical settings are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Teaching" (L. Bain); (2) "Ethics in Professional Advising and Academic Counseling of Graduate Students" (G. Roberts); (3) "Ethical Issues in Clinical Services" (R. Singer); and (4) a reaction to the three previous papers by Bonnie Berger.…
Bullying in Early Educational Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kirves, Laura; Sajaniemi, Nina
2012-01-01
The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of bullying in early educational settings in Finnish kindergartens. In addition, the study investigated whether bullying in kindergartens differs from school bullying and what forms bullying takes among under-school-age children. Two kinds of data were collected for the study: data from a survey…
Informal Learning in Experiential Settings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Neathery, Madelyn Faye
1998-01-01
Assesses informal learning in experiential settings. Elementary teachers (n=20) from public and private schools participated in an on-site seminar involving experiential learning in science centers, a wildlife refuge, and a zoological sanctuary. The significance of instruction provided by guides, types of exhibits, and the use of informational…
Teaching Quality across School Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cohen, Julie; Brown, Michelle
2016-01-01
Districts are increasingly making personnel decisions based on teachers' impact on student-achievement gains and classroom observations. In some schools, however, a teacher's practices and their students' achievement may reflect not just individual but collaborative efforts. In other settings, teachers' instruction benefits less from the insights…
A distributed telerobotics construction set
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wise, James D.
1994-01-01
During the course of our research on distributed telerobotic systems, we have assembled a collection of generic, reusable software modules and an infrastructure for connecting them to form a variety of telerobotic configurations. This paper describes the structure of this 'Telerobotics Construction Set' and lists some of the components which comprise it.
Criteria for Developing Criteria Sets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, James L.
Criteria sets are a necessary step in the systematic development of evaluation in education. Evaluation results from the combination of criteria and evidence. There is a need to develop explicit tools for evaluating criteria, similar to those used in evaluating evidence. The formulation of such criteria depends on distinguishing between terms…
Organizational Constraints and Goal Setting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Putney, Frederick B.; Wotman, Stephen
1978-01-01
Management modeling techniques are applied to setting operational and capital goals using cost analysis techniques in this case study at the Columbia University School of Dental and Oral Surgery. The model was created as a planning tool used in developing a financially feasible operating plan and a 100 percent physical renewal plan. (LBH)
Families & School. Best of "set."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Podmore, Valerie N., Ed.; Richards, Llyn, Ed.
Published to celebrate the United Nations' International Year of the Family, this special issue presents selected articles from "set," a twice yearly journal of research information for teachers. These articles look at the contribution of educational research on the relationships between schools and families, and families and learning in Australia…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van der Linden, Wim J.
2011-01-01
It is shown how the time limit on a test can be set to control the probability of a test taker running out of time before completing it. The probability is derived from the item parameters in the lognormal model for response times. Examples of curves representing the probability of running out of time on a test with given parameters as a function…
Communicable Diseases in Childhood Settings.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Networks, 1994
1994-01-01
This newsletter addresses managing the spread of communicable diseases in childhood settings as well as educational program concerns for children who are HIV infected. Noting that communicable diseases are a source of concern no matter how minor they might appear, the newsletter suggests that it is important for individuals who work with the…
Goal Setting to Achieve Results
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Newman, Rich
2012-01-01
Both districts and individual schools have a very clear set of goals and skills for their students to achieve and master. In fact, except in rare cases, districts and schools develop very detailed goals they wish to pursue. In most cases, unfortunately, only the teachers and staff at a particular school or district-level office are aware of the…
Promoting Literacy in Multilingual Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kosonen, Kimmo; Young, Catherine; Malone, Susan
2006-01-01
This compilation of resource papers and findings is from a regional workshop on mother-tongue/bilingual literacy programmes for ethnic and linguistic minorities in multilingual settings. It was organized by Asia-Pacific Programme of Education for All (APPEAL), United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Bangkok, 6-10 December…
States Set Common Standards, IF...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Richard
Whether differences in the standards states have set can be explained by something other than regional differences is explored. In addition, a way in which standards can be compared is defined, and the standard of proficiency that seems to be widely shared across the country is illustrated. The Trial State Assessment (TSA) data from the National…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mann, Philip H.; Suiter, Patricia A.
This teacher's guide contains a list of general auditory problem areas where students have the following problems: (a) inability to find or identify source of sound; (b) difficulty in discriminating sounds of words and letters; (c) difficulty with reproducing pitch, rhythm, and melody; (d) difficulty in selecting important from unimportant sounds;…
Medical problems affecting musicians.
Potter, P. J.; Jones, I. C.
1995-01-01
The physical demands of performing on musical instruments can cause pain, sensory loss, and lack of coordination. Five cases illustrate common problems. Knowledge of the interaction between the technique of playing the instrument and the particular musician can help physicians diagnose and resolve problems. Images Figure 1 PMID:8680295
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martinez, Michael E.
1998-01-01
Many important human activities involve accomplishing goals without a script. There is no formula for true problem-solving. Heuristic, cognitive "rules of thumb" are the problem-solver's best guide. Learners should understand heuristic tools such as means-end analysis, working backwards, successive approximation, and external representation. Since…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
JEFFRIES, CHARLES
THIS STUDY OF WORLD ILLITERACY BEGINS WITH A BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM OF ILLITERACY AND DISCUSSION OF THE SPECIAL TECHNIQUES WHICH HAVE BEEN EVOLVED TO OVERCOME IT. A WORLD MAP OF ILLITERACY PLOTS ILLITERACY IN SPECIFIC AREAS AND COUNTRIES. PAST AND PRESENT EFFORTS TO SOLVE THE PROBLEM (THE PIONEER WORK OF WORK OF MISSIONARIES,…
Current Social Problem Novels.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kenney, Donald J.
This review of social problem novels for young adults opens with a brief background of the genre, then lists the dominant themes of social problem fiction and nonfiction novels that have been published in the last two years, such as alcoholism, alienation, death, growing up and self-awarness, drugs, and divorce. Other themes mentioned are…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harper, Kathleen A.; Etkina, Eugenia
2002-10-01
As part of weekly reports,1 structured journals in which students answer three standard questions each week, they respond to the prompt, If I were the instructor, what questions would I ask or problems assign to determine if my students understood the material? An initial analysis of the results shows that some student-generated problems indicate fundamental misunderstandings of basic physical concepts. A further investigation explores the relevance of the problems to the week's material, whether the problems are solvable, and the type of problems (conceptual or calculation-based) written. Also, possible links between various characteristics of the problems and conceptual achievement are being explored. The results of this study spark many more questions for further work. A summary of current findings will be presented, along with its relationship to previous work concerning problem posing.2 1Etkina, E. Weekly Reports;A Two-Way Feedback Tool, Science Education, 84, 594-605 (2000). 2Mestre, J.P., Probing Adults Conceptual Understanding and Transfer of Learning Via Problem Posing, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 23, 9-50 (2002).
Problem Solving in Electricity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Caillot, Michel; Chalouhi, Elias
Two studies were conducted to describe how students perform direct current (D-C) circuit problems. It was hypothesized that problem solving in the electricity domain depends largely on good visual processing of the circuit diagram and that this processing depends on the ability to recognize when two or more electrical components are in series or…
Teaching through Problem Solving
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fi, Cos D.; Degner, Katherine M.
2012-01-01
Teaching through Problem Solving (TtPS) is an effective way to teach mathematics "for" understanding. It also provides students with a way to learn mathematics "with" understanding. In this article, the authors present a definition of what it means to teach through problem solving. They also describe a professional development vignette that…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cannon, Lawrence O.; Elich, Joe
In most mathematics problem solving work, students' motivation comes from trying to please their teachers or to earn a good grade. The questions students must tackle are almost never generated by their own interest. Seven open-ended college algebra-level problems are presented in which the solution of one question suggests other related questions.…
School Desegregation: The Problem.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hill, Milton
In the process of school desegregation, many new and continuing problems have been illuminated. The problems fall into the general categories of interpersonal relations, communication between the races, new administrative arrangements, identification with the new schools and system rather than the former ones, inadequate instructional programs and…
Wicked Problems: Inescapable Wickedity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jordan, Michelle E.; Kleinsasser, Robert C.; Roe, Mary F.
2014-01-01
The article explores the concept of wicked problems and proposes a reinvigorated application of this concept for wider educational use. This recommendation stems from the contributions of a number of scholars who frame some of the most contentious and recalcitrant educational issues as wicked problems. The present authors build upon these previous…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thorson, Annette, Ed.
1999-01-01
This issue of ENC Focus focuses on the topic of inquiry and problem solving. Featured articles include: (1) "Inquiry in the Everyday World of Schools" (Ronald D. Anderson); (2) "In the Cascade Reservoir Restoration Project Students Tackle Real-World Problems" (Clint Kennedy with Advanced Biology Students from Cascade High School); (3) "Project…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Pat
1997-01-01
Describes some problems of classroom dissection including the cruelty that animals destined for the laboratory suffer. Discusses the multilevel approach that the National Anti-Vivisection Society (NAVS) has developed to address the problems of animal dissection such as offering a dissection hotline, exhibiting at science teacher conferences, and…
Problems Facing Rural Schools.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, C. E.; And Others
Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
NatureScope, 1989
1989-01-01
Examines some of the reasons tropical rain forests are being destroyed and ways people are working to protect these forests. Provides activities on how people can help, reason for saving the forests, individual actions related to forest problems and solutions, and issues and problems. Three copyable pages accompany activities. (Author/RT)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cassidy, Jack
1991-01-01
Presents suggestions for teaching math word problems to elementary students. The strategies take into consideration differences between reading in math and reading in other areas. A problem-prediction game and four self-checking activities are included along with a magic password challenge. (SM)
PROBLEMS OF TURKISH LEXICOGRAPHY.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
TIETZE, ANDREAS
THE LEXICOGRAPHICAL PROBLEMS IN THE TURKISH LANGUAGE WERE DISCUSSED. HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE LANGUAGE WAS PRESENTED WITH PROBLEMS OF LEXICOGRAPHY THAT EXISTED IN THE PAST COMPARED WITH THOSE OF THE PRESENT. DISCUSSION TOPICS OF THE REPORT INCLUDED (1) NAME OF THE LANGUAGE, (2) DELIMITATION COMPARED WITH RELATED LANGUAGES, (3) DELIMINATION…
A Stochastic Employment Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Teng
2013-01-01
The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
MARTONFFY, ANDREA PONTECORVO; AND OTHERS
A CURRICULUM GUIDE IS PRESENTED FOR A 10-WEEK STUDY OF ANCIENT GREEK CIVILIZATION AT THE 10TH-GRADE LEVEL. TEACHING MATERIALS FOR THE UNIT INCLUDE (1) PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SOURCES DEALING WITH THE PERIOD FROM THE BRONZE AGE THROUGH THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD, (2) GEOGRAPHY PROBLEMS, AND (3) CULTURAL MODEL PROBLEM EXERCISES. THOSE CONCEPTS WITH WHICH…
Problems in baryon spectroscopy
Capstick, S.
1994-04-01
Current issues and problems in the physics of ground- and excited-state baryons are considered, and are classified into those which should be resolved by CEBAF in its present form, and those which may require CEBAF to undergo an energy upgrade to 8 GeV or more. Recent theoretical developments designed to address these problems are outlined.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
STONE, EDWARD
THE REPORT POINTS OUT THAT, IN GENERAL, CHRONIC PROBLEM PARENTS GREW UP IN ENVIRONMENTS OF EMOTIONAL IMPOVERISHMENT, INCONSISTENCY, CONFUSION, AND DISORDER, OFTEN WITH DEPRIVATION OF FOOD, CLOTHING, AND SHELTER. THESE PARENTS CATEGORIZE PEOPLE AS THOSE WHO GIVE AND THOSE WHO TAKE. THEY BLAME THEIR PROBLEMS ON EXTERNAL CIRCUMSTANCES NOT UNDER THEIR…
Stabilization of Kepler's problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stokes, A.
1977-01-01
A regularization of Kepler's problem due to Moser (1970) is used to stabilize the equations of motion. In other words, a particular solution of Kepler's problem is imbedded in a Liapunov stable system. Perturbations can be introduced into the stabilized equations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wheatley, Judy; Sudman, Rita Schmidt, Ed.
This packet of instructional materials is designed to give social science students in grades 6-9 a first-hand experience in working out solutions to real-life problems involving the management of California's water. Students work in groups on one of three problems presented in the packet: (1) the management of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta that…
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
On Sol 20 of its journey, Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity woke up around 5:30 in the martian afternoon to watch the sunset. A series of five sets of three-color images from the rover's panoramic camera was acquired looking toward the southwest. Each set used an infrared, green and violet filter, rather than the human red-green-blue, so that the maximum panoramic camera wavelength range could be covered by the observations, enhancing the scientific value of the measurements.
A color image was made from the first post-sunset sequence of calibrated color images, with the color balance set to approximate what the sunset color would have looked like to the human eye. The color seen in this first post-sunset image was then used to colorize each image in the sequence. Approximately one-minute gaps between consecutive color images meant the Sun's position changed within each color set, so the images had to be manually shifted to compensate for this motion. In this fashion, the position and brightness of the Sun are taken from each individual image, but the color is taken from a single set of images. The images were then combined into a movie where one color set fades gracefully into the next. Analysis of the five color sets shows that there were only small color variations during the sunset, so most of the real variations are captured in the movie.
The rapid dimming of the Sun near the horizon is due to the dust in the sky. There is nearly twice as much dust as there was when the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, which landed on Mars in 1997, imaged the sunset. This causes the Sun to be many times fainter. The sky above the Sun has the same blue tint observed by Pathfinder and also by Viking, which landed on Mars in 1976. This is because dust in the martian atmosphere scatters blue light forward toward the observer much more efficiently than it scatters red light forward. Therefore, a 'halo' of blueish sky color is always observed close to the Sun. We're only seeing
Realisation of 3-dimensional data sets.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, D.; Galsgaard, K.; Ireland, J.; Verwichte, E.; Walsh, R.
The visualisation of three-dimensional objects on two dimensions is a very common problem, but is a tricky one to solve. Every discipline has its way of solving it. The artist uses light-shade interaction, perspective, special colour coding. The architect produces projections of the object. The cartographer uses both colour-coding and shading to represent height elevations. There have been many attempts in the last century by the entertainment industry to produce a three-dimensional illusion, in the fifties it was fashionable to have 3d movies which utilize the anaglyph method. Nowadays one can buy "Magic Eye" postcards which show a hidden three dimensional picture if you stare at it half cross-eyed. This poster attempts to demonstrate how some of these techniques can be applied to three-dimensional data sets that can occur in solar physics.
Analysis of the Westland Data Set
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wen, Fang; Willett, Peter; Deb, Somnath
2001-01-01
The "Westland" set of empirical accelerometer helicopter data with seeded and labeled faults is analyzed with the aim of condition monitoring. The autoregressive (AR) coefficients from a simple linear model encapsulate a great deal of information in a relatively few measurements; and it has also been found that augmentation of these by harmonic and other parameters call improve classification significantly. Several techniques have been explored, among these restricted Coulomb energy (RCE) networks, learning vector quantization (LVQ), Gaussian mixture classifiers and decision trees. A problem with these approaches, and in common with many classification paradigms, is that augmentation of the feature dimension can degrade classification ability. Thus, we also introduce the Bayesian data reduction algorithm (BDRA), which imposes a Dirichlet prior oil training data and is thus able to quantify probability of error in all exact manner, such that features may be discarded or coarsened appropriately.
Parameter Estimation in Atmospheric Data Sets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wenig, Mark; Colarco, Peter
2004-01-01
In this study the structure tensor technique is used to estimate dynamical parameters in atmospheric data sets. The structure tensor is a common tool for estimating motion in image sequences. This technique can be extended to estimate other dynamical parameters such as diffusion constants or exponential decay rates. A general mathematical framework was developed for the direct estimation of the physical parameters that govern the underlying processes from image sequences. This estimation technique can be adapted to the specific physical problem under investigation, so it can be used in a variety of applications in trace gas, aerosol, and cloud remote sensing. As a test scenario this technique will be applied to modeled dust data. In this case vertically integrated dust concentrations were used to derive wind information. Those results can be compared to the wind vector fields which served as input to the model. Based on this analysis, a method to compute atmospheric data parameter fields will be presented. .
A new level set model for multimaterial flows
Starinshak, David P.; Karni, Smadar; Roe, Philip L.
2014-01-08
We present a new level set model for representing multimaterial flows in multiple space dimensions. Instead of associating a level set function with a specific fluid material, the function is associated with a pair of materials and the interface that separates them. A voting algorithm collects sign information from all level sets and determines material designations. M(M ₋1)/2 level set functions might be needed to represent a general M-material configuration; problems of practical interest use far fewer functions, since not all pairs of materials share an interface. The new model is less prone to producing indeterminate material states, i.e. regions claimed by more than one material (overlaps) or no material at all (vacuums). It outperforms existing material-based level set models without the need for reinitialization schemes, thereby avoiding additional computational costs and preventing excessive numerical diffusion.
Promotion and Reporting of Research from Resource-Limited Settings
Siriwardhana, Chesmal
2015-01-01
Driven by global burden of disease and inequalities in health care, research activities in resource-poor settings have radically increased. However, a corresponding increase in reporting of research from these settings has not been observed. This article critically explores the importance of promoting and reporting of health research from resource-poor settings, current trends, and practices, and discusses the key challenges faced by researchers from such settings. These challenges include changing face of open-access (OA) and online publishing, the threat of predatory OA journals, authorship and international partnership ethics, attitudinal problems hindering research reporting, and a lack of alternative publishing spaces. A combined, decisive effort is needed to bridge the gap between research activity and reporting in resource-poor settings. PMID:26396528
The Guderley problem revisited
Ramsey, Scott D; Kamm, James R; Bolstad, John H
2009-01-01
The self-similar converging-diverging shock wave problem introduced by Guderley in 1942 has been the source of numerous investigations since its publication. In this paper, we review the simplifications and group invariance properties that lead to a self-similar formulation of this problem from the compressible flow equations for a polytropic gas. The complete solution to the self-similar problem reduces to two coupled nonlinear eigenvalue problems: the eigenvalue of the first is the so-called similarity exponent for the converging flow, and that of the second is a trajectory multiplier for the diverging regime. We provide a clear exposition concerning the reflected shock configuration. Additionally, we introduce a new approximation for the similarity exponent, which we compare with other estimates and numerically computed values. Lastly, we use the Guderley problem as the basis of a quantitative verification analysis of a cell-centered, finite volume, Eulerian compressible flow algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Chandralekha
2009-07-01
One finding of cognitive research is that people do not automatically acquire usable knowledge by spending lots of time on task. Because students' knowledge hierarchy is more fragmented, "knowledge chunks" are smaller than those of experts. The limited capacity of short term memory makes the cognitive load high during problem solving tasks, leaving few cognitive resources available for meta-cognition. The abstract nature of the laws of physics and the chain of reasoning required to draw meaningful inferences makes these issues critical. In order to help students, it is crucial to consider the difficulty of a problem from the perspective of students. We are developing and evaluating interactive problem-solving tutorials to help students in the introductory physics courses learn effective problem-solving strategies while solidifying physics concepts. The self-paced tutorials can provide guidance and support for a variety of problem solving techniques, and opportunity for knowledge and skill acquisition.
Family MDT: Vs. Treatment as Usual in a Community Setting
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Apsche, Jack A.; Bass, Christopher K.; Houston, Marsha-Ann
2007-01-01
This article examines the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Family Therapy, (MDT) in a community setting as compared to Treatment as Usual, (TAU). MDT is an evidenced based psychotherapy and has been shown to be effective treating adolescents with physical and sexual behaviors, as well as, problems with conduct and personality. In this study, MDT…