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Sample records for 11a figure 11b

  1. Recycling and Endosomal Sorting of Protease-activated Receptor-1 Is Distinctly Regulated by Rab11A and Rab11B Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Grimsey, Neil J.; Coronel, Luisa J.; Cordova, Isabel Canto; Trejo, JoAnn

    2016-01-01

    Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that undergoes proteolytic irreversible activation by coagulant and anti-coagulant proteases. Given the irreversible activation of PAR1, signaling by the receptor is tightly regulated through desensitization and intracellular trafficking. PAR1 displays both constitutive and agonist-induced internalization. Constitutive internalization of PAR1 is important for generating an internal pool of naïve receptors that replenish the cell surface and facilitate resensitization, whereas agonist-induced internalization of PAR1 is critical for terminating G protein signaling. We showed that PAR1 constitutive internalization is mediated by the adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2), whereas AP-2 and epsin control agonist-induced PAR1 internalization. However, the mechanisms that regulate PAR1 recycling are not known. In the present study we screened a siRNA library of 140 different membrane trafficking proteins to identify key regulators of PAR1 intracellular trafficking. In addition to known mediators of PAR1 endocytosis, we identified Rab11B as a critical regulator of PAR1 trafficking. We found that siRNA-mediated depletion of Rab11B and not Rab11A blocks PAR1 recycling, which enhanced receptor lysosomal degradation. Although Rab11A is not required for PAR1 recycling, depletion of Rab11A resulted in intracellular accumulation of PAR1 through disruption of basal lysosomal degradation of the receptor. Moreover, enhanced degradation of PAR1 observed in Rab11B-deficient cells is blocked by depletion of Rab11A and the autophagy related-5 protein, suggesting that PAR1 is shuttled to an autophagic degradation pathway in the absence of Rab11B recycling. Together these findings suggest that Rab11A and Rab11B differentially regulate intracellular trafficking of PAR1 through distinct endosomal sorting mechanisms. PMID:26635365

  2. Ab initio quantum study of the photodynamics and absorption spectrum for the coupled 1(1)A2 and 1(1)B1 states of SO2.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, Camille; Komainda, Adrian; Taïeb, Richard; Köppel, Horst

    2013-01-28

    The nonadiabatic photoinduced dynamics occurring in the coupled 1(1)A(2) and 1(1)B(1) excited states of SO(2) is investigated using ab initio quantum dynamical methods. To this end, large scale calculations of the potential energy surfaces have been carried out at the multireference configuration interaction level. All vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecule are considered in the potential energy surface calculations and the quantum dynamical treatment. To deal with the symmetry-allowed conical intersection which occurs between the potential energy surfaces, we use the diabatic picture in the framework of regularized diabatic states. Wave-packet propagation on the coupled surfaces was performed and allowed to reproduce with good accuracy the complex absorption band observed experimentally in the 29,000-42,000 cm(-1) range. This provides a basis for a subsequent theoretical treatment of the high order harmonic spectra of SO(2).

  3. ATP11B Mediates Platinum Resistance in Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    A2780-CP20 cells (Supplemental Figure 7). To exam- ine the subcellular localization of ATP11B by immunofluorescence staining, we used specific cell...presence of 2 μM cisplatin, ATP11B was found in the nuclei of a limited number of cells. To further analyze the subcellular local - ization of ATP11B in the...TGN (27, 28). Our pharmacological studies demonstrated that both of these Figure 5 Subcellular localization of ATP11B in cisplatin-sensitive and

  4. PEX11B — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    PEX11B, or peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11 beta, is involved in peroxisomal proliferation and interacts with PEX19. PEX11B is located in the peroxisomal membrane and is thought to regulate peroxisome division by recruiting the dynamin-related GTPase DNM1L to the peroxisomal membrane.

  5. Radio Frequency Fingerprinting Techniques Through Preamble Modification in IEEE 802.11B

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-30

    David Bull, and Joseph McGeehan. “A Comparison of the HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a Wireless LAN Standards”, Communications Magazine , IEEE , vol. 40, no...RADIO FREQUENCY FINGERPRINTING TECHNIQUES THROUGH PREAMBLE MODIFICATION IN IEEE 802.11B THESIS Nicholas J. Kulesza, Captain, USAF AFIT–ENG–T–14–J–8...MODIFICATION IN IEEE 802.11B THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Graduate School of Engineering and Management

  6. Human-specific gene ARHGAP11B promotes basal progenitor amplification and neocortex expansion.

    PubMed

    Florio, Marta; Albert, Mareike; Taverna, Elena; Namba, Takashi; Brandl, Holger; Lewitus, Eric; Haffner, Christiane; Sykes, Alex; Wong, Fong Kuan; Peters, Jula; Guhr, Elaine; Klemroth, Sylvia; Prüfer, Kay; Kelso, Janet; Naumann, Ronald; Nüsslein, Ina; Dahl, Andreas; Lachmann, Robert; Pääbo, Svante; Huttner, Wieland B

    2015-03-27

    Evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex reflects increased amplification of basal progenitors in the subventricular zone, producing more neurons during fetal corticogenesis. In this work, we analyze the transcriptomes of distinct progenitor subpopulations isolated by a cell polarity-based approach from developing mouse and human neocortex. We identify 56 genes preferentially expressed in human apical and basal radial glia that lack mouse orthologs. Among these, ARHGAP11B has the highest degree of radial glia-specific expression. ARHGAP11B arose from partial duplication of ARHGAP11A (which encodes a Rho guanosine triphosphatase-activating protein) on the human lineage after separation from the chimpanzee lineage. Expression of ARHGAP11B in embryonic mouse neocortex promotes basal progenitor generation and self-renewal and can increase cortical plate area and induce gyrification. Hence, ARHGAP11B may have contributed to evolutionary expansion of human neocortex.

  7. Study of the 11 B(p,p‧ γ) 11 B reaction for PIGE applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preketes-Sigalas, K.; Lagoyannis, A.; Axiotis, M.; Harissopulos, S.; Kokkoris, M.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Paneta, V.; Provatas, G.

    2016-02-01

    The differential cross sections of the 2125 keV γ -ray, emitted by the 11 B(p,p‧ γ) 11 B reaction were measured at six (6) angles and at proton energies from 2.5 to 5.0 MeV. The experimental setup consisted of three (3) 100% relative efficiency HPGe detectors placed on a motorized turntable. The comparison between the present measurements, which have an overall uncertainty of ∼ 8%, and previous ones from literature gives contradictory results. While there are large differences with previous differential cross-section measurements from literature, there is good agreement with previous thick-target yield ones. Additional thick-target measurements were performed in an effort to explain the observed discrepancies.

  8. [Isolation and functional analysis of GsTIFY11b relevant to salt and alkaline stress from Glycine soja].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Yan-Ming; Cai, Hua; Li, Yong; Ji, Wei; Chen, Chao; An, Lin; Zhu, Yi

    2012-02-01

    Using homologous cloning and RT-PCR technology, we isolated a novel TIFY family gene, GsTIFY11b, from Glycine soja L. G07256, a species that is tolerant to saline and alkaline environments. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GsTIFY11b was closely related to AtTIFY11a with 56% similarity in amino acid identity. Protein sequence analysis showed that GsTIFY11b protein also had conserved TIFY domain, N-terminal domain, and a C-terminal Jas motif. Quantitative realtime PCR analysis indicated that the expression of GsTIFY11b was induced by both saline and alkaline stresses. Two homozygous GsTIFY11b over-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis lines were obtained. Phenotypic analysis of the transgenic and wild-type Arabidopsis indicated that over-expressing GsTIFY11b in Arabidopsis did not enhance plant tolerance to saline and alkaline stresses, whereas it showed an increased sensitivity to saline stress during seed germination and seedling development. Expression analysis of saline stress response marker genes in transgenic and wild-type plants under stress condition indicated that GsTIFY11b regulated the expression of RD29B, KIN1, and DREB. The transient expression of a GsTIFY11b-GFP fusion protein in onion epidermal cells showed that GsTIFY11b was localized to the nucleus, suggesting a role as a transcriptional regulator in the saline stress response pathway.

  9. PRELIMINARY PROJECT PLAN FOR LANSCE INTEGRATED FLIGHT PATHS 11A, 11B, 12, and 13

    SciTech Connect

    D. H. BULTMAN; D. WEINACHT - AIRES CORP.

    2000-08-01

    This Preliminary Project Plan Summarizes the Technical, Cost, and Schedule baselines for an integrated approach to developing several flight paths at the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. For example, the cost estimate is intended to serve only as a rough order of magnitude assessment of the cost that might be incurred as the flight paths are developed. Further refinement of the requirements and interfaces for each beamline will permit additional refinement and confidence in the accuracy of all three baselines (Technical, Cost, Schedule).

  10. Heavy ion collision dynamics of 10,11B+10,11B reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, BirBikram; Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Varinderjit; Gupta, Raj K.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamical cluster-decay model (DCM) of Gupta and collaborators has been applied successfully to the decay of very-light (A ˜ 30), light (A ˜ 40-80), medium, heavy and super-heavy mass compound nuclei for their decay to light particles (evaporation residues, ER), fusion-fission (ff), and quasi-fission (qf) depending on the reaction conditions. We intend to extend here the application of DCM to study the extreme case of decay of very-light nuclear systems 20,21,22Ne∗ formed in 10,11B+10,11B reactions, for which experimental data is available for their binary symmetric decay (BSD) cross sections, i.e., σBSD. For the systems under study, the calculations are presented for the σBSD in terms of their preformation and barrier penetration probabilities P0 and P. Interesting results are that in the decay of such lighter systems there is a competing reaction mechanism (specifically, the deep inelastic orbiting of non-compound nucleus (nCN) origin) together with ff. We have emipirically estimated the contribution of σnCN. Moreover, the important role of nuclear structure characteristics via P0 as well as angular momentum ℓ in the reaction dynamics are explored in the study.

  11. A single splice site mutation in human-specific ARHGAP11B causes basal progenitor amplification

    PubMed Central

    Florio, Marta; Namba, Takashi; Pääbo, Svante; Hiller, Michael; Huttner, Wieland B.

    2016-01-01

    The gene ARHGAP11B promotes basal progenitor amplification and is implicated in neocortex expansion. It arose on the human evolutionary lineage by partial duplication of ARHGAP11A, which encodes a Rho guanosine triphosphatase–activating protein (RhoGAP). However, a lack of 55 nucleotides in ARHGAP11B mRNA leads to loss of RhoGAP activity by GAP domain truncation and addition of a human-specific carboxy-terminal amino acid sequence. We show that these 55 nucleotides are deleted by mRNA splicing due to a single C→G substitution that creates a novel splice donor site. We reconstructed an ancestral ARHGAP11B complementary DNA without this substitution. Ancestral ARHGAP11B exhibits RhoGAP activity but has no ability to increase basal progenitors during neocortex development. Hence, a single nucleotide substitution underlies the specific properties of ARHGAP11B that likely contributed to the evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex. PMID:27957544

  12. The promoter of the CD11b gene directs myeloid-specific and developmentally regulated expression.

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, C S; Arnaout, M A

    1991-01-01

    Human CD11b/CD18 (complement receptor type 3) is a member of the beta 2 integrin subfamily which also includes the heterodimers CD11a/CD18 and CD11c/CD18. The CD11 molecules and the common CD18 are the products of different genes that exhibit distinct though overlapping patterns of tissue- and developmental-specific expression. Whereas expression of CD11b and CD11c is almost exclusively restricted to cells of the myeloid lineage, that of CD11a and CD18 is panleukocytic. To begin to understand the mechanisms by which expression of these gene products is restricted to leukocytes and leukocyte subpopulations and to elucidate the mechanisms by which their expression is coordinated, we have cloned and characterized the promoter region of the CD11b gene. A single transcription initiation site has been identified and the region extending 242 base pairs upstream and 71 base pairs downstream of this site has been shown to be sufficient to direct tissue-, cell-, and development-specific expression in vitro, which mimics that of the CD11b gene in vivo. Within this region there are potential binding sites for transcription factors known to be involved in hematopoietic-specific and phorbol ester-inducible gene expression. Further analysis of this region of the CD11b gene and comparison with the promoters of the CD11a, CD11c, and CD18 genes should lead to significant insights into the molecular mechanisms by which these genes are regulated during hematopoietic development and upon activation. Images PMID:1683702

  13. Effects of CD11b/18 monoclonal antibody on rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, J. H.; Liu, K. F.; Bree, M. P.

    1996-01-01

    The progression of a lesion from ischemic injury to infarct, after the permanent occlusion of a middle cerebral artery, may be influenced by the influx of leukocytes into the ischemic territory. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of treating rats that had permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion with a single dose of an anti-CD11b/18 monoclonal antibody injected 1 hour after the arterial occlusion. To mimic the clinical situation of patients with ischemic strokes who may be treated within 1 hour of the ischemic event, the artery remained occluded. Forty-one adult Wistar rats had permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, and one was subjected to a sham operation. One hour later, 22 rats received CD11b/18 monoclonal antibody and an additional 20 were injected either with a nonspecific antibody (n = 10) or a buffer solution (n = 10). Experiments were terminated at intervals ranging 12 to 96 hours after the arterial occlusion. Endpoints included neurological testing, daily evaluation of body weight, counts of white blood cells in the peripheral blood, measurement of the area of pallor in the ischemic hemisphere, counts of necrotic neurons, and counts of leukocytes sequestered in the ischemic hemisphere. In experiments terminated 12 hours after the arterial occlusion (n = 4), there were fewer necrotic neurons in the group treated with the CD11b/18 monoclonal antibody compared with the two controls (P < .05), but this difference was not reflected in the neurological scores. Numbers of necrotic neurons in experiments terminated > 12 hours later were not different among the three subgroups. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood were lower in animals with arterial occlusion injected with the monoclonal antibody CD11b/18 (P < .05); numbers of leukocytes sequestered in the ischemic hemisphere were not different in the three groups. Neither changes in body weight nor in the volume of the area of pallor were significantly different among the three groups. Images

  14. Go Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Describes the first assignment for an intermediate oil painting class in which the students painted the human figure. Explains that the assignment involved three techniques: (1) abstract application of acrylic paint; (2) oil "Paintstiks" from Shiva; and (3) a final layer of actual oil paint. (CMK)

  15. A record of Neogene seawater δ11B reconstructed from paired δ11B analyses on benthic and planktic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenop, Rosanna; Hain, Mathis P.; Sosdian, Sindia M.; Oliver, Kevin I. C.; Goodwin, Philip; Chalk, Thomas B.; Lear, Caroline H.; Wilson, Paul A.; Foster, Gavin L.

    2017-02-01

    The boron isotope composition (δ11B) of foraminiferal calcite reflects the pH and the boron isotope composition of the seawater the foraminifer grew in. For pH reconstructions, the δ11B of seawater must therefore be known, but information on this parameter is limited. Here we reconstruct Neogene seawater δ11B based on the δ11B difference between paired measurements of planktic and benthic foraminifera and an estimate of the coeval water column pH gradient from their δ13C values. Carbon cycle model simulations underscore that the ΔpH-Δδ13C relationship is relatively insensitive to ocean and carbon cycle changes, validating our approach. Our reconstructions suggest that δ11Bsw was ˜ 37.5 ‰ during the early and middle Miocene (roughly 23-12 Ma) and rapidly increased during the late Miocene (between 12 and 5 Ma) towards the modern value of 39.61 ‰. Strikingly, this pattern is similar to the evolution of the seawater isotope composition of Mg, Li and Ca, suggesting a common forcing mechanism. Based on the observed direction of change, we hypothesize that an increase in secondary mineral formation during continental weathering affected the isotope composition of riverine input to the ocean since 14 Ma.

  16. High-Throughput Screening based Identification of Small Molecule Antagonists of Integrin CD11b/CD18 Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Maiguel, Dony; Brown, Brock T.; Suyama, Eigo; Barth, Constantinos J.; Hedrick, Michael; Vasile, Stefan; Sergienko, Eduard; Schürer, Stephan; Gupta, Vineet

    2010-01-01

    Binding of leukocyte specific integrin CD11b/CD18 to its physiologic ligands is important for the development of normal immune response in vivo. Integrin CD11b/CD18 is also a key cellular effector of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, small molecules selectively inhibiting the function of integrin CD11b/CD18 are currently lacking. We used a newly described cell-based high throughput screening assay to identify a number of highly potent antagonists of integrin CD11b/CD18 from chemical libraries containing >100,000 unique compounds. Computational analyses suggest that the identified compounds cluster into several different chemical classes. A number of the newly identified compounds blocked adhesion of wild-type mouse neutrophils to CD11b/CD18 ligand fibrinogen. Mapping the most active compounds against chemical fingerprints of known antagonists of related integrin CD11a/CD18 shows little structural similarity, suggesting that the newly identified compounds are novel and unique. PMID:20188705

  17. Breadboard RL10-11B low thrust operating mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kmiec, Thomas D.; Galler, Donald E.

    1987-01-01

    Cryogenic space engines require a cooling process to condition engine hardware to operating temperature before start. This can be accomplished most efficiently by burning propellants that would otherwise be dumped overboard after cooling the engine. The resultant low thrust operating modes are called Tank Head Idle and Pumped Idle. During February 1984, Pratt & Whitney conducted a series of tests demonstrating operation of the RL10 rocket engines at low thrust levels using a previously untried hydrogen/oxygen heat exchanger. The initial testing of the RL10-11B Breadboard Low Thrust Engine is described. The testing demonstrated operation at both tank head idle and pumped idle modes.

  18. Common polymorphisms in the CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 genes: evidence for a digenic influence on hypertension.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Madrazo, Samantha; Mackenzie, Scott M; Davies, Eleanor; Fraser, Robert; Lee, Wai-Kwong; Brown, Morris; Caulfield, Mark J; Dominiczak, Anna F; Farrall, Martin; Lathrop, Mark; Hedner, Thomas; Melander, Olle; Munroe, Patricia B; Samani, Nilesh; Stewart, Paul M; Wahlstrand, Björn; Webster, John; Palmer, Colin N A; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Connell, John M

    2013-01-01

    The locus encompassing the corticosteroidogenic genes CYP11B2 and CYP11B1 is of potential importance in essential hypertension. We analyzed the association of polymorphisms at this locus with risk of essential hypertension, using 2 white case-control collections for discovery (n=3340) and confirmation (n=2929). Single-marker and haplotype analyses were performed, with the CYP11B2 Intron 2 Conversion polymorphism showing strongest association with hypertension in both cohorts and in combined analysis (odds ratio=1.16, P=8.54×10(-5)). The CYP11B1 ACA haplotype associated with increased risk of hypertension relative to the alternative, GTC (odds ratio=1.11; P=7.4×10(-3)), whereas the CYP11B2 TWtC haplotype seemed protective relative to the contrasting CConvT (odds ratio=0.88, P=2.2×10(-3)). Analysis spanning the whole CYP11B1/CYP11B2 locus showed that haplotypes associated with raised risk of hypertension tend to coexist. Functional analysis of heterozygous human adrenal tissue demonstrated decreased CYP11B2 expression and increased CYP11B1 expression for those alleles associating with reduced risk of hypertension. These results confirm the hypertensive influence of this locus, with data suggesting a complex digenic mechanism whereby altered relative CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 gene expression could have a chronic effect on enzyme activity and corticosteroid synthesis.

  19. Exoplanet HAT-P-11b Secondary Transit Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Richard K., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    We have conducted secondary eclipse observations of exoplanet HAT--11b, recently discovered by proposal G. Bakos and his colleagues. HAT-P-11b is the smallest transiting extrasolar planet yet found and one of only two known exo-Neptunes. We have observed the system at 3.6 microns for a period of 22 hours centered on the anticipated secondary eclipse time, to detect the eclipse and determine its phase. Once the secondary eclipse is located through analysis of the data, we will make a more focused series of observations in both the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands to fully characterize it. HAT-P-1lb has a period of 4.8878 days, radius of 0.422 RJ, mass of 0.081 MJ and semi major axis 0.053 AU. Measurements of the secondary eclipse will clarify two key issues; 1) the planetary brightness temperature and the nature of its atmosphere, and 2) the eccentricity of its orbit, with implications for its dynamical evolution. A precise determination of the orbit phase for the secondary eclipse will also be of great utility for Kepler observations of this system at visible wavelengths.

  20. Development of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 assays utilizing homogenates of adrenal glands: Utility of monkey as a surrogate for human.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Matthew A; Csengery, Alexander; Schmenk, Jennifer; Frederick, Kosea

    2015-11-01

    Elevated levels of aldosterone are associated with arterial hypertension, congestive heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and obesity. Aldosterone is produced predominantly in the zona glomerulosa of the cortex of the adrenal gland by the enzyme aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). Treatment of the above indications by decreasing production of aldosterone is thought to be of therapeutic benefit by lessening the deleterious effects of aldosterone mediated through both the mineralocorticoid receptor and also through so called non-genomic pathways. However, inhibition of the highly similar enzyme, CYP11B1, which is responsible for the production of cortisol, must be avoided in the development of clinically useful aldosterone synthase inhibitors due to the resulting impairment of the cortisol-induced stress response. In efforts to assess the interactions of compounds with the CYP11B enzymes, a variety of cell-based inhibitor screening assays for both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 have been reported. Herein we report details of assays employing both cynomolgus monkey adrenal homogenate (CAH) and human adrenal homogenate (HAH) as sources of CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 enzymes. Utilizing both CAH and HAH, we have characterized the kinetics of the CYP11B1-mediated conversion of 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and the CYP11B2-mediated oxidation of corticosterone to aldosterone. Inhibition assays for both CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 were subsequently developed. Based on a comparison of human and monkey amino acid sequences, kinetics data, and inhibition values derived from the HAH and CAH assays, evidence is provided in support of using cynomolgus monkey tissue-derived cell homogenates as suitable surrogates for the human enzymes.

  1. Association of BAP31 with CD11b/CD18. Potential role in intracellular trafficking of CD11b/CD18 in neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Zen, Ke; Utech, Markus; Liu, Yuan; Soto, Illena; Nusrat, Asma; Parkos, Charles A

    2004-10-22

    The beta2 integrin CD11b/CD18 is an integral membrane protein that is present in the plasma membrane and secondary granules of neutrophils and functions as a major adhesion molecule. Upon cellular activation, there is translocation of intracellular pools of CD11b/CD18 to the plasma membrane in concert with enhanced cellular adhesion. Although much is known about the function of CD11b/CD18, how this protein is transported within the cell is less well defined. Here we report that CD11b/CD18 specifically binds to BAP31, a member of a novel class of sorting proteins regulating cellular anterograde transport. Through experiments aimed at identifying CD11b/CD18-binding proteins, we produced a monoclonal antibody termed E1B2 that recognizes a 28-kDa membrane protein that co-precipitates with CD11b/CD18. Microsequence analysis of the E1B2 antigen revealed that it is BAP31. Co-association of CD11b/CD18 and BAP31 was confirmed in co-immunoprecipitation and protein binding assays. Additional experiments revealed that the binding of BAP31 to CD11b/CD18 was not dependent on divalent cations nor mediated by the I-domain of CD11b. Using glutathione S-transferase fusion chimeras, we determined that binding of CD11b/CD18 to BAP31 is mediated through interactions with the cytoplasmic tail of BAP31. Immunolocalization studies revealed colocalization of BAP31 and CD11b/CD18 within neutrophil secondary granules. Subcellular fractionation studies in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) revealed similar patterns of redistribution of BAP31 and CD11b/CD18 from fractions enriched in secondary granules to the plasma membrane following stimulation with formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMLP). Given the known sorting properties of BAP31, these findings suggest that BAP31 may play a role in regulating intracellular trafficking of CD11b/CD18 in neutrophils.

  2. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann

    2012-02-01

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  3. A putative 6‐transmembrane nitrate transporter OsNRT1.1b plays a key role in rice under low nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Huimin; Tan, Yawen; Xu, Yanling; Miao, Qisong; Xu, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract OsNRT1.1a is a low‐affinity nitrate (NO3 −) transporter gene. In this study, another mRNA splicing product, OsNRT1.1b, putatively encoding a protein with six transmembrane domains, was identified based on the rice genomic database and bioinformatics analysis. OsNRT1.1a/OsNRT1.1b expression in Xenopus oocytes showed OsNRT1.1a‐expressing oocytes accumulated 15N levels to about half as compared to OsNRT1.1b‐expressing oocytes. The electrophysiological recording of OsNRT1.1b‐expressing oocytes treated with 0.25 mM NO3 − confirmed 15N accumulation data. More functional assays were performed to examine the function of OsNRT1.1b in rice. The expression of both OsNRT1.1a and OsNRT1.1b was abundant in roots and downregulated by nitrogen (N) deficiency. The shoot biomass of transgenic rice plants with OsNRT1.1a or OsNRT1.1b overexpression increased under various N supplies under hydroponic conditions compared to wild‐type (WT). The OsNRT1.1a overexpression lines showed increased plant N accumulation compared to the WT in 1.25 mM NH4NO3 and 2.5 mM NO3 – or NH4 + treatments, but not in 0.125 mM NH4NO3. However, OsNRT1.1b overexpression lines increased total N accumulation in all N treatments, including 0.125 mM NH4NO3, suggesting that under low N condition, OsNRT1.1b would accumulate more N in plants and improve rice growth, but also that OsNRT1.1a had no such function in rice plants. PMID:26220694

  4. All about Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1993-01-01

    Uses diagrams and text to illustrate the use of Lissajous figures (the figures that are traced out when two simple harmonic motions are combined at right angles to each other) in teaching basic physics concepts. Covers the mathematics of the Lissajous Figure; demonstrating Lissajous Figures; and a typical class. (ZWH)

  5. Study of rlastic and inelastic {sup 11}B +α scattering and search for cluster states of enlarged radius in {sup 11}B

    SciTech Connect

    Danilov, A. N. Demyanova, A. S.; Dmitriev, S. V.; Ogloblin, A. A.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Goncharov, S. A.; Gurov, Yu. B.; Maslov, V. A.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Trzaska, W.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Heikkinen, P.; Julin, R.; Tyurin, G. P.; Burtebaev, N.; Zholdybayev, T.

    2015-09-15

    The differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic {sup 11}B + α scattering were measured at the alpha-particle energy of 65 MeV, the inelastic-scattering processes leading to the excitation of known states of {sup 11}B up to excitation energies of about 14 MeV. Data on elastic scattering were analyzed together with those that were published earlier for lower energies. The cross sections for inelastic scattering were analyzed on the basis of the distorted-wave method. A modified diffractionmodel was used to determine the root-mean-square radii of excited states. The radii of states whose excitation energies were below about 7MeV were found to agree with radius of the ground state to within 0.1 to 0.15 fm. This result complieswith the traditional idea that the low-lying states of {sup 11}B have a shell structure. The possibility that these states belong to the predicted rotational bands, which, if any, are truncated to three states, cannot be ruled out either. The majority of the observed highly excited states are distributed among four rotational bands. The moments of inertia of these bands are close; for the band based on the 3/2{sup −} state at E* = 8.56 MeV, they are even higher than those of the Hoyle state in the {sup 12}C nucleus. The measured radii of states associated with these bands of {sup 11}B are larger than the ground-state radius by 0.7 to 1.0 fm and are also close to the radius of the Hoyle state. The results of the present study agree with the existing predictions that the cluster structure of the {sup 11}B nucleus is diverse at high excitation energies. The hypothesis that the {sup 11}B nucleus features a “giant” state of size commensurate with those in heavy nuclei was not confirmed.

  6. CD11b is protective in complement-mediated immune complex glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jessy J; Chaves, Lee D; Chang, Anthony; Jacob, Alexander; Ritchie, Maria; Quigg, Richard J

    2015-05-01

    In chronic serum sickness, glomerular immune complexes form, yet C57BL/6 mice do not develop glomerulonephritis unless complement factor H (CfH) is absent, indicating the relevance of complement regulation. Complement receptor 3 (CD11b) and Fcγ receptors on leukocytes, and CfH on platelets, can bind immune complexes. Here we induced immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis in CfH(-/-) mice chimeric for wild-type, CfH(-/-), CD11b(-/-), or FcRγ(-/-) bone marrow stem cells. Glomerulonephritis was worse in CD11b(-/-) chimeras compared with all others, whereas disease in FcRγ(-/-) and wild-type chimeras was comparable. Disease tracked strongly with humoral immune responses, but not glomerular immune complex deposits. Interstitial inflammation with M1 macrophages strongly correlated with glomerulonephritis scores. CD11b(-/-) chimeras had significantly more M1 macrophages and CD4(+) T cells. The renal dendritic cell populations originating from bone marrow-derived CD11c(+) cells were similar in all experimental groups. CD11b(+) cells bearing colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor were present in kidneys, including CD11b(-/-) chimeras; these cells correlated negatively with glomerulonephritis scores. Thus, experimental immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis is associated with accumulation of M1 macrophages and CD4(+) T cells in kidneys and functional renal insufficiency. Hence, CD11b on mononuclear cells is instrumental in generating an anti-inflammatory response in the inflamed kidney.

  7. Extracellular Release of CD11b by TLR9 Stimulation in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongbum; Kim, Te Ha; Wu, Guang; Park, Byoung Kwon; Ha, Ji-Hee; Kim, Yong-Sung; Lee, Keunwook; Lee, Younghee; Kwon, Hyung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    CpG-DNA upregulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cell surface markers. Investigators have shown that CD11b (integrin αM) regulates TLR-triggered inflammatory responses in the macrophages and dendritic cells. Therefore, we aimed to identify the effects of CpG-DNA on the expression of CD11b in macrophages. There was no significant change in surface expression of CD11b after CpG-DNA stimulation. However, CD11b was released into culture supernatants after stimulation with phosphorothioate-backbone modified CpG-DNA such as PS-ODN CpG-DNA 1826(S). In contrast, MB-ODN 4531 and non-CpG-DNA control (regardless of backbone type and liposome-encapsulation) failed to induce release of CD11b. Therefore, the context of the CpG-DNA sequence and phosphorothioate backbone modification may regulate the effects of CpG-DNA on CD11b release. Based on inhibitor studies, CD11b release is mediated by p38 MAP kinase activation, but not by the PI3K and NF-κB activation. CD11b release is mediated by lysosomal degradation and by vacuolar acidification in response to CpG-DNA stimulation. The amount of CD11b in the exosome precipitant was significantly increased by CpG-DNA stimulation in vivo and in vitro depending on TLR9. Our observations perhaps give more insight into understanding of the mechanisms involved in CpG-DNA-induced immunomodulation in the innate immunity.

  8. Characterization of a novel monoclonal antibody with restricted specificity to the free beta 2 integrin alpha M CD11b subunit.

    PubMed

    Tanfous, Naouel Guedel-Ben; Essafi, Makram; Larguech, Beya; Barbouche, Ridha; Fathallah, Dahmani M

    2007-12-01

    Leukocyte cell surface expression and function of beta2 integrins require the intracellular association of alpha subunits, CD11a, b, c, d, respectively, with the common CD18 beta2 subunit. We have raised and characterized a murine MAb -- ME-MDF -- directed against the low affinity form of the human integrin alphaM subunit CD11b A-domain. MAb ME-MDF is an IgG2a that has a kDa of 2,45461 +/- 0.12 x 10(-9) M. MAb ME-MDF recognizes both the low and high affinity forms of the CD11b A-domain. Flow cytometry showed that ME-MDF does not recognize the heterodimeric CD11b/CD18 molecule at the surface of polymorphonuclear cells and the human monoblast cell line U937. Western blot analysis of U937 cell line cell surface proteins demonstrated that ME-MDF reacts specifically with the CD11b subunit but does not react with the heterodimeric CD11b/CD18 complex, a feature that differentiates it from other CD11b A-dom-specific MAbs. These observations suggest that ME-MDF recognizes an epitope that is involved in the association of the two subunits and hence is not accessible within the heterodimeric form of the CD11b/CD18 molecule. These data show that the CD11b A-dom engages not only the MIDAS but also the ME-MDF-specific epitope to associate with the CD18 subunit. We have also constructed, and expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris, the corresponding recombinant scFv form of MAb ME-MDF and characterized the CDRs. MAb ME-MDF is characterized by short VH and VL CDR3. MAb ME-MDF and/or its recombinant scFv form would be very useful to study the structural basis of the association between the alpha and beta2 integrin subunits and to investigate the possibility of modulating CR3 cell surface expression by preventing subunit association.

  9. Asynchronous combinatorial action of four regulatory factors activates Bcl11b for T cell commitment

    PubMed Central

    Kueh, Hao Yuan; Yui, Mary A.; Ng, Kenneth K.H.; Pease, Shirley S.; Zhang, Jingli A.; Damle, Sagar S.; Freedman, George; Siu, Sharmayne; Bernstein, Irwin D.; Elowitz, Michael B.; Rothenberg, Ellen V.

    2016-01-01

    During T cell development, multipotent progenitors relinquish competence for other fates and commit to the T cell lineage by turning on the transcription factor Bcl11b. To clarify lineage commitment mechanisms, we followed developing T cells at single-cell level using Bcl11b knock-in fluorescent reporter mice. Notch signaling and Notch-activated transcription factors collaborate to activate Bcl11b expression, irrespective of Notch-dependent proliferation. These inputs work via three distinct, asynchronous mechanisms: an early locus poising function dependent on TCF-1 and GATA-3; a stochastic permissivity function dependent on Notch signaling; and a separate amplitude-control function dependent on Runx1, a factor already present in multipotent progenitors. Despite all being necessary for Bcl11b activation, these inputs act in a stage specific manner, providing a multi-tiered mechanism for developmental gene regulation. PMID:27376470

  10. Boric Acid Adsorption onto Humic Acids: Structures, Stabilities, 11B NMR and 11B,10B Isotopic Fractionations of Surface Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tossell, J. A.

    2006-05-01

    Boric acid, B(OH)3, forms complexes in aqueous solution with a number of bidentate O-containing ligands, L- 2, such as C2O4-2 (oxalate), C3H2O4-2 (malonate), C2H4O2-2 (glycolate), C6H4O2-2 (catecholate) and C10H6O2-2 (dioxynaphthalene). McElligot and Byrne (1998) have also found it to form a complex with CO3-2. Recently Lemarchand, et al. (2005) have studied the formation of surface complexes of B(OH)3 on humic acid, determining formation constants, 11B NMR shifts and 11B,10B isotope fractionations for a number of such complexes. This helps to clarify both the interaction of boric acid with the humic acid and the nature of the coordinating sites on the humic acid. The determination of isotope fractionations may be seen as a form of vibrational spectroscopy, using the fractionating element as a local probe of the vibrational spectrum which determines the fractionation. We have calculated quantum mechanically the structures, stabilities, vibrational spectra, 11B NMR spectra and 11B,110B isotope fractionations of a number of complexes B(OH)2L- formed by reactions of the type: B(OH)3 + HL- ? B(OH)2L- + H2O (1) using the 6-311G(d,p) B3LYP method for structures and isotopic fractionations, the highly accurate Complete Basis Set-QB3 method for energetics and the GIAO HF method with a 6-311+G(2d,p) basis for the NMR shieldings. Oxalic acid, malonic acid and catechol all form stable complexes (?G<0 for reaction 1),which are deshielded (less negative ?) vs. B(OH)4- by 2.7, 0.6 and 5.6 ppm, respectively, and which are isotopically lighter than B(OH)4- (more negative ? 11B) by 3, 2 and 5 ‰, respectively. The calculated 11B NMR shifts match well with the results of Lemarchand, et al. (2005) while the calculated isotopic fractionations are qualitatively consistent with their results, but show much smaller deviations from B(OH)4-. This is probably a consequence of the use by these authors of a value of 1.0194 (Kakihana, et al., 1977) for the 11B,10B isotopic exchange

  11. Migration of CD11b+ accessory cells during murine lung regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chamoto, Kenji; Gibney, Barry C; Lee, Grace S; Ackermann, Maximilian; Konerding, Moritz A; Tsuda, Akira; Mentzer, Steven J

    2013-05-01

    In many mammalian species, the removal of one lung leads to growth of the remaining lung to near-baseline levels. In studying post-pneumonectomy mice, we used morphometric measures to demonstrate neoalveolarization within 21 days of pneumonectomy. Of note, the detailed histology during this period demonstrated no significant pulmonary inflammation. To identify occult blood-borne cells, we used a parabiotic model (wild-type/GFP) of post-pneumonectomy lung growth. Flow cytometry of post-pneumonectomy lung digests demonstrated a rapid increase in the number of cells expressing the hematopoietic membrane molecule CD11b; 64.5% of the entire GFP(+) population were CD11b(+). Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the CD11b(+) peripheral blood cells migrated into both the interstitial tissue and alveolar airspace compartments. Pneumonectomy in mice deficient in CD11b (CD18(-/-) mutants) demonstrated near-absent leukocyte migration into the airspace compartment (p<.001) and impaired lung growth as demonstrated by lung weight (p<.05) and lung volume (p<.05). Transcriptional activity of the partitioned CD11b(+) cells demonstrated significantly increased transcription of Angpt1, Il1b, and Mmp8, Mmp9, Ncam1, Sele, Sell, Selp in the alveolar airspace and Adamts2, Ecm1, Egf, Mmp7, Npr1, Tgfb2 in the interstitial tissue (>4-fold regulation; p<.05). These data suggest that blood-borne CD11b(+) cells represent a population of accessory cells contributing to post-pneumonectomy lung growth.

  12. BCL11B expression in intramembranous osteogenesis during murine craniofacial suture development.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Greg; van Bakel, Harm; Zhou, Xueyan; Losic, Bojan; Jabs, Ethylin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Sutures, where neighboring craniofacial bones are separated by undifferentiated mesenchyme, are major growth sites during craniofacial development. Pathologic fusion of bones within sutures occurs in a wide variety of craniosynostosis conditions and can result in dysmorphic craniofacial growth and secondary neurologic deficits. Our knowledge of the genes involved in suture formation is poor. Here we describe the novel expression pattern of the BCL11B transcription factor protein during murine embryonic craniofacial bone formation. We examined BCL11B protein expression at E14.5, E16.5, and E18.5 in 14 major craniofacial sutures of C57BL/6J mice. We found BCL11B expression to be associated with all intramembranous craniofacial bones examined. The most striking aspects of BCL11B expression were its high levels in suture mesenchyme and increasingly complementary expression with RUNX2 in differentiating osteoblasts during development. BCL11B was also expressed in mesenchyme at the non-sutural edges of intramembranous bones. No expression was seen in osteoblasts involved in endochondral ossification of the cartilaginous cranial base. BCL11B is expressed to potentially regulate the transition of mesenchymal differentiation and suture formation within craniofacial intramembranous bone.

  13. BCL11B expression in intramembranous osteogenesis during murine craniofacial suture development

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Greg; van Bakel, Harm; Zhou, Xueyan; Losic, Bojan; Jabs, Ethylin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Sutures, where neighboring craniofacial bones are separated by undifferentiated mesenchyme, are major growth sites during craniofacial development. Pathologic fusion of bones within sutures occurs in a wide variety of craniosynostosis conditions and can result in dysmorphic craniofacial growth and secondary neurologic deficits. Our knowledge of the genes involved in suture formation is poor. Here we describe the novel expression pattern of the BCL11B transcription factor protein during murine embryonic craniofacial bone formation. We examined BCL11B protein expression at E14.5, E16.5, and E18.5 in 14 major craniofacial sutures of C57BL/6J mice. We found BCL11B expression to be associated with all intramembranous craniofacial bones examined. The most striking aspects of BCL11B expression were its high levels in suture mesenchyme and increasingly complementary expression with RUNX2 in differentiating osteoblasts during development. BCL11B was also expressed in mesenchyme at the non-sutural edges of intramembranous bones. No expression was seen in osteoblasts involved in endochondral ossification of the cartilaginous cranial base. BCL11B is expressed to potentially regulate the transition of mesenchymal differentiation and suture formation within craniofacial intramembranous bone. PMID:25511173

  14. (11)B MAS NMR and First-Principles Study of the [OBO3] Pyramids in Borates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bing; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Biao-Chun; Mi, Jin-Xiao; Laskowski, Robert; Terskikh, Victor; Zhang, Xi; Yang, Lingyun; Botis, Sanda M; Sherriff, Barbara L; Pan, Yuanming

    2016-03-07

    Borates are built from the [Bϕ3] planar triangles and the [Bϕ4] tetrahedral groups, where ϕ denotes O or OH. However, the [Bϕ4] groups in some borates are highly distorted to include three normal B-O bonds and one anomalously long B-O bond and, therefore, are best described as the [OBO3] pyramids. Four synthetic borates of the boracite-type structures (Mg3B7O13Br, Cu3B7O13Br, Zn3B7O13Cl, and Mg3B7O13Cl) containing a range of [OBO3] pyramids were investigated by multifield (7.05, 14.1, and 21.1 T) (11)B magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR), triple quantum (3Q) MAS NMR experiments, as well as density functional theory calculations. The high-resolution (11)B MAS NMR spectra supported by theoretical predictions show that the [OBO3] pyramids are characterized by isotropic chemical shifts δiso((11)B) from 1.4(1) to 4.9(1) ppm and nuclear quadrupole parameters CQ((11)B) up to 1.3(1) MHz, both significantly different from those of the [BO4] and [BO3] groups in borates. These δiso((11)B) and CQ((11)B) values indicate that the [OBO3] pyramids represent an intermediate state between the [BO4] tetrahedra and [BO3] triangles and demonstrate that the (11)B NMR parameters of four-coordinate boron oxyanions are sensitive to local structural environments. The orientation of the calculated unique electronic field gradient tensor element Vzz of the [OBO3] pyramids is aligned approximately along the direction of the anomalously long B-O bond, corresponding to B-2pz with the lowest electron density.

  15. Boric acid adsorption on humic acids: Ab initio calculation of structures, stabilities, 11B NMR and 11B, 10B isotopic fractionations of surface complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tossell, J. A.

    2006-10-01

    Boric acid, B(OH) 3, forms complexes in aqueous solution with a number of bidentate O-containing ligands, HL -, where H 2L is C 2O 4H 2 (oxalic acid), C 3O 4H 4 (malonic acid), C 2H 6O 2 (ethylene glycol), C 6H 6O 2 (catechol), C 10H 8O 2 (dioxynaphthalene) and C 2O 3H 4 (glycolic acid). McElligott and Byrne [McElligott, S., Byrne, R.H., 1998. Interaction of B(OH)30 and HCO3- in seawater: Formation of B(OH)CO3-. Aquat. Geochem.3, 345-356.] have also found B(OH) 3 to form an aqueous complex with HCO3-1. Recently Lemarchand et al. [Lemarchand, E., Schott, J., Gaillardeet, J., 2005. Boron isotopic fractionation related to boron sorption on humic acid and the structure of surface complexes formed. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta69, 3519-3533] have studied the formation of surface complexes of B(OH) 3 on humic acid, determining 11B NMR shifts and fitted values of formation constants, and 11B, 10B isotope fractionations for a number of surface complexation models. Their work helps to clarify both the nature of the interaction of boric acid with the functional groups in humic acid and the nature of some of these coordinating sites on the humic acid. The determination of isotope fractionations may be seen as a form of vibrational spectroscopy, using the fractionating element as a local probe of the vibrational spectrum. We have calculated quantum mechanically the structures, stabilities, vibrational spectra, 11B NMR spectra and 11B, 10B isotope fractionations of a number of complexes B(OH) 2L - formed by reactions of the type: B(OH)3+HL-⇒B(OH)2L+HO using a 6-311G(d,p) basis set and the B3LYP method for determination of structures, vibrational frequencies and isotopic fractionations, the highly accurate Complete Basis Set-QB3 method for calculating the free energies and the GIAO HF method with a 6-311+G(2d,p) basis for the NMR shieldings. The calculations indicate that oxalic acid, malonic acid, catechol and glycolic acid all form stable complexes (Δ G < 0 for Reaction (1

  16. CD11b(+) Mononuclear Cells Mitigate Hyperoxia-Induced Lung Injury in Neonatal Mice.

    PubMed

    Eldredge, Laurie C; Treuting, Piper M; Manicone, Anne M; Ziegler, Steven F; Parks, William C; McGuire, John K

    2016-02-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common consequence of life-saving interventions for infants born with immature lungs. Resident tissue myeloid cells regulate lung pathology, but their role in BPD is poorly understood. To determine the role of lung interstitial myeloid cells in neonatal responses to lung injury, we exposed newborn mice to hyperoxia, a neonatal mouse lung injury model with features of human BPD. In newborn mice raised in normoxia, we identified a CD45(+) F4/80(+) CD11b(+), Ly6G(lo-int) CD71(+) population of cells in lungs of neonatal mice present in significantly greater percentages than in adult mice. In response to hyperoxia, surface marker and gene expression in whole lung macrophages/monocytes was biased to an alternatively activated phenotype. Partial depletion of these CD11b(+) mononuclear cells using CD11b-diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor transgenic mice resulted in 60% mortality by 40 hours of hyperoxia exposure with more severe lung injury, perivascular edema, and alveolar hemorrhage compared with DT-treated CD11b-DT receptor-negative controls, which displayed no mortality. These results identify an antiinflammatory population of CD11b(+) mononuclear cells that are protective in hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury in mice, and suggest that enhancing their beneficial functions may be a treatment strategy in infants at risk for BPD.

  17. 11B and constraints on neutrino oscillations and spectra from neutrino nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Austin, Sam M; Heger, Alexander; Tur, Clarisse

    2011-04-15

    We study the sensitivity to variations in the triple-alpha and 12C(α,γ)16O reaction rates, of the yield of the neutrino-process isotopes 7Li, 11B, 19F, 138La, and 180Ta in core-collapse supernovae. Compared to solar abundances, less than 15% of 7Li, about 25%-80% of 19F, and about half of 138La is produced in these stars. Over a range of ±2σ for each helium-burning rate, 11B is overproduced and the yield varies by an amount larger than the variation caused by the effects of neutrino oscillations. The total 11B yield, however, may eventually provide constraints on supernova neutrino spectra.

  18. One-two step transfer observed in 16O+11B nuclear system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Sh.; Burtebayev, N.

    2015-06-01

    The angular distribution measurements for 16O ion beam elastically scattered from 11B target of thickness 32.9μg/cm2 at energy 22.4 MeV had been performed in the cyclotron DC-60 INP NNC RK. The previous measurements for 16O+11B nuclear system at energies 27, 30, 32.5 and 35 MeV showed an increase in the differential cross-section at backward angles due to the contribution of cluster transfer. Such transfer process could not be described in terms of optical model (OM); it could be described within the framework of distorted wave Born approximation method implemented in FRESCO code. Both one (5Li) and two-step transfer (proton transfer followed by Alpha transfer) were taken into considerations. We have extracted the spectroscopic amplitude (SA) for the configuration 16O→11B+5Li.

  19. Hypertonicity Compromises Renal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Signaling through Tis11b-Mediated Post-Transcriptional Control

    PubMed Central

    Viengchareun, Say; Lema, Ingrid; Lamribet, Khadija; Keo, Vixra; Blanchard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mediates the Na+-retaining action of aldosterone. MR is highly expressed in the distal nephron, which is submitted to intense variations in extracellular fluid tonicity generated by the corticopapillary gradient. We previously showed that post-transcriptional events control renal MR abundance. Here, we report that hypertonicity increases expression of the mRNA-destabilizing protein Tis11b, a member of the tristetraprolin/ZFP36 family, and thereby, decreases MR expression in renal KC3AC1 cells. The 3′-untranslated regions (3′-UTRs) of human and mouse MR mRNA, containing several highly conserved adenylate/uridylate-rich elements (AREs), were cloned downstream of a reporter gene. Luciferase activities of full-length or truncated MR Luc-3′-UTR mutants decreased drastically when cotransfected with Tis11b plasmid, correlating with an approximately 50% shorter half-life of ARE-containing transcripts. Using site-directed mutagenesis and RNA immunoprecipitation, we identified a crucial ARE motif within the MR 3′-UTR, to which Tis11b must bind for destabilizing activity. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments suggested that endogenous Tis11b physically interacts with MR mRNA in KC3AC1 cells, and Tis11b knockdown prevented hypertonicity-elicited repression of MR. Moreover, hypertonicity blunted aldosterone-stimulated expression of glucocorticoid-induced leucine-zipper protein and the α-subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel, supporting impaired MR signaling. Challenging the renal osmotic gradient by submitting mice to water deprivation, diuretic administration, or high-Na+ diet increased renal Tis11b and decreased MR expression, particularly in the cortex, thus establishing a mechanistic pathway for osmotic regulation of MR expression in vivo. Altogether, we uncovered a mechanism by which renal MR expression is regulated through mRNA turnover, a post-transcriptional control that seems physiologically relevant. PMID:24700863

  20. Facts and Figures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Saves Lives Facts & Figures My Blood, Your Blood Blood Donation Types Did you know there is more than one type of blood donation? Learn more about blood donation types here. Blood Safety and Testing The blood supply ...

  1. Multisystem Anomalies in Severe Combined Immunodeficiency with Mutant BCL11B.

    PubMed

    Punwani, Divya; Zhang, Yong; Yu, Jason; Cowan, Morton J; Rana, Sadhna; Kwan, Antonia; Adhikari, Aashish N; Lizama, Carlos O; Mendelsohn, Bryce A; Fahl, Shawn P; Chellappan, Ajithavalli; Srinivasan, Rajgopal; Brenner, Steven E; Wiest, David L; Puck, Jennifer M

    2016-12-01

    Background Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by arrested T-lymphocyte production and by B-lymphocyte dysfunction, which result in life-threatening infections. Early diagnosis of SCID through population-based screening of newborns can aid clinical management and help improve outcomes; it also permits the identification of previously unknown factors that are essential for lymphocyte development in humans. Methods SCID was detected in a newborn before the onset of infections by means of screening of T-cell-receptor excision circles, a biomarker for thymic output. On confirmation of the condition, the affected infant was treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Exome sequencing in the patient and parents was followed by functional analysis of a prioritized candidate gene with the use of human hematopoietic stem cells and zebrafish embryos. Results The infant had "leaky" SCID (i.e., a form of SCID in which a minimal degree of immune function is preserved), as well as craniofacial and dermal abnormalities and the absence of a corpus callosum; his immune deficit was fully corrected by hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Exome sequencing revealed a heterozygous de novo missense mutation, p.N441K, in BCL11B. The resulting BCL11B protein had dominant negative activity, which abrogated the ability of wild-type BCL11B to bind DNA, thereby arresting development of the T-cell lineage and disrupting hematopoietic stem-cell migration; this revealed a previously unknown function of BCL11B. The patient's abnormalities, when recapitulated in bcl11ba-deficient zebrafish, were reversed by ectopic expression of functionally intact human BCL11B but not mutant human BCL11B. Conclusions Newborn screening facilitated the identification and treatment of a previously unknown cause of human SCID. Coupling exome sequencing with an evaluation of candidate genes in human hematopoietic stem cells and in zebrafish revealed that a constitutional

  2. An update on 11B,10B fractionation in the fundamental reaction: 10B(OH)3 + 11B(OH)4- = 11B(OH)3 + 10B(OH)4-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, K.; Tossell, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    It has recently been demonstrated experimentally by Byrne, et al. (2006) and Klochko, et al. (2006) that the equilibrium constant for the isotopic exchange reaction: 10B(OH)3 + 11B(OH)4- = 11B(OH)3 + 10B(OH)4- (1) has a value around 1.027 for seawater at 25°C, for total B concentrations from 0.01 to 0.05 molal. These experimental studies involved essentially the accurate determination of the small pKa difference between the 11B and 10B isotopomers of boric acid. This new equilibrium constant value is significantly higher than the traditional value of 1.0194 from Kakihana, et al. (1977). This result has been obscured in recent controversies (Honisch, et al., 2007). The new value agrees well with the ab initio quantum cluster calculated values of Liu and Tossell (2005) and with the ab initio MD harmonic values of Rustad and Bylaska (2007). We will present additional calculations supporting and extending the study of Liu and Tossell (2005) and will discuss the general unsuitability of methods such as Sanchez-Valle, et al. (2005) which employ experimental spectral data. We have also established that polyborate formation in solutions as concentrated as 0.50 molal total B has little effect on the equilibrium constant. A mechanism is also presented for the interaction of B(OH)3 and B(OH)4- with HCO3- species occurring on the calcite surface. References: Byrne, et al. Deep-Sea Research I (2006) 53, 684-688. Honisch, et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2007) 71, 1636-1641. Kakihana, et al. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. (1977) 50, 158-163. Klochko, et al. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (2006) 248, 276-285. Liu and Tossell Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2005) 69, 3995-4006. Rustad and Bylaska J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2007) 129, 2222-2223. Sanchez-Valle, et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2005) 69, 4301-4313.

  3. Bcl11b: A New Piece to the Complex Puzzle of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Neuropathogenesis?

    PubMed

    Lennon, Matthew J; Jones, Simon P; Lovelace, Michael D; Guillemin, Gilles J; Brew, Bruce J

    2016-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an idiopathic, fatal, neurodegenerative disease of the human motor system. The pathogenesis of ALS is a topic of fascinating speculation and experimentation, with theories revolving around intracellular protein inclusions, mitochondrial structural issues, glutamate excitotoxicity and free radical formation. This review explores the rationale for the involvement of a novel protein, B-cell lymphoma/leukaemia 11b (Bcl11b) in ALS. Bcl11b is a multifunctional zinc finger protein transcription factor. It functions as both a transactivator and genetic suppressor, acting both directly, binding to promoter regions, and indirectly, binding to promoter-bound transcription factors. It has essential roles in the differentiation and growth of various cells in the central nervous system, immune system, integumentary system and cardiovascular system, to the extent that Bcl11b knockout mice are incompatible with extra-uterine life. It also has various roles in pathology including the suppression of latent retroviruses, thymic tumourigenesis and neurodegeneration. In particular its functions in neurodevelopment, viral latency and T-cell development suggest potential roles in ALS pathology.

  4. Military Wireless LAN Based on IEEE 802.11b Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    802.11b Standard RTO-MP-IST-054 P2 - 3 UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED 3.0 POSSIBLE ADAPTATION APROACHES Adaptation of WLAN can...of their flexibility and wide range of possible adaptations. According to their frequency ranges, spreading methods and communication architecture

  5. Evaluation of CD11b expression on peripheral blood neutrophils for early detection of neonatal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Adib, Minoo; Ostadi, Vajiheh; Navaei, Fakhri; Saheb Fosoul, Fereshteh; Oreizi, Farzad; Shokouhi, Raheleh; Bakhshiani, Zahra

    2007-06-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a disease of infants who are less than 1 month of age. These infants are clinically ill, and their blood culture are positive for bacteria. The reported incidence of neonatal sepsis for all infants is 1 to 10 per 1000 live births. The mortality rate is 4.2-26%. The clinical signs are not specific and diagnosis of neonatal sepsis is one of the most difficult tasks in clinical medicine. The aim of this work was determination of CD11b sensitivity and specificity for early detection of neonatal sepsis. We studied 65 neonates with gestational age of 27 to 38 weeks who were suspected for sepsis within the 28 days of life. Whole blood was obtained from neonates to determine CD11b expression on peripheral blood neutrophils by flow cytometry. C-Reactive protein (CRP) was measured qualitatively. Neonates were divided into two groups. Classification was based on the result of the blood culture. In the sepsis group all of the neonates (n=8) showed positive blood culture and clinical symptoms. In the suspected group (n=57) the neonates showed clinical signs but blood cultures were negative. Sensitivity and specificity of CD11b were 75%, 100% respectively. Also positive and negative predictive values of CD11b were 100% and 86% respectively. Results of present study and previous studies showed that measurement of neutrophil surface markers can be useful for diagnosis of infection in the early phases. Also, the quantitative measurement of CRP in addition to CD11b further enhances the ability to diagnose infections and improves sensitivity and negative predictive value by 100%.

  6. TNFRSF11B gene polymorphisms, bone mineral density, and fractures in Slovak postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Boroňová, Iveta; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Mačeková, Soňa; Petrejčíková, Eva; Tomková, Zlatica; Kľoc, Ján; Poráčová, Janka; Blaščáková, Marta Mydlárová; Litavcová, Eva

    2015-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease that is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), deterioration in bone microarchitecture, and increased fracture risk. Due to its important role in bone biology, the TNFRSF11B gene, coding for OPG, has been considered as a candidate gene for osteoporosis. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) A163G, T245G, and G1181C (rs3102735, rs3134069, and rs2073618, respectively) within the TNFRSF11B gene were studied for association with BMD and fracture incidence in a cohort of 327 postmenopausal Slovak women. Genomic DNA was extracted and purified from peripheral blood leukocytes by the commercial kit JetQuick (Genomed GmbH, Germany) using a standard protocol. Genotyping was performed using the Custom TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assays. The lumbar L1-L4 spine BMD (g/cm(2)) and T-score in the subgroup of Slovak postmenopausal women with osteoporotic fractures were significantly lower than those in the subgroup of women without fracture (p = 0.0025; p = 0.0009). We identified the T245G (rs3134069) polymorphism in the TNFRSF11B gene associated with osteoporotic fractures (vertebral fractures: p = 0.0320; non-vertebral fractures: p = 0.0005; all fractures: 0.0000). The polymorphism T245G (rs3134069) in the TNFRSF11B gene could be used together with other genetic markers to identify individuals at high risk of osteoporotic fractures. The results from the present study provided more evidence to reveal the role of TNFRSF11B gene polymorphisms in BMD and the risk of osteoporotic fractures.

  7. Activated CD11b+ CD15+ Granulocytes Increase in the Blood of Patients with Uveal Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Kyle C.; Beatty, Kelly M.; Bilonick, Richard A.; Schoenfield, Lynn; Lathrop, Kira L.; Singh, Arun D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether activated CD11b+ CD15+ granulocytes increase in the blood of patients with uveal melanoma. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated by density gradient centrifugation from the blood of patients with primary choroidal/ciliochoroidal uveal melanomas (six women, four men; age range, 46–91 years) and healthy control donors (14 women, 10 men; age range, 50 – 81 years). The expression of CD15 and CD68 on CD11b+ myeloid cells within PBMCs and primary uveal melanomas was evaluated by flow cytometry. CD3ζ chain expression by CD3ε+ T cells in PBMCs and within primary uveal melanomas was measured as an indirect indication of T-cell function. Results The percentage of CD11b+ cells in PBMCs of patients with uveal melanoma increased 1.8-fold in comparison to healthy donors and comprised three subsets: CD68 negative CD15+ granulocytes, which increased 4.1-fold; CD68− CD15− cells, which increased threefold; and CD68+ CD15low cells, which were unchanged. A significant (2.7-fold) reduction in CD3ζ chain expression on CD3ε+ T cells, a marker of T-cell dysfunction, was observed in PBMCs of patients with uveal melanoma in comparison with healthy control subjects and correlated significantly with the percentage of CD11b+ cells in PBMCs. CD3ζ chain expression on T cells within primary tumors was equivalent to CD3ζ expression in PBMCs of the same patient in four of five patients analyzed. Conclusions Activated CD11b+ CD15+ granulocytes expand in the blood of patients with uveal melanoma and may contribute to immune evasion by ocular tumors by inhibiting T-cell function via decreasing CD3ζ chain expression. PMID:19369244

  8. Construction of 3D models of the CYP11B family as a tool to predict ligand binding characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Marijn P. A.; Pieterse, Koen; Hilbers, Peter A. J.; Plate, Ralf; Custers, Erica; de Gooyer, Marcel; Smits, Jos F. M.; Beugels, Ilona; Emmen, Judith; Ottenheijm, Harry C. J.; Leysen, Dirk; Hermans, J. J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Aldosterone is synthesised by aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2). CYP11B2 has a highly homologous isoform, steroid 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), which is responsible for the biosynthesis of aldosterone precursors and glucocorticoids. To investigate aldosterone biosynthesis and facilitate the search for selective CYP11B2 inhibitors, we constructed three-dimensional models for CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 for both human and rat. The models were constructed based on the crystal structure of Pseudomonas Putida CYP101 and Oryctolagus Cuniculus CYP2C5. Small steric active site differences between the isoforms were found to be the most important determinants for the regioselective steroid synthesis. A possible explanation for these steric differences for the selective synthesis of aldosterone by CYP11B2 is presented. The activities of the known CYP11B inhibitors metyrapone, R-etomidate, R-fadrazole and S-fadrazole were determined using assays of V79MZ cells that express human CYP11B1 and CYP11B2, respectively. By investigating the inhibitors in the human CYP11B models using molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations we were able to predict a similar trend in potency for the inhibitors as found in the in vitro assays. Importantly, based on the docking and dynamics simulations it is possible to understand the enantioselectivity of the human enzymes for the inhibitor fadrazole, the R-enantiomer being selective for CYP11B2 and the S-enantiomer being selective for CYP11B1. PMID:17646925

  9. Figurative Language Awards Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Lisa

    Figurative language enlivens a text, providing visuals in the minds of readers. This lesson will have students listening to and reading selected texts as they seek out their favorite literary devices. During the five to seven 50-minute sessions, grade three through five students will: acquire a clear understanding of the concept of figurative…

  10. OECD in Figures, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "OECD in Figures" is a primary statistical source for key data on OECD countries, ranging from economic growth and employment to inflation, trade and environment. Information is presented in tabular form for: (1) Demography and Health; (2) Economy; (3) Energy; (4) Labour; (5) Science and Technology; (6) Environment; (7) Education; (8)…

  11. Improved Superconducting properties in the Mg(11)B2 low activation superconductor prepared by low-temperature sintering.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M; Somer, M

    2016-05-05

    Mg(11)B2 has a great application prospect in the superconducting coils for fusion reactor as the "low activation superconductors". The un-doped Mg(11)B2 and Cu-doped Mg(11)B2 bulks using (11)B as a boron precursor were fabricated by low-temperature sintering in present work. It was found that the prepared Mg(11)B2 low activation superconductors exhibit better Jc performance than all of other Mg(11)B2 samples reported in previous studies. As for Cu doped Mg(11)B2, minor Cu addition can obviously improve the Mg(11)B2 grain crystallization and reduce the amount of MgO impurity. Hence, improved grain connectivity and higher Jc at low fields is obtained in Cu doped Mg(11)B2 samples. For un-doped samples, refined grains and more MgO impurity with proper size brought about more flux pinning centers, resulting in better Jc performance at high fields.

  12. Improved Superconducting properties in the Mg11B2 low activation superconductor prepared by low-temperature sintering

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M.; Somer, M.

    2016-01-01

    Mg11B2 has a great application prospect in the superconducting coils for fusion reactor as the “low activation superconductors”. The un-doped Mg11B2 and Cu-doped Mg11B2 bulks using 11B as a boron precursor were fabricated by low-temperature sintering in present work. It was found that the prepared Mg11B2 low activation superconductors exhibit better Jc performance than all of other Mg11B2 samples reported in previous studies. As for Cu doped Mg11B2, minor Cu addition can obviously improve the Mg11B2 grain crystallization and reduce the amount of MgO impurity. Hence, improved grain connectivity and higher Jc at low fields is obtained in Cu doped Mg11B2 samples. For un-doped samples, refined grains and more MgO impurity with proper size brought about more flux pinning centers, resulting in better Jc performance at high fields. PMID:27149682

  13. Performance Evolution of IEEE 802.11b Wireless Local Area Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Deepak; Singhal, Ankur

    2011-12-01

    The Wireless network can be employed to connect wired network to the wireless network. Wireless local area networks (WLAN) are more bandwidth limited as compared to the wired networks because they rely on an inexpensive, but error prone, physical medium (air). Hence it is important to evaluate their performance. This paper presents a study of IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN (WLAN). The performance evaluation has been presented via a series of test with different parameters such as data rate, different number of nodes and physical characteristics. The different qualities of service parameter are chosen to be throughput, media access delay and dropped data packets. The simulation results show that an IEEE 802.11b WLAN can support up to 60 clients with modest throughput. Finally the results are compared to evaluate the performance of wireless local networks.

  14. Boron and diagenesis: Questioning the fidelity of Snowball δ11B excursions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, G. L.; Stewart, J.; Gutjahr, M.; Pearce, F.; Swart, P. K.

    2014-12-01

    Large negative carbon (δ13C) and boron (δ11B) isotope excursions (both >6‰) within the widely distributed Neoproterozoic "Snowball Earth" cap carbonates are interpreted as evidence for considerable perturbation of the carbon cycle and the associated reduction, then recovery of global ocean pH. Yet, before conclusive interpretations may be drawn, isotopic data must first be shown to be primary in origin and non-diagenetic. Recent studies of Quaternary carbonate platform sediments from a number of locations worldwide reveal δ13C excursions of similar magnitude and distribution to the "Snowball Earth" excursions. However, these recent analogues were formed following eustatic sea level fall and exposure of recent carbonates to meteoric diagenesis (Swart and Kennedy, 2012). Here we present δ11B and B/Ca data from Pleistocene-aged carbonate platform sediments recovered by the Clino Core from the Bahamas to examine the effects of diagenesis on the boron system. We find that within the interval of meteoric diagenesis the δ11B of bulk carbonate is substantially reduced by approximately 6‰ in conjunction with a drop in B/Ca of 90%. These isotopic and elemental down-core patterns are strikingly similar to those reported for δ11B and B/Ca in the cap carbonates of the Neoproterozoic snowball Earth events (Kasemann et al., 2005; Kasemann et al., 2010). Our results may therefore question the primary nature of "Snowball Earth" isotope excursions. We recommend more rigorous assessment of the diagenetic history of these ancient carbonates to ensure palaeoclimatological interpretations are robust.

  15. Conditional Deletion of Hsd11b2 in the Brain Causes Salt Appetite and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Louise C.; Ivy, Jessica R.; Wyrwoll, Caitlin; McNairn, Julie A.; Menzies, Robert I.; Christensen, Thorbjørn H.; Al-Dujaili, Emad A.S.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Mullins, John J.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Holmes, Megan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background— The hypertensive syndrome of Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2), allowing inappropriate activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor by endogenous glucocorticoid. Hypertension is attributed to sodium retention in the distal nephron, but 11βHSD2 is also expressed in the brain. However, the central contribution to Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess and other hypertensive states is often overlooked and is unresolved. We therefore used a Cre-Lox strategy to generate 11βHSD2 brain-specific knockout (Hsd11b2.BKO) mice, measuring blood pressure and salt appetite in adults. Methods and Results— Basal blood pressure, electrolytes, and circulating corticosteroids were unaffected in Hsd11b2.BKO mice. When offered saline to drink, Hsd11b2.BKO mice consumed 3 times more sodium than controls and became hypertensive. Salt appetite was inhibited by spironolactone. Control mice fed the same daily sodium intake remained normotensive, showing the intrinsic salt resistance of the background strain. Dexamethasone suppressed endogenous glucocorticoid and abolished the salt-induced blood pressure differential between genotypes. Salt sensitivity in Hsd11b2.BKO mice was not caused by impaired renal sodium excretion or volume expansion; pressor responses to phenylephrine were enhanced and baroreflexes impaired in these animals. Conclusions— Reduced 11βHSD2 activity in the brain does not intrinsically cause hypertension, but it promotes a hunger for salt and a transition from salt resistance to salt sensitivity. Our data suggest that 11βHSD2-positive neurons integrate salt appetite and the blood pressure response to dietary sodium through a mineralocorticoid receptor–dependent pathway. Therefore, central mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism could increase compliance to low-sodium regimens and help blood pressure management in cardiovascular disease. PMID

  16. Induction of Atrial Fibrillation by Neutrophils Critically Depends on CD11b/CD18 Integrins

    PubMed Central

    Remane, Lisa; Mollenhauer, Martin; Rudolph, Volker; Rudolph, Tanja K.; Andrié, René P.; Stöckigt, Florian; Schrickel, Jan W.; Ravekes, Thorben; Deuschl, Florian; Nickenig, Georg; Willems, Stephan; Baldus, Stephan; Klinke, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent observational clinical and ex-vivo studies suggest that inflammation and in particular leukocyte activation predisposes to atrial fibrillation (AF). However, whether local binding and extravasation of leukocytes into atrial myocardium is an essential prerequisite for the initiation and propagation of AF remains elusive. Here we investigated the role of atrial CD11b/CD18 mediated infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) for the susceptibility to AF. Methods and Results C57bl/6J wildtype (WT) and CD11b/CD18 knock-out (CD11b−/−) mice were treated for 14 days with subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II (Ang II), a known stimulus for PMN activation. Atria of Ang II-treated WT mice were characterized by increased PMN infiltration assessed in immunohistochemically stained sections. In contrast, atrial sections of CD11b−/− mice lacked a significant increase in PMN infiltration upon Ang II infusion. PMN infiltration was accompanied by profoundly enhanced atrial fibrosis in Ang II treated WT as compared to CD11b−/− mice. Upon in-vivo electrophysiological investigation, Ang II treatment significantly elevated the susceptibility for AF in WT mice if compared to vehicle treated animals given an increased number and increased duration of AF episodes. In contrast, animals deficient of CD11b/CD18 were entirely protected from AF induction. Likewise, epicardial activation mapping revealed decreased electrical conduction velocity in atria of Ang II treated WT mice, which was preserved in CD11b−/− mice. In addition, atrial PMN infiltration was enhanced in atrial appendage sections of patients with persistent AF as compared to patients without AF. Conclusions The current data critically link CD11b-integrin mediated atrial PMN infiltration to the formation of fibrosis, which promotes the initiation and propagation of AF. These findings not only reveal a mechanistic role of leukocytes in AF but also point towards a potential novel avenue of

  17. Linking CD11b+ Dendritic Cells and Natural Killer T Cells to Plaque Inflammation in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rombouts, Miche; Ammi, Rachid; Van Brussel, Ilse; Roth, Lynn; De Winter, Benedicte Y.; Vercauteren, Sven R.; Hendriks, Jeroen M. H.; Lauwers, Patrick; Van Schil, Paul E.; De Meyer, Guido R. Y.; Fransen, Erik; Cools, Nathalie; Schrijvers, Dorien M.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death and disability in our Western society. To investigate whether the dynamics of leukocyte (sub)populations could be predictive for plaque inflammation during atherosclerosis, we analyzed innate and adaptive immune cell distributions in blood, plaques, and lymphoid tissue reservoirs in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice and in blood and plaques from patients undergoing endarterectomy. Firstly, there was predominance of the CD11b+ conventional dendritic cell (cDC) subset in the plaque. Secondly, a strong inverse correlation was observed between CD11b+ cDC or natural killer T (NKT) cells in blood and markers of inflammation in the plaque (including CD3, T-bet, CCR5, and CCR7). This indicates that circulating CD11b+ cDC and NKT cells show great potential to reflect the inflammatory status in the atherosclerotic plaque. Our results suggest that distinct changes in inflammatory cell dynamics may carry biomarker potential reflecting atherosclerotic lesion progression. This not only is crucial for a better understanding of the immunopathogenesis but also bares therapeutic potential, since immune cell-based therapies are emerging as a promising novel strategy in the battle against atherosclerosis and its associated comorbidities. The cDC-NKT cell interaction in atherosclerosis serves as a good candidate for future investigations. PMID:27051078

  18. Detection of the Secondary Eclipse of Exoplanet HAT P-11b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, R. K.; Deming, L. D.; Bakos, G.; Harrington, J.; Madhusudhan, N.; Noyes, R.; Seager, S.

    2010-01-01

    We have successfully conducted secondary eclipse observations of exoplanet HAT-P-11b using the Spitzer Space Telescope. HAT-P-11b was, until very recently, the smallest transiting extrasolar planet yet found and one of only two known exo-Neptunes. We observed the system at 3.6 microns for a period of 22 hours centered on the anticipated secondary eclipse time, to detect the eclipse and determine its phase. Having detected the secondary eclipse, we are at present making a more focused series of observations in both the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands to fully characterize it. HAT-P-11b has a period of 4.8878 days, radius of 0.422 RJ, mass of 0.081 MJ and semi-major axis 0.053 AU. Measurements of the secondary eclipse will serve to clarify two key issues; 1) the planetary brightness temperature and the nature of its atmosphere, and 2) the eccentricity of its orbit, with implications for its dynamical evolution. A precise determination of the orbit phase for the secondary eclipse will also be of great utility for Kepler observations of this system at visible wavelengths.

  19. Wireless Coexistence and EMC of Bluetooth and 802.11b Devices in Controlled Laboratory Settings.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Seth; Kainz, Wolfgang; Ruggera, Paul; Mendoza, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experimental testing that has been performed on wireless communication devices as victims of electromagnetic interference (EMI). Wireless victims included universal serial bus (USB) network adapters and personal digital assistants (PDAs) equipped with IEEE 802.11b and Bluetooth technologies. The experimental data in this paper was gathered in an anechoic chamber and a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell to ensure reliable and repeatable results. This testing includes: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing performed in accordance with IEC 60601-1-2, an in-band sweep of EMC testing, and coexistence testing. The tests in this study show that a Bluetooth communication was able to coexist with other Bluetooth devices with no decrease in throughput and no communication breakdowns. However, testing revealed a significant decrease in throughput and increase in communication breakdowns when an 802.11b source is near an 802.11b victim. In a hospital setting decreased throughput and communication breakdowns can cause wireless medical devices to fail. It is therefore vital to have an understanding of the effect EMI can have on wireless communication devices.

  20. Discovery of the secondary eclipse of HAT-P-11 b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, K. F.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2017-01-01

    We report the detection of the secondary eclipse of HAT-P-11 b, a Neptune-sized planet orbiting an active K4 dwarf. Using all available short-cadence data of the Kepler mission, we derive refined planetary ephemeris increasing their precision by more than an order of magnitude. Our simultaneous primary and secondary transit modeling results in improved transit and orbital parameters. In particular, the precise timing of the secondary eclipse allows to pin down the orbital eccentricity to . The secondary eclipse depth of ppm corresponds to a 5.5σ detection and results in a geometric albedo of 0.39 ± 0.07 for HAT-P-11 b, close to Neptune's value, which may indicate further resemblances between these two bodies. Due to the substantial orbital eccentricity, the planetary equilibrium temperature is expected to change significantly with orbital position and ought to vary between 630 K and 950 K, depending on the details of heat redistribution in the atmosphere of HAT-P-11 b.

  1. 17 CFR 274.11b - Form N-3, registration statement of separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as management investment companies. 274.11b Section 274.11b... accounts organized as management investment companies. Form N-3 shall be used as the registration statement... offer variable annuity contracts to register as management investment companies. This form shall also...

  2. 17 CFR 274.11b - Form N-3, registration statement of separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... statement of separate accounts organized as management investment companies. 274.11b Section 274.11b... accounts organized as management investment companies. Form N-3 shall be used as the registration statement... offer variable annuity contracts to register as management investment companies. This form shall also...

  3. BCL11B/CTIP2 is highly expressed in GABAergic interneurons of the mouse somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Nikouei, Kasra; Muñoz-Manchado, Ana B; Hjerling-Leffler, Jens

    2016-01-01

    In the nervous system, BCL11B is crucial for the development of deep layer corticospinal projection neurons and striatal medium spiny neurons and is often used as a marker for the aforementioned cell types. However, the expression of BCL11B in subtypes of non-excitatory neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) has not been reported in the mouse. In this study we show that BCL11B is extensively expressed in S1 GABAergic interneurons, throughout the three main subgroups (somatostatin-, parvalbumin- and 5HT3a-expresssing). Almost all BCL11B positive cells in the upper S1 layers were GABAergic interneurons and surprisingly, almost 40% of the BCL11B positive neurons in layer V were GABAergic interneurons. Single cell mRNA sequencing data revealed higher Bcl11b expression in S1 interneurons compared to deep layer pyramidal neurons. The highest levels of Bcl11b expression were found within the 5HT3a population, specifically in putative neurogliaform interneuron subclasses (5HT3a-positive but not expressing vasoactive intestinal peptide). In the light of our findings we suggest caution using BCL11B as a single marker to identify neurons.

  4. CD11b+Ly6G− myeloid cells mediate mechanical inflammatory pain hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemlou, Nader; Chiu, Isaac M.; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2015-01-01

    Pain hypersensitivity at the site of inflammation as a result of chronic immune diseases, pathogenic infection, and tissue injury is a common medical condition. However, the specific contributions of the innate and adaptive immune system to the generation of pain during inflammation have not been systematically elucidated. We therefore set out to characterize the cellular and molecular immune response in two widely used preclinical models of inflammatory pain: (i) intraplantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) as a model of adjuvant- and pathogen-based inflammation and (ii) a plantar incisional wound as a model of tissue injury-based inflammation. Our findings reveal differences in temporal patterns of immune cell recruitment and activation states, cytokine production, and pain in these two models, with CFA causing a nonresolving granulomatous inflammatory response whereas tissue incision induced resolving immune and pain responses. These findings highlight the significant differences and potential clinical relevance of the incisional wound model compared with the CFA model. By using various cell-depletion strategies, we find that, whereas lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus G (Ly)6G+CD11b+ neutrophils and T-cell receptor (TCR) β+ T cells do not contribute to the development of thermal or mechanical pain hypersensitivity in either model, proliferating CD11b+Ly6G− myeloid cells were necessary for mechanical hypersensitivity during incisional pain, and, to a lesser extent, CFA-induced inflammation. However, inflammatory (CCR2+Ly6Chi) monocytes were not responsible for these effects. The finding that a population of proliferating CD11b+Ly6G− myeloid cells contribute to mechanical inflammatory pain provides a potential cellular target for its treatment in wound inflammation. PMID:26598697

  5. Interactions between CYP11B2 Promoter Methylation and Smoking Increase Risk of Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Shuqi; Fan, Rui; Zhong, Fade; Zhu, Fubao; Hao, Lingmei

    2016-01-01

    Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is closely linked to essential hypertension (EH). However, it remains unclear whether the methylation of the CYP11B2 promoter is involved in the development of EH in humans. Our study is aimed at evaluating the contribution of CYP11B2 promoter methylation to the risk of EH. Methylation levels were measured using pyrosequencing technology in 192 participants in a hospital-based case-control study. Logistic regression and multiple linear regression analyses were utilized to adjust for confounding factors and the GMDR method was applied to investigate high-order gene-environment interactions. Although no significant result was observed linking the four analyzed CpG sites to EH, GMDR detected significant interactions among CpG1, CpG3, CpG4, and smoking correlated with an increased risk of EH (OR = 4.62, adjusted P = 0.011). In addition, CpG2 (adjusted P = 0.013) and CpG3 (adjusted P = 0.039) methylation was significantly lower in healthy males than in healthy females. Likewise, after adjusting for confounding factors, CpG2 methylation (adjusted P = 0.007) still showed significant gender-specific differences among the participants of the study. CpG1 (P = 0.009) site was significantly positively correlated with age, and CpG3 (P = 0.007) and CpG4 (P = 0.006) were both inversely linked to smoking. Our findings suggest that gene-environment interactions are associated with the pathogenesis and progression of EH. PMID:28078278

  6. CD11b is protective in complement-mediated immune complex glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Jessy J; Chaves, Lee D; Chang, Anthony; Jacob, Alexander; Ritchie, Maria; Quigg, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    In chronic serum sickness, glomerular immune complexes form, yet C57BL/6 mice do not develop glomerulonephritis unless complement factor H (CfH) is absent, indicating the relevance of complement regulation. Complement receptor 3 (CD11b) and Fcγ receptors on leukocytes, and CfH on platelets, can bind immune complexes. Here we induced immune complex–mediated glomerulonephritis in CfH−/− mice chimeric for wild-type, CfH−/−, CD11b−/−, or FcRγ−/− bone marrow stem cells. Glomerulonephritis was worse in CD11b−/− chimeras compared with all others, whereas disease in FcRγ−/− and wild-type chimeras was comparable. Disease tracked strongly with humoral immune responses, but not glomerular immune complex deposits. Interstitial inflammation with M1 macrophages strongly correlated with glomerulonephritis scores. CD11b−/− chimeras had significantly more M1 macrophages and CD4+ T cells. The renal dendritic cell populations originating from bone marrow–derived CD11c+ cells were similar in all experimental groups. CD11b+ cells bearing colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor were present in kidneys, including CD11b−/− chimeras; these cells correlated negatively with glomerulonephritis scores. Thus, experimental immune complex–mediated glomerulonephritis is associated with accumulation of M1 macrophages and CD4+ T cells in kidneys and functional renal insufficiency. Hence, CD11b on mononuclear cells is instrumental in generating an anti-inflammatory response in the inflamed kidney. PMID:25565310

  7. High resolution 11B NMR of magnesium diboride using cryogenic magic angle spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, Peter; Denning, Mark S.; Heinmaa, Ivo; Dimri, Mukesh C.; Young, Edward A.; Stern, Raivo; Carravetta, Marina

    2012-09-01

    Static and magic-angle spinning 11B nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data at 4.7 T and 8.5 T have been obtained under cryogenic conditions on a diluted sample of magnesium diboride powder in the normal and superconducting state. The data provide accurate information on the magnetic shift and longitudinal relaxation time down to a temperature of 8 K, with a resolution improvement over the entire temperature range. The onset of superconductivity is unaffected by the sample rotation, as revealed by a steep variation of the magnetic shift just below the critical temperature.

  8. Lunar Regolith Figures of Merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Scjrader. Cjrostoam; Jpe (zer. Jams); Fourroux, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the lunar regolith figures of merit. The contents include: 1) A quick review of Figures-of-Merit (FoM); 2) Software Implementation of FoM Algorithms; and 3) Demonstration of the Software.

  9. Structure‐function integrity of the adult hippocampus depends on the transcription factor Bcl11b/Ctip2

    PubMed Central

    Simon, R.; Baumann, L.; Fischer, J.; Seigfried, F. A.; De Bruyckere, E.; Liu, P.; Jenkins, N. A.; Copeland, N. G.; Schwegler, H.

    2016-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is one of the only two brain regions where adult neurogenesis occurs. Throughout life, cells of the neuronal stem cell niche undergo proliferation, differentiation and integration into the hippocampal neural circuitry. Ongoing adult neurogenesis is a prerequisite for the maintenance of adult hippocampal functionality. Bcl11b, a zinc finger transcription factor, is expressed by postmitotic granule cells in the developing as well as adult dentate gyrus. We previously showed a critical role of Bcl11b for hippocampal development. Whether Bcl11b is also required for adult hippocampal functions has not been investigated. Using a tetracycline‐dependent inducible mouse model under the control of the forebrain‐specific CaMKIIα promoter, we show here that the adult expression of Bcl11b is essential for survival, differentiation and functional integration of adult‐born granule cell neurons. In addition, Bcl11b is required for survival of pre‐existing mature neurons. Consequently, loss of Bcl11b expression selectively in the adult hippocampus results in impaired spatial working memory. Together, our data uncover for the first time a specific role of Bcl11b in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and function. PMID:26915960

  10. Association between TNFRSF11B gene polymorphisms and history of ischemic stroke in Italian diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Biscetti, Federico; Straface, Giuseppe; Giovannini, Silvia; Santoliquido, Angelo; Angelini, Flavia; Santoro, Luca; Porreca, Carlo Filippo; Pecorini, Giovanni; Ghirlanda, Giovanni; Flex, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a secretory glycoprotein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family and plays a role in atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to evaluate whether OPG gene (TNFRSF11B) polymorphisms are involved in ischemic stroke in an Italian population with diabetes. Participants in a retrospective case-control study included 364 diabetic patients (180 males, 184 females) with history of ischemic stroke and 492 diabetic subjects without history of ischemic stroke (252 males, 240 females). The T245G, T950C, and G1181C polymorphisms of the OPG gene were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. We found that the T245G, T950C, and G1181C gene polymorphisms of the OPG gene were significantly (34.1 vs. 9.5 %, P < 0.0001; 30.8 vs. 6.3 %, P < 0.0001 and 26.4 vs. 11.6 % P < 0.0001, respectively) and independently (adjusted OR 5.15 [3.46-7.68], OR 6.63 [4.26-10.31], and OR 3.03 [2.04-4.50], respectively) associated with history of ischemic stroke. We also found that these three polymorphisms act synergistically in patients with stroke history. The TNFRSF11B gene polymorphisms studied are associated with history of ischemic stroke and synergistic effects between these genotypes might be potential markers for cerebrovascular disorders.

  11. Is lightning a possible source of the radio emission on HAT-P-11b?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodosán, G.; Rimmer, P. B.; Helling, Ch.

    2016-09-01

    Lightning induced radio emission has been observed on Solar system planets. There have been many attempts to observe exoplanets in the radio wavelength, however, no unequivocal detection has been reported. Lecavelier des Etangs et al. carried out radio transit observations of the exoplanet HAT-P-11b, and suggested that a small part of the radio flux can be attributed to the planet. Here, we assume that this signal is real, and study if this radio emission could be caused by lightning with similar energetic properties like in the Solar system. We find that a lightning storm with 3.8 × 106 times larger flash densities than the Earth-storms with the largest lightning activity is needed to produce the observed signal from HAT-P-11b. The optical emission of such thunderstorm would be comparable to that of the host star. We show that HCN produced by lightning chemistry is observable 2-3 yr after the storm, which produces signatures in the L (3.0-4.0 μm) and N (7.5-14.5 μm) infrared bands. We conclude that it is unlikely that the observed radio signal was produced by lightning, however, future, combined radio and infrared observations may lead to lightning detection on planets outside the Solar system.

  12. The large conductance calcium-activated K(+) channel interacts with the small GTPase Rab11b.

    PubMed

    Sokolowski, Sophia; Harvey, Margaret; Sakai, Yoshihisa; Jordan, Amy; Sokolowski, Bernd

    2012-09-21

    The transduction of sound by the receptor or hair cells of the cochlea leads to the activation of ion channels found in the basal and lateral regions of these cells. Thus, the processing of these transduced signals to the central nervous system is tied to the regulation of baso-lateral ion channels. The large conductance calcium-activated potassium or BK channel was revealed to interact with the small GTPase, Rab11b, which is one of many Rabs found in various endosomal pathways. Immunoelectron microscopy showed the colocalization of these two proteins in receptor cells and auditory neurons. Using Chinese hamster ovary cells as a heterologous expression system, Rab11b increased or decreased BK expression, depending on the overexpression or RNAi knockdown of Rab, respectively. Additional mutation analyses, using a yeast two-hybrid assay, suggested that this GTPase moderately interacts within a region of BK exclusive of the N- or C-terminal tails. These data suggest that this small GTPase regulates BK in a slow recycling process through the endocytic compartment and to the plasmalemma.

  13. Implications of the Secondary Eclipse of Exoplanet HAT-P-11b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Richard K.; Deming, L. D.; Bakos, G.; Harrington, J.; Madhusudhan, N.; Noyes, R.; Seager, S.

    2010-01-01

    We observed exoplanet HAT-P-11b and have successfully detected its secondary eclipse. We conducted observations using the Spitzer Space Telescope in the post-cryo mission at 3.6 microns for a period of 22 hours centered on the anticipated secondary eclipse time, to detect the eclipse and determine its phase. Having detected the secondary eclipse, we are at present making a more focused series of observations in both the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands to fully characterize it. HAT-P-11b is one of only two known exo-Neptunes and has a period of 4.8878 days, radius of 0.422 RJ, mass of 0.081 MJ and semi-major axis 0.053 AU. Measurements of the secondary eclipse will serve to clarify two key issues; 1) the planetary brightness temperature and the nature of its atmosphere, and 2) the eccentricity of its orbit, with implications for its dynamical evolution. We discuss implications of these observations.

  14. The large conductance calcium-activated K+ channel interacts with the small GTPase Rab11b

    PubMed Central

    Sokolowski, Sophia; Harvey, Margaret; Sakai, Yoshihisa; Jordan, Amy; Sokolowski, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The transduction of sound by the receptor or hair cells of the cochlea leads to the activation of ion channels found in the basal and lateral regions of these cells. Thus, the processing of these transduced signals to the central nervous system is tied to the regulation of baso-lateral ion channels. The large conductance calcium-activated potassium or BK channel was revealed to interact with the small GTPase, Rab11b, which is one of many Rabs found in various endosomal pathways. Immunoelectron microscopy showed the colocalization of these two proteins in receptor cells and auditory neurons. Using Chinese hamster ovary cells as a heterologous expression system, Rab11b increased or decreased BK expression, depending on the overexpression or RNAi knockdown of Rab, respectively. Additional mutation analyses, using a yeast two-hybrid assay, suggested that this GTPase moderately interacts within a region of BK exclusive of the N- or C-terminal tails. These data suggest that this small GTPase regulates BK in a slow recycling process through the endocytic compartment and to the plasmalemma. PMID:22935415

  15. Folding Model Analysis of Elastic Scattering of 11B from Light, Medium, and Heavy Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygun, M.

    2016-11-01

    The elastic scattering angular distributions of 11B projectile on light, medium, and heavy target nuclei including 7Li, 9Be, 12C, 16O, 24,25,26Mg, 27Al, 28Si, 40Ca, 58Ni, 59Co, 60Ni, 197Au, 208Pb, and 209Bi have been analyzed at various incident energies. The theoretical results have been obtained by using two different nuclear potentials within the framework of the optical model (OM). Firstly, the double folding potential for real part and the Wood—Saxon (WS) potential for imaginary part have been applied. Secondly, the calculations with double folding potential for both real and imaginary part have been performed and compared with the experimental data. It has been seen that the results are in very good agreement with the experimental data. Also, the volume integrals and cross-sections for each reaction have been obtained. Finally, a new and simple formula for the imaginary potential depth has been derived to clarify the nuclear interactions of 11B nucleus at low energy reactions.

  16. Making better scientific figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug

    2016-04-01

    In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.

  17. The Theory of Figural Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Efraim

    1993-01-01

    The main thesis of the paper is that geometry deals with mental entities (the so-called geometrical figures) which possess simultaneously conceptual and figural characters. The paper analyzes the internal tensions which may arise in figural concepts because of their double nature, developmental aspects, and didactical implications. (Author/MDH)

  18. Measurements of the {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 12}C){sup 24}Na and {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 10}Be){sup 26}Al proton transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, P. N. de; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Benjamim, E. A.; Lima, G. F.; Moro, A. M.

    2006-08-15

    Angular distributions for the {sup 11}B+{sup 25}Mg elastic scattering, {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 12}C){sup 24}Na proton pickup, and {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 10}Be){sup 26}Al stripping reactions have been measured at E{sub {sup 11}B}=35 MeV. The angular distributions have been analyzed by the distorted-waves Born approximation calculations using the code fresco. The spectroscopic factors for the overlaps <{sup 25}Mg|{sup 26}Al>,<{sup 25}Mg|{sup 24}Na> for the ground state and excited states of {sup 26}Al and {sup 24}Na have been obtained and compared to previous measurements and shell-model calculations.

  19. Tissue factor contributes to neutrophil CD11b expression in alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Luyendyk, James P.; Flanagan, Kevin C.; Williams, C. David; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Slusser, Joyce G.; Mackman, Nigel

    2011-02-01

    Cholestatic liver injury induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) is provoked by injury to intrahepatic bile ducts and the progression of hepatic necrosis requires the procoagulant protein tissue factor (TF) and extrahepatic cells including neutrophils. Recent studies have shown that myeloid cell TF contributes to neutrophil activation. We tested the hypothesis that myeloid cell TF contributes to neutrophil activation in ANIT-treated mice. TF activity in liver homogenates increased significantly in TF{sup flox/flox} mice treated with ANIT, but not in TF{sup flox/flox}/LysMCre mice (TF{sup {Delta}Myeloid} mice), which have reduced TF expression in monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils. Myeloid cell-specific TF deficiency did not alter expression of the chemokines KC or MIP-2 but reduced hepatic neutrophil accumulation in ANIT-treated mice at 48 h as indicated by tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Myeloid cell TF deficiency significantly reduced CD11b expression by blood neutrophils in ANIT-treated mice, and this was associated with reduced plasma MPO protein levels, an index of neutrophil degranulation. However, myeloid cell-specific TF deficiency had no effect on ANIT-induced coagulation cascade activation. The increase in serum ALT and ALP activities in ANIT-treated mice was reduced by myeloid cell TF deficiency (p < 0.05), but the myeloid cell TF deficiency did not reduce hepatic necrosis at 48 h, as determined by histopathology and morphometry. The results suggest that myeloid cell TF contributes to neutrophil CD11b expression during cholestasis by a coagulation-independent pathway. However, the resultant reduction in neutrophil accumulation/activation is insufficient to substantially reduce ANIT hepatotoxicity, suggesting that myeloid cell TF is only one of many factors modulating hepatic necrosis during cholestasis. - Research Highlights: > Myeloid cell tissue factor contributes to liver procoagulant activity during acute cholestasis. > ANIT

  20. High precision 11B/10B analysis with a simplified MC-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimizu, M.; Nagaishi, K.

    2012-04-01

    Boron isotope ratio is a powerful tracer in the fields of geochemistry, biochemistry, and environmental chemistry. One important application of 11B/10B isotope ratio in geochemistry is as an indicator for paleo pH of seawater recorded in marine carbonates in deep-sea sediments. Boron isotope ratios are determined by TIMS or MC-ICP-MS with precisions of better than 0.1 % RSD, but a large inter-lab discrepancy of 0.6 % is still observed for actual carbonate samples (Foster, 2008). Here, we tried to determine B isotope ratio by MC-ICP-MS with a simple and common analytical techniques using a quartz sample introduction system with a PFA nebulizer, and compared to recently developed precise B isotope ratio analysis techniques by TIMS in positive ion detection mode determined as Cs2BO2+ ions with sample amount of <100 ng (Ishikawa and Nagaishi, 2011) and by MC-ICP-MS (Foster, 2008, Louvat et al., 2011). 11B/10B isotope ratios of a 50 ppb B solution dissolved in a HNO3, mannitol, HF-mixed solution were determined against an isotopic reference NIST-SRM 951 with a standard sample bracketing technique in the wet plasma condition. Resultant analytical reproducibility (twice standard deviation) was +/-0.02 % with a consumption of 50 ng B, and the washout time was comparable to that of NH3 gas addition to the introduction system (Foster, 2008). 11B/10B isotope ratios of actual carbonate sample and seawater were determined after simple chemical purification with a common cation exchange resin instead of a boron selective resin. Their relative differences from the standard were consistent with those determined by the positive TIMS within analytical uncertainty. Current potential of MC-ICP-MS for precise B isotopic analysis will be discussed. Foster, G., 2008. Seawater pH, pCO2 and [CO32-] variations in the Caribbean Sea over the last 130kyr: A boron isotope and B/Ca study of planktic foraminifera, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 271, 254-266. Ishikawa, T. and Nagaishi, K., 2011. High

  1. Expression and polarization of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on human intestinal epithelia: consequences for CD11b/CD18-mediated interactions with neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Parkos, C. A.; Colgan, S. P.; Diamond, M. S.; Nusrat, A.; Liang, T. W.; Springer, T. A.; Madara, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epithelial dysfunction and patient symptoms in inflammatory intestinal diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease correlate with migration of neutrophils (PMN) across the intestinal epithelium. In vitro modeling of PMN transepithelial migration has revealed distinct differences from transendothelial migration. By using polarized monolayers of human intestinal epithelia (T84), PMN transepithelial migration has been shown to be dependent on the leukocyte integrin CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1), but not on CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1). Since intercellular adhesion molecule-I (ICAM-1) is an important endothelial counterreceptor for these integrins, its expression in intestinal epithelia and role in PMN-intestinal epithelial interactions was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A panel of antibodies against different domains of ICAM-1, polarized monolayers of human intestinal epithelia (T84), and natural human colonic epithelia were used to examine the polarity of epithelial ICAM-1 surface expression and the functional role of ICAM-1 in neutrophil-intestinal epithelial adhesive interactions. RESULTS: While no surface expression of ICAM-1 was detected on unstimulated T84 cells, interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) elicited a marked expression of ICAM-1 that selectively polarized to the apical epithelial membrane. Similarly, apically restricted surface expression of ICAM-1 was detected in natural human colonic epithelium only in association with active inflammation. With or without IFN gamma pre-exposure, physiologically directed (basolateral-to-apical) transepithelial migration of PMN was unaffected by blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to ICAM-1. In contrast, PMN migration across IFN gamma-stimulated monolayers in the reverse (apical-to-basolateral) direction was inhibited by anti-ICAM-1 antibodies. Adhesion studies revealed that T84 cells adhered selectively to purified CD11b/CD18 and such adherence, with or without IFN gamma pre-exposure, was unaffected by ICAM-1 m

  2. The T-ALL related gene BCL11B regulates the initial stages of human T-cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ha, V L; Luong, A; Li, F; Casero, D; Malvar, J; Kim, Y M; Bhatia, R; Crooks, G M; Parekh, C

    2017-03-14

    The initial stages of T-cell differentiation are characterized by a progressive commitment to the T-cell lineage, a process that involves the loss of alternative (myelo-erythroid, NK, B) lineage potentials. Aberrant differentiation during these stages can result in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). However, the mechanisms regulating the initial stages of human T-cell differentiation are obscure. Through loss of function studies, we showed BCL11B, a transcription factor recurrently mutated T-ALL, is essential for T-lineage commitment, particularly the repression of NK and myeloid potentials, and the induction of T-lineage genes, during the initial stages of human T-cell differentiation. In gain of function studies, BCL11B inhibited growth of and induced a T-lineage transcriptional program in T-ALL cells. We found previously unknown differentiation stage-specific DNA binding of BCL11B at multiple T-lineage genes; target genes showed BCL11B-dependent expression, suggesting a transcriptional activator role for BCL11B at these genes. Transcriptional analyses revealed differences in the regulatory actions of BCL11B between human and murine thymopoiesis. Our studies show BCL11B is a key regulator of the initial stages of human T-cell differentiation and delineate the BCL11B transcriptional program, enabling the dissection of the underpinnings of normal T-cell differentiation and providing a resource for understanding dysregulations in T-ALL.Leukemia advance online publication, 14 March 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2017.70.

  3. High resolution 11B NMR of MgB2 using cryogenic magic-angle spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Raivo; Beckett, Peter; Denning, Mark S.; Heinmaa, Ivo; Dimri, Mukesh C.; Young, Edward A.; Carravetta, Marina

    2013-03-01

    Static and magic-angle spinning (MAS) 11B NMR data at 4.7 T and 8.5 T have been obtained under cryogenic conditions on a diluted sample of magnesium diboride powder in the normal and superconducting state. We demonstrate that MAS NMR is possible on type-II superconductors despite the sample rotation. The data provide accurate information on the magnetic shift variation and longitudinal relaxation data down to a temperature of 8 K, with a resolution improvement over the entire temperature range. The onset of superconductivity is unaffected by the sample rotation, as revealed by a steep variation of the magnetic shift just below the critical temperature. Appeared in JCP 137, 114201, http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4751476

  4. Evolution of magnetic properties and microstructure of Hf2Co11B alloys

    DOE PAGES

    McGuire, Michael A.; Rios, Orlando

    2015-02-05

    Amorphous Hf2Co11B alloys produced by melt-spinning have been crystallized by annealing at 500-800 °C, and the products have been investigated using magnetization measurements, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal the evolution of the phase fractions, microstructure, and magnetic properties with both annealing temperature and time. Crystallization of the phase denoted HfCo7, which is associated with the development of coercivity, occurs slowly at 500 °C. Annealing at intermediate temperatures produces mixed phase samples containing some of the HfCo7 phase with the highest values of remanent magnetization and coercivity. The equilibrium structure at 800 °C contains HfCo3B2, Hf6Co23 andmore » Co, and displays soft ferromagnetism. Maximum values for the remanent magