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Sample records for 110k-calmodulin complex brush

  1. Hierarchical structure formation of cylindrical brush polymer-surfactant complexes.

    PubMed

    Cong, Yang; Gunari, Nikhil; Zhang, Bin; Janshoff, Andreas; Schmidt, Manfred

    2009-06-01

    The complex formation of cylindrical brush polymers with poly(l-lysine) side chains (PLL) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) can induce a helical conformation of the cylindrical brush polymer in aqueous solution (Gunari, N.; Cong, Y.; Zhang, B.; Fischer, K.; Janshoff, A.; Schmidt, M. Macromol. Rapid Commun. 2008, 29, 821-825). Herein, we have systematically investigated the influence of surfactant, salt, and pH on the supramolecular structure formation. The cylindrical brush polymers and their complexes with surfactants were directly visualized by atomic force microscopy in air and in aqueous solution. The alkyl chain length (measured by the carbon number, n) of the surfactant plays a key role. While helical structures were formed with n=10, 11, and 12, no helices were observed with n<10 and n>13. Addition of salt destroys the helical structures as do pH conditions below 4 and above 6, most probably because the polymer-surfactant complexes start to disintegrate. Circular dichroism was utilized to monitor the PLL side chain conformation and clearly revealed that beta-sheet formation of the side chains induces the helical conformation of the atactic main chain. PMID:19326944

  2. A Modified Tactile Brush Algorithm for Complex Touch Gestures

    SciTech Connect

    Ragan, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have investigated phantom tactile sensation (i.e., the perception of a nonexistent actuator between two real actuators) and apparent tactile motion (i.e., the perception of a moving actuator due to time delays between onsets of multiple actuations). Prior work has focused primarily on determining appropriate Durations of Stimulation (DOS) and Stimulus Onset Asynchronies (SOA) for simple touch gestures, such as a single finger stroke. To expand upon this knowledge, we investigated complex touch gestures involving multiple, simultaneous points of contact, such as a whole hand touching the arm. To implement complex touch gestures, we modified the Tactile Brush algorithm to support rectangular areas of tactile stimulation.

  3. Immune Complex Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Due to Autoantibodies to the Proximal Tubule Brush Border.

    PubMed

    Rosales, Ivy A; Collins, A Bernard; do Carmo, Paula Alves S; Tolkoff-Rubin, Nina; Smith, R Neal; Colvin, Robert B

    2016-02-01

    Immune complex tubulointerstitial nephritis due to antibodies to brush border antigens of the proximal tubule has been demonstrated experimentally and rarely in humans. Our patient developed ESRD and early recurrence after transplantation. IgG and C3 deposits were conspicuous in the tubular basement membrane of proximal tubules, corresponding to deposits observed by electron microscopy. Rare subepithelial deposits were found in the glomeruli. The patient had no evidence of SLE and had normal complement levels. Serum samples from the patient reacted with the brush border of normal human kidney, in contrast with the negative results with 20 control serum samples. Preliminary characterization of the brush border target antigen excluded megalin, CD10, and maltase. We postulate that antibodies to brush border antigens cause direct epithelial injury, accumulate in the tubular basement membrane, and elicit an interstitial inflammatory response.

  4. Polyelectrolyte Properties in Mono and Multi-Valent Ionic Media: Brushes and Complex Coacervates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, Robert M.

    Materials composed of polyelectrolytes have unique and interesting physical properties resulting primarily from their charged monomer segments. Polyelectrolytes, which exist in many different biological and industrial forms, have also been shown to be highly responsive to external environmental changes. Here, two specific polyelectrolyte systems, brushes and complex coacervates, are discussed in regards to how their properties can be tailored by adjusting the surrounding ionic environment with mono and multi-valent ions. End-tethered polyelectrolyte brushes, which constitute an interesting and substantial portion of polyelectrolyte applications, are well known for their ability to provide excellent lubrication and low friction when coated onto surfaces (e.g. articular cartilage and medical devices), as well as for their ability to stabilize colloidal particles in solution (e.g. paint and cosmetic materials). These properties have been extensively studied with brushes in pure mono-valent ionic media. However, polyelectrolyte brush interactions with multi-valent ions in solution are much less understood, although highly relevant considering mono and multi-valent counterions are present in most applications. Even at very low concentrations of multi-valent ions in solution, dramatic polyelectrolyte brush physical property changes can occur, resulting in collapsed chains which also adhere to one another via multi-valent bridging. Here, the strong polyelectrolyte poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) was studied using the Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA) and electrochemistry in order to investigate brush height and intermolecular interactions between two brushes as a function of multi-valent counterion population inside a brush. Complex coacervates are formed when polyanions and polycations are mixed together in proper conditions of an aqueous solution. This mixing results in a phase separation of a polymer-rich, coacervate phase composed of a chain network held together via

  5. Polymer brushes infiltrated by nanoparticles and applications to the nuclear pore complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opferman, Michael G.

    Systems of grafted polymers in the presence of additives are useful in a variety of contexts including industrial applications, solar cells, organic electronics, drug delivery, and nucleocytoplasmic transport. In this thesis, we will consider the morphologies that polymer brushes attain when exposed to a solution of additives (which we generically term "nanoparticles"), particularly when those nanparticles interact attractively with the polymers. We find that nanoparticles of this type can have a dramatic effect on the height of the polymer chains above the grafting surface, and they can induce highly non-uniform morphologies, including ones in which a dense layer of nanoparticles and monomers forms near the grafting surface. We consider especially the relevance of the system to several experiments performed on biopolymers in the nuclear pore complex when they interact attractively with transport factors that regulate nucleocytoplasmic transport. We find that, although these experiments appear to give inconsistent results, the inconsistencies can be reconciled through two simple models: the Alexander-de Gennes polymer brush, and the Milner-Witten-Cates polymer brush. Our findings should contribute to the understanding of the nuclear pore complex in that experiments can be better understood in the context of their relevant control parameters.

  6. Nuclear Pore Complex Protein Sequences Determine Overall Copolymer Brush Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Ando, David; Zandi, Roya; Kim, Yong Woon; Colvin, Michael; Rexach, Michael; Gopinathan, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    The transport of cargo across the nuclear membrane is highly selective and accomplished by a poorly understood mechanism involving hundreds of nucleoporins lining the inside of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Currently, there is no clear picture of the overall structure formed by this collection of proteins within the pore, primarily due to their disordered nature. We perform coarse-grained simulations of both individual nucleoporins and grafted rings of nups mimicking the in vivo geometry of the NPC and supplement this with polymer brush modeling. Our results indicate that different regions or blocks of an individual NPC protein can have distinctly different forms of disorder and that this property appears to be a conserved functional feature. Furthermore, this block structure at the individual protein level is critical to the formation of a unique higher-order polymer brush architecture that can exist in distinct morphologies depending on the effective interaction energy between the phenylalanine glycine (FG) domains of different nups. Because the interactions between FG domains may be modulated by certain forms of transport factors, our results indicate that transitions between brush morphologies could play an important role in regulating transport across the NPC, suggesting novel forms of gated transport across membrane pores with wide biomimetic applicability. PMID:24806932

  7. Complex microstructures of ABC triblock copolymer thin films directed by polymer brushes based on self-consistent field theory.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhibin; Xu, Chang; Qiu, Yu Dong; Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Dongshan; Xue, Gi

    2014-01-01

    The morphology and the phase diagram of ABC triblock copolymer thin film directed by polymer brushes are investigated by the self-consistent field theory in three dimensions. The polymer brushes coated on the substrate can be used as a good soft template to tailor the morphology of the block copolymer thin films compared with those on the hard substrates. The polymer brush is identical with the middle block B. By continuously changing the composition of the block copolymer, the phase diagrams are constructed for three cases with the fixed film thickness and the brush density: identical interaction parameters, frustrated and non-frustrated cases. Some ordered complex morphologies are observed: parallel lamellar phase with hexagonally packed pores at surfaces (LAM3 (ll) -HFs), perpendicular lamellar phase with cylinders at the interface (LAM(⊥)-CI), and perpendicular hexagonally packed cylinders phase with rings at the interface (C2 (⊥)-RI). A desired direction (perpendicular or parallel to the coated surfaces) of lamellar phases or cylindrical phases can be obtained by varying the composition and the interactions between different blocks. The phase diagram of ABC triblock copolymer thin film wetted between the polymer brush-coated surfaces is very useful in designing the directed pattern of ABC triblock copolymer thin film. PMID:25114650

  8. Massively parallel patterning of complex 2D and 3D functional polymer brushes by polymer pen lithography.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhuang; Chen, Chaojian; Zhou, Xuechang; Gao, Tingting; Liu, Danqing; Miao, Qian; Zheng, Zijian

    2014-08-13

    We report the first demonstration of centimeter-area serial patterning of complex 2D and 3D functional polymer brushes by high-throughput polymer pen lithography. Arbitrary 2D and 3D structures of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) brushes are fabricated over areas as large as 2 cm × 1 cm, with a remarkable throughput being 3 orders of magnitudes higher than the state-of-the-arts. Patterned PGMA brushes are further employed as resist for fabricating Au micro/nanostructures and hard molds for the subsequent replica molding of soft stamps. On the other hand, these 2D and 3D PGMA brushes are also utilized as robust and versatile platforms for the immobilization of bioactive molecules to form 2D and 3D patterned DNA oligonucleotide and protein chips. Therefore, this low-cost, yet high-throughput "bench-top" serial fabrication method can be readily applied to a wide range of fields including micro/nanofabrication, optics and electronics, smart surfaces, and biorelated studies.

  9. Proper Brushing

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 teeth using a vibrating back & forth rolling motion. A rolling motion is when the brush makes contact with the ... gumline. Gently brush using back, forth, and rolling motion along all of the inner tooth surfaces. Tilt ...

  10. Cylindrical Brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt

    1998-03-01

    Homopolymerization of macromonomers, i.e. polymerizable oligomers, yields macromolecules of cylindrical shape, because the main chain is considerably stretched due to the steric overcrowding of the side chains.(M. Wintermantel et al., Macromolecules 1996, 29,978.) Irrespective of the chemical nature of the macromonomer (styrene, methylmethacrylate, vinylpyridine, propylene) the chain stiffness in terms of the Kuhn statistical segment length lk lies in the range of 50 nm < lk < 200 nm. In accordance to the high degree of stiffness polymacromonomers form lyotropic liquid crystalline phases in solution and in the bulk.(M. Wintermantel et. al, Angew. Chemie 1995, 107, 1606.) Upon drying a dilute solution on mica or silicon wafer ordered monolayers are formed.(S.S. Sheiko et al., Langmuir 1997, 13, 5368.)^, (P. Dziezok et al., Angew. Chemie 1997, 00, 000.) Recently, stable monolayers of polyvinylpyridine macromonomers were successfully prepared on a Langmuir-Blodgett trough. Up to 15 monolayers were transferred onto a planar silicon wafer and characterized by x-ray reflection. The individual brush molecules within the monolayer could be visualized by atomic force microscopy. Frequently occurring hairpin formations by one molecule could not yet be explained. AFM on isolated, single molecules, however, have confirmed the cylindrical structure of polymacromonomers.

  11. Categorization of nocturnal drainage flows within the Brush Creek valley in western Colorado and the variability of sigma theta in complex terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Gudiksen, P.H.

    1985-03-01

    The monthly frequencies of nocturnal drainage flows in the Brush Creek valley were estimated over the period August 1982 to January 1985 for the purpose of evaluating the representativeness of the drainage flows observed during a few intensive study periods. These estimates were made on the basis of data from three short meteorological towers situated in the valley. The highest frequencies were observed during the June to October timeframes: 30 to 40% during 1983 and 10 to 30% during 1984. Of the ten experimental nights when intensive investigations were conducted within the Brush Creek valley, seven were during strong drainage flow periods and three were during weaker drainage flow periods. The variability of sigma theta in complex terrain areas was investigated since this parameter is often used to estimate diffusion of pollutants. Measurements made during strong drainage flow periods within two valleys in The Geysers geothermal area in northern California and within the Brush Creek valley yielded hourly-averaged values that varied from a few degrees to a little over one hundred degrees at each measurement site. The median values typically ranged from 15{sup 0} to 40{sup 0}. Generally, the highest values were acquired at measurement sites situated on the valley floor; the lowest values on the ridges; and intermediate values along the slopes. This ordering may be due to the winds generally being stronger over the ridges than within the valley, since there is weak evidence for an inverse relationship between the median wind speeds and sigma theta values, even though this relationship was not in evidence between the individual measurements. 3 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Brushing your infant's teeth

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000769.htm Brushing Your Child’s Teeth To use the sharing features on this page, ... how to brush their teeth on their own. Tooth and Gum Care for Young Children You should ...

  13. Brush seal numerical simulation: Concepts and advances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, M. J.; Kudriavtsev, V. V.

    1994-01-01

    The development of the brush seal is considered to be most promising among the advanced type seals that are presently in use in the high speed turbomachinery. The brush is usually mounted on the stationary portions of the engine and has direct contact with the rotating element, in the process of limiting the 'unwanted' leakage flows between stages, or various engine cavities. This type of sealing technology is providing high (in comparison with conventional seals) pressure drops due mainly to the high packing density (around 100 bristles/sq mm), and brush compliance with the rotor motions. In the design of modern aerospace turbomachinery leakage flows between the stages must be minimal, thus contributing to the higher efficiency of the engine. Use of the brush seal instead of the labyrinth seal reduces the leakage flow by one order of magnitude. Brush seals also have been found to enhance dynamic performance, cost less, and are lighter than labyrinth seals. Even though industrial brush seals have been successfully developed through extensive experimentation, there is no comprehensive numerical methodology for the design or prediction of their performance. The existing analytical/numerical approaches are based on bulk flow models and do not allow the investigation of the effects of brush morphology (bristle arrangement), or brushes arrangement (number of brushes, spacing between them), on the pressure drops and flow leakage. An increase in the brush seal efficiency is clearly a complex problem that is closely related to the brush geometry and arrangement, and can be solved most likely only by means of a numerically distributed model.

  14. Brush seal numerical simulation: Concepts and advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, M. J.; Kudriavtsev, V. V.

    1994-07-01

    The development of the brush seal is considered to be most promising among the advanced type seals that are presently in use in the high speed turbomachinery. The brush is usually mounted on the stationary portions of the engine and has direct contact with the rotating element, in the process of limiting the 'unwanted' leakage flows between stages, or various engine cavities. This type of sealing technology is providing high (in comparison with conventional seals) pressure drops due mainly to the high packing density (around 100 bristles/sq mm), and brush compliance with the rotor motions. In the design of modern aerospace turbomachinery leakage flows between the stages must be minimal, thus contributing to the higher efficiency of the engine. Use of the brush seal instead of the labyrinth seal reduces the leakage flow by one order of magnitude. Brush seals also have been found to enhance dynamic performance, cost less, and are lighter than labyrinth seals. Even though industrial brush seals have been successfully developed through extensive experimentation, there is no comprehensive numerical methodology for the design or prediction of their performance. The existing analytical/numerical approaches are based on bulk flow models and do not allow the investigation of the effects of brush morphology (bristle arrangement), or brushes arrangement (number of brushes, spacing between them), on the pressure drops and flow leakage. An increase in the brush seal efficiency is clearly a complex problem that is closely related to the brush geometry and arrangement, and can be solved most likely only by means of a numerically distributed model.

  15. Brush-Wheel Samplers for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivellini, Tommaso

    2003-01-01

    A report proposes brush-wheel mechanisms for acquiring samples of soils from remote planets. In simplest terms, such a mechanism would contain brush wheels that would be counter-rotated at relatively high speed. The mechanism would be lowered to the ground from a spacecraft or other exploratory vehicle. Upon contact with the ground, the counter-rotating brush wheels would kick soil up into a collection chamber. Thus, in form and function, the mechanism would partly resemble traditional street and carpet sweepers. The main advantage of using of brush wheels (in contradistinction to cutting wheels or other, more complex mechanisms) is that upon encountering soil harder than expected, the brushes could simply deflect and the motor(s) could continue to turn. That is, sufficiently flexible brushes would afford resistance to jamming and to overloading of the motors used to rotate the brushes, and so the motors could be made correspondingly lighter and less power hungry. Of course, one could select the brush stiffnesses and motor torques and speeds for greatest effectiveness in sampling soil of a specific anticipated degree of hardness.

  16. Ceramic brush seals development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Harold

    1994-01-01

    The following topics are discussed in this viewgraph presentation: ceramic brush seals, research and development, manufacturing, brazed assembly development, controlling braze flow, fiber selection, and braze results.

  17. Zwitterionic Poly(amino acid methacrylate) Brushes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A new cysteine-based methacrylic monomer (CysMA) was conveniently synthesized via selective thia-Michael addition of a commercially available methacrylate-acrylate precursor in aqueous solution without recourse to protecting group chemistry. Poly(cysteine methacrylate) (PCysMA) brushes were grown from the surface of silicon wafers by atom-transfer radical polymerization. Brush thicknesses of ca. 27 nm were achieved within 270 min at 20 °C. Each CysMA residue comprises a primary amine and a carboxylic acid. Surface zeta potential and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of the pH-responsive PCysMA brushes confirm that they are highly extended either below pH 2 or above pH 9.5, since they possess either cationic or anionic character, respectively. At intermediate pH, PCysMA brushes are zwitterionic. At physiological pH, they exhibit excellent resistance to biofouling and negligible cytotoxicity. PCysMA brushes undergo photodegradation: AFM topographical imaging indicates significant mass loss from the brush layer, while XPS studies confirm that exposure to UV radiation produces surface aldehyde sites that can be subsequently derivatized with amines. UV exposure using a photomask yielded sharp, well-defined micropatterned PCysMA brushes functionalized with aldehyde groups that enable conjugation to green fluorescent protein (GFP). Nanopatterned PCysMA brushes were obtained using interference lithography, and confocal microscopy again confirmed the selective conjugation of GFP. Finally, PCysMA undergoes complex base-catalyzed degradation in alkaline solution, leading to the elimination of several small molecules. However, good long-term chemical stability was observed when PCysMA brushes were immersed in aqueous solution at physiological pH. PMID:24884533

  18. Nanotribology of charged polymer brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Jacob

    Polymers at surfaces, whose modern understanding may be traced back to early work by Sam Edwards1, have become a paradigm for modification of surface properties, both as steric stabilizers and as remarkable boundary lubricants2. Charged polymer brushes are of particular interest, with both technological implications and especially biological relevance where most macromolecules are charged. In the context of biolubrication, relevant in areas from dry eye syndrome to osteoarthritis, charged polymer surface phases and their complexes with other macromolecules may play a central role. The hydration lubrication paradigm, where tenaciously-held yet fluid hydration shells surrounding ions or zwitterions serve as highly-efficient friction-reducing elements, has been invoked to understand the excellent lubrication provided both by ionized3 and by zwitterionic4 brushes. In this talk we describe recent advances in our understanding of the nanotribology of such charged brush systems. We consider interactions between charged end-grafted polymers, and how one may disentangle the steric from the electrostatic surface forces5. We examine the limits of lubrication by ionized brushes, both synthetic and of biological origins, and how highly-hydrated zwitterionic chains may provide extremely effective boundary lubrication6. Finally we describe how the lubrication of articular cartilage in the major joints, a tribosystem presenting some of the greatest challenges and opportunities, may be understood in terms of a supramolecular synergy between charged surface-attached polymers and zwitterionic groups7. Work supported by European Research Council (HydrationLube), Israel Science Foundation (ISF), Petroleum Research Fund of the American Chemical Society, ISF-NSF China Joint Program.

  19. Almond brush module cutter

    SciTech Connect

    Zohns, M.A.; Jenkins, B.M.; Mehlschau, J.J.; Morrison, D.

    1983-06-01

    This paper addresses the design, construction, and evaluation of an almond brush module cutter. The module cutter is one link in a system which processes tree prunings for fuel and fiber. This system includes a modified cotton module builder, a module mover, the cutter, and a tub grinder. An economic analysis of the cutter is presented along with the problems involved in cutting brush modules.

  20. Lubrication by glycoprotein brushes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappone, Bruno; Ruths, Marina; Greene, George W.; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2006-03-01

    Grafted polyelectrolyte brushes show excellent lubricating properties under water and have been proposed as a model to study boundary lubrication in biological system. Lubricin, a glycoprotein of the synovial fluid, is considered the major boundary lubricant of articular joints. Using the Surface Force Apparatus, we have measured normal and friction forces between model surfaces (negatively charged mica, positively charged poly-lysine and aminothiol, hydrophobic alkanethiol) bearing adsorbed layers of lubricin. Lubricin layers acts like a versatile anti-adhesive, adsorbing on all the surfaces considered and creating a repulsion similar to the force between end-grafted polymer brushes. Analogies with polymer brushes also appear from bridging experiment, where proteins molecules are end-adsorbed on two opposing surfaces at the same time. Lubricin `brushes' show good lubricating ability at low applied pressures (P<0.5MPa), especially on negatively charged surfaces like mica. At higher load, the adsorbed layers wears and fails lubricating the surfaces, while still protecting the underlying substrate from wearing. Lubricin might thus be a first example of biological polyelectrolytes providing `brush-like' lubrication and wear-protection.

  1. Bidirectional Brush Seals: Post-Test Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Wilson, Jack; Wu, Tom Y.; Flower, Ralph; Mullen, Robert L.

    1997-01-01

    A post-test analysis of a set of inside-diameter/outside-diameter (ID/OD) bidirectional brush seals used in three-port wave rotor tests was undertaken to determine brush bristle and configuration wear, pullout, and rotor coating wear. The results suggest that sharp changes in the pressure profiles were not well reflected in bristle tip configuration patterns or wear. Also, positive-to-negative changes in axial pressure gradients appeared to have little effect on the backing plates. Although the brushes had similar porosities, they had very different unpacked arrays. This difference could explain the departure of experimental data from computational fluid dynamics flow predictions for well-packed arrays at higher pressure drops. The rotor wear led to "car-track" scars (upper and lower wear bands) with a whipped surface between the bands. Those bands may have resulted from bristle stiffening at the fence and gap plates during alternate portions of the rotor cycle. Within the bristle response range the wear surface reflected the pressure distribution effect on bristle motion. No sacrificial metallurgical data were taken. The bristles did wear, with correspondingly more wear on the ID brush configurations than on the OD configurations; the complexity in constructing the ID brush was a factor.

  2. Bidirectional Brush Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Wilson, Jack; Wu, Tom; Flower, Ralph

    1997-01-01

    Presented is a study of the use of a set of I.D./O.D. bidirectional press seals to reduce the leakage losses in a wave rotor. Relative to the baseline configuration, data indicate the use of brush seals enhanced wave rotor efficiency from 36 to 45 percent at low leakages (small rotor endwall gap spacings) and from 15 to 33 percent at high leakages (larger endwall gap spacings). These brush seals are capable of sealing positive or negative pressure drops with respect to the axial direction. Surface tribology for these tests suggested little evidence of grooving although the bristles appeared polished.

  3. Brush potential curve tracer

    DOEpatents

    Finch, Hilvan A.

    1987-01-01

    A device for analyzing commutating characteristics of a motor or generator includes a holder for supporting a plurality of probes adjacent a brush of the motor or generator. Measurements of electrical current characteristics in each of the probes provides information useful in analyzing operation of the machine. Methods for employing a device in accordance with the invention are also disclosed.

  4. Smart photonic carbon brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Oleg G.; Kuznetsov, Artem A.; Morozov, Gennady A.; Nureev, Ilnur I.; Sakhabutdinov, Airat Z.; Faskhutdinov, Lenar M.; Artemev, Vadim I.

    2016-03-01

    Aspects of the paper relate to a wear monitoring system for smart photonic carbon brush. There are many applications in which regular inspection is not feasible because of a number of factors including, for example, time, labor, cost and disruptions due to down time. Thus, there is a need for a system that can monitor the wear of a component while the component is in operation or without having to remove the component from its operational position. We propose a new smart photonic method for characterization of carbon brush wear. It is based on the usage of advantages of the multiplicative response of FBG and LPFG sensors and its double-frequency probing. Additional measuring parameters are the wear rate, the brush temperature, the engine rotation speed, the hangs control, and rotor speed. Sensor is embedded in brush. Firstly the change of sensor length is used to measure wear value and its central wavelength shift for temperature ones. The results of modeling and experiments are presented.

  5. A Brush-Creeper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Se-yuen; Wong, Siu-ling

    2006-01-01

    In this note, we introduce a simple homemade toy called the brush-creeper, which can glide forward with no propellers, limbs, wheels, and seemingly no movement of any kind that can push forward against the ground. The toy arouses pupils' interest and their incentive to ask "Why?" in lessons related to friction.

  6. Brush potential curve tracer

    DOEpatents

    Finch, H.A.

    1985-06-21

    A device for analyzing commutating characteristics of a motor or generator includes a holder for supporting a plurality of probes adjacent a brush of the motor or generator. Measurements of electrical current characteristics of the probes provides information useful in analyzing operation of the machine. Methods for employing a device in accordance with the invention are also disclosed.

  7. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, R.A.

    1995-09-19

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus. 13 figs.

  8. Wire brush fastening device

    DOEpatents

    Meigs, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    A fastening device is provided which is a variation on the conventional nut and bolt. The bolt has a longitudinal axis and threading helically affixed thereon along the longitudinal axis. A nut having a bore extending therethrough is provided. The bore of the nut has a greater diameter than the diameter of the bolt so the bolt can extend through the bore. An array of wire bristles are affixed within the bore so as to form a brush. The wire bristles extend inwardly from the bore and are constructed and arranged of the correct size, length and stiffness to guide the bolt within the bore and to restrain the bolt within the bore as required. A variety of applications of the wire brush nut are disclosed, including a bolt capture device and a test rig apparatus.

  9. 'King George Island' Brushed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This mosaic was made from frames acquired by the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during Spirit's 1,031 Martian day, or sol, on the red planet (Nov. 27, 2006). It shows a rock target called 'King George Island' after the target was brushed by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The mosaic covers approximately 6 centimeters (2.4 inches) across and shows the granular nature of the rock exposure. The grains are typically about 1 millimeter (.04 inches) wide. Data from the rover's Moessbauer spectrometer provides evidence that they have an enhanced amount of the mineral hematite relative to surrounding soils.

  10. Transcription rates in DNA brushes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Safran, S A

    2015-04-21

    We theoretically predict the rate of transcription (TX) in DNA brushes by introducing the concept of TX dipoles that takes into account the unidirectional motion of enzymes (RNAP) along DNA during transcription as correlated pairs of sources and sinks in the relevant diffusion equation. Our theory predicts that the TX rates dramatically change upon the inversion of the orientation of the TX dipoles relative to the substrate because TX dipoles modulate the concentrations of RNAP in the solution. Comparing our theory with experiments suggests that, in some cases, DNA chain segments are relatively uniformly distributed in the brush, in contrast to the parabolic profile expected for flexible polymer brushes.

  11. Current developments in brush seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewenthal, Bob

    1994-07-01

    The objective of the brush seal development program is to develop a comprehensive design methodology for brush seals using application requirements from engine manufacturers and experimental characterization of seal design and tribological pairs. The goals are to substantially lower leakage compared to labyrinth seals, seal life consistent with man-rated mission requirements, to investigate single and multiple staged brush seals, temperature up to 1200 F and surface speed up to 900 fps, and pressure drop across the seal of 50 psid. Test results are presented in viewgraph format.

  12. Interaction between two polyelectrolyte brushes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, N Arun; Seidel, Christian

    2007-08-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations on completely charged polyelectrolyte brushes grafted to two parallel surfaces. The pressure Pi is evaluated as a function of separation D between the two grafting planes. For decreasing separation, Pi shows several regimes distinguished by their scaling with D which reflects the different physical nature of the various regimes. At weak compression the pressure obeys the 1D power law predicted by scaling theory of an ideal gas of counterions in the osmotic brush regime. In addition we find that the brushes shrink as they approach each other trying to avoid interpenetration. At higher compressions where excluded volume interactions become important, we obtain scaling exponents between -2 at small grafting density rho(a) and -3 at large rho(a). This behavior indicates a transition from a brush under good solvent condition to the melt regime with increasing grafting density. PMID:17929998

  13. Polymer brushes: Tools for surface design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ober, Christopher

    2011-03-01

    Polymers brushes are ideal materials for interfacing with biological systems as they share many of the same molecular components and properties. Polymer brushes provide remarkable screening power in shielding a substrate from the environment through both steric and charge interactions. However, the majority of biomolecular species will still non-specifically bind to polymer brush surfaces unless some care is given to molecular design. Several polymer brush systems are described to control interaction of biomacromolecules and cells by design of specific and non-specific interactions in polymer brush architectures. ``Grown from'' and block copolymer brushes are described, both of which provide excellent substrates for study of brush surfaces. Examples of polymer brushes used for sensor creation and for investigation of cellular interaction are given. Brushes used in non-fouling coatings tailored for marine applications and in which amphiphilic structures play an important role are also described. Support from both NSF and ONR is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. Air Force brush seal programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowler, Connie

    1993-10-01

    Aggressive pursuit of increased performance in gas turbine engines is driving the thermodynamic cycle to higher pressure ratios, bypass ratios, and turbine inlet temperatures. As these parameters increase, internal air system and resultant thermodynamic cycle losses increase. This conflict of reducing internal airflows while increasing thermodynamic efficiency and performance is putting more emphasis on improvements to the internal flow system. One improvement that has been and continues to be pursued by the Air Force for both man-rated and expendable turbine engine applications is the brush seal. This presentation briefly describes both past and current brush seal research and development programs and gives a summary of demonstrator and developmental engine testing of brush seals.

  15. Effective Antisense Gene Regulation via Noncationic, Polyethylene Glycol Brushes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xueguang; Jia, Fei; Tan, Xuyu; Wang, Dali; Cao, Xueyan; Zheng, Jiamin; Zhang, Ke

    2016-07-27

    Negatively charged nucleic acids are often complexed with polycationic transfection agents before delivery. Herein, we demonstrate that a noncationic, biocompatible polymer, polyethylene glycol, can be used as a transfection vector by forming a brush polymer-DNA conjugate. The brush architecture provides embedded DNA strands with enhanced nuclease stability and improved cell uptake. Because of the biologically benign nature of the polymer component, no cytotoxicity was observed. This approach has the potential to address several long-lasting challenges in oligonucleotide therapeutics. PMID:27420413

  16. Shaping the intestinal brush border

    PubMed Central

    Crawley, Scott W.; Mooseker, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial cells from diverse tissues, including the enterocytes that line the intestinal tract, remodel their apical surface during differentiation to form a brush border: an array of actin-supported membrane protrusions known as microvilli that increases the functional capacity of the tissue. Although our understanding of how epithelial cells assemble, stabilize, and organize apical microvilli is still developing, investigations of the biochemical and physical underpinnings of these processes suggest that cells coordinate cytoskeletal remodeling, membrane-cytoskeleton cross-linking, and extracellular adhesion to shape the apical brush border domain. PMID:25422372

  17. Brush seals for cryogenic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Margaret P.

    1993-11-01

    Brush seals are compliant, contacting seals and have significantly lower leakage than labyrinth seals in gas turbine applications. Their characteristics of long life and low leakage make them candidates for use in rocket engine turbopumps. Two-inch diameter brush seals with a nominal 0.005 inch radial interference were tested in liquid nitrogen at shaft speeds up to 35,000 rpm and pressure drops up to 175 psid per seal. A labyrinth seal was also tested to provide a baseline. Performance, staging effects, and wear results are presented.

  18. Brush/Fin Thermal Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knowles, Timothy R.; Seaman, Christopher L.; Ellman, Brett M.

    2004-01-01

    Brush/fin thermal interfaces are being developed to increase heat-transfer efficiency and thereby enhance the thermal management of orbital replaceable units (ORUs) of electronic and other equipment aboard the International Space Station. Brush/fin thermal interfaces could also be used to increase heat-transfer efficiency in terrestrial electronic and power systems. In a typical application according to conventional practice, a replaceable heat-generating unit includes a mounting surface with black-anodized metal fins that mesh with the matching fins of a heat sink or radiator on which the unit is mounted. The fins do not contact each other, but transfer heat via radiation exchange. A brush/fin interface also includes intermeshing fins, the difference being that the gaps between the fins are filled with brushes made of carbon or other fibers. The fibers span the gap between intermeshed fins, allowing heat transfer by conduction through the fibers. The fibers are attached to the metal surfaces as velvet-like coats in the manner of the carbon fiber brush heat exchangers described in the preceding article. The fiber brushes provide both mechanical compliance and thermal contact, thereby ensuring low contact thermal resistance. A certain amount of force is required to intermesh the fins due to sliding friction of the brush s fiber tips against the fins. This force increases linearly with penetration distance, reaching 1 psi (6.9 kPa) for full 2-in. (5.1 cm) penetration for the conventional radiant fin interface. Removal forces can be greater due to fiber buckling upon reversing the sliding direction. This buckling force can be greatly reduced by biasing the fibers at an angle perpendicularly to the sliding direction. Means of containing potentially harmful carbon fiber debris, which is electrically conductive, have been developed. Small prototype brush/fin thermal interfaces have been tested and found to exhibit temperature drops about onesixth of that of conventional

  19. 21 CFR 884.1100 - Endometrial brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endometrial brush. 884.1100 Section 884.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... Endometrial brush. (a) Identification. An endometrial brush is a device designed to remove samples of...

  20. DNA Polymer Brush Patterning through Photocontrollable Surface-Initiated DNA Hybridization Chain Reaction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fujian; Zhou, Xiang; Yao, Dongbao; Xiao, Shiyan; Liang, Haojun

    2015-11-18

    The fabrication of DNA polymer brushes with spatial resolution onto a solid surface is a crucial step for biochip research and related applications, cell-free gene expression study, and even artificial cell fabrication. Here, for the first time, a DNA polymer brush patterning method is reported based on the photoactivation of an ortho-nitrobenzyl linker-embedded DNA hairpin structure and a subsequent surface-initiated DNA hybridization chain reaction (HCR). Inert DNA hairpins are exposed to ultraviolet light irradiation to generate DNA duplexes with two active sticky ends (toeholds) in a programmable manner. These activated DNA duplexes can initiate DNA HCR to generate multifunctional patterned DNA polymer brushes with complex geometrical shapes. Different multifunctional DNA polymer brush patterns can be fabricated on certain areas of the same solid surface using this method. Moreover, the patterned DNA brush surface can be used to capture target molecules in a desired manner.

  1. Wear of metal fiber brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Lloyd Perryman, Jr.

    The goal of this dissertation was determining the wear mechanism of metal fiber brushes on commutators and slip rings with the goal of achieving the lowest possible wear rate. To this end, metal fiber brushes were operated, while conducting direct current, on gold-plated copper rotors with and without unfilled gaps to simulate slip rings and commutators, respectively. Wear rates on unfilled-groove commutators were found to be only modestly higher than on slip ring style rotors. Three possible causes for enhanced metal fiber brush wear on commutators were considered: (i) accelerated "adhesive" wear controlled by contact spots, (ii) fatigue induced wear and (iii) "fiber chopping". Similarly, SEM analysis of fiber tips and wear particles produced scant, if any, evidence of fiber chopping, which would occur as, again, fiber tips extend elastically into the commutator grooves and small slices of them would be "chopped" off by oncoming edges of commutator bars. Finally considered was "modified chopping", wherein fiber tips would be dragged over groove edges, resulting in tensile fracture and chopping. Only a single fiber fragment showed damage that might be compatible with that mechanism. Moreover, the fact that it was exemplified by a single tenuous case, rules it out as significant. The same conclusion also follows from comparing commutator wear rates with that on slip rings. These show good correlation in terms of effective brush pressure, which on commutators is increased because only bars conduct current and gaps do not support load. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  2. Supramolecular Magnetic Brushes: The Impact of Dipolar Interactions on the Equilibrium Structure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium structure of supramolecular magnetic filament brushes is analyzed at two different scales. First, we study the density and height distributions for brushes with various grafting densities and chain lengths. We use Langevin dynamics simulations with a bead–spring model that takes into account the cross-links between the surface of the ferromagnetic particles, whose magnetization is characterized by a point dipole. Magnetic filament brushes are shown to be more compact near the substrate than nonmagnetic ones, with a bimodal height distribution for large grafting densities. This latter feature makes them also different from brushes with electric dipoles. Next, in order to explain the observed behavior at the filament scale, we introduce a graph theory analysis to elucidate for the first time the structure of the brush at the scale of individual beads. It turns out that, in contrast to nonmagnetic brushes, in which the internal structure is determined by random density fluctuations, magnetic forces introduce a certain order in the system. Because of their highly directional nature, magnetic dipolar interactions prevent some of the random connections to be formed. On the other hand, they favor a higher connectivity of the chains’ free and grafted ends. We show that this complex dipolar brush microstructure has a strong impact on the magnetic response of the brush, as any weak applied field has to compete with the dipole–dipole interactions within the crowded environment. PMID:26538768

  3. Planar dipolar polymer brush: field theoretical investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalik, Jyoti; Kumar, Rajeev; Sumpter, Bobby

    2015-03-01

    Physical properties of polymer brushes bearing monomers with permanent dipole moments and immersed in a polar solvent are investigated using self-consistent field theory (SCFT). It is found that mismatch between the permanent dipole moments of the monomer and the solvent plays a significant role in determining the height of the polymer brush. Sign as well as magnitude of the mismatch determines the extent of collapse of the polymer brush. The mismatch in the dipole moments also affects the force-distance relations and interpenetration of polymers in opposing planar brushes. In particular, an attractive force between the opposing dipolar brushes is predicted for stronger mismatch parameter. Furthermore, effects of added monovalent salt on the structure of dipolar brushes will also be presented. This investigation highlights the significance of dipolar interactions in affecting the physical properties of polymer brushes. Csmd division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.

  4. Brush Seals for Improved Steam Turbine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Norman; Chupp, Ray; Baily, Fred; Burnett, Mark; Rivas, Flor; Bowsher, Aaron; Crudgington, Peter

    2006-01-01

    GE Energy has retrofitted brush seals into more than 19 operating steam turbines. Brush seals offer superior leakage control compared to labyrinth seals, owing to their compliant nature and ability to maintain very tight clearances to the rotating shaft. Seal designs have been established for steam turbines ranging in size from 12 MW to over 1200 MW, including fossil, nuclear, combined-cycle and industrial applications. Steam turbines present unique design challenges that must be addressed to ensure that the potential performance benefits of brush seals are realized. Brush seals can have important effects on the overall turbine system that must be taken into account to assure reliable operation. Subscale rig tests are instrumental to understanding seal behavior under simulated steam-turbine operating conditions, prior to installing brush seals in the field. This presentation discusses the technical challenges of designing brush seals for steam turbines; subscale testing; performance benefits of brush seals; overall system effects; and field applications.

  5. Explicit Solvent Simulations of Friction between Brush Layers of Charged and Neutral Bottle-Brush Macromolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo, J.-M. Y.; Brown, W. M.; Dobrynin, A. V.

    2013-03-01

    We study friction between charged and neutral brush layers of bottle-brush macromolecules using molecular dynamics simulations. The deformation of the bottle-brush macromolecules under the shear were studied as a function of the substrate separation and shear stress. For charged bottle-brush layers we study effect of the added salt on the brush lubricating properties to elucidate factors responsible for energy dissipation in charged and neutral brush systems. Our simulations have shown that for both charged and neutral brush systems the main deformation mode of the bottle-brush macromolecule is associated with the backbone deformation. This deformation mode manifests itself in the backbone deformation ratio, α, and shear viscosity, η, to be universal functions of the Weissenberg number W. The value of the friction coefficient, μ, and viscosity, η, are larger for the charged bottle-brush coatings in comparison with those for neutral brushes at the same separation distance, D, between substrates. The additional energy dissipation generated by brush sliding in charged bottle-brush systems is due to electrostatic coupling between bottle-brush and counterion motion. This coupling weakens as salt concentration, cs, increases resulting in values of the viscosity, η, and friction coefficient, μ, approaching corresponding values obtained for neutral brush systems. NSF DMR-1004576

  6. Explicit Solvent Simulations of Friction between Brush Layers of Charged and Neutral Bottle-Brush Macromolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Carrillo, Jan-Michael; Brown, W Michael; Dobrynin, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    We study friction between charged and neutral brush layers of bottle-brush macromolecules using molecular dynamics simulations. In our simulations the solvent molecules were treated explicitly. The deformation of the bottle-brush macromolecules under the shear were studied as a function of the substrate separation and shear stress. For charged bottle-brush layers we study effect of the added salt on the brush lubricating properties to elucidate factors responsible for energy dissipation in charged and neutral brush systems. Our simulations have shown that for both charged and neutral brush systems the main deformation mode of the bottle-brush macromolecule is associated with the backbone deformation. This deformation mode manifests itself in the backbone deformation ratio, , and shear viscosity, , to be universal functions of the Weissenberg number W. The value of the friction coefficient, , and viscosity, , are larger for the charged bottle-brush coatings in comparison with those for neutral brushes at the same separation distance, D, between substrates. The additional energy dissipation generated by brush sliding in charged bottle-brush systems is due to electrostatic coupling between bottle-brush and counterion motion. This coupling weakens as salt concentration, cs, increases resulting in values of the viscosity, , and friction coefficient, , approaching corresponding values obtained for neutral brush systems.

  7. Positron annihilation spectroscopy: a new frontier for understanding nanoparticle-loaded polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Panzarasa, Guido; Aghion, Stefano; Soliveri, Guido; Consolati, Giovanni; Ferragut, Rafael

    2016-01-15

    Nanoparticle-loaded polymer brushes are powerful tools for the development of innovative devices. However, their characterization is challenging and arrays of different techniques are typically required to gain sufficient insight. Here we demonstrate for the first time the suitability of positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) to investigate, with unprecedented detail and without making the least damage to samples, the physico-chemical changes experienced by pH-responsive polymer brushes after protonation and after loading of silver nanoparticles. One of the most important findings is the depth profiling of silver nanoparticles inside the brushes. These results open up a completely new way to understand the structure and behavior of such complex systems.

  8. Macroion Interaction at Polyelectrolyte Brush Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chen

    2015-03-01

    The effect of macroions, including synthetic polyelectrolytes, DNA and proteins, on the structure and surface properties of charged polymer thin films remains inadequately understood partially due to the complexity involving the hydrophobic effect and the conformational change of polymeric macroions. In this work, we explore a group of inorganic nanocluster based macroions, hydrophilic polyoxometalates (POMs) of robust nanocluster structure and carrying high surface charges (~ 2-42 negative charges) to investigate their interaction with surface tethered poly-2-vinylpyridine (P2VP) brush-like thin films immersed in aqueous solution. We observe the collapse of swollen P2VP chains by adding POM macroions of increased concentration by AFM, QCM and contact goniometer measurements, in sharp contrast to the increased chain stretching by adding monovalent salts. A careful comparison is made between distinct POMs based on their charge, size and chemical nature. These findings serve as a good reference for theoretical model modification and design of new mesoporous composite membranes.

  9. Simple leakage flow model for brush seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupp, Raymond E.; Dowler, Constance A.; Holle, Glenn F.

    1991-06-01

    Brush seals are potential replacements for some or most of the air-to-air labyrinth seals in gas turbine engines. A simple flow model is presented to generalize brush seal leakage performance throughout the range of test and application environments. The model uses a single parameter, effective brush thickness, to correlate flow through the seal. This effective brush thickness is a measure of the compactness of the bristle bed. Initial model results have been obtained using leakage flow data from two investigators. The results indicate that this simple single parameter model gives insight into the active nature of a brush seal and approximately accounts for the effect of fluid temperature, especially at the higher pressure ratios, where brush seals are commonly applied.

  10. Stimuli-sensitive intrinsically disordered protein brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Nithya; Bhagawati, Maniraj; Ananthanarayanan, Badriprasad; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    Grafting polymers onto surfaces at high density to yield polymer brush coatings is a widely employed strategy to reduce biofouling and interfacial friction. These brushes almost universally feature synthetic polymers, which are often heterogeneous and do not readily allow incorporation of chemical functionalities at precise sites along the constituent chains. To complement these synthetic systems, we introduce a biomimetic, recombinant intrinsically disordered protein that can assemble into an environment-sensitive brush. This macromolecule adopts an extended conformation and can be grafted to solid supports to form oriented protein brushes that swell and collapse dramatically with changes in solution pH and ionic strength. We illustrate the value of sequence specificity by using proteases with mutually orthogonal recognition sites to modulate brush height in situ to predictable values. This study demonstrates that stimuli-responsive brushes can be fabricated from proteins and introduces them as a new class of smart biomaterial building blocks.

  11. Tooth brushing inhibits oral bacteria in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Kotaro; Kijima, Saku; Nonaka, Chie; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

    2015-10-01

    In this study, scaling, polishing and daily tooth brushing were performed in 20 beagle dogs, and the number of oral bacteria was determined using a bacterial counter. The dogs were randomized into the scaling (S), scaling + polishing (SP), scaling + tooth daily brushing (SB) and scaling + polishing + tooth daily brushing (SPB) groups. Samples were collected from the buccal surface of the maxillary fourth premolars of the dogs immediately after scaling and every week thereafter from weeks 1 to 8. Throughout the study, the number of bacteria was significantly lower in the SB and SPB groups compared with the S group. The findings suggest that daily tooth brushing inhibited oral bacterial growth in the dogs.

  12. Nanopatterned polymer brushes: conformation, fabrication and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Qian; Ista, Linnea K.; Gu, Renpeng; Zauscher, Stefan; López, Gabriel P.

    2015-12-01

    Surfaces with end-grafted, nanopatterned polymer brushes that exhibit well-defined feature dimensions and controlled chemical and physical properties provide versatile platforms not only for investigation of nanoscale phenomena at biointerfaces, but also for the development of advanced devices relevant to biotechnology and electronics applications. In this review, we first give a brief introduction of scaling behavior of nanopatterned polymer brushes and then summarize recent progress in fabrication and application of nanopatterned polymer brushes. Specifically, we highlight applications of nanopatterned stimuli-responsive polymer brushes in the areas of biomedicine and biotechnology.

  13. Brush seals for turbine engine fuel conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Mike

    1994-07-01

    The program objective is to demonstrate brush seals for replacing labyrinth seals in turboprop engines. The approach taken was to design and procure brush seals with assistance from Sealol, modify and instrument an existing T407 low pressure turbine test rig, replace inner balance piston and outer balance piston labyrinth seals with brush seals, conduct cyclic tests to evaluate seal leakage at operating pressures and temperatures, and evaluate effect of seal pack width and rotor eccentricity. Results are presented in viewgraph format and show that brush seals offer performance advantages over labyrinth seals.

  14. Development of a Brush Seals Program Leading to Ceramic Brush Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Flower, Ralph; Howe, Harold

    1994-01-01

    Some events of a U.S. Army/NASA Lewis Research Center brush seals program are reviewed, and the development of ceramic brush seals is described. Some preliminary room-temperature flow data are given, and the results of testing metallic brushes in cryogenic nitrogen are discussed.

  15. Compression induced phase transition of nematic brush: A mean-field theory study

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Jiuzhou; Zhang, Xinghua; Yan, Dadong

    2015-11-28

    Responsive behavior of polymer brush to the external compression is one of the most important characters for its application. For the flexible polymer brush, in the case of low grafting density, which is widely studied by the Gaussian chain model based theory, the compression leads to a uniform deformation of the chain. However, in the case of high grafting density, the brush becomes anisotropic and the nematic phase will be formed. The normal compression tends to destroy the nematic order, which leads to a complex responsive behaviors. Under weak compression, chains in the nematic brush are buckled, and the bending energy and Onsager interaction give rise to the elasticity. Under deep compression, the responsive behaviors of the nematic polymer brush depend on the chain rigidity. For the compressed rigid polymer brush, the chains incline to re-orientate randomly to maximize the orientational entropy and its nematic order is destroyed. For the compressed flexible polymer brush, the chains incline to fold back to keep the nematic order. A buckling-folding transition takes place during the compressing process. For the compressed semiflexible brush, the chains are collectively tilted to a certain direction, which leads to the breaking of the rotational symmetry in the lateral plane. These responsive behaviors of nematic brush relate to the properties of highly frustrated worm-like chain, which is hard to be studied by the traditional self-consistent field theory due to the difficulty to solve the modified diffusion equation. To overcome this difficulty, a single chain in mean-field theory incorporating Monte Carlo simulation and mean-field theory for the worm-like chain model is developed in present work. This method shows high performance for entire region of chain rigidity in the confined condition.

  16. Compression induced phase transition of nematic brush: A mean-field theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jiuzhou; Zhang, Xinghua; Yan, Dadong

    2015-11-01

    Responsive behavior of polymer brush to the external compression is one of the most important characters for its application. For the flexible polymer brush, in the case of low grafting density, which is widely studied by the Gaussian chain model based theory, the compression leads to a uniform deformation of the chain. However, in the case of high grafting density, the brush becomes anisotropic and the nematic phase will be formed. The normal compression tends to destroy the nematic order, which leads to a complex responsive behaviors. Under weak compression, chains in the nematic brush are buckled, and the bending energy and Onsager interaction give rise to the elasticity. Under deep compression, the responsive behaviors of the nematic polymer brush depend on the chain rigidity. For the compressed rigid polymer brush, the chains incline to re-orientate randomly to maximize the orientational entropy and its nematic order is destroyed. For the compressed flexible polymer brush, the chains incline to fold back to keep the nematic order. A buckling-folding transition takes place during the compressing process. For the compressed semiflexible brush, the chains are collectively tilted to a certain direction, which leads to the breaking of the rotational symmetry in the lateral plane. These responsive behaviors of nematic brush relate to the properties of highly frustrated worm-like chain, which is hard to be studied by the traditional self-consistent field theory due to the difficulty to solve the modified diffusion equation. To overcome this difficulty, a single chain in mean-field theory incorporating Monte Carlo simulation and mean-field theory for the worm-like chain model is developed in present work. This method shows high performance for entire region of chain rigidity in the confined condition.

  17. Interaction between brush layers of bottle-brush polyelectrolytes: molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Russano, Daniel; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y; Dobrynin, Andrey V

    2011-09-01

    Interactions between tethered layers composed of aggrecan (charged bottle-brush) macromolecules are responsible for the molecular origin of cartilage biomechanical behavior. To elucidate the role of the electrostatic forces in interaction between bottle-brush layers, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of charged and neutral bottle-brush macromolecules tethered to substrates. In the case of charged bottle-brush layers, the disjoining pressure P between two brush layers in salt-free solutions increases with decreasing distance D between substrates as P ∝ D(-1.8). A stronger dependence of the disjoining pressure P on the surface separation D was observed for neutral bottle-brushes, P ∝ D(-4.6), in the same interval of disjoining pressures. These scaling laws for dependence of disjoining pressure P on distance D are due to bending energy of the bottle-brush macromolecules within compressed brush layers. The weaker distance dependence observed in polyelectrolyte bottle-brushes is due to interaction between counterion clouds surrounding the bottle-brush macromolecules preventing strong brush overlap.

  18. Dual wound dc brush motor gearhead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henson, Barrie W.

    1986-01-01

    The design requirements, the design, development tests and problems, the qualification and life test and the findings of the strip examination of a dual wound DC brushed motor gearhead are described. It is the only space qualified dual wound dc brushed motor gearhead in Europe.

  19. 21 CFR 886.1090 - Haidinger brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Haidinger brush. 886.1090 Section 886.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... brush is an AC-powered device that provides two conical brushlike images with apexes touching which...

  20. 21 CFR 886.1090 - Haidinger brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Haidinger brush. 886.1090 Section 886.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... brush is an AC-powered device that provides two conical brushlike images with apexes touching which...

  1. 21 CFR 886.1090 - Haidinger brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Haidinger brush. 886.1090 Section 886.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... brush is an AC-powered device that provides two conical brushlike images with apexes touching which...

  2. 21 CFR 886.1090 - Haidinger brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Haidinger brush. 886.1090 Section 886.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... brush is an AC-powered device that provides two conical brushlike images with apexes touching which...

  3. 21 CFR 886.1090 - Haidinger brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Haidinger brush. 886.1090 Section 886.1090 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... brush is an AC-powered device that provides two conical brushlike images with apexes touching which...

  4. A Brush Seals Program Modeling and Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Flower, Ralph; Howe, Harold

    1996-01-01

    Some events of a U.S. Army/NASA Lewis Research Center brush seals program are reviewed, and the development of ceramic brush seals is described. Some preliminary room-temperature flow data are modeled and compare favorably to the results of Ergun.

  5. Liquid Crystalline Phases of Polymer Brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Kiana; Abukhdeir, Nasser; Matsen, Mark

    The phase behavior of liquid-crystal polymeric brushes in solvent are investigated using self-consistent field theory. The polymers are modeled as freely-jointed chain consisting of N rigid segments. The isotropic interactions between the polymer and the solvent are treated using the standard Flory-Huggins theory, while the anisotropic liquid-crystalline (LC) interactions between rigid segments are taken into account using the Mayer-Saupe theory. For weak LC interactions, the brush exhibits the conventional parabolic-like profile, while for strong LC interactions, the polymers crystallize into a dense brush with a step-like profile. At intermediate interaction strengths, we find the microphase-segregated phase observed previously for lattice-model calculations. In this phase, the brush exhibits a crystalline layer next to the grafting surface with an external layer similar to the conventional brush. This work was supported by NSERC of Canada.

  6. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    PubMed

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  7. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube cleaning brush is a device consisting of a brush with plastic bristles...

  8. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube cleaning brush is a device consisting of a brush with plastic bristles...

  9. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube cleaning brush is a device consisting of a brush with plastic bristles...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube cleaning brush is a device consisting of a brush with plastic bristles...

  11. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a) Identification. A tracheal tube cleaning brush is a device consisting of a brush with plastic bristles...

  12. Effectiveness of oscillatory gutter brushes in removing street sweeping waste.

    PubMed

    Vanegas-Useche, Libardo V; Abdel-Wahab, Magd M; Parker, Graham A

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the novel concept of oscillatory gutter brushes of road sweepers is studied experimentally. Their effectiveness in removing different debris types is studied by means of a brushing test rig. The debris types dealt with are medium-size gravel, small and fine particles, wet thin debris, and compacted debris. The performance of two types of brushes, cutting and F128, under diverse operating conditions is investigated. The purpose of the tests is to ascertain whether brush oscillations superimposed onto brush rotation improve sweeping effectiveness. According to the results, brush oscillations seem to be useful for increasing brushing effectiveness in the case of bonded particles and wet thin debris, especially for bonded debris, but they seem to be of no value for other loosed debris. Also, appropriate values of brush penetration, sweeper speed, brush angle of attack, rotational speed, and frequency of brush speed oscillations, for the debris types studied are provided.

  13. Tribopair evaluation of brush seal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derby, J.; England, R.

    1992-07-01

    Brush seal technology is currently being viewed as having high potential for improving jet engine efficiency by reducing the secondary flow leakage relative to layrinth seals. The selection of appropriate materials for brush seal bristles and coatings should be done in light of the tribological behavior at elevated temperature and speed. Seven candidate coatings and seven bristle alloys have been evaluated for friction and wear behavior at high temperature and high sliding speed conditions for the purpose of identifying materials which can extend brush seal performance. Four tribopairs are discussed in detail and a material combination is identified which can lower frictional heating during high radial excursion conditions by up to 50 percent, and extend the life of the brush seal through improved resistance to oxidation and wear, as compared to the standards today.

  14. Three-Wheel Brush-Wheel Sampler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duckworth, Geoffrey A.; Liu, Jun; Brown, Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    A new sampler is similar to a common snow blower, but is robust and effective in sample collection. The brush wheels are arranged in a triangle shape, each driven by a brushless DC motor and planetary gearhead embedded in the wheel shaft. Its speed can be varied from 800 - 2,000 rpm, depending on the surface regolith resistance. The sample-collecting flow path, and internal features, are designed based on flow dynamics, and the sample-collecting rates have consistently exceeded the requirement under various conditions that span the range of expected surface properties. The brush-wheel sampler (BWS) is designed so that the flow channel is the main body of the apparatus, and links the brush-wheel assembly to the sample canister. The combination of the three brush wheels, the sample flow path, and the canister location make sample collection, storage, and transfer an easier task.

  15. Touch- and Brush-Spinning of Nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Tokarev, Alexander; Asheghali, Darya; Griffiths, Ian M; Trotsenko, Oleksandr; Gruzd, Alexey; Lin, Xin; Stone, Howard A; Minko, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Robust, simple, and scalable touch- and brush-spinning methods for the drawing of nanofibers, core-shell nanofibers, and their aligned 2D and 3D meshes using polymer solutions and melts are discussed.

  16. Responsive polymer brushes for controlled nanoparticle exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkilic, Namik; Leermakers, Frans A. M.; de Vos, Wiebe M.

    2015-10-01

    We propose the design of a novel mixed polymer brush system that could act as a selective sensor with a distinct on-off switch. In the proposed system, a (single) nanoparticle (such as an antibody) is end-attached to a responsive chain, which is surrounded by a brush of nonresponsive chains. The collapse of the responsive chain leads to a protected state, where the nanoparticle is hidden in the polymer brush, while swelling of the responsive chain brings the nanoparticle outside of the brush into an exposed and active state. We investigate this system by numerical self-consistent field theory and predict a first-order like transition between the active state and the protective state at a critical decrease in solvent quality for the responsive chain. We show that by careful design of the brush parameters such as grafting density and chain length, for a given particle size, it is possible to fine-tune the desired switching mechanism.We propose the design of a novel mixed polymer brush system that could act as a selective sensor with a distinct on-off switch. In the proposed system, a (single) nanoparticle (such as an antibody) is end-attached to a responsive chain, which is surrounded by a brush of nonresponsive chains. The collapse of the responsive chain leads to a protected state, where the nanoparticle is hidden in the polymer brush, while swelling of the responsive chain brings the nanoparticle outside of the brush into an exposed and active state. We investigate this system by numerical self-consistent field theory and predict a first-order like transition between the active state and the protective state at a critical decrease in solvent quality for the responsive chain. We show that by careful design of the brush parameters such as grafting density and chain length, for a given particle size, it is possible to fine-tune the desired switching mechanism. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Brush density profiles for different grafting

  17. Water driven turbine/brush pipe cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Assemblies are disclosed for cleaning the inside walls of pipes and tubes. A first embodiment includes a small turbine with angled blades axially mounted on one end of a standoff support. An O-ring for stabilizing the assembly within the pipe is mounted in a groove within the outer ring. A replaceable circular brush is fixedly mounted on the opposite end of the standoff support and can be used for cleaning tubes and pipes of various diameters, lengths and configurations. The turbine, standoff support, and brush spin in unison relative to a hub bearing that is fixedly attached to a wire upstream of the assembly. The nonrotating wire is for retaining the assembly in tension and enabling return of the assembly to the pipe entrance. The assembly is initially placed in the pipe or tube to be cleaned. A pressurized water or solution source is provided at a required flow-rate to propel the assembly through the pipe or tube. The upstream water pressure propels and spins the turbine, standoff support and brush. The rotating brush combined with the solution cleans the inside of the pipe. The solution flows out of the other end of the pipe with the brush rotation controlled by the flow-rate. A second embodiment is similar to the first embodiment but instead includes a circular shaped brush with ring backing mounted in the groove of the exterior ring of the turbine, and also reduces the size of the standoff support or eliminates the standoff support.

  18. Rotating Intershaft Brush Seal Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krawiecki, Stephen; Mehta, Jayesh; Holloway, Gary

    2006-01-01

    The pursuit of high Mach number flight presents several challenges to the airframe and engine design engineers. Most obvious is the resulting high temperatures encountered as the aircraft approaches Mach 3 and above. The encountered high temperatures and shaft speeds of engines require rethinking in the areas of material selections, component design and component operating life. In the area of sump compartment sealing, one of the most difficult sealing applications is the sealing of an engine s rear sump. Normally this sump will need some method of sealing between two rotating shafts. This sealing operation is done with an intershaft seal. The aft sump region also presents an additional design requirement for the intershaft seal. This region has to absorb the engine s thermal growth, which means that in the seal area, axial movement, on the order of 0.30 in., between the rotating shafts must be tolerated. A new concept or new technology of sealing an intershaft sump configuration is being developed. This concept, called a rotating intershaft brush seal has key attributes that will allow this seal to perform better, in the demanding environment of sealing an aft sump with two rotating shafts, when compared to today s sealing technology of labyrinth and carbon sea

  19. Thermoresponsive PDMAEMA Brushes: Effect of Gold Nanoparticle Deposition.

    PubMed

    Yenice, Zuleyha; Schön, Sebastian; Bildirir, Hakan; Genzer, Jan; von Klitzing, Regine

    2015-08-13

    The paper addresses the effect of gold nanoparticle (Au-NP) deposition on the thermoresponsive volume phase transition of the weak polyelectrolyte poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes. PDMAEMA brushes were synthesized via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The PDMAEMA/Au-NP composite brushes were fabricated by immersing the brush modified wafer in the Au-NP suspension. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been employed to characterize the neat PDMAEMA brushes and PDMAEMA/Au-NP composite brushes. All neat PDMAEMA brushes swelled below the volume phase transition temperature and collapsed with increasing temperature over a broad temperature range independent of the initial brush thickness. Water uptake of the brushes is also independent of initial brush thickness. The adsorption of the charged Au-NPs significantly affects the degree of swelling and the thermoresponsive properties of the brushes. PDMAEMA/Au-NP composite brushes do not exhibit any noticeable phase transition at the experimental temperature range irrespective of the initial brush thickness. The reason for this behavior is attributed to a combination of the following: the decreased conformational entropy of the Au-NP adsorbed polymer chains, the increased hydrophilicity of the system due to the charged Au-NPs, and the ≈13 nm diameter Au-NPs causing steric hindrance. We have also shown that the AFM full-indentation method can be successfully applied to determine the polymer brush thicknesses. PMID:26132296

  20. Cold plasma brush generated at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Duan Yixiang; Huang, C.; Yu, Q. S.

    2007-01-15

    A cold plasma brush is generated at atmospheric pressure with low power consumption in the level of several watts (as low as 4 W) up to tens of watts (up to 45 W). The plasma can be ignited and sustained in both continuous and pulsed modes with different plasma gases such as argon or helium, but argon was selected as a primary gas for use in this work. The brush-shaped plasma is formed and extended outside of the discharge chamber with typical dimension of 10-15 mm in width and less than 1.0 mm in thickness, which are adjustable by changing the discharge chamber design and operating conditions. The brush-shaped plasma provides some unique features and distinct nonequilibrium plasma characteristics. Temperature measurements using a thermocouple thermometer showed that the gas phase temperatures of the plasma brush are close to room temperature (as low as 42 deg. C) when running with a relatively high gas flow rate of about 3500 ml/min. For an argon plasma brush, the operating voltage from less than 500 V to about 2500 V was tested, with an argon gas flow rate varied from less than 1000 to 3500 ml/min. The cold plasma brush can most efficiently use the discharge power as well as the plasma gas for material and surface treatment. The very low power consumption of such an atmospheric argon plasma brush provides many unique advantages in practical applications including battery-powered operation and use in large-scale applications. Several polymer film samples were tested for surface treatment with the newly developed device, and successful changes of the wettability property from hydrophobic to hydrophilic were achieved within a few seconds.

  1. Proton conduction of polyAMPS brushes on titanate nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jun; Huang, Yaqin; Tu, Zhengkai; Zhang, Haining; Pan, Mu; Tang, Haolin

    2014-01-01

    Proton conducting materials having reasonable proton conductivity at low humidification conditions are critical for decrease in system complexity and improvement of power density for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. This study shows that polyelectrolyte brushes on titanate nanotubes formed through surface-initiated free radical polymerization exhibit less humidity-dependent proton conduction because of the high grafting density of polymer electrolyte chains and well-distribution of ionic groups. The results described in this study provide an idea for design of new proton conductors with effective ion transport served at relatively low humidification levels. PMID:25169431

  2. Determination of the Actual Contact Surface of a Brush Contact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm, Ragnar

    1944-01-01

    The number of partial contact surfaces of a brush-ring contact is measured by means of a statistical method. The particular brush is fitted with wicks - that is, insulated and cemented cylinders of brush material, terminating in the brush surface. The number of partial contact surfaces can be computed from the length of the rest periods in which such wicks remain without current. Resistance measurements enable the determination of the size of the contact surfaces. The pressure in the actual contact surface of a recently bedded brush is found to be not much lower than the Brinell hardness of the brush.

  3. Regression modeling and prediction of road sweeping brush load characteristics from finite element analysis and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Sun, Qun; Wahab, Magd Abdel; Zhang, Xingyu; Xu, Limin

    2015-09-01

    Rotary cup brushes mounted on each side of a road sweeper undertake heavy debris removal tasks but the characteristics have not been well known until recently. A Finite Element (FE) model that can analyze brush deformation and predict brush characteristics have been developed to investigate the sweeping efficiency and to assist the controller design. However, the FE model requires large amount of CPU time to simulate each brush design and operating scenario, which may affect its applications in a real-time system. This study develops a mathematical regression model to summarize the FE modeled results. The complex brush load characteristic curves were statistically analyzed to quantify the effects of cross-section, length, mounting angle, displacement and rotational speed etc. The data were then fitted by a multiple variable regression model using the maximum likelihood method. The fitted results showed good agreement with the FE analysis results and experimental results, suggesting that the mathematical regression model may be directly used in a real-time system to predict characteristics of different brushes under varying operating conditions. The methodology may also be used in the design and optimization of rotary brush tools.

  4. Motor Brush Testing for Mars and Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noon, Don E.

    1999-01-01

    Brush motors have been qualified and flown successfully on Mars missions, but upcoming missions require longer life and higher power. A test program was therefore undertaken to identify the best brush material for operation in the Mars atmosphere. Six different brush materials were used in 18 identical motors and operated under various load conditions for a period of four weeks in low-pressure CO2. All motors performed acceptably, with accumulated motor revolutions between 98 and 144 million revolutions, depending on load. A proprietary silver-graphite material from Superior Carbon (SG54-27) appears to be the best choice for long life, but even the stock copper-graphite brushes performed reliably with acceptable wear. The motors from the CO2 test were then cleaned and run in vacuum for 2 weeks. The difference in results was dramatic, with 5 motors failing catastrophically and wear rates increasing by orders of magnitude for the SG54-27 material. Three brush materials survived the test with no failures: SG54-27 with a proprietary Ball Aerospace impregnation, a silver-graphite-molybdenum disulfide material from Superior Carbon (SG59), and a copper sulfide-graphite material also from Superior Carbon (BG91).

  5. Microstructured poly(2-oxazoline) bottle-brush brushes on nanocrystalline diamond.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Naima A; Reitinger, Andreas; Zhang, Ning; Steenackers, Marin; Williams, Oliver A; Garrido, Jose A; Jordan, Rainer

    2010-05-01

    We report on the preparation of microstructured poly(2-oxazoline) bottle-brush brushes (BBBs) on nanocrystalline diamond (NCD). Structuring of NCD was performed by photolithography and plasma treatment to result in a patterned NCD surface with oxidized and hydrogenated areas. Self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization (SIPGP) of 2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline (IPOx) resulted in selective grafting of poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOx) polymer brushes only at the oxidized NCD areas. Structured PIPOx brushes were converted by methyl triflate into the polyelectrolyte brush macroinitiator for the living cationic ring-opening polymerization (LCROP) of 2-oxazolines. The LCROP was performed with 2-ethyl-2-oxazoline (EtOx) as well as 2-(carbazolyl)ethyl-2-oxazoline (CarbOx) as monomers, resulting in structured bottle-brush brushes (BBB) with different pendant side chains and functionalities. FT-IR spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, and AFM measurements indicated a high side chain grafting density as well as quantitative and selective reactions. Poly(2-oxazoline) BBBs containing hole conducting carbazole moieties on NCD as electrode material may open the way to advanced amperometric biosensing systems.

  6. LM2500+ Brush Seal Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haaser, Fred G.

    2006-01-01

    The LM2500+ industrial aeroderivative gas turbine, a 25% enhanced power derivative of the LM2500 gas turbine, recently completed its development test program during the period 5/96 - 10/96. Early in the engine program a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) process was used to determine customer needs for this project.The feedback obtained from the QFD process showed without doubt that gas turbine customers now emphasize product reliability and availability at the top of their needs. One area of development on the LM2500+ was to investigate the use of a brush seal as a means to reduce undesirable turbine cooling leakages within the turbine mid frame in order to enhance part life. This presentation presents a case study on the factors that went into evaluating a brush seal during engine test, test results, and the ultimate decision not to implement the brush seal for cost and other reasons.

  7. Two-stage eutectic metal brushes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, John S

    2009-07-14

    A two-stage eutectic metal brush assembly having a slip ring rigidly coupled to a shaft, the slip ring being electrically coupled to first voltage polarity. At least one brush is rigidly coupled to a second ring and slidingly engaged to the slip ring. Eutectic metal at least partially fills an annulus between the second ring and a stationary ring. At least one conductor is rigidly coupled to the stationary ring and electrically coupled to a second voltage polarity. Electrical continuity is maintained between the first voltage polarity and the second voltage polarity. Periodic rotational motion is present between the stationary ring and the second ring. Periodic rotational motion is also present between the brush and the slip ring.

  8. Discriminatory bio-adhesion over nano-patterned polymer brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gon, Saugata

    Surfaces functionalized with bio-molecular targeting agents are conventionally used for highly-specific protein and cell adhesion. This thesis explores an alternative approach: Small non-biological adhesive elements are placed on a surface randomly, with the rest of the surface rendered repulsive towards biomolecules and cells. While the adhesive elements themselves, for instance in solution, typically exhibit no selectivity for various compounds within an analyte suspension, selective adhesion of targeted objects or molecules results from their placement on the repulsive surface. The mechanism of selectivity relies on recognition of length scales of the surface distribution of adhesive elements relative to species in the analyte solution, along with the competition between attractions and repulsions between various species in the suspension and different parts of the collecting surface. The resulting binding selectivity can be exquisitely sharp; however, complex mixtures generally require the use of multiple surfaces to isolate the various species: Different components will be adhered, sharply, with changes in collector composition. The key feature of these surface designs is their lack of reliance on biomolecular fragments for specificity, focusing entirely on physicochemical principles at the lengthscales from 1 - 100 nm. This, along with a lack of formal patterning, provides the advantages of simplicity and cost effectiveness. This PhD thesis demonstrates these principles using a system in which cationic poly-L-lysine (PLL) patches (10 nm) are deposited randomly on a silica substrate and the remaining surface is passivated with a bio-compatible PEG brush. TIRF microscopy revealed that the patches were randomly arranged, not clustered. By precisely controlling the number of patches per unit area, the interfaces provide sharp selectivity for adhesion of proteins and bacterial cells. For instance, it was found that a critical density of patches (on the order of

  9. Plasticity of the brush border - the yin and yang of intestinal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Delacour, Delphine; Salomon, Julie; Robine, Sylvie; Louvard, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The brush border on the apical surface of enterocytes is a highly specialized structure well-adapted for efficient digestion and nutrient transport, whilst at the same time providing a protective barrier for the intestinal mucosa. The brush border is constituted of a densely ordered array of microvilli, protrusions of the plasma membrane, which are supported by actin-based microfilaments and interacting proteins and anchored in an apical network of actomyosin and intermediate filaments, the so-called terminal web. The highly dynamic, specialized apical domain is both an essential partner for the gut microbiota and an efficient signalling platform that enables adaptation to physiological stimuli from the external and internal milieu. Nevertheless, genetic alterations or various pathological stresses, such as infection, inflammation, and mechanical or nutritional alterations, can jeopardize this equilibrium and compromise intestinal functions. Long-time neglected, the intestinal brush-border shall be enlightening again as the central actor of the complex but essential intestinal homeostasis. Here, we review the processes and components involved in brush border organization and discuss pathological mechanisms that can induce brush border defects and their physiological consequences.

  10. "Long life" DC brush motor for use on the Mars surveyor program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, David; Noon, Don

    1998-01-01

    DC brush motors have several qualities which make them very attractive for space flight applications. Their mechanical commutation is simple and lightweight, requiring no external sensing and control in order to function properly. They are extremely efficient in converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. Efficiencies over 80% are not uncommon, resulting in high power throughput to weight ratios. However, the inherent unreliability and short life of sliding electrical contacts, especially in vacuum, have driven previous programs to utilize complex brushless DC or the less efficient stepper motors. The Mars Surveyor Program (MSP'98) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) have developed a reliable "long life" brush type DC motor for operation in low temperature, low pressure CO2 and N2, utilizing silver-graphite brushes. The original intent was to utilize this same motor for SRTM's space operation, but the results thus far have been unsatisfactory in vacuum. This paper describes the design, test, and results of this development.

  11. Synthesis and antibacterial properties of ZnO brush pens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Zhang, Rong; Li, Yilin; Weng, Yuan; Liang, Weiquan; Zhang, Wenfeng; Zheng, Weitao; Hu, Haimei

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, ZnO with a novel hierarchical nanostructure has been synthesized by a new solution method. The novel hierarchical structure is named a ‘brush pen’. The biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of ZnO brush pens have been evaluated. The results demonstrate that ZnO brush pens show good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Clinical evaluation of supplementing tongue brushing to most advocated regime of tooth brushing.

    PubMed

    Gulati, M S; Gupta, L

    1998-03-01

    Tongue, because of its surface texture contributes significantly in plaque formation and accumulation, has remained a neglected part in the oral cavity. The study conducted on twenty students aged 18 to 23 years, was undertaken to clinically evaluate the role of supplementing tongue brushing to most advocated regime of tooth brushing. In both the phases of the study, plaque scoring was done daily and oral debris was collected on the eighth day. It was observed that tongue brushing when supplemented to the most advocated regime of tooth brushing that is, immediately after breakfast in the morning and immediately after dinner at night significantly reduced the initial rate of plaque formation and total plaque accumulation.

  13. Chinese Brush Calligraphy Character Retrieval and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Yueting; Zhang, Xiafen; Lu, Weiming; Wu, Fei

    2007-01-01

    Chinese brush calligraphy is a valuable civilization legacy and a high art of scholarship. It is still popular in Chinese banners, newspaper mastheads, university names, and celebration gifts. There are Web sites that try to help people enjoy and learn Chinese calligraphy. However, there lacks advanced services such as content-based retrieval or…

  14. Multifunctional brushes made from carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Anyuan; Veedu, Vinod P; Li, Xuesong; Yao, Zhaoling; Ghasemi-Nejhad, Mehrdad N; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2005-07-01

    Brushes are common tools for use in industry and our daily life, performing a variety of tasks such as cleaning, scraping, applying and electrical contacts. Typical materials for constructing brush bristles include animal hairs, synthetic polymer fibres and metal wires (see, for example, ref. 1). The performance of these bristles has been limited by the oxidation and degradation of metal wires, poor strength of natural hairs, and low thermal stability of synthetic fibres. Carbon nanotubes, having a typical one-dimensional nanostructure, have excellent mechanical properties, such as high modulus and strength, high elasticity and resilience, thermal conductivity and large surface area (50-200 m2 g(-1)). Here we construct multifunctional, conductive brushes with carbon nanotube bristles grafted on fibre handles, and demonstrate their several unique tasks such as cleaning of nanoparticles from narrow spaces, coating of the inside of holes, selective chemical adsorption, and as movable electromechanical brush contacts and switches. The nanotube bristles can also be chemically functionalized for selective removal of heavy metal ions.

  15. Scaling Relationships for Spherical Polymer Brushes Revisited.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guang; Li, Hao; Das, Siddhartha

    2016-06-16

    In this short paper, we revisit the scaling relationships for spherical polymer brushes (SPBs), i.e., polymer brushes grafted to rigid, spherical particles. Considering that the brushes can be described to be encased in a series of hypothetical spherical blobs, we identify significant physical discrepancies in the model of Daoud and Cotton (Journal of Physics, 1982), which is considered to be the state of the art in scaling modeling of SPBs. We establish that the "brush" configuration of the polymer molecules forming the SPBs is possible only if the swelling ratio (which is the ratio of the end-to-end length of the blob-encased polymer segment to the corresponding coil-like polymer segment) is always less than unity-a notion that has been erroneously overlooked in the model of Daoud and Cotton. We also provide new scaling arguments that (a) establish this swelling (or more appropriately shrinking) ratio as a constant (less than unity) for the case of "good" solvent, (b) recover the scaling predictions for blob dimension and monomer number and monomer concentration distributions within the blob, and

  16. Phototriggered functionalization of hierarchically structured polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Kostina, Nina Yu; Bruns, Michael; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    The precise design of bioactive surfaces, essential for the advancement of many biomedical applications, depends on achieving control of the surface architecture as well as on the ability to attach bioreceptors to antifouling surfaces. Herein, we report a facile avenue toward hierarchically structured antifouling polymer brushes of oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylates via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) presenting photoactive tetrazole moieties, which permitted their functionalization via nitrile imine-mediated tetrazole-ene cyclocloaddition (NITEC). A maleimide-functional ATRP initiator was photoclicked to the side chains of a brush enabling a subsequent polymerization of carboxybetaine acrylamide to generate a micropatterned graft-on-graft polymer architecture as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Furthermore, the spatially resolved biofunctionalization of the tetrazole-presenting brushes was accessed by the photoligation of biotin-maleimide and subsequent binding of streptavidin. The functionalized brushes bearing streptavidin were able to resist the fouling from blood plasma (90% reduction with respect to bare gold). Moreover, they were employed to demonstrate a model biosensor by immobilization of a biotinylated antibody and subsequent capture of an antigen as monitored in real time by surface plasmon resonance. PMID:25961109

  17. Degrafting of polymer brushes from substrates enables insight about the brush structure and facilitates surface patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Rohan; Turgman-Cohen, Salomon; Srogl, Jiri; Kiserow, Douglas; Genzer, Jan

    Polymers end-grafted to surfaces or interfaces, commonly referred to as polymer brushes, enable tailoring physico-chemical properties of material surfaces. Many applications of polymer brushes require information about the molecular weight (MW) and grafting density (GD) of polymer brushes. For brushes synthesized by surface initiated polymerization (SIP) determining these attributes was always a challenge. We have developed a simple method of measuring MW and GD of these systems by degrafting SIP from silica-based surfaces by using tetrabutyl ammonium fluoride (TBAF), which attacks selectively Si-O bonds and enables complete degrafting of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brushes from silica based substrates without damaging the backbone. The rate of PMMA degrafting decreases with reaction time and depends on the concentration of TBAF, temperature, and the initial GD of the system. The molecular weight distribution of the degrafted PMMA was measured using size exclusion chromatography. The GD was calculated from known MW and dry thickness of the PMMA brush. Spatial patterns of degrafted regions on the substrate can be prepared by either localizing the TBAF to certain regions or by gradually immersing homogeneous samples into TBAF solution.

  18. Nonlinearity in the rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothmayer, Mark; Dultz, Wolfgang; Frins, Erna; Zhan, Qiwen; Tierney, Dennis; Schmitzer, Heidrun

    2007-10-01

    Haidinger's brushes are an entoptic effect of the human visual system that enables us to detect polarized light. However, individual perceptions of Haidinger's brushes can vary significantly. We find that the birefringence of the cornea influences the rotational motion and the contrast of Haidinger's brushes and may offer an explanation for individual differences. We have devised an experimental setup to simulate various phase shifts of the cornea and found a switching effect in the rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes. In addition, age related macular degeneration reduces the polarization effect of the macula and thus also leads to changes in the brush pattern.

  19. Effects of brush seal morphology on leakage and pressure drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, M. J.; Yang, Y.; Hendricks, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    Research on brush seals which was undertaken earlier by Braun et al. (1990) is continued. Particular attention is given to the effects of brush positioning, design, and morphology on sealing surfaces, fluid leakage, and associated pressure drops. It is found that both the structure and the design of the brush are important to its performance. High resistance to the flow of the brush/fence combination can result in catastrophic failure of the brush, while at lower flow resistances, the failure is more gradual.

  20. Numerical self-consistent field theory study of the response of strong polyelectrolyte brushes to external electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Chaohui

    2015-08-07

    The response of strong polyelectrolyte (PE) brushes grafted on an electrode to electric fields generated by opposite surface charges on the PE-grafted electrode and a second parallel electrode has been numerically investigated by self-consistent field theory. The influences of grafting density, average charge fraction, salt concentration, and mobile ion size on the variation of the brush height against an applied voltage bias were investigated. In agreement with molecular dynamics simulation results, a higher grafting density requires a larger magnitude of voltage bias to achieve the same amount of relative change in the brush height. In the experimentally relevant parameter regime of the applied voltage, the brush height becomes insensitive to the voltage bias when the grafting density is high. Including the contribution of surface charges on the grafting electrode, overall charge neutrality inside the PE brushes is generally maintained, especially for PE brushes with high grafting density and high average charge fraction. Our numerical study further reveals that the electric field across the two electrodes is highly non-uniform because of the complex interplay between the surface charges on the electrodes, the charges on the grafted PE chains, and counterions.

  1. Bioadhesive control of plasma proteins and blood cells from umbilical cord blood onto the interface grafted with zwitterionic polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu; Chang, Yung; Higuchi, Akon; Shih, Yu-Ju; Li, Pei-Tsz; Chen, Wen-Yih; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Hsiue, Ging-Ho

    2012-03-01

    In this work, bioadhesive behavior of plasma proteins and blood cells from umbilical cord blood (UCB) onto zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (polySBMA) polymer brushes was studied. The surface coverage of polySBMA brushes on a hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) well plate with surface grafting weights ranging from 0.02 mg/cm(2) to 0.69 mg/cm(2) can be effectively controlled using the ozone pretreatment and thermal-induced radical graft-polymerization. The chemical composition, grafting structure, surface hydrophilicity, and hydration capability of prepared polySBMA brushes were determined to illustrate the correlations between grafting properties and blood compatibility of zwitterionic-grafted surfaces in contact with human UCB. The protein adsorption of fibrinogen in single-protein solutions and at complex medium of 100% UCB plasma onto different polySBMA brushes with different grafting coverage was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal antibodies. The grafting density of the zwitterionic brushes greatly affects the PS surface, thus controlling the adsorption of fibrinogen, the adhesion of platelets, and the preservation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in UCB. The results showed that PS surfaces grafted with polySBMA brushes possess controllable hydration properties through the binding of water molecules, regulating the bioadhesive and bioinert characteristics of plasma proteins and blood platelets in UCB. Interestingly, it was found that the polySBMA brushes with an optimized grafting weight of approximately 0.1 mg/cm(2) at physiologic temperatures show significant hydrated chain flexibility and balanced hydrophilicity to provide the best preservation capacity for HSPCs stored in 100% UCB solution for 2 weeks. This work suggests that, through controlling grafting structures, the hemocompatible nature of grafted zwitterionic polymer brushes makes them well suited to the molecular design of regulated

  2. Reevaluation of brush border motility: calcium induces core filament solation and microvillar vesiculation

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, DR; Prum, BE

    1982-01-01

    The report that microvillar cores of isolated, demembranated brush borders retract into the terminal web in the presence of Ca(++) and ATP has been widely cited as an example of Ca(++)-regulated nonmuscle cell motility. Because of recent findings that microvillar core actin filaments are cross-linked by villin which, in the presence of micromolar Ca(++), fragments actin filaments, we used the techniques of video enhanced differential interference contrast, immunofluorescence, and phase contrast microscopy and thin-section electron microscopy (EM) to reexamine the question of contraction of isolated intestinal cell brush borders. Analysis of video enhanced light microscopic images of Triton- demembranated brush borders treated with a buffered Ca(++) solution shows the cores disintegrating with the terminal web remaining intact; membranated brush borders show the microvilli to vesiculate with Ca(++). Using Ca(++)/EGTA buffers, it is found that micromolar free Ca(++) causes core filament dissolution in membranated or demembranated brush borders, Ca(++) causes microvillar core solation followed by complete vesiculation of the microvillar membrane. The lengths of microvilli cores and rootlets were measured in thin sections of membranated and demembranated controls, in Ca(++)-, Ca(++) + ATP-, and in ATP-treated brush borders. Results of these measurements show that Ca(++) alone causes the complete solation of the microvillar cores, yet the rootlets in the terminal web region remain of normal length. These results show that microvilli do not retract into the terminal web in response to Ca(++) and ATP but rather that the microvillar cores disintegrate. NBD-phallicidin localization of actin and fluorescent antibodies to myosin reveal a circumferential band of actin and myosin in mildly permeabilized cells in the region of the junctional complex. The presence of these contractile proteins in this region, where other studies have shown a circumferential band of thin filaments

  3. Formation of gold nanoparticle assemblies in responsive polymer brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christau, Stephanie; von Klitzing, Regine; Genzer, Jan

    2014-03-01

    The modification of surfaces by means of polymer brushes has become an active area of research during the past few years due to numerous potential applications of such systems in nano- and biotechnology. The structure and conformation of a brush depends on external stimuli such as pH, temperature or solvent type and can be manipulated by varying these attributes. This stimulus-response can be exploited for the development of smart surfaces and for sensor applications. Furthermore, brushes can be used as 3D matrices for immobilization of nanoparticles. In this study, responsive brushes are used as a matrix for the attachment of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs); this hybrid system exhibits intriguing optical properties due to the surface plasmon resonance of the AuNPs. We address the effect of some system parameters such as synthetic procedure, brush thickness, brush grafting density, particle size and particle incubation time on the characteristics of the resultant particle-impregnated brushes. We also discuss the spatial distribution of the AuNPs inside the brush with regard to the particle size, brush density and brush molecular weight.

  4. Polyelectrolyte brushes: a novel stable lubrication system in aqueous conditions.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Motoyasu; Terada, Masami; Takahara, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Surface-initiated controlled radical copolymerizations of 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride) (MTAC), and 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt (SPMK) were carried out on a silicon wafer and glass ball to prepare polyelectrolyte brushes with excellent water wettability. The frictional coefficient of the polymer brushes was recorded on a ball-on-plate type tribometer by linear reciprocating motion of the brush specimen at a selected velocity of 1.5 x 10(-3) m s-1 under a normal load of 0.49 N applied to the stationary glass ball (d = 10 mm) at 298 K. The poly(DMAEMA-co-MPC) brush partially cross-linked by bis(2-iodoethoxy)ethane maintained a relatively low friction coefficient around 0.13 under humid air (RH > 75%) even after 200 friction cycles. The poly(SPMK) brush revealed an extremely low friction coefficient around 0.01 even after 450 friction cycles. We supposed that the abrasion of the brush was prevented owing to the good affinity of the poly(SPMK) brush for water forming a water lubrication layer, and electrostatic repulsive interactions among the brushes bearing sulfonic acid groups. Furthermore, the poly(SPMK-co-MTAC) brush with a chemically cross-linked structure showed a stable low friction coefficient in water even after 1400 friction cycles under a normal load of 139 MPa, indicating that the cross-linking structure improved the wear resistance of the brush layer.

  5. Vision, healing brush, and fiber bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Todor

    2005-03-01

    The Healing Brush is a tool introduced for the first time in Adobe Photoshop (2002) that removes defects in images by seamless cloning (gradient domain fusion). The Healing Brush algorithms are built on a new mathematical approach that uses Fibre Bundles and Connections to model the representation of images in the visual system. Our mathematical results are derived from first principles of human vision, related to adaptation transforms of von Kries type and Retinex theory. In this paper we present the new result of Healing in arbitrary color space. In addition to supporting image repair and seamless cloning, our approach also produces the exact solution to the problem of high dynamic range compression of17 and can be applied to other image processing algorithms.

  6. Lubrication at physiological pressures by polyzwitterionic brushes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng; Briscoe, Wuge H; Armes, Steven P; Klein, Jacob

    2009-03-27

    The very low sliding friction at natural synovial joints, which have friction coefficients of mu < 0.002 at pressures up to 5 megapascals or more, has to date not been attained in any human-made joints or between model surfaces in aqueous environments. We found that surfaces in water bearing polyzwitterionic brushes that were polymerized directly from the surface can have mu values as low as 0.0004 at pressures as high as 7.5 megapascals. This extreme lubrication is attributed primarily to the strong hydration of the phosphorylcholine-like monomers that make up the robustly attached brushes, and may have relevance to a wide range of human-made aqueous lubrication situations.

  7. Conductive Nanowires Templated by Molecular Brushes.

    PubMed

    Raguzin, Ivan; Stamm, Manfred; Ionov, Leonid

    2015-10-21

    In this paper, we report the fabrication of conductive nanowires using polymer bottle brushes as templates. In our approach, we synthesized poly(2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate methyl iodide quaternary salt brushes by two-step atom transfer radical polymerization, loaded them with palladium salt, and reduced them in order to form metallic nanowires with average lengths and widths of 300 and 20 nm, respectively. The obtained nanowires were deposited between conductive gold pads and were connected to them by sputtering of additional pads to form an electric circuit. We connected the nanowires in an electric circuit and demonstrated that the conductivity of these nanowires is around 100 S·m(-1). PMID:26418290

  8. Lubrication at Physiological Pressures by Polyzwitterionic Brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Meng; Briscoe, Wuge H.; Armes, Steven P.; Klein, Jacob

    2009-03-01

    The very low sliding friction at natural synovial joints, which have friction coefficients of μ < 0.002 at pressures up to 5 megapascals or more, has to date not been attained in any human-made joints or between model surfaces in aqueous environments. We found that surfaces in water bearing polyzwitterionic brushes that were polymerized directly from the surface can have μ values as low as 0.0004 at pressures as high as 7.5 megapascals. This extreme lubrication is attributed primarily to the strong hydration of the phosphorylcholine-like monomers that make up the robustly attached brushes, and may have relevance to a wide range of human-made aqueous lubrication situations.

  9. Antifouling Polymer Brushes Displaying Antithrombogenic Surface Properties.

    PubMed

    de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Sheikh, Sonia; Blaszykowski, Christophe; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Fedorov, Kiril; Thompson, Michael; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2016-03-14

    The contact of blood with artificial materials generally leads to immediate protein adsorption (fouling), which mediates subsequent biological processes such as platelet adhesion and activation leading to thrombosis. Recent progress in the preparation of surfaces able to prevent protein fouling offers a potential avenue to mitigate this undesirable effect. In the present contribution, we have prepared several types of state-of-the-art antifouling polymer brushes on polycarbonate plastic substrate, and investigated their ability to prevent platelet adhesion and thrombus formation under dynamic flow conditions using human blood. Moreover, we compared the ability of such brushes--grafted on quartz via an adlayer analogous to that used on polycarbonate--to prevent protein adsorption from human blood plasma, assessed for the first time by means of an ultrahigh frequency acoustic wave sensor. Results show that the prevention of such a phenomenon constitutes one promising route toward enhanced resistance to thrombus formation, and suggest that antifouling polymer brushes could be of service in biomedical applications requiring extensive blood-material surface contact.

  10. Optical brush: Imaging through permuted probes.

    PubMed

    Heshmat, Barmak; Lee, Ik Hyun; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    The combination of computational techniques and ultrafast imaging have enabled sensing through unconventional settings such as around corners, and through diffusive media. We exploit time of flight (ToF) measurements to enable a flexible interface for imaging through permuted set of fibers. The fibers are randomly distributed in the scene and are packed on the camera end, thus making a brush-like structure. The scene is illuminated by two off-axis optical pulses. Temporal signatures of fiber tips in the scene are used to localize each fiber. Finally, by combining the position and measured intensity of each fiber, the original input is reconstructed. Unlike conventional fiber bundles with packed set of fibers that are limited by a narrow field of view (FOV), lack of flexibility, and extended coaxial precalibration, the proposed optical brush is flexible and uses off-axis calibration method based on ToF. The enabled brush form can couple to other types of ToF imaging systems. This can impact probe-based applications such as, endoscopy, tomography, and industrial imaging and sensing. PMID:26868954

  11. Optical brush: Imaging through permuted probes

    PubMed Central

    Heshmat, Barmak; Lee, Ik Hyun; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    The combination of computational techniques and ultrafast imaging have enabled sensing through unconventional settings such as around corners, and through diffusive media. We exploit time of flight (ToF) measurements to enable a flexible interface for imaging through permuted set of fibers. The fibers are randomly distributed in the scene and are packed on the camera end, thus making a brush-like structure. The scene is illuminated by two off-axis optical pulses. Temporal signatures of fiber tips in the scene are used to localize each fiber. Finally, by combining the position and measured intensity of each fiber, the original input is reconstructed. Unlike conventional fiber bundles with packed set of fibers that are limited by a narrow field of view (FOV), lack of flexibility, and extended coaxial precalibration, the proposed optical brush is flexible and uses off-axis calibration method based on ToF. The enabled brush form can couple to other types of ToF imaging systems. This can impact probe-based applications such as, endoscopy, tomography, and industrial imaging and sensing. PMID:26868954

  12. Helicobacter (Campylobacter) pylori in gastric brushing cytology.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, P R; Carrozza, M J; Ruggiero, F M; Calafati, S A; Jann, R C

    1992-01-01

    Helicobacter (formerly Campylobacter) pylori is frequently associated with chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer and has been implicated as an etiologic agent. Identification of H. pylori is important for specific treatment with antibiotics and bismuth compounds. We studied 27 patients who presented with symptoms of gastritis or peptic ulcer on whom paired gastric biopsies and gastric brushings for cytology had been performed. Biopsies were stained with H & E and Warthin-Starry or Giemsa for H. pylori. Previously, Papanicolaou-stained brushings were restained with Giemsa and reviewed blindly by two cytologists. Cytologic examination revealed the characteristic 1-3 mu curved or spiral gram-negative bacilli embedded in mucus in 12 of 27 (44%) of cases. Biopsies showed H. pylori in 13 of 27 (48%) of cases. Cytology and histology were concordant in 22 of 27 (81%) of cases. Three cases were positive on biopsy, negative on cytology; two of these were unsatisfactory cytology specimens. Two cases were positive on cytology, negative on biopsy, apparently sampling artifacts. Papanicolaou-stained slides were scored for several morphologic parameters; numbers of acute and chronic inflammatory cells and degree of cytologic atypia. None of these were predictive of the presence of H. pylori. We conclude that Giemsa-stained gastric brushings are a useful complement to gastric biopsies in establishing the diagnosis of H. pylori.

  13. Professional brushing study comparing the effectiveness of sonic brush heads with manual toothbrushes: a single blinded, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pelka, Anna-Kristina; Nagler, Tonia; Hopp, Imke; Petschelt, Anselm; Pelka, Matthias Anton

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the plaque removal efficacy of four toothbrushes: the Philips Sonicare Elite with medium and mini brush heads, the Elmex Sensitive, and the American Dental Association (ADA) reference toothbrush. This study was a randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, four-brush crossover design study, which examined plaque removal following a consecutive repeated use. All brushes were used on each participant in a randomly assigned quadrant of the mouth. A total of 90 subjects participated in the study. Prior to the experiment, they received a professional prophylaxis and were requested to refrain from toothbrushing for 48 h. Teeth were professionally brushed consecutively for 10 to 90 s per quadrant. A Turesky-modified Quigley Hein Index score was assessed at baseline and after each brushing interval by one blinded investigator. Results showed reduction of mean plaque scores for all brushes with time from 10 to 90 s. After 30 s (2-min whole mouth equivalent) of brushing, the Sonicare brushes cleaned 19, the ADA brush 16, and the Elmex Sensitive 10 of in average 28 tooth surfaces. With time, the number of additional cleaned surfaces decreased. Time is an important variable in the evaluation of plaque-removing efficacy since absolute efficacy increases with time and differs per toothbrush. No differences could be found between the two brush heads of the Sonicare.

  14. Electrolyte-induced collapse of a polyelectrolyte brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biesalski, M.; Johannsmann, D.; Rühe, J.

    2004-05-01

    We have investigated the electrolyte-induced collapse of a polyelectrolyte brush covalently attached to a planar solid surface. Positively charged poly-4-vinyl [N-methyl-pyridinium] (MePVP) brushes were prepared in situ at the surface by free radical chain polymerization using a surface-immobilized initiator monolayer ("grafting from" technique) and 4-vinylpyridine as the monomer, followed by a polymer-analogous quaternization reaction. The height of the brushes was measured as a function of the external salt concentration via multiple-angle null ellipsometry. As predicted by mean-field theory, the height of the MePVP brushes remains unaffected by the addition of low amounts of external salt. At higher salt concentrations the brush height decreases. The extent to which the brush shrinks strongly depends on the nature of the salt present in the environment. MePVP brushes collapse to almost the dry layer thickness upon the addition of potassium iodide to a contacting aqueous medium. In contrast, the collapse of MePVP brushes having bromide or chloride counterions is much less pronounced. These brushes remain in a highly swollen state even after large amounts of salt have been added to the solution.

  15. Development of a novel antifouling platform for biosensing probe immobilization from methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-containing copolymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Akkahat, Piyaporn; Kiatkamjornwong, Suda; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Hoven, Voravee P; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko

    2012-04-01

    The immobilization of thiol-terminated poly[(methacrylic acid)-ran-(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine)] (PMAMPC-SH) brushes on gold-coated surface plasmon resonance (SPR) chips was performed using the "grafting to" approach via self-assembly formation. The copolymer brushes provide both functionalizability and antifouling characteristics, desirable features mandatorily required for the development of an effective platform for probe immobilization in biosensing applications. The carboxyl groups from the methacrylic acid (MA) units were employed for attaching active biomolecules that can act as sensing probes for biospecific detection of target molecules, whereas the 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) units were introduced to suppress unwanted nonspecific adsorption. The detection efficiency of the biotin-immobilized PMAMPC brushes with the target molecule, avidin (AVD), was evaluated in blood plasma in comparison with the conventional 2D monolayer of 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) and homopolymer brushes of poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA) also immobilized with biotin using the SPR technique. Copolymer brushes with 79 mol % MPC composition and a molecular weight of 49.3 kDa yielded the platform for probe immobilization with the best performance considering its high S/N ratio as compared with platforms based on MUA and PMA brushes. In addition, the detection limit for detecting AVD in blood plasma solution was found to be 1.5 nM (equivalent to 100 ng/mL). The results have demonstrated the potential for using these newly developed surface-attached PMAMPC brushes for probe immobilization and subsequent detection of designated target molecules in complex matrices such as blood plasma and clinical samples.

  16. Effect of Frequency of Brushing Teeth on Plaque and Calculus Accumulation, and Gingivitis in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Colin; Serfilippi, Laurie; Barnvos, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of brushing the teeth of beagle dogs in a randomized, controlled, blinded study design using a clearly-defined brushing technique was evaluated for 4 brushing frequencies: brushing daily, brushing every other day, brushing weekly and brushing every other week, compared with no brushing in a control group of dogs. All dogs were fed a standard dry kibble diet during the study. Standard plaque, calculus, and gingivitis indices were used to score the teeth. A 'clean tooth' model was used. No gingival or non-gingival lacerations or other signs of injury to oral tissues were found at the end of the 28 day trial period. Brushing more frequently had greater effectiveness in retarding accumulation of plaque and calculus, and reducing the severity of pre-existing gingivitis. Brushing daily or every other day produced statistically significant improved results compared with brushing weekly or every other week. Based on the results of this study, daily brushing is recommended.

  17. Effect of Frequency of Brushing Teeth on Plaque and Calculus Accumulation, and Gingivitis in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Colin; Serfilippi, Laurie; Barnvos, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of brushing the teeth of beagle dogs in a randomized, controlled, blinded study design using a clearly-defined brushing technique was evaluated for 4 brushing frequencies: brushing daily, brushing every other day, brushing weekly and brushing every other week, compared with no brushing in a control group of dogs. All dogs were fed a standard dry kibble diet during the study. Standard plaque, calculus, and gingivitis indices were used to score the teeth. A 'clean tooth' model was used. No gingival or non-gingival lacerations or other signs of injury to oral tissues were found at the end of the 28 day trial period. Brushing more frequently had greater effectiveness in retarding accumulation of plaque and calculus, and reducing the severity of pre-existing gingivitis. Brushing daily or every other day produced statistically significant improved results compared with brushing weekly or every other week. Based on the results of this study, daily brushing is recommended. PMID:26197686

  18. Comparison of intestinal brush-border 95-Kdalton polypeptide and alpha- actinins

    PubMed Central

    1980-01-01

    To explore the suggestion that alpha-actinin cross-links actin filaments to the microvillar membrane (Mooseker and Tilney, 1975, J. Cell Biol. 67:725--743; Mooseker, 1976, J. Cell Biol. 71-417--433), we have assessed the possible relatedness of alpha-actinin and the brush- border 95-kdalton protein by four independent criteria: antigenicity, mobility on SDS gels, extractability in nonionic detergents, and peptide maps. We have found that anti-chicken gizzard alpha-actinin stains the junctional complex region of intact cells (Craig and Pardo, 1979, J. Cell Biol. 80:203--210) but does not stain isolated brush borders even though these structures contain a 95-kdalton polypeptide. Lack of staining is not caused by failure of the antibody to penetrate, as antiactin stains both the terminal web and the microvilli of isolated brush borders. By the antibody SDS gel overlay technique, we have established that anti-gizzard alpha-actinin recognizes homologous molecules in chicken skeletal and cardiac muscles, as well as in intestinal epithelial cells, but fails to recognize the brush-border 95- kdalton polypeptide. Conversely, anti-95-kdalton polypeptide does not recognize gizzard alpha-actinin. On high-resolution SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, alpha-actinin and brush-border 95-kdalton protein exhibit distinct mobilities. The two proteins also differ in their ability to be extracted in nonionic mobilities. The two proteins also differ in their ability to be extracted in nonionic detergent: epithelial cell immunoreactive alpha-actinin is soluble in NP-40, whereas 95-kdalton protein is insoluble. Finally, two-dimensional peptide mapping of iodinated tryptic peptides, as well as one- dimensional fingerprinting of partial tryptic, chymotryptic, papain, and S. aureus V8 protease digests, have revealed less than 5% homology between gizzard alpha-actinin and brush-border 95-kdalton polypeptide. The data suggest that there is no major structural homology between gizzard

  19. Polymer absorption in dense polymer brushes vs. polymer adsorption on the brush-solvent interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milchev, Andrey; Binder, Kurt

    2014-06-01

    Molecular-dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained model of a dense brush of flexible polymers (of type A) interacting with a long flexible macromolecule (of type B) are presented, considering the case of an attractive AB interaction, while effective interactions between AA and BB pairs of monomers are repulsive. Varying the strength \\varepsilon_{AB} of the attraction between unlike monomers, an adsorption transition at some critical value \\varepsilon^c_{AB} is found, where the B-chain is bound to the brush-solvent interface, similar to the adsorption on a planar solid substrate. However, when \\varepsilon_{AB} is much higher than \\varepsilon^c_{AB} , the long macromolecule is gradually “sucked in” the brush, developing many pieces that are locally stretched in the z-direction perpendicular to the substrate, in order to fit between the brush chains. The resulting hairpin-like structures of the absorbed chain shows up via oscillatory decay of the bond vector autocorrelation function. Chain relaxation is only possible via reptation.

  20. Brush cells in the human duodenojejunal junction: an ultrastructural study

    PubMed Central

    Morroni, Manrico; Cangiotti, Angela Maria; Cinti, Saverio

    2007-01-01

    Brush cells have been identified in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract mucosa of many mammalian species. In humans they are found in the respiratory tract and the gastrointestinal apparatus, in both the stomach and the gallbladder. The function of brush cells is unknown, and most morphological data have been obtained in rodents. To extend our knowledge of human brush cells, we performed an ultrastructural investigation of human small intestine brush cells. Six brush cells identified in five out of more than 300 small intestine biopsies performed for gastrointestinal tract disorders were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Five brush cells were located on the surface epithelium and one in a crypt. The five surface brush cells were characterized by a narrow apical pole from which emerged microvilli that were longer and thicker than those of enterocytes. The filamentous core extended far into the cell body without forming the terminal web. Caveolae were abundant. Filaments were in the form of microfilaments and intermediate filaments. Cytoplasmic projections containing filaments were found on the basolateral surface of brush cells. In a single cell, axons containing vesicles and dense core granules were in close contact both with the basal and the lateral surface of the cell. The crypt brush cell appeared less mature. We concluded that human small intestine brush cells share a similar ultrastructural biology with those of other mammals. They are polarized and well-differentiated cells endowed with a distinctive cytoskeleton. The observation of nerve fibres closely associated with brush cells, never previously described in humans, lends support to the hypothesis of a receptor role for these cells. PMID:17509089

  1. Flows in Pinned Arrays Simulating Brush Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R.C.; Kudriavtsev, V. V.; Braun, M. J.; Athavale, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Flows through idealized pin arrays were investigated using an unstructured grid finite difference model and the simplified Ergun model to predict leakage flows and pressure drops in brush seals. The models are in good agreement in the laminar region with departures in the laminar-turbulent transition region defined by the simplified Ergun model. No local disturbances in the velocity or pressure fields, symptomatic of turbulence were found in the numerical results. The simplified model failed to predict the pressure drop of a 32-pin anisotropic array. Transitional and anisotropic behavior requires

  2. Carbon nanotube surface modification with polyelectrolyte brushes endowed with quantum dots and metal oxide nanoparticles through in situ synthesis.

    PubMed

    Llarena, Irantzu; Romero, Gabriela; Ziolo, Ronald F; Moya, Sergio E

    2010-02-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been successfully coated with a covalently bonded polymer brush of negatively charged poly(3-sulfopropylamino methacrylate) (PSPM) by in situ polymerization employing atomic transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) from initiating silanes attached to the CNTs before the polymerization. The CNT-bonded brush forms a polymer layer or shell-like structure around the CNTs and provides colloidal stabilization for the CNTs in aqueous media. In situ syntheses of nanocrystalline CdS and magnetic iron oxide in the polymer brushes lead to the formation of hybrid nanocomposites consisting of nanoparticle-containing PSPM-coated CNTs that remain readily dispersible and stable in aqueous media. The hybrid nanostructures are synthesized by ion exchange with the cations of the sulfonate groups of the PSPM followed by precipitation and were followed by stepwise zeta potential measurements and TEM. Such structures could have applications in the design of more complex structures and devices. The general synthetic scheme can be extended to include other nanoparticles as brush cargo to broaden the utility or functionality of the CNTs. TEM data shows nanocrystalline CdS in the range of 5-8 nm embedded in the PSPM brush and nanocrystalline iron oxide with a size between 2 and 4 nm, with the former consistent with UV-vis spectroscopy and fluorescence measurements. PMID:20032551

  3. Protein-resistant NTA-functionalized polymer brushes for selective and stable immobilization of histidine-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    Gautrot, Julien E; Huck, Wilhelm T S; Welch, Martin; Ramstedt, Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    Protein-resistant polymeric coatings that allow highly selective immobilization of specific biomolecules are essential for biomedical applications such as microarrays, biosensing, heterogeneous catalysis, and bioengineering. Polymer brushes are particularly interesting for this purpose because their chemical structure and physical properties can easily be tailored to meet specific needs. This article explores the functionalization of two protein-resistant polymer brushes, poly(oligoethylene glycol methacrylate) (POEGMA) and poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), with nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) moieties that can complex histidine-tagged (His-tagged) proteins selectively and reversibly. Using fluorescence microscopy, IR spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, surface plasmon resonanace, and ellipsometry, we demonstrate that His-tagged green fluorescent protein can be immobilized on NTA brushes with high stability and loading. The loading saturation reached for NTA-POEGMA is higher than that for NTA-PHEMA because of increased swelling of the former brush. Despite this higher loading capacity, NTA-POEGMA remained highly protein-resistant, which shows its potential for "clean" and specific protein immobilization. Finally, we showed that the preserved protein resistance of NTA-POEGMA brushes can be used to generate well-defined binary biofunctional patterns via a simple protocol of incubations and washes. These patterns may find applications in cell arraying and screening. PMID:20356235

  4. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  10. Improved Steam Turbine Leakage Control with a Brush Seal Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnquist, Norman; Chupp, Raymond E.; Pastrana, Ryan; Wolfe, Chris; Burnett, Mark

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents an improved steam turbine leakage control system with a brush seal design. The contents include: 1) Typical Design Characteristics; 2) Typical Brush Seal Locations; 3) Reduced Leakage Rates; 4) Performance Benefits; 5) System Considerations; 6) Rotor Dynamics; 7) Laboratory Tests and 8) Field Experience.

  11. Preliminary experimental results for a cryogenic brush seal configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlile, J. A.; Hendricks, R. C.; Hibbs, R. I.; McVey, S. E.; Scharrer, J. K.

    1993-06-01

    Preliminary fluid nitrogen flow data are reported for a five-brush, ceramic-coated-rub-runner brush seal system, where the brushes and the rub runner were placed at each end of a centrally pressurized multifunction tester ('back-to-back' set of brushes) and tested at rotor speeds of 0, 10, 18, and 22.5 krpm. After testing, both the brushes and the ceramic-coated rub runner appeared pristine. The coating withstood both the thermomechanical and dynamic loadings with minor wear track scarring. The bristle tips showed some indication of material shearing (smearing) wear. The Ergun porous flow equation was applied to the brush seal data. The Ergun relation, which required heuristic information to characterize the coefficients, fit the gaseous data but was in poor agreement with the fluid results. The brush seal exit conditions were two phase. Two-phase, choked-flow design charts were applied but required one data point at each rotor speed to define the (C(sub f)A x Constant) flow and area coefficients. Reasonable agreement between prediction and data was found, as expected, but such methods are not to be construed as two-phase-flow brush seal analyses.

  12. Preliminary experimental results for a cryogenic brush seal configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlile, J. A.; Hendricks, R. C.; Hibbs, R. I.; McVey, S. E.; Scharrer, J. K.

    1993-06-01

    Preliminary fluid nitrogen flow data are reported for a five-brush, ceramic-coated-rub-runner brush seal system, where the brushes and the rub runner were placed at each end of a centrally pressurized multifunction tester ('back-to-back' set of brushes) and tested at rotor speeds of 0, 10, 18, and 22.5 krpm. After testing, both the brushes and the ceramic-coated rub runner appeared pristine. The coating withstood both the thermomechanical and dynamic loadings with minor wear track scarring. The bristle tips showed some indication of material shearing (smearing) wear. The Ergun (1952) porous flow equation was applied to the brush seal data. The Ergun relation fit the gaseous data but was in poor agreement with the fluid results. The brush seal exit conditions were two phase. Two-phase, choked-flow design charts were applied but required one data point at each rotor speed to define the flow and area coefficients. Reasonable agreement between prediction and data was found, but such methods are not to be construed as two-phase-flow brush seal analyses.

  13. 75 FR 39706 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... the antidumping duty order on natural bristle paint brushes from China (75 FR 21347, April 23, 2010... revoke the order on June 16, 2010 (75 FR 34097). In light of these developments, the Commission is... COMMISSION Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China AGENCY: United States International Trade...

  14. Effects of material choices on brush seal performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Edward; Bristol, Brent

    1992-09-01

    This paper discusses some of the initial hot and cold material testing undertaken in a brush seal development program. It describes the effects of material selection on relative wear and leakage of brush seals. Criteria for ranking wear couples are addressed.

  15. 75 FR 18237 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 56666, November 2, 2009) was adequate and that... COMMISSION Natural Bristle Paint Brushes From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... duty order on natural bristle paint brushes from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  5. A Critique of the Brushing for Life Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downer, Martin C.; Drugan, Caroline S.; Blinkhorn, Anthony S.

    2006-01-01

    Background and objective: Brushing for Life is intended to promote regular brushing of children's teeth with fluoride toothpaste. The programme is delivered by health visitors who provide toothbrushes, toothpaste and dental health education material at children's 8, 18 and 36 month development checks. The purpose of the present paper was to…

  6. Nanopatterned polymer brushes by reactive writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawroth, Jonas F.; Neisser, Claudia; Erbe, Artur; Jordan, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    Polymer brush patterns were prepared by a combination of electron beam induced damage in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), creating a stable carbonaceous deposit, and consecutive self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization (SIPGP). This newly applied technique, reactive writing (RW), is investigated with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane SAM (PF-SAM) on silicon oxide, which, when modified by RW, can be selectively functionalized by SIPGP. With the monomer N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), we demonstrate the straightforward formation of polymer brush gradients and single polymer lines of sub-100 nm lateral dimensions, with high contrast to the PF-SAM background. The lithography parameters acceleration voltage, irradiation dose, beam current and dwell time were systematically varied to identify the optimal conditions for the maximum conversion of the SAM into a carbonaceous deposit. The results of this approach were compared to patterns prepared by carbon templating (CT) under analogous conditions, revealing a dwell time dependency, which differs from earlier reports. This new technique expands the range of CT by giving the opportunity to not only vary the chemistry of the created polymer patterns with monomer choice but also vary the chemistry of the surrounding substrate.

  7. Nanopatterned polymer brushes by reactive writing.

    PubMed

    Nawroth, Jonas F; Neisser, Claudia; Erbe, Artur; Jordan, Rainer

    2016-04-14

    Polymer brush patterns were prepared by a combination of electron beam induced damage in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), creating a stable carbonaceous deposit, and consecutive self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization (SIPGP). This newly applied technique, reactive writing (RW), is investigated with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane SAM (PF-SAM) on silicon oxide, which, when modified by RW, can be selectively functionalized by SIPGP. With the monomer N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), we demonstrate the straightforward formation of polymer brush gradients and single polymer lines of sub-100 nm lateral dimensions, with high contrast to the PF-SAM background. The lithography parameters acceleration voltage, irradiation dose, beam current and dwell time were systematically varied to identify the optimal conditions for the maximum conversion of the SAM into a carbonaceous deposit. The results of this approach were compared to patterns prepared by carbon templating (CT) under analogous conditions, revealing a dwell time dependency, which differs from earlier reports. This new technique expands the range of CT by giving the opportunity to not only vary the chemistry of the created polymer patterns with monomer choice but also vary the chemistry of the surrounding substrate. PMID:26902916

  8. Brush seal shaft wear resistant coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Harold

    1995-03-01

    Brush seals suffer from high wear, which reduces their effectiveness. This work sought to reduce brush seal wear by identifying and testing several industry standard coatings. One of the coatings was developed for this work. It was a co-sprayed PSZ with boron-nitride added for a high temperature dry lubricant. Other coatings tested were a PSZ, chrome carbide and a bare rotor. Testing of these coatings included thermal shocking, tensile testing and wear/coefficient of friction testing. Wear testing consisted of applying a coating to a rotor and then running a sample tuft of SiC ceramic fiber against the coating. Surface speeds at point of contact were slightly over 1000 ft/sec. Rotor wear was noted, as well as coefficient of friction data. Results from the testing indicates that the oxide ceramic coatings cannot withstand the given set of conditions. Carbide coatings will not work because of the need for a metallic binder, which oxidizes in the high heat produced by friction. All work indicated a need for a coating that has a lubricant contained within itself and the coating must be resistant to an oxidizing environment.

  9. Adapting low-adhesive thin films from mixed polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Sheparovych, Roman; Motornov, Mikhail; Minko, Sergiy

    2008-12-16

    The concept of the responsive/adaptive mixed polymer brushes was applied to the development of the thin film coatings possessing low adhesive properties that were evaluated with AFM probes in different media. Mixed brushes composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyethyleneoxide (PEO) revealed a selective layered segregation in air and water. Immersion of the sample into an aqueous environment drove PEO chains to the brush-water interface while upon drying the surface undergoing reconstruction and was occupied with PDMS. Low interfacial energies of PDMS in air and PEO in water provided low-adhesive properties of the PDMS-PEO brushes to the probes in both media due to the spontaneous and rapid reconstruction of the mixed brush.

  10. Simple effective thickness model for circular brush seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowler, Constance A.; Chupp, Raymond E.; Holle, Glenn F.

    1992-07-01

    Brush seals are being investigated as replacements for some of the labyrinth seals in gas turbine engines. A relatively simple flow model approach has been presented to generalize brush seal leakage throughout the range of test and application environments. The model uses a single parameter, effective brush thickness, to correlate flow through the seal. A revision to the flow model is presented in this paper to account for seal curvature, which is especially important for smaller diameter brush seals. The revised model has been applied to leakage flow data from five sources. The results demonstrate the utility of the flow model approach in correlating the performance of brush seals having different design geometries. The revised model is shown to effectively account for the effect of seal curvature.

  11. Rod-like polyelectrolyte brushes with mono- and multivalent counterions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazli, H.; Golestanian, R.; Hansen, P. L.; Kolahchi, M. R.

    2006-02-01

    A model of rod-like polyelectrolyte brushes in the presence of monovalent and multivalent counterions but with no added salt is studied using Monte Carlo simulation. The average height of the brush, the histogram of rod conformations, and the counterion density profile are obtained for different values of the grafting density of the charge-neutral wall. For a domain of grafting densities, the brush height is found to be relatively insensitive to the density due to a competition between counterion condensation and inter-rod repulsion. In this regime, multivalent counterions collapse the brush in the form of linked clusters. Nematic order emerges at high grafting densities, resulting in an abrupt increase of the brush height.

  12. Evaluating the Thickness of Multivalent Glycopolymer Brushes for Lectin Binding.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Jaroslav; Park, Hyunji; Rosencrantz, Ruben R; Böker, Alexander; Elling, Lothar; Schnakenberg, Uwe

    2015-08-01

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is applied for investigating binding of lectins to multivalent glycopolymer brushes grafted from interdigital gold microelectrodes. By variation of the measuring frequency, EIS allows simultaneous analysis of binding at different subnanometer distances from the sensor surfaces. In this way, the binding dynamics along the brushes are quantified, giving an idea about the motion of the lectin through the brush layer. Two different brush lengths are investigated, revealing distinct dynamics of lectin binding due to changing topology of the brushes. Moreover, very low K D values in the nanomolar range are obtained. This unique platform may be used as sophisticated biosensor for detailed investigation of high-affinity protein binding to poly-mer layers. PMID:26096302

  13. Applications of Polymer Brushes in Protein Analysis and Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Parul; Baker, Gregory L.; Bruening, Merlin L.

    2009-07-01

    This review examines the application of polymer brush-modified flat surfaces, membranes, and beads for protein immobilization and isolation. Modification of porous substrates with brushes yields membranes that selectively bind tagged proteins to give 99% pure protein at capacities as high as 100 mg of protein per cubic centimeter of membrane. Moreover, enrichment of phosphopeptides on brush-modified matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) plates allows detection and characterization of femtomole levels of phosphopeptides by MALDI mass spectrometry. Because swollen hydrophilic brushes can resist nonspecific protein adsorption while immobilizing a high density of proteins, they are attractive as substrates for protein microarrays. This review highlights the advantages of polymer brush-modified surfaces over self-assembled monolayers and identifies some research needs in this area.

  14. Computer Simulations of Bottle Brushes: From Melts to Soft Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Zhen; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Sheiko, Sergei S.; Dobrynin, Andrey V.

    2015-07-13

    We use a combination of Molecular dynamics simulations and analytical calculations, and study dens bottle-brush systems in a melt and network State. Analysis of our simulation results shows that bottle-brush macromolecules in melt behave as ideal chains with effective Kuhn length bK. Simulations show that the bottle-brush-induced bending rigidity is due to an entropy decrease caused by redistribution of the side chains upon backbone bending. The Kuhn length of the bottle:brushes increases with increasing the side-chain degree of polymerization nsc as bK proportional to nsc0.46. Moreover, this model of bottle brush macromolecules is extended to describe mechanical properties of bottle brush networks in linear and nonlinear deformation regimes. In the linear deformation regime, the network shear modulus scales with the degree of polymerization of the side chains as G0 proportional to (nsc + 1)-1 as long as the ratio of the Kuhn length, bK, to the size of the fully extended bottle-brush backbone between cross-links, R-max, is smaller than unity, bK/Rmax << 1. Bottle-brush networks With bK/Rmax proportional to 1 demonstrate behavior similar to that of networks Of semiflexible chains with G0 proportional to nsc-0.5. Finally, in the nonlinear network deformation regime, the deformation-dependent shear modulus is a universal function of the first strain invariant I1 and bottle-brush backbone deformation ratio beta describing stretching ability of the bottle-brush backbone between cross-links.

  15. Computer Simulations of Bottle Brushes: From Melts to Soft Networks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cao, Zhen; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Sheiko, Sergei S.; Dobrynin, Andrey V.

    2015-07-13

    We use a combination of Molecular dynamics simulations and analytical calculations, and study dens bottle-brush systems in a melt and network State. Analysis of our simulation results shows that bottle-brush macromolecules in melt behave as ideal chains with effective Kuhn length bK. Simulations show that the bottle-brush-induced bending rigidity is due to an entropy decrease caused by redistribution of the side chains upon backbone bending. The Kuhn length of the bottle:brushes increases with increasing the side-chain degree of polymerization nsc as bK proportional to nsc0.46. Moreover, this model of bottle brush macromolecules is extended to describe mechanical properties of bottlemore » brush networks in linear and nonlinear deformation regimes. In the linear deformation regime, the network shear modulus scales with the degree of polymerization of the side chains as G0 proportional to (nsc + 1)-1 as long as the ratio of the Kuhn length, bK, to the size of the fully extended bottle-brush backbone between cross-links, R-max, is smaller than unity, bK/Rmax << 1. Bottle-brush networks With bK/Rmax proportional to 1 demonstrate behavior similar to that of networks Of semiflexible chains with G0 proportional to nsc-0.5. Finally, in the nonlinear network deformation regime, the deformation-dependent shear modulus is a universal function of the first strain invariant I1 and bottle-brush backbone deformation ratio beta describing stretching ability of the bottle-brush backbone between cross-links.« less

  16. Polyelectrolyte brushes: a novel stable lubrication system in aqueous conditions.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Motoyasu; Terada, Masami; Takahara, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Surface-initiated controlled radical copolymerizations of 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride) (MTAC), and 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt (SPMK) were carried out on a silicon wafer and glass ball to prepare polyelectrolyte brushes with excellent water wettability. The frictional coefficient of the polymer brushes was recorded on a ball-on-plate type tribometer by linear reciprocating motion of the brush specimen at a selected velocity of 1.5 x 10(-3) m s-1 under a normal load of 0.49 N applied to the stationary glass ball (d = 10 mm) at 298 K. The poly(DMAEMA-co-MPC) brush partially cross-linked by bis(2-iodoethoxy)ethane maintained a relatively low friction coefficient around 0.13 under humid air (RH > 75%) even after 200 friction cycles. The poly(SPMK) brush revealed an extremely low friction coefficient around 0.01 even after 450 friction cycles. We supposed that the abrasion of the brush was prevented owing to the good affinity of the poly(SPMK) brush for water forming a water lubrication layer, and electrostatic repulsive interactions among the brushes bearing sulfonic acid groups. Furthermore, the poly(SPMK-co-MTAC) brush with a chemically cross-linked structure showed a stable low friction coefficient in water even after 1400 friction cycles under a normal load of 139 MPa, indicating that the cross-linking structure improved the wear resistance of the brush layer. PMID:23285641

  17. 75 FR 44939 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes and Brush Heads from the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... FR 5580 (February 14, 1986) and Amended Antidumping Duty Order; Natural Bristle Paint Brushes and Brush Heads From the People's Republic of China, 51 FR 8342 (March 11, 1986) (``Order''). On May 7, 2010... Order, 75 FR 34097 (June 16, 2010) (``Initiation and Preliminary Results''). As noted above, we...

  18. 75 FR 13489 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes and Brush Heads from the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009) (``Sunset Initiation''); see also Antidumping Duty Order; Natural Bristle Paint Brushes and Brush Heads From the People's Republic of China, 51 FR 5580 (February 14...'s Republic of China, 51 FR 8342 (March 11, 1986) (``Order''). Based on the notice of intent...

  19. 75 FR 34097 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes and Brush Heads From the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Brushes and Paint Brush Heads from the People's Republic of China, 51 FR 5580 (Feb. 14, 1986) and Amended... China, 51 FR 8342 (March 11, 1986) (``Order''). The domestic industry submitted a letter to the... Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the Antidumping Duty Order, 75 FR...

  20. pH- and Electro-Responsive Properties of Poly(acrylic acid) and Poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(acrylic acid-grad-styrene) Brushes Studied by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Borisova, O V; Billon, L; Richter, R P; Reimhult, E; Borisov, O V

    2015-07-14

    We report on the synthesis of novel pH- and electro-responsive polyelectrolyte brushes from a gold substrate by direct one-step nitroxide-mediated polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) or copolymerization of AA and styrene (S). In the latter case, amphiphilic brushes of block-gradient copolymers PAA-b-(PAA-grad-PS) comprising one PAA block and one block with the gradient sequence of AA and S were obtained. The block-gradient copolymers are initiated from the surface by the start of the PAA block. The brushes were characterized by XPS and ellipsometry. (1)H NMR confirmed the gradient sequence of the PAA-grad-PS copolymer block. The pH- and electro-responsive properties of the brushes were studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) in combination with electrochemistry. This method provides evidence of swelling of the PAA brushes proportional to the contour length of the chains at elevated pH, whereas the response functions of the block-gradient copolymers are more complex and point to intermolecular aggregation in the brush at low pH. Monitoring of the changes in resonance frequency and dissipation of the QCM-D also demonstrates that application of negative voltage to the substrate leads to swelling of the brush; application of a positive voltage provokes only a transient collapse of the brush in proportion to the applied voltage. PMID:26070329

  1. pH- and Electro-Responsive Properties of Poly(acrylic acid) and Poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(acrylic acid-grad-styrene) Brushes Studied by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Borisova, O V; Billon, L; Richter, R P; Reimhult, E; Borisov, O V

    2015-07-14

    We report on the synthesis of novel pH- and electro-responsive polyelectrolyte brushes from a gold substrate by direct one-step nitroxide-mediated polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) or copolymerization of AA and styrene (S). In the latter case, amphiphilic brushes of block-gradient copolymers PAA-b-(PAA-grad-PS) comprising one PAA block and one block with the gradient sequence of AA and S were obtained. The block-gradient copolymers are initiated from the surface by the start of the PAA block. The brushes were characterized by XPS and ellipsometry. (1)H NMR confirmed the gradient sequence of the PAA-grad-PS copolymer block. The pH- and electro-responsive properties of the brushes were studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) in combination with electrochemistry. This method provides evidence of swelling of the PAA brushes proportional to the contour length of the chains at elevated pH, whereas the response functions of the block-gradient copolymers are more complex and point to intermolecular aggregation in the brush at low pH. Monitoring of the changes in resonance frequency and dissipation of the QCM-D also demonstrates that application of negative voltage to the substrate leads to swelling of the brush; application of a positive voltage provokes only a transient collapse of the brush in proportion to the applied voltage.

  2. Sterilization effects of atmospheric cold plasma brush

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Q.S.; Huang, C.; Hsieh, F.-H.; Huff, H.; Duan Yixiang

    2006-01-02

    This study investigated the sterilization effects of a brush-shaped plasma created at one atmospheric pressure. A population of 1.0x10{sup 4}-1.0x10{sup 5} Escherichia coli or Micrococcus luteus bacteria was seeded in filter paper media and then subjected to Ar and/or Ar+O{sub 2} plasmas. A complete kill of the Micrococcus luteus required about 3 min argon plasma exposures. With oxygen addition into the argon plasma gas streams, a complete kill of the bacteria needed only less than 1 min plasma exposure for Micrococcus luteus and about 2 min exposure for Escherichia coli. The plasma treatment effects on the different bacteria cell structures were examined using scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Color of smoke from brush fires.

    PubMed

    Lynch, David K; Bernstein, Lawrence S

    2008-12-01

    Smoke clouds from brush fires usually appear reddish or brownish when viewed from below in transmission, while a thin smoke cloud or part of a thick cloud near its periphery is noticeably bluish. Yet, when viewed from above in backscatter, the smoke appears bluish-white. We present observations of smoke clouds and explain their varied colors using a simple one-dimensional two-stream multiple scattering/absorbing radiative transfer approach for a model cloud whose particles are much smaller than the wavelength of visible light, the Rayleigh limit. The colors are purely the result of Rayleigh scattering and are not significantly influenced by the intrinsic color (wavelength-dependent albedo) of the particles.

  4. Thermal Conductance of Poly(3-methylthiophene) Brushes.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anandi; Bougher, Thomas L; Geng, Rugang; Ke, Yutian; Locklin, Jason; Cola, Baratunde A

    2016-09-28

    A wide variety of recent work has demonstrated that the thermal conductivity of polymers can be improved dramatically through the alignment of polymer chains in the direction of heat transfer. Most of the polymeric samples exhibit high conductivity in either the axial direction of a fiber or in the in-plane direction of a thin film, while the most useful direction for thermal management is often the cross-plane direction of a film. Here we show poly(3-methylthiophene) brushes grafted from phosphonic acid monolayers using surface initiated polymerization can exhibit through-plane thermal conductivity greater than 2 W/(m K), a 6-fold increase compared to spin-coated poly(3-hexylthiophene) samples. The thickness of these films (10-40 nm) is somewhat less than that required in most applications, but the method demonstrates a route toward higher thermal conductivity in covalently grafted, aligned polymer films. PMID:27579585

  5. Nanoparticle organization in sandwiched polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Curk, Tine; Martinez-Veracoechea, Francisco J; Frenkel, Daan; Dobnikar, Jure

    2014-05-14

    The organization of nanoparticles inside grafted polymer layers is governed by the interplay of polymer-induced entropic interactions and the action of externally applied fields. Earlier work had shown that strong external forces can drive the formation of colloidal structures in polymer brushes. Here we show that external fields are not essential to obtain such colloidal patterns: we report Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations that demonstrate that ordered structures can be achieved by compressing a "sandwich" of two grafted polymer layers, or by squeezing a coated nanotube, with nanoparticles in between. We show that the pattern formation can be efficiently controlled by the applied pressure, while the characteristic length-scale, that is, the typical width of the patterns, is sensitive to the length of the polymers. Based on the results of the simulations, we derive an approximate equation of state for nanosandwiches. PMID:24707901

  6. Brushing abrasion of luting cements under neutral and acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Buchalla, W; Attin, T; Hellwig, E

    2000-01-01

    Four resin based materials (Compolute Aplicap, ESPE; Variolink Ultra, Vivadent; C&B Metabond, Parkell and Panavia 21, Kuraray), two carboxylate cements (Poly-F Plus, Dentsply DeTrey and Durelon Maxicap, ESPE), two glass-ionomer cements (Fuji I, GC and Ketac-Cem Aplicap, ESPE), one resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer, 3M) one polyacid-modified resin composite (Dyract Cem, Dentsply DeTrey) and one zinc phosphate cement (Harvard, Richter & Hoffmann) were investigated according to their brushing resistance after storage in neutral and acidic buffer solutions. For this purpose 24 cylindrical acrylic molds were each filled with the materials. After hardening, the samples were stored for seven days in 100% relative humidity and at 37 degrees C. Subsequently, they were ground flat and polished. Then each specimen was covered with an adhesive tape leaving a 4 mm wide window on the cement surface. Twelve samples of each material were stored for 24 hours in a buffer solution with a pH of 6.8. The remaining 12 samples were placed in a buffer with a pH of 3.0. All specimens were then subjected to a three media brushing abrasion (2,000 strokes) in an automatic brushing machine. Storage and brushing were performed three times. After 6,000 brushing strokes per specimen, the tape was removed. Brushing abrasion was measured with a computerized laser profilometer and statistically analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey's Standardized Range Test (p < or = 0.05). The highest brushing abrasion was found for the two carboxylate cements. The lowest brushing abrasion was found for one resin based material, Compolute Aplicap. With the exception of three resin-based materials, a lower pH led to a higher brushing abrasion.

  7. Ionic Surfactant Binding to pH-Responsive Polyelectrolyte Brush-Grafted Nanoparticles in Suspension and on Charged Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Riley, John K; An, Junxue; Tilton, Robert D

    2015-12-29

    The interactions between silica nanoparticles grafted with a brush of cationic poly(2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) (SiO2-g-PDMAEMA) and anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is investigated by dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation, ellipsometry, and atomic force microscopy. SiO2-g-PDMAEMA exhibits pH-dependent charge and size properties which enable the SDS binding to be probed over a range of electrostatic conditions and brush conformations. SDS monomers bind irreversibly to SiO2-g-PDMAEMA at low surfactant concentrations (∼10(-4) M) while exhibiting a pH-dependent threshold above which cooperative, partially reversible SDS binding occurs. At pH 5, SDS binding induces collapse of the highly charged and swollen brush as observed in the bulk by DLS and on surfaces by QCM-D. Similar experiments at pH 9 suggest that SDS binds to the periphery of the weakly charged and deswollen brush and produces SiO2-g-PDMAEMA/SDS complexes with a net negative charge. SiO2-g-PDMAEMA brush collapse and charge neutralization is further confirmed by colloidal probe AFM measurements, where reduced electrosteric repulsions and bridging adhesion are attributed to effects of the bound SDS. Additionally, sequential adsorption schemes with SDS and SiO2-g-PDMAEMA are used to enhance deposition relative to SiO2-g-PDMAEMA direct adsorption on silica. This work shows that the polyelectrolyte brush configuration responds in a more dramatic fashion to SDS than to pH-induced changes in ionization, and this can be exploited to manipulate the structure of adsorbed layers and the corresponding forces of compression and friction between opposing surfaces.

  8. Liposomes remain intact when complexed with polycationic brushes.

    PubMed

    Yaroslavov, Alexander A; Sybachin, Andrei V; Schrinner, Marc; Ballauff, Matthias; Tsarkova, Larisa; Kesselman, Ellina; Schmidt, Judith; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Menger, Fredric M

    2010-05-01

    Anionic liposomes adsorb onto the surface of spherical polymer particles bearing grafted linear cationic macromolecules. The size, shape, and encapsulation ability of the liposomes remain unchanged upon adsorption, thus providing immobilized self-organizing containers that have potential applications in the biomedical field. PMID:20387892

  9. Zwitterionic-based stainless steel with well-defined polysulfobetaine brushes for general bioadhesive control.

    PubMed

    Sin, Mei-Chan; Sun, Yi-Ming; Chang, Yung

    2014-01-22

    Stainless steels are widely used as orthopaedic and dental implant; however, bioadhesion in the case of thrombosis, inflammation, and infection is one of their major limitations. One way to tackle this problem is to graft the stainless steel surface with a zwitterionic polymer known for being anti-bioadhesive. Controlled atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (polySBMA) grafted from biomedical grade stainless steel surface was employed in this study. The interactions of polySBMA-grafted surfaces with biomacromolecules were demonstrated in vitro by the adhesion tests of plasma protein, blood cells, human MG63 osteoblast- and HT1080 fibroblast-like cells in biological complex media to evaluate their bioadhesive properties. Anti-microbial effects were also assessed for two most ordinary seen clinical bacteria, i.e., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Results showed that polySBMA-grafted surface exhibited evident bioadhesion resistance and conferring antibacterial efficacy. This work is also dedicated to deduce the effectiveness of polySBMA brushes' conformational structure on the prevention of bioadhesion. To this aim, the anti-bioadhesive effect of polySBMA brushes prepared by dopamine- and silane-surfaced immobilization method was evaluated. Results show that polySBMA grafted from immobilized polydopamine interfacial layers achieved better bioadhesion resistance, which could be causally related to their greater grafting coverage, flexible brush conformational structures, and greater hydration capabilities. PMID:24351074

  10. Ambient, rapid and facile deposition of polymer brushes for immobilization of plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilmaz, Hatice; Pekdemir, Sami; Ipekci, Hasan H.; Kiremitler, N. Burak; Hancer, Mehmet; Onses, M. Serdar

    2016-11-01

    The immobilization of nanoparticles (NPs) is of great interest to many technological applications and scientific fields. Methods to immobilize NPs either lack the uniformity, robustness and controllability or require complex and impractical preparation techniques. This paper aims in closing this gap by presenting practical routes in preparation of poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (P2VP) brush grafted silicon oxide terminated substrates for immobilization of NPs. Here, we demonstrate that hydroxyl-terminated P2VP can be deposited using different coating techniques and grafted in air at processing times as short as a few minutes. The grafted P2VP brushes can immobilize spherical Au nanoparticles that are 20 nm in diameter, on the surface of substrates with densities as high as ∼600 particles/μm2. The density of the immobilized NPs can be further tuned with the grafting conditions and duration of the particle treatment. More than 80% of the grafted brushes and Au NPs remain on the substrate following abrasion tests proving mechanical robustness of the coatings. The immobilized Au NPs can impart surface enhanced Raman scattering effects in sensing of molecules, illustrating a representative use of the presented platform.

  11. The cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin2 regulates brush border length and organization in Drosophila renal tubules

    PubMed Central

    Halberg, Kenneth A.; Rainey, Stephanie M.; Veland, Iben R.; Neuert, Helen; Dornan, Anthony J.; Klämbt, Christian; Davies, Shireen-Anne; Dow, Julian A. T.

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular organisms rely on cell adhesion molecules to coordinate cell–cell interactions, and to provide navigational cues during tissue formation. In Drosophila, Fasciclin 2 (Fas2) has been intensively studied due to its role in nervous system development and maintenance; yet, Fas2 is most abundantly expressed in the adult renal (Malpighian) tubule rather than in neuronal tissues. The role Fas2 serves in this epithelium is unknown. Here we show that Fas2 is essential to brush border maintenance in renal tubules of Drosophila. Fas2 is dynamically expressed during tubule morphogenesis, localizing to the brush border whenever the tissue is transport competent. Genetic manipulations of Fas2 expression levels impact on both microvilli length and organization, which in turn dramatically affect stimulated rates of fluid secretion by the tissue. Consequently, we demonstrate a radically different role for this well-known cell adhesion molecule, and propose that Fas2-mediated intermicrovillar homophilic adhesion complexes help stabilize the brush border. PMID:27072072

  12. The cell adhesion molecule Fasciclin2 regulates brush border length and organization in Drosophila renal tubules.

    PubMed

    Halberg, Kenneth A; Rainey, Stephanie M; Veland, Iben R; Neuert, Helen; Dornan, Anthony J; Klämbt, Christian; Davies, Shireen-Anne; Dow, Julian A T

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular organisms rely on cell adhesion molecules to coordinate cell-cell interactions, and to provide navigational cues during tissue formation. In Drosophila, Fasciclin 2 (Fas2) has been intensively studied due to its role in nervous system development and maintenance; yet, Fas2 is most abundantly expressed in the adult renal (Malpighian) tubule rather than in neuronal tissues. The role Fas2 serves in this epithelium is unknown. Here we show that Fas2 is essential to brush border maintenance in renal tubules of Drosophila. Fas2 is dynamically expressed during tubule morphogenesis, localizing to the brush border whenever the tissue is transport competent. Genetic manipulations of Fas2 expression levels impact on both microvilli length and organization, which in turn dramatically affect stimulated rates of fluid secretion by the tissue. Consequently, we demonstrate a radically different role for this well-known cell adhesion molecule, and propose that Fas2-mediated intermicrovillar homophilic adhesion complexes help stabilize the brush border. PMID:27072072

  13. Lipid rafts in epithelial brush borders: atypical membrane microdomains with specialized functions.

    PubMed

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H

    2003-10-31

    Epithelial cells that fulfil high-throughput digestive/absorptive functions, such as small intestinal enterocytes and kidney proximal tubule cells, are endowed with a dense apical brush border. It has long been recognized that the microvillar surface of the brush border is organized in cholesterol/sphingolipid-enriched membrane microdomains commonly known as lipid rafts. More recent studies indicate that microvillar rafts, in particular those of enterocytes, have some unusual properties in comparison with rafts present on the surface of other cell types. Thus, microvillar rafts are stable rather than transient/dynamic, and their core components include glycolipids and the divalent lectin galectin-4, which together can be isolated as "superrafts", i.e., membrane microdomains resisting solubilization with Triton X-100 at physiological temperature. These glycolipid/lectin-based rafts serve as platforms for recruitment of GPI-linked and transmembrane digestive enzymes, most likely as an economizing effort to secure and prolong their digestive capability at the microvillar surface. However, in addition to microvilli, the brush border surface also consists of membrane invaginations between adjacent microvilli, which are the only part of the apical surface sterically accessible for membrane fusion/budding events. Many of these invaginations appear as pleiomorphic, deep apical tubules that extend up to 0.5-1 microm into the underlying terminal web region. Their sensitivity to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin suggests them to contain cholesterol-dependent lipid rafts of a different type from the glycolipid-based rafts at the microvillar surface. The brush border is thus an example of a complex membrane system that harbours at least two different types of lipid raft microdomains, each suited to fulfil specialized functions. This conclusion is in line with an emerging, more varied view of lipid rafts being pluripotent microdomains capable of adapting in size, shape, and content to

  14. Counterion-mediated protein adsorption into polyelectrolyte brushes.

    PubMed

    He, Su-Zhen; Merlitz, Holger; Sommer, Jens-Uwe; Wu, Chen-Xu

    2015-09-01

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of the interaction of fullerene-like, inhomogeneously charged proteins with polyelectrolyte brushes. A motivation of this work is the experimental observation that proteins, carrying an integral charge, may enter like-charged polymer brushes. Simulations of varying charge distributions on the protein surfaces are performed to unravel the physical mechanism of the adsorption. Our results prove that an overall neutral protein can be strongly driven into polyelectrolyte brush whenever the protein features patches of positive and negative charge. The findings reported here give further evidence that the strong adsorption of proteins is also driven by entropic forces due to counterion release, since charged patches on the surface of the proteins can act as multivalent counterions of the oppositely charged polyelectrolyte chains. A corresponding number of mobile co- and counterions is released from the brush and the vicinity of the proteins so that the entropy of the total system increases. PMID:26385737

  15. In-Plane Ordering in Diblock Copolymer Brushes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgun, Bulent; Ugur, Gokce; Brittain, William J.; Foster, Mark D.; Li, Xuefa; Wang, Jin

    2007-03-01

    Internal and surface structures of polystyrene-b-polyacrylate and polyacrylate-b-polystyrene diblock copolymer brushes have been studied using grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Each asymmetric, as-deposited diblock brush that contains a poly(methyl acrylate) (PMA) block shows an in-plane structure with a spacing comparable to the PMA layer thickness. The correlation length of the in-plane ordering is about the nearest neighbor distance and grows with annealing at 180^o C. After a brush is treated with a solvent selective for the bottom block, Bragg rods appear in the GISAXS pattern. The lateral spacing corresponding to the Bragg rods is on the order of the brush total thickness. This lateral correlation is also detected by power spectral density analysis of AFM images of the samples' surfaces. The Bragg rods disappear upon heating to 80^o C.

  16. Surface wave excitations and backflow effect over dense polymer brushes

    PubMed Central

    Biagi, Sofia; Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Sciortino, Francesco; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2016-01-01

    Polymer brushes are being increasingly used to tailor surface physicochemistry for diverse applications such as wetting, adhesion of biological objects, implantable devices and much more. Here we perform Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations to study the behaviour of dense polymer brushes under flow in a slit-pore channel. We discover that the system displays flow inversion at the brush interface for several disconnected ranges of the imposed flow. We associate such phenomenon to collective polymer dynamics: a wave propagating on the brush surface. The relation between the wavelength, the amplitude and the propagation speed of the flow-generated wave is consistent with the solution of the Stokes equations when an imposed traveling wave is assumed as the boundary condition (the famous Taylor’s swimmer). PMID:26975329

  17. Surface wave excitations and backflow effect over dense polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Biagi, Sofia; Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Sciortino, Francesco; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2016-01-01

    Polymer brushes are being increasingly used to tailor surface physicochemistry for diverse applications such as wetting, adhesion of biological objects, implantable devices and much more. Here we perform Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations to study the behaviour of dense polymer brushes under flow in a slit-pore channel. We discover that the system displays flow inversion at the brush interface for several disconnected ranges of the imposed flow. We associate such phenomenon to collective polymer dynamics: a wave propagating on the brush surface. The relation between the wavelength, the amplitude and the propagation speed of the flow-generated wave is consistent with the solution of the Stokes equations when an imposed traveling wave is assumed as the boundary condition (the famous Taylor's swimmer). PMID:26975329

  18. Surface wave excitations and backflow effect over dense polymer brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, Sofia; Rovigatti, Lorenzo; Sciortino, Francesco; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2016-03-01

    Polymer brushes are being increasingly used to tailor surface physicochemistry for diverse applications such as wetting, adhesion of biological objects, implantable devices and much more. Here we perform Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulations to study the behaviour of dense polymer brushes under flow in a slit-pore channel. We discover that the system displays flow inversion at the brush interface for several disconnected ranges of the imposed flow. We associate such phenomenon to collective polymer dynamics: a wave propagating on the brush surface. The relation between the wavelength, the amplitude and the propagation speed of the flow-generated wave is consistent with the solution of the Stokes equations when an imposed traveling wave is assumed as the boundary condition (the famous Taylor’s swimmer).

  19. Shedding light on azopolymer brush dynamics by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kollarigowda, R H; De Santo, I; Rianna, C; Fedele, C; Manikas, A C; Cavalli, S; Netti, P A

    2016-09-14

    Understanding the response to illumination at a molecular level as well as characterising polymer brush dynamics are key features that guide the engineering of new light-stimuli responsive materials. Here, we report on the use of a confocal microscopy technique that was exploited to discern how a single molecular event such as the photoinduced isomerisation of azobenzene can affect an entire polymeric material at a macroscopic level leading to photodriven mass-migration. For this reason, a set of polymer brushes, containing azobenzene (Disperse Red 1, DR) on the side chains of poly(methacrylic acid), was synthesised and the influence of DR on the polymer brush dynamics was investigated for the first time by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS). Briefly, two dynamics were observed, a short one coming from the isomerisation of DR and a long one related to the brush main chain. Interestingly, photoinduced polymer aggregation in the confocal volume was observed. PMID:27491890

  20. 1. Building a brush dam. Location unknown. Photographer: Unknown, no ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Building a brush dam. Location unknown. Photographer: Unknown, no date. Source: Salt River Project Archives (SRPA) - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. Dense brushes of stiff polymers or filaments in fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Römer, F.; Fedosov, D. A.

    2015-03-01

    Dense filamentous brush-like structures are present in many biological interfacial systems (e.g., glycocalyx layer in blood vessels) to control their surface properties. Such structures can regulate the softness of a surface and modify fluid flow. In this letter, we propose a theoretical model which predicts quantitatively flow-induced deformation of a dense brush of stiff polymers or filaments, whose persistence length is larger or comparable to their contour length. The model is validated by detailed mesoscopic simulations and characterizes different contributions to brush deformation including hydrodynamic friction due to flow and steric excluded-volume interactions between grafted filaments. This theoretical model can be used to describe the effect of a stiff-polymer brush on fluid flow and to aid in the quantification of experiments.

  2. Keep Kids' Mouths Healthy: Brush 2min2X

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids’ Teeth Teeth Helpful Resources Links Keep Kids’ Mouths Healthy Roll over or click the time line below for healthy mouth information. Email Link Kids' Care Timeline Brush 2min2x - ...

  3. Astronauts Culbertson and Bursch brush their teeth on Discovery's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts Frank L. Culbertson (right), mission commander, and Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, brush their teeth on Discovery's middeck. Two sleep restraints form part of the backdrop for the photograph.

  4. Coat thickness dependent adsorption of hydrophobic molecules at polymer brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiatek, Jens; Heuer, Andreas; Wagner, Hendrik; Studer, Armido; Hentschel, Carsten; Chi, Lifeng

    2013-01-01

    We study the adsorption properties of hydrophobic test particles at polymer brushes with different coat thicknesses via mesoscopic dissipative particle dynamics simulations. Our findings indicate stronger free energies of adsorption at thin polymer brushes. The reason for this difference is mainly given by entropic contributions due to different elastic deformations of the coatings. The numerical findings are supported by analytical calculations and are in good qualitative agreement to experimental fluorescence intensity results.

  5. High temperature, flexible pressure-actuated, brush seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinetz, Bruce M. (Inventor); Sirocky, Paul J. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A high temperature, flexible brush seal comprises a bundle of fibers or bristles held tightly together and secured at one end with a backing plate. The assembly includes a secondary spring-clip having one end anchored to the brush seal backing plate. An alternate embodiment of the seal utilizes a metal bellows containing coolant holes. Another embodiment of the seal uses non-circular cross-sectional fibers which may be square, rectangular or hexagonal in cross section.

  6. Fibre evaluation for spacecraft cleaning. [vacuum brush materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, W. M.

    1976-01-01

    The employment of vacuum brushes utilizing sable tail hair for the physical removal of particulates from spacecraft surfaces has become problematical in connection with a lack of compatibility of the bristle with sterilization and biological decontamination procedures required for spacecraft cleaning. An investigation was, therefore, conducted to find a suitable fiber which can replace sable bristle. Felor fiber was found to have the best properties for use in a motorized cleaning brush.

  7. Tension amplification in tethered layers of bottle-brush polymers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Leuty, Gary M.; Tsige, Mesfin; Grest, Gary S.; Rubinstein, Michael

    2016-02-26

    In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations of a coarse-grained bead–spring model have been used to study the effects of molecular crowding on the accumulation of tension in the backbone of bottle-brush polymers tethered to a flat substrate. The number of bottle-brushes per unit surface area, Σ, as well as the lengths of the bottle-brush backbones Nbb (50 ≤ Nbb ≤ 200) and side chains Nsc (50 ≤ Nsc ≤ 200) were varied to determine how the dimensions and degree of crowding of bottle-brushes give rise to bond tension amplification along the backbone, especially near the substrate. From these simulations, wemore » have identified three separate regimes of tension. For low Σ, the tension is due solely to intramolecular interactions and is dominated by the side chain repulsion that governs the lateral brush dimensions. With increasing Σ, the interactions between bottle-brush polymers induce compression of the side chains, transmitting increasing tension to the backbone. For large Σ, intermolecular side chain repulsion increases, forcing side chain extension and reorientation in the direction normal to the surface and transmitting considerable tension to the backbone.« less

  8. Stereoregular polyacrylamide and its copolymer brushes: Preparation and surface characters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jianguo; Wang, Xiaoshu; Lu, Xiaoyan; Lu, Yun

    2008-12-01

    Two kinds of polymer brushes, the single one with stereospecific polyacrylamide (PAAM) chains and the dual-component one with random poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) segments grafting from stereospecific PAAM chains, were prepared on silicon wafer for the first time by combining the immobilization of initiator and the stereospecific living radical in situ polymerization. With the addition of the Lewis acid AlCl 3 into the polymerization system, the PAAM brushes obtained exhibited an increased stereospecificity as well as a decreased hydrophilicity, which might attribute to the reduced thickness of PAAM brushes on the silicon wafer and the handicap of the free rotation of the stereospecific molecular chain. The smoother surface morphology of the stereospecific PAAM brushes shown in AFM images was in good agreement with the experimental data of water contact angle. Also, block amphiphilic copolymer brushes were prepared with the stereospecific PAAM formed first on silicon wafer as the anchored-initiator and revealed a novel surface self-assembly behavior after being treated with different solvent such as toluene or water. The stereospecificity of PAAM chains in the polymer brushes could be modulated by adjusting reaction conditions according to the requirement of applications for surface hydrophilicity.

  9. Brush cytology: a reliable method to detect Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Dalla Libera, M; Pazzi, P; Carli, G; Contato, E; Piva, I; Scagliarini, R; Merighi, A; Ricci, N; Gullini, S

    1996-06-01

    This study was conducted to verify the reliability of brush cytology in detecting Helicobacter pylori in an unselected group of patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) and nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD). Endoscopy was performed on 416 consecutive patients: group A, 94 with active DU; group B, 176 patients with DU after omeprazole (n = 78), ranitidine (n = 43), or triple anti-H. pylori therapy (n = 55); and group C, 146 patients with NUD. During endoscopy, the gastric mucosa was brushed and two biopsy samples from the antrum and body were obtained for histology. In 65 patients, culture of the brush-collected materials also was performed as was that from of biopsy samples. The overall frequency of H. pylori presence detected by brush cytology was significantly higher compared with that of histology (p < 0.001), particularly in group A (p < 0.05), group C (p < 0.05), and in patients with DU after omeprazole treatment (p < 0.01), but not in patients with DU after ranitidine or anti-H. pylori treatment. The overall frequency of H. pylori-positive cultures from the brush-collected material was higher compared with cultures from the biopsy samples (38.5% vs. 24.6%), particularly in the NUD group (32.6% vs. 16.3%). Brush cytology is more sensitive than histology, besides being faster and cheaper, for the assessment of H. pylori infection, particularly when the density of the bacteria is low.

  10. Polyelectrolyte brushes in mixed ionic medium studied via intermolecular forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, Robert; Laugel, Nicolas; Pincus, Philip; Tirrell, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    The vast uses and applications of polyelectrolyte brushes make them an attractive field of research especially with the growing interest in responsive materials. Polymers which respond via changes in temperature, pH, and ionic strength are increasingly being used for applications in drug delivery, chemical gating, etc. When polyelectrolyte brushes are found in either nature (e.g., surfaces of cartilage and mammalian lung interiors) or commercially (e.g., skin care products, shampoo, and surfaces of medical devices) they are always surrounded by mixed ionic medium. This makes the study of these brushes in varying ionic environments extremely relevant for both current and future potential applications. The polyelectrolyte brushes in this work are diblock co-polymers of poly-styrene sulfonate (N=420) and poly-t-butyl styrene (N=20) which tethers to a hydrophobic surface allowing for a purely thermodynamic study of the polyelectrolyte chains. Intermolecular forces between two brushes are measured using the SFA. As multi-valent concentrations are increased, the brushes collapse internally and form strong adhesion between one another after contact (properties not seen in a purely mono-valent environment).

  11. Cues to Action as Motivators for Children's Brushing.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kimberly K; Steinfort, Erin L; Keyler, Maria J

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease. Home self-care procedures are the most important strategies to prevent tooth decay. Brushing is the most important single intervention for the prevention of tooth decay, yet compliance is not practiced and there is limited understanding of children's behavioral decisions. Guided by the Health Belief Model, this study consisted of eight focus groups with children in the second through fifth grades at three different socioeconomic-level school districts to determine the cues to action that are motivating or can motivate their brushing behavior. Results indicated children are primarily motivated to brush for aesthetic reasons, mainly due to viewed media pictures of "perfect" teeth. Other less commonly expressed motivations for brushing stemmed from interpersonal connections, such as relatives with dentures. Social media, on the other hand, played a key role in some children's understanding of more advanced oral health connections such as links between cardiovascular and oral disease, and smoking and oral cancer. These links were viewed as threatening to children to motivate better brushing. Additionally, the study found that home computers can be used as an external motivator to deliver tailored messages to encourage better brushing.

  12. The Unusual Conformational Behavior of Polyzwitterionic Brushes in Aqueous Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Jun; Chen, Wei; Yuan, Guangcui; Yu, Jing; Tirrell, Matthew

    Polyzwitterions constitute a peculiar class of polyelectrolytes, which are electrically neutral polymers containing both a positive and a negative charge on each repeating unit. Surfaces coated with polyzwitterionic brushes are resistant to the nonspecific accumulation of proteins and microorganisms, making them excellent candidates for a wide range of antifouling applications, from biocompatible medical devices to marine coatings. The surrounding environment can dramatically influence the conformational behavior of polyzwitterionic brushes. High-density polyzwitterionic brushes poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) were synthesized using surface initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization, and neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements were performed to investigate the ionic strength dependence of the conformational behaviors of PMPC brushes in monovalent salt solutions. Despite the numerous observations of normal pure polyelectrolyte brushes, NR results showed that both the densely concentrated layer near the substrate surface and the relatively swollen layer into the solution have been observed in different q range in a single neutron reflectivity profile. These results will definitely help us to better understand the relationship between the solution behaviors of zwitterionic polymer brushes and their antifouling properties.

  13. Effect of Salt on Phosphorylcholine-based Zwitterionic Polymer Brushes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Moxey, Mark; Alswieleh, Abdullah; Morse, Andrew J; Lewis, Andrew L; Geoghegan, Mark; Leggett, Graham J

    2016-05-24

    A quantitative investigation of the responses of surface-grown biocompatible brushes of poly(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) to different types of salt has been carried out using ellipsometry, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements, and friction force microscopy. Both cations and anions of varying valency over a wide range of concentrations were examined. Ellipsometry shows that the height of the brushes is largely independent of the ionic strength, confirming that the degree of swelling of the polymer is independent of the ionic character of the medium. In contrast, QCM measurements reveal significant changes in mass and dissipation to the PMPC brush layer, suggesting that ions bind to phosphorylcholine (PC) groups in PMPC molecules, which results in changes in the stiffness of the brush layer, and the binding affinity varies with salt type. Nanotribological measurements made using friction force microscopy show that the coefficient of friction decreases with increasing ionic strength for a variety of salts, supporting the conclusion drawn from QCM measurements. It is proposed that the binding of ions to the PMPC molecules does not change their hydration state, and hence the height of the surface-grown polymeric brushes. However, the balance of the intra- and intermolecular interactions is strongly dependent upon the ionic character of the medium between the hydrated chains, modulating the interactions between the zwitterionic PC pendant groups and, consequently, the stiffness of the PMPC molecules in the brush layer. PMID:27133955

  14. Adsorption of enzymes to stimuli-responsive polymer brushes: Influence of brush conformation on adsorbed amount and biocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Meike; Bittrich, Eva; König, Ulla; Rajeev, Bhadra Lakshmi; Müller, Martin; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Thomas, Sabu; Stamm, Manfred; Uhlmann, Petra

    2016-10-01

    Polyelectrolyte brushes can be utilized to immobilize enzymes on macroscopic surfaces. This report investigates the influence of the pH value of the surrounding medium on the amount and the activity of enzymes adsorbed to poly(2-vinylpyridine) and poly(acrylic acid) brushes, as well as the creation of thermoresponsive biocatalytically active coatings via the adsorption of enzymes onto a mixed brush consisting of a polyelectrolyte and temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacryl amide). Spectroscopic ellipsometry and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to monitor the adsorption process. Additionally, infrared spectra are evaluated in terms of the secondary structure of the enzymes. Glucose oxidase is used as a model enzyme, where the enzymatic activity is measured after different adsorption conditions. Poly(acrylic acid) brushes generally adsorb larger amounts of enzyme, while less glucose oxidase is found on poly(2-vinylpyridine), which however exhibits higher specific activity. This difference in activity could be attributed to a difference in secondary structure of the adsorbed enzyme. For glucose oxidase adsorbed to mixed brushes, switching of enzymatic activity between an active state at 20°C and a less active state at 40°C as compared to the free enzyme in solution is observed. However, this switching is strongly depending on pH in mixed brushes of poly(acrylic acid) and poly(N-isopropylacryl amide) due to interactions between the polymers.

  15. Adsorption of enzymes to stimuli-responsive polymer brushes: Influence of brush conformation on adsorbed amount and biocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Meike; Bittrich, Eva; König, Ulla; Rajeev, Bhadra Lakshmi; Müller, Martin; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Thomas, Sabu; Stamm, Manfred; Uhlmann, Petra

    2016-10-01

    Polyelectrolyte brushes can be utilized to immobilize enzymes on macroscopic surfaces. This report investigates the influence of the pH value of the surrounding medium on the amount and the activity of enzymes adsorbed to poly(2-vinylpyridine) and poly(acrylic acid) brushes, as well as the creation of thermoresponsive biocatalytically active coatings via the adsorption of enzymes onto a mixed brush consisting of a polyelectrolyte and temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacryl amide). Spectroscopic ellipsometry and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy are used to monitor the adsorption process. Additionally, infrared spectra are evaluated in terms of the secondary structure of the enzymes. Glucose oxidase is used as a model enzyme, where the enzymatic activity is measured after different adsorption conditions. Poly(acrylic acid) brushes generally adsorb larger amounts of enzyme, while less glucose oxidase is found on poly(2-vinylpyridine), which however exhibits higher specific activity. This difference in activity could be attributed to a difference in secondary structure of the adsorbed enzyme. For glucose oxidase adsorbed to mixed brushes, switching of enzymatic activity between an active state at 20°C and a less active state at 40°C as compared to the free enzyme in solution is observed. However, this switching is strongly depending on pH in mixed brushes of poly(acrylic acid) and poly(N-isopropylacryl amide) due to interactions between the polymers. PMID:27447452

  16. 76 FR 70760 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-American Brush...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... Brush Manufacturers Association Notice is hereby given that, on October 12, 2011, pursuant to Section 6... Act''), American Brush Manufacturers Association (``ABMA'') has filed written notifications... organization is: American Brush Manufacturers Association, Aurora, IL. The nature and scope of ABMA's...

  17. Dendritic brushes under good solvent conditions: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Gergidis, Leonidas N; Kalogirou, Andreas; Vlahos, Costas

    2012-12-11

    The structural properties of polymer brushes, formed by dendron polymers up to the third generation, were studied by means of Brownian dynamics simulations for the macroscopic state of good solvent. The distributions of polymer units, of the free ends, of the dendrons centers of mass, and of the units of every dendritic generation and the radii of gyration necessary for the understanding of the internal stratification of brushes were calculated. Previous self-consistent field theory numerical simulations of first-generation dendritic brushes suggested that at high grafting densities two kinds of populations are evident, one of short dendrons having weakly extended spacers and another with tall dendrons having strongly stretched spacers. These Brownian dynamics calculations provided a more complicated picture of dendritic brushes, revealing different populations of short, tall, and in some cases intermediate height dendrons, depending on the dendron generation and spacer length. The scaling dependence of the height and the span of the dendritic brush on the grafting density and other parameters were found to be in good agreement with existing theoretical results for good solvents. PMID:23134236

  18. Polymer brushes with nanoinclusions under shear: A molecular dynamics investigation

    PubMed Central

    Milchev, A.; Dimitrov, D. I.; Binder, K.

    2010-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations with a dissipative particle dynamics thermostat to study the behavior of nanosized inclusions (colloids) in a polymer brush under shear whereby the solvent is explicitly included in the simulation. The brush is described by a bead-spring model for flexible polymer chains, grafted on a solid substrate, while the polymer-soluble nanoparticles in the solution are taken as soft spheres whose diameter is about three times larger than that of the chain segments and the solvent. We find that the brush number density profile, as well as the density profiles of the nanoinclusions and the solvent, remains insensitive to strong shear although the grafted chains tilt in direction of the flow. The thickness of the penetration layer of nanoinclusions, as well as their average concentration in the brush, stays largely unaffected even at the strongest shear. Our result manifests the remarkable robustness of polymer brushes with embedded nanoparticles under high shear which could be of importance for technological applications. PMID:21045924

  19. Modeling bristle lift-off in idealized brush seal configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modi, Vijay

    1993-10-01

    We attempt in this paper to develop a model for the flow through brush seals and determine their elastic behavior in order to predict the dependence of brush/journal clearance on geometry and operating conditions. Several idealizations regarding brush seal configuration, flow conditions, and elastic behavior are made in the analysis in order to determine closed form parametric dependence. This formulation assumes that there is no initial interference between the bristle tip and the rotor. Also, interbristle, bristle-backing plate, and bristle-rotor friction is neglected. The bristle bundle or the brush seal as it is alternately called is assumed homogeneous and isotropic on a macroscopic scale so that a physical property like permeability is uniform. The fluid is assumed to be homogeneous, incompressible, viscous, and flowing under steady conditions. A schematic of a brush seal is shown. If the nominal bristle-shaft interference is absent then under static conditions the bristles may deflect axially due to the imposed pressure differential. This axial deflection may create a clearance permitting leakage flow in excess of that which occurs through the porous matrix formed by the bristle bundles. Under dynamic conditions the Couette flow created by shaft motion could be strong enough to cause bristle deflection and once again a clearance may develop. The paper proposes a means to determine this clearance (or at least describe its parametric dependence on geometry and operating conditions) under static as well as dynamic conditions.

  20. Surface Grafted Polysarcosine as a Peptoid Antifouling Polymer Brush

    PubMed Central

    Lau, King Hang Aaron; Ren, Chunlai; Sileika, Tadas S.; Park, Sung Hyun; Szleifer, Igal; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(N-substituted glycine) “peptoids” are a class of peptidomimetic molecules receiving significant interest as engineered biomolecules. Sarcosine (i.e. poly(N-methyl glycine)) has the simplest sidechain chemical structure of this family. In this contribution, we demonstrate that surface-grafted polysarcosine (PSAR) brushes exhibit excellent resistance to non-specific protein adsorption and cell attachment. Polysarcosine was coupled to a mussel adhesive protein inspired DOPA-Lys pentapeptide, which enabled solution grafting and control of the surface chain density of the PSAR brushes. Protein adsorption was found to decrease monotonically with increasing grafted chain densities, and protein adsorption could be completely inhibited above certain critical chain densities specific to different polysarcosine chain-lengths. The dependence of protein adsorption on chain length and density was also investigated by a molecular theory. PSAR brushes at high chain length and density were shown to resist fibroblast cell attachment over a 7 wk period, as well as resist the attachment of some clinically relevant bacteria strains. The excellent antifouling performance of PSAR may be related to the highly hydrophilic character of polysarcosine, which was evident from high-pressure liquid chromatography measurements of polysarcosine and water contact angle measurements of the PSAR brushes. Peptoids have been shown to resist proteolytic degradation and polysarcosine could be produced in large quantities by N-carboxy anhydride polymerization. In summary, surface grafted polysarcosine peptoid brushes hold great promise for antifouling applications. PMID:23101930

  1. Chemical and structural changes in a pH-responsive mixed polyelectrolyte brush studied by infrared ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Karsten; Aulich, Dennis; Ionov, Leonid; Esser, Norbert; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Motornov, Mikhail; Stamm, Manfred; Minko, Sergiy

    2009-09-15

    This work provides direct chemical and structural insight into pH-dependent changes of an ultrathin (d=12 nm) mixed polyelectrolyte brush. In-situ infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry was used for the first time to study the gradual pH-responsive behavior of the brush, constituted of weak anionic and cationic polyelectrolytes, poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP), respectively. The pH-dependent infrared fingerprints in the mid-infrared spectral range were analyzed as a function of chemical and structural changes in the mixed brush caused by pH changes. Thereby, the IR spectra were directly correlated to different chemical states of the brush, giving previously not accessible new information on the ionization of the thin film. In contrast to other techniques (e.g., classical attenuated total reflection IR spectroscopy) we used almost plane Si-substrates for the IR ellipsometric approach with application of a single reflection mode. The optical path through Si is of minimal length, which makes a large spectral range accessible. For the most pronounced bands of the carboxyl group at 1718 cm(-1) and the carboxylate ion at 1565 cm(-1), the band amplitudes were correlated with the degree of ionization of the carboxylic groups. Interpretation of the pH-dependent changes in the spectral signature reveals gradual changes of the chemical structures of the mixed brush between three distinct switchable states: strongly ionized PAA at pH 10, strongly ionized P2VP at pH 2, and mainly nonionized functional groups in a "dry" PAA-P2VP polyelectrolyte complex in the range from pH=4 to pH=7. At intermediate pH, the IR spectra confirm the previously made hypothesis of the formation of a polyelectrolyte complex between P2VP and PAA in the mixed brush. From IR spectra it is also concluded that the polyelectrolyte complex is formed as a result of a small fraction of ionized functional groups. PMID:19572506

  2. Integrity testing of brush seal in a T-700 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Griffin, Thomas A.; Bobula, George A.; Bill, Robert C.; Howe, Harold W.

    1993-01-01

    A split-ring brush seal was fabricated, installed between two labyrinth-honeycomb shroud seals, and tested in the fourth-stage turbine of a T-700 engine. The annealed Haynes 25 bristles rubbed directly against the nonconditioned, irregular Rene 80 turbine blade shroud surface. A total of 21 hr of cyclic and steady-state data were taken with surface speeds of 335 m/s (1100 ft/s) and shroud temperatures to 620 C (1150 F). Wear appeared to be rapid initially, with an orange flash of hot brush fragments during the first engine startup, to minimal after 10 hr of operation. The brush survived the testing but experienced some bristle pullouts and severe bristle wear; some turbine interface wear and possible material transfer was noted. Future design concerns center on tribological behavior at the interface with or without lubricants.

  3. A bulk flow model of a brush seal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Schlumberger, S.; Braun, M. J.; Choy, F.; Mullen, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Fibers can be readily fabricated into a variety of seal configurations that are compliant and responsive to high speed or lightly loaded systems. A linear, circular, or contoured brush seal system is a contact seal consisting of the bristle pattern and hardened interface. When compared to a labyrinth seal, the brush seal system is superior and features low leakage, dynamic stability, and permits compliant structures. But in turn, the system usually requires a hardened smooth interface and permits only limited pressure drops. Wear life and wear debris for operations with static or dynamic excitation are largely undetermined. A seal system involves control of fluid within specific boundaries. The brush and rub ring (or rub surface) form a seal system. Design similitudes, a bulk flow model, and rub ring (interface) coatings are discussed. The bulk flow model calculations are based on flows in porous media and filters. The coatings work is based on experience and expanded to include current practice.

  4. Integrity testing of brush seal in a T-700 engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Griffin, Thomas A.; Bobula, George A.; Bill, Robert C.; Howe, Harold W.

    1993-10-01

    A split-ring brush seal was fabricated, installed between two labyrinth-honeycomb shroud seals, and tested in the fourth-stage turbine of a T-700 engine. The annealed Haynes 25 bristles rubbed directly against the nonconditioned, irregular Rene 80 turbine blade shroud surface. A total of 21 hr of cyclic and steady-state data were taken with surface speeds of 335 m/s (1100 ft/s) and shroud temperatures to 620 C (1150 F). Wear appeared to be rapid initially, with an orange flash of hot brush fragments during the first engine startup, to minimal after 10 hr of operation. The brush survived the testing but experienced some bristle pullouts and severe bristle wear; some turbine interface wear and possible material transfer was noted. Future design concerns center on tribological behavior at the interface with or without lubricants.

  5. A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Fellenstein, J.A.; DellaCorte, C.

    1994-10-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  6. An Overview of Non-Metallic Brush Seal Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruggiero, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Non-metallic brush seals are ultra-low flow sealing elements ideal for low pressure differentials (<30 psid) and low temperature (typically <300 degF) applications. The compliant bristle pack of a non-metallic brush seal is advantageous in terms of sealing capability during transients. However, if not designed properly, the bristle pack compliance can be detrimental to the performance of the seal. GE GLobal Research has investigated the stiffness and heat generation properties of non-metallic brush seals made from Kevlar and Carbon Fiber. The presentation will review the progress made on the design points of the seals, as well as highlight some current commercial applications of the technology.

  7. A New Tribological Test for Candidate Brush Seal Materials Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; Dellacorte, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    A new tribological test for candidate brush seal materials evaluation has been developed. The sliding contact between the brush seal wires and their mating counterface journal is simulated by testing a small tuft of wire against the outside diameter of a high speed rotating shaft. The test configuration is similar to a standard block on ring geometry. The new tester provides the capability to measure both the friction and wear of candidate wire and counterface materials under controlled loading conditions in the gram to kilogram range. A wide test condition latitude of speeds (1 to 27 m/s), temperatures (25 to 700 C), and loads (0.5 to 10 N) enables the simulation of many of the important tribological parameters found in turbine engine brush seals. This paper describes the new test rig and specimen configuration and presents initial data for candidate seal materials comparing tuft test results and wear surface morphology to field tested seal components.

  8. Apparatus to measure chemical wear of carbon brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosky, P. G.; Peters, H. C.; Spiro, C. L.; Lamby, E. J.; McKee, D. W.

    1985-07-01

    It has been inferred for several years that the wear of a carbon brush at a sliding interface of a dc machine is influenced by chemical factors. Previously, the difficulties of isolating and measuring chemical factors in such circumstances have discouraged specific verification. An apparatus is described that hermetically seals a selected polarity brush and uses an artificial atmosphere of humidified oxygen and argon to simulate air. By monitoring the ratio of mass spectrometric peaks of CO+2 to 36Ar+, a consistent rise is observed in the amount of CO2 present. The amount of carbon thus gasified exceeded 25% of the total carbon lost.

  9. A comparative study of stain removal with two electric toothbrushes and a manual brush.

    PubMed

    Moran, J M; Addy, M; Newcombe, R G

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that a sonic electric toothbrush is more effective than a manual brush at removing extrinsic dental stain. There have been few studies of the comparative stain removal properties of different electric brushes. The study reported here was conducted to compare the efficacy of the sonic toothbrush (Sonicare) with an oscillating/rotating brush (Braun Oral-B Plaque Remover) and a conventional manual brush (Crest Complete). The study was a single-blind, randomized, cross-over design, balanced for residual effects and employing 24 subjects. Stain was enhanced over a 21-day period by twice-daily rinses with chlorhexidine and frequent intakes of tea and/or coffee. At the end of each period, tooth stain intensity and area, tongue stain intensity and area, lower lingual calculus and subjective tooth sensitivity were recorded together with preference for the brushes determined at the study's completion. Similar levels of tongue staining were recorded for the three periods, with no significant differences between the three groups. Tooth stain intensity, for most sites, was not significantly different between the three groups. For mean total stain area and for lingual and lingual interproximal sites, a significant reduction in stain was seen following use of the oscillating/rotating brush compared to the manual brush. The reductions in stain with the sonic brush were not significantly different from the manual brush. With the exception of maximum stain intensity, there were no significant differences between the oscillating/rotating and sonic brushes. Significantly less tooth sensitivity was found following use of the oscillating/rotating brush compared to both the manual and sonic brushes. All three brushes were found to be safe, but volunteer preference significantly and predominantly favored the oscillating/rotating brush. The results suggest that the oscillating/rotating brush is superior to a manual brush for stain removal.

  10. Polypeptoid Brushes by Surface-Initiated Polymerization of N-Substituted Glycine N-Carboxyanhydrides

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Maximilian; Fetsch, Corinna; Amin, Ihsan; Jordan, Rainer; Luxenhofer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Polypeptoid brushes were synthesized by surface-initiated polymerization of N-substituted glycine N-carboxyanhydrides (NNCAs) on self assembled amine monolayers. Using the presented grafting from approach, polypeptoid brush thicknesses of approx. 40 nm could be obtained as compared previously reported brush thicknesses of 4 nm. Moreover, hydrophilic, hydrophobic and amphiphilic polymer brushes were realized which are expected to have valuable applic-tions as non-fouling surfaces and as model or references systems for surface grafted polypeptides. PMID:23663172

  11. Fractionation of renal brush border membrane proteins with Triton X-114 phase partitioning.

    PubMed

    Vachon, V; Pouliot, J F; Laprade, R; Béliveau, R

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of brush border membrane proteins by gel electrophoresis has revealed a complex polypeptide composition. We have investigated the use of Triton X-114 phase partitioning to fractionate such proteins on the basis of their degree of hydrophobicity. Each of the fractions was composed of a complex but distinct set of proteins. Most proteins were solubilized by Triton X-114 and partitioned into the detergent-poor fraction. Trehalase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and leucine aminopeptidase were well solubilized (greater than 80%) and enriched 5.1-, 3.9-, and 2.5-fold in the detergent-rich fraction. In contrast, alkaline phosphatase and 5'-nucleotidase were poorly solubilized. The specific activities of these enzymes were increased 2.7- and 2.3-fold in the insoluble protein fraction. Maltase was almost completely solubilized and partitioned into the detergent-poor fraction with a small enrichment factor (1.3). These results suggest that Triton X-114 phase partitioning could be useful as a first step in the purification of many brush border membrane proteins.

  12. Thicker is better? Synthesis and evaluation of well-defined polymer brushes with controllable catalytic loadings.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Antony E; Dirani, Ali; d'Haese, Cécile; Deumer, Gladys; Guo, Weiming; Hensenne, Peter; Nahra, Fady; Laloyaux, Xavier; Haufroid, Vincent; Nysten, Bernard; Riant, Olivier; Jonas, Alain M

    2012-12-01

    Polymer brushes (PBs) have been used as supports for the immobilization of palladium complexes on silicon surfaces. The polymers were grown by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) and postdecorated with dipyridylamine (dpa) ligands. The pendant dpa units were in turn complexed with [Pd(OAc)(2)] to afford hybrid catalytic surfaces. A series of catalytic samples of various thicknesses (ca. 20-160 nm) and associated palladium loadings (ca. 10-45 nmol  cm(-2)) were obtained by adjusting the SI-ATRP reaction time and characterized by ellipsometry, X-ray reflectivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). ICP-MS revealed a near-linear relationship between thickness of the polymer brush and palladium content, which confirmed the robustness of the preparation and postmodification sequence presented herein, rendering possible the creation of functional architectures with predefined catalytic potential. The activities of the catalytic PBs were determined by systematically exploring a full range of substrate-to-catalyst ratios in a model palladium(0)-catalyzed reaction. Quantitative transformations were observed for loadings down to 0.03 mol % and a maximum turnover number (TON) of around 3500 was established for the system. Comparison of the catalytic performances evidenced a singular influence of the thickness on conversions and TONs. The limited recyclability of the hairy catalysts has been attributed to palladium leaching. PMID:23032959

  13. Brush Lettering I; Commercial and Advertising Art--Basic: 9183.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared as a guide to help the students gain mastery in the proper brush techniques required for efficiency in brush lettering. The student is first given an orientation to the materials and equipment used, and the preparation of tempera paints for brush lettering. After this introduction, the student is guided through…

  14. EFFICACY OF BIOFILM DISCLOSING AGENT AND OF THREE BRUSHES IN THE CONTROL OF COMPLETE DENTURE CLEANSING

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Cláudia Helena Lovato; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This report evaluated the efficacy of three brushes and one biofilm disclosing agent in complete denture cleansing. Methods: Twenty-seven wearers of maxillary dentures were distributed into three groups and received different brushes: Oral B40, conventional toothbrush (Oral B); Denture, denture-specific brush (Condor); Johnson & Johnson, denture-specific brush (Johnson & Johnson). The 60-day experimental period was divided into two techniques: I - brushing (brush associated with a paste - Dentu Creme, Dentco) three times a day; II - brushing and daily application of 1% neutral red on the denture internal surface. Biofilm quantification was carried out weekly and the areas with dye biofilm were obtained by means of Image Tool 2.02 software. Results: Biofilm removal was more effective during Technique II (Wilcoxon test: p=0.01) for the three groups of brushes. When the brushes were compared in Technique I, the Kruskal Wallis test indicated statistical difference between Denture X Johnson & Johnson and Denture X Oral B40, in which the Denture was more efficient. For Technique II, there was no statistical difference between brushes (p>0.05). Conclusion: The disclosed application promoted more efficacy on biofilm removal, regardless of the brush used. Denture (Condor) was more efficient than the other brushes during Technique I. PMID:19089247

  15. Polymer-nanocomposite brush-like architectures as an all-solid electrolyte matrix.

    PubMed

    Gowneni, Soujanya; Ramanjaneyulu, Kota; Basak, Pratyay

    2014-11-25

    Herein, we report on polymer-nanocomposites with brush-like architectures and evaluate their feasibility as an all-solid electrolyte matrix supporting Li(+)-ion conduction. Showcased as a first example in the domain of electrolyte research, the study probes several key factors, such as (i) core morphology, (ii) surface modifiers/functionality, (iii) grafting length, and (iv) density of the brushes, and determines their role on the overall electrochemical properties of these nanostructured organic-inorganic hybrids. Nanostructured titania was synthesized via wet-chemical approaches using either controlled hydrolysis or hydrothermal methods. Exercising suitable control on reaction parameters led to well-defined morphologies/phases, such as nanoparticles, nanospindles, nanourchins, nanorods or nanotubes, in either anatase, rutile or mixed forms. Covalent anchoring on titania nanostructures was achieved using dopamine, gallic acid and glycerol as small organic moieties. A one-pot process of priming the available surface functional groups postmodification with isocyanate chemistry was followed by grafting polyethylene glycol monomethyl ethers of desired chain lengths. Finally, complexation with lithium salt yielded electrolyte compositions where the ethylene oxide (EO) fractions aid in ion-solvation with ease. The synthesized materials were characterized in detail employing XRD, TEM, DRS-UV, FTIR, micro-Raman, TG-DTA and DSC at each stage to confirm the products and ascertain the physicochemical properties. Comprehensive evaluation using temperature-step electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of these brush-like nanocomposites provided crucial leads toward establishing a plausible physical model for the system and understanding the mechanism of ion transport in these all-solid matrices. The preliminary results on ionic conductivity (σ) obtained for some of the compositions are estimated to be within the range of ∼10(-4) to 10(-5) S cm(-1) in the temperature

  16. Some metallographic results for brush bristles and brush segments of a shroud ring brush seal tested in a T-700 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Griffin, Thomas A.; Bobula, George A.; Bill, Robert C.; Hull, David R.; Csavina, Kristine R.

    1994-01-01

    Post-test investigation of a T-700 engine brush seal found regions void of bristles ('yanked out'), regions of bent-over bristles near the inlet, some 'snapped' bristles near the fence, and a more uniform smeared bristle interface between the first and last axial rows of bristles. Several bristles and four brush segments were cut from the brush seal, wax mounted, polished, and analyzed. Metallographic analysis of the bristle near the rub tip showed tungsten-rich phases uniformly distributed throughout the bristle, no apparent change within 1 mu m of the interface, and possibly a small amount of titanium, which would represent a transfer from the rotor. Analysis of the bristle wear face showed nonuniform tungsten, which is indicative of material resolidification. The cut end contained oxides and internal fractures; the worn end was covered with oxide scale. Material losses due to wear and elastoplastic deformation within the shear zone and third-body lubrication effects in the contact zone are discussed.

  17. Some metallographic results for brush bristles and brush segments of a shroud ring brush seal tested in a T-700 engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Griffin, Thomas A.; Bobula, George A.; Bill, Robert C.; Hull, David R.; Csavina, Kristine R.

    1994-07-01

    Post-test investigation of a T-700 engine brush seal found regions void of bristles ('yanked out'), regions of bent-over bristles near the inlet, some 'snapped' bristles near the fence, and a more uniform smeared bristle interface between the first and last axial rows of bristles. Several bristles and four brush segments were cut from the brush seal, wax mounted, polished, and analyzed. Metallographic analysis of the bristle near the rub tip showed tungsten-rich phases uniformly distributed throughout the bristle, no apparent change within 1 mu m of the interface, and possibly a small amount of titanium, which would represent a transfer from the rotor. Analysis of the bristle wear face showed nonuniform tungsten, which is indicative of material resolidification. The cut end contained oxides and internal fractures; the worn end was covered with oxide scale. Material losses due to wear and elastoplastic deformation within the shear zone and third-body lubrication effects in the contact zone are discussed.

  18. Dendritic brushes under theta and poor solvent conditions.

    PubMed

    Gergidis, Leonidas N; Kalogirou, Andreas; Charalambopoulos, Antonios; Vlahos, Costas

    2013-07-28

    The effects of solvent quality on the internal stratification of polymer brushes formed by dendron polymers up to third generation were studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations with Langevin thermostat. The distributions of polymer units, of the free ends, the radii of gyration, and the back folding probabilities of the dendritic spacers were studied at the macroscopic states of theta and poor solvent. For high grafting densities we observed a small decrease in the height of the brush as the solvent quality decreases. The internal stratification in theta solvent was similar to the one we found in good solvent, with two and in some cases three kinds of populations containing short dendrons with weakly extended spacers, intermediate-height dendrons, and tall dendrons with highly stretched spacers. The differences increase as the grafting density decreases and single dendron populations were evident in theta and poor solvent. In poor solvent at low grafting densities, solvent micelles, polymeric pinned lamellae, spherical and single chain collapsed micelles were observed. The scaling dependence of the height of the dendritic brush at high density brushes for both solvents was found to be in agreement with existing analytical results. PMID:23902025

  19. Charge regulation and local dielectric function in planar polyelectrolyte brushes

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Rajeev; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kilbey, II, S Michael

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the effect of inhomogeneity on the charge regulation and dielectric properties, and how it depends on the conformational characteristics of the macromolecules is a long-standing problem. In order to address this problem, we have developed a field-theory to study charge regulation and local dielectric function in planar polyelectrolyte brushes. The theory is used to study a polyacid brush, which is comprised of chains end-grafted at the solid-fluid interface, in equilibrium with a bulk solution containing monovalent salt ions, solvent molecules, and pH controlling acid. In particular, we focus on the effects of the concentration of added salt and pH of the bulk in determining the local charge and dielectric function. Our theoretical investigations reveal that the dipole moment of the ion-pairs formed as a result of counterion adsorption on the chain backbones play a key role in affecting the local dielectric function. For polyelectrolytes made of monomers having dipole moments lower than the solvent molecules, dielectric decrement is predicted inside the brush region. However, the formation of ion-pairs (due to adsorption of counterions coming from the dissociation of added salt) more polar than the solvent molecules is shown to increase the magnitude of the dielectric function with respect to its bulk value. Furthermore, an increase in the bulk salt concentration is shown to increase the local charge inside the brush region.

  20. Brush Seal Would Impede Flow Of Hot Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Paul F.; Easter, Barry P.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed brush seal helps prevent recirculating flow of hot combustion gases from reaching bellows seal located deep in gap in wall of combustion chamber. More durable, more tolerant of irregularities, and easier to install. Seals also helpful in impeding deleterious flows of hot gases in other combustion chambers such as those of furnaces and turbomachines.

  1. AN INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH TO VALUING WATER FROM BRUSH CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical methodology utilizing models from three disciplines is developed to assess the viability of brush control for wate yield in the Frio River Basin, TX. Ecological, hydrologic, and economic models are used to portray changes in forage production and water supply result...

  2. Comparison of bronchial brushing and sputum in detection of pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiao-Pei; Ren, Shi-Feng; Wang, Xin-Feng; Wang, Mao-Shui

    2016-01-27

    The retrospective study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of bronchial brushing and sputum using acid fast bacilli smear, mycobacterial culture and real-time PCR in detection of pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis, sensitivity and specificity of bronchial brushing and sputum examined by the three methods were calculated and compared to each other. Data showed there were no significant difference in sensitivity between bronchial brushing and matched sputum using each method. But the specificity of real-time PCR on bronchial brushing was lower than on sputum. Compared with bronchial brushing, sputum was better specimen in detection of pediatric pulmonary tuberculosis.

  3. Design optimization of a brush turbine with a cleaner/water based solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Rhyn H.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, a turbine-brush was analyzed based on the energy conservation and the force momentum equation with an empirical relationship of the drag coefficient. An equation was derived to predict the rotational speed of the turbine-brush in terms of the blade angle, number of blades, rest of geometries of the turbine-brush and the incoming velocity. Using the observed flow conditions, drag coefficients were determined. Based on the experimental values as boundary conditions, the turbine-brush flows were numerically simulated to understand first the nature of the flows, and to extend the observed drag coefficient to a flow without holding the turbine-brush.

  4. Hydrologic Effects of Brush Management in Central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banta, J. R.; Slattery, R.

    2011-12-01

    Encroachment of woody vegetation into traditional savanna grassland ecosystems in central Texas has largely been attributed to land use practices of settlers, most notably overgrazing and fire suppression. Implementing brush management practices (removing the woody vegetation and allowing native grasses to reestablish in the area), could potentially change the hydrology in a watershed. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with several local, State, and Federal cooperators, studied the hydrologic effects of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) removal as a brush management conservation practice in the Honey Creek State Natural Area in Comal County, Tex. Two adjacent watersheds of 104 and 159 hectares were used in a paired study. Rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration (Bowen ratio method), and water quality data were collected in both watersheds. Using a hydrologic mass balance approach, rainfall was allocated to surface-water runoff, evapotranspiration, and groundwater recharge. Groundwater recharge was not directly measured, but estimated as the residual of the hydrologic mass balance. After hydrologic data were collected in both watersheds for 3 years, approximately 80 percent of the woody vegetation (ashe juniper) was selectively removed from the 159 hectare watershed (treatment watershed). Brush management was not implemented in the other (reference) watershed. Hydrologic data were collected in both watersheds for six years after brush management implementation. The resulting data were examined for differences in the hydrologic budget between the reference and treatment watersheds as well as between pre- and post-brush management periods to assess effects of the treatment. Preliminary results indicate there are differences in the hydrologic budget as well as water quality between the watersheds during pre- and post-treatment periods.

  5. Brushing behavior among young adolescents: does perceived severity matter

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral health is a basis for general health and well-being and affects physical and psychological aspects of the human life. The aim of this study was to determine the power of the health belief model in general and the role of perceived severity and its components in particular in predicting tooth brushing behavior among young adolescents. Methods This was a cross sectional study of a sample of female students grade four in Rasht (a metropolitan in north Iran) in 2012. A systematic random sampling method was applied to recruit students. They were asked to respond to a designed questionnaire containing items on brushing behavior based on the health belief model. In this study for the first time perceived severity and perceived barriers were divided into two parts, perceived subjective and objective severity and perceived physical and psychological barriers and were treated as independent variables. Logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify the variables that predict the desirable behavior (brushing twice a day or more). Results In all 265 female students were entered into the study. Of these, only 17.4% reported that they were brushing at least twice a day (desirable behavior). The results obtained from the logistic regression analysis indicated that perceived objective severity (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.21- 0.66, P = 0.001) and feeling less perceived psychological barriers (OR = 2.60, 95% CI = 1.50- 4.52, P = 0.001) were the significant predicting factors for brushing twice a day. Conclusion The findings suggest that perceived objective severity and perceived psychological barriers play important role in adapting a desirable health behavior among young adolescents. PMID:24397588

  6. Brush-eating device promises reforestation, wood energy aid

    SciTech Connect

    Blackman, T.

    1981-01-01

    An invention which began as a low-ground-pressure skidder developed into a machine which clears brush, thins plantations, and can harvest wood for energy. First came the notion of an extra-low-ground-pressure log skidder. A swinging chopper was added to the front to clear the skid roads. Working in manzanita brush 10 to 12 foot tall, and with stems up to 18 inches in diameter, the Shar 20 can clear one to two and a half acres an hour. The 30 will be able to clear two to five acres an hour. The big machine will have two chopper heads rotating in opposite directions to force the chopped wood into a chipper built into the machine. Chips will be blown to a van following the harvester so they can be used for hog fuel or as feedstock for methanol production. The head spins at a relatively slow 450 rpm - a safety factor. Surrounding brush catches most of the cut material, but an occasional chunk of wood does fly several yards. Companies are paying more attention to reforestation. Clearing the land will leave a mulch-like debris on the ground. This offers some shade and helps retain soil moisture. Even when brush is harvested for energy, about 10% of the material is left on the ground. California's Department of Forestry wants to start a five-year clearing cycle for the chaparral stands, ''mowing'' a million acres a year and returning every fifth year to reclear the brush. California alone has 27 million acres of brushland not suitable for timber. A brushy acre averages from 30 to 200 tons of wood at 10% moisture content. The machines are designed to run at up to 12 mph when moving.

  7. Bioconjugation of protein-repellent zwitterionic polymer brushes grafted from silicon nitride.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ai T; Baggerman, Jacob; Paulusse, Jos M J; Zuilhof, Han; van Rijn, Cees J M

    2012-01-10

    A new method for attaching antibodies to protein-repellent zwitterionic polymer brushes aimed at recognizing microorganisms while preventing the nonspecific adsorption of proteins is presented. The poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (SBMA) brushes were grafted from α-bromo isobutyryl initiator-functionalized silicon nitride (Si(x)N(4), x ≥ 3) surfaces via controlled atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). A trifunctional tris(2-aminoethyl)amine linker was reacted with the terminal alkylbromide of polySBMA chains. N-Hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) functionalization was achieved by reacting the resultant amine-terminated polySBMA brush with bifunctional suberic acid bis(N-hydroxysuccinimide ester). Anti-Salmonella antibodies were subsequently immobilized onto polySBMA-grafted Si(x)N(4) surfaces through these NHS linkers. The protein-repellent properties of the polySBMA-grafted surface after antibody attachment were evaluated by exposing the surfaces to Alexa Fluor 488-labeled fibrinogen (FIB) solution (0.1 g·L(-1)) for 1 h at room temperature. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) images revealed the minimal adsorption of FIB onto the antibody-coated polySBMA in comparison with that of antibody-coated epoxide monolayers and also bare Si(x)N(4) surfaces. Subsequently, the interaction of antibodies immobilized onto polySBMA with SYTO9-stained Salmonella solution without using blocking solution was examined by CLSM. The fluorescent images showed that antibody-coated polySBMA efficiently captured Salmonella with only low background noise as compared to antibody-coated monolayers lacking the polymer brush. Finally, the antibody-coated polySBMA surfaces were exposed to a mixture of Alexa Fluor 647-labeled FIB and Salmonella without the prior use of a blocking solution to evaluate the ability of the surfaces to capture bacteria while simultaneously repelling proteins. The fluorescent images showed the capture of Salmonella with no adsorption of FIB as compared to

  8. Adsorption and desorption behavior of asphaltene on polymer-brush-immobilized surfaces.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Yuji; Hatae, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Takanohashi, Toshimasa; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro; Takahara, Atsushi

    2014-11-26

    The adsorption behavior of a model compound for surface-active component of asphaltenes, N-(1-hexylheptyl)-N'-(12-carboxylicdodecyl) perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic bisimide (C5Pe), and detachment behavior of asphaltene deposit films for high-density polymer brushes were investigated. Zwitterionic poly(3-(N-2-methacryloyloxyethyl-N,N-dimethyl)ammonatopropanesulfonate (PMAPS) brushes and hydrophobic poly(n-hexyl methacrylate) (PHMA) brushes exhibit less C5Pe adsorption than poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The asphaltene deposit films on the PHMA brush detached in a model oil (toluene/n-heptane=1/4 (v/v)), and the asphaltene films on the PMAPS brush detached in water. The antifouling character was explained by the interface free energy for the polymer-brush/asphaltenes (γSA) and polymer-brush/toluene (γSO). PMID:25370500

  9. Evaluation of multi-brush anode systems in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Lanas, Vanessa; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-11-01

    The packing density of anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was examined here using four different graphite fiber brush anode configurations. The impact of anodes on performance was studied in terms of carbon fiber length (brush diameter), the number of brushes connected in parallel, and the wire current collector gage. MFCs with different numbers of brushes (one, three or six) set perpendicular to the cathode all produced similar power densities (1200 ± 40 mW/m(2)) and coulombic efficiencies (60% ± 5%). Reducing the number of brushes by either disconnecting or removing them reduced power, demonstrating the importance of anode projected area covering the cathode, and therefore the need to match electrode projected areas to maintain high performance. Multi-brush reactors had the same COD removal as single-brush systems (>90%). The use of smaller Ti wire gages did not affect power generation, which will enable the use of less metal, reducing material costs. PMID:24063821

  10. Theoretical speed and current density limits for different types of electrical brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf, D.

    1984-03-01

    Theoretical performance limits based on the criterion of flash temperature are investigated for monolithic Ag-C brushes, Cu-on-Cu brushes with elastic contact spots, and 'QM' brushes (Quantum Mechanical brushes with ultrathin metal fibers), in which ordinary current conduction is significantly supplemented by electron tunneling peripherally about the contact spots. Equations are developed for the contact spot radii and heat input rates for frictional and electrical heating at the contact spots. Typical data for the flash temperatures are calculated for the high-speed approximation for plastic and elastic contact spots. The low-speed approximation is used for QM brushes. It is concluded that metal fiber and/or QM brushes may represent the best solution to the brush problem for electromagnetic launching.

  11. On-demand degrafting of polymer brushes prepared by controlled radical polymerization on flat silica substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Rohan; Srogl, Jiri; Kiserow, Douglas; Genzer, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Polymer brush degrafting refers to the removal of grafted polymer chains from the substrate without harming the polymer chemical structure. We grow poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brushes on flat silicon substrates using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and remove them from the surface by exposing the samples to tetrabutyl ammonium fluoride. We then analyze the polymer molecular weight of degrafted PMMA chains by size exclusion chromatography. The kinetics of PMMA brush degrafting exhibits double exponential behavior suggesting a transition from `brush' to `mushroom' regime. The dry brush thickness increases initially with increasing polymerization time. At longer reaction times, the thickness starts to plateau due to loss in the living nature of ATRP. We examine the relationship between the brush dry thickness and molecular weight and show that grafting density of the PMMA brush does not remain constant over the course of polymerization but reduces with time.

  12. Adsorption and desorption behavior of asphaltene on polymer-brush-immobilized surfaces.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Yuji; Hatae, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Takanohashi, Toshimasa; Hayashi, Jun-ichiro; Takahara, Atsushi

    2014-11-26

    The adsorption behavior of a model compound for surface-active component of asphaltenes, N-(1-hexylheptyl)-N'-(12-carboxylicdodecyl) perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic bisimide (C5Pe), and detachment behavior of asphaltene deposit films for high-density polymer brushes were investigated. Zwitterionic poly(3-(N-2-methacryloyloxyethyl-N,N-dimethyl)ammonatopropanesulfonate (PMAPS) brushes and hydrophobic poly(n-hexyl methacrylate) (PHMA) brushes exhibit less C5Pe adsorption than poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The asphaltene deposit films on the PHMA brush detached in a model oil (toluene/n-heptane=1/4 (v/v)), and the asphaltene films on the PMAPS brush detached in water. The antifouling character was explained by the interface free energy for the polymer-brush/asphaltenes (γSA) and polymer-brush/toluene (γSO).

  13. Adsorption characteristics of brush polyelectrolytes on silicon oxynitride revealed by dual polarization interferometry.

    PubMed

    Bijelic, Goran; Shovsky, Alexander; Varga, Imre; Makuska, Ricardas; Claesson, Per M

    2010-08-01

    Adsorption properties of bottle-brush polyelectrolytes have been investigated using dual polarization interferometry (DPI), which provides real time monitoring of adsorbed layer thickness and refractive index. The adsorption on silicon oxynitride was carried out from aqueous solution with no added inorganic salt, and the adsorbed polyelectrolyte layer was subsequently rinsed with NaCl solutions of increasing concentration. The bottle-brush polyelectrolytes investigated in this study have different ratios of permanent cationic charged segments and uncharged PEO side chains. Both the cationic groups and the PEO side chains have affinity for silica-like surfaces, and thus contribute to the adsorption process that becomes rather complex. Adsorption properties in water, responses to changes in ionic strength of the surrounding medium, adsorption kinetics and the layer structure are all strongly dependent on the ratio between backbone charges and side chains. The results are interpreted in terms of competitive adsorption of segments with different chemical nature. The adsorption kinetics is relatively fast, taking only tens to hundreds of seconds when adsorbed from dilute 100 ppm solutions. The DPI technique was found to be suitable for studying such rapid adsorption processes, including determination of the initial adsorption kinetics. We expect that the effects observed in this study are of general importance for synthetic and biological polymers carrying segments of different nature.

  14. Block copolymer assembly on nanoscale patterns of polymer brushes formed by electrohydrodynamic jet printing.

    PubMed

    Onses, M Serdar; Ramírez-Hernández, Abelardo; Hur, Su-Mi; Sutanto, Erick; Williamson, Lance; Alleyne, Andrew G; Nealey, Paul F; de Pablo, Juan J; Rogers, John A

    2014-07-22

    Fundamental understanding of the self-assembly of domains in block copolymers (BCPs) and capabilities in control of these processes are important for their use as nanoscale templates in various applications. This paper focuses on the self-assembly of spin-cast and printed poly(styrene-block-methyl methacrylate) BCPs on patterned surface wetting layers formed by electrohydrodynamic jet printing of random copolymer brushes. Here, end-grafted brushes that present groups of styrene and methyl methacrylate in geometries with nanoscale resolution deterministically define the morphologies of BCP nanostructures. The materials and methods can also be integrated with lithographically defined templates for directed self-assembly of BCPs at multiple length scales. The results provide not only engineering routes to controlled formation of complex patterns but also vehicles for experimental and simulation studies of the effects of chemical transitions on the processes of self-assembly. In particular, we show that the methodology developed here provides the means to explore exotic phenomena displayed by the wetting behavior of BCPs, where 3-D soft confinement, chain elasticity, interfacial energies, and substrate's surface energy cooperate to yield nonclassical wetting behavior. PMID:24882265

  15. Electrophoresis and dielectric dispersion of spherical polyelectrolyte brushes.

    PubMed

    Ahualli, Silvia; Ballauff, Matthias; Arroyo, Francisco J; Delgado, Ángel V; Jiménez, María L

    2012-11-27

    Spherical polyelectrolyte brushes (SPBs) consist of a rigid core on which polyelectrolyte chains are grafted in such a way that in certain conditions (low ionic strength and high charge of the chains) the polymer chains extend radially toward the liquid medium. Because of the hairy-like structure of the polymer brushes, the typical soft-particle approach used for explaining the behavior of polyelectrolyte-coated particles must be modified, using the assumptions that the density of charged segments in the polymer chains decreases with the squared distance to the rigid core surface and that the same happens to the friction between the brushes and the surrounding fluid. Interest in clarifying the electrokinetics of these systems is not just academic. It has recently been found experimentally (Jiménez et al., Soft Matter 2011, 7, 3758-3762) that the response of concentrated suspensions of spherical polyelectrolyte brushes in the presence of alternating electric fields shows a number of unexpected features. Both dielectric and dynamic electrophoretic mobility spectra (respectively, dependences of the electric permittivity and the AC electrophoretic mobility on the frequency of the applied field) showed very special aspects, with giant values of the mobility and an unusually strong dielectric relaxation in the kHz region. In the present paper we give a full account of the electrodynamics of such systems, based on a cell model for describing the hydrodynamic and electrical interactions between the particles. It is found that the low-frequency dynamic mobility of SPBs is much higher than that of rigid particles of comparable size and charge, making any interpretation based on zeta potential estimations of very limited applicability. The very characteristic feature of SPBs in concentrated suspensions, namely, the enhanced alpha relaxation, can be explained by considering an adequate description of the field-induced perturbations in the counterion and co-ion concentrations

  16. Computer simulations of the mechanical response of brushes on the surface of cancerous epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Goicochea, A. Gama; Guardado, S. J. Alas

    2015-01-01

    We report a model for atomic force microscopy by means of computer simulations of molecular brushes on surfaces of biological interest such as normal and cancerous cervical epithelial cells. Our model predicts that the force needed to produce a given indentation on brushes that can move on the surface of the cell (called “liquid” brushes) is the same as that required for brushes whose ends are fixed on the cell’s surface (called “solid” brushes), as long as the tip of the microscope covers the entire area of the brush. Additionally, we find that cancerous cells are softer than normal ones, in agreement with various experiments. Moreover, soft brushes are found to display larger resistance to compression than stiff ones. This phenomenon is the consequence of the larger equilibrium length of the soft brushes and the cooperative association of solvent molecules trapped within the brushes, which leads to an increase in the osmotic pressure. Our results show that a careful characterization of the brushes on epithelial cells is indispensable when determining the mechanical response of cancerous cells. PMID:26315877

  17. Computer simulations of the mechanical response of brushes on the surface of cancerous epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicochea, A. Gama; Guardado, S. J. Alas

    2015-08-01

    We report a model for atomic force microscopy by means of computer simulations of molecular brushes on surfaces of biological interest such as normal and cancerous cervical epithelial cells. Our model predicts that the force needed to produce a given indentation on brushes that can move on the surface of the cell (called “liquid” brushes) is the same as that required for brushes whose ends are fixed on the cell’s surface (called “solid” brushes), as long as the tip of the microscope covers the entire area of the brush. Additionally, we find that cancerous cells are softer than normal ones, in agreement with various experiments. Moreover, soft brushes are found to display larger resistance to compression than stiff ones. This phenomenon is the consequence of the larger equilibrium length of the soft brushes and the cooperative association of solvent molecules trapped within the brushes, which leads to an increase in the osmotic pressure. Our results show that a careful characterization of the brushes on epithelial cells is indispensable when determining the mechanical response of cancerous cells.

  18. Stability against brushing abrasion and the erosion-protective effect of different fluoride compounds.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, A; Schneider, S; Sener, B; Roos, M; Attin, T

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the impact of brushing on the protective effect of different fluoride solutions on enamel and dentin erosion. Bovine enamel and dentin specimens were rinsed once with TiF4, AmF, SnF2 (0.5 M F, 2 min) or water (control). Specimens were either left unbrushed or brushed with 10, 20, 50, 100 or 500 brushing strokes in an automatic brushing machine (2 N, non-fluoridated toothpaste slurry). Ten specimens per group were eroded with hydrochloric acid (HCl) (pH 2.3) for 60 s, and calcium release into the acid was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, enamel and dentin surfaces were analysed by X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) (n = 6/group) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (n = 2/group) before brushing and after 500 brushing strokes. Statistical analysis (p < 0.05) was performed by three- and one-way ANOVA (calcium release) or repeated measures ANOVA (EDS). TiF4, AmF and SnF2 reduced the erosive calcium loss in unbrushed specimens to 58-67% (enamel) and 23-31% (dentin) of control. Calcium release increased with increasing brushing strokes prior to erosion and amounted to 70-88% (enamel) and 45-78% (dentin) of control after 500 brushing strokes. Brushing reduced the surface concentration of fluoride (AmF), tin (SnF2) and titanium (TiF4). SEM revealed that surface precipitates were affected by long-term brushing. Brushing reduced the protective potential of TiF4, AmF and SnF2 solutions. However, considering a small number of brushing strokes, the protective effect of fluoride solutions is only slightly affected by brushing abrasion.

  19. Brush border intestinal enzymes after multiple daily fractionation

    SciTech Connect

    Becciolini, A.; Giache, V.; Balzi, M.; Morrone, A.

    1987-03-01

    The modifications in brush border enzyme activity of the epithelial cell of the small intestine were studied after multiple daily fractionation (MDF) of 3 Gy X and 3 Gy X 2 X 2 (12 h split). Disaccharase and dipeptidase activities changed in the same way after irradiation. The results show that both total doses caused the three known phases of increase, decrease, and a return to normal. With MDF, activity at the end of irradiation was similar to or greater than that of controls and remained higher longer than a single dose of 8 Gy. However, the return to normal occurred sooner than after a single dose of 8 Gy. After 11 days, circadian oscillations of brush border enzyme activity appeared similar to those of controls in many segments of the intestine, reaching the highest activity during the night and the lowest in the afternoon.

  20. Brushed Target on Rock 'Champagne' in Gusev Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this microscopic image of a target called 'Bubbles' on a rock called 'Champagne' after using its rock abrasion tool to brush away a coating of dust. The circular brushed area is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) across. This rock is different from rocks out on the plains of Gusev Crater but is similar to other rocks in this area of the 'Columbia Hills' in that it has higher levels of phosphorus. Plagioclase, a mineral commonly found in igneous rocks, is also present in these rocks, according to analysis with the minature thermal emission spectrometer. By using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to collect data over multiple martian days, or sols, scientists are also beginning to get measurements of trace elements in these rocks. Spirit took the images that are combined into this mosaic on sol 354 (Dec. 30, 2004).

  1. Electrocatalysis of CO2 Reduction in Brush Polymer Ion Gels.

    PubMed

    McNicholas, Brendon J; Blakemore, James D; Chang, Alice B; Bates, Christopher M; Kramer, Wesley W; Grubbs, Robert H; Gray, Harry B

    2016-09-01

    The electrochemical characterization of brush polymer ion gels containing embedded small-molecule redox-active species is reported. Gels comprising PS-PEO-PS triblock brush polymer, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMIm-TFSI), and some combination of ferrocene (Fc), cobaltocenium (CoCp2(+)), and Re(bpy)(CO)3Cl (1) exhibit diffusion-controlled redox processes with diffusion coefficients approximately one-fifth of those observed in neat BMIm-TFSI. Notably, 1 dissolves homogeneously in the interpenetrating matrix domain of the ion gel and displays electrocatalytic CO2 reduction to CO in the gel. The catalytic wave exhibits a positive shift versus Fc(+/0) compared with analogous nonaqueous solvents with a reduction potential 450 mV positive of onset and 90% Faradaic efficiency for CO production. These materials provide a promising and alternative approach to immobilized electrocatalysis, creating numerous opportunities for application in solid-state devices.

  2. Oxalate transport by anion exchange across rabbit ileal brush border.

    PubMed Central

    Knickelbein, R G; Aronson, P S; Dobbins, J W

    1986-01-01

    This study demonstrates the presence of oxalate transporters on the brush border membrane of rabbit ileum. We found that an inside alkaline (pH = 8.5 inside, 6.5 outside) pH gradient stimulated [14C]oxalate uptake 10-fold at 1 min with a fourfold accumulation above equilibrated uptake at 5 min. 1 mM 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (disodium salt; DIDS) profoundly inhibited the pH-gradient stimulated oxalate uptake. Using an inwardly directed K+ gradient and valinomycin, we found no evidence for potential sensitive oxalate uptake. In contrast to Cl:HCO3 exchange, HCO3 did not stimulate oxalate uptake more than was seen with a pH gradient in the absence of HCO3. An outwardly directed Cl gradient (50 mM inside, 5 mM outside) stimulated oxalate uptake 10-fold at 1 min with a fivefold accumulation above equilibrated uptake. Cl-stimulated oxalate uptake was largely inhibited by DIDS. Addition of K+ and nigericin only slightly decreased the Cl gradient-stimulated oxalate uptake, which indicates that this stimulation was not primarily due to the Cl gradient generating an inside alkaline pH gradient via Cl:OH exchange. Further, an outwardly directed oxalate gradient stimulated 36Cl uptake. These results suggested that both oxalate:OH and oxalate:Cl exchange occur on the brush border membrane. To determine if one or both of these exchanges were on contaminating basolateral membrane, the vesicle preparation was further fractionated into a brush border and basolateral component using sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Both exchangers localized to the brush border component. A number of organic anions were examined (outwardly directed gradient) to determine if they could stimulate oxalate and Cl uptake. Only formate and oxaloacetate were found to stimulate oxalate and Cl uptake. An inwardly directed Na gradient only slightly stimulated oxalate uptake, which was inhibited by DIDS. PMID:3003149

  3. Electrochemical redox responsive polymeric micelles formed from amphiphilic supramolecular brushes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Anchao; Yan, Qiang; Zhang, Huijuan; Peng, Liao; Yuan, Jinying

    2014-05-11

    The end-decorated homopolymer poly(ε-caprolactone)-ferrocene threaded onto a β-cyclodextrin-functionalized main-chain polymer can form a class of amphiphilic noncovalent graft copolymers based on the host-guest interactions of the terminal groups on the side chains. These new supramolecular polymer brushes can further self-assemble into micellar aggregates that exhibit reversible assembly and disassembly behavior under an electrochemical redox trigger, which opens up a new route to building dynamic block copolymer topologies.

  4. Taurine transport in renal brush-border-membrane vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Rozen, R; Tenenhouse, H S; Scriver, C R

    1979-01-01

    Taurine transport in isolated brush-border-membrane vesicles from rat kidney is concentrative and it is driven by the Na+ gradient and transmembrane potential difference; binding is not a significant component of net uptake. The Na+-dependent component of net uptake is saturable with an apparent Km of 17 microM. The taurine-transport mechanism is selective for beta-amino compounds. PMID:486101

  5. Cholinergic urethral brush cells are widespread throughout placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Deckmann, Klaus; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Rafiq, Amir; Herden, Christine; Wichmann, Judy; Knauf, Sascha; Nassenstein, Christina; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Bschleipfer, Thomas; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    We previously identified a population of cholinergic epithelial cells in murine, human and rat urethrae that exhibits a structural marker of brush cells (villin) and expresses components of the canonical taste transduction signaling cascade (α-gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2), transient receptor potential cation channel melanostatin 5 (TRPM5)). These cells serve as sentinels, monitoring the chemical composition of the luminal content for potentially hazardous compounds such as bacteria, and initiate protective reflexes counteracting further ingression. In order to elucidate cross-species conservation of the urethral chemosensory pathway we investigated the occurrence and molecular make-up of urethral brush cells in placental mammals. We screened 11 additional species, at least one in each of the five mammalian taxonomic units primates, carnivora, perissodactyla, artiodactyla and rodentia, for immunohistochemical labeling of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), villin, and taste cascade components (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, TRPM5). Corresponding to findings in previously investigated species, urethral epithelial cells with brush cell shape were immunolabeled in all 11 mammals. In 8 species, immunoreactivities against all marker proteins and ChAT were observed, and double-labeling immunofluorescence confirmed the cholinergic nature of villin-positive and chemosensory (TRPM5-positive) cells. In cat and horse, these cells were not labeled by the ChAT antiserum used in this study, and unspecific reactions of the secondary antiserum precluded conclusions about ChAT-expression in the bovine epithelium. These data indicate that urethral brush cells are widespread throughout the mammalian kingdom and evolved not later than about 64.5millionyears ago. PMID:26044348

  6. Cholinergic urethral brush cells are widespread throughout placental mammals.

    PubMed

    Deckmann, Klaus; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Rafiq, Amir; Herden, Christine; Wichmann, Judy; Knauf, Sascha; Nassenstein, Christina; Grevelding, Christoph G; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Bschleipfer, Thomas; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    We previously identified a population of cholinergic epithelial cells in murine, human and rat urethrae that exhibits a structural marker of brush cells (villin) and expresses components of the canonical taste transduction signaling cascade (α-gustducin, phospholipase Cβ2 (PLCβ2), transient receptor potential cation channel melanostatin 5 (TRPM5)). These cells serve as sentinels, monitoring the chemical composition of the luminal content for potentially hazardous compounds such as bacteria, and initiate protective reflexes counteracting further ingression. In order to elucidate cross-species conservation of the urethral chemosensory pathway we investigated the occurrence and molecular make-up of urethral brush cells in placental mammals. We screened 11 additional species, at least one in each of the five mammalian taxonomic units primates, carnivora, perissodactyla, artiodactyla and rodentia, for immunohistochemical labeling of the acetylcholine synthesizing enzyme, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), villin, and taste cascade components (α-gustducin, PLCβ2, TRPM5). Corresponding to findings in previously investigated species, urethral epithelial cells with brush cell shape were immunolabeled in all 11 mammals. In 8 species, immunoreactivities against all marker proteins and ChAT were observed, and double-labeling immunofluorescence confirmed the cholinergic nature of villin-positive and chemosensory (TRPM5-positive) cells. In cat and horse, these cells were not labeled by the ChAT antiserum used in this study, and unspecific reactions of the secondary antiserum precluded conclusions about ChAT-expression in the bovine epithelium. These data indicate that urethral brush cells are widespread throughout the mammalian kingdom and evolved not later than about 64.5millionyears ago.

  7. Ligand-Driven Phase Separation in Binary Particle Brush Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockstaller, Michael; Schmitt, Michael; Zhang, Jianan; Yan, Jiajun; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    The tethering of polymer chains to the surface of nanoparticles (to form so-called `particle brush materials') has emerged as an effective means to enable the bottom-up assembly of one-component hybrid materials with controlled microstructure and improved mechanical stability as well as novel optical or acoustic properties. The polymer-like interactions and response of these particle-brush materials suggest intriguing new opportunities to control structure formation in multicomponent particle mixtures. This contribution will demonstrate that polymer-ligand interactions can drive phase separation processes in mixed particle systems that share analogies to those of regular binary polymer blends. The role of particle size, density and degree of polymerization of tethered chains as well as the interaction parameter between the distinct tethered chains on the mechanism and kinetics of phase separation processes in mixed particle brush systems will be discussed. Ligand-driven phase separation will be shown to enable the efficient fabrication of monochromatic domain structured in mixed quantum dot systems that might find application in next generation quantum dot-enabled LEDs. Support by the National Science Foundation (via Grant DMR-1410845) is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Interpretation of charge transfer measurements of brush discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Kanchan; von Pidoll, Ulrich; Moeckel, Dieter; Langer, Tim; Beyer, Michael

    2011-06-01

    In the present work, experimental results on the measurement of the total charge on a charged insulating sheet before and after a provoked brush discharge, their difference "C", the induced charge "A" when approaching an earthed microprocessor operated hand-Coulombmeter, and the transferred charge "B" at the instance of the discharge are presented. "B" is identical with the value measured by the hand-Coulombmeter within the expected measurement uncertainty. Due to observed corona losses and multiple brush discharges independent of each other, "B" correlates better with the incendivity than "C". The quotient B/C was closer to 1 than calculated in the literature but shows all predicted trends. The results obtained can be used for correct estimation of the incendivity of brush discharges between 10 nC and 90 nC. There is no need to change the existing threshold limits of 60 nC, 30 nC and 10 nC for the explosion groups IIA, IIB and IIC hitherto used in standards for zone 1.

  9. Structural analysis of paintings based on brush strokes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablatnig, Robert; Kammerer, Paul; Zolda, Ernestine

    1998-05-01

    The origin of works of art can often not be attributed to a certain artist. Likewise it is difficult to say whether paintings or drawings are originals or forgeries. In various fields of art new technical methods are used to examine the age, the state of preservation and the origin of the materials used. For the examination of paintings, radiological methods like X-ray and infra-red diagnosis, digital radiography, computer-tomography, etc. and color analyzes are employed to authenticate art. But all these methods do not relate certain characteristics in art work to a specific artist -- the artist's personal style. In order to study this personal style of a painter, experts in art history and image processing try to examine the 'structural signature' based on brush strokes within paintings, in particular in portrait miniatures. A computer-aided classification and recognition system for portrait miniatures is developed, which enables a semi- automatic classification and forgery detection based on content, color, and brush strokes. A hierarchically structured classification scheme is introduced which separates the classification into three different levels of information: color, shape of region, and structure of brush strokes.

  10. Reduced Water Density in a Poly(ethylene oxide) Brush

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoyoung; Kim, Dae Hwan; Park, Hae-Woong; Mahynski, Nathan A.; Kim, Kyungil; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Won, You-Yeon

    2012-09-05

    A model poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) brush system, prepared by spreading a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO-PnBA) amphiphilic diblock copolymer onto an air-water interface, was investigated under various grafting density conditions by using the X-ray reflectivity (XR) technique. The overall electron density profiles of the PEO-PnBA monolayer in the direction normal to the air-water interface were determined from the XR data. From this analysis, it was found that inside of the PEO brush, the water density is significantly lower than that of bulk water, in particular, in the region close to the PnBA-water interface. Separate XR measurements with a PnBA homopolymer monolayer confirm that the reduced water density within the PEO-PnBA monolayer is not due to unfavorable contacts between the PnBA surface and water. The above result, therefore, lends support to the notion that PEO chains provide a hydrophobic environment for the surrounding water molecules when they exist as polymer brush chains.

  11. A Nanosecond Pulsed Plasma Brush for Surface Decontamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuber, Johanna; Malik, Muhammad; Song, Shutong; Jiang, Chunqi

    2015-11-01

    This work optimizes a non-thermal, atmospheric pressure plasma brush for surface decontamination. The generated plasma plumes with a maximum length of 2 cm are arranged in a 5 cm long, brush-like array. The plasma was generated in ambient air with <= 10 kV, 200 ns pulses at a repetition rate of 1.5 kHz. The energy per pulse and average power are in the range of 1-3 mJ and 0.5-1.5 W, respectively. Helium containing varying concentrations of water vapor was evaluated as the carrier gas and was fed into the plasma chamber at a rate varying between 1 to 7 SLPM. Optimization of the cold plasma brush for surface decontamination was tested in a study of the plasma inactivation of two common pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Laminate surfaces inoculated with over-night cultured bacteria were subject to the plasma treatment for varying water concentrations in He, flow rates and discharge voltages. It was found that increasing the water content of the feed gas greatly enhanced the bactericidal effect. Emission spectroscopy was performed to identify the reactive plasma species that contribute to this variation. Additional affiliation: Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics

  12. Polymer Brushes under Shear: Molecular Dynamics Simulations Compared to Experiments.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manjesh K; Ilg, Patrick; Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M; Kröger, Martin; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2015-04-28

    Surfaces coated with polymer brushes in a good solvent are known to exhibit excellent tribological properties. We have performed coarse-grained equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate dextran polymer brushes in an aqueous environment in molecular detail. In a first step, we determined simulation parameters and units by matching experimental results for a single dextran chain. Analyzing this model when applied to a multichain system, density profiles of end-tethered polymer brushes obtained from equilibrium MD simulations compare very well with expectations based on self-consistent field theory. Simulation results were further validated against and correlated with available experimental results. The simulated compression curves (normal force as a function of surface separation) compare successfully with results obtained with a surface forces apparatus. Shear stress (friction) obtained via nonequilibrium MD is contrasted with nanoscale friction studies employing colloidal-probe lateral force microscopy. We find good agreement in the hydrodynamic regime and explain the observed leveling-off of the friction forces in the boundary regime by means of an effective polymer-wall attraction.

  13. Modeling helical polymer brushes using self-consistent field theory (SCFT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahalik, Jyoti; Sumpter, Bobby; Kumar, Rajeev

    We investigate structure of helical polymer brushes in terms of segment density distribution and local helical ordering using SCFT. A flexible chain model with vector potential was used to model liquid crystalline-like ordering in the brushes. The effects of surface grafting density, polymer molecular weight and the solvent quality on the brush structure were investigated. For densely grafted polymer brushes or the brushes made up of high molecular weight polymers, immersed in good quality solvent, stronger orientational ordering was found near the edge of the brushes (i.e., far from the grafting surface). Furthermore, an increase in the orientational ordering near the grafted end was found with decrease in solvent quality or decrease in molecular weight and decrease in surface grafting density. Computer Science and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of polymer brushes for controlled adsorption of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, Olha

    Performance of biomedical devices to a large extent depends on the interactions between the device surface and the biological liquids/protein molecules. To achieve controllable interactions between the device and biomolecules and still retain the required mechanical strength on the whole, modification of the surface is often done. In the present study surface properties were modified through a polymer brush approach. After the modification, surfaces gain tunability toward protein adsorption. Mixed polymer brushes consisting of protein repelling and protein attractive components were used, with a "grafting to" method employed for the synthesis of polymer layers. First, poly(ethylene glycol), the protein repelling component of the mixed polymer brush, was tethered to the surface. Then, polyacrylic acid-b-polystyrene (the protein attractive component) was grafted on top of the previous layer. As one part of this study, the temperature dependence of grafting of the mixed brush components was studied. Surface morphology and surface properties of the mixed polymer brush were altered by treating the brush with different organic solvents. Changes in surface morphology and properties resulting from the solvent treatment were studied in dry conditions and in aqueous media. Hydrophobic interactions of the mixed polymer brush in different pH environments were also estimated. Synthesized mixed polymer brushes demonstrated a clear dependency between the external stimuli applied to the brush and the amount of the protein adsorbed onto the brush surface, allowing an effective control of protein adsorption. Attraction forces between the protein molecules and surface of he mixed polymer brush were measured using AFM and these supported the findings from the protein adsorption studies. 2-D molecular imprinting of the polymer brush approach was used to synthesize a surface with controlled positioning of the protein molecules on the surface. Protein adsorption onto the surface of the

  15. Potential effects of tooth-brushing on human dentin wear following exposure to acidic soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Choi, S; Park, K-H; Cheong, Y; Moon, S W; Park, Y-G; Park, H-K

    2012-08-01

    This study used scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to examine the short-term potential effects of brushing time and the start-time of tooth-brushing after demineralization on primary dentin wear in vitro. Thirty-six noncarious primary central incisors were assigned to 12 experimental groups. Exposure to cola drinks was used to initiate the demineralization process. Three brushing times (5, 15 and 30 s) and four start-times of brushing (0, 30, 60 and 120 min) after an erosive attack were used for the abrasion process. Tooth-brushing the softened dentin surface led to increases in the open tubular fraction and microstructural changes on the dentin surface. Brushing immediately after exposure to cola resulted in the greatest irreversible dentin loss, whereas brushing 60 or 120 min after pretreatment resulted in the least irreversible dentin loss. However, brushing time had no effect on the irreversible loss of dentin wear. Based on these experimental results, tooth-brushing should be performed at least 60 min after consuming a cola drink to achieve the desired tooth cleaning and avoid the introduction of surface lesions on dentin.

  16. Scaling Laws for liquid and ion transport in nanochannels grafted with polyelectrolyte brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Sinha, Shayandev; Das, Siddhartha; Soft Matter, Interfaces,; Energy Laboratory (Smiel) Team

    Grafting nanochannels with polyelectrolyte (PE) brushes renders tremendous functionality to the nanochannels, making them capable of applications such as ion manipulation, ion sensing, current rectification, nanofluidic diode fabrication, and flow control. PE brush is a special case of polymers at interfaces; such brush-like structure is possible only when the grafting density (σ) is beyond a critical value. In this study, we shall propose scaling laws that identify σ-N(N is the size of the PE molecule) combination that simultaneously ensure that the grafted PE molecules adopt ''brush''-like configuration and the height of the PE brushes are smaller than the nanochannel half height. Secondly, we pinpoint the scaling conditions where the electrostatic effects associated with the PE brushes can be decoupled from the corresponding PE excluded volume and elastic effects; such de-coupling has tremendous connotation in context of modeling of electrostatics and transport at PE-brush-covered interfaces. Thirdly, we provide scaling arguments to quantify the dependence of the flow penetration depth into the PE brush as a function of the σ-N combination. Finally, our scaling estimates pinpoint the conditions where the flow or electric field induced deformation of the grafted nanochannel PE brushes can be neglected while modeling the pressure-driven or electroosmotic transport or ionic current in such nanochannels.

  17. Evaluation of boronate-containing polymer brushes and gels as substrates for carbohydrate-mediated adhesion and cultivation of animal cells.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Alexander E; Kumar, Ashok; Nilsang, Suthasinee; Aguilar, Maria-Rosa; Mikhalovska, Lyubov I; Savina, Irina N; Nilsson, Lars; Scheblykin, Ivan G; Kuzimenkova, Marina V; Galaev, Igor Yu

    2010-02-01

    Boronate-containing thin polyacrylamide gels (B-Gel), polymer brushes (B-Brush) and chemisorbed organosilane layers (B-COSL) were prepared on the surface of glass slides and studied as substrates for carbohydrate-mediated cell adhesion. B-COSL- and B-Brush-modified glass samples exhibited multiple submicron structures densely and irregularly distributed on the glass surface, as found by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. B-Gel was ca. 0.1 mm thick and contained pores with effective size of 1-2 microm in the middle and of 5-20 microm on the edges of the gel sample as found by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Evidence for the presence of phenylboronic acid in the samples was given by time-of-flight secondary ion mass-spectrometry (ToF SIMS), contact angle measurements performed in the presence of fructose, and staining with Alizarin Red S dye capable of formation specific, fluorescent complexes with boronic acids. A comparative study of adhesion and cultivation of animal cells on the above substrates was carried out using murine hybridoma M2139 cell line as a model. M2139 cells adhered to the substrates in the culture medium without glucose or sodium pyruvate at pH 8.0, and then were cultivated in the same medium at pH 7.2 for 4 days. It was found that the substrates of B-Brush type were superior both regarding cell adhesion and viability of the adhered cells, among the substrates studied. MTT assay confirmed proliferation of M2139 cells on B-Brush substrates. Some cell adhesion was also registered in the macropores of B-Gel substrate. The effects of surface microstructure of the boronate-containing polymers on cell adhesion are discussed. Transparent glass substrates grafted with boronate-containing copolymers offer good prospects for cell adhesion studies and development of cell-based assays. PMID:19837569

  18. Macroscopic lateral heterogeneity observed in a laterally mobile immiscible mixed polyelectrolyte-neutral polymer brush

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hoyoung; Tsouris, Vasilios; Lim, Yunho; Mustafa, Rafid; Choi, Je; Choi, Yun Hwa; Park, Hae-Woong; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Won, You-Yeon

    2014-07-11

    We studied mixed poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) brushes. The question we attempted to answer was: when the chain grafting points are laterally mobile, how will this lateral mobility influence the structure and phase behavior of the mixed brush? Three different model mixed PEO/PDMAEMA brush systems were prepared: (1) a laterally mobile mixed brush by spreading onto the air–water interface a mixture of poly(ethylene oxide)–poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PEO–PnBA) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)–poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PDMAEMA–PnBA) diblock copolymers (the specific diblock copolymers used will be denoted as PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118–PnBA100, where the subscripts refer to the number-average degrees of polymerization of the individual blocks), (2) a mobility-restricted (inseparable) version of the above mixed brush prepared using a PEO–PnBA–PDMAEMA triblock copolymer (denoted as PEO113–PnBA89–PDMAEMA120) having respective brush molecular weights matched with those of the diblock copolymers, and (3) a different laterally mobile mixed PEO and PDMAEMA brush prepared from a PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA200–PnBA103 diblock copolymer combination, which represents a further more height-mismatched mixed brush situation than described in (1). These three mixed brush systems were investigated by surface pressure–area isotherm and X-ray (XR) reflectivity measurements. These experimental data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of a continuum self-consistent field (SCF) polymer brush model. The combined experimental and theoretical results suggest that the mobile mixed brush derived using the PEO113–PnBA100 and PDMAEMA118–PnBA100 combination (i.e., mixed brush System #1) undergoes a lateral macroscopic phase separation

  19. Molecular interaction forces generated during protein adsorption to well-defined polymer brush surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Sho; Inoue, Yuuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2015-03-17

    The molecular interaction forces generated during the adsorption of proteins to surfaces were examined by the force-versus-distance (f-d) curve measurements of atomic force microscopy using probes modified with appropriate molecules. Various substrates with polymer brush layers bearing zwitterionic, cationic, anionic, and hydrophobic groups were systematically prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Surface interaction forces on these substrates were analyzed by the f-d curve measurements using probes with the same polymer brush layer as the substrate. Repulsive forces, which decreased depending on the ionic strength, were generated between cationic or anionic polyelectrolyte brush layers; these were considered to be electrostatic interaction forces. A strong adhesive force was detected between hydrophobic polymer brush layers during retraction; this corresponded to the hydrophobic interaction between two hydrophobic polymer layers. In contrast, no significant interaction forces were detected between zwitterionic polymer brush layers. Direct interaction forces between proteins and polymer brush layers were then quantitatively evaluated by the f-d curve measurements using protein-immobilized probes consisting of negatively charged albumin and positively charged lysozyme under physiological conditions. In addition, the amount of protein adsorbed on the polymer brush layer was quantified by surface plasmon resonance measurements. Relatively large amounts of protein adsorbed to the polyelectrolyte brush layers with opposite charges. It was considered that the detachment of the protein after contact with the polymer brush layer hardly occurred due to salt formation at the interface. Both proteins adsorbed significantly on the hydrophobic polymer brush layer, which was due to hydrophobic interactions at the interface. In contrast, the zwitterionic polymer brush layer exhibited no significant interaction force with proteins and suppressed

  20. Infrared radiation emerging from smoke produced by brush fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Harshvardhan, M.

    1981-01-01

    The IR radiative transport properties of brush fire smoke clouds, computed for a model with finite horizontal dimensions as well as the more common plane-parallel model, are presented. The finite model is a three-dimensional version of the two-stream approximation applied to cubic clouds of steam, carbon, and silicates. Assumptions are made with regard to the shape and size distributions of the smoke particles. It is shown that 11.5-micron radiometry can detect fires beneath smoke clouds if the path integrated mass density of the smoke is less than or equal to 3 g/sq m.

  1. Polymer brushes in cylindrical pores: Simulation versus scaling theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, D. I.; Milchev, A.; Binder, K.

    2006-07-01

    The structure of flexible polymers endgrafted in cylindrical pores of diameter D is studied as a function of chain length N and grafting density σ, assuming good solvent conditions. A phenomenological scaling theory, describing the variation of the linear dimensions of the chains with σ, is developed and tested by molecular dynamics simulations of a bead-spring model. Different regimes are identified, depending on the ratio of D to the size of a free polymer N3/5. For D >N3/5 a crossover occurs for σ =σ*=N-6/5 from the "mushroom" behavior (Rgx=Rgy=Rgz=N3/5) to the behavior of a flat brush (Rgz=σ1/3N,Rgx=Rgy=σ-1/12N1/2), until at σ**=(D /N)3 a crossover to a compressed state of the brush, [Rgz=D,Rgx=Rgy=(N3D /4σ)1/8brush. These predictions are compared to the computer simulations. From the latter, extensive results on monomer density and free chain end distributions are also obtained, and a discussion of pertinent theories is given. In particular, it is shown that for large D the brush height is an increasing function of D-1.

  2. Infrared radiation emerging from smoke produced by brush fires.

    PubMed

    Weinman, J A; Harshvardhan, H; Olson, W S

    1981-01-15

    This study presents the IR radiative transport properties of brush fire smoke clouds computed for a model with finite horizontal dimensions as well as the more common plane-parallel model. The finite model is a 3-D version of the two-stream approximation applied to cubic clouds of steam, carbon, and silicates. Assumptions are made with regard to the shape and size distributions of the smoke particles. It is shown that 11.5-microm radiometry can detect fires beneath smoke clouds if the path integrated mass density of the smoke is less, similar3 g/m(2).

  3. Electrochemical redox responsive polymeric micelles formed from amphiphilic supramolecular brushes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Anchao; Yan, Qiang; Zhang, Huijuan; Peng, Liao; Yuan, Jinying

    2014-05-11

    The end-decorated homopolymer poly(ε-caprolactone)-ferrocene threaded onto a β-cyclodextrin-functionalized main-chain polymer can form a class of amphiphilic noncovalent graft copolymers based on the host-guest interactions of the terminal groups on the side chains. These new supramolecular polymer brushes can further self-assemble into micellar aggregates that exhibit reversible assembly and disassembly behavior under an electrochemical redox trigger, which opens up a new route to building dynamic block copolymer topologies. PMID:24681929

  4. Protein Mediators of Sterol Transport Across Intestinal Brush Border Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. Mark; Yu, Liqing

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulation of cholesterol balance contributes significantly to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), the leading cause of death in the United States. The intestine has the unique capability to act as a gatekeeper for entry of cholesterol into the body, and inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption is now widely regarded as an attractive non-statin therapeutic strategy for ASCVD prevention. In this chapter we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding sterol transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. The purpose of this work is to summarize substantial progress made in the last decade in regards to protein-mediated sterol trafficking, and to discuss this in the context of human disease. PMID:20213550

  5. Developmental pattern of rat intestinal brush-border enzymic proteins along the villus--crypt axis.

    PubMed

    Simon, P M; Kedinger, M; Raul, F; Grenier, J F; Haffen, K

    1979-02-15

    At various postnatal stages, intestinal epithelial cells were isolated sequentially from villus tip to crypt base by successive EDTA treatments. According to the localization of marker enzymic activities, isolated cells were pooled into three cell compartments: villus (V), lower villus and upper crypt (VC) and crypt (C). Purified brush-border-membrane proteins were separated by 7.5%-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. Enzymic activities could be assigned to some protein bands: maltase/glucoamylase (protein band 3), sucrase-isomaltase (protein bands 3 and 6), lactase (protein band 5) and alkaline phosphatase (region of protein bands 8 and 9). The findings suggest the following. (1) Sucrase-isomaltase activities appeared in compartment C at 17 days with a simultaneous increase of the pre-existing protein band 3 and appearance of a well-defined protein band in position 6; the enzymic complex remained still present in the crypt cells until adulthood. From the day 21 onwards, sucrase-isomaltase was detected in compartments VC and V. (2) Lactase was only present in the three cell compartments until day 21; at this developmental stage its activity completely disappeared from compartment C, in spite of the persistence of a weak protein band. (3) Alkaline phosphatase activity could be detected as a single peak corresponding to protein band 9 in all three cell compartments until day 21; thereafter it was replaced by two peaks of activity showing a less precise correlation with the well-defined protein bands 8 and 9. In the crypt cells of the adult rat, however, the preweaning situation, which was regularly observed, is an unexpected phenomenon. (4) Maltase and glucoamylase did not display any marked qualitative or quantitative modifications either along the villus-crypt axis or during the period of postnatal development studied. Evidence is given from the present data that each brush-border enzyme investigated has a specific

  6. Neutron reflectivity study of the swollen structure of polyzwitterion and polyeletrolyte brushes in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Motoyasu; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Takahara, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The swollen brush structures of polycation and zwitterionic polymer brushes, such as poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyltrimethylammonium chloride) (PMTAC), poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC), and poly[3-(N-2-methacryloyloxyethyl-N,N-dimethyl)ammonatopropanesulfonate] (PMAPS), in aqueous solutions of various ionic strengths were characterized by neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements. A series of the polyelectrolyte brushes were prepared by surface-initiated controlled radical polymerization on silicon substrates. A high-graft-density PMTAC brush in salt-free water (D2O) adopted a two-region step-like structure consisting of a shrunk region near the Si substrate surface and a diffuse brush region with a relatively stretched chain structure at the solution interface. The diffuse region of PMTAC was reduced with increase in salt (NaCl) concentration. The PMAPS brush in D2O formed a collapsed structure due to the strong molecular interaction between betaine groups, while significant increase in the swollen thickness was observed in salt aqueous solution. In contrast, no change was observed in the depth profile of the swollen PMPC brush in D2O with various salt concentrations. The unique solution behaviors of zwitterionic polymer brushes were described. PMID:25178564

  7. Effect of brushing with sonic and counterrotational toothbrushes on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Hansen, P A; Killoy, W; Masterson, K

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of brushing with both a sonic and mechanical counter rotary power toothbrush on the bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Forty-five extracted teeth were divided into three random groups and had orthodontic brackets bonded to them. One group was brushed with a counterrotational toothbrush, the Interplak, one group with a sonic toothbrush, the Sonicare, and a third group was not brushed and was held as a control. After the equivalent of 2 years brushing, the teeth were placed in an Instron machine and the shear force to remove the brackets was recorded. Group 1, the counter rotary power brush, had a mean of 107.5 kg/cm2, the second group, the sonic brush, had a mean of 79.7 kg/cm2, and the control group had a mean of 125. 4 kg/cm2. Single factor analysis of variance followed by the Fisher-Hayter Multiple Comparison Procedure showed a statistically significant difference between the sonic power brush and the control (P <.01), but no significant difference between the counter rotary and the control (P >.05). There was no significant difference between the two power brushes (P >.05).

  8. 46 CFR 108.187 - Ventilation for brush type electric motors in classified spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... spaces. 108.187 Section 108.187 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A... Ventilation for brush type electric motors in classified spaces. Ventilation for brush type electric motors in... the motors may cause unsafe conditions. Accommodation Spaces...

  9. Towards controlled polymer brushes via a self-assembly-assisted-grafting-to approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tian; Qi, Hao; Han, Lin; Barbash, Dmitri; Li, Christopher Y.

    2016-01-01

    Precise synthesis of polymer brushes to modify the surface of nanoparticles and nanodevices for targeted applications has been one of the major focuses in the community for decades. Here we report a self-assembly-assisted-grafting-to approach to synthesize polymer brushes on flat substrates. In this method, polymers are pre-assembled into two-dimensional polymer single crystals (PSCs) with functional groups on the surface. Chemically coupling the PSCs onto solid substrates leads to the formation of polymer brushes. Exquisite control of the chain folding in PSCs allows us to obtain polymer brushes with well-defined grafting density, tethering points and brush conformation. Extremely high grafting density (2.12 chains per nm2) has been achieved in the synthesized single-tethered polymer brushes. Moreover, polymer loop brushes have been successfully obtained using oddly folded PSCs from telechelic chains. Our approach combines some of the important advantages of conventional ‘grafting-to' and ‘grafting-from' methods, and is promising for tailored synthesis of polymer brushes. PMID:27009369

  10. Analytic models of regularly branched polymer brushes using the self-consistent mean field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeSher, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Polymer brushes consist of multiple monomers connected together with one of the polymer chain's ends attached to a surface. Polymer brushes have shown great promise for a wide variety of applications including drug delivery dendrimer systems and as tunable brushes that can change their shape and physical properties in response to changes in their environment. Regularly branched polymer brushes which are structured as a function of their chemical indices are investigated here using the self-consistent mean field theory for electrically neutral polymers. The brushes were described using weighting functions, f(n), were n was the fewest number of monomers from a specified location to a free end. Brushes with weighting functions of the form f(n)=nb, f(n)=ebn, as well as f(n)=dan when d 2 and alpha > 2 were found to match the parabolic free chain end profile expected, while it was determined that polymer brushes described using f(n)=n b must be very small in order to remain in equilibrium. However, brushes described by f(n)=2G(N-n) N and f(n)2n were found to be unstable for real, positive values of the potential of the system.

  11. Distribution of Chains in Polymer Brushes Produced by a “Grafting From” Mechanism

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Martinez, Andre P.; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; Dobrynin, Andrey V.; Adamson, Douglas H.

    2016-01-11

    The molecular weight and polydispersity of the chains in a polymer brush are critical parameters determining the brush properties. However, the characterization of polymer brushes is hindered by the vanishingly small mass of polymer present in brush layers. In this study, in order to obtain sufficient quantities of polymer for analysis, polymer brushes were grown from high surface area fibrous nylon membranes by ATRP. We synthesized the brushes with varying surface initiator densities, polymerization times, and amounts of sacrificial initiator, then cleaved from the substrate, and analyzed by GPC and NMR. Characterization showed that the surface-grown polymer chains were moremore » polydisperse and had lower average molecular weight compared to solution-grown polymers synthesized concurrently. Furthermore, the molecular weight distribution of the polymer brushes was observed to be bimodal, with a low molecular weight population of chains representing a significant mass fraction of the polymer chains at high surface initiator densities. Moreover, the origin of this low MW polymer fraction is proposed to be the termination of growing chains by recombination during the early stages of polymerization, a mechanism confirmed by molecular dynamics simulations of brush polymerization.« less

  12. Towards controlled polymer brushes via a self-assembly-assisted-grafting-to approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tian; Qi, Hao; Han, Lin; Barbash, Dmitri; Li, Christopher Y.

    2016-03-01

    Precise synthesis of polymer brushes to modify the surface of nanoparticles and nanodevices for targeted applications has been one of the major focuses in the community for decades. Here we report a self-assembly-assisted-grafting-to approach to synthesize polymer brushes on flat substrates. In this method, polymers are pre-assembled into two-dimensional polymer single crystals (PSCs) with functional groups on the surface. Chemically coupling the PSCs onto solid substrates leads to the formation of polymer brushes. Exquisite control of the chain folding in PSCs allows us to obtain polymer brushes with well-defined grafting density, tethering points and brush conformation. Extremely high grafting density (2.12 chains per nm2) has been achieved in the synthesized single-tethered polymer brushes. Moreover, polymer loop brushes have been successfully obtained using oddly folded PSCs from telechelic chains. Our approach combines some of the important advantages of conventional `grafting-to' and `grafting-from' methods, and is promising for tailored synthesis of polymer brushes.

  13. Process Of Bonding A Metal Brush Structure To A Planar Surface Of A Metal Substrate

    DOEpatents

    Slattery, Kevin T.; Driemeyer, Daniel E.; Wille; Gerald W.

    1999-11-02

    Process for bonding a metal brush structure to a planar surface of a metal substrate in which an array of metal rods are retained and immobilized at their tips by a common retention layer formed of metal, and the brush structure is then joined to a planar surface of a metal substrate via the retention layer.

  14. Graphene transistors with multifunctional polymer brushes for biosensing applications.

    PubMed

    Hess, Lucas H; Lyuleeva, Alina; Blaschke, Benno M; Sachsenhauser, Matthias; Seifert, Max; Garrido, Jose A; Deubel, Frank

    2014-06-25

    Exhibiting a combination of exceptional structural and electronic properties, graphene has a great potential for the development of highly sensitive sensors. To date, many challenging chemical, biochemical, and biologic sensing tasks have been realized based on graphene. However, many of these sensors are rather unspecific. To overcome this problem, for instance, the sensor surface can be modified with analyte-specific transducers such as enzymes. One problem associated with the covalent attachment of such biomolecular systems is the introduction of crystal defects that have a deleterious impact on the electronic properties of the sensor. In this work, we present a versatile platform for biosensing applications based on polymer-modified CVD-grown graphene transistors. The functionalization method of graphene presented here allows one to integrate several functional groups within surface-bound polymer brushes without the introduction of additional defects. To demonstrate the potential of this polymer brush functionalization scaffold, we modified solution-gated graphene field-effect transistors with the enzyme acetylcholinesterase and a transducing group, allowing the detection of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Taking advantage of the transducing capability of graphene transistors and the versatility of polymer chemistry and enzyme biochemistry, this study presents a novel route for the fabrication of highly sensitive, multipurpose transistor sensors that can find application for a multitude of biologically relevant analytes. PMID:24866105

  15. Brushing of attribute clouds for the visualization of multivariate data.

    PubMed

    Jänicke, Heike; Böttinger, Michael; Scheuermann, Gerik

    2008-01-01

    The visualization and exploration of multivariate data is still a challenging task. Methods either try to visualize all variables simultaneously at each position using glyph-based approaches or use linked views for the interaction between attribute space and physical domain such as brushing of scatterplots. Most visualizations of the attribute space are either difficult to understand or suffer from visual clutter. We propose a transformation of the high-dimensional data in attribute space to 2D that results in a point cloud, called attribute cloud, such that points with similar multivariate attributes are located close to each other. The transformation is based on ideas from multivariate density estimation and manifold learning. The resulting attribute cloud is an easy to understand visualization of multivariate data in two dimensions. We explain several techniques to incorporate additional information into the attribute cloud, that help the user get a better understanding of multivariate data. Using different examples from fluid dynamics and climate simulation, we show how brushing can be used to explore the attribute cloud and find interesting structures in physical space.

  16. Brush seal bristle flexure and hard-rub characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Carlile, Julie A.; Liang, Anita D.

    1993-01-01

    The bristles of a 38.1-mm (1.5-in.) diameter brush seal were flexed by a tapered, 40-tooth rotor operating at 2600 rpm that provided sharp leading-edge impact of the bristles with hard rubbing of the rotor lands. Three separate tests were run with the same brush accumulating over 1.3 x 10(exp 9) flexure cycles while deteriorating 0.2 mm (0.008 in.) radially. In each, the test bristle incursion depth varied from 0.130 to 0.025 mm (0.005 to 0.001 in.) or less (start to stop), and in the third test the rotor was set 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) eccentric. Runout varied from 0.025 to 0.076 mm (0.001 to 0.003 in.) radially. The bristles wore but did not pull out, fracture, or fragment. Bristle and rotor wear debris were deposited as very fine, nearly amorphous, highly porous materials at the rotor groove leading edges and within the rotor grooves. The land leading edges showed irregular wear and the beginning of a convergent groove that exhibited sharp, detailed wear at the land trailing edges. Surface grooving, burnishing, 'whipping', and hot spots and streaks were found. With a smooth-plug rotor, post-test leakage increased 30 percent over pretest leakage.

  17. Brush seal bristle flexure and hard-rub characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Carlile, Julie A.; Liang, Anita D.

    1993-10-01

    The bristles of a 38.1-mm (1.5-in.) diameter brush seal were flexed by a tapered, 40-tooth rotor operating at 2600 rpm that provided sharp leading-edge impact of the bristles with hard rubbing of the rotor lands. Three separate tests were run with the same brush accumulating over 1.3 x 10(exp 9) flexure cycles while deteriorating 0.2 mm (0.008 in.) radially. In each, the test bristle incursion depth varied from 0.130 to 0.025 mm (0.005 to 0.001 in.) or less (start to stop), and in the third test the rotor was set 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) eccentric. Runout varied from 0.025 to 0.076 mm (0.001 to 0.003 in.) radially. The bristles wore but did not pull out, fracture, or fragment. Bristle and rotor wear debris were deposited as very fine, nearly amorphous, highly porous materials at the rotor groove leading edges and within the rotor grooves. The land leading edges showed irregular wear and the beginning of a convergent groove that exhibited sharp, detailed wear at the land trailing edges. Surface grooving, burnishing, 'whipping', and hot spots and streaks were found. With a smooth-plug rotor, post-test leakage increased 30 percent over pretest leakage.

  18. Hysteresis and bristle stiffening effects of conventional brush seals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, P.; Datta, A.; Johnson, R.; Loewenthal, R.; Short, J.

    1993-06-01

    Extensive testing of conventional brush seals has identified the phenomena of bristle 'hysteresis' and 'stiffening' with pressure as their two major drawbacks. Subsequent to any differential movement of the runner into the bristle pack due to its radial excursions or centrifugal/thermal growths, the displaced bristles do not recover against the frictional forces between them and the backing plate. As a result, a significant leakage increase is observed following any runner movement. Furthermore, the bristle pack exhibits a considerable stiffening effect with the application of pressure. This phenomenon adversely affects the life of the seal and the runner due to a highly increased mechanical contact pressure at the sliding interface. In comparison with these conventional design seals, the characteristics of an improved design, known as the 'low hysteresis' design, are presented here. This design shows a substantially lower degree of the detrimental effects mentioned above. This type of seal can maintain its reduced leakage characteristics throughout the running cycle with runner excursions and growths. The bristles also do not show any stiffening, up to a certain pressure threshold. Therefore, this seal also has a potential for a longer life than a brush seal of conventional design.

  19. Protein adsorption properties of OEG monolayers and dense PNIPAM brushes probed by neutron reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouette, N.; Xue, C.; Haertlein, M.; Moulin, M.; Fragneto, G.; Leckband, D. E.; Halperin, A.; Sferrazza, M.

    2012-11-01

    The structure of dense poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) brushes and oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) monolayers has been probed using neutron reflectometry and ellipsometry. The PNIPAM brush is swollen below the Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST) of 32 ∘C and is collapsed at 37 ∘C. Neutron reflectivity shows that below the LCST, the brush is described by a two-layer model: an inner dense layer and a hydrated outer layer. Above the LCST the collapsed brush forms a homogenous layer. With a fully deuterated myoglobin protein to increase the neutron scattering length density contrast, the reflectivity data show no detectable primary adsorption on the grafted OEG surface. A bound on the ternary adsorption onto PNIPAM chains forming dense brushes below and above the LCST is obtained.

  20. Highly uniform hole spacing micro brushes based on aligned carbon nanotube arrays.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Zhu, Xingzhong; Huang, Xiaolu; Cheng, Yingwu; Liu, Yun; Geng, Huijuan; Wu, Yue; Su, Yanjie; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yafei

    2013-11-25

    Highly uniform hole spacing micro brushes were fabricated based on aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method with the assistance of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different micro brushes from CNT arrays were constructed on silicon, glass, and polyimide substrates, respectively. The micro brushes had highly uniform hole spacing originating from the regularly periodic pore structure of AAO template. The CNT arrays, serving as bristles, were firmly grafted on the substrates. The brushes can easily clean particles with scale of micrometer on the surface of silicon wafer and from the narrow spaces between the electrodes in a series of cleaning experiments. The results show the potential application of the CNT micro brushes as a cleaning tool in microelectronics manufacture field.

  1. Highly uniform hole spacing micro brushes based on aligned carbon nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhi; Zhu, Xingzhong; Huang, Xiaolu; Cheng, Yingwu; Liu, Yun; Geng, Huijuan; Wu, Yue; Su, Yanjie; Wei, Hao; Zhang, Yafei

    2013-11-01

    Highly uniform hole spacing micro brushes were fabricated based on aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays synthesized by chemical vapor deposition method with the assistance of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. Different micro brushes from CNT arrays were constructed on silicon, glass, and polyimide substrates, respectively. The micro brushes had highly uniform hole spacing originating from the regularly periodic pore structure of AAO template. The CNT arrays, serving as bristles, were firmly grafted on the substrates. The brushes can easily clean particles with scale of micrometer on the surface of silicon wafer and from the narrow spaces between the electrodes in a series of cleaning experiments. The results show the potential application of the CNT micro brushes as a cleaning tool in microelectronics manufacture field.

  2. In Situ Infrared Ellipsometry for Protein Adsorption Studies on Ultrathin Smart Polymer Brushes in Aqueous Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kroning, Annika; Furchner, Andreas; Aulich, Dennis; Bittrich, Eva; Rauch, Sebastian; Uhlmann, Petra; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Seeber, Michael; Luzinov, Igor; Kilbey, S. Michael; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Minko, Sergiy; Hinrichs, Karsten

    2015-02-10

    The protein-adsorbing and -repelling properties of various smart nanometer-thin polymer brushes with high potential for biosensing and biomedical applications are studied by in-situ infrared-spectroscopic ellipsometry (IRSE). IRSE as a highly sensitive non-destructive technique allows us to investigate protein adsorption on polymer brushes in aqueous environment in dependence of external stimuli like temperature and pH. These stimuli are, for instance, relevant in switchable mixed brushes containing poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) and poly(acrylic acid), respectively. We use such brushes as model surfaces for controlling protein adsorption of human serum albumin and human fibrinogen. IRSE can distinguish between polymer-specific vibrational bands, which yield insights into the hydration state of the brushes, and changes in the protein-specific amide bands, which are related to changes of the protein secondary structure.

  3. Tooth brushing pattern classification using three-axis accelerometer and magnetic sensor for smart toothbrush.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang-Hwi; Lee, Jeong-Whan; Kim, Kyeong-Seop; Kim, Dong-Jun; Kim, Kyungho; Yang, Heui-Kyung; Jeong, Keesam; Lee, Byungchae

    2007-01-01

    The concept of intelligent toothbrush, capable of monitoring brushing motion, orientation through the grip axis, during toothbrushing was suggested in our previous study. In this study, we describe a tooth brushing pattern classification algorithm using three-axis accelerometer and three-axis magnetic sensor. We have found that inappropriate tooth brushing pattern showed specific moving patterns. In order to trace the position and orientation of toothbrush in a mouth, we need to know absolute coordinate information of toothbrush. By applying tilt-compensated azimuth (heading) calculation algorithm, which is generally used in small telematics devices, we could find the inclination and orientation information of toothbrush. To assess the feasibility of the proposed algorithm, 8 brushing patterns were preformed by 6 individual healthy subjects. The proposed algorithm showed the detection ratio of 98%. This study showed that the proposed monitoring system was conceived to aid dental care personnel in patient education and instruction in oral hygiene regarding brushing style. PMID:18002931

  4. Lectin binding studies on a glycopolymer brush flow-through biosensor by localized surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Rosencrantz, Ruben R; Nguyen, Vu Hoa; Park, Hyunji; Schulte, Christine; Böker, Alexander; Schnakenberg, Uwe; Elling, Lothar

    2016-08-01

    A localized surface plasmon resonance biosensor in a flow-through configuration was applied for investigating kinetics of lectin binding to surface-grafted glycopolymer brushes. Polycarbonate filter membranes with pore sizes of 400 nm were coated with a 114-nm thick gold layer and used as substrate for surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization of a glycomonomer. These grafted from glycopolymer brushes were further modified with two subsequent enzymatic reactions on the surface to yield an immobilized trisaccharide presenting brush. Specific binding of lectins including Clostridium difficile toxin A receptor domain to the glycopolymer brush surface could be investigated in a microfluidic setup with flow-through of the analytes and transmission surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Graphical abstract Glycopolymer brushes serve as high affinity ligands for lectin and toxin interactions in a sensitive, disposable flow-through LSPR biosensor. PMID:27277814

  5. In Situ Infrared Ellipsometry for Protein Adsorption Studies on Ultrathin Smart Polymer Brushes in Aqueous Environment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kroning, Annika; Furchner, Andreas; Aulich, Dennis; Bittrich, Eva; Rauch, Sebastian; Uhlmann, Petra; Eichhorn, Klaus-Jochen; Seeber, Michael; Luzinov, Igor; Kilbey, S. Michael; et al

    2015-02-10

    The protein-adsorbing and -repelling properties of various smart nanometer-thin polymer brushes with high potential for biosensing and biomedical applications are studied by in-situ infrared-spectroscopic ellipsometry (IRSE). IRSE as a highly sensitive non-destructive technique allows us to investigate protein adsorption on polymer brushes in aqueous environment in dependence of external stimuli like temperature and pH. These stimuli are, for instance, relevant in switchable mixed brushes containing poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) and poly(acrylic acid), respectively. We use such brushes as model surfaces for controlling protein adsorption of human serum albumin and human fibrinogen. IRSE can distinguish between polymer-specific vibrational bands, which yield insights intomore » the hydration state of the brushes, and changes in the protein-specific amide bands, which are related to changes of the protein secondary structure.« less

  6. A novel hydrophilic polymer-brush pattern for site-specific capture of blood cells from whole blood.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jianwen; Shi, Qiang; Ye, Wei; Fan, Qunfu; Shi, Hengchong; Wong, Shing-Chung; Xu, Xiaodong; Yin, Jinghua

    2015-03-11

    A novel hydrophilic PAMPS-PAAm brush pattern is fabricated to selectively capture blood cells from whole blood. PAMPS brushes provide antifouling surfaces to resist protein and cell adhesion while PAAm brushes effectively entrap targeted proteins for site-specific and cell-type dependent capture of blood cells. PMID:25469596

  7. Metallographic Analysis of Brush Bristle and Integrity Testing of Brush Seal in Shroud Ring of T-700 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Griffin, Thomas A.; Bobula, George A.; Bill, Robert C.; Hull, David R.; Csavina, Kristine R.

    1995-01-01

    Post-test investigation of a T-700 engine brush seal found regions void of bristles ('yanked out'), regions of bent-over bristles near the inlet, some 'snapped' bristles near the fence, and a more uniform 'smeared' bristle interface between the first and last axial rows of bristles. Several bristles were cut from the brush seal, wax mounted, polished, and analyzed. Metallographic analysis of the bristles near the rub tip showed tungsten-rich phases uniformly distributed throughout the bristle with no apparent change within 1 to 2 micron of the interface except for possibly a small amount of titanium, which would represent a transfer from the rotor. Analysis of the bristle wear face showed nonuniform tungsten, which is indicative of material resolidification. The cut end contained oxides and internal fractures; the worn end was covered with oxide scale. Material losses due to wear and elastoplastic deformation within the shear zone and third-body lubrication effects in the contact zone are discussed.

  8. Dynamics of an unconstrained oscillatory flicking brush for road sweeping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanegas Useche, L. V.; Abdel Wahab, M. M.; Parker, G. A.

    2007-11-01

    This article studies the dynamics of a freely rotating flicking brush by means of a mathematical model. The bristles are treated as cantilever prismatic beams subjected to small deflections. A solution of the equation of motion for their forced transverse vibration is obtained through the normal-mode method. A novel oscillatory motion is superimposed onto the rotary motion of the brush. Two functions of oscillation are investigated: a sinusoidal angular velocity and a novel function, named after the authors 'VAP' (Vanegas Useche, Abdel Wahab, Parker), developed to provide small shaft accelerations. The VAP function may be a square wave, a triangle wave, or a smooth wave between them, depending on the value of a smoothness parameter, b. The results indicate that the maximum bending moment, stress, and deflection are independent of the mean angular velocity, are proportional to its alternating component, and increase linearly with the mount radius and the sine of the mount angle. In addition, the behaviour of the brush is strongly affected by the frequency of oscillation, the type of function, the value of b, and bristle wear, amongst other parameters. For the sinusoidal and VAP function, resonance occurs at the bristle natural frequencies. Moreover, the VAP function tends to produce a condition similar to resonance also at odd fractions of the natural frequencies. This phenomenon may be accentuated or reduced, by adjusting the value of b, and be expedited or impeded, by the selection of the frequency. The results of this work may also be applied to the case of a small-deflection cantilever beam, when the transverse external force is a sinusoidal, square, or triangle wave or when it is given by the new VAP function. Finally, the VAP wave may enable to excite a condition similar to resonance not only at the natural frequencies of the beam, but also at odd fractions of them. Small frequencies may be required to achieve a resonant behaviour of a high-frequency mode

  9. Enhanced stability of low fouling zwitterionic polymer brushes in seawater with diblock architecture.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Robert; Gosa, Maria; Jańczewski, Dominik; Kutnyanszky, Edit; Vancso, G Julius

    2013-08-27

    The successful implementation of zwitterionic polymeric brushes as antifouling materials for marine applications is conditioned by the stability of the polymer chain and the brush-anchoring segment in seawater. Here we demonstrate that robust, antifouling, hydrophilic polysulfobetaine-based brushes with diblock architecture can be fabricated by atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using initiator-modified surfaces. Sequential living-type polymerization of hydrophobic styrene or methyl methacrylate and commercially available hydrophilic sulfobetaine methacrylamide (SBMAm) monomer is employed. Stability enhancement is accomplished by protecting the siloxane anchoring bond of brushes on the substrate, grafted from silicon oxide surfaces. The degradation of unprotected PSBMAm brushes is clearly evident after a 3 month immersion challenge in sterilized artificial seawater. Ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements are used to follow changes in coating thickness and surface morphology. Comparative stability results indicate that surface-tethered poly(methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene hydrophobic blocks substantially improve the stability of zwitterionic brushes in an artificial marine environment. In addition, differences between the hydration of zwitterionic brushes in fresh and salt water are discussed to provide a better understanding of hydration and degradation processes with the benefit of improved design of polyzwitterionic coatings. PMID:23876125

  10. Nitroxide polymer brushes grafted onto silica nanoparticles as cathodes for organic radical batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsiao-Chien; Li, Chia-Chen; Lee, Jyh-Tsung

    2011-10-01

    Nitroxide polymer brushes grafted on silica nanoparticles as binder-free cathodes for organic radical batteries have been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and electron spin resonance confirm that the nitroxide polymer brushes are successfully grafted onto silica nanoparticles via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. The thermogravimetric analysis results indicate that the onset decomposition temperature of these nitroxide polymer brushes is found to be ca. 201 °C. The grafting density of the nitroxide polymer brushes grafted on silica nanoparticles is 0.74-1.01 chains nm-2. The results of the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance indicate that the non-crosslinking nitroxide polymer brushes prevent the polymer from dissolving into organic electrolytes. Furthermore, the electrochemical results show that the discharge capacity of the polymer brushes is 84.9-111.1 mAh g-1 at 10 C and the cells with the nitroxide polymer brush electrodes have a very good cycle-life performance of 96.3% retention after 300 cycles.

  11. Synthesis and Biomedical Applications of Poly((meth)acrylic acid) Brushes.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhenyuan; Xu, Hong; Gu, Hongchen

    2015-07-15

    Poly((meth)acrylic acid) (P(M)AA) brushes possess a number of distinctive properties that are particularly attractive for biomedical applications. This minireview summarizes recent advances in the synthesis and biomedical applications of P(M)AA brushes and brushes containing P(M)AA segments. First, we review different surface-initiated polymerization (SIP) methods, with a focus on recent progress in the surface-initiated controlled/living radical polymerization (SI-CLRP) techniques used to generate P(M)AA brushes with a tailored structure. Next, we discuss biomolecule immobilization methods for P(M)AA brushes, including physical adsorption, covalent binding, and affinity interactions. Finally, typical biomedical applications of P(M)AA brushes are reviewed, and their performance is discussed based on their unique properties. We conclude that P(M)AA brushes are promising biomaterials, and more potential biomedical applications are expected to emerge with the further development of synthetic techniques and increased understanding of their interactions with biological systems.

  12. Impact of self-tongue brushing on taste perception in Thai older adults: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Madiloggovit, Jirakate; Chotechuang, Nattida; Trachootham, Dunyaporn

    2016-01-01

    Oral hygiene influences taste, affecting appetite and nutrition in older adults. However, the impact of self-administered tongue brushing on their taste perceptions was unclear. This pilot study (N = 44) was aimed to observe the changes in taste thresholds using Filter Paper Disc after tongue brushing in Thai older adults. Based on the results, continuous tongue brushing for 3 months reduced tongue coat (p < 0.01) and improved subjective taste in 74% of participants. Sweet and salty recognition thresholds were reduced in both anterior and posterior tongue, while sour and bitter thresholds were reduced only in posterior tongue. No changes in umami (savory) were observed. Daily brushing was more effective than weekly brushing in improving the sweet and bitter tastes. The data suggested that tongue brushing could improve perception of multiple tastes and daily tongue brushing was recommended as routine personal care for older adults. This study supports further investigation in a randomized-controlled setting. PMID:26747405

  13. Functional polymer brushes via surface-initiated atom transfer radical graft polymerization for combating marine biofouling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen Jing; Neoh, Koon-Gee; Kang, En-Tang; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; Teo, Serena Lay-Ming; Rittschof, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Dense and uniform polymer brush coatings were developed to combat marine biofouling. Nonionic hydrophilic, nonionic hydrophobic, cationic, anionic and zwitterionic polymer brush coatings were synthesized via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorostyrene, 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl trimethylammonium chloride, 4-styrenesulfonic acid sodium and N,N'-dimethyl-(methylmethacryloyl ethyl) ammonium propanesulfonate, respectively. The functionalized surfaces had different efficacies in preventing adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA), adhesion of the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudomonas sp. NCIMB 2021 and the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, and settlement of cyprids of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite (=Balanus amphitrite). The nonionic hydrophilic, anionic and zwitterionic polymer brushes resisted BSA adsorption during a 2 h exposure period. The nonionic hydrophilic, cationic and zwitterionic brushes exhibited resistance to bacterial fouling (24 h exposure) and cyprid settlement (24 and 48 h incubation). The hydrophobic brushes moderately reduced protein adsorption, and bacteria and cyprid settlement. The anionic brushes were least effective in preventing attachment of bacteria and barnacle cyprids. Thus, the best approach to combat biofouling involves a combination of nonionic hydrophilic and zwitterionic polymer brush coatings on material surfaces. PMID:22963034

  14. Design optimization of a brush turbine with a cleaner/water based solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Rhyn H.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, a fluid turbine which has a brush attached to it has been designed and tested with water as fluid. The purpose of the turbine-brush is to clean up fouling in a tube. The Montreal Protocol prohibits the use of CFC products from refrigeration industry or from industry in general as a cleanser in 1996. Alternatives for the cleansers, devices or a combination of alternative devices with a cleanser should be found. One of the methods is to develop a device which cleans fouling with a cleaning medium. In this paper, we describe a turbine connected with a brush. However, the turbine with the brush should be simple and easy to install. This device is a combined small liquid turbine with a brush. The turbine is activated by the liquid flowing through the tube. Then the turbine turns the brush cleaning fouling along the tube. Based on the energy conservation and the Bernoulli equation along with an empirical relationship of drag force obtained from an experimental apparatus, a relationship of the rotational speed, the number of blades, and geometric variables of the turbine-brush was obtained. The predicted rotational speeds were compared with the experimental observations. Further work was recommended for improvements.

  15. Biomimetic Polymer Brushes Containing Tethered Acetylcholine Analogs for Protein and Hippocampal Neuronal Cell Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhaoli; Yu, Panpan; Geller, Herbert M.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a method to control neuronal cell adhesion and differentiation with both chemical and topographic cues by using a spatially defined polymer brush pattern. First, biomimetic methacrylate polymer brushes containing tethered neurotransmitter acetylcholine functionalities in the form of dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), or free hydroxyl-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) units were prepared using the “grown from” method through surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) reactions. The surface properties of the resulting brushes were thoroughly characterized with various techniques and hippocampal neuronal cell culture on the brush surfaces exhibit cell viability and differentiation comparable to, or even better than, those on commonly used poly-L-lysine coated glass coverslips. The polymer brushes were then patterned via UV photolithography techniques to provide specially designed surface features with different sizes (varying from 2 µm to 200 µm) and orientations (horizontal and vertical). Protein absorption experiments and hippocampal neuronal cell culture tests on the brush patterns showed that both protein and neurons can adhere to the patterns and therefore be guided by such patterns. These results also demonstrate that, because of their unique chemical composition and well-defined nature, the developed polymer brushes may find many potential applications in cell-material interactions studies and neural tissue engineering. PMID:23336729

  16. Salt-Responsive Zwitterionic Polymer Brushes with Tunable Friction and Antifouling Properties.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jintao; Chen, Hong; Xiao, Shengwei; Shen, Mingxue; Chen, Feng; Fan, Ping; Zhong, Mingqiang; Zheng, Jie

    2015-08-25

    Development of smart, multifunction materials is challenging but important for many fundamental and industrial applications. Here, we synthesized and characterized zwitterionic poly(3-(1-(4-vinylbenzyl)-1H-imidazol-3-ium-3-yl)propane-1-sulfonate) (polyVBIPS) brushes as ion-responsive smart surfaces via the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. PolyVBIPS brushes were carefully characterized for their surface morphologies, compositions, wettability, and film thicknesses by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle, and ellipsometer, respectively. Salt-responsive, switching properties of polyVBIPS brushes on surface hydration, friction, and antifouling properties were further examined and compared both in water and in salt solutions with different salt concentrations and counterion types. Collective data showed that polyVBIPS brushes exhibited reversible surface wettability switching between in water and saturated NaCl solution. PolyVBIPS brushes in water induced the larger protein absorption, higher surface friction, and lower surface hydration than those in salt solutions, exhibiting "anti-polyelectrolyte effect" salt responsive behaviors. At appropriate ionic conditions, polyVBIPs brushes were able to switch to superlow fouling surfaces (<0.3 ng/cm(2) protein adsorption) and superlow friction surfaces (u ∼ 10(-3)). The relationship between brush structure and its salt-responsive performance was also discussed. This work provides new zwitterionic surface-responsive materials with controllable antifouling and friction capabilities for multifunctional applications.

  17. Chain Length and Grafting Density Dependent Enhancement in the Hydrolysis of Ester-Linked Polymer Brushes.

    PubMed

    Melzak, Kathryn A; Yu, Kai; Bo, Deng; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Toca-Herrera, José L

    2015-06-16

    Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) brushes with different grafting density and chain length were grown from an ester group-containing initiator using surface-initiated polymerization. Hydrolysis of the PDMA chains from the surface was monitored by measuring thickness of the polymer layer by ellipsometry and extension length by atomic force microscopy. It was found that the initial rate of cleavage of one end-tethered PDMA chains was dependent on the grafting density and chain length; the hydrolysis rate was faster for high grafting density brushes and brushes with higher molecular weights. Additionally, the rate of cleavage of polymer chains during a given experiment changed by up to 1 order of magnitude as the reaction progressed, with a distinct transition to a lower rate as the grafting density decreased. Also, polymer chains undergo selective cleavage, with longer chains in a polydisperse brush being preferentially cleaved at one stage of the hydrolysis reaction. We suggest that the enhanced initial hydrolysis rates seen at high grafting densities and high chain lengths are due to mechanical activation of the ester bond connecting the polymer chains to the surface in association with high lateral pressure within the brush. These results have implications for the preparation of polymers brushes, their stability under harsh conditions, and the analysis of polymer brushes from partial hydrolysates. PMID:26010390

  18. Oxidation and Volatilization from Tungsten Brush High Heat Flux Armor During High Temperature Steam Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Smolik, Galen Richard; Pawelko, Robert James; Anderl, Robert Andrew; Petti, David Andrew

    2000-05-01

    Tungsten brush accommodates thermal stresses and high heat flux in fusion reactor components such as plasma facing surfaces or armor. However, inherently higher surface areas are introduced with the brush design. We have tested a specific design of tungsten brush in steam between 500 and 1100°C. Hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization rates were determined to address fusion safety issues. The brush prepared from 3.2-mm diameter welding rods had a packing density of 85 percent. We found that both hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization from brush, fixtured to represent a unit within a larger component, were less than projections based upon the total integrated surface area (TSA). Steam access and the escape of hydrogen and volatile oxide from void spaces within the brush are restricted compared to specimens with more direct diffusion pathways to the test environment. Hydrogen generation rates from restrained specimens based on normal surface area (NSA) remain about five times higher than rates based on total surface areas from specimens with direct steam access. Volatilization rates from restrained specimens based upon normal surface area (NSA) were only 50 percent higher than our historic cumulative maximum flux plot (CMFP) for tungsten. This study has shown that hydrogen generation and tungsten volatilization from brush do not scale according to predictions with previously determined rates, but in fact, with higher packing density could approach those from flat surfaces.

  19. Ultrasensitive ELISA using enzyme-loaded nanospherical brushes as labels.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhenyuan; Xu, Hong; Xu, Ping; Chen, Kaimin; Mu, Rong; Fu, Jianping; Gu, Hongchen

    2014-10-01

    Improving the detection sensitivity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is of utmost importance for meeting the demand of early disease diagnosis. Herein we report an ultrasensitive ELISA system using horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-loaded nanospherical poly(acrylic acid) brushes (SPAABs) as labels. HRP was covalently immobilized in SPAABs with high capacity and activity via an efficient "chemical conjugation after electrostatic entrapment" (CCEE) process, thus endowing SPAABs with high amplification capability as labels. The periphery of SPAAB-HRP was further utilized to bind a layer of antibody with high density for efficient capture of analytes owing to the three-dimensional architecture of SPAABs. Using human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) as a model analyte, the SPAAB-amplified system drastically boosted the detection limit of ELISA to 0.012 mIU mL(-1), a 267-fold improvement as compared to conventional ELISA systems.

  20. Experience with a flexible-brush dust-feed mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Milliman, E.M.; Chang, D.P.Y.; Moss, O.R.

    1980-05-01

    The difficulties of redispersing fine solid particles in a consistent manner are well known. Production of solid aerosols by redispersing bulk powders can be separated into two problems: feeding bulk powder at a desired rate, and dispersion of agglomerates within the bulk powder to produce an aerosol. A novel design for the feeding of bulk powders at the low rates suitable for exposure chamber studies is described. Principal advantages of the dust-feed mechanism are: excellent stability over periods approaching 24 hr; low construction cost; simplicity of design; ability to handle powders which are difficult to compact into a dust cake; wide operational limits on feed rates. The device is not a positive displacement feeder, so that a calibration curve of mass output rate versus brush rotational speed must be developed for each type of dust dispensed.

  1. Piercing an interface with a brush: Collaborative stiffening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodi, F.; Roman, B.; Bico, J.

    2010-05-01

    The hairs of a painting brush withdrawn from a wetting liquid self-assemble into clumps whose sizes rely on a balance between liquid surface tension and hairs bending rigidity. Here we study the situation of an immersed carpet in an evaporating liquid bath: the free extremities of the hairs are forced to pierce the liquid interface. The compressive capillary force on the tip of flexible hairs leads to buckling and collapse. However we find that the spontaneous association of hairs into stronger bundles may allow them to resist capillary buckling. We explore in detail the different structures obtained and compare them with similar patterns observed in micro-structured surfaces such as carbon nanotubes "forests".

  2. Training mentally retarded adolescents to brush their teeth.

    PubMed

    Horner, R D; Keilitz, I

    1975-01-01

    The need for self-care by retarded individuals in behaviors such as brushing teeth led to the development and evaluation of a comprehensive toothbrushing program that included a task analysis and training procedure specific to each component of the task analysis. Eight mentally retarded adolescents, in two groups, individually received acquisition training that included scheduled opportunities for independent performances, verbal instruction, modelling, demonstration, and physical assistance. The first group of four subjects received token plus social reinforcement; the second received only social reinforcement. All eight subjects showed improved toothbrushing behaviors when compared to baseline. Six of the eight subjects correctly performed all toothbrushing steps in two of three consecutive sessions. The study emphasizes the need for systematic program development and evaluation.

  3. Diagnosis of bile duct cancer by bile cytology: usefulness of post-brushing biliary lavage fluid

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Keiko; Nagata, Kaori; Ohno, Sachiyo; Uesaka, Katsuhiko; Mori, Keita; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Takizawa, Kohei; Kakushima, Naomi; Tanaka, Masaki; Kawata, Noboru; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pathologic evidence of biliary diseases can be obtained from cytology in addition to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP); however, the diagnostic effectiveness is not satisfactory. Study aim: This retrospective, single-center study evaluated the efficacy of various sampling methods for the cytologic diagnosis of bile duct cancer. Patients and methods: Biliary samples included bile that was simply aspirated, brush smear, brush-rinsed saline, and post-brushing biliary lavage fluid. A set of samples was compared for cytologic efficacy in 76 patients with surgically proven bile duct cancer and in 50 patients with benign biliary stricture. Results: The cytologic sensitivity for diagnosing biliary cancer was 34 % with aspirated bile, 32 % with brush smear, 43 % with brush-rinsed saline, and 70 % with post-brushing biliary lavage fluid, in contrast to the null false-positive result in the benign cases. The sensitivity of cytology was significantly higher with post-brushing lavage fluid than with the other three sampling methods (P < 0.0001), and post-brushing lavage fluid improved the cumulative sensitivity by 24 % (P = 0.002). The sensitivity of biliary cytology was also associated with the amount of aspirated bile (P = 0.01) and with the aspiration site (P = 0.03). The rate of cancer positivity in a cytology set differed according to the tumor macroscopic type (85 % in the protruding type vs. 40 % in the flat type; P = 0.003), and according to the size of the cancer (87 % for tumors ≥ 50 mm vs. 66 % for tumors < 50 mm; P = 0.02). Conclusions: Post-brushing biliary lavage fluid cytology provides superior diagnostic efficacy, and its addition to ERCP procedures is recommended for obtaining cytologic evidence of bile duct cancer. PMID:26357678

  4. Gingival abrasion and recession in manual and oscillating–rotating power brush users

    PubMed Central

    Rosema, NAM; Adam, R; Grender, JM; Van der Sluijs, E; Supranoto, SC; Van der Weijden, GA

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess gingival recession (GR) in manual and power toothbrush users and evaluate the relationship between GR and gingival abrasion scores (GA). Methods This was an observational (cross-sectional), single-centre, examiner-blind study involving a single-brushing exercise, with 181 young adult participants: 90 manual brush users and 91 oscillating–rotating power brush users. Participants were assessed for GR and GA as primary response variables. Secondary response variables were the level of gingival inflammation, plaque score reduction and brushing duration. Pearson correlation was used to describe the relationship between number of recession sites and number of abrasions. Prebrushing (baseline) and post-brushing GA and plaque scores were assessed and differences analysed using paired tests. Two-sample t-test was used to analyse group differences; ancova was used for analyses of post-brushing changes with baseline as covariate. Results Overall, 97.8% of the study population had at least one site of ≥1 mm of gingival recession. For the manual group, this percentage was 98.9%, and for the power group, this percentage was 96.7% (P = 0.621). Post-brushing, the power group showed a significantly smaller GA increase than the manual group (P = 0.004); however, there was no significant correlation between number of recession sites and number of abrasions for either group (P ≥ 0.327). Conclusions Little gingival recession was observed in either toothbrush user group; the observed GR levels were comparable. Lower post-brushing gingival abrasion levels were seen in the power group. There was no correlation between gingival abrasion as a result of brushing and the observed gingival recession following use of either toothbrush. PMID:24871587

  5. Growth Factor-Bearing Polymer Brushes--Versatile Bioactive Substrates Influencing Cell Response.

    PubMed

    Psarra, Evmorfia; Foster, Elena; König, Ulla; You, Jungmok; Ueda, Yuichiro; Eichhorn, Klaus-J; Müller, Martin; Stamm, Manfred; Revzin, Alexander; Uhlmann, Petra

    2015-11-01

    In this study we present the development of responsive nanoscale substrates exhibiting cell-guiding properties based on incorporated bioactive signaling cues. The investigative approach considered the effect of two different surface-bound growth factors (GFs) on cell behavior and response: hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Two surface biofunctionalization strategies were explored in order to conceive versatile, bioactive thin polymer brush films. Polymer brushes made of tethered poly(acrylic)acid (PAA) polymer layers with a high grafting density of polymer chains were biofunctionalized with GFs either by physisorption or chemisorption. Both GFs showed high binding efficiencies to PAA brushes based on their initial loading concentrations. The GF release kinetics can be distinguished depending on the applied biofunctionalization method. Specifically, a high initial burst followed by a constant slow release was observed in the case of both physisorbed HGF and bFGF. In contrast, the release kinetics of chemisorbed GFs were quite different. Remarkably, chemisorbed HGF remained bound to the brush surface for over 1 week, whereas 50% of chemisorbed bFGF was released slowly. Furthermore, the effect of these GF-biofunctionalized PAA brushes on different cells was investigated. A human hepatoma cell line (HepG2) was used to analyze the bioactivity of HGF-modified PAA brushes by measuring cell growth inhibition and scattering effects. Additionally, the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) toward endoderm was studied on bFGF-modified PAA brush surfaces. Finally, the results illustrate that PAA brushes, particularly those biofunctionalized with chemisorbed GFs, produce an expected measurable effect on both cell types. Therefore, PAA polymer brushes biofunctionalized with GFs can be used as bioactive cell culture substrates with tuned efficiency. PMID:26447354

  6. Temperature Dependence of the Surface and Volume Hydrophilicity of Hydrophilic Polymer Brushes.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Pengyu; Dirani, Ali; Glinel, Karine; Jonas, Alain M

    2016-04-12

    The temperature-dependence of the volume and surface hydrophilicity of a series of water-swollen dense polymer brushes is measured by contact angle measurements in the captive bubble configuration, by ellipsometry, and by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and poly(di(methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate) (PMEO2MA), strongly hydrophilic poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) and poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA), and weakly hydrophilic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes were synthesized by surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). Conditions leading to reproducible measurements of the contact angle are first provided, giving access to the surface hydrophilicity. Volume hydrophilicity is quantified by measuring the swelling of the brushes, either by QCM-D or by ellipsometry. A model-free methodology is proposed to analyze the QCM-D data. Comparison between the acoustic and optical swelling coefficients shows that QCM-D is sensitive to the maximal thickness of swollen brushes, while ellipsometry provides an integral thickness. Diagrams of surface versus volume hydrophilicity of the brushes finally lead to identify two types of behavior: strongly water-swollen brushes exhibit a progressive decrease of volume hydrophilicity with temperature, while surface hydrophilicity changes moderately; weakly water-swollen brushes have a close-to-constant volume hydrophilicity, while surface hydrophilicity decreases with temperature. Thermoresponsive brushes abruptly switch from one behavior to the other, and do not exhibit an abrupt change of surface hydrophilicity across their collapse transition contrarily to a common erroneous belief. In general, there is no direct correlation between surface and volume hydrophilicity, because surface properties are dependent on the details of conformation and composition at the surface, whereas volume properties

  7. Deposition of zwitterionic polymer brushes in a dense gas medium.

    PubMed

    Puniredd, Sreenivasa Reddy; Jayaraman, Sundaramurthy; Gandhimathi, Chinnasamy; Ramakrishna, Seeram; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Yeo, Tin Wei; Guo, Shifeng; Quintana, Robert; Jańczewski, Dominik; Srinivasan, M P

    2015-06-15

    Poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) films known for their resistance to nonspecific protein adsorption, cell/bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation were produced by surface initiated polymerization on a silicon surface via a batch reaction system in CO2 expanded liquid (CO2-EL) medium. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was carried out using 2,2'-bipyridyl as ligand and CuBr as a catalyst in water/methanol mixture with trichloro[4-(chloromethyl)phenyl]silane (CMPS) used as the initiating species. The films were grown in the CO2-EL environment at a range of conditions and thickness up to 10nm. In contrast to films produced by conventional solvent systems at atmospheric pressure, the polymer films grown by the CO2-EL process showed uniform thickness and pin-hole free topography. Most importantly, the CO2-EL processed PSBMA films showed no trace of copper (used as the catalyst), thus obviating the need for post-deposition processing and avoiding adverse effects of the metal leaching during service. Finally, PSBMA films from both the conventional and CO2-EL processes were exposed to Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and the results showed that, while in both the cases the cell proliferation rate was inhibited by the charged polymeric brush surface, the CO2-EL-processed brush exhibited inhibition to a larger extent due to the reduced occurrence of pinholes. The process can be easily exploited effectively when carrying out surface initiated polymerization on non-flat topographies, such as in trenches and nanostructured features with high aspect ratios. PMID:25728486

  8. Nanostructure and salt effect of zwitterionic carboxybetaine brush at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Hideki; Yamakawa, Yuta; Ghosh, Arjun; Saruwatari, Yoshiyuki

    2015-05-01

    Zwitterionic amphiphilic diblock copolymer, poly(ethylhexyl acrylate)-b-poly(carboxybetaine) (PEHA-b-PGLBT), was synthesized by the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) method with precise control of block length and polydispersity. The polymers thus obtained were spread onto the water surface to form a polymer monolayer. The fundamental property and nanostructure of the block copolymer monolayer were systematically studied by the surface pressure-molecular area (π-A) isotherm, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), and X-ray reflectivity (XR) techniques. The π values of the monolayer increased by compression in relatively larger A regions. After showing a large plateau region by compression, the π value sharply increased at very small A regions, suggesting the formation of poly(GLBT) brush formation just beneath the water surface. The domain structure of μm size was observed by BAM in the plateau region. XR profiles for the monolayer at higher surface pressure regions clearly showed the PGLBT brush formation in addition to PGLBT carpet layer formation under the hydrophobic PEHA layer on the water surface, as was observed for both anionic and cationic brush layer in the water surface monolayer studied previously. The critical brush density, where the PGLBT brush is formed, was estimated to be about 0.30 chains/nm(2) for the (EHA)45-b-(GLBT)60 monolayer, which is relatively large compared to other ionic brushes. This observation is consistent with the fact that the origin of brush formation is mainly steric hindrance between brush chains. The brush thickness increased by compression and also by salt addition, unlike the normal ionic brush (anionic and cationic), whose thickness tended to decrease, i.e., shrink, by salt addition. This might be a character unique to the zwitterionic brush, and its origin is thought to be transition to an ionic nature from the almost nonionic inner salt caused by salt addition since both the cation and anion of the

  9. Development of the Upgraded DC Brush Gear Motor for Spacebus Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berning, Robert H.; Viout, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    The obsolescence of materials and processes used in the manufacture of traditional DC brush gear motors has necessitated the development of an upgraded DC brush gear motor (UBGM). The current traditional DC brush gear motor (BGM) design was evaluated using Six-Sigma process to identify potential design and production process improvements. The development effort resulted in a qualified UBGM design which improved manufacturability and reduced production costs. Using Six-Sigma processes and incorporating lessons learned during the development process also improved motor performance for UBGM making it a more viable option for future use as a deployment mechanism in space flight applications.

  10. A sequence of calculation of the modes of dimensional combined processing by an electrode brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryazantsev, A. Yu; Kirillov, O. N.; Smolentsev, V. P.; Totay, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    In the article the way of calculation of the modes of dimensional processing by an electrode brush is considered. The choice of a liquid working environment is presented. A calculation of tension in electrodes and forces of the technological current realized during processing is given. A choice of a clip of wire bunches in a processing zone, feeding an electrode brush to a non-rigid work piece. The recommended technological indicators of the process of the finishing combined treatment by an electrode brush are presented.

  11. A hybrid floating brush seal (HFBS) for improved sealing and wear performance in turbomachinery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lattime, Scott Byran

    A conceptually new type of seal has been developed for gas turbine applications which dramatically reduces wear and leakage associated with current labyrinth and brush seal technologies. The Hybrid Floating Brush Seal (HFBS) combines brush seal and film riding face seal technologies to create a hybrid seal that allows both axial and radial excursions of the sealed shaft, while simultaneously eliminating interface surface speeds (friction and heat) between the rotor and the brush material that characterize standard brush seal technology. A simple test rig was designed to evaluate feasibility of the HFBS under relatively low pressures and rotational speeds (50psig, 5krpm). A second test stand was created to study the effects of centrifugal force on bristle deflection. A third test facility was constructed for prototype development and extensive room temperature testing at moderate pressures and fairly high rotational speeds (100psig, 40krpm). This test rig also allowed the evaluation of the HFBS during axial movement of a rotating shaft. An analytical model to predict the effects of centrifugal force on the bristles of a rotating brush seal was developed. Room temperature analysis of the HFBS proved successful for relatively high operating rotational velocities at moderate pressures with very acceptable leakage rates for gas turbine engines. Brush seals were able to track rotor speeds up to 24krpm while maintaining sealing integrity. The HFBS's ability to function under axial shaft displacement and synchronous dynamic radial loading was also proven successful. Hydrodynamic performance of the face seal was proven to provide adequate stiffness and load carrying capacity to keep the brush seal from contacting the face seal at pressure drops across the brush of up to 100psi. Leakage performance over standard brush seal and labyrinth technology was quite dramatic. The HFBS showed its sealing advantage using much higher radial interference between the rotor and the bristle

  12. Comparison between observed children's tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Information bias can occur in epidemiological studies and compromise scientific outcomes, especially when evaluating information given by a patient regarding their own health. The oral habits of children reported by their mothers are commonly used to evaluate tooth brushing practices and to estimate fluoride intake by children. The aim of the present study was to compare observed tooth-brushing habits of young children using fluoridated toothpaste with those reported by mothers. Methods A sample of 201 mothers and their children (aged 24-48 months) from Montes Claros, Brazil, took part in a cross-sectional study. At day-care centres, the mothers answered a self-administered questionnaire on their child's tooth-brushing habits. The structured questionnaire had six items with two to three possible answers. An appointment was then made with each mother/child pair at day-care centres. The participants were asked to demonstrate the tooth-brushing practice as usually performed at home. A trained examiner observed and documented the procedure. Observed tooth brushing and that reported by mothers were compared for overall agreement using Cohen's Kappa coefficient and the McNemar test. Results Cohen's Kappa values comparing mothers' reports and tooth brushing observed by the examiner ranged from poor-to-good (0.00-0.75). There were statistically significant differences between observed tooth brushing habits and those reported by mothers (p < 0.001). When observed by the examiner, the frequencies of dentifrice dispersed on all bristles (35.9%), children who brushed their teeth alone (33.8%) and those who did not rinse their mouths during brushing (42.0%) were higher than those reported by the mothers (12.1%, 18.9% and 6.5%, respectively; p < 0.001). Conclusions In general, there was low agreement between observed tooth brushing and mothers' reports. Moreover, the different methods of estimation resulted in differences in the frequencies of tooth brushing habits

  13. Investigations of Mechanical Properties of Polymer Brushes and Hydrogels Through Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yangpeng

    In this thesis, the forces between surfaces coated with polyelectrolye brushes and polymer gels were investigated via molecular dynamics simulation on a computer workstation that I built. The first project investigated the reasons for why grafted polyelectrolye brushes have smaller friction coefficients than grafted neutral polymer brushes. The flexible neutral polymer brush is treated as a bead-spring model, and the polyelectrolyte brush is treated the same way except that each bead is charged and there are counterions present to neutralize the charge. We investigated the friction coefficient, monomer density, and brush penetration for the two kinds of brushes with both the same grafting density and the same normal force under good solvent conditions. We found that polyelectrolyte brushes have smaller friction coefficients in both simulations. We present evidence that the reason for this is that the extra normal force contribution provided by the counterion osmotic pressure that exists for polyelectrolyte brushes permits them to support the same load as identical neutral polymer brushes of higher grafting density. Because of the resulting lower monomer density for the charged brushes, fewer monomer collisions take place per unit time, resulting in a lower friction coefficient. The second project investigated interactions between two grafted polymer gels. Unlike polyelectrolyte polymer brushes, polymer chains are linked to other neighboring polymer chains. We studied a defect-free network of diamond-like topology containing 8 tetra-functional nodes linked by 16 non-crossing chains. We studied the shear force, friction coefficient, and density profiles of these polymer gels. We found that polymer gels have very small friction coefficients in our simulation, which is consistent with previous experimental measurements. In order to understand and explain this very low friction coefficient behavior, we computed the interpenetrations between two polymer gels, the

  14. Into the polymer brush regime through the "grafting-to" method: densely polymer-grafted rodlike viruses with an unusual nematic liquid crystal behavior.

    PubMed

    Zan, Tingting; Wu, Fengchi; Pei, Xiaodong; Jia, Shaoyi; Zhang, Ran; Wu, Songhai; Niu, Zhongwei; Zhang, Zhenkun

    2016-01-21

    The current work reports an intriguing discovery of how the force exerted on protein complexes like filamentous viruses by the strong interchain repulsion of polymer brushes can induce subtle changes of the constituent subunits at the molecular scale. Such changes transform into the macroscopic rearrangement of the chiral ordering of the rodlike virus in three dimensions. For this, a straightforward "grafting-to" PEGylation method has been developed to densely graft a filamentous virus with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). The grafting density is so high that PEG is in the polymer brush regime, resulting in straight and thick rodlike particles with a thin viral backbone. Scission of the densely PEGylated viruses into fragments was observed due to the steric repulsion of the PEG brush, as facilitated by adsorption onto a mica surface. The high grafting density of PEG endows the virus with an isotropic-nematic (I-N) liquid crystal (LC) phase transition that is independent of the ionic strength and the densely PEGylated viruses enter into the nematic LC phase at much lower virus concentrations. Most importantly, while the intact virus and the one grafted with PEG of low grafting density can form a chiral nematic LC phase, the densely PEGylated viruses only form a pure nematic LC phase. This can be traced back to the secondary to tertiary structural change of the major coat protein of the virus, driven by the steric repulsion of the PEG brush. Quantitative parameters characterising the conformation of the grafted PEG derived from the grafting density or the I-N LC transition are elegantly consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  15. pH-regulated ionic current rectification in conical nanopores functionalized with polyelectrolyte brushes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhenping; Ai, Ye; Qian, Shizhi

    2014-02-14

    Mimicking biological ion channels capable of pH-regulated ionic transport, synthetic nanopores functionalized with pH-tunable polyelectrolyte (PE) brushes have been considered as versatile tools for active transport control of ions, fluids, and bioparticles on the nanoscale. The ionic current rectification (ICR) phenomenon through a conical nanopore functionalized with PE brushes whose charge highly depends upon the local solution properties (i.e., pH and background salt concentration) is studied theoretically for the first time. The results show that the rectification magnitude, as well as the preferential rectification direction, is sensitive to the pH stimulus. The bulk concentration of the background salt can also significantly influence the charge of the PE brushes and accordingly affect the ICR phenomenon. The obtained results provide an insightful understanding of the pH-regulated ICR and guidelines for designing nanopores functionalized with PE brushes for pH-tunable applications.

  16. Electron spectroscopy analysis of contact surfaces in the wear of carbon brushes against copper commutators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, D. E.; Lagally, M. G.; Schrader, M. E.

    Carbon brushes and copper commutator strips have been analyzed by a combination of techniques to investigate possible surface-related phenomena in the excessive wear of carbon brushes in motors and generators. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis were used in this study. A thin SiO 2 film, of the order of 30 Å on the brushes, and of the order of several hundred Å on the commutators, was correlated with high wear and is believed to be the chief cause of the excessive wear. Possible models for the effect of SiO 2 on carbon brush wear are discussed.

  17. Brush in the bath of active particles: Anomalous stretching of chains and distribution of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hui-shu; Zhang, Bo-kai; Li, Jian; Tian, Wen-de; Chen, Kang

    2015-12-01

    The interaction between polymer brush and colloidal particles has been intensively studied in the last two decades. Here, we consider a flat chain-grafted substrate immersed in a bath of active particles. Simulations show that an increase in the self-propelling force causes an increase in the number of particles that penetrate into the brush. Anomalously, the particle density inside the main body of the brush eventually becomes higher than that outside the brush at very large self-propelling force. The grafted chains are further stretched due to the steric repulsion from the intruded particles. Upon the increase of the self-propelling force, distinct stretching behaviors of the chains were observed for low and high grafting densities. Surprisingly, we find a weak descent of the average end-to-end distance of chains at high grafting density and very large force which is reminiscent of the compression effect of a chain in the active bath.

  18. Brush in the bath of active particles: Anomalous stretching of chains and distribution of particles.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-shu; Zhang, Bo-kai; Li, Jian; Tian, Wen-de; Chen, Kang

    2015-12-14

    The interaction between polymer brush and colloidal particles has been intensively studied in the last two decades. Here, we consider a flat chain-grafted substrate immersed in a bath of active particles. Simulations show that an increase in the self-propelling force causes an increase in the number of particles that penetrate into the brush. Anomalously, the particle density inside the main body of the brush eventually becomes higher than that outside the brush at very large self-propelling force. The grafted chains are further stretched due to the steric repulsion from the intruded particles. Upon the increase of the self-propelling force, distinct stretching behaviors of the chains were observed for low and high grafting densities. Surprisingly, we find a weak descent of the average end-to-end distance of chains at high grafting density and very large force which is reminiscent of the compression effect of a chain in the active bath. PMID:26671400

  19. Brushes and picks used on nails during the surgical scrub to reduce bacteria: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Tanner, J; Khan, D; Walsh, S; Chernova, J; Lamont, S; Laurent, T

    2009-03-01

    Though brushes are no longer used on the hands and forearms during the surgical scrub, they are still widely used on the nails. The aim of this study was to determine whether nail picks and nail brushes are effective in providing additional decontamination during a surgical hand scrub. A total of 164 operating department staff were randomised to undertake one of the following three surgical hand-scrub protocols: chlorhexidine only; chlorhexidine and a nail pick; or chlorhexidine and a nail brush. Bacterial hand sampling was conducted before and 1h after scrubbing using a modified version of the glove juice method. No statistically significant differences in bacterial numbers were found between any two of the three intervention groups. Nail brushes and nail picks used during surgical hand scrubs do not decrease bacterial numbers and are unnecessary.

  20. Helicobacter pylori in gastroduodenal diseases: rapid identification by endoscopic brush cytology.

    PubMed

    De Francesco, F; Nicòtina, P A; Picciotto, M; Martines, F; Ferlazzo, G; d'Aquino, A

    1993-08-01

    Previous reports showed Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in type B gastritis-affected stomachs. This study was carried out to compare H. pylori staining effectiveness on biopsy to brush cytology. Tissue and brush parallel samples of gastric mucosa with abnormal or normal appearances were examined: 57.6% H. pylori-positive pieces from the antrum and 19.2% from the body were found, versus 65.3% and 25% H. pylori-positive brush smears, respectively. H. pylori resembling organisms were mainly related to chronic and acute antral inflammations and were often associated with higher amounts of round-shaped cocco-bacteria. In addition, H. pylori direct stain on brushing is proposed as the most rapid and reliable method for the routine diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection, in both ulcer or nonulcer gastritis.

  1. Brush seal performance and durability issues based on T-700 engine test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1994-03-01

    The integrity and performance of brush seals have been established. Severe bench and engine tests have shown high initial wear or run-in rates, material smearing at the interface, and bristle and rub-runner wear, but the brush seals did not fail. Short-duration (46 hr) experimental T-700 engine testing of the compressor discharge seal established over 1-percent engine performance gain (brush versus labyrinth). Long-term gains were established only as leakage comparisons, with the brush at least 20 percent better at controlling leakage. Long-term materials issues, such as wear and ultimately seal life, remain to be resolved. Future needs are cited for materials and analysis tools that account for heat generation, thermomechanical behavior, and tribological pairing to enable original equipment manufacturers to design high-temperature, high-surface-speed seals with confidence.

  2. Thermally modulated retention of lymphoctytes on polymer-brush-grafted glass beads.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Kenichi; Mukae, Naoto; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Okano, Teruo

    2012-03-01

    Thermoresponsive PIPAAm-brush-grafted glass beads are prepared through siATRP and their physicochemical properties are characterized by micro-nitrogen analysis, XPS, and contact angle measurements. The amount of grafted PIPAAm on glass bead surfaces can be controlled by varying the ATRP reaction time, leading to a modulation of the temperature-dependent wettability of the prepared surfaces. To evaluate a possible use of the beads as cell separation matrices, loading with rat lymphocytes from mesenteric lymph nodes is studied. The results show that the interaction between PIPAAm brushes and lymphocytes can be controlled by modulating PIPAAm brush length and temperature. The PIPAAm-brush-grafted beads might therefore be useful as effective cell separation matrices.

  3. Brush Seal Performance and Durability Issues Based on T-700 Engine Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The integrity and performance of brush seals have been established. Severe bench and engine tests have shown high initial wear or run-in rates, material smearing at the interface, and bristle and rub-runner wear, but the brush seals did not fail. Short-duration (46 hr) experimental T-700 engine testing of the compressor discharge seal established over 1-percent engine performance gain (brush versus labyrinth). Long-term gains were established only as leakage comparisons, with the brush at least 20 percent better at controlling leakage. Long-term materials issues, such as wear and ultimately seal life, remain to be resolved. Future needs are cited for materials and analysis tools that account for heat generation, thermomechanical behavior, and tribological pairing to enable original equipment manufacturers to design high-temperature, high-surface-speed seals with confidence.

  4. Tooth brushing frequency in Mexican schoolchildren and associated socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and dental variables

    PubMed Central

    Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Márquez-Rodríguez, Sonia; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Background Tooth brushing (with fluoridated toothpaste) is the most cost-effective intervention in dentistry and it is widely recommended to preserve good oral health. We aimed to determine the frequency of tooth brushing and the variables associated with this practice in schoolchildren living in southeast Mexico. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1644 schoolchildren, 6 to 13 years old. Questionnaires with socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and dental variables were administered to mothers/guardians of children. The dependent variable was the frequency of tooth brushing, which was categorized as 0 = tooth brushing less than once a day and 1 = tooth brushing at least once a day. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate the final results. Results Mean age was 9.06±2.02 years and 49.1% were girls. The prevalence of tooth brushing at least once a day was 49.8%. In the multivariate model, characteristics related to tooth brushing frequency (p<0.05) were: older age (OR=1.11), being female (OR=1.64), having a larger family (OR=0.87), having had a visit to a dentist during the year preceding the study (OR=1.37), and having had fluoride applications by a professional (OR=1.39). Conclusions The results suggested that different variables (demographic, socioeconomic and dental) are associated with the frequency of tooth brushing. Family size (proxy variable for socioeconomic status) may indicate certain oral health inequalities in this population. PMID:24907713

  5. Performance of bile aspiration plus brushing to diagnose malignant biliary strictures during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Gael S.; Bichard, Philippe; Fior-Gozlan, Michele; Roth, Hubert; Auroux, Jean; Risse, Olivier; Letoublon, Christian; Laverrière, Marie Hélène; Bricault, Ivan; Leroy, Vincent; Decaens, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endobiliary brushing during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the main technique used to diagnose a malignant stricture, but has a poor sensitivity. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of bile aspiration associated with biliary brushing during ERCP to diagnose a malignant stricture, compared to brushing alone. Patients and methods: Between January 2007 and December 2012, all consecutive patients undergoing ERCP to treat a biliary stricture were included. After a biliary sphincterotomy, 3 mL to 10 mL of bile was aspirated into the brush catheter and collected in a dry sterile tube before and after brushing (to yield three samples). Brushing was performed as commonly recommended. Results: One hundred eleven patients (68 males, 43 females) were included; mean age 67 ± 15.4 years. A final diagnosis of malignant stricture was established in 51 patients, including 43 cholangiocarcinomas; 60 patients had benign strictures. Specificity (Sp) and positive predictive values were 100% for all samples. The diagnostic performance of the three-sample combination of bile aspiration + brushing + bile aspiration was significantly greater than brushing alone (P = 0.004): sensitivity (Se) = 84.3 % vs. Se = 66.7 %. The three-sample combination gave a negative predictive value of 88.2 %, and a diagnostic accuracy of 92.8 %. When suspicious results were added to malignant results as positive results, the three-sample combination gave Sp = 91.7 % and Se = 94.1 %. Conclusions: In cases of biliary stricture, conducting bile aspiration before and after brushing significantly increased the ability to diagnose a malignant stricture with a sensitivity of 84.3 % (P = 0.004). PMID:27652308

  6. Development of a directly patterned low-surface-energy polymer brush in supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Abhinav; Paik, Marvin Y; Ober, Christopher K

    2009-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a sustainable solvent because it is nonflammable, exhibits a relatively low toxicity, and is naturally abundant. As a selective, nonpolar solvent, supercritical CO2 (scCO2) is an ideal fit for the development of low-surface-energy polymers. The development of directly patterned poly(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate) (PTFEMA) brushes in scCO2 was investigated. PTFEMA, in particular, was selected over other fluorinated polymers because of its very high electron-beam (e-beam) sensitivity. PTFEMA brushes were grown on silicon substrates via controlled surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization of TFEMA. Surface analysis techniques including ellipsometry, contact-angle goniometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the thickness, hydrophilicity, roughness, and chemical composition of the polymer brushes. PTFEMA brushes were directly patterned in a single step using e-beam lithography and were processed in an environmentally benign scCO2 solvent. Tapping-mode AFM imaging confirmed the successful e-beam patterning and development of these brushes. The sensitivity of PTFEMA brushes toward direct patterning with the e-beam, followed by scCO2 development, was studied and compared to development in tetrahydrofuran solvent. Using this direct-patterning method, followed by dry development in scCO2, highly resolved nanostructured polymer brush lines down to 78 nm could be prepared. This method can be generalized to prepare fluorinated low-surface-energy polymer brush surfaces in a single step for various applications. PMID:20355827

  7. Influence of Cutting Time on Brush Response: Implications for Herbivory in Linear (Transportation) Corridors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Roy V.; Child, Kenneth N.; Spata, David P.; MacDonald, Douglas

    2007-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the influence the time of brush-cutting can have on plant regrowth and attractiveness to herbivores that browse in linear corridors. The influence of cutting time on leaf flush and senescence, shoot morphometry, and biomass was measured for 3 consecutive years after initial brush-cutting. Results indicate that morphological and phenological attributes of three woody deciduous plants were influenced by the timing of brush-cutting for up to 3 years after initial cutting. Brush-cutting generally stimulated plants to produce larger than normal shoots and delay leaf senescence. The degree to which plants were affected, however, varied with the timing of initial cutting and the species in question. Generally, plants cut later in the year resprouted more vigorously and were taller in the third year after cutting but produced less overall biomass than when cut earlier. In the years following brush-cutting, plants cut earlier flushed leaves earlier in the spring but delayed leaf senescence in the fall when compared to uncut controls. Results of these trials suggest that brush-cutting time influences plant response and several plant attributes known to influence plant attractiveness to moose and other herbivores. We therefore recommend that roadside and railside vegetation management plans consider the influence of cutting time on plant regrowth. Such considerations can ensure that brush is cut to reduce the attractiveness of plant regrowth in these linear corridors, reduce the utilization of such brush by herbivores, and, as such, mitigate collision risk between motorists and herbivores such as moose.

  8. Degradable Polycaprolactone and Polylactide Homopolymer and Block Copolymer Brushes Prepared by Surface-Initiated Polymerization with Triazabicyclodecene and Zirconium Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Grubbs, Joe B; Arnold, Rachelle M; Roy, Anandi; Brooks, Karson; Bilbrey, Jenna A; Gao, Jing; Locklin, Jason

    2015-09-22

    Surface-initiated ring-opening polymerization (SI-ROP) of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactide (PLA) polymer brushes with controlled degradation rates were prepared on oxide substrates. PCL brushes were polymerized from hydroxyl-terminated monolayers utilizing triazabicyclodecene (TBD) as the polymerization catalyst. A consistent brush thickness of 40 nm could be achieved with a reproducible unique crystalline morphology. The organocatalyzed PCL brushes were chain extended using lactide in the presence of zirconium n-butoxide to successfully grow PCL/PLA block copolymer (PCL-b-PLA) brushes with a final thickness of 55 nm. The degradation properties of "grafted from" PCL brush and the PCL-b-PLA brush were compared to "grafted to" PCL brushes, and we observed that the brush density plays a major role in degradation kinetics. Solutions of methanol/water at pH 14 were used to better solvate the brushes and increase the kinetics of degradation. This framework enables a control of degradation that allows for the precise removal of these coatings.

  9. A computational study of brush seal contact loads with friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksit, Mahmut Faruk

    The brush seal is emerging as a new technology to effectively control cooling and leakage flows in gas turbine engines. With their superior leakage performance, they show the potential to replace current labyrinth seals in gas turbine engines. Because the bristles slide against the rotor surface, wear at the contact becomes a major concern as it determines the life and efficiency of the seal. To optimize seal life and efficiency, an in-depth study of the factors causing the seal stiffness is needed, and a good choice of materials must be made. Although considerable research has been done on material selection and tribopairs, a brief survey reveals the lack of reliable analyses to evaluate contact loads, and to address heat transfer issues. As material pairs have been optimized for most cases, understanding and management of contact loads hold the key for further improvements in seal life. The complicated nature of bristle behavior under various combinations of pressure load and rotor interference requires computer analysis to study details that may not be available through analytical formulations. In an attempt to meet this need, this study presents a 3-D finite element model of a brush seal. The model consists of a representative bristle bundle with a backing plate and a rotor surface. Every bristle is defined by a number of 3-D quadratic beam elements. Bristles are fixed at the top nodes, while they are free to move in any direction at the tip touching the rotor surface. The model consists of 10 to 13 circumferential rows of bristles. The number of rows are based on the actual packing thickness of the seal modeled. Unlike previous analytical studies on brush seal contact loads, this work includes nonlinear frictional effects between the bristles. Frictional effects are known to drastically change the seal behavior, and are crucial in determining the contact forces. The model applies the available published experimental data to define the boundary conditions and

  10. Preparation of plasmonic vesicles from amphiphilic gold nanocrystals grafted with polymer brushes

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jibin; Huang, Peng; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanovesicles contain multiple nanocrystals within a polymeric coating. The strong plasmonic coupling between adjacent nanoparticles in their vesicular shell makes ultrasensitive biosensing and bioimaging possible. In our laboratory, multifunctional plasmonic vesicles are assembled from amphiphilic gold nanocrystals (such as gold nanoparticles and gold nanorods) coated with mixed hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer brushes or amphiphilic diblock co-polymer brushes. To fulfill the different requirements of biomedical applications, different polymers that are either pH=responsive, photoactive or biodegradable can be used to form the hydrophobic brush, while the hydrophilicity is maintained by polyethylene glycol (PEG). This protocol covers the preparation, surface functionalization and self-assembly of amphiphilic gold nanocrystals grafted covalently with polymer brushes. The protocol can be completed within 2 d. The preparation of amphiphilic gold nanocrystals, coated with amphiphilic diblock polymer brushes using a ‘grafting to’ method or mixed hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer brushes using tandem ‘grafting to’ and ‘grafting from’ methods, is described. We also provide detailed procedures for the preparation and characterization of pH-responsive plasmonic gold nanovesicles from amphiphilic gold nanocrystals using a film-rehydration method that can be completed within ~3 d. PMID:27763624

  11. Novel temperature-responsive polymer brushes with carbohydrate residues facilitate selective adhesion and collection of hepatocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idota, Naokazu; Ebara, Mitsuhiro; Kotsuchibashi, Yohei; Narain, Ravin; Aoyagi, Takao

    2012-12-01

    Temperature-responsive glycopolymer brushes were designed to investigate the effects of grafting architectures of the copolymers on the selective adhesion and collection of hypatocytes. Homo, random and block sequences of N-isopropylacrylamide and 2-lactobionamidoethyl methacrylate were grafted on glass substrates via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. The galactose/lactose-specific lectin RCA120 and HepG2 cells were used to test for specific recognition of the polymer brushes containing galactose residues over the lower critical solution temperatures (LCSTs). RCA120 showed a specific binding to the brush surfaces at 37 °C. These brush surfaces also facilitated the adhesion of HepG2 cells at 37 °C under nonserum conditions, whereas no adhesion was observed for NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. When the temperature was decreased to 25 °C, almost all the HepG2 cells detached from the block copolymer brush, whereas the random copolymer brush did not release the cells. The difference in releasing kinetics of cells from the surfaces with different grafting architectures can be explained by the correlated effects of significant changes in LCST, mobility, hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of the grafted polymer chains. These findings are important for designing ‘on-off’ cell capture/release substrates for various biomedical applications such as selective cell separation.

  12. Preparation and Friction Force Microscopy Measurements of Immiscible, Opposing Polymer Brushes

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Sissi; Kutnyanszky, Edit; Müser, Martin H.; Vancso, G. Julius

    2014-01-01

    Solvated polymer brushes are well known to lubricate high-pressure contacts, because they can sustain a positive normal load while maintaining low friction at the interface. Nevertheless, these systems can be sensitive to wear due to interdigitation of the opposing brushes. In a recent publication, we have shown via molecular dynamics simulations and atomic force microscopy experiments, that using an immiscible polymer brush system terminating the substrate and the slider surfaces, respectively, can eliminate such interdigitation. As a consequence, wear in the contacts is reduced. Moreover, the friction force is two orders of magnitude lower compared to traditional miscible polymer brush systems. This newly proposed system therefore holds great potential for application in industry. Here, the methodology to construct an immiscible polymer brush system of two different brushes each solvated by their own preferred solvent is presented. The procedure how to graft poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) from a flat surface and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) from an atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal probe is described. PNIPAM is solvated in water and PMMA in acetophenone. Via friction force AFM measurements, it is shown that the friction for this system is indeed reduced by two orders of magnitude compared to the miscible system of PMMA on PMMA solvated in acetophenone. PMID:25590429

  13. Grafting of PMMA brushes layer on Cu surface to create a stable superhydrophobic surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhong; Cai, Junyan; Li, Ming

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brushes were grafted on Cu micro-cone structured substrate by a simple one-step cathodic electro-initiated polymerization method which was carried out in aqueous solution at room temperature in the open air. The PMMA brushes were continuous, uniform and thickness-controllable, and it covalently bonded to the Cu surface. In the brushes, nitrophenyl moieties acted as cross-linker between PMMA chains. After removed from the solution followed by treated with water, the PMMA brushes (basically a hydrophilic material)/micro-cone structured Cu surface was hydrophilic with water contact angle (CA) of 74.4°. However, it exhibited superhydrophobicity by treating it in the acetone. The conversion from hydrophilic surface to superhydrophobic one may due to rearrangement of nitrophenyl moieties and PMMA chains at the topmost of the brushes. In addition, its water CA increased with grafting time of the brushes from 145° to about 166°, because there was no available space in thinner film for group reorientation. The surface was conversed to hydrophilic again after treated with hot water, but it was still superhydrophobic after treated in water at room temperature. This revealed that the group reorientation also easily occurred in hot water like in the acetone. More importantly, the surface retained good superhydrophobic stability in acidic environment and in long-time storage. Furthermore, the superhydrophobic surface had excellent resistance that can provide effective protection for the bare Cu substrate.

  14. Poly(acrylic acid) brushes pattern as a 3D functional biosensor surface for microchips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Mei; Cui, Yi; Cheng, Zhi-Qiang; Song, Lu-Sheng; Wang, Zhi-You; Han, Bao-Hang; Zhu, Jin-Song

    2013-02-01

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) brushes, a novel three dimensional (3D) precursor layer of biosensor or protein microarrays, possess high protein loading level and low non-specific protein adsorption. In this article, we describe a simple and convenient way to fabricate 3D PAA brushes pattern by microcontact printing (μCP) and characterize it with FT-IR and optical microscopy. The carboxyl groups of PAA brushes can be applied to covalently immobilize protein for immunoassay. Thriving 3D space made by patterning PAA brushes thin film is available to enhance protein immobilization, which is confirmed by measuring model protein interaction between human immunoglobulin G (H-IgG) and goat anti-H-IgG (G-H-IgG) with fluorescence microscopy and surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi). As expected, the SPRi signals of H-IgG coating on 3D PAA brushes pattern and further measuring specific binding with G-H-IgG are all larger than that of 3D PAA brushes without pattern and 2D bare gold surface. We further revealed that this surface can be used for high-throughput screening and clinical diagnosis by label-free assaying of Hepatitis-B-Virus surface antibody (HBsAb) with Hepatitis-B-Virus surface antigen (HBsAg) concentration array chip. The linearity range for HBsAb assay is wider than that of conventional ELISA method.

  15. Preparation and friction force microscopy measurements of immiscible, opposing polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    de Beer, Sissi; Kutnyanszky, Edit; Müser, Martin H; Vancso, G Julius

    2014-12-24

    Solvated polymer brushes are well known to lubricate high-pressure contacts, because they can sustain a positive normal load while maintaining low friction at the interface. Nevertheless, these systems can be sensitive to wear due to interdigitation of the opposing brushes. In a recent publication, we have shown via molecular dynamics simulations and atomic force microscopy experiments, that using an immiscible polymer brush system terminating the substrate and the slider surfaces, respectively, can eliminate such interdigitation. As a consequence, wear in the contacts is reduced. Moreover, the friction force is two orders of magnitude lower compared to traditional miscible polymer brush systems. This newly proposed system therefore holds great potential for application in industry. Here, the methodology to construct an immiscible polymer brush system of two different brushes each solvated by their own preferred solvent is presented. The procedure how to graft poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) from a flat surface and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) from an atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal probe is described. PNIPAM is solvated in water and PMMA in acetophenone. Via friction force AFM measurements, it is shown that the friction for this system is indeed reduced by two orders of magnitude compared to the miscible system of PMMA on PMMA solvated in acetophenone.

  16. The synthesis of hydrogels with controlled distribution of polymer brushes in hydrogel network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, YuWei; Zhou, Chao; Zhang, AoKai; Xu, LiQun; Yao, Fang; Cen, Lian; Fu, Guo-Dong

    2014-11-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels with 3-dimensionally controlled well-defined poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAAm)) brushes were prepared by combined copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition ("Click Chemistry") and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The resulting hydrogels were presented as representatives with their detailed synthesis routes and characterization. HPEG-S-poly(NIPAAm) is a hydrogel with poly(NIPAAm) brushes mainly grafted on surface, whereas HPEG-G-poly(NIPAAm) has a gradiently decreased poly(NIPAAm) brushes in their chain length from surface to inside. On the other hand, poly(NIPAAm) brushes in HPEG-U-poly(NIPAAm) are uniformly dispersed throughout the whole hydrogel network. Successful preparation of HPEG-S-poly(NIPAAm), HPEG-G-poly(NIPAAm) and HPEG-U-poly(NIPAAm) were ascertained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement. Optical properties and thermal behaviors of these hydrogels were evaluated by UV-visible transmittance spectra and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Hence, the flexibility and controllability of the synthetic strategy in varying the distribution of polymer brushes and hydrogel properties was demonstrated. Hydrogels with tunable and well-defined 3-dimensional poly(NIPAAm) polymer brushes could be tailor-designed to find potential applications in smart devices or skin dressing, such as for diabetics as they have special optical and thermal behaviors.

  17. Evaluation of Brushing as a Lunar Dust Mitigation Strategy for Thermal Control Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Journey, Khrissaundra; Christopher, Steven; Davis, Shanon

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of brushing to remove lunar simulant dust from thermal control surfaces is described. First, strip brushes made with nylon, PTFE, or Thunderon (Nihon Sanmo Dyeing Company Ltd.) bristles were used to remove JSC-1AF dust from AZ93 thermal control paint or aluminized FEP (AlFEP) thermal control surface under ambient laboratory conditions. Nylon and PTFE bristles removed a promising amount of dust from AZ93, and nylon and Thunderon bristles from AlFEP. But when these were tested under simulated lunar conditions in the lunar dust adhesion bell jar (LDAB), they were not effective. In a third effort, seven brushes made up of three different materials, two different geometries, and different bristle lengths and thicknesses were tested under laboratory conditions against AZ93 and AlFEP. Two of these brushes, the Zephyr fiberglass fingerprint brush and the Escoda nylon fan brush, removed over 90 percent of the dust, and so were tested in the fourth effort in the LDAB. They also performed well under these conditions recovering 80 percent or more of the original thermal performance (solar absorptance/thermal emittance) of both AZ93 and AgFEP after 20 strokes, and 90 or more percent after 200 strokes

  18. Evaluation of Brushing as a Lunar Dust Mitigation Strategy for Thermal Control Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.; Journey, Hhrissaundra; Christopher, Steven; Davis, Shanon

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of brushing to remove lunar simulant dust from thermal control surfaces is described. First, strip brushes made with nylon, PTFE, or Thunderon bristles were used to remove JSC-1AF dust from AZ93 thermal control paint or aluminized FEP (AlFEP) thermal control surface under ambient laboratory conditions. Nylon and PTFE bristles removed a promising amount of dust from AZ93, and nylon and Thunderon bristles from AlFEP. But when these were tested under simulated lunar conditions in the lunar dust adhesion bell jar (LDAB), they were not effective. In a third effort, seven brushes made up of three different materials, two different geometries, and different bristle lengths and thicknesses were tested under laboratory conditions against AZ93 and AlFEP. Two of these brushes, the Zephyr fiberglass fingerprint brush and the Escoda nylon fan brush, removed over 90 percent of the dust, and so were tested in the fourth effort in the LDAB. They also performed well under these conditions recovering 80 percent or more of the original thermal performance (solar absorptance/thermal emittance) of both AZ93 and AgFEP after 20 strokes, and 90 or more percent after 200 strokes.

  19. Polymer Brush Surfaces Showing Superhydrophobicity and Air-Bubble Repellency in a Variety of Organic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Dunderdale, Gary J; England, Matt W; Urata, Chihiro; Hozumi, Atsushi

    2015-06-10

    Silicon (Si) substrates were modified with polyalkyl methacrylate brushes having different alkyl chain lengths (C(n), where n = 1, 4, 8, and 18) using ARGET-ATRP at ambient temperature without purging the reaction solution of oxygen. The dynamic hydrophobicity of these polymer brush-covered Si surfaces when submerged in a variety of organic solvents (1-butanol, dichloromethane, toluene, n-hexane) depended markedly on the alkyl chain length and to a lesser extent polymer solubility. Long-chain poly(stearyl methacrylate) brushes (C(n) = 18) submerged in toluene showed excellent water-repellant properties, having large advancing/receding contact angles (CAs) of 169°/168° with negligible CA hysteresis (1°). Whereas polymer brushes with short alkyl-chain (C(n) ≤ 4) had significantly worse water drop mobility because of small CAs (as low as 125°/55°) and large CA hysteresis (up to 70°). However, such poor dynamic dewetting behavior of these surfaces was found to significantly improve when water drops impacted onto the surfaces at moderate velocities. Under these conditions, all brush surfaces were able to expel water drops from their surface. In addition, our brush surfaces were also highly repellant toward air bubbles under all conditions, irrespective of C(n) or polymer solubility. These excellent surface properties were found to be vastly superior to the performance of conventional perfluoroalkylsilane-derived surfaces. PMID:25988214

  20. Surface roughness and color change of a composite: influence of beverages and brushing.

    PubMed

    Lepri, Cesar Penazzo; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of beverages and brushing on the surface roughness(SR) and color change(∆E) of a composite resin.For this, 120-disks(10 mm×2 mm) of composite resin(Filtek-Z250) were prepared and polished. Initials SR(Ra-μm) and color(CIELab-system) were measured with rugosimeter and spectrophotometer; specimens were divided into four groups(red wine, soft drink, sugar cane spirit, or artificial saliva=control) and three subgroups(without brushing; brushed with Colgate or with Close-Up). Specimens were immersed in the beverage 5×/day, for 5', over 30 day, being two subgroups brushed(120 strokes/day). Color was measuredat 15th day, 30th day and after repolishment; SR at 30th day. ∆E-values were statistically different after immersion in the beverages(p<0.05). Red wine promoted the highest alteration, followed by soft drink=sugar cane spirit and finally saliva. At 30th day, specimens exhibited ∆E higher than 15th day; after repolishing, ∆E was similar to 15th day. Beverages and brushing negatively influenced the SR. Therefore, ∆E and SR can be influenced by beverages and brushing. PMID:22864226

  1. Affect of Brush Seals on Wave Rotor Performance Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center's experimental and theoretical research shows that wave rotor topping can significantly enhance gas turbine engine performance levels. Engine-specific fuel consumption and specific power are potentially enhanced by 15 and 20 percent, respectively, in small (e.g., 400 to 700 hp) and intermediate (e.g., 3000 to 5000 hp) turboshaft engines. Furthermore, there is potential for a 3- to 6-percent specific fuel consumption enhancement in large (e.g., 80,000 to 100,000 lbf) turbofan engines. This wave-rotor-enhanced engine performance is accomplished within current material-limited temperature constraints. The completed first phase of experimental testing involved a three-port wave rotor cycle in which medium total pressure inlet air was divided into two outlet streams, one of higher total pressure and one of lower total pressure. The experiment successfully provided the data needed to characterize viscous, partial admission, and leakage loss mechanisms. Statistical analysis indicated that wave rotor product efficiency decreases linearly with the rotor to end-wall gap, the square of the friction factor, and the square of the passage of nondimensional opening time. Brush seals were installed to further minimize rotor passage-to-cavity leakage. The graph shows the effect of brush seals on wave rotor product efficiency. For the second-phase experiment, which involves a four-port wave rotor cycle in which heat is added to the Brayton cycle in an external burner, a one-dimensional design/analysis code is used in conjunction with a wave rotor performance optimization scheme and a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code. The purpose of the four-port experiment is to demonstrate and validate the numerically predicted four-port pressure ratio versus temperature ratio at pressures and temperatures lower than those that would be encountered in a future wave rotor/demonstrator engine test. Lewis and the Allison Engine Company are collaborating to investigate

  2. Abrasion of eroded root dentine brushed with different toothpastes.

    PubMed

    De Menezes, Márcio; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Hara, Anderson Takeo; Messias, Danielle Cristine Furtado; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2004-09-01

    This study evaluated the surface roughness change and wear provided by different dentifrices on root dentine previously exposed to erosive challenges. According to a randomized complete block design, 150 slabs of bovine root dentine (6 x 3 x 2 mm) were ground flat and polished. In an area of 4 x 3 mm on the dentine surface, specimens were submitted to five erosive/abrasive events, each one composed by: exposure to Sprite Diet or distilled water for 5 min, then to a remineralizing solution for 1 min, and simulation of 5,000 brushing strokes. Four dentifrices--regular (RE), baking soda (BS), whitening (WT) and tartar control (TC)--and distilled water (CO), used as control, were compared. Final texture and the wear depth were evaluated using a profilometer. ANOVA did not show significant interaction, indicating that the effect of dentifrices on both surface roughness change and wear did not depend on whether or not the dentine was eroded ( p>0.05). There was no difference between abrasion of eroded and sound dentine. The Tukey's test revealed that WT, BS and TC provided the highest increase in surface roughness differing from RE and CO. TC yielded the deepest wear of root dentine, whereas RE and CO, the shallowest. No significant difference in wear among BS, TC and WT were observed. Within the limitations of this study, the data showed that abrasion of both eroded and sound root dentine was dependent on the dentifrice used. PMID:15146320

  3. Polyphosphazene Based Star-Branched and Dendritic Molecular Brushes.

    PubMed

    Henke, Helena; Posch, Sandra; Brüggemann, Oliver; Teasdale, Ian

    2016-05-01

    A new synthetic procedure is described for the preparation of poly(organo)phosphazenes with star-branched and star dendritic molecular brush type structures, thus describing the first time it has been possible to prepare controlled, highly branched architectures for this type of polymer. Furthermore, as a result of the extremely high-arm density generated by the phosphazene repeat unit, the second-generation structures represent quite unique architectures for any type of polymer. Using two relativity straight forward iterative syntheses it is possible to prepare globular highly branched polymers with up to 30 000 functional end groups, while keeping relatively narrow polydispersities (1.2-1.6). Phosphine mediated polymerization of chlorophosphoranimine is first used to prepare three-arm star polymers. Subsequent substitution with diphenylphosphine moieties gives poly(organo)phosphazenes to function as multifunctional macroinitiators for the growth of a second generation of polyphosphazene arms. Macrosubstitution with Jeffamine oligomers gives a series of large, water soluble branched macromolecules with high-arm density and hydrodynamic diameters between 10 and 70 nm. PMID:27027404

  4. Tuning ice nucleation with counterions on polyelectrolyte brush surfaces

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhiyuan; Xie, Wen Jun; Liu, Zhenqi; Liu, Guangming; Wang, Zuowei; Gao, Yi Qin; Wang, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation (HIN) on ionic surfaces is ubiquitous in a wide range of atmospheric aerosols and at biological interfaces. Despite its great importance in cirrus cloud formation and cryopreservation of cells, organs, and tissues, it remains unclear whether the ion-specific effect on ice nucleation exists. Benefiting from the fact that ions at the polyelectrolyte brush (PB)/water interface can be reversibly exchanged, we report the effect of ions on HIN on the PB surface, and we discover that the distinct efficiency of ions in tuning HIN follows the Hofmeister series. Moreover, a large HIN temperature window of up to 7.8°C is demonstrated. By establishing a correlation between the fraction of ice-like water molecules and the kinetics of structural transformation from liquid- to ice-like water molecules at the PB/water interface with different counterions, we show that our molecular dynamics simulation analysis is consistent with the experimental observation of the ion-specific effect on HIN. PMID:27386581

  5. Tuning ice nucleation with counterions on polyelectrolyte brush surfaces.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiyuan; Xie, Wen Jun; Liu, Zhenqi; Liu, Guangming; Wang, Zuowei; Gao, Yi Qin; Wang, Jianjun

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation (HIN) on ionic surfaces is ubiquitous in a wide range of atmospheric aerosols and at biological interfaces. Despite its great importance in cirrus cloud formation and cryopreservation of cells, organs, and tissues, it remains unclear whether the ion-specific effect on ice nucleation exists. Benefiting from the fact that ions at the polyelectrolyte brush (PB)/water interface can be reversibly exchanged, we report the effect of ions on HIN on the PB surface, and we discover that the distinct efficiency of ions in tuning HIN follows the Hofmeister series. Moreover, a large HIN temperature window of up to 7.8°C is demonstrated. By establishing a correlation between the fraction of ice-like water molecules and the kinetics of structural transformation from liquid- to ice-like water molecules at the PB/water interface with different counterions, we show that our molecular dynamics simulation analysis is consistent with the experimental observation of the ion-specific effect on HIN. PMID:27386581

  6. Polyphosphazene Based Star-Branched and Dendritic Molecular Brushes.

    PubMed

    Henke, Helena; Posch, Sandra; Brüggemann, Oliver; Teasdale, Ian

    2016-05-01

    A new synthetic procedure is described for the preparation of poly(organo)phosphazenes with star-branched and star dendritic molecular brush type structures, thus describing the first time it has been possible to prepare controlled, highly branched architectures for this type of polymer. Furthermore, as a result of the extremely high-arm density generated by the phosphazene repeat unit, the second-generation structures represent quite unique architectures for any type of polymer. Using two relativity straight forward iterative syntheses it is possible to prepare globular highly branched polymers with up to 30 000 functional end groups, while keeping relatively narrow polydispersities (1.2-1.6). Phosphine mediated polymerization of chlorophosphoranimine is first used to prepare three-arm star polymers. Subsequent substitution with diphenylphosphine moieties gives poly(organo)phosphazenes to function as multifunctional macroinitiators for the growth of a second generation of polyphosphazene arms. Macrosubstitution with Jeffamine oligomers gives a series of large, water soluble branched macromolecules with high-arm density and hydrodynamic diameters between 10 and 70 nm.

  7. Sliding Friction at a Rubber/Brush Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, Lionel

    2004-03-01

    The friction of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) rubber networks sliding, at low velocity (3 nm.s-1brush interface.

  8. Cordon bleu promotes the assembly of brush border microvilli

    PubMed Central

    Grega-Larson, Nathan E.; Crawley, Scott W.; Erwin, Amanda L.; Tyska, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Microvilli are actin-based protrusions found on the surface of diverse cell types, where they amplify membrane area and mediate interactions with the external environment. In the intestinal tract, these protrusions play central roles in nutrient absorption and host defense and are therefore essential for maintaining homeostasis. However, the mechanisms controlling microvillar assembly remain poorly understood. Here we report that the multifunctional actin regulator cordon bleu (COBL) promotes the growth of brush border (BB) microvilli. COBL localizes to the base of BB microvilli via a mechanism that requires its proline-rich N-terminus. Knockdown and overexpression studies show that COBL is needed for BB assembly and sufficient to induce microvillar growth using a mechanism that requires functional WH2 domains. We also find that COBL acts downstream of the F-BAR protein syndapin-2, which drives COBL targeting to the apical domain. These results provide insight into a mechanism that regulates microvillar growth during epithelial differentiation and have significant implications for understanding the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. PMID:26354418

  9. Polyphosphazene Based Star-Branched and Dendritic Molecular Brushes

    PubMed Central

    Henke, Helena; Posch, Sandra; Brüggemann, Oliver; Teasdale, Ian

    2016-01-01

    A new synthetic procedure is described for the preparation of poly(organo)phosphazenes with star-branched and star dendritic molecular brush type structures, thus describing the first time it has been possible to prepare controlled, highly branched architectures for this type of polymer. Furthermore, as a result of the extremely high-arm density generated by the phosphazene repeat unit, the second-generation structures represent quite unique architectures for any type of polymer. Using two relativity straight forward iterative syntheses it is possible to prepare globular highly branched polymers with up to 30 000 functional end groups, while keeping relatively narrow polydispersities (1.2–1.6). Phosphine mediated polymerization of chlorophosphoranimine is first used to prepare three-arm star polymers. Subsequent substitution with diphenylphosphine moieties gives poly(organo)phosphazenes to function as multifunctional macroinitiators for the growth of a second generation of polyphosphazene arms. Macrosubstitution with Jeffamine oligomers gives a series of large, water soluble branched macromolecules with high-arm density and hydrodynamic diameters between 10 and 70 nm. PMID:27027404

  10. Anomalous structure and scaling of ring polymer brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reith, D.; Milchev, A.; Virnau, P.; Binder, K.

    2011-07-01

    A comparative simulation study of polymer brushes formed by grafting at a planar surface either flexible linear polymers (chain length NL) or (non-catenated) ring polymers (chain length NR=2NL) is presented. Two distinct off-lattice models are studied, one by Monte Carlo methods, the other by molecular dynamics, using a fast implementation on graphics processing units (GPUs). It is shown that the monomer density profiles ρ(z) in the z-direction perpendicular to the surface for rings and linear chains are practically identical, ρR(2NL,z)=ρL(NL, z). The same applies to the pressure, exerted on a piston at height z, as well. While the gyration radii components of rings and chains in the z-direction coincide, too, and increase linearly with NL, the transverse components differ, even with respect to their scaling properties: Rgxy(L)~NL1/2, Rgxy(R)~NL0.4. These properties are interpreted in terms of the statistical properties known for ring polymers in dense melts.

  11. Combining colloidal probe atomic force and reflection interference contrast microscopy to study the compressive mechanics of hyaluronan brushes.

    PubMed

    Attili, Seetharamaiah; Richter, Ralf P

    2012-02-14

    We describe a method that combines colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) to characterize the mechanical properties of thin and solvated polymer films. When analyzing polymer films, a fundamental problem in colloidal probe AFM experiments is to determine the distance at closest approach between the probe and the substrate on which the film is deposited. By combining AFM and RICM in situ, forces and absolute distances can be measured simultaneously. Using the combined setup, we quantify the compressive mechanics of films of the polysaccharide hyaluronan that is end-grafted to a supported lipid bilayer. The experimental data, and comparison with polymer theory, show that hyaluronan films are well-described as elastic, very soft and highly solvated polymer brushes. The data on these well-defined films should be a useful reference for the investigation of the more complex hyaluronan-rich coats that surround many living cells.

  12. Simulation and modelling of slip flow over surfaces grafted with polymer brushes and glycocalyx fibres

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Mingge; Li, Xuejin; Liang, Haojun; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George Em

    2013-01-01

    Fabrication of functionalized surfaces using polymer brushes is a relatively simple process and parallels the presence of glycocalyx filaments coating the luminal surface of our vasculature. In this paper, we perform atomistic-like simulations based on dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) to study both polymer brushes and glycocalyx filaments subject to shear flow, and we apply mean-field theory to extract useful scaling arguments on their response. For polymer brushes, a weak shear flow has no effect on the brush density profile or its height, while the slip length is independent of the shear rate and is of the order of the brush mesh size as a result of screening by hydrodynamic interactions. However, for strong shear flow, the polymer brush is penetrated deeper and is deformed, with a corresponding decrease of the brush height and an increase of the slip length. The transition from the weak to the strong shear regime can be described by a simple ‘blob’ argument, leading to the scaling γ̇0 ∝ σ3/2, where γ̇0 is the critical transition shear rate and σ is the grafting density. Furthermore, in the strong shear regime, we observe a cyclic dynamic motion of individual polymers, causing a reversal in the direction of surface flow. To study the glycocalyx layer, we first assume a homogeneous flow that ignores the discrete effects of blood cells, and we simulate microchannel flows at different flow rates. Surprisingly, we find that, at low Reynolds number, the slip length decreases with the mean flow velocity, unlike the behaviour of polymer brushes, for which the slip length remains constant under similar conditions. (The slip length and brush height are measured with respect to polymer mesh size and polymer contour length, respectively.) We also performed additional DPD simulations of blood flow in a tube with walls having a glycocalyx layer and with the deformable red blood cells modelled accurately at the spectrin level. In this case, a plasma cell

  13. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects in gingival crevicular fluid from re-dosing during brushing.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Ashley P; Zhou, Xiaojie; Barnes, John E; Hoke, Steve H; Eichhold, Thomas H; Gibb, Roger D; Ramji, Nivedita B; He, Tao; Hunt, Sheri A; Kowolik, Michael J; Somogyi-Mann, Marta

    2004-10-01

    The IntelliClean System from Sonicare and Crest combines a rechargeable sonic power toothbrush and a novel liquid toothpaste into one integrated system, providing the opportunity to re-dose with toothpaste during the brushing cycle. The purpose of this study was to investigate cleaning effects from in-mouth re-dosing with toothpaste during the brushing cycle vs conventional bolus dosing. This was a randomized, examiner-blind, six-period, crossover clinical study. Eighteen adult subjects used an experimental integrated system employing either a re-dosing regimen (2 doses at the start of brushing with 1 additional in-mouth dose during the last 30 seconds of brushing [2+1]) or a conventional regimen (2 doses at the start of brushing only [2+0]). Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was sampled at the final brushing quadrant from a preselected site in the gingival sulcus using filter strips at baseline and at 4, 15, and 120 minutes postbrushing. Mean change from baseline in the concentrations of total facultative anaerobes (TFAs) and gram-negative anaerobes (GNAs) in the GCF at 120 minutes posttreatment were modeled separately using general linear mixed models. Area under the curve of surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]) in GCF over 2 hours postbrushing was calculated and modeled using an analysis of variance model. All hypotheses were tested 2-sided at the 5% significance level. Relative to the conventional regimen, the re-dosing (2+1) regimen produced a significantly greater reduction in log10 (TFA colony-forming units [CFU]/microL GCF) after brushing, 0.99+/-0.12 vs 0.65+/-0.12 (mean change +/- standard error), and a significantly greater reduction in log10 (GNA CFU/microL GCF) after brushing, 0.75 +/-0.14 vs 0.45 +/- 0.14. The re-dosing regimen led to significantly more SDS in GCF relative to the conventional regimen over the 2-hour time period. Re-dosing of liquid toothpaste during the brushing cycle with the IntelliClean System leads to a significantly increased

  14. Drilling Deeper into tooth brushing skills: Is proactive interference an under-recognized factor in oral hygiene behavior change?

    PubMed Central

    Thavarajah, Rooban; Kumar, Madan; Mohandoss, Anusa Arunachalam

    2015-01-01

    Proper tooth brushing is a seemingly simple motor activity that can promote oral health. Applying health theories, such as the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model, Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Integrated Health Coaching (IHC), may help optimize tooth brushing technique in those with suboptimal skills. Some motor activities, including tooth brushing, may over time become rote and unconscious actions, such that an existing habit can inhibit new learning, i.e., exert proactive interference on learning the new skill. Proactive interference may impede the acquisition of new tooth brushing skills; thus, in this report, we: (1) Review how the habit of tooth brushing is formed; (2) Postulate how proactive interference could impede the establishment of proper tooth brushing retraining; (3) Discuss the merits of this hypothesis; and (4) Provide guidance for future work in this topic within the context of an approach to behavior change that integrates IMB, MI and IHC methodology. PMID:26457238

  15. Nanostructured Biointerfaces: Nanoarchitectonics of Thermoresponsive Polymer Brushes Impact Protein Adsorption and Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Psarra, Evmorfia; König, Ulla; Ueda, Yuichiro; Bellmann, Cornelia; Janke, Andreas; Bittrich, Eva; Eichhorn, Klaus-J; Uhlmann, Petra

    2015-06-17

    Controlling the reversibility, quantity, and extent of biomolecule interaction at interfaces has a significant relevance for biomedical and biotechnological applications, because protein adsorption is always the first step when a solid surface gets in contact with a biological fluid. Polymer brushes, composed of end-tethered linear polymers with sufficient grafting density, are very promising to control and alter interactions with biological systems because of their unique structure and distinct collaborative response to environmental changes. We studied protein adsorption and cell adhesion at polymer brush substrates which consisted of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), having a lower critical solution temperature (LCST), to control bioadsorptive processes by changing the environmental temperature. Preparing the PNIPAAm brushes by the "grafting-to"-method two differently synthesized PNIPAAm polymers were used, at which one possessed an additional hydrophobic terminal headgroup. It is known that hydrophobic moieties can influence protein adsorption significantly. The films were comprehensively analyzed by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, contact angle measurements, streaming potential, and atomic force microscopy. Our study was mainly focused on the investigation of the fibrinogen (FGN) adsorption responsiveness both on homo polymer PNIPAAm brushes with and without the hydrophobic terminal functionalization, and further on binary brushes made of the polyelectrolyte poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and one of the prior described two PNIPAAm species. The results show that the terminal hydrophobic modification of PNIPAAm has a considerable impact on wettability, LCST, and morphology of the homo and the binary brush systems, which consequently led to an alteration of FGN adsorption. By using binary PNIPAAm-PAA brushes with different composition it was possible to induce stimuli dependent FGN adsorption with a considerable amplified switching effect by introducing a

  16. Light-responsive polymer surfaces via postpolymerization modification of grafted polymer-brush structures.

    PubMed

    Dübner, Matthias; Spencer, Nicholas D; Padeste, Celestino

    2014-12-16

    Light-induced, spatially well-defined, reversible switching of surface properties enables the creation of remote-controlled smart surfaces. We have taken advantage of the unique high-resolution structuring capabilities of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) interference lithography to produce nanostructured photoresponsive polymer brushes. Patterns of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) and poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) were grafted from two different 100 μm thick fluoropolymer substrates by means of a radiation-initiated, grafting-from approach based on free-radical polymerization (FRP). Photochromic properties were introduced via novel one- or two-step postpolymerization modifications with spiropyran (SP) derivatives, which allowed us to control the number of photochromic groups on the polymer brushes. Depending on the degree of functionalization and the local chemical environment, the SP moieties can open upon UV-light exposure to form zwitterionic, deeply colored, and fluorescent merocyanines (MCs) and reclose to the colorless SP configuration via thermal or visible light-induced relaxation. Switching kinetics were studied by means of time-resolved fluorescence microscopy and compared with kinetic measurements of the SP moiety in solution. The results indicated the importance, for the intensity of the switching, of the local chemical environment provided by both the polymer brush and added solvents, and showed the predominant influence on the ring-closing kinetics of polar solvents, which stabilize the MC form. To allow further characterization of the polymer-brush arrangements on a macroscopic scale, similar, but unstructured brush systems were grafted from fluoropolymers after large-area activation using EUV radiation or argon plasma. All steps of the postpolymerization modification were characterized in detail using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy. Furthermore, a light-induced reversible static-contact-angle switch with a range of up to 15

  17. Comparative yield of endocervical and metaplastic cells. Two sampling techniques: wooden spatula and cytology brush.

    PubMed Central

    Lo, L.; Jordan, J.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two sampling techniques in their ability to obtain endocervical and metaplastic cells from the Papanicolaou smear. DESIGN: Prospective clinical trial comparing the criterion standard of a wooden spatula to a cytology brush. SETTING: Community-based family medicine clinic in London, Ont. PATIENTS: Consecutive sample of 102 women aged 15 to 58 years requiring a Pap smear between October 1992 and October 1993 who presented to the office of their family physician and were assessed by one resident or one faculty physician. INTERVENTIONS: A Pap smear was obtained from each participant using first the wooden spatula and then the cytology brush. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of Pap smears done in the study population that contained endocervical or metaplastic cells. RESULTS: Endocervical cell yield was significantly greater using the cytology brush (93.1%) than using the spatula (61.8%) (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in metaplastic cell yield between the cytology brush (71.6%) and the spatula (63.7%). At least one of these cell types was identified on 95.1% of cytology brush samples and on 79.4% of spatula samples (P < 0.001). The resident and faculty physician were not significantly different in their rate of detecting endocervical or metaplastic cells. CONCLUSIONS: Adding a cytology brush sample to the Pap smear resulted in a significant increase in the rate of Pap smears that detected cells. The cytology brush was significantly better than the spatula for detecting endocervical cells (P < 0.001), but not significantly better for detecting metaplastic cells. PMID:8520238

  18. Access to Interdental Brushing in Periodontal Healthy Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Julie; Bravo, Manuel; Bourgeois, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interdental diameter space is largely undefined in adults, which compromises the decision support for daily interdental cleaning during routine practice in individual oral prophylaxis. This study assesses the distribution of diameter access of interdental spaces in an 18- to 25-year-old adult population free of periodontal disease. Methods In March-April 2015, a cross-sectional study using random sampling was performed at the University Lyon 1, France. The interproximal dental spaces of 99 individuals were examined using a colorimetric calibrated probe associated with the corresponding calibrated interdental brush (IDB). Results Of the 2,408 out of 2,608 sites, the overall accessibility prevalence of any interdental brushing was 92.3%. In total, 80.6% of the sites required interdental brushes with smaller diameters (0.6–0.7 mm). In anterior sites, the diameter of the interdental brushes used was smaller (55.8% of IDB with 0.6 mm) than the diameter of the interdental brushes used in posterior sites (26.1% of IDB with 0.6 mm) (p < 0.01). The adjusted ORs indicate a significant association with the location of the sites (approximately doubling the risk of bleeding, i.e., OR = 1.9, in posterior sites). Conclusions Most interdental sites can be cleaned using interdental brushes. Even in healthy people, interdental hygiene requirements are very high. Strengthening the oral hygiene capacity by specifically using interdental brushes can have an effect on the health of the entire population. Screening of the accessibility of the interdental space should be a component of a routine examination for all patients. PMID:27192409

  19. Effect of toothbrushes and denture brushes on heat-polymerized acrylic resins.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Pontes, Karina Matthes; de Holanda, Janaína Câncio; Fonteles, Cristiane Sa Roriz; Pontes, Cassio de Barros; Lovato da Silva, Cláudia Helena; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    It is important to choose an appropriate brush for denture cleaning to prevent damage to the surface properties of prosthetic devices. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the abrasiveness of toothbrushes and denture brushes on boiled and microwave-processed acrylic resins. Specimens of 4 resin brands were prepared (n = 30). Five brands of brushes (n = 6) were used in a toothbrushing machine, first for 17,800 strokes and then for an additional 35,600 strokes (total of 53,400), at a load of 200 g. An analytical balance and a profilometer were used to assess the weight and surface roughness, respectively, before and after 17,800 and 53,400 strokes. Analysis of variance and Tukey tests were used for data analysis (α = 0.05). Weight loss increased with time, while surface roughness remained the same. There were no statistically significant differences among toothbrushes and denture brushes in the resulting weight loss (17,800 strokes, 1.83 mg; 53,400 strokes, 3.78 mg) or surface roughness (17,800 or 53,400 strokes, 0.14 µm). The weight loss values after 53,400 brush strokes indicated that Clássico (2.28 mg) and VIPI Wave (2.75 mg) presented significantly greater abrasion resistance than Lucitone 550 (3.36 mg) and Onda-Cryl (2.85 mg) (P < 0.05). The type of brush and the polymerization method did not influence resin wear after brushing.

  20. Effects of carbon brush anode size and loading on microbial fuel cell performance in batch and continuous mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanas, Vanessa; Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-02-01

    Larger scale microbial fuel cells (MFCs) require compact architectures to efficiently treat wastewater. We examined how anode-brush diameter, number of anodes, and electrode spacing affected the performance of the MFCs operated in fed-batch and continuous flow mode. All anodes were initially tested with the brush core set at the same distance from the cathode. In fed-batch mode, the configuration with three larger brushes (25 mm diameter) produced 80% more power (1240 mW m-2) than reactors with eight smaller brushes (8 mm) (690 mW m-2). The higher power production by the larger brushes was due to more negative and stable anode potentials than the smaller brushes. The same general result was obtained in continuous flow operation, although power densities were reduced. However, by moving the center of the smaller brushes closer to the cathode (from 16.5 to 8 mm), power substantially increased from 690 to 1030 mW m-2 in fed batch mode. In continuous flow mode, power increased from 280 to 1020 mW m-2, resulting in more power production from the smaller brushes than the larger brushes (540 mW m-2). These results show that multi-electrode MFCs can be optimized by selecting smaller anodes, placed as close as possible to the cathode.

  1. Uptake of barbituric acid derivatives in small intestinal brush border membrane vesicles from retinyl palmitate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Tanii, H; Horie, T

    2000-08-01

    Brush border membrane was prepared from the small intestinal (jejunum) cells along the crypt-villus axis. The fluorescence spectra of 1,8-anilinonaphthalene sulfonic acid and the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene were measured in the brush border membrane vesicle suspension. The hydrophobicity of brush border membrane was found to be in the order villus tip >mid villus >lower villus. The fluidity of brush border membrane was in the order villus tip brush border membrane vesicles was well correlated with their partition coefficients (isopentyl acetate/water). No significant difference was observed between the uptake of hexobarbital by brush border membrane vesicles from the villus tip and lower villus. When retinyl palmitate was administered to rats, the fluidity of brush border membrane was found to be higher in the retinyl palmitate-treated rats than in the control rats. However, no significant difference in the uptake of hexobarbital by brush border membrane vesicles was observed between the retinyl palmitate-administered rats and the control rats. Thus, the retinyl palmitate treatment seems unlikely to affect the passively transported ligands like barbituric acid derivatives in brush border membrane vesicles. PMID:10989945

  2. Poly(oligo(ethylene glycol)acrylamide) brushes by surface initiated polymerization: effect of macromonomer chain length on brush growth and protein adsorption from blood plasma.

    PubMed

    Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Janzen, Johan; Le, Yevgeniya; Kainthan, Rajesh K; Brooks, Donald E

    2009-04-01

    Three hydrolytically stable polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-based N-substituted acrylamide macromonomers, methoxypolyethyleneglycol (350) acrylamide (MPEG350Am) methoxypolyethyleneglycol (750) acrylamide(MPEG750Am) and methoxypolyethyleneglycol (2000)acrylamide (MPEG2000Am) with increasing PEG chain length were synthesized. Surface-initiated aqueous atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) using CuCl/1,1,4,7,10,10-hexamethyl triethylene tetramine (HMTETA) catalyst was utilized to generate dense polymer brushes from these monomers via an ester linker group on the surface of model polystyrene (PS) particles. The molecular weight, hydrodynamic thickness, and graft densities of the grafted polymer layers were controlled by changing the reaction parameters of monomer concentration, addition of Cu(II)Cl2, and sodium chloride. The graft densities of surface-grafted brushes decreased with increasing PEG macromonomer chain length, 350 > 750 > 2000, under similar experimental conditions. The molecular weight of grafts increased with increase in monomer concentration, and only selected conditions produced narrow distributed polymer chains. The molecular weight of grafted polymer chains differs significantly to those formed in solution. The hydrodynamic thicknesses of the grafted polymer layers were fitted to the Daoud and Cotton model (DCM) for brush height on spherical surfaces. The results show that the size of the pendent groups on the polymer chains has a profound effect on the hydrodynamic thickness of the brush for a given degree of polymerization. The new PEG-based surfaces show good protection against nonspecific protein adsorption from blood plasma compared to the bare surface. Protein adsorption decreased with increasing surface density of grafted polymer chains. Poly(MPEG750Am) brushes were more effective in preventing protein adsorption than poly(MPEG350Am) even at low graft densities, presumably due to the increase in PEG content in the grafted layer. PMID:19708153

  3. Modeling of polymer brush grafted nanoparticles for algal harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goins, Jason

    Microalgae derived biofuel shows great potential as a replacement to petroleum based fuels. However, industrial scale and economical production of fuel from microalgae suffer from an expensive dewatering step brought on by the organism's specific cell properties. A retrievable, paramagnetic nanoparticle polyelectrolyte brush (NPPB) has been designed as a flocculation agent to provide a low cost method in collecting algal biomass in biofuel production. In conjunction with experiment, subsequent theoretical investigations have been conducted in order to understand experimental observations and inform future design. A strategy has been implemented to provide informative descriptions for the relationship between flocculation agent parameters and dewatering efficiency. We studied the effect altering the degree of polymerization and monomer charge fraction had on the harvesting efficiency by considering flocculation as the criteria for harvesting. As the number of charges on the polymer backbone of the NPPB is increased, less NPPB concentrations are required to achieve equal harvesting efficiencies. This is a result of needing less NPPB to completely screen the effective charge on the algae surface. However, the Debye length limits the amount of charge on the algae surface one NPPB can screen. Using the free energy calculations for the complete set of pair interactions between the NPPB and the algae, we determined how many adsorbed NPPB were required in order for the force between coated algae to become attractive at some algae surface separation. This corresponded to the NPPB bridging two algae surfaces. NPPB with higher monomer charge fractions and degree of polymerizations led to a stronger bridging bond and larger bridging gap that could outweigh the algae pair repulsion. Optimized structures maximize these effects.

  4. Contamination Impact of Station Brush Fire on Cleanroom Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, Phil; Blakkolb, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Brush and forest fires, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic in origin, in proximity to space flight hardware processing facilities raise concerns about the threat of contamination resulting from airborne particulate and molecular components of smoke. Perceptions of the severity of the threat are possibly heightened by the high sensitivity of the human sense of smell to some components present in the smoke of burning vegetation.On August 26th, 2009, a brushfire broke out north of Pasadena, California, two miles from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Station Fire destroyed over 160,000 acres, coming within a few hundred yards of JPL. Smoke concentrations on Lab were very heavy over several days. All Lab operations were halted, and measures were taken to protect personnel, critical hardware, and facilities. Evaluation of real-time cleanroom monitoring data, visualinspection of facilities, filter systems, and analysis of surface cleanliness samples revealed facility environments andhardware were minimally effected.Outside air quality easily exceeded Class Ten Million. Prefilters captured most large ash and soot; multi-stage filtration greatly minimized the impact on the HEPA/ULPA filters. Air quality in HEPA filtered spacecraft assembly cleanrooms remained within Class 10,000 specification throughout. Surface cleanliness was inimally affected, as large particles were effectively removed from the airstream, and sub-micron particles have extremely long settling rates. Approximate particulate fallout within facilities was 0.00011% area coverage/day compared to 0.00038% area coverage/day during normal operations. Deposition of condensable airborne components, as measured in real time, peaked at approximately1.0 ng/cm2/day compared to 0.05 ng/cm2/day nominal.

  5. Contamination impact of station brush fire on cleanroom facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Philip A.; Blakkolb, Brian K.

    2010-08-01

    Brush and forest fires, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic in origin, in proximity to space flight hardware processing facilities raise concerns about the threat of contamination resulting from airborne particulate and molecular components of smoke. Perceptions of the severity of the threat are possibly heightened by the high sensitivity of the human sense of smell to some components present in the smoke of burning vegetation. On August 26th, 2009, a brushfire broke out north of Pasadena, California, two miles from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Station Fire destroyed over 160,000 acres, coming within a few hundred yards of JPL. Smoke concentrations on Lab were very heavy over several days. All Lab operations were halted, and measures were taken to protect personnel, critical hardware, and facilities. Evaluation of real-time cleanroom monitoring data, visual inspection of facilities, filter systems, and analysis of surface cleanliness samples revealed facility environments and hardware were minimally effected. Outside air quality easily exceeded Class Ten Million. Prefilters captured most large ash and soot; multi-stage filtration greatly minimized the impact on the HEPA/ULPA filters. Air quality in HEPA filtered spacecraft assembly cleanrooms remained within Class 10,000 specification throughout. Surface cleanliness was minimally affected, as large particles were effectively removed from the airstream, and sub-micron particles have extremely long settling rates. Approximate particulate fallout within facilities was 0.00011% area coverage/day compared to 0.00038% area coverage/day during normal operations. Deposition of condensable airborne components, as measured in real time, peaked at approximately 1.0 ng/cm2/day compared to 0.05 ng/cm2/day nominal.

  6. Mechanism of nanoparticle actuation by responsive polymer brushes: from reconfigurable composite surfaces to plasmonic effects.

    PubMed

    Roiter, Yuri; Minko, Iryna; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Tokarev, Ihor; Minko, Sergiy

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of nanoparticle actuation by stimuli-responsive polymer brushes triggered by changes in the solution pH was discovered and investigated in detail in this study. The finding explains the high spectral sensitivity of the composite ultrathin film composed of a poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) brush that tunes the spacing between two kinds of nanoparticles-gold nanoislands immobilized on a transparent support and gold colloidal particles adsorbed on the brush. The optical response of the film relies on the phenomenon of localized surface plasmon resonances in the noble metal nanoparticles, giving rise to an extinction band in visible spectra, and a plasmon coupling between the particles and the islands that has a strong effect on the band position and intensity. Since the coupling is controlled by the interparticle spacing, the pH-triggered swelling-shrinking transition in the P2VP brush leads to pronounced changes in the transmission spectra of the hybrid film. It was not established in the previous publications how the actuation of gold nanoparticles within a 10-15 nm interparticle distance could result in the 50-60 nm shift in the absorbance maximum in contrast to the model experiments and theoretical estimations of several nanometer shifts. In this work, the extinction band was deconvoluted into four spectrally separated and overlapping contributions that were attributed to different modes of interactions between the particles and the islands. These modes came into existence due to variations in the thickness of the grafted polymeric layer on the profiled surface of the islands. In situ atomic force microscopy measurements allowed us to explore the behavior of the Au particles as the P2VP brush switched between the swollen and collapsed states. In particular, we identified an interesting, previously unanticipated regime when a particle position in a polymer brush was switched between two distinct states: the particle exposed to the surface of the

  7. Pathogenesis of mucosal injury in the blind loop syndrome. Brush border enzyme activity and glycoprotein degradation.

    PubMed

    Jonas, A; Flanagan, P R; Forstner, G G

    1977-12-01

    The effect of intestinal bacterial over-growth on brush border hydrolases and brush border glycoproteins was studied in nonoperated control rats, control rats with surgically introduced jejunal self-emptying blind loops, and rats with surgically introduced jejunal self-filling blind loops. Data were analyzed from blind loop segments, segments above and below the blind loops, and three corresponding segments in the nonoperated controls. Rats with self-filling blind loops had significantly greater fat excretion than controls and exhibited significantly lower conjugated:free bile salt ratios in all three segments. Maltase, sucrase, and lactase activities were significantly reduced in homogenates and isolated brush borders from the self-filling blind loop, but alkaline phosphatase was not affected. The relative degradation rate of homogenate and brush border glycoproteins was assessed by a double-isotope technique involving the injection of d-[6-(3)H]glucosamine 3 h and d-[U-(14)C]glucosamine 19 h before sacrifice, and recorded as a (3)H:(14)C ratio. The relative degradation rate in both homogenate and brush border fractions was significantly greater in most segments from rats with self-filling blind loops. In the upper and blind loop segments from rats with self-filling blind loops, the (3)H:(14)C ratios were higher in the brush border membrane than in the corresponding homogenates, indicating that the increased rates of degradation primarily involve membrane glycoproteins. Incorporation of d-[6-(3)H]glucosamine by brush border glycoproteins was not reduced in rats with self-filling blind loops, suggesting that glycoprotein synthesis was not affected. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of brush border glycoproteins from the contaminated segments indicated that the large molecular weight glycoproteins, which include many of the surface hydrolases, were degraded most rapidly. Brush border maltase, isolated by immunoprecipitation, had (3)H:(14)C ratios characteristic of

  8. Hemocompatible mixed-charge copolymer brushes of pseudozwitterionic surfaces resistant to nonspecific plasma protein fouling.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung; Shu, Shih-Hung; Shih, Yu-Ju; Chu, Chih-Wei; Ruaan, Ruoh-Chyu; Chen, Wen-Yih

    2010-03-01

    In this work, the hemocompatibility of a sulfobetaine-like copolymer brush resulting from a mixed-charge copolymerization of the positively charged 11-mercapto-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (TMA) and negatively charged 11-mercaptoundecylsulfonic acid (SA) was studied. Mixed charge distribution in the prepared poly(TMA-co-SA) copolymer brushes was controlled by the regulation of the reaction rate of the surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The adsorption behavior of plasma proteins on a surface grafted with poly(TMA-co-SA) was measured by a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor. The effects of varying temperature, solution pH, and ionic strength on the antifouling characteristics of the mixed-charge copolymer brushes were systematically evaluated, and the protein-fouling resistance was discussed in detail, especially with respect to the effect of ionic strength on the intra- and intermolecular interactions of the poly(TMA-co-SA) with proteins. The adhesion and activation of blood cells on the poly(TMA-co-SA)-grafted surface in contact with human whole blood was also demonstrated. The results suggest that mixed-charge copolymer brushes of poly(TMA-co-SA), which, like zwitterionic homopolymer brushes, have overall charge neutrality, can be used in similar applications for protein-fouling resistance and have excellent hemocompatibility with human whole blood at physiologic temperatures. PMID:19947616

  9. Static and dynamic properties of polymer brush with topological ring structures: Molecular dynamic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Wu-Bing; Lv, Hong-Hong; Merlitz, Holger; Wu, Chen-Xu

    2016-10-01

    By defining a topological constraint value (rn), the static and dynamic properties of a polymer brush composed of moderate or short chains with different topological ring structures are studied using molecular dynamics simulation, and a comparison with those of linear polymer brush is also made. For the center-of-mass height of the ring polymer brush scaled by chain length h ˜ N ν , there is no significant difference of exponent from that of a linear brush in the small topological constraint regime. However, as the topological constraint becomes stronger, one obtains a smaller exponent. It is found that there exists a master scaling power law of the total stretching energy scaled by chain length N for moderate chain length regime, F ene ˜ Nρ ν , for ring polymer brushes, but with a larger exponent ν than 5/6, indicating an influence of topological constraint to the dynamic properties of the system. A topological invariant of free energy scaled by 5/4 is found. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374243 and 11574256).

  10. Monomer volume fraction profiles in pH responsive planar polyelectrolyte brushes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mahalik, Jyoti P.; Yang, Yubo; Deodhar, Chaitra V.; Ankner, John Francis; Lokitz, Bradley S.; Kilbey, II, S. Michael; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kumar, Rajeev

    2016-03-06

    Spatial dependencies of monomer volume fraction profiles of pH responsive polyelectrolyte brushes were investigated using field theories and neutron reflectivity experiments. In particular, planar polyelectrolyte brushes in good solvent were studied and direct comparisons between predictions of the theories and experimental measurements are presented. The comparisons between the theories and the experimental data reveal that solvent entropy and ion-pairs resulting from adsorption of counterions from the added salt play key roles in affecting the monomer distribution and must be taken into account in modeling polyelectrolyte brushes. Furthermore, the utility of this physics-based approach based on these theories for the predictionmore » and interpretation of neutron reflectivity profiles in the context of pH responsive planar polyelectrolyte brushes such as polybasic poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) and polyacidic poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) brushes is demonstrated. The approach provides a quantitative way of estimating molecular weights of the polymers polymerized using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization.« less

  11. Experimental determination of optimum gutter brush parameters and road sweeping criteria for different types of waste.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Magd M; Wang, Chong; Vanegas-Useche, Libardo V; Parker, Graham A

    2011-06-01

    The removal ability of gutter brushes for road sweeping for various debris types and different sweeping parameters is studied through experimental tests. The brushing test rig used comprises two commercial gutter brushes, a concrete test bed, and an asphalt test road with a gutter of 0.25 cm width and 10° slope. The brush-surface contact area is determined by sweeping sand on the concrete test bed. Sweeping problems are identified and discussed, and sweeping criteria for the different debris types are suggested. Also, optimum sweeping parameters are proposed for each debris type. In addition, debris removal mechanisms are discussed and analysed. The results indicate that for large heavy debris such as stones and gravel, it is not difficult to achieve large removal forces, because the steel bristles are relatively stiff. Conversely, high removal forces are not needed for particles of millimetre or micron sizes, but bristle curvature has to be appropriate to remove particles from road concavities. Finally, it is found that mud, especially dry mud on a rough surface, is the hardest debris to sweep, requiring a brush with a large tilt angle and a very large penetration to produce large removal forces.

  12. Ionic Effect on the Conformations of Weak Polyelectrolyte Brushes: from Monovalent, Multivalent to Macro ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chen; Zheng, Zhongli; Zhu, Y. Elaine

    2014-03-01

    The conformation structure and resulting interfacial properties of surface tethered weak polyelectrolyte brushes exhibit strong dependence on solution conditions, such as pH and ionic strength, due to the tunable ionization along the polymer backbone. In this work, we investigate the influence of counterions on wetting and swelling characteristics of positively charged poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (P2VP) brushes grafted to a solid surface. The critical transition pH, at which stretched P2VP brush chain collapse with a resulting increase in P2VP surface hydrophobicity, is determined in aqueous solutions by AFM, QCM, and contact angle goniometer. The critical transition pH is observed to shift to higher pH values by adding monovalent counterions of increased concentration. In contrast, an opposite trend toward lower pH range is observed by adding divalent counterions; similar behavior is also observed with added nanocluster macroions. However, it appears that reentrant counterion condensation is only observed with P2VP brushes added with divalent ions, but not with monovalent ions or macroions. Distinct scaling behaviors of P2VP brush thickness with three different types of counterions are also obtained.

  13. Tunable polymer brush/Au NPs hybrid plasmonic arrays based on host-guest interaction.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liping; Li, Yunfeng; Chen, Zhaolai; Liu, Wendong; Zhang, Junhu; Xiang, Siyuan; Shen, Huaizhong; Li, Zibo; Yang, Bai

    2014-11-26

    The fabrication of versatile gold nanoparticle (Au NP) arrays with tunable optical properties by a novel host-guest interaction are presented. The gold nanoparticles were incorporated into polymer brushes by host-guest interaction between β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) ligand of gold nanoparticles and dimethylamino group of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA). The gold nanoparticle arrays were prepared through the template of PDMAEMA brush patterns which were fabricated combining colloidal lithography and surface-initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The structure parameters of gold nanoparticle patterns mediated by polymer brushes such as height, diameters, periods and distances, could be easily tuned by tailoring the etching time or size of colloidal spheres in the process of colloidal lithography. The change of optical properties induced by different gold nanoparticle structures was demonstrated. The direct utilization of PDMAEMA brushes as guest avoids a series of complicated modification process and the PDMAEMA brushes can be grafted on various substrates, which broaden its applications. The prepared gold naoparticle arrays are promising in applications of nanosensors, memory storage and surface enhanced spectroscopy. PMID:25347749

  14. Designing of dynamic polyethyleneimine (PEI) brushes on polyurethane (PU) ureteral stents to prevent infections.

    PubMed

    Gultekinoglu, Merve; Tunc Sarisozen, Yeliz; Erdogdu, Ceren; Sagiroglu, Meral; Aksoy, Eda Ayse; Oh, Yoo Jin; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Ulubayram, Kezban

    2015-07-01

    Permanent antibacterial coatings have been developed by brush-like polyethyleneimine (PEI) on polyurethane (PU) ureteral stents since bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation with the following encrustation on stent surface limit their long term usage. In order to control or prevent bacterial infections; PEI chains with two different molecular weights (Mn: 1800 or 60,000 Da) were covalently attached on the polyurethane (PU) surface by "grafting to" approach to obtain a brush-like structure. Then, PEI brushes were alkylated with bromohexane to enhance the disruption of bacterial membranes with increasing polycationic character. X-ray Photoelectron and Infrared Spectroscopy investigations confirmed that PEI grafting and alkylation steps were performed successfully. Surface roughness in dry state increased dramatically from 65.8 nm to 277.7 nm and 145.2 nm for short chain PEI and long chain PEI grafted samples, respectively. Both low and high molecular weight PEI grafts exhibited a brush-like structure and potent antibacterial activity by lowering the adherence of Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis species up to two orders of magnitude without any cytotoxic effect on L929 and G/G cells. Thus, permanent bactericidal activity was achieved by the contact-active strategy of dynamic PEI brush-like structures on polyurethane ureteral stent.

  15. A comparison of proximal plaque removal using floss and interdental brushes.

    PubMed

    Kiger, R D; Nylund, K; Feller, R P

    1991-10-01

    The removal of interproximal plaque was compared using a standard toothbrush alone, a toothbrush with unwaxed dental floss and a toothbrush with an interdental brush. 30 previously treated periodontal patients were given the cleaning aids in a three-way crossover study design. After each 1 month trial period, scores for gingivitis, buccal/lingual plaque and proximal plaque were recorded. Mean GI scores for subjects were 0.37 using the toothbrush only, 0.36 using the toothbrush with floss and 0.32 using the toothbrush with the interdental brush. Mean buccal/lingual plaque scores were 0.64 using the toothbrush only, 0.62 using the toothbrush with floss and 0.51 using the toothbrush with the interdental brush. Mean plaque scores were 2.32 with the toothbrush only, 1.71 using the toothbrush with floss and 1.22 using the toothbrush with the interdental brush. Statistically significant differences were seen in proximal plaque scores between the 3 treatment groups. The results indicate that the interdental brush used in combination with a toothbrush is more effective in the removal of plaque from proximal tooth surfaces than a toothbrush used alone or in combination with dental floss.

  16. Improved adhesion between PMMA and stainless steel modified with PMMA brushes.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kyoko; Malmos, Kristoffer; Holm, Allan Hjarbæk; Pedersen, Steen Uttrup; Daasbjerg, Kim; Hinge, Mogens

    2014-12-10

    In this work, various lengths and densities of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brushes were synthesized on stainless steel (SS) surfaces via surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Subsequently, the joints between the bulk PMMA and the PMMA brushed stainless steel were obtained by injection molding, and for these the degree of adhesion was assessed by tensile testing. Several conditions are required to facilitate the mixing between the brushes and the bulk polymer and to reduce the residual stress at the interface: preheating of the SS samples before the injection molding; a long packing time; and a mold temperature above the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PMMA during the injection molding. This treatment leads to a cohesive failure in the bulk PMMA. It was observed that the stress concentrated at the rim, due to contraction of bulk PMMA during cooling, results in a weak adhesion at the rim of the joint. A combination of high density and long brush length of PMMA film provides better adhesion. The large number of PMMA brush chains apparently promotes good penetration into the bulk PMMA chains and ultimately results in high adhesion strength. PMID:25348044

  17. Eccentricity effects on leakage of a brush seal at low speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlumberger, Julie A.; Proctor, Margaret P.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of eccentricity on brush seal leakage at low rotational speeds were investigated. Included are the leakage results for ambient temperature air and nearly saturated streams at three different rotor eccentricities at both 0 and 400 rpm. A brush seal with a nominal bore diameter of 13.647 cm. (5.3730 in.) was used. It had a radial concentric interference of 0.071 cm (0.0028 in.) and a fence height of 0.0927 cm (0.0365 in.). There were 1060 bristles per centimeter of circumference (2690 bristles per inch of circumference). Rotor eccentricities of 0.003, 0.010, 0.038, and 0.043 cm (0.001, 0.004, 0.015, and 0.017 in.) were achieved by using bushings with different offsets. The results were compared with an annular seal model (FLOWCAL) for air and to a standard labyrinth seal model for steam. The annular seal model was also compared with a bulk flow model of a concentric brush seal in air. Large eccentricities did not damage the brush seals or their Haynes 25 bristles. However, the 304 stainless steel rotor did not show wear, indicating a harder surface is needed. Only the stream data showed hysteresis and were affected by shaft rotation. The brush seal had lower leakage rates than those predicted for comparable annular and labyrinth seals (conventional) because of the large clearances those seals require to accommodate large shaft excursions.

  18. Adhesion and friction properties of polymer brushes on rough surfaces: a gradient approach.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna, Shivaprakash N; Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M; Naik, Vikrant V; Nalam, Prathima C; Spencer, Nicholas D

    2013-12-10

    The effect of nanoscale surface roughness on the lubrication properties of a polymer brush in a good solvent has been investigated. Friction and adhesion forces were measured by means of polyethylene colloidal-probe AFM across a 12 nm silica particle gradient before and after the adsorption of a poly(L-lysine)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) polymer brush. The adsorption and conformation of the polymer chains were studied with multiple transmission and reflection infrared (MTR-IR) spectroscopy. The results show that prior to the adsorption of PLL-g-PEG on the gradient surface, the friction is high at the smooth end of the gradient while it decreases toward the rough end. Moreover, there is a direct correlation between friction and adhesion. Upon adsorption of the brushes, adhesion vanishes. In this case, a higher frictional force between the PEG-coated particle gradient substrate and the polyethylene sphere is observed at the rough end of the gradient in comparison to the smooth end. In spite of the increased adsorbed mass of PLL-g-PEG at the rough end of the gradient, theory and simulations show that the high curvature of the nanoparticles leads to a less swollen PEG brush in comparison to PEG brushes adsorbed on a planar surface, resulting in a lower repulsion, which can explain the observed increase in friction with particle density.

  19. When hatchlings outperform adults: locomotor development in Australian brush turkeys (Alectura lathami, Galliformes)

    PubMed Central

    Dial, Kenneth P.; Jackson, Brandon E.

    2011-01-01

    Within Galliformes, megapods (brush turkey, malleefowl, scrubfowl) exhibit unique forms of parental care and growth. Hatchlings receive no post-hatching parental care and exhibit the most exaggerated precocial development of all extant birds, hatching with fully developed, flight-capable forelimbs. Rather than flying up to safety, young birds preferentially employ wing-assisted incline running. Newly hatched Australian brush turkeys (Alectura lathami) are extraordinarily proficient at negotiating all textured inclined surfaces and can flap-walk up inclines exceeding the vertical. Yet, as brush turkeys grow, their forelimb-dependent locomotor performance declines. In an attempt to elucidate how hatchlings perform so well, we analysed hindlimb forces and forelimb kinematics. We measured ground reaction forces (GRFs) for animals spanning the entire growth range (110–2000 g) as they ascended a variably positioned inclined ramp that housed a forceplate. These data are compared with a similar dataset for a chukar partridge (Alectoris chukar) that exhibit a growth strategy typical of most other Galliformes and that demonstrate improved incline performance with increasing age. The brush turkeys' ontogenetic decline in incline running performance is accompanied by loss of traction at steep angles, reduced GRFs and increased wing-loading. We hypothesize that Australian brush turkeys, in contrast to other Galliformes, develop from forelimb-dominated young that exploit a variable terrain (e.g. mound nests, boulders, embankments, cliffs, bushes and trees) into hindlimb-dominated adults dependent on size and running speed to avoid predation. PMID:21047855

  20. Vertical Phase Segregation Induced by Dipolar Interactions in Planar Polymer Brushes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mahalik, Jyoti P.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Kumar, Rajeev

    2016-09-13

    In this paper, we present a generalized theory for studying structural properties of a planar dipolar polymer brush immersed in a polar solvent. We show that an explicit treatment of the dipolar interactions yields a macroscopic concentration dependent effective “chi” (the Flory–Huggins-like interaction) parameter. Furthermore, it is shown that the concentration dependent chi parameter promotes phase segregation in polymer solutions and brushes so that the polymer-poor phase consists of a finite/nonzero polymer concentration. Such a destabilization of the homogeneous phase by the dipolar interactions appears as vertical phase segregation in a planar polymer brush. In a vertically phase segregated polymermore » brush, the polymer-rich phase near the grafting surface coexists with the polymer-poor phase at the other end. Predictions of the theory are directly compared with prior reported experimental results for dipolar polymers in polar solvents. Excellent agreements with the experimental results are found, hinting that the dipolar interactions play a significant role in vertical phase segregation of planar polymer brushes. We also compare our field theoretical approach with the two-state and other models invoking ad hoc concentration dependence of the chi parameter. Interplay between the short-ranged excluded volume interactions and long-ranged dipolar interactions is shown to play an important role in affecting the vertical phase separation. Finally, effects of mismatch between the dipole moments of the polymer segments and the solvent molecules are investigated in detail.« less

  1. Profilometric analysis of two composite resins’ surface repolished after tooth brush abrasion with three polishing systems

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, Mudit; Ganesh, Arathi; Balagopal, Suresh; Kaur, Gurleen

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of three polishing protocols that could be implemented at recall on the surface roughness of two direct esthetic restorative materials. Materials and Methods: Specimens (n = 40) measuring 8 mm (length) × 5 mm (width) × 4 mm (height) were fabricated in an acrylic mold using two light-cured resin-based materials (microfilled composite and microhybrid composite). After photopolymerization, all specimens were finished and polished with one of three polishing protocols (Enhance, One Gloss, and Sof-Lex polishing systems). The average surface roughness of each treated specimen was determined using 3D optical profilometer. Next all specimens were brushed 60,000 times with nylon bristles at 7200 rpm using crosshead brushing device with equal parts of toothpaste and water used as abrasive medium. The surface roughness of each specimen was measured after brushing followed by repolishing with one of three polishing protocols, and then, the final surface roughness values were determined. Results: The data were analyzed using one-way and two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD). Significant difference (P < 0.05) in surface roughness was observed. Simulated brushing following initial polishing procedure significantly roughened the surface of restorative material (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Polishing protocols can be used to restore a smooth surface on esthetic restorative materials following simulated tooth brushing. PMID:23956531

  2. Effect of brushing with conventional versus whitening dentifrices on surface roughness and biofilm formation of dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Sarina Maciel Braga; Kantorski, Karla Zanini; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Pavanelli, Carlos Augusto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of conventional and whitening dentifrices on the weight loss, surface roughness, and early in situ biofilm formation on the surface of dental ceramics. Standardized feldspar ceramic specimens (Vita VM7 and Vita VM13) were submitted to the following experimental conditions: no brushing; brushing without a dentifrice; brushing with a conventional dentifrice; and brushing with a whitening dentifrice. A brushing machine was used to simulate brushing. The mass and surface roughness of all specimens from the test groups were evaluated prior to and after brushing. Ten participants used an oral device for eight hours to evaluate the biofilm formed in situ on the specimens. Scanning electron microscopy was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the biofilm. ANOVA and Tukey tests were used to analyze the results of weight loss, surface roughness, and presence of bacteria. A one-way Kruskal-Wallis test was used for bacterial colonization results. For both ceramics, brushing with a whitening dentifrice resulted in weight loss that was significantly greater when compared to brushing without a dentifrice or with a conventional dentifrice. Increased surface roughness was noticed on VM13 ceramic samples with both dentifrices, whereas only conventional dentifrice had a significant effect on the surface roughness of VM7 samples. For both VM7 and VM13, no difference was found between the experimental conditions with regard to the presence or number of bacteria. Cocci and short rods were the predominant microbial morphotypes. Granular or fibrillar acellular material partially covered the specimens. Brushing with a whitening dentifrice resulted in significant weight loss of ceramic restorations, while brushing with both conventional and whitening dentifrices can roughen ceramic surfaces. The increase in roughness was not clinically significant to contribute to increased biofilm formation.

  3. In vitro comparison of restoration wear and tensile strength following extended brushing with Sonicare and a manual toothbrush.

    PubMed

    Donly, K J; Vargas, M; Meckes, M; Sharma, A; Kugel, G; Hurley, E

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the wear, cement margin breakdown and bond strength of restorations following 6 to 12 months of simulated use in vitro of the Sonicare and a manual toothbrush. Extracted molar teeth with Class V hybrid composite resin restorations (n = 21) or with Class V gold inlays cemented with zinc phosphate cement were tested for wear and marginal integrity following brushing for a period that simulated 6 months of typical use. One-third of the molars in each group were brushed with the Sonicare and one-third were brushed with the manual brush. The remaining third served as non-treated controls. Toothbrushing was performed under a standardized load using a piston-action brushing machine. After brushing, the enamel, dentin/cementum and restorations were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. There was no apparent wear of tooth structure or of restorative materials with either the Sonicare or the manual brush. There was a small loss of cement from the margins of the gold inlays following toothbrushing, which was similar and not significantly different between the sonic and manual brush. To test brushing effects on crown retention, four identical metal dies were prepared to simulate premolar crown preparations. Thirty cast copings, prepared to fit the dies, were cemented with zinc phosphate cement. Toothbrushing with Sonicare or the manual toothbrush was performed as before (n = 15 for each brush), but the simulated time was extended to the equivalent of 1 year of brushing. The dislodgement force of cemented crowns was not significantly different (t-test, p > 0.10) between the manual (207 +/- 69 N) and Sonicare (221 +/- 61 N) groups. These results demonstrate that despite its high frequency bristle motion, Sonicare exerts no detrimental effects on cement margin integrity, crown bond strength or surface wear of dental and restorative materials.

  4. Nanostructure of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Brush at the Air/Water Interface and Its Responsivity to Temperature and Salt.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Hideki; Uda, Kyohei

    2016-08-23

    Nanostructure and transition of the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAm) brush at the air/water interface were investigated by π-A isotherm and X-ray reflectivity, and an interesting behavior was observed with the change in temperature and salt. The polymer monolayer of poly(n-butyl acrylate)(PnBA)-b-PNIPAm on the water surface showed a transition between carpet-only/carpet+brush structures as a function of brush density, which was controlled by compression/expansion, as was the case for ionic brush systems. The brush stretching factor was about 50%, which was slightly less than that for a strongly ionic brush. The number of water molecules inside the brush layer was estimated to be 11-13 per repeating unit of PNIPAm chain. This value is very close to the number of hydrated water molecules reported, which means that all the water molecules inside the brush layer were hydrated water. With elevating temperature, the PNIPAm brush shrank, and the number of water molecules in the brush layer was reduced to 3. These observations certainly indicated a dehydration process. Interestingly, a part of the PNIAPm chain formed a "hydrophobic PNIPAm layer" on the carpet layer under the PnBA hydrophobic layer. A similar transition was observed also by the addition of salt to the water subphase. Although the formation of "hydrophobic PNIPAm layer" was not observed in this case, shrinking of the brush was observed with increasing salt concentration, and finally it became a carpet-only structure, which contained no water molecules. This salt effect was found to be ion specific, and its effectiveness was in the order of F(-) > Cl(-) > Br(-), which is in agreement with the Hofmeister series. PMID:27467013

  5. Plaque regrowth effects of a triclosan/pyrophosphate dentifrice in a 4-day non-brushing model.

    PubMed

    McClanahan, S F; Bollmer, B W; Court, L K; McClary, J M; Majeti, S; Crisanti, M M; Beiswanger, B B; Mau, M S

    2000-01-01

    Triclosan is a lipophilic antimicrobial agent which, when present in an aqueous dentifrice vehicle, is complexed by or in close contact with polymers and surface-active molecules, emulsifying agents, flavoring oils and other hydrophobic ingredients. Because of this, dentifrice products containing triclosan may not have triclosan in a bioavailable state and, hence, the products themselves can not be assumed to possess antimicrobial activity. In order to determine the antimicrobial effects on dental plaque of a triclosan/pyrophosphate dentifrice relative to a negative control (without triclosan or pyrophosphate), a crossover 4-day non-brushing study was conducted. Thirty-four subjects were enrolled in this randomized two-period, double-blind crossover investigation with thirty-three subjects completing all aspects. Following a baseline plaque examination and complete plaque removal at the start of the first 4-day treatment period, subjects initiated a twice-daily supervised dosing regimen, during which they rinsed with their first assigned dentifrice in slurry form while refraining from tooth-brushing and all other oral hygiene procedures. Evaluations to quantify test product effects on plaque were conducted on Day 5. After a week-long interim washout period, subjects repeated the twice daily rinsing regimen over Days 1-4 of Treatment Period 2 with their second assigned product, again with examinations on Day 5. Analysis of data demonstrated subjects had significantly (p = 0.0296) less plaque when rinsing with the triclosan/pyrophosphate dentifrice slurry as compared to the negative control dentifrice slurry; the relative treatment difference as determined by the primary examiner was 12.7%. A trainee examiner observed a 16.0% reduction on a subset of subjects (p = 0.0139). This efficacy result compares favorably with results from other studies of triclosan-containing products. The examinations for oral safety demonstrated no meaningful clinical differences between

  6. Distribution and phenotypes of unipolar brush cells in relation to the granule cell system of the rat cochlear nuclear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Diño, Maria. R.; Mugnaini, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    In most mammals the cochlear nuclear complex (CN) contains a distributed system of granule cells (GCS), whose parallel fiber axons innervate the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN). Like their counterpart in cerebellum, CN granules are innervated by mossy fibers of various origins. The GCS is complemented by unipolar brush (UBCs) and Golgi cells, and by stellate and cartwheel cells of the DCN. This cerebellum-like microcircuit modulates the activity of the DCN’s main projection neurons, the pyramidal, giant and tuberculoventral neurons, and is thought to improve auditory performance by integrating acoustic and proprioceptive information. In this paper, we focus on the UBCs, a chemically heterogeneous neuronal population, using antibodies to calretinin, mGluR1α epidermal growth factor substrate 8 (Eps8) and the transcription factor Tbr2. Eps8 and Tbr2 labeled most of the CN’s UBCs, if not the entire population, while calretinin and mGluR1α distinguished two largely separate subsets with overlapping distributions. By double labeling with antibodies to Tbr2 and the α6 GABAA-receptor subunit, we found that UBCs populate all regions of the GCS and occur at remarkably high densities in the DCN and subpeduncular corner, but rarely in the lamina. Although GCS subregions likely share the same microcircuitry, their dissimilar UBC densities suggest they may be functionally distinct. UBCs and granules are also present in regions previously not included in the GCS, namely the rostrodorsal magnocellular portions of VCN, vestibular nerve root, trapezoid body, spinal tract and sensory and principal nuclei of the trigeminal nerve, and cerebellar peduncles. The UBC’s dendritic brush receives AMPA- and NMDA-mediated input from an individual mossy fiber, favoring singularity of input, and its axon most likely forms several mossy fiber-like endings that target numerous granule cells and other UBCs, as in the cerebellum. The UBCs therefore, may amplify afferent signals temporally and

  7. Characterization of Swollen States of Polyelectrolyte Brushes in Salt Solution by Neutron Reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Motoyasu; Mitamura, Koji; Terada, Masami; Yamada, Norifumi L.; Takahara, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Cationic and zwitterionic polyelectrolyte brushes on quartz substrate were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of 2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MTAC) and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC). The effects of ionic strength on brush structure are investigated by neutron reflectivity (NR) in NaCl deuterium oxide (D2O) solutions. We observed that poly(MTAC) chains were drastically shrunk at concentrations above 0.1 M NaCl/D2O, which may be the change in charge-screening effect against ions on poly(MTAC). On the other hand, effect of salt concentration on a swollen state of poly(MPC) brush was negligible, even at the high concentration (5.0 M) close to saturation. The behaviour of poly(MPC) in salt aqueous solution is completely different from that of poly(MTAC), which may arise from the unique interaction properties, neutral nature, and hydrated water structure of phosphorylcholine units.

  8. Inhibitory effect for proliferation of oral bacteria in dogs by tooth brushing and application of toothpaste

    PubMed Central

    WATANABE, Kazuhiro; KIJIMA, Saku; NONAKA, Chie; MATSUKAWA, Yuki; YAMAZOE, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    To investigate inhibitory effect for oral bacterial proliferation, we divided 12 dogs into 3 groups; scaling alone (C; control group), brushing (B) and application of toothpaste (P). Before scaling (Pre) and at 0 to 8 weeks after scaling (0–8 w), we collected oral bacteria from the dental surface every week and counted them using a bacterial counter. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in the number of oral bacteria for group B relative to Pre and group C, as well as for group P relative to group C at 5–7 w. Consequently, brushing may inhibit an increase in the number of oral bacteria, and toothpaste may be effective at a certain level, although not more than that of brushing. PMID:27062999

  9. Integrity testing of brush seal in shroud ring of T-700 engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Griffin, Thomas A.; Bobula, George B.; Bill, Robert C.; Howe, Harold W.

    1992-08-01

    A split-ring brush seal was fabricated, installed between two labyrinth-honeycomb shroud seals, and tested in the fourth-stage turbine of a T-700 engine. The annealed Haynes 25 bristles rubbed directly against the nonconditioned, irregular Rene 80 turbine blade shroud surface. A total of 30 hr of cyclic and steady-state data were taken with surface speeds to 335 m/s (1100 ft/s) and shroud temperatures to 620 C (1150 F). Wear appeared to be rapid initially, with an orange flash of hot brush fragments during the first engine startup, to minimal after 10 hr of operation. The brush survived the testing but experienced some bristle pullouts and severe bristle wear; some turbine interface wear and possible material transfer was noted. Future design concerns center on tribological behavior at the interface with or without lubricants.

  10. Streaming Potential and Energy Conversion in Nanochannel Grafted With Poly-Zwitterion Brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwary, Jahin; Chen, Guang; Das, Siddhartha

    2015-11-01

    Here we study the streaming potential and electrochemomechanical energy conversion in nanochannels grafted with poly-zwitterion (PZ) brushes. PZs are polymer molecules consisting of negative and positive charge centres simultaneously; depending on the bulk pH, the extent of dissociation differs at each of these charge centres, yielding a particular net charge on the PZ molecule. This PZ charge, therefore, develops a pH dependent electrostatics of the PZ brushes grafted at the naochannel walls. We develop a self-consistent field theory model to calculate this electrostatics by appropriately accounting for the explicit hydrogen ion concentration. Secondly, we use this electrostatics to calculate the streaming potential and the resulting electrochemomechanical energy conversion in nanochannels grafted with poly-zwitterion (PZ) brushes. Our results indicate distinct influences of pH, bulk ion concentration, and the ionization parameters of the PZs in regulating the nanochannel energy conversion. Bridge to the Doctorate Fellowship - LSAMP Committee.

  11. A brush-shaped air plasma jet operated in glow discharge mode at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuechen; Bao, Wenting; Jia, Pengying; Di, Cong

    2014-07-01

    Using ambient air as working gas, a direct-current plasma jet is developed to generate a brush-shaped plasma plume with fairly large volume. Although a direct-current power supply is used, the discharge shows a pulsed characteristic. Based on the voltage-current curve and fast photography, the brush-shaped plume, like the gliding arc plasma, is in fact a temporal superposition of a moving discharge filament in an arched shape. During it moves away from the nozzle, the discharge evolves from a low-current arc into a normal glow in one discharge cycle. The emission profile is explained qualitatively based on the dynamics of the plasma brush.

  12. Growing Embossed Nanostructures of Polymer Brushes on Wet-Etched Silicon Templated via Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaobin; Yan, Qin; Ma, Yinzhou; Guo, Xin; Xiao, Shou-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Block copolymer nanolithography has attracted enormous interest in chip technologies, such as integrated silicon chips and biochips, due to its large-scale and mass production of uniform patterns. We further modified this technology to grow embossed nanodots, nanorods, and nanofingerprints of polymer brushes on silicon from their corresponding wet-etched nanostructures covered with pendent SiHx (X = 1–3) species. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image the topomorphologies, and multiple transmission-reflection infrared spectroscopy (MTR-IR) was used to monitor the surface molecular films in each step for the sequential stepwise reactions. In addition, two layers of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) brush nanodots were observed, which were attributed to the circumferential convergence growth and the diffusion-limited growth of the polymer brushes. The pH response of PMAA nanodots in the same region was investigated by AFM from pH 3.0 to 9.0. PMID:26841692

  13. Highly efficient antibacterial surface grafted with a triclosan-decorated poly(N-hydroxyethylacrylamide) brush.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-Xia; Tan, Lei; Tang, Zhao-Wen; Yang, Mei-Yan; Xiao, Jian-Yun; Liu, Chuan-Jun; Zhuo, Ren-Xi

    2015-04-01

    This work presented a highly efficient antibacterial Ti-surface which was grafted with poly(N-hydroxyethylacrylamide) (PHEAA) brush and further decorated with triclosan (TCS). The modified surfaces were characterized using contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared. The antibacterial performance of the modified surfaces was evaluated using the Streptococcus mutans and Actinomyces naeslundii attachment test. The Ti surface with PHEAA brush (Ti-PHEAA) was able to resist the adhesion of the bacteria, while the TCS-decorated Ti surface (Ti-TCS) showed the capability of killing the bacteria adhered on the surface. As we coupled the TCS to the PHEAA brush, the surface showed highly efficient antibacterial performance due to the combination of the resistance to the bacteria adhesion and its activity of killing bacteria.

  14. Binary mixed homopolymer brushes grafted on nanorod particles: A self-consistent field theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xin; Yang, Yingzi; Zhu, Lei; Zhao, Bin; Tang, Ping; Qiu, Feng

    2013-12-01

    We employ the self-consistent field theory to study phase structures of brush-rod systems composed of two chemically distinct linear homopolymers. The polymer chains are uniformly grafted on the surface of a nanorod particle of finite length and comparable radius to the polymer radius of gyration. A "masking" technique treating the cylindrical boundary is introduced to solve the modified diffusion equations with an efficient and high-order accurate pseudospectral method involving fast Fourier transform on an orthorhombic cell. A rich variety of structures for the phase separated brushes is predicted. Phase diagrams involving a series of system parameters, such as the aspect ratio of the nanorod, the grafting density, and the chain length are constructed. The results indicate that the phase structure of the mixed brush-rod system can be tailored by varying the grafted chain length and/or the aspect ratio of the rod to benefit the fabrication of polymeric nanocomposites.

  15. A theoretical study of colloidal forces near an amphiphilic polymer brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jianzhong

    2011-03-01

    Polymer-based ``non-stick'' coatings are promising as the next generation of effective, environmentally-friendly marine antifouling systems that minimize nonspecific adsorption of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). However, design and development of such systems are impeded by the poor knowledge of polymer-mediated interactions of biomacromolecules with the protected substrate. In this work, a polymer density functional theory (DFT) is used to predict the potential of mean force between spherical biomacromolecules and amphiphilic copolymer brushes within a coarse-grained model that captures essential nonspecific interactions such as the molecular excluded volume effects and the hydrophobic energies. The relevance of theoretical results for practical control of the EPS adsorption is discussed in terms of the efficiency of different brush configurations to prevent biofouling. It is shown that the most effective antifouling surface may be accomplished by using amphiphilic brushes with a long hydrophilic backbone and a hydrophobic end at moderate grafting density.

  16. New Poly(amino acid methacrylate) Brush Supports the Formation of Well-Defined Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A novel poly(amino acid methacrylate) brush comprising zwitterionic cysteine groups (PCysMA) was utilized as a support for lipid bilayers. The polymer brush provides a 12-nm-thick cushion between the underlying hard support and the aqueous phase. At neutral pH, the zeta potential of the PCysMA brush was ∼−10 mV. Cationic vesicles containing >25% DOTAP were found to form a homogeneous lipid bilayer, as determined by a combination of surface analytical techniques. The lipid mobility as measured by FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) gave diffusion coefficients of ∼1.5 μm2 s–1, which are comparable to those observed for lipid bilayers on glass substrates. PMID:25746444

  17. Size and rigidity of cylindrical polymer brushes dictate long circulating properties in vivo.

    PubMed

    Müllner, Markus; Dodds, Sarah J; Nguyen, Tri-Hung; Senyschyn, Danielle; Porter, Christopher J H; Boyd, Ben J; Caruso, Frank

    2015-02-24

    Studies of spherical nanoengineered drug delivery systems have suggested that particle size and mechanical properties are key determinants of in vivo behavior; however, for more complex structures, detailed analysis of correlations between in vitro characterization and in vivo disposition is lacking. Anisotropic materials in particular bear unknowns in terms of size tolerances for in vivo clearance and the impact of shape and rigidity. Herein, we employed cylindrical polymer brushes (CPBs) to answer questions related to the impact of size, length and rigidity on the in vivo behavior of PEGylated anisotropic structures, in particular their pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. The modular grafting assembly of CPBs allowed for the systematic tailoring of parameters such as aspect ratio or rigidity while keeping the overall chemical composition the same. CPBs with altered length were produced from polyinitiator backbones with different degrees of polymerization. The side chain grafts consisted of a random copolymer of poly[(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate] (PEGMA) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA), and rendered the CPBs water-soluble. The epoxy groups of PGMA were subsequently reacted with propargylamine to introduce alkyne groups, which in turn were used to attach radiolabels via copper(I)-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC). Radiolabeling allowed the pharmacokinetics of intravenously injected CPBs to be followed as well as their deposition into major organs post dosing to rats. To alter the rigidity of the CPBs, core-shell-structured CPBs with polycaprolactone (PCL) as a water-insoluble and crystalline core and PEGMA-co-PGMA as the hydrophilic shell were synthesized. This modular buildup of CPBs allowed their shape and rigidity to be altered, which in turn could be used to influence the in vivo circulation behavior of these anisotropic polymer particles. Increasing the aspect ratio or altering the rigidity of the CPBs led to reduced exposure

  18. Improving optical contact for functional near‑infrared brain spectroscopy and imaging with brush optodes

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Bilal; Wildey, Chester; Francis, Robert; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Liu, Hanli; MacFarlane, Duncan; Alexandrakis, George

    2012-01-01

    A novel brush optode was designed and demonstrated to overcome poor optical contact with the scalp that can occur during functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and imaging due to light obstruction by hair. The brush optodes were implemented as an attachment to existing commercial flat-faced (conventional) fiber bundle optodes. The goal was that the brush optodes would thread through hair and improve optical contact on subjects with dense hair. Simulations and experiments were performed to assess the magnitude of these improvements. FNIRS measurements on 17 subjects with varying hair colors (blonde, brown, and black) and hair densities (0–2.96 hairs/mm2) were performed during a finger tapping protocol for both flat and brush optodes. In addition to reaching a study success rate of almost 100% when using the brush optode extensions, the measurement setup times were reduced by a factor of three. Furthermore, the brush optodes enabled improvements in the activation signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by up to a factor of ten as well as significant (p < 0.05) increases in the detected area of activation (dAoA). The measured improvements in SNR were matched by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of photon propagation through scalp and hair. In addition, an analytical model was derived to mathematically estimate the observed light power losses due to different hair colors and hair densities. Interestingly, the derived analytical formula produced excellent estimates of the experimental data and MC simulation results despite several simplifying assumptions. The analytical model enables researchers to readily estimate the light power losses due to obstruction by hair for both flat-faced fiber bundles and individual fibers for a given subject. PMID:22567582

  19. Non-biofouling property of well-defined concentrated polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Chiaki; Qiu, Jun; Huang, Chih-Feng; Shimizu, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Junji; van den Bosch, Edith

    2015-03-01

    The non-biofouling properties of polymer brushes of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA), poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA), and poly(poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PPEGMA) were comprehensively studied by varying graft densities (i.e., semi-dilute and concentrated regimes) and the thicknesses at the dry state of 2 and 10 nm. Semi-dilute polymer brushes (SDPBs) were prepared by grafting-to method and concentrated polymer brushes (CPBs) were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The adsorptions of proteins with different sizes were investigated on the brushes by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) from a view point of size-exclusion effect specific to the CPBs. We confirmed that due to the size exclusion effect, the CPBs of all the three much suppressed proteins adsorption and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) adhesion compared with the corresponding SDPBs. In order to investigate what type of proteins adsorbed on the brushes to trigger cell adhesion, we identified adsorbed proteins from fetal bovine serum on the brushes using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Proteins were only detected on the SDPBs. Interestingly, the number and type of identified proteins were different on the SDPBs, indicating that chemical composition of the SDPBs affects protein adsorption, hence the cell adhesion. The adsorption mechanism on the SDPBs could be due to the combination of protein-polymer interaction and physical inclusion, whereas CPBs exhibit size exclusion effect combined with neutral hydrophilic nature of polymer, thereby, that provides excellent non-biofouling property.

  20. Fatigue life improvements of the AISI 304 stainless steel ground surfaces by wire brushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Fredj, Nabil; Ben Nasr, Mohamed; Ben Rhouma, Amir; Sidhom, Habib; Braham, Chedly

    2004-10-01

    The surface and subsurface integrity of metallic ground components is usually characterized by an induced tensile residual stress, which has a detrimental effect on the fatigue life of these components. In particular, it tends to accelerate the initiation and growth of the fatigue cracks. In this investigation, to deliberately generate compressive residual stresses into the ground surfaces of the AISI 304 stainless steel (SS), wire brushing was applied. It was found that under the experimental conditions selected in this investigation, while the surface roughness was slightly improved by the brushing process, the surface residual stress shifted from a tensile stress (σ‖=+450 MPa) to a compressive stress (σ‖=-435 MPa). On the other hand, the work-hardened deformation layer was almost two times deeper after wire brushing. Concerning the fatigue life, an improvement of 26% in terms of endurance limit at 2×106 cycles was realized. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations of the fatigue fracture location and size were carried out to explain the fatigue life improvement. It was found that the enhancement of the fatigue strength could be correlated with the distribution and location of the fatigue fracture nucleation sites. Concerning the ground surfaces, it was seen that the fatigue cracks initiated at the bottom of the grinding grooves and were particularly long (150-200 µm). However, the fatigue cracks at the brushed surfaces were shorter (20-40 µm) and appeared to initiate sideways to the plowed material caused by the wire brushing. The results of the wire-brushed surface characterization have shown that significant advantages can be realized regarding surface integrity by the application of this low-cost process compared to shot peening.

  1. Examining Scientific and Technical Writing Strategies in the 11th Century Chinese Science Book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yuejiao

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the influential Chinese science book "Brush Talks from Dream Brook," written by Shen Kuo in the 11th century. I suggest that "Brush Talks" reveals a tension between institutionalized science and science in the public, and a gap between the making of scientific knowledge and the communication of such…

  2. Coupling pH-responsive polymer brushes to electricity: switching thickness and creating waves of swelling or collapse.

    PubMed

    Dunderdale, Gary J; Fairclough, J Patrick A

    2013-03-19

    Electrolysis of water is proposed as a method to couple the pH-responsive behavior of polymer brushes to an electrical stimulus. It is shown that an electrode in close proximity to a pH-responsive polymer brush can change the local solution pH, inducing either swelling or collapse of the polymer brush. By alternating the bias of the voltage applied to the electrode, either acidic or alkaline conditions can be generated, and reproducible cycles of polymer brush swelling and collapse can be achieved. It was found that the length of time which the electrical stimulus is applied to the electrodes can be as short as 10 s and that, once "switched", polymer brushes remain in the switched state for many minutes after the electrical stimulus is turned off. In other experiments, two electrodes were positioned 10 cm apart with a pH-responsive brush in between. Under these conditions waves of either acidic or alkaline solution pH could be generated which caused a coincident wave of polymer brush swelling or collapse. These waves originate from one electrode and travel across the brush surface toward the opposite electrode with a velocity of ~40 μm s(-1).

  3. Air-brush multi-walled carbon nanotube capacitive sensor for dimethyl methylphosphonate detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Hongjun; Jiang, Yadong; Du, Xiaosong

    2012-10-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) films were prepared on interdigital electrodes by air-brush technique, and their sensing properties to dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) were studied. The MWNT films were observed by scanning electron microscope. The capacitive response to different concentrations of DMMP vapor was investigated at room temperature. The results showed that the capacitance and loss tangent of the air-brush MWNT sensor both decreased rapidly in varying concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 12 ppm. The sensitivity of capacitance was higher than that of the loss tangent at all the concentrations of DMMP vapors. The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and fast response for DMMP vapor detection.

  4. Size exclusion chromatography of quantum dots by utilizing nanoparticle repelling surface of concentrated polymer brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arita, Toshihiko; Yoshimura, Tomoka; Adschiri, Tadafumi

    2010-08-01

    We have found that the concentrated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brush showed the very good nanoparticles (NPs) repellency in its good solvent, e.g. tetrahydrofuran (THF). Whereas the oil- and hydro-phobic (fluorinated), hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces adsorbed a lot of NPs. The repellency of NPs did not depend on the surface nature of the NPs. Preparing absorption free columns for size exclusion chromatography (SEC) may enable us to separate quantum dots (QDs) and NPs according to their size. By installing the concentrated PMMA brush into silica monolith columns, we tried to achieve SEC of QDs and NPs. The concentrated PMMA brush immobilized silica monolith columns were prepared by surface initiated atom transfer polymerization of MMA. As a result, we have succeeded in separating QDs according to their size. This SEC system may be advantageous because it can be used in good solvents of the brush regardless of the stability of the surface modifier layer on the NPs.We have found that the concentrated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) brush showed the very good nanoparticles (NPs) repellency in its good solvent, e.g. tetrahydrofuran (THF). Whereas the oil- and hydro-phobic (fluorinated), hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces adsorbed a lot of NPs. The repellency of NPs did not depend on the surface nature of the NPs. Preparing absorption free columns for size exclusion chromatography (SEC) may enable us to separate quantum dots (QDs) and NPs according to their size. By installing the concentrated PMMA brush into silica monolith columns, we tried to achieve SEC of QDs and NPs. The concentrated PMMA brush immobilized silica monolith columns were prepared by surface initiated atom transfer polymerization of MMA. As a result, we have succeeded in separating QDs according to their size. This SEC system may be advantageous because it can be used in good solvents of the brush regardless of the stability of the surface modifier layer on the NPs. Electronic

  5. Mechanism of nanoparticle actuation by responsive polymer brushes: from reconfigurable composite surfaces to plasmonic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiter, Yuri; Minko, Iryna; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Tokarev, Ihor; Minko, Sergiy

    2011-12-01

    The mechanism of nanoparticle actuation by stimuli-responsive polymer brushes triggered by changes in the solution pH was discovered and investigated in detail in this study. The finding explains the high spectral sensitivity of the composite ultrathin film composed of a poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) brush that tunes the spacing between two kinds of nanoparticles--gold nanoislands immobilized on a transparent support and gold colloidal particles adsorbed on the brush. The optical response of the film relies on the phenomenon of localized surface plasmon resonances in the noble metal nanoparticles, giving rise to an extinction band in visible spectra, and a plasmon coupling between the particles and the islands that has a strong effect on the band position and intensity. Since the coupling is controlled by the interparticle spacing, the pH-triggered swelling-shrinking transition in the P2VP brush leads to pronounced changes in the transmission spectra of the hybrid film. It was not established in the previous publications how the actuation of gold nanoparticles within a 10-15 nm interparticle distance could result in the 50-60 nm shift in the absorbance maximum in contrast to the model experiments and theoretical estimations of several nanometer shifts. In this work, the extinction band was deconvoluted into four spectrally separated and overlapping contributions that were attributed to different modes of interactions between the particles and the islands. These modes came into existence due to variations in the thickness of the grafted polymeric layer on the profiled surface of the islands. In situ atomic force microscopy measurements allowed us to explore the behavior of the Au particles as the P2VP brush switched between the swollen and collapsed states. In particular, we identified an interesting, previously unanticipated regime when a particle position in a polymer brush was switched between two distinct states: the particle exposed to the surface of the

  6. Submicron Patterning of Polymer Brushes: An Unexpected Discovery from Inkjet Printing of Polyelectrolyte Macroinitiators.

    PubMed

    Parry, Adam V S; Straub, Alexander J; Villar-Alvarez, Eva M; Phuengphol, Takdanai; Nicoll, Jonathan E R; W K, Xavier Lim; Jordan, Lianne M; Moore, Katie L; Taboada, Pablo; Yeates, Stephen G; Edmondson, Steve

    2016-07-27

    Using an electrostatic-based super inkjet printer we report the high-resolution deposition of polyelectrolyte macroinitiators and subsequent polymer brush growth using SI-ARGET-ATRP. We go on to demonstrate for the first time a submicron patterning phenomenon through the addition of either a like charged polyelectrolyte homopolymer or through careful control of ionic strength. As a result patterning of polymer brushes down to ca. 300 nm is reported. We present a possible mechanistic model and consider how this may be applied to other polyelectrolyte-based systems as a general method for submicron patterning. PMID:27400396

  7. Real-time x-ray scattering study of the initial growth of organic crystals on polymer brushes

    SciTech Connect

    An, Sung Yup; Ahn, Kwangseok; Kim, Doris Yangsoo; Lee, Dong Ryeol; Lee, Hyun-Hwi; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2014-04-21

    We studied the early-stage growth structures of pentacene organic crystals grown on polymer brushes using real-time x-ray scattering techniques. In situ x-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy analyses revealed that at temperatures close to the glass transition temperature of polymer brush, the pentacene overlayer on a polymer brush film showed incomplete condensation and 3D island structures from the first monolayer. A growth model based on these observations was used to quantitatively analyze the real-time anti-Bragg x-ray scattering intensities measured during pentacene growth to obtain the time-dependent layer coverage of the individual pentacene monolayers. The extracted total coverage confirmed significant desorption and incomplete condensation in the pentacene films deposited on the polymer brushes. These effects are ascribed to the change in the surface viscoelasticity of the polymer brushes around the glass transition temperature.

  8. Fabrication of protein-resistant blend based on PVDF-HFP and amphiphilic brush copolymer made from PMMA and PEGMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwangbo, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Yu-Jeong; Cho, Kuk Young

    2012-12-01

    Polymeric blends provide a facile route to obtaining materials with various synergistic properties arising from the individual components. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP), a hydrophobic polymer, is finding new applications in polymer electrolytes, membranes, and heat-resistant structural materials owing to its high thermal stability, mechanical strength, and weatherability. In this report, blends of PVDF-HFP and polymer brush were prepared with enhanced water uptake and protein resistance, which are important requirements for membranes used in food and biological applications. Polymer brush is composed of poly(methyl methacrylate) main chains, which are miscible with PVDF-HFP, and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brush chains. Incorporation of PEG chains through the polymer brush structure not only enhanced water uptake and protein adsorption resistance but also produced a well-distributed morphology of the blending components through the matrix as evidenced by observation of the morphology after selective extraction of polymer brush from the matrix.

  9. Multiarm molecular brushes: effect of the number of arms on the molecular weight polydispersity and surface ordering.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Jamie R; Shirvanyants, David; Sheiko, Sergei S; Ivanov, Dimitri A; Qin, Shuhui; Börner, Hans; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2004-07-01

    Individual molecules of multiarm starlike molecular brushes were visualized by atomic force microscopy. In the studied series of brushes, the number of arms varied from one for a linear chain to four, while the length of the side chains was kept approximately constant. Molecular visualization provided a unique opportunity for independent size characterization of the brush arms separately from that of the entire molecule. In agreement with the Schulz-Flory theory for chain coupling, the polydispersity of the total length was significantly lower than that of the arm length. The variation in polydispersity had an effect on molecular ordering. Lateral compression of the starlike brushes caused a transition from an extended dendritic-like conformation to a compact disklike conformation. In contrast to one-, two-, and three-arm brushes, the four-arm molecules with a lower polydispersity index of 1.04 demonstrated local hexagonal order.

  10. Cationic polymer brush-modified cellulose nanocrystals for high-affinity virus binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosilo, Henna; McKee, Jason R.; Kontturi, Eero; Koho, Tiia; Hytönen, Vesa P.; Ikkala, Olli; Kostiainen, Mauri A.

    2014-09-01

    -initiated atom-transfer radical polymerization of poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and subsequent quaternization of the polymer pendant amino groups. The cationic polymer brush-modified CNCs maintained excellent dispersibility and colloidal stability in water and showed a ζ-potential of +38 mV. Dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy showed that the modified CNCs electrostatically bind cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and norovirus-like particles with high affinity. Addition of only a few weight percent of the modified CNCs in water dispersions sufficed to fully bind the virus capsids to form micrometer-sized assemblies. This enabled the concentration and extraction of the virus particles from solution by low-speed centrifugation. These results show the feasibility of the modified CNCs in virus binding and concentrating, and pave the way for their use as transduction enhancers for viral delivery applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: CNC surface chain fraction and degree of substitution after BriBBr modification, NMR spectra of the SI-ATRP reaction mixture at 0 and 120 min, conversion of the DMAEMA monomer during SI-ATRP, DLS size distribution profiles of CNCs and CNC-g-P(QDMAEMA), TEM images of NoV-VLPs and their complexes with CNC-g-P(QDMAEMA) at 0 mM NaCl. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03584d

  11. Daily reduction of oral malodor with the use of a sonic tongue brush combined with an antibacterial tongue spray in a randomized cross-over clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Saad, S; Gomez-Pereira, P; Hewett, K; Horstman, P; Patel, J; Greenman, J

    2016-02-12

    The objective of this clinical investigation was to test the effectiveness on breath odor of a newly designed sonic tongue brush (TongueCare+, TC). It consists of a soft silicone brush optimally designed based on the tongue's anatomy to remove bacterial biofilm from the tongue's complex surface, and it is coupled with a sonic power toothbrush handle. TC was used in combination with an antibacterial tongue spray (BreathRx, BRx) containing 0.09% cetylpyridinium chloride and 0.7% zinc gluconate. A total of 21 participants with oral malodor exceeding the threshold for recognition took part in this cross-over clinical investigation, which consisted of a single use of four treatment arms with one week washout period in between. The treatments consisted of: (1) TC  +  BRx, (2) TC  +  water, (3) BRx and (4) water. Malodor levels and bacterial density were monitored up to 6 h by organoleptic scoring and selective plating, respectively. The organoleptic score and bacterial density were significantly lower after using TC  +  BRx compared to all alternative treatments at all time points. A significant decrease in both parameters was detected after a single use of TC  +  BRx, from levels characteristic of high oral malodor, to barely noticeable levels after treatment and this was maintained up to 6 h. Moreover, we identified a significant positive correlation between bacterial density and organoleptic score, confirming that bacterial tongue biofilm is the root cause of oral malodor in these subjects. The results of this clinical investigation demonstrated that the combined treatment of a sonic tongue brush with the antibacterial tongue spray is able to deliver more than 6 h of fresh breath following a single use. The clinical investigation was registered at the ISRCTN registry under study identification number ISRCTN38199132.

  12. Surface modification and characterization of carbon spheres by grafting polyelectrolyte brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Houbin; Zhang, Pan; Liu, Liangliang; He, Yuhang; Wang, Yali

    2014-06-01

    Modified carbon spheres (CSPBs) were obtained by grafting poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (p-DMDAAC) on the surface of carbon spheres (CSs). It can be viewed as a kind of cation spherical polyelectrolyte brushes (CSPBs), which consist of carbon spheres as core and polyelectrolytes as shell. The method of synthesizing carbon spheres was hydrothermal reaction. Before the polyelectrolyte brushes were grafted, azo initiator [4,4'-Azobis(4-cyanovaleric acyl chloride)] was attached to the carbon spheres' surface through hydroxyl groups. CSPBs were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), conductivity meter, and system zeta potential. The results showed that compared with carbon spheres, the conductivity and zeta potential on CSPBs increased from 9.98 to 49.24 μS/cm and 11.6 to 42.5 mV, respectively, after the polyelectrolyte brushes were grafted. The colloidal stability in water was enhanced, and at the same time, the average diameter of the CSPBs was found to be 173 nm, and the average molecular weight and grafted density of the grafted polyelectrolyte brushes were 780,138 g/mol and 4.026 × 109/nm2, respectively.

  13. Brush Talk at the Conversation Table: Interaction between L1 and L2 Speakers of Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Menq-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Chinese characters are used in both Chinese and Japanese writing systems. When literate speakers of either language experience problems in finding or understanding words, they often resort to using Chinese characters or "kanji" (i.e., Chinese characters used in Japanese writing) in their talk, a practice known as "brush talk" ("bitan" in Chinese,…

  14. Binary Mixed Homopolymer Brushes Tethered to Cellulose Nanocrystals: A Step Towards Compatibilized Polyester Blends.

    PubMed

    Mincheva, Rosica; Jasmani, Latifah; Josse, Thomas; Paint, Yoann; Raquez, Jena-Marie; Gerbaux, Pascal; Eyley, Samuel; Thielemans, Wim; Dubois, Philippe

    2016-09-12

    This article reports on the successful preparation and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) surface-modified with polylactide (PLA) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) binary mixed homopolymer brushes. Their synthesis was designed as a three-step procedure combining polyester synthesis and surface-modification of CNCs with simultaneous polyester grafting via a heterogeneous copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. For comparison, single homopolymer brushes tethered to CNCs (PLLA-g-CNC and PBSBDEMPAM-g-CNC) were obtained applying the same procedure. The hairy nanoparticles were characterized in terms of chemical composition and thermal properties. Spectroscopic analyses suggested "rippled" microphase separation of both immiscible homopolyesters in the mixed brushes, while others showed impeded homopolyester crystallization after surface-grafting. A synergistic relationship between the polyesters and CNCs was also suggested, i.e., the polyester grafting increases the CNC thermal resistance, while CNC presence imparts char formation. The as-obtained binary homopolymer brushes tethered to nanoparticles makes these surface-modified cellulosic nanomaterials attractive as compatibilization/reinforcement agents for PLA/PBS blends.

  15. Theory of Brushes Formed by Ψ-Shaped Macromolecules at Solid-Liquid Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhulina, Ekaterina B; Leermakers, Frans A M; Borisov, Oleg V

    2015-06-16

    We present a theoretical analysis targeted to describe the structural properties of brushes formed by Ψ-shaped macromolecules tethered by terminal segment of stem to planar surface while exposing multiple free branches to the surrounding solution. We use an analytical self-consistent field approach based on the strong stretching approximation, and the assumption of Gaussian elasticity for linear chain fragments of the tethered macromolecules. The effect of weak and strong polydispersity of branches is analyzed. In the case of weakly polydisperse macromolecules, variations in length of branches lead to a more uniform polymer density distribution with slight increase in the brush thickness compared to the case of monodisperse chains with the same degree of polymerization. We demonstrate that in contrast to linear chains, strong polydispersity of Ψ-shaped macromolecules does not necessarily lead to strong perturbations in polymer density distribution. In particular, mixed brushes of the so-called "mirror" dendrons (in which number of stem monomers in one component coincides with number of monomers in a branch of the other component, and vice versa) give rise to a unified polymer density distribution with shape independent of the brush composition. The predictions of analytical theory are systematically compared to the results of numerical self-consistent field modeling based on the Scheutjens-Fleer approach.

  16. Thermoresponsive anionic copolymer brushes containing strong acid moieties for effective separation of basic biomolecules and proteins.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Jun; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Akiyama, Yoshikatsu; Kanazawa, Hideko; Okano, Teruo

    2014-10-13

    A thermoresponsive copolymer brush possessing the sulfonic acid group, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (IPAAm)-co-2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS)-co-tert-butylacrylamide (tBAAm)), was grafted onto the surface of silica beads through surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization. Prepared copolymer and copolymer brushes on silica beads were characterized by observing the phase transition profile, CHNS elemental analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography. The phase transition profile indicated that an appropriate AMPS composition for enabling thermally modulated property changes is 5 mol %, while excessive amounts of sulfonic acid groups prevented copolymer phase transition. Chromatographic elutions of catecholamine derivatives and basic proteins were observed, using the prepared copolymer brush-modified beads as chromatographic matrices, and the results suggest that the beads interact with these analytes through relatively strong electrostatic interactions. Thus, poly(IPAAm-co-AMPS-co-tBAAm) brush-modified beads will be useful for effective thermoresponsive chromatography matrices that separate basic biomolecules through strong electrostatic interactions. PMID:25220634

  17. Electrochemical deposition and surface-initiated RAFT polymerization: protein and cell-resistant PPEGMEMA polymer brushes.

    PubMed

    Tria, Maria Celeste R; Grande, Carlos David T; Ponnapati, Ramakrishna R; Advincula, Rigoberto C

    2010-12-13

    This paper introduces a novel and versatile method of grafting protein and cell-resistant poly(poly ethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (PPEGMEMA) brushes on conducting Au surface. The process started with the electrochemical deposition and full characterization of an electro-active chain transfer agent (CTA) on the Au surface. The electrochemical behavior of the CTA was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) while the deposition and stability of the CTA on the surface were confirmed by ellipsometry, contact angle, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The capability of the electrodeposited CTA to mediate surface-initiated reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (SI-RAFT) polymerization on both the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA; model polymer) and PPEGMEMA brushes was demonstrated by the increase in thicknesses of the films after polymerization. Contact angles also decreased with the incorporation of the more hydrophilic brushes. Significant changes in the morphologies of the films before and after polymerization were also observed with atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. Furthermore, XPS results showed an increase in the O 1s peak intensity relative to C 1s after polymerizations, which confirmed the grafting of polyethyleneglycol (PEG) bearing brushes. The ability of the PPEGMEMA-modified Au surface to resist nonspecific adhesion of proteins and cells was monitored and confirmed by XPS, ellipsometry, contact angle, AFM, and fluorescence imaging. The new method presented has potential application as robust protein and cell-resistant coatings for electrically conducting electrodes and biomedical devices.

  18. Glycopolymer brushes for specific lectin binding by controlled multivalent presentation of N-acetyllactosamine glycan oligomers.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunji; Rosencrantz, Ruben R; Elling, Lothar; Böker, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    A new multivalent glycopolymer platform for lectin recognition is introduced in this work by combining the controlled growth of glycopolymer brushes with highly specific glycosylation reactions. Glycopolymer brushes, synthetic polymers with pendant saccharides, are prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of 2-O-(N-acetyl-β-d-glucosamine)ethyl methacrylate (GlcNAcEMA). Here, the fabrication of multivalent glycopolymers consisting of poly(GlcNAcEMA) is reported with additional biocatalytic elongation of the glycans directly on the silicon substrate by specific glycosylation using recombinant glycosyltransferases. The bioactivity of the surface-grafted glycans is investigated by fluorescence-linked lectin assay. Due to the multivalency of glycan ligands, the glycopolymer brushes show very selective, specific, and strong interactions with lectins. The multiarrays of the glycopolymer brushes have a large potential as a screening device to define optimal-binding environments of specific lectins or as new simplified diagnostic tools for the detection of cancer-related lectins in blood serum. PMID:25354386

  19. Brush seal leakage performance with gaseous working fluids at static and low rotor speed conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlile, Julie A.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Yoder, Dennis A.

    1992-01-01

    The leakage performance of a brush seal with gaseous working fluids at static and low rotor speed conditions was studied. The leakage results included for air, helium, and carbon dioxide at several bristle/rotor interferences. Also, the effects of packing a lubricant into the bristles and also of reversing the pressure drop across the seal were studied. Results were compared to that of an annular seal at similar operating conditions. In order to generalize the results, they were correlated using corresponding state theory. The brush seal tested had a bore diameter of 3.792 cm (1.4930 in.), a fence height of 0.0635 cm (0.025 in.), and 1800 bristles/cm circumference (4500 bristles/in. circumference). Various bristle/rotor radial interferences were achieved by using a tapered rotor. The brush seal reduced the leakage in comparison to the annular seal, up to 9.5 times. Reversing the pressure drop across the brush seal produced leakage rates approximately the same as that of the annular seal. Addition of a lubricant reduced the leakage by 2.5 times. The air and carbon dioxide data were successfully correlated using corresponding state theory. However, the helium data followed a different curve than the air and carbon dioxide data.

  20. Brush seal leakage performance with gaseous working fluids at static and low rotor speed conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlile, Julie A.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Yoder, Dennis A.

    1992-01-01

    The leakage performance of a brush seal with gaseous working fluids at static and low rotor speed conditions was studied. The leakage results are included for air, helium, and carbon dioxide at several bristle/rotor interferences. Also, the effects of packing a lubricant into the bristles and also of reversing the pressure drop across the seal were studied. Results were compared to that of an annular seal at similar operating conditions. In order to generalize the results, they were correlated using corresponding state theory. The brush seal tested had a bore diameter of 3.792 cm (1.4930 in), a fence height of 0.0635 cm (0.025 in), and 1800 bristles/cm circumference (4500 bristles/in circumference). Various bristle/rotor radial interferences were achieved by using a tapered rotor. The brush seal reduced the leakage in comparison to the annular seal, up to 9.5 times. Reversing the pressure drop across the brush seal produced leakage rates approx. the same as that of the annular seal. Addition of a lubricant reduced the leakage by 2.5 times. The air and carbon dioxide data were successfully correlated using corresponding state theory. However, the helium data followed a different curve than the air and carbon dioxide data.

  1. Binary Mixed Homopolymer Brushes Tethered to Cellulose Nanocrystals: A Step Towards Compatibilized Polyester Blends.

    PubMed

    Mincheva, Rosica; Jasmani, Latifah; Josse, Thomas; Paint, Yoann; Raquez, Jena-Marie; Gerbaux, Pascal; Eyley, Samuel; Thielemans, Wim; Dubois, Philippe

    2016-09-12

    This article reports on the successful preparation and characterization of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) surface-modified with polylactide (PLA) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) binary mixed homopolymer brushes. Their synthesis was designed as a three-step procedure combining polyester synthesis and surface-modification of CNCs with simultaneous polyester grafting via a heterogeneous copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. For comparison, single homopolymer brushes tethered to CNCs (PLLA-g-CNC and PBSBDEMPAM-g-CNC) were obtained applying the same procedure. The hairy nanoparticles were characterized in terms of chemical composition and thermal properties. Spectroscopic analyses suggested "rippled" microphase separation of both immiscible homopolyesters in the mixed brushes, while others showed impeded homopolyester crystallization after surface-grafting. A synergistic relationship between the polyesters and CNCs was also suggested, i.e., the polyester grafting increases the CNC thermal resistance, while CNC presence imparts char formation. The as-obtained binary homopolymer brushes tethered to nanoparticles makes these surface-modified cellulosic nanomaterials attractive as compatibilization/reinforcement agents for PLA/PBS blends. PMID:27434410

  2. Brain abscess after transnasal intracranial penetration of a paint-brush.

    PubMed

    de Tribolet, W; Guignard, G; Zander, E

    1979-03-01

    The case of a brain abscess caused by intracranial, transnasal penetration of a paint-brush is presented. The danger that such foreign bodies may remain unnoticed, especially in children, is stressed. Cure was achieved by total resection of the abscess capsule. PMID:473011

  3. pH-Sensitive brush polymer-drug conjugates by ring-opening metathesis copolymerization.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jiong; Jafr, Goran; Themistou, Efrosyni; Yap, Yoonsing; Wintrob, Zachary A P; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Ceacareanu, Alice C; Cheng, Chong

    2011-04-21

    Representing a new category of polymer-drug conjugates, brush polymer-drug conjugates were prepared by ring-opening metathesis copolymerization. Following judicious structural design, these conjugates exhibited well-shielded drug moieties, significant water solubility, well-defined nanostructures, and acid-triggered drug release.

  4. Four DNA methylation biomarkers in biliary brush samples accurately identify the presence of cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Kim; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Vedeld, Hege Marie; Honne, Hilde; Jebsen, Peter; Hektoen, Merete; Wadsworth, Christopher A.; Clausen, Ole Petter; Lundin, Knut E.A.; Paulsen, Vemund; Foss, Aksel; Mathisen, Øystein; Aabakken, Lars; Schrumpf, Erik; Lothe, Ragnhild A.

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of the highly aggressive malignancy cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) remains a challenge but has the potential to render the tumor curable by surgical removal. This study evaluates a biomarker panel for the diagnosis of CCA by DNA methylation analyses of biliary brush samples. The methylation status of 13 candidate genes (CDO1, CNRIP1, DCLK1, FBN1, INA, MAL, SEPT9, SFRP1, SNCA, SPG20, TMEFF2, VIM, and ZSCAN18) was investigated in 93 tissue samples (39 CCAs and 54 nonmalignant controls) using quantitative methylation‐specific polymerase chain reaction. The 13 genes were further analyzed in a test series of biliary brush samples (15 CCAs and 20 nonmalignant primary sclerosing cholangitis controls), and the methylation status of the four best performing markers was validated (34 CCAs and 34 primary sclerosing cholangitis controls). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to evaluate the performance of individual biomarkers and the combination of biomarkers. The 13 candidate genes displayed a methylation frequency of 26%‐82% in tissue samples. The four best‐performing genes (CDO1, CNRIP1, SEPT9, and VIM) displayed individual methylation frequencies of 45%‐77% in biliary brushes from CCA patients. Across the test and validation biliary brush series, this four‐gene biomarker panel achieved a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 98%, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.944. Conclusion: We report a straightforward biomarker assay with high sensitivity and specificity for CCA, outperforming standard brush cytology, and suggest that the biomarker panel, potentially in combination with cytological evaluation, may improve CCA detection, particularly among primary sclerosing cholangitis patients. (Hepatology 2015;61:1651–1659) PMID:25644509

  5. Graphite fiber brush anodes for increased power production in air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Logan, Bruce; Cheng, Shaoan; Watson, Valerie; Estadt, Garett

    2007-05-01

    To efficiently generate electricity using bacteria in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), highly conductive noncorrosive materials are needed that have a high specific surface area (surface area per volume) and an open structure to avoid biofouling. Graphite brush anodes, consisting of graphite fibers wound around a conductive, but noncorrosive metal core, were examined for power production in cube (C-MFC) and bottle (B-MFC) air-cathode MFCs. Power production in C-MFCs containing brush electrodes at 9600 m2/m3 reactor volume reached a maximum power density of 2400 mW/m2 (normalized to the cathode projected surface area), or 73 W/m3 based on liquid volume, with a maximum Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 60%. This power density, normalized by cathode projected area, is the highest value yet achieved by an air-cathode system. The increased power resulted from a reduction in internal resistance from 31 to 8 Q. Brush electrodes (4200 m2/m3) were also tested in B-MFCs, consisting of a laboratory media bottle modified to have a single side arm with a cathode clamped to its end. B-MFCs inoculated with wastewater produced up to 1430 mW/m2 (2.3 W/m3, CE = 23%) with brush electrodes, versus 600 mW/m2 with a plain carbon paper electrode. These findings show that brush anodes that have high surface areas and a porous structure can produce high power densities, and therefore have qualities that make them ideal for scaling up MFC systems.

  6. Evaluation of a brushing machine for estimating density of spider mites on grape leaves.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Craig D; Costello, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Direct visual inspection and enumeration for estimating field population density of economically important arthropods, such as spider mites, provide more information than alternative methods, such as binomial sampling, but is laborious and time consuming. A brushing machine can reduce sampling time and perhaps improve accuracy. Although brushing technology has been investigated and recommended as a useful tool for researchers and integrated pest management practitioners, little work to demonstrate the validity of this technique has been performed since the 1950's. We investigated the brushing machine manufactured by Leedom Enterprises (Mi-Wuk Village, CA, USA) for studies on spider mites. We evaluated (1) the mite recovery efficiency relative to the number of passes of a leaf through the brushes, (2) mite counts as generated by the machine compared to visual counts under a microscope, (3) the lateral distribution of mites on the collection plate and (4) the accuracy and precision of a 10% sub-sample using a double-transect counting grid. We found that about 95% of mites on a leaf were recovered after five passes, and 99% after nine passes, and mite counts from brushing were consistently higher than those from visual inspection. Lateral distribution of mites was not uniform, being highest in concentration at the center and lowest at the periphery. The 10% double-transect pattern did not result in a significant correlation with the total plate count at low mite density, but accuracy and precision improved at medium and high density. We suggest that a more accurate and precise sample may be achieved using a modified pattern which concentrates on the center plus some of the adjacent area. PMID:26459377

  7. Liquid crystalline polymers in good nematic solvents: Free chains, mushrooms, and brushes

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.R.M. . Lab. de Physique de la Matiere Condensee); Halperin, A. . Dept. of Materials)

    1993-08-02

    The swelling of main chain liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) in good nematic solvents is theoretically studied, focusing on brushes of terminally anchored, grafted LCPs. The analysis is concerned with long LCPs, of length L, with n[sub 0] >> 1 hairpin defects. The extension behavior of the major axis, R[parallel], of these ellipsoidal objects gives rise to an Ising elasticity with a free energy penalty of F[sub el](R[parallel])/kT [approx] n[sub 0] [minus] n[sub 0](1 [minus] R[parallel][sup 2]/L[sup 2])[sup 1/2]. The theory of the extension behavior enables the formulation of a Flory type theory of swelling of isolated LCPs yielding R[parallel] [approx] exp(2U[sub h]/5kT)N[sup 3/5] and R [perpendicular] [approx] exp([minus]U[sub h]/10kT)N[sup 3/5], with N the degree of polymerization and U[sub h] the hairpin energy. It also allows the generalization of the Alexander model for polymer brushes to the case of grafted LCPs. The behavior of LCP brushes depends on the alignment imposed by the grafting surface and the liquid crystalline solvent. A tilting phase transition is predicted as the grafting density is increased for a surface imposing homogeneous, parallel anchoring. A related transition is expected upon compression of a brush subject to homeotropic, perpendicular alignment. The effect of magnetic or electric fields on these phase transitions is also studied. The critical magnetic/electric field for the Frederiks transition can be lowered to arbitrarily small values by using surfaces coated by brushes of appropriate density.

  8. Electric double layer electrostatics of pH-responsive spherical polyelectrolyte brushes in the decoupled regime.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Chen, Guang; Das, Siddhartha

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the behavior and properties of spherical polyelectrolyte brushes (SPEBs), which are polyelectrolyte brushes grafted to a spherical core, is fundamental to many applications in biomedical, chemical and petroleum engineering as well as in pharmaceutics. In this paper, we study the pH-responsive electrostatics of such SPEBs in the decoupled regime. In the first part of the paper, we derive the scaling conditions in terms of the grafting density of the PEs on the spherical core that ensure that the analysis can be performed in the decoupled regime. In such a regime the elastic and the excluded volume effects of polyelectrolyte brushes (PEBs) can be decoupled from the electrostatic effects associated with the PE charge and the induced EDL. As a consequence the PE brush height, assumed to be dictated by the balance of the elastic and excluded volume effects, can be independent of the electrostatic effects. In the second part, we quantify the pH-responsive electrostatics of the SPEBs - we pinpoint that the radial monomer distribution for a given brush molecule exhibit a non-unique cubic distribution that decays away from the spherical core. Such a monomer distribution ensures that the hydrogen ion concentration is appropriately accounted for in the description of the SPEB thermodynamics. We anticipate that the present analysis, which provides possibly one of the first models for probing the electrostatics of pH-responsive SPEBs in a thermodynamically-consistent framework, will be vital for understanding the behavior of a large number of entities ranging from PE-coated NPs and stealth liposomes to biomolecules like bacteria and viruses.

  9. Protein patterning by UV-induced photodegradation of poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) brushes.

    PubMed

    Alang Ahmad, Shahrul; Hucknall, Angus; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Leggett, Graham J

    2010-06-15

    The UV photodegradation of protein-resistant poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate) (POEGMA) bottle-brush films, grown on silicon oxide by surface-initiated atom radical transfer polymerization, was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Exposure to light with a wavelength of 244 nm caused a loss of polyether units from the brush structure and the creation of aldehyde groups that could be derivatized with amines. An increase was measured in the coefficient of friction of the photodegraded polymer brush compared to the native brush, attributed to the creation of a heterogeneous surface film, leading to increased energy dissipation through film deformation and the creation of new polar functional groups at the surface. Exposure of the films through a photomask yielded sharp, well-defined patterns. Analysis of topographical images showed that physical removal of material occurred during exposure, at a rate of 1.35 nm J(-1) cm(2). Using fluorescence microscopy, the adsorption of labeled proteins onto the exposed surfaces was studied. It was found that protein strongly adsorbed to exposed areas, while the masked regions retained their protein resistance. Exposure of the film to UV light from a scanning near-field optical microscope yielded submicrometer-scale patterns. These data indicate that a simple, rapid, one-step photoconversion of the poly(OEGMA) brush occurs that transforms it from a highly protein-resistant material to one that adsorbs protein and can covalently bind amine-containing molecules and that this photoconversion can be spatially addressed with high spatial resolution.

  10. Evaluation of a brushing machine for estimating density of spider mites on grape leaves.

    PubMed

    Macmillan, Craig D; Costello, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Direct visual inspection and enumeration for estimating field population density of economically important arthropods, such as spider mites, provide more information than alternative methods, such as binomial sampling, but is laborious and time consuming. A brushing machine can reduce sampling time and perhaps improve accuracy. Although brushing technology has been investigated and recommended as a useful tool for researchers and integrated pest management practitioners, little work to demonstrate the validity of this technique has been performed since the 1950's. We investigated the brushing machine manufactured by Leedom Enterprises (Mi-Wuk Village, CA, USA) for studies on spider mites. We evaluated (1) the mite recovery efficiency relative to the number of passes of a leaf through the brushes, (2) mite counts as generated by the machine compared to visual counts under a microscope, (3) the lateral distribution of mites on the collection plate and (4) the accuracy and precision of a 10% sub-sample using a double-transect counting grid. We found that about 95% of mites on a leaf were recovered after five passes, and 99% after nine passes, and mite counts from brushing were consistently higher than those from visual inspection. Lateral distribution of mites was not uniform, being highest in concentration at the center and lowest at the periphery. The 10% double-transect pattern did not result in a significant correlation with the total plate count at low mite density, but accuracy and precision improved at medium and high density. We suggest that a more accurate and precise sample may be achieved using a modified pattern which concentrates on the center plus some of the adjacent area.

  11. Liquid crystal-based glucose biosensor functionalized with mixed PAA and QP4VP brushes.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mashooq; Park, Soo-Young

    2015-06-15

    4-Cyano-4'-pentylbiphenyl (5CB) in a transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grid was developed for glucose detection by coating with a monolayer of mixed polymer brushes using poly(acrylicacid-b-4-cynobiphenyl-4'-oxyundecylacrylate) (PAA-b-LCP) and quaternized poly(4-vinylpyridine-b-4-cynobiphenyl-4'-oxyundecylacrylate) (QP4VP-b-LCP) (LCP stands for liquid crystal polymer) at the 5CB/aqueous interface. The resultant 5CB in TEM grid was functionalized with the PAA and QP4VP brushes, which were strongly anchored by the LCP block. The PAA brush rendered the 5CB/aqueous interface pH-responsive and the QP4VP brush immobilized glucose oxidase (GOx) through electrostatic interactions without the aid of coupling agents. The glucose was detected through a homeotropic-to-planar orientational transition of the 5CB observed through a polarized optical microscope (POM) under crossed polarizers. The optimum immobilization with a 0.78 µM GOx solution on the dual-brush-coated TEM grid enabled glucose detection at concentrations higher than 0.5 mM with response times shorter than 180 s. This TEM grid glucose sensor provided a linear response of birefringence of the 5CB to glucose concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 11 mM with a Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 1.67 mM. This new and sensitive glucose biosensor has the advantages of low production cost, simple enzyme immobilization, high enzyme sensitivity and stability, and easy detection with POM, and may be useful for prescreening the glucose level in the human body. PMID:25617751

  12. Role of Brushing and Occlusal Forces in Non-Carious Cervical Lesions (NCCL)

    PubMed Central

    Sadaf, Durre; Ahmad, Zubair

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the association of occlusal forces and brushing with non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). Methodology: It was a Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in Dental clinics, Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi. The study duration was from 1st January 2009 to 28th Feb 2009. Ninety patients visiting dental clinic were examined clinically. Presence of Non- carious cervical lesions, broken restorations, fractured cusps, presence of occlusal facets, brushing habits, Para functional habits were assessed. All the relevant information and clinical examination were collected on a structured Performa and was analyzed using SPSS version 14.0. . Chi square χ2 test was applied to assess association among different categorical variables. Result: Twenty three (26%) females and 67 (74%) males were included in the study. Thirty five of them (38.9%) were found to have Non-carious cervical lesions. Presence of NCCL has no association with gender (P value 0.458). A significant association was found between NCCL and teeth sensitivity (P value 0.002).The association between use of hard tooth brush and Non-carious cervical lesions was found significant (P value <0.001). However the association among Non-carious cervical lesions and fractured cups, broken restoration, teeth grinding, jaw clenching, pan chalia chewing and frequency of teeth brushing were insignificant. Conclusion: Hard tooth brushing and teeth sensitivity have significant association with Non-carious cervical lesions. The role of occlusal wear in the formation of NCCL is not significant. PMID:25598758

  13. Brushes of semiflexible polymers in equilibrium and under flow in a super-hydrophobic regime.

    PubMed

    Speyer, K; Pastorino, C

    2015-07-21

    We performed molecular dynamics simulations to study the equilibrium and flow properties of a liquid in a nano-channel with confining surfaces coated with a layer of grafted semiflexible polymers. The coverage spans a wide range of grafting densities from essentially isolated chains to dense brushes. The end-grafted polymers were described by a bead spring model with a harmonic potential to include the bond stiffness of the chains. We varied the rigidity of the chains, from fully flexible polymers to rigid rods, in which the configurational entropy of the chains is negligible. The brush-liquid interaction was tuned to obtain a super-hydrophobic channel, in which the liquid did not penetrate the polymer brush, giving rise to a Cassie-Baxter state. Equilibrium properties such as brush height and bending energy were measured, varying the grafting density and the stiffness of the polymers. We also studied the characteristics of the brush-liquid interface and the morphology of the polymer chains supporting the liquid for different bending rigidities. Non-equilibrium simulations were performed, moving the walls of the channel in opposite directions at constant speed, obtaining a Couette velocity profile in the bulk liquid. The molecular degrees of freedom of the polymers were studied as a function of the Weissenberg number. Also, the violation of the no-slip boundary condition and the slip properties were analyzed as a function of the shear rate, grafting density and bending stiffness. At high grafting densities, a finite slip length independent of the shear rate or bending constant was found, while at low grafting densities a very interesting non-monotonic dependence on the bending constant is observed.

  14. Photo-induced in situ crosslinking of polymer brushes with dimethyl maleimide moieties for dynamically stimulating stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Arisaka, Yoshinori; Nishijima, Yuka; Yusa, Shin-Ichi; Takeda, Naoya

    2016-09-01

    We designed photo-crosslinkable polymer brushes with dimethylmaleimide moieties, in order to demonstrate dynamic stimulation of cell differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The polymer brushes were synthesized by surface-initiated reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization using dimethylmaleimide ethyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate on a chain transfer agent-immobilized glass surface. The polymer brushes were crosslinked by photodimerization of the dimethylmaleimide moieties within polymer chains with stem cells present on the surface. In order to evaluate the effects of in situ photo-induced crosslinking of the polymer brushes on gene expression of stem cells, human bone marrow MSCs were cultured under static and dynamic culture conditions for 7 days. Expression of the osteocalcin (Ocn) gene in MSCs was used as an indicator of osteoblast differentiation under dynamic culture conditions. Structural conversion from non-crosslinked polymer brushes to crosslinked polymer brushes increased the expression of Ocn by 1.4-fold in the presence of adhered cells, compared with non-crosslinked polymer brushes under static culture conditions. These results suggest that MSCs recognized surface conversion from non-crosslinked to crosslinked structures, which resulted in altered differentiation lineages. Therefore, photo-crosslinkable surfaces with dimethyl maleimide moieties are potential novel materials for dynamically stimulating MSC differentiation.

  15. Sulfobetaine-based polymer brushes in marine environment: is there an effect of the polymerizable group on the antifouling performance?

    PubMed

    Quintana, Robert; Jańczewski, Dominik; Vasantha, Vivek Arjunan; Jana, Satyasankar; Lee, Serina Siew Chen; Parra-Velandia, Fernando Jose; Guo, Shifeng; Parthiban, Anbanandam; Teo, Serena Lay-Ming; Vancso, G Julius

    2014-08-01

    Three different zwitterionic polymer brush coatings for marine biofouling control were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of sulfobetaine-based monomers including methacrylamide (SBMAm), vinylbenzene (SBVB) and vinylimidazolium (SBVI). None of these brush systems have been assessed regarding marine antifouling performance. Antifouling tests performed indicate that surfaces featuring these three brush systems substantially reduce the adhesion of the marine microalgae, Amphora coffeaeformis, and the settlement of cyprid larvae of the barnacle, Amphibalanus amphitrite, in a similar way, displaying comparable performance. Thus, it appears that the chemical structure of the polymerizable group has no substantial influence on marine antifouling performance. PMID:24907581

  16. Fatal gunshot injury caused by an unusual projectile--a barrel-cleaning brush as a tandem bullet.

    PubMed

    Ellis, P S

    1997-06-01

    The case of a man who committed suicide by shooting himself in the head is reported. The rifle used by the decedent had been cleaned with the use of a barrel-cleaning brush, which had become detached and had been retained in the barrel. The brush together with the usual projectile were propelled into the head. A highly unusual radiograph was obtained. The implantation of a barrel-cleaning brush in the skull has not been reported in the English literature. This case is reported because of its unique nature and because of possible misinterpretation of an unusual radiological appearance. The potential dangers of inadequate care during weapon cleaning are also discussed.

  17. Decreasing expulsions by a child with a feeding disorder: using a brush to present and re-present food.

    PubMed

    Girolami, Peter A; Boscoe, James H; Roscoe, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that extinction in the form of re-presentation of expelled bites is an effective intervention for treating food expulsion. The current study compared the effectiveness of re-presenting expulsions with a spoon to re-presenting with a Nuk brush for a 4-year-old boy with a feeding disorder. Fewer expulsions were observed when using the brush for re-presentation, and further reductions were observed when the brush was also used for initial presentations. PMID:18189111

  18. Simulations of the ASCOT Brush Creek data by a nested-grid, second-moment turbulence-closure model and a kernel concentration estimator

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Tetsuji; Bunker, S.; Niccum, E.

    1987-01-01

    Yamade and Bunker (1986) demonstrated that a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, HOTMAC (Higher Order Turbulence Model for Atmospheric Circulations) reproduced nocturnal drainage flows, morning transition and convective upvalley and upslope flows observed during the 1982 ASCOT (Atmospheric Studies in COmplex Terrain) field campaign in Brush Creek, Colorado. We also showed that a Monte Carlo statistical diffusion model, RAPTAD (RAndom Particle Transport And Diffusion) driven by the outputs (mean and turbulence variables) from HOTMAC simulated well the structure of an SF6 tracer plume and obtained a vertical profile of concentration similar to the one observed. A ''Kernel'' density estimator is used in this study where each particle represents a center of a puff. In this study, the concentration was recomputed by applying the Gaussian kernel estimator. A total of only 900 particles were released. The vertical profile of the modeled SF6 concentration averaged over one hour between 6 and 7 a.m. at a site near the mouth of Brush Creek was compared with observation. The modeled and observed concentrations agreed well although the modeled values were slightly smaller than the observations for the first 250 m above the ground.

  19. Grafting of Poly(methyl methacrylate) Brushes from Magnetite Nanoparticles Using a Phosphonic Acid Based Initiator by Ambient Temperature Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATATRP)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Poly(methyl methacrylate) in the brush form is grown from the surface of magnetite nanoparticles by ambient temperature atom transfer radical polymerization (ATATRP) using a phosphonic acid based initiator. The surface initiator was prepared by the reaction of ethylene glycol with 2-bromoisobutyrl bromide, followed by the reaction with phosphorus oxychloride and hydrolysis. This initiator is anchored to magnetite nanoparticles via physisorption. The ATATRP of methyl methacrylate was carried out in the presence of CuBr/PMDETA complex, without a sacrificial initiator, and the grafting density is found to be as high as 0.90 molecules/nm2. The organic–inorganic hybrid material thus prepared shows exceptional stability in organic solvents unlike unfunctionalized magnetite nanoparticles which tend to flocculate. The polymer brushes of various number average molecular weights were prepared and the molecular weight was determined using size exclusion chromatography, after degrafting the polymer from the magnetite core. Thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectra and diffused reflection FT-IR were used to confirm the grafting reaction.

  20. Forces of Interaction between Surfaces Bearing Looped Polymer Brushes in Good Solvent.

    SciTech Connect

    Alonzo, Jose; Mays, Jimmy; Kilbey, II, S Michael

    2009-01-01

    In a previous publication we suggested [Huang et al., Macromolecules, 2008, 41, 1745-1752] that looped polymer brushes formed by tethering chains by both ends to a surface may exhibit a polydispersity-like effect due to a distribution of distances between tethering points, leading to segment density profiles dominated by a long and diffuse exponentially-decaying tail. To study this issue in more detail, the force profiles (forces of interaction as a function of separation distance) of a series of looped polymer brushes made by preferential adsorption of poly(2-vinylpyridine)-polystyrene-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PVP-b-PS-b-PVP) triblock copolymers of varying molecular weight and asymmetry ratio are measured using the surface forces apparatus. The force profiles are analyzed using an equivalent diblock model, which considers the triblock copolymer brushes as being comprised of two diblock copolymers of half the PS molecular weight. While scaling the dependencies of the interaction energy and distance on molecular weight, the tethering density and segment size coalesce the measured force profiles to the universal profile, it is necessary to include polydispersity in the description of the equilibrium structure. This is done using the self-consistent field model of Milner et al. [Macromolecules, 1988, 21, 2610-2619]. For looped brushes formed from the symmetric and moderately symmetric triblock copolymers we find that the polydispersity due to molecular weight distribution effectively accounts for the observed force profiles. On the other hand, agreement between the measured and predicted force profiles of looped brushes formed from highly asymmetric copolymers at low degrees-of-compression is achieved only if a much smaller value of the polydispersity index is used in the fitting. The implication of these results is that the shape of the segment density profiles is not due to the previously proposed anchor-induced polydispersity arising due to loop formation; however in

  1. Utilization of glycosyltransferases for the synthesis of a densely packed hyperbranched polysaccharide brush coating as artificial glycocalyx.

    PubMed

    van der Vlist, Jeroen; Schönen, Iris; Loos, Katja

    2011-10-10

    Densely packed polysaccharide brushes consisting of α-D-glucose residues were grafted from modified silicon substrates. Potato phosphorylase was herein used to grow linear polysaccharide chains from silicon tethered maltoheptaose oligosaccharides using glucose-1-phosphate as donor substrate. The combined use of potato phosphorylase and Deinococcusgeothermalis branching enzyme resulted in a hyperbranched brush coating as the latter one redistributes short oligosaccharides from the α(1-4)-linked position to the α (1-6)-linked position in the polysaccharide brush. The obtained grafting density of the brushes was estimated on 1.89 nm(-2) while the thickness was measured with ellipsometric techniques and determined to be between 12.2 and 20.2 nm.

  2. Increased photocatalytic activity of tube-brush-like ZnO nanostructures fabricated by using PVP nanofibers as templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xinying; Zhai, Yingjiao; Li, Jinhua; Fang, Xuan; Fang, Fang; Chu, Xueying; Wei, Zhipeng; Wang, Xiaohua

    2014-11-01

    The tube-brush-like ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method using electrospinning polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers as templates. The photocatalytic activity of as-grown samples was investigated by photo-degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV/visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. It was found that the morphologies of the prepared ZnO were tube-brush-like nanostructures. With the grown time increasing, the crystal and the optical properties were improved. In the photocatalytic experiment, the tube-brush-like ZnO nanostructures photocatalytic activity was enhanced the degradation of RhB was up to 98% after 2 h of irradiation. The tube-brush-like ZnO nanostructures showed higher photocatalytic activity because of the special surface morphology.

  3. Chemical bath deposition of textured and compact zinc oxide thin films on vinyl-terminated polystyrene brushes.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Nina J; Hofmeister, Caroline G; Lindemann, Peter; Huang, Cheng; Baier, Johannes; Leineweber, Andreas; Walheim, Stefan; Wöll, Christof; Schimmel, Thomas; Bill, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of an organic polystyrene brush on the deposition of ZnO thin films under moderate conditions. On a non-modified SiO x surface, island growth is observed, whereas the polymer brush induces homogeneous film growth. A chemical modification of the polystyrene brushes during the mineralization process occurs, which enables stronger interaction between the then polar template and polar ZnO crystallites in solution. This may lead to oriented attachment of the crystallites so that the observed (002) texture arises. Characterization of the templates and the resulting ZnO films were performed with ζ-potential and contact angle measurements as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Infrared spectroscopy (IR) measurements were used to investigate the polystyrene brushes before and after modification.

  4. Chemical bath deposition of textured and compact zinc oxide thin films on vinyl-terminated polystyrene brushes

    PubMed Central

    Blumenstein, Nina J; Hofmeister, Caroline G; Lindemann, Peter; Huang, Cheng; Baier, Johannes; Leineweber, Andreas; Wöll, Christof; Schimmel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Summary In this study we investigated the influence of an organic polystyrene brush on the deposition of ZnO thin films under moderate conditions. On a non-modified SiOx surface, island growth is observed, whereas the polymer brush induces homogeneous film growth. A chemical modification of the polystyrene brushes during the mineralization process occurs, which enables stronger interaction between the then polar template and polar ZnO crystallites in solution. This may lead to oriented attachment of the crystallites so that the observed (002) texture arises. Characterization of the templates and the resulting ZnO films were performed with ζ-potential and contact angle measurements as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Infrared spectroscopy (IR) measurements were used to investigate the polystyrene brushes before and after modification. PMID:26925358

  5. Chemical bath deposition of textured and compact zinc oxide thin films on vinyl-terminated polystyrene brushes.

    PubMed

    Blumenstein, Nina J; Hofmeister, Caroline G; Lindemann, Peter; Huang, Cheng; Baier, Johannes; Leineweber, Andreas; Walheim, Stefan; Wöll, Christof; Schimmel, Thomas; Bill, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the influence of an organic polystyrene brush on the deposition of ZnO thin films under moderate conditions. On a non-modified SiO x surface, island growth is observed, whereas the polymer brush induces homogeneous film growth. A chemical modification of the polystyrene brushes during the mineralization process occurs, which enables stronger interaction between the then polar template and polar ZnO crystallites in solution. This may lead to oriented attachment of the crystallites so that the observed (002) texture arises. Characterization of the templates and the resulting ZnO films were performed with ζ-potential and contact angle measurements as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Infrared spectroscopy (IR) measurements were used to investigate the polystyrene brushes before and after modification. PMID:26925358

  6. Mechanism of nanoparticle actuation by responsive polymer brushes: from reconfigurable composite surfaces to plasmonic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiter, Yuri; Minko, Iryna; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Tokarev, Ihor; Minko, Sergiy

    2011-12-01

    The mechanism of nanoparticle actuation by stimuli-responsive polymer brushes triggered by changes in the solution pH was discovered and investigated in detail in this study. The finding explains the high spectral sensitivity of the composite ultrathin film composed of a poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P2VP) brush that tunes the spacing between two kinds of nanoparticles--gold nanoislands immobilized on a transparent support and gold colloidal particles adsorbed on the brush. The optical response of the film relies on the phenomenon of localized surface plasmon resonances in the noble metal nanoparticles, giving rise to an extinction band in visible spectra, and a plasmon coupling between the particles and the islands that has a strong effect on the band position and intensity. Since the coupling is controlled by the interparticle spacing, the pH-triggered swelling-shrinking transition in the P2VP brush leads to pronounced changes in the transmission spectra of the hybrid film. It was not established in the previous publications how the actuation of gold nanoparticles within a 10-15 nm interparticle distance could result in the 50-60 nm shift in the absorbance maximum in contrast to the model experiments and theoretical estimations of several nanometer shifts. In this work, the extinction band was deconvoluted into four spectrally separated and overlapping contributions that were attributed to different modes of interactions between the particles and the islands. These modes came into existence due to variations in the thickness of the grafted polymeric layer on the profiled surface of the islands. In situ atomic force microscopy measurements allowed us to explore the behavior of the Au particles as the P2VP brush switched between the swollen and collapsed states. In particular, we identified an interesting, previously unanticipated regime when a particle position in a polymer brush was switched between two distinct states: the particle exposed to the surface of the

  7. One-pot synthesis of molecular bottle-brush functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes with superior dispersibility in water.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yong; Hu, Qin; Yuan, Qiulin; Wu, Yan; Ling, Ying; Tang, Haoyu

    2014-01-01

    Molecular bottle-brush functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with superior dispersibility in water are prepared by a one-pot synthetic methodology. Elongating the main-chain and side-chain length of molecular bottle-brushes can further increase SWCNT dispersibility. They show significant enhancement of SWCNT dispersibility up to four times higher than those of linear molecular functionalized SWCNTs. PMID:24307218

  8. Regular Tooth Brushing is Associated with a Decreased Risk of Metabolic Syndrome According to a Medical Check-Up Database.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Chiyo; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Associations have been reported between periodontal disease and increased cardiovascular disease risk, as well as between healthy self-reported tooth brushing behavior and reduced cardiovascular disease risk. We examined the association between self-reported tooth brushing behavior and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) using a large medical check-up database. A total of 12,548 medical checkup records from a medical screening center in a city in southwest Japan were assessed. Subjects were aged 30 to 59 years. As lifestyle is associated with both tooth brushing and MetS, many lifestyle variables were considered as potential confounders. Logistic regression model were employed with a list of 127 lifestyle variables. Twenty variables associated with both tooth brushing and MetS were selected for both males and females. Furthermore, final confounding variables were selected by principal component analysis to avoid collinearity problems. The association of tooth brushing and MetS was evaluated for males and females separately by calculating adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with selected confounders plus age. The association between daily tooth brushing frequency and MetS risk for both genders was significant after adjusting for confounders, with the risk of MetS decreasing with increased frequency of daily tooth brushing (adjusted OR = 0.57 (95%Cl:0.48-0.81), 0.50 (95%Cl:0.35-0.71), 0.42 (95%Cl: 0.29-0.61) for males and adjusted OR = 0.65 (95%Cl:0.48-0.87), 0.44 (95%Cl:0.32-0.62) for females). Therefore, oral hygiene, including the frequency of tooth brushing as a significant component, may be an important factor in preventing MetS. PMID:25810422

  9. Fabrication of a detection platform with boronic-acid-containing zwitterionic polymer brush.

    PubMed

    Song, Lingjie; Zhao, Jie; Luan, Shifang; Ma, Jiao; Liu, Jingchuan; Xu, Xiaodong; Yin, Jinghua

    2013-12-26

    Development of technologies for biomedical detection platform is critical to meet the global challenges of various disease diagnoses, especially for point-of-use applications. Because of its natural simplicity, effectiveness, and easy repeatability, random covalent-binding technique is widely adopted in antibody immobilization. However, its antigen-binding capacity is relatively low when compared to site-specific immobilization of antibody. Herein, we report that a detection platform modified with boronic acid (BA)-containing sulfobetaine-based polymer brush. Mainly because of the advantage of oriented immobilization of antibody endowed with BA-containing three-dimensional polymer brush architecture, the platform had a high antigen-binding capacity. Notably, nonspecific protein adsorption was also suppressed by the zwitterionic pendants, thus greatly enhanced signal-to-noise (S/N) values for antigen recognition. Furthermore, antibodies captured by BA pendants could be released in dissociation media. This new platform is promising for potential applications in immunoassays. PMID:24299274

  10. Electric Double Layer electrostatics of spherical polyelectrolyte brushes with pH-dependent charge density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Chen, Guang; Sinha, Shayandev; Das, Siddhartha; Soft Matter, Interfaces,; Energy Laboratory (Smiel) Team

    Understanding the electric double layer (EDL) electrostatics of spherical polyelectrolyte (PE) brushes, which are spherical particles grafted with PE layers, is essential for appropriate use of PE-grfated micro-nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery, oil recovery, water harvesting, emulsion stabilization, emulsion breaking, etc. Here we elucidate the EDL electrostatics of spherical PE brushes for the case where the PE exhibits pH-dependent charge density. This pH-dependence necessitates the consideration of explicit hydrogen ion concentration, which in turn dictates the distribution of monomers along the length of the grafted PE. This monomer distribution is shown to be a function of the nature of the sphere (metallic or a charged or uncharged dielectric or a liquid-filled sphere). All the calculations are performed for the case where the PE electrostatics can be decoupled from the PE elastic and excluded volume effects. Initial predictions are also provided for the case where such decoupling is not possible.

  11. Enhanced thermal conductance of ORU radiant fin thermal interface using carbon brush materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Christopher L.; Ellman, Brett M.; Knowles, Timothy R.

    1999-01-01

    ESLI has developed a highly compliant carbon brush thermal interface with good conductive heat transfer during a Phase 2 SBIR contract with NASA JSC. This lightweight brush can be retrofitted to the radiant fin thermal interface (RFTI), baselined as the interface for the International Space Station (ISS) Orbital Replaceable Units (ORU's), without changing the fin structure. Radiant heat transfer is thereby augmented by conductive heat transfer, dramatically increasing total thermal conductance of the interface. ESLI is now addressing critical issues concerning its actual use on the ISS in a Phase 3 program. These issues include carbon fiber debris, mechanical and thermal integrity, mechanical insertion and removal forces, and optimization for best thermal performance. Results thus far are encouraging. In this paper, thermal conductance and insertion/extraction force measurements on prototype specimens are presented.

  12. Thermoswitchable Janus Gold Nanoparticles with Stimuli-Responsive Hydrophilic Polymer Brushes.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaoqin; Ran, Fen; Chen, Limei; Lu, Gabriella Jia-En; Hu, Peiguang; Deming, Christopher P; Peng, Yi; Rojas-Andrade, Mauricio D; Chen, Shaowei

    2016-05-01

    Well-defined thermoswitchable Janus gold nanoparticles with stimuli-responsive hydrophilic polymer brushes were fabricated by combining ligand exchange reactions and the Langmuir technique. Stimuli-responsive polydi(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate was prepared by addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. The polymer brushes were then anchored onto the nanoparticle surface by interfacial ligand exchange reactions with hexanethiolate-protected gold nanoparticles, leading to the formation of a hydrophilic (polymer) hemisphere and a hydrophobic (hexanethiolate) one. The resulting Janus nanoparticles showed temperature-switchable wettability, hydrophobicity at high temperatures, and hydrophilicity at low temperatures, due to thermally induced conformational transition of the polymer ligands. The results further highlight the importance of interfacial engineering in the deliberate functionalization of nanoparticle materials. PMID:27064754

  13. Brush border peptidases and arylamidases in the experimental blind loop syndrome of the rat.

    PubMed

    Mazzacca, G; Musella, S; Andria, G; D'Agostino, L; Cimino, L; Budillon, G

    1977-10-01

    Peptidase and arylamidase activities were assessed in purified brush borders from jejunum of rats with surgically created blind loops. The blind loop segment and the jejunum proximal and distal to the blind loop were studied. Comparable jejunal segments from control rats were also studied. The blind loop syndrome was documented by presence of macrocytic anemia. Enzyme activities were determined on purified brush borders. In rats with the blind loop syndromes enzymatic activities hydrolizing sucrose, L-Leucyl-beta-naphthylamide, L-lysyl-beta-naphthylamide, alpha-L-glutamyl-beta-naphthylamide, L-phenylalanyl-alanine and L-leucyl-glycine were significantly reduced as compared to controls (P less than 0.001). After a short course of antibiotic therapy enzymatic activities returned to normal. Our findings suggest a reversible intestinal mucosa damage in the rat with blind loop syndrome.

  14. Treatment of enterococcus faecalis bacteria by a helium atmospheric cold plasma brush with oxygen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Jun; Du, Ning; Liu, Xiao-Di; Wang, Xing-Quan; Lv, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Guo-Ping; Guo, Li-Hong; Yang, Si-Ze

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed. Results demonstrate that the He/O2 plasma more effectively kills Enterococcus faecalis than the pure He plasma. In addition, the sterilization efficiency values of the He/O2 plasma depend on the oxygen fraction in Helium gas. The atmospheric cold plasma brush using a proper ratio of He/O2 (2.5%) reaches the optimum sterilization efficiency. After plasma treatment, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by the scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  15. Treatment of enterococcus faecalis bacteria by a helium atmospheric cold plasma brush with oxygen addition

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wei; Huang Jun; Wang Xingquan; Lv Guohua; Zhang Guoping; Du Ning; Liu Xiaodi; Guo Lihong; Yang Size

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed. Results demonstrate that the He/O{sub 2} plasma more effectively kills Enterococcus faecalis than the pure He plasma. In addition, the sterilization efficiency values of the He/O{sub 2} plasma depend on the oxygen fraction in Helium gas. The atmospheric cold plasma brush using a proper ratio of He/O{sub 2} (2.5%) reaches the optimum sterilization efficiency. After plasma treatment, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by the scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  16. Removal of a Wire Brush Bristle from the Hypopharynx Using Suspension, Microscope, and Fluoroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Naunheim, Matthew R.; Dedmon, Matthew M.; Mori, Matthew C.; Sedaghat, Ahmad R.; Dowdall, Jayme R.

    2015-01-01

    Wire brush bristles are an increasingly recognized hazard that can present as a foreign body in the aerodigestive tract. Due to their small size and tendency to become embedded in surrounding tissue, these small metallic bristles present a unique operative challenge to otolaryngologists. Here we present a case of a 40-year-old woman who underwent endoscopic extraction of a wire bristle from the posterior pharyngeal wall using suspension, microscopy, and C-arm fluoroscopy. We believe this is the first published case of an endoscopic removal of a buried foreign body in the hypopharynx using these methods of localization concurrently. By leveraging multiple techniques for visualization, surgeons can avoid open exploration while ensuring complete removal of the object. Additionally, this case highlights the importance of regulatory oversight and consumer awareness of the hazards of grill brushes. PMID:25649460

  17. Major vegetation types, climatological data, and solar radiation calculations for Colorado's Brush Creek valley

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.; Lambeth, R.; Allwine, K.J.

    1987-04-01

    In this report we present information on the vegetative cover, climate, and solar radiation for the Brush Creek valley. A brief vegetative survey was made on October 3, 1984, to identify the vegetation types in the lowest 8 km of the valley; the reader is cautioned that this included only a small part of the Brush Creek valley. The intent was to identify the principal vegetation types, with no attempt to use available scientific sampling techniques to determine accurate relative frequencies of the vegetation types. Nevertheless, the site survey has allowed us to identify the major species of vegetation, and to make reasonably accurate differentiations of both major vegetation types on valley surfaces (the valley floor, two sidewalls, and ridgetops) and the relative abundance of major vegetation types on each surface.

  18. Self-Healing Superhydrophobic Fluoropolymer Brushes as Highly Protein-Repellent Coatings.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanhua; Zuilhof, Han

    2016-06-28

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with micro/nanostructures are widely used to prevent nonspecific adsorption of commercial polymeric and/or biological materials. Herein, a self-healing superhydrophobic and highly protein-repellent fluoropolymer brush was grafted onto nanostructured silicon by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Both the superhydrophobicity and antifouling properties (as indicated for isolated protein solutions and for 10% blood plasma) are well repaired upon serious chemical degradation (by e.g. air plasma). This brush still maintains excellent superhydrophobicity and good antifouling properties even after 5 damage-repair cycles, which opens a new door to fabricate long-term antifouling coatings on various substrates that can be used in harsh environments. PMID:27305351

  19. Grooming using rotating brushes as a proactive method to control ship hull fouling.

    PubMed

    Tribou, Melissa; Swain, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Grooming may be defined as the frequent and gentle cleaning of a ship hull coating, when it is in port or idle, to prevent the establishment of fouling. This study assessed the effectiveness of grooming with a five-headed rotating brush system on epoxy, ablative copper and two silicone fouling release (FR) coatings. These coatings were placed under static immersion at Port Canaveral, FL on a weekly and biweekly frequency. The results showed that grooming reduced fouling on all surfaces and was able to prevent fouling on the ablative copper and FR coatings when performed weekly. It was concluded that the grooming tool used for these tests was sufficient to remove biofilm and most hard fouling. However, when fouling pressure increased or when grooming was performed less frequently, insufficient forces were imparted by the brush to remove all of the established hard fouling organisms.

  20. Structural change and improvement of the mechanical properties of a lotus-type porous copper by wire-brushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobos, J.; Suzuki, S.; Nakajima, H.; Ji, Y. S.; Fujii, H.; Terada, D.; Tsuji, N.

    2009-05-01

    The surface of lotus-type porous copper plates that had cylindrical open pores in the thickness direction (porosity 50.4%, average pore diameter 144.4 μm) were processed by wire-brushing. Open pores on the surface of the lotus copper are closed by a newly formed nonporous thin layer. Electron backscatter diffraction patterns of the processed plate cross section show that the deformed surface consists of ultra-fine grains and that a nonporous layer was formed on the deformation of the surface layer. The Vickers hardness of the wire-brushed lotus copper is higher than that of the wire-brushed non-porous copper. The Vickers hardness increases with the increase in the rate of revolution of the wire-brush due to grain refinement. The increment of the ultimate tensile strength of lotus copper by wire-brushing is larger than of non-porous copper. The increment of ultimate tensile strength of the lotus copper reaches maximum when the newly deformed layer closes all the pores on the surface. These results show that wire-brushing is an effective process for the improvement of mechanical properties for lotus metals.

  1. Synthesis of polymer nano-brushes by self-seeding method and study of various morphologies by AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbolaghi, S.; Abbaspoor, S.; Abbasi, F.

    2016-11-01

    Polymer brushes due to their high sensitivity to environmental changes are the best and newest means for developing the responsive materials. Polymer nano-brushes consisting various surface morphologies and uniformly distributed amorphous grafted chains were synthesized via single-crystal growth procedure. Poly(ethylene glycol)- b-polystyrene (PEG- b-PS) and poly(ethylene glycol)- b-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PEG- b-PMMA) block copolymers were prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). On the basis of various height differences, phase regions were detectable through atomic force microscopy (AFM NanoscopeIII). The novelty of this work is developing and characterizing the random and intermediate single-co-crystals. Besides, some other sorts of brush-covered single crystals like homo-brush and matrix-dispersed mixed-brushes were involved just for comparing the distinct morphologies. The intermediate (neither matrix-dispersed nor random) single-co-crystals were detectable through their thickness fluctuations in AFM height profiles. On the contrary, the random single-co-crystals were verified through comparing with their corresponding homopolymer and homo-brush single crystals. The growth fronts of (120), (240), (200) and (040) were detected by electron diffraction of transmission electron microscope.

  2. A CO2-switchable polymer brush for reversible capture and release of proteins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Surjith; Tong, Xia; Dory, Yves L; Lepage, Martin; Zhao, Yue

    2013-01-01

    We report on a polymer brush that can be switched between extended (hydrated) and collapsed (dehydrated) chain conformational states just by passing CO(2) and an inert gas like N(2) in solution alternately. This conformational change allows for reversible adsorption and release of a protein. In contrast to adding acids and bases for pH change, using gases as the trigger makes it possible to repeat the switching cycle many times without salt accumulation. PMID:23165009

  3. High surface area stainless steel brushes as cathodes in microbial electrolysis cells.

    PubMed

    Call, Douglas F; Merrill, Matthew D; Logan, Bruce E

    2009-03-15

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are an efficient technology for generating hydrogen gas from organic matter, but alternatives to precious metals are needed for cathode catalysts. We show here that high surface area stainless steel brush cathodes produce hydrogen at rates and efficiencies similar to those achieved with platinum-catalyzed carbon cloth cathodes in single-chamber MECs. Using a stainless steel brush cathode with a specific surface area of 810 m2/m3, hydrogen was produced at a rate of 1.7 +/- 0.1 m3-H2/m3-d (current density of 188 +/- 10 A/m3) at an applied voltage of 0.6 V. The energy efficiency relative to the electrical energy input was 221 +/- 8%, and the overall energy efficiency was 78 +/- 5% based on both electrical energy and substrate utilization. These values compare well to previous results obtained using platinum on flat carbon cathodes in a similar system. Reducing the cathode surface area by 75% decreased performance from 91 +/- 3 A/m3 to 78 +/- 4 A/m3. A brush cathode with graphite instead of stainless steel and a specific surface area of 4600 m2/m3 generated substantially less current (1.7 +/- 0.0 A/m3), and a flat stainless steel cathode (25 m2/m3) produced 64 +/- 1 A/m3, demonstrating that both the stainless steel and the large surface area contributed to high current densities. Linear sweep voltammetry showed that the stainless steel brush cathodes both reduced the overpotential needed for hydrogen evolution and exhibited a decrease in overpotential over time as a result of activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that hydrogen production can be achieved at rates comparable to those with precious metal catalysts in MECs without the need for expensive cathodes. PMID:19368232

  4. Kinetic laws of the process of thermal degradation of electric brush articles based on synthetic binders

    SciTech Connect

    Komarova, T.V.; Derbenev, V.A.; Fedoseev, S.D.; Shamkina, N.A.; Skoblik, T.I.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the process of thermal degradation of electric brush articles based on a thermoplastic binder. It has been shown that the curves of gas evolution with various methods of heating have the same nature, the highest rate of evolution of volatile matter under the conditions of thermal shock being observed in the first five minutes. The kinetic characteristics of the process have been calculated.

  5. Exposure to Engineered Nanomaterial Results in Disruption of Brush Borders in Epithelia Models in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, James J.

    Engineered nanoparticles (NP; 10-9 m) have found use in a variety of consumer goods and medical devices because of the unique changes in material properties that occur when synthesized on the nanoscale. Although many definitions for nanoparticle exist, from the perspective of size, nanoparticle is defined as particles with diameters less than 100 nm in any external dimension. Examples of their use include titanium dioxide added as a pigment in products intended to be ingested by humans, silicon dioxide NPs are used in foods as an anticaking agent, and gold or iron oxide NPs can be used as vectors for drug delivery or contrast agents for specialized medical imaging. Although the intended use of these NPs is often to improve human health, it has come to the attention of investigators that NPs can have unintended or even detrimental effects on the organism. This work describes one such unintended effect of NP exposure from the perspective of exposure via the oral route. First, this Dissertation will explain an event referred to as brush border disruption that occurred after nanoparticles interacted with an in vitro model of the human intestinal epithelium. Second, this Dissertation will identify and characterize several consumer goods that were shown to contain titanium dioxide that are intended to be ingested. Third, this Dissertation shows that sedimentation due to gravity does not artifactually result in disruption of brush borders as a consequence of exposure to food grade titanium dioxide in vitro. Finally, this Dissertation will demonstrate that iron oxide nanoparticles elicited similar effects after exposure to an in vitro brush border expressing model of the human placenta. Together, these data suggest that brush border disruption is not an artifact of the material/cell culture model, but instead represents a bona fide biological response as a result of exposure to nanomaterial.

  6. Captures of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Relation to Trap Orientation and Distance From Brush Lines.

    PubMed

    Spurgeon, Dale W

    2016-04-01

    Eradication programs for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) rely on pheromone-baited traps to trigger insecticide treatments and monitor program progress. A key objective of monitoring in these programs is the timely detection of incipient weevil populations to limit or prevent re-infestation. Therefore, improvements in the effectiveness of trapping would enhance efforts to achieve and maintain eradication. Association of pheromone traps with woodlots and other prominent vegetation are reported to increase captures of weevils, but the spatial scale over which this effect occurs is unknown. The influences of trap distance (0, 10, and 20 m) and orientation (leeward or windward) to brush lines on boll weevil captures were examined during three noncropping seasons (October to February) in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Differences in numbers of captured weevils and in the probability of capture between traps at 10 or 20 m from brush, although often statistically significant, were generally small and variable. Variations in boll weevil population levels, wind directions, and wind speeds apparently contributed to this variability. In contrast, traps closely associated with brush (0 m) generally captured larger numbers of weevils, and offered a higher probability of weevil capture compared with traps away from brush. These increases in the probability of weevil capture were as high as 30%. Such increases in the ability of traps to detect low-level boll weevil populations indicate trap placement with respect to prominent vegetation is an important consideration in maximizing the effectiveness of trap-based monitoring for the boll weevil. PMID:26719592

  7. Complete denture biofilm after brushing with specific denture paste, neutral soap and artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira; Salles, Antônio Eduardo Sparça; Macedo, Leandro Dorigan de; Silva-Lovato, Cláudia Helena da; Pagnano, Valéria Oliveira; Watanabe, Evandro

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the levels of biofilm in maxillary and mandibular complete dentures and evaluated the number of colony-forming units (cfu) of yeasts, after using auxiliary brushing agents and artificial saliva. Twenty-three denture wearers with hyposalivation and xerostomia were instructed to brush the dentures 3 times a day during 3 weeks with the following products: Corega Brite denture dentifrice, neutral liquid soap, Corega Brite combined with Oral Balance (artificial saliva) or tap water. For biofilm quantification, the internal surfaces of the dentures were disclosed, photographed and measured using a software. For microbiological analysis, the biofilm was scrapped off, and the harvested material was diluted, sown in CHROMagar™ Candida and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Mandibular dentures presented a mean biofilm percentage (µ=26.90 ± 21.10) significantly greater than the maxillary ones (µ=18.0 ± 15.0) (p<0.05). Brushing using Corega Brite combined with Oral Balance (µ=15.87 ± 18.47) was more effective (p<0.05) than using the denture dentifrice (µ=19.47 ± 17.24), neutral soap (µ=23.90 ± 18.63) or tap water (control; µ=32.50 ± 20.68). For the microbiological analysis, the chi-square test did not indicate significant difference between the hygiene products for either type of denture. The more frequently isolated species of yeasts were C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. In conclusion, mandibular dentures had more biofilm formation than maxillary ones. Denture brushing with Corega Brite dentifrice combined with the use of Oral Balance was the most effective method for reduction of biofilm levels, but the use of products did not show difference in yeast cfu counts. PMID:23657413

  8. Monte Carlo test of the self-consistent field theory of a polymer brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Pik-Yin; Zhulina, E. B.

    1992-03-01

    The analytic predictions from the Self-Consistent Field(SCF) theory for grafted polymer layers are compared in detail with the recent Monte Carlo simulations using the bond-fluctuation model. Quantities describing the equilibrium structure of the brush are derived from the SCF theory and compared with the Monte Carlo data with no free parameter. In most cases the results are in agreement wiht the SCF predictions. Causes for discrepancies are also discussed.

  9. Deactivation of Enterococcus Faecalis Bacteria by an Atmospheric Cold Plasma Brush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Jun; Du, Ning; Liu, Xiao-Di; Lv, Guo-Hua; Wang, Xing-Quan; Zhang, Guo-Ping; Guo, Li-Hong; Yang, Si-Ze

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed and used to treat enterococcus faecalis bacteria. The results show that the efficiency of the inactivation process by helium plasma is dependent on applied power and exposure time. After plasma treatments, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  10. Biomimicking Nano-Micro Binary Polymer Brushes for Smart Cell Orientation and Adhesion Control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lina; Xie, Zhuang; Gan, Tiansheng; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Guangzhao; Mirkin, Chad A; Zheng, Zijian

    2016-07-01

    A new biomimetic surface named nano-micro binary polymer brushes is fabricated by large-area bench-top dip-pen nanodisplacement lithography technique. It is composed of gelatin-modified poly(glycidyl methacrylate) nanolines which are spaced by microstripes of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). Cells are not only adhered and oriented well on the re-used surface, but also detachable from the surface with well-preserved extracellular matrix and aligned morphology.

  11. Biomimicking Nano-Micro Binary Polymer Brushes for Smart Cell Orientation and Adhesion Control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lina; Xie, Zhuang; Gan, Tiansheng; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Guangzhao; Mirkin, Chad A; Zheng, Zijian

    2016-07-01

    A new biomimetic surface named nano-micro binary polymer brushes is fabricated by large-area bench-top dip-pen nanodisplacement lithography technique. It is composed of gelatin-modified poly(glycidyl methacrylate) nanolines which are spaced by microstripes of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). Cells are not only adhered and oriented well on the re-used surface, but also detachable from the surface with well-preserved extracellular matrix and aligned morphology. PMID:27184011

  12. Surface modification of several dental substrates by non-thermal, atmospheric plasma brush

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingsheng; Zhang, Ying; Driver, M. Sky; Caruso, Anthony N.; Yu, Qingsong; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to reveal the effectiveness of non-thermal atmospheric plasma brush in surface wettability and modification of four dental substrates. Methods Specimens of dental substrates including dentin, enamel, and two composites Filtek Z250, Filtek LS Silorane were prepared (~2 mm thick, ~10 mm diameter). The prepared surfaces were treated for 5–45 s with a non-thermal atmospheric plasma brush working at temperatures from 36 to 38 °C. The plasma-treatment effects on these surfaces were studied with contact-angle measurement, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results The non-thermal atmospheric argon plasma brush was very efficient in improving the surface hydrophilicity of four substrates studied. The results indicated that water contact angle values decreased considerably after only 5 s plasma treatment of all these substrates. After 30 s treatment, the values were further reduced to <5°, which was close to a value for super hydrophilic surfaces. XPS analysis indicated that the percent of elements associated with mineral in dentin/enamel or fillers in the composites increased. In addition, the percent of carbon (%C) decreased while %O increased for all four substrates. As a result, the O/C ratio increased dramatically, suggesting that new oxygen-containing polar moieties were formed on the surfaces after plasma treatment. SEM surface images indicated that no significant morphology change was induced on these dental substrates after exposure to plasmas. Significance Without affecting the bulk properties, a super-hydrophilic surface could be easily achieved by the plasma brush treatment regardless of original hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of dental substrates tested. PMID:23755823

  13. A CO2-switchable polymer brush for reversible capture and release of proteins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Surjith; Tong, Xia; Dory, Yves L; Lepage, Martin; Zhao, Yue

    2013-01-01

    We report on a polymer brush that can be switched between extended (hydrated) and collapsed (dehydrated) chain conformational states just by passing CO(2) and an inert gas like N(2) in solution alternately. This conformational change allows for reversible adsorption and release of a protein. In contrast to adding acids and bases for pH change, using gases as the trigger makes it possible to repeat the switching cycle many times without salt accumulation.

  14. Light-chain binding sites on renal brush-border membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Batuman, V.; Dreisbach, A.W.; Cyran, J.

    1990-05-01

    Immunoglobulin light chains are low-molecular-weight proteins filtered at the renal glomerulus and catabolized within the proximal tubular epithelium. Excessive production and urinary excretion of light chains are associated with renal dysfunction. They also interfere with proximal renal tubule epithelial functions in vitro. We studied the binding of 125I-labeled kappa- and lambda-light chains, obtained from the urine of multiple myeloma patients, to rat and human renal proximal tubular brush-border membranes. Light-chain binding to brush borders was also demonstrated immunologically by flow cytometry. Computer analysis of binding data was consistent with presence of a single class of low-affinity, high-capacity, non-cooperative binding sites with relative selectivity for light chains on both rat and human kidney brush-border membranes. The dissociation constants of light chains ranged from 1.6 X 10(-5) to 1.2 X 10(-4) M, and maximum binding capacity ranged from 4.7 +/- 1.3 X 10(-8) to 8.0 +/- 0.9 X 10(-8) (SD) mol/mg protein at 25 degrees C. Kappa- and lambda-light chains competed with each other for binding with comparable affinity constants. Competition by albumin and beta-lactoglobulin, however, was much weaker, suggesting relative site selectivity for light chains. These binding sites probably function as endocytotic receptors for light chains and possibly other low-molecular-weight proteins.

  15. Calcium uptake by brush-border and basolateral membrane vesicles in chick duodenum

    SciTech Connect

    Takito, J.; Shinki, T.; Sasaki, T.; Suda, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Calcium uptake was compared between duodenal brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) and basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) isolated from vitamin D-deficient chicks and those injected with 625 ng of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1 alpha,25(OH)2D3). The uptake by BBMV in the 1 alpha,25-(OH)2D3-treated birds attained a maximum (280% of the control) at 12 h and was maintained at an elevated level (210%) at 24 h after the injection of the vitamin. In contrast, ATP-dependent calcium uptake by BLMV reached a maximum (185% of the control) at 6 h and decreased to the control level at 24 h. The kinetic analysis revealed that 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 increased Vmax values without any changes in apparent Km values in both BBMV and BLMV. The activity of ATP-dependent calcium uptake was localized exclusively in the basolateral membrane, and the activity was inhibited by vanadate (IC50, 1 microM), but not by oligomycin, theophylline, calmodulin, trifluoperazine, or calbindin D28K. These results indicate that calcium transport through both the brush-border and basolateral membranes is involved in the 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3-dependent intestinal calcium absorption. The initiation of calcium absorption by 1 alpha,25(OH)2D3 appears to be due to an increase in the rate of calcium efflux at the basolateral membrane rather than the rate at the brush-border membrane.

  16. Universal surface-initiated polymerization of antifouling zwitterionic brushes using a mussel-mimetic peptide initiator.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Jinghao; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2012-05-01

    We report a universal method for the surface-initated polymerization (SIP) of an antifouling polymer brush on various classes of surfaces, including noble metals, metal oxides, and inert polymers. Inspired by the versatility of mussel adhesive proteins, we synthesized a novel bifunctional tripeptide bromide (BrYKY) that combines atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiating alkyl bromide with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and lysine. The simple dip-coating of substrates with variable wetting properties and compositions, including Teflon, in a BrYKY solution at pH 8.5 led to the formation of a thin film of cross-linked BrYKY. Subsequently, we showed that the BrYKY layer initiated the ATRP of a zwitterionic monomer, sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA), on all substrates, resulting in high-density antifouling pSBMA brushes. Both BrYKY deposition and pSBMA grafting were unambiguously confirmed by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and goniometry. All substrates that were coated with BrYKY/pSBMA dramatically reduced bacterial adhesion for 24 h and also resisted mammalian cell adhesion for at least 4 months, demonstrating the long-term stability of the BrYKY anchoring and antifouling properties of pSBMA. The use of BrYKY as a primer and polymerization initiator has the potential to be widely employed in surface-grafted polymer brush modifications for biomedical and other applications. PMID:22506651

  17. Universal Surface-initiated Polymerization of Antifouling Zwitterionic Brushes Using A Mussel-Mimetic Peptide Initiator

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Jinghao; Messersmith, Phillip B.

    2012-01-01

    We report a universal method for the surface-initated polymerization (SIP) of a antifouling polymer brush on various classes of surfaces, including noble metals, metal oxides and inert polymers. Inspired by the versatility of mussel adhesive proteins, we synthesized a novel bifunctional tripeptide bromide (BrYKY) which combines an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiating alkyl bromide with l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) and lysine. Simple dip-coating of substrates with variable wetting properties and compositions, including Teflon®, in a BrYKY solution at pH 8.5 led to formation of a thin film of cross-linked BrYKY. Subsequently, we showed that the BrYKY layer initiated the ATRP of a zwitterionic monomer, sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) on all substrates, resulting in high density antifouling pSBMA brushes. Both BrYKY deposition and pSBMA grafting were unambiguously confirmed by ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and goniometry. All substrates that were coated with BrYKY/pSBMA dramatically reduced bacterial adhesion for 24 h and also resisted mammalian cell adhesion for at least 4 months, demonstrating the long-term stability of the BrYKY anchoring and antifouling properties of pSBMA. The use of BrYKY as a primer and polymerization initiator has the potential to be widely employed in surface grafted polymer brush modifications for biomedical and other applications. PMID:22506651

  18. A new numerical approach to dense polymer brushes and surface instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeis, D.; Merlitz, H.; Sommer, J.-U.

    2012-01-01

    We present a numerical self-consistent field (SCF) method which describes freely jointed chains of spherical monomers applied to densely grafted polymer brushes. We discuss both the Flory-Huggins model and the Carnahan-Starling equation of state and show the latter being preferable within our model at polymer volume fractions above 10%. We compare the results of our numerical method with data from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations [G.-L. He, H. Merlitz, J.-U. Sommer, and C.-X. Wu, Macromolecules 40, 6721 (2007)] and analytical SCF calculations [P. M. Biesheuvel, W. M. de Vos, and V. M. Amoskov, Macromolecules 41, 6254 (2008)] and obtain close agreement between the density profiles up to high grafting densities. In contrast to prior numerical and analytical studies of densely grafted polymer brushes our method provides detailed information about chain configurations including fluctuation, depletion, and packing effects. Using our model we could study the recently discovered instability of densely grafted polymer brushes with respect to slight variations of individual chain lengths, driven by fluctuation effects [H. Merlitz, G.-L. He, C.-X. Wu, and J.-U. Sommer, Macromolecules 41, 5070 (2008)]. The obtained results are in very close agreement with corresponding MD simulations.

  19. Role of hydrogen bonding in solubility of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes in sodium halide solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin-Jun, Zhao; Zhi-Fu, Gao

    2016-07-01

    By employing molecular theory, we systematically investigate the shift of solubility of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) brushes in sodium halide solutions. After considering PNIPAM–water hydrogen bonds, water–anion hydrogen bonds, and PNIPAM–anion bonds and their explicit coupling to the PNIPAM conformations, we find that increasing temperature lowers the solubility of PNIPAM, and results in a collapse of the layer at high enough temperatures. The combination of the three types of bonds would yield a decrease in the solubility of PNIPAM following the Hofmeister series: NaCl>NaBr>NaI. PNIPAM–water hydrogen bonds are affected by water–anion hydrogen bonds and PNIPAM–anion bonds. The coupling of polymer conformations and the competition among the three types of bonds are essential for describing correctly a decrease in the solubility of PNIPAM brushes, which is determined by the free energy associated with the formation of the three types of bonds. Our results agree well with the experimental observations, and would be very important for understanding the shift of the lower critical solution temperature of PNIPAM brushes following the Hofmeister series. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21264016, 11464047, and 21364016) and the Joint Funds of Xinjiang Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 2015211C298).

  20. Predictive Model for the Design of Zwitterionic Polymer Brushes: A Statistical Design of Experiments Approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramya; Lahann, Joerg

    2016-07-01

    The performance of polymer interfaces in biology is governed by a wide spectrum of interfacial properties. With the ultimate goal of identifying design parameters for stem cell culture coatings, we developed a statistical model that describes the dependence of brush properties on surface-initiated polymerization (SIP) parameters. Employing a design of experiments (DOE) approach, we identified operating boundaries within which four gel architecture regimes can be realized, including a new regime of associated brushes in thin films. Our statistical model can accurately predict the brush thickness and the degree of intermolecular association of poly[{2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl} dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide] (PMEDSAH), a previously reported synthetic substrate for feeder-free and xeno-free culture of human embryonic stem cells. DOE-based multifunctional predictions offer a powerful quantitative framework for designing polymer interfaces. For example, model predictions can be used to decrease the critical thickness at which the wettability transition occurs by simply increasing the catalyst quantity from 1 to 3 mol %.

  1. Geochemistry of metastable carbonate minerals from the Brush Creek marine interval (Missourian), Indiana County, Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Cercone, K.R.; Kime, A.; Mutchler, S.; Rittle, K. )

    1991-08-01

    Many marine fossils from the Missourian Brush Creek interval of western Pennsylvania display partial preservation of metastable aragonite and high-magnesium calcite shell material. Bivalve mollusks have been shown by x-ray diffraction to contain as much as 96% aragonite, with lesser amounts of both high-magnesium and low-magnesium calcite. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios from these bivalves suggest they precipitated in equilibrium with Pennsylvanian ocean water. The bellerophontid Pharkidonotus, which exhibits partial recrystallization textures under scanning electron microscopy, consists of 45% aragonite and 55% low-magnesium calcite, and has slightly more depleted isotopic values than bivalves. Crinoids also appear to have been partially recrystallized, resulting in a mixture of primary high-magnesium calcite and secondary low-magnesium calcite and microdolomite, with much of the original shell structure still preserved. The degree of preservation of metastable carbonate minerals varies both stratigraphically and spatially within the Brush Creek interval. Maximum preservation occurs in organic-rich shales deposited in low-lying areas of the Brush Creek sea floor. The preservation of aragonite and high-magnesium calcite in such units may have resulted from a lack of circulating porewater during early diagenesis.

  2. Modular Fabrication of Polymer Brush Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles: Engineering the Interface for Targeted Cellular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Oz, Yavuz; Arslan, Mehmet; Gevrek, Tugce N; Sanyal, Rana; Sanyal, Amitav

    2016-08-01

    Development of efficient and rapid protocols for diversification of functional magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) would enable identification of promising candidates using high-throughput protocols for applications such as diagnostics and cure through early detection and localized delivery. Polymer brush coated magnetic nanoparticles find use in many such applications. A protocol that allows modular diversification of a pool of parent polymer coated nanoparticles will lead to a library of functional materials with improved uniformity. In the present study, polymer brush coated parent magnetic nanoparticles obtained using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization are modified to obtain nanoparticles with different "clickable" groups. In this design, trithiocarbonate group terminated polymer brushes are "grafted from" MNPs using a catechol group bearing initiator. A postpolymerization radical exchange reaction allows installation of "clickable" functional groups like azides and maleimides on the chain ends of the polymers. Thus, modified MNPs can be functionalized using alkyne-containing and thiol-containing moieties like peptides and dyes using the alkyne-azide cycloaddition and the thiol-ene conjugation, respectively. Using the approach outlined here, a cell surface receptor targeting cyclic peptide and a fluorescent dye are attached onto nanoparticle surface. This multifunctional construct allows selective recognition of cancer cells that overexpress integrin receptors. Furthermore, the approach outlined here is not limited to the installation of azide and maleimide functional groups but can be expanded to a variety of "clickable" groups to allow nanoparticle modification using a broad range of chemical conjugations. PMID:27406320

  3. Understanding the stiffness of macromolecules: From linear chains to bottle-brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, K.; Hsu, H.-P.; Paul, W.

    2016-07-01

    The intrinsic local stiffness of a polymer is characterized by its persistence length. However, its traditional definition in terms of the exponential decay of bond orientational correlations along the chain backbone is accurate only for Gaussian phantom-chain-like polymers. Also care is needed to clarify the conditions when the Kratky-Porod wormlike chain model is applicable. These problems are elucidated by Monte Carlo simulations of simple lattice models for polymers in both d = 2 and d = 3 dimensions. While the asymptotic decay of the bond orientational correlations for real polymers always is of power law form, the Kratky-Porod model is found to be applicable for rather stiff (but not too long) thin polymers in d = 3 (but not in d = 2). However, it does not describe thick chains, e.g., bottle-brush polymers, where stiffness is due to grafted flexible side-chains, and the persistence length grows proportional to the effective thickness of the bottle-brush. A scaling description of bottle-brushes is validated by simulations using the bond fluctuation model.

  4. Preparation of polystyrene brush film by radical chain-transfer polymerization and micromechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jing; Chen, Miao; An, Yanqing; Liu, Jianxi; Yan, Fengyuan

    2008-12-01

    A radical chain-transfer polymerization technique has been applied to graft-polymerize brushes of polystyrene (PSt) on single-crystal silicon substrates. 3-Mercapto-propyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), as a chain-transfer agent for grafting, was immobilized on the silicon surface by a self-assembling process. The structure and morphology of the graft-functionalized silicon surfaces were characterized by the means of contact-angle measurement, ellipsometric thickness measurement, Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nanotribological and micromechanical properties of the as-prepared polymer brush films were investigated by frictional force microscopy (FFM), force-volume analysis and scratch test. The results indicate that the friction properties of the grafted polymer films can be improved significantly by the treatment of toluene, and the chemically bonded polystyrene film exhibits superior scratch resistance behavior compared with the spin-coated polystyrene film. The resultant polystyrene brush film is expected to develop as a potential lubrication coating for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

  5. Polymer Brush Grafted Nanoparticles and Their Impact on the Morphology Evolution of Polymer Blend Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hyun-Joong; Ohno, Kohji; Composto, Russell

    2013-03-01

    We present an novel pathway to control the location of nanoparticles (NPs) in phase-separating polymer blend films containing poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(styrene-ran-acrylonitrile) (SAN). Because hydrophobic polymer phases have a small interfacial energy, ~1 mJ/m2, subtle changes in the NP surface functionality can be used to guide NPs to either the interface between immiscible polymers or into one of the phases. Based on this idea, we designed a class of NPs grafted with PMMA brushes. These PMMA brushes were grown from the NP surface by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), which results in chains terminated with chlorine atoms. The chain end can be substituted with protons (H) by dehalogenation. As a result, the NPs are strongly segregated at the interface when grafted PMMA chains are short (Mn =1.8K) and the end group is Cl, whereas NPs partition into PMMA-rich phase when chains are long (Mn =160K) and/or when chains are terminated with hydrogen. The Cl end groups and shorter chain length cause an increase in surface energy for the NPs. The increase in surface energy of short-chained NPs can be attributed to (i) an extended brush conformation (entropic) and/or (ii) a high density of ``unfavorable'' end groups (enthalpic). Finally, the impact of NPs on the morphological evolution of the polymer blend films will be discussed. Ref: H.-J.Chung et al., ACS Macro Lett. 1(1), 252-256 (2012).

  6. Polymer brushes in explicit poor solvents studied using a new variant of the bond fluctuation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentzsch, Christoph; Sommer, Jens-Uwe

    2014-09-01

    Using a variant of the Bond Fluctuation Model which improves its parallel efficiency in particular running on graphic cards we perform large scale simulations of polymer brushes in poor explicit solvent. Grafting density, solvent quality, and chain length are varied. Different morphological structures in particular octopus micelles are observed for low grafting densities. We reconsider the theoretical model for octopus micelles proposed by Williams using scaling arguments with the relevant scaling variable being σ/σc, and with the characteristic grafting density given by σc ˜ N-4/3. We find that octopus micelles only grow laterally, but not in height and we propose an extension of the model by assuming a cylindrical shape instead of a spherical geometry for the micelle-core. We show that the scaling variable σ/σc can be applied to master plots for the averaged height of the brush, the size of the micelles, and the number of chains per micelle. The exponents in the corresponding power law relations for the grafting density and chain length are in agreement with the model for flat cylindrical micelles. We also investigate the surface roughness and find that polymer brushes in explicit poor solvent at grafting densities higher than the stretching transition are flat and surface rippling can only be observed close to the stretching transition.

  7. Predictive Model for the Design of Zwitterionic Polymer Brushes: A Statistical Design of Experiments Approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramya; Lahann, Joerg

    2016-07-01

    The performance of polymer interfaces in biology is governed by a wide spectrum of interfacial properties. With the ultimate goal of identifying design parameters for stem cell culture coatings, we developed a statistical model that describes the dependence of brush properties on surface-initiated polymerization (SIP) parameters. Employing a design of experiments (DOE) approach, we identified operating boundaries within which four gel architecture regimes can be realized, including a new regime of associated brushes in thin films. Our statistical model can accurately predict the brush thickness and the degree of intermolecular association of poly[{2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl} dimethyl-(3-sulfopropyl) ammonium hydroxide] (PMEDSAH), a previously reported synthetic substrate for feeder-free and xeno-free culture of human embryonic stem cells. DOE-based multifunctional predictions offer a powerful quantitative framework for designing polymer interfaces. For example, model predictions can be used to decrease the critical thickness at which the wettability transition occurs by simply increasing the catalyst quantity from 1 to 3 mol %. PMID:27268965

  8. The stimulative effect of diffusion potential on enoxacin uptake across rat intestinal brush-border membranes.

    PubMed

    Hirano, T; Iseki, K; Miyazaki, S; Takada, M; Kobayashi, M; Sugawara, M; Miyazaki, K

    1994-08-01

    Evidence of a membrane potential dependence for enoxacin uptake by rat intestinal brush-border membrane vesicles has been found. The transient overshooting uptake of enoxacin disappeared in the voltage-clamped brush-border membrane vesicles in the presence of an outward H(+)-gradient. Momentary dissipation of the H(+)-gradient itself by carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) did not affect the uptake of enoxacin. In contrast, enoxacin uptake was depressed by an interior positive K(+)-diffusion potential induced by valinomycin. Furthermore, not only the outward H(+)-gradient but also an inward Cl(-)-gradient caused a stimulating effect on enoxacin uptake, and the stimulation by the Cl(-)-gradient was dissipated by using voltage-clamped membrane vesicles. These results indicate that enoxacin transportation across the brush-border membrane is dependent on the ionic diffusion potential. On the other hand, neither Gly-Gly nor guanidine had any effect on enoxacin uptake by the membrane vesicles in the presence of an inward (for Gly-Gly) or outward (for guanidine) H(+)-gradient as a driving force for each transport system. Therefore, it seems that enoxacin transport through the intestinal epithelia does not participate in the carrier-mediated transport systems for Gly-Gly and guanidine.

  9. High temperature brush seal tuft testing of metallic bristles versus chrome carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Kenneth D.; Boyes, Esther

    1996-01-01

    The tribology of brush seals is of considerable interest to turbine engine designers because bristle wear continues to limit long term seal performance and life. To provide better materials characterization and foster the development of improved seals, NASA Lewis has developed a brush seal tuft tester. In this test, a 'paintbrush' sample tuft is loaded under constant contact pressure against the outside diameter of a rotating journal. With this configuration a direct measurement of load and friction is made. Accurate wear rate measurements are possible due to the known contact pressure. Previously reported baseline research using this facility showed good data repeatability and wear morphology similar to published seal data. This paper extends and expands the database for candidate brush seal materials. A series of tuft tests were completed to evaluate the performance of five high temperature superalloy wires sliding against plasma sprayed nichrome-bonded chrome carbide. Wire materials were either nickel-chrome or cobalt-chrome based superalloys. Good corroboration of the tuft results with dynamic seal rig tests was observed; giving additional confidence in the tuft test as a screening and development tool.

  10. Stretching of collapsed polymers causes an enhanced dissipative response of PNIPAM brushes near their LCST.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yunlong; Kieviet, Bernard D; Liu, Fei; Siretanu, Igor; Kutnyánszky, Edit; Vancso, G Julius; de Beer, Sissi

    2015-11-21

    Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) is a stimulus-responsive polymer that can switch in water from an expanded state below the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of 32 °C to a globular state above the LCST. It was recently shown that, as a consequence of this conformational transition, the interfacial and (tribo-)mechanical properties of polymeric systems composed of PNIPAM can be switched between two states. Here we show that the tribo-mechanical properties of a particular type of PNIPAM system, which is the PNIPAM brush, do not just change between two states, but instead evolve continuously and non-monotonically upon increasing/decreasing temperature. To do so, we present atomic force microscopy experiments in which we measure the adhesion hysteresis and the friction upon bringing a gold colloid in relative motion with PNIPAM brushes at temperatures around the LCST. Both the friction and the adhesion hysteresis display a pronounced maximum exactly at the LCST. The force vs. distance data captured at these temperatures show a long-ranged adhesive interaction upon moving the colloid away from the original point of contact, which indicates that during this retraction the partly collapsed polymers in the brush become strongly stretched. PMID:26371862

  11. Spin-Casting Polymer Brush Films for Stimuli-Responsive and Anti-Fouling Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Xu, Binbin; Feng, Chun; Hu, Jianhua; Shi, Ping; Gu, Guangxin; Wang, Lei; Huang, Xiaoyu

    2016-03-01

    Surfaces modified with amphiphilic polymers can dynamically alter their physicochemical properties in response to changes of their environmental conditions; meanwhile, amphiphilic polymer coatings with molecular hydrophilic and hydrophobic patches, which can mitigate biofouling effectively, are being actively explored as advanced coatings for antifouling materials. Herein, a series of well-defined amphiphilic asymmetric polymer brushes containing hetero side chains, hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) and hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), was employed to prepare uniform thin films by spin-casting. The properties of these films were investigated by water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). AFM showed smooth surfaces for all films with the roughness less than 2 nm. The changes in water contact angle and C/O ratio (XPS) evidenced the enrichment of PEG or PS chains at film surface after exposed to selective solvents, indicative of stimuli- responsiveness. The adsorption of proteins on PEG functionalized surface was quantified by QCM and the results verified that amphiphilic polymer brush films bearing PEG chains could lower or eliminate protein-material interactions and resist to protein adsorption. Cell adhesion experiments were performed by using HaCaT cells and it was found that polymer brush films possess good antifouling ability. PMID:26905980

  12. Stiffness parameter of brush-like polymers with rod-like side chains.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yo

    2016-07-01

    The stiffness parameter λ(-1) of brush-like polymers having rod-like side chains with the hard core potential was calculated. Side chains are, first, assumed to be connected with a free joint to the main chain. The free energy per molecule F was calculated invoking the single contact approximation in which only the interaction between two side chains is considered and the higher interactions are ignored. In the calculation, the contact is assumed to occur when the two side chains are in a plain and the condition for the angles between the side chain and the main chain to make a triangle by two side chains and the main chain was exactly taken into account. The change of F after bending the main chain with a certain curvature from the straight state was calculated to obtain λ(-1). The resulting λ(-1) came close to the experimental value for brush-like polymers with a poly(methacrylate) main chain and poly(hexylisocyanate) (PHIC) side chains if we add a constant as the intrinsic stiffness of the main chain, λ0 (-1), to it. By considering the potential function having a minimum when the angle between the side and main chains equals π/2, the data for brush-like polymers with a poly(styrene) main chain and PHIC side chains were also closely fitted by the theoretical values with an appropriate value of λ0 (-1) and the force constant of the angle.

  13. Tea stains-inspired initiator primer for surface grafting of antifouling and antimicrobial polymer brush coatings.

    PubMed

    Pranantyo, Dicky; Xu, Li Qun; Neoh, Koon-Gee; Kang, En-Tang; Ng, Ying Xian; Teo, Serena Lay-Ming

    2015-03-01

    Inspired by tea stains, plant polyphenolic tannic acid (TA) was beneficially employed as the primer anchor for functional polymer brushes. The brominated TA (TABr) initiator primer was synthesized by partial modification of TA with alkyl bromide functionalities. TABr with trihydroxyphenyl moieties can readily anchor on a wide range of substrates, including metal, metal oxide, polymer, glass, and silicon. Concomitantly, the alkyl bromide terminals serve as initiation sites for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Cationic [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (META) and zwitterionic 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and N-(3-sulfopropyl)-N-(methacryloxyethyl)-N,N-dimethylammonium betaine (SBMA) were graft-polymerized from the TABr-anchored stainless steel (SS) surface. The cationic polymer brushes on the modified surfaces are bactericidal, while the zwitterionic coatings exhibit resistance against bacterial adhesion. In addition, microalgal attachment (microfouling) and barnacle cyprid settlement (macrofouling) on the functional polymer-grafted surfaces were significantly reduced, in comparison to the pristine SS surface. Thus, the bifunctional TABr initiator primer provides a unique surface anchor for the preparation of functional polymer brushes for inhibiting both microfouling and macrofouling. PMID:25650890

  14. Teeth loss, teeth brushing and esophageal carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Nie, Shuping; Zhu, Yuhui; Lu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma (EC) is a serious malignancy, and its epidemiologic etiology is not fully explained. We performed this review to investigate the association between teeth loss and teeth brushing and the risk of EC. A systematic search was conducted to identify all relevant studies. The Q test and I2 statistic were used to examine between-study heterogeneity. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were considered by fixed or random effects models. Furthermore, we conducted subgroup analyses based on study design, the studies’ geographic regions and case type of origin. Modified Egger linear regression test was used to estimate publication bias. Ten articles were included. Pooled analyses indicated that teeth loss was associated with an increased risk of EC for Asians (OR, 1.52; 95% CI: 1.30, 1.78), and high frequency of teeth brushing was associated with a lower incidence of EC (OR, 0.62; 95%CI: 0.43, 0.89). Subgroup analyses showed consistent results and no publication bias existed. Teeth loss and teeth brushing play potential roles in the progressing of EC. People should take care of their oral health in daily life. And large well-designed researches are needed to fully describe the association between teeth health and EC risk. PMID:26462879

  15. Specific binding of lactoferrin to brush-border membrane: Ontogeny and effect of glycan chain

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, L.A.; Loennerdal, B. )

    1988-04-01

    Bioavailability of iron from human milk is exceptionally high. It has been suggested that lactoferrin, the major iron-binding protein in human milk, may participate in this high iron bioavailability from milk. The authors examined the interaction of lactoferrin with the intestinal brush-border membrane using the rhesus monkeys as a model. Brush-border membrane vesicles were prepared from monkeys of various ages. Binding studies with {sup 59}Fe-labeled human and monkey lactoferrin were performed to examine interaction of lactoferrin with the brush-border membrane. Specific saturable binding of lactoferrin was found at all ages studied. The dissociation constant for lactoferrin-receptor binding was 9 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} M. In contrast, no binding of serum transferrin or bovine lactoferrin occurred. Removal of fucose from the lactoferrin glycans resulted in a significant decrease in binding. It was concluded that lactoferrin in milk may function in the process of iron absorption through interaction with a small intestinal receptor and that fucosylated glycans on the carbohydrate chain of lactoferrin are necessary for receptor recognition.

  16. Polymer brushes in explicit poor solvents studied using a new variant of the bond fluctuation model.

    PubMed

    Jentzsch, Christoph; Sommer, Jens-Uwe

    2014-09-14

    Using a variant of the Bond Fluctuation Model which improves its parallel efficiency in particular running on graphic cards we perform large scale simulations of polymer brushes in poor explicit solvent. Grafting density, solvent quality, and chain length are varied. Different morphological structures in particular octopus micelles are observed for low grafting densities. We reconsider the theoretical model for octopus micelles proposed by Williams using scaling arguments with the relevant scaling variable being σ/σ(c), and with the characteristic grafting density given by σ(c) ~ N(-4/3). We find that octopus micelles only grow laterally, but not in height and we propose an extension of the model by assuming a cylindrical shape instead of a spherical geometry for the micelle-core. We show that the scaling variable σ/σ(c) can be applied to master plots for the averaged height of the brush, the size of the micelles, and the number of chains per micelle. The exponents in the corresponding power law relations for the grafting density and chain length are in agreement with the model for flat cylindrical micelles. We also investigate the surface roughness and find that polymer brushes in explicit poor solvent at grafting densities higher than the stretching transition are flat and surface rippling can only be observed close to the stretching transition. PMID:25217952

  17. Effectiveness of denture cleanser associated with microwave disinfection and brushing of complete dentures: in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Sesma, Newton; Rocha, Alessandra Lima; Laganá, Dalva Cruz; Costa, Bruno; Morimoto, Susana

    2013-01-01

    Complete dentures acts as a reservoir for microbial colonization, which may lead to systemic infections. Microwave irradiation has been used as an efficient method of denture disinfection. Even though current methods eliminate denture-base microorganisms, a recurrence rate of denture stomatitis (DS) is still observed among denture-wearing patients. It was hypothesized that microwave disinfection kills microorganisms but do not remove dead bacteria from the denture surface. To test this hypothesis, the biofilm found in the dentures of 10 patients with DS was evaluated. In addition, the effects of microwave irradiation plus brushing (MW+B) on the denture biofilm and the combination of denture cleanser with microwave irradiation and brushing (MW+DC+B) for the removal of denture-accumulating microorganisms were investigated. Microbiological data were analyzed statistically by nonparametric analysis (Friedman/Wilcoxon, α=0.05). MW+B and MW+DC+B were effective in reducing the rate of microorganisms (99.2% and 99.5% respectively), but without significant difference between them (p=0.553). However, it was observed that the complete removal of microorganisms from denture surface was only possible when all regimens were combined (MW+DC+B). Microwave irradiation in combination with soaking in denture cleanser and brushing effectively disinfected the dentures and removed denture biofilm.

  18. Shiga toxin exposure modulates intestinal brush border membrane functional proteins in rabbit ileum.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Puja; Verma, Dinesh; Khullar, Madhu; Sapru, Sunita; Mahmood, Safrun

    2006-02-01

    The activities of lactase, sucrase and alkaline phosphatase (AP) were studied in intestinal brush border membranes of control and toxin-treated rabbits. Purified Shiga toxin (Stx) exposure to ileal mucosa inhibited activities of brush border enzymes by 50%. Kinetic analysis revealed that the observed decrease in BBM enzyme activities was due to reduced V(max) with no change in the affinity constants of the systems. The observed changes in enzyme activities were corroborated by Western Blot analysis of lactase, sucrase and AP. The mRNA levels encoding sucrase and lactase proteins in control and Shiga toxin-treated rabbit ileum did not show any change in the rabbit ileum. Histopathological analysis showed short, blunt villi with increased number of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria and extrusion of cells in to the lumen of Stx-treated rabbit ileum. The present findings suggest that Shiga toxin act by inhibiting protein synthesis of these brush border functional proteins beyond their transcriptional level and by the direct damage to intestinal epithelium, which could be implicated in the pathogenesis of diarrhea.

  19. High Temperature Brush Seal Tuft Testing of Selected Nickel-Chrome and Cobalt-Chrome Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fellenstein, James A.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Kenneth D.; Boyes, Esther

    1997-01-01

    The tribology of brush seals is of considerable interest to turbine engine designers because bristle wear continues to limit long term seal performance and life. To provide better materials characterization and foster the development of improved seals, NASA Lewis has developed a brush seal tuft tester. In this test, a 'paintbrush' sample tuft is loaded under constant contact pressure against the outside diameter of a rotating journal. With this configuration, load and friction are directly measured and accurate wear measurements are possible. Previously reported research using this facility showed excellent data repeatability and wear morphology similar to published seal data and dynamic rig tests. This paper is an update of the ongoing research into the tribology of brush seals. The effects of wire materials processing on seal wear and the tribological results for three journal coatings are discussed. Included in the materials processing were two nickel-chrome superalloys each processed to two different yield strengths. The results suggest that seal wear is dependent more on material composition than processing conditions.

  20. Toward Infection-Resistant Surfaces: Achieving High Antimicrobial Peptide Potency by Modulating the Functionality of Polymer Brush and Peptide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai; Lo, Joey C Y; Mei, Yan; Haney, Evan F; Siren, Erika; Kalathottukaren, Manu Thomas; Hancock, Robert E W; Lange, Dirk; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N

    2015-12-30

    Bacterial infection associated with indwelling medical devices and implants is a major clinical issue, and the prevention or treatment of such infections is challenging. Antimicrobial coatings offer a significant step toward addressing this important clinical problem. Antimicrobial coatings based on tethered antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on hydrophilic polymer brushes have been shown to be one of the most promising strategies to avoid bacterial colonization and have demonstrated broad spectrum activity. Optimal combinations of the functionality of the polymer-brush-tethered AMPs are essential to maintaining long-term AMP activity on the surface. However, there is limited knowledge currently available on this topic. Here we report the development of potent antimicrobial coatings on implant surfaces by elucidating the roles of polymer brush chemistry and peptide structure on the overall antimicrobial activity of the coatings. We screened several combinations of polymer brush coatings and AMPs constructed on nanoparticles, titanium surfaces, and quartz slides on their antimicrobial activity and bacterial adhesion against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Highly efficient killing of planktonic bacteria by the antimicrobial coatings on nanoparticle surfaces, as well as potent killing of adhered bacteria in the case of coatings on titanium surfaces, was observed. Remarkably, the antimicrobial activity of AMP-conjugated brush coatings demonstrated a clear dependence on the polymer brush chemistry and peptide structure, and optimization of these parameters is critical to achieving infection-resistant surfaces. By analyzing the interaction of polymer-brush-tethered AMPs with model lipid membranes using circular dichroism spectroscopy, we determined that the polymer brush chemistry has an influence on the extent of secondary structure change of tethered peptides before and after interaction with biomembranes. The peptide structure also has an influence on the density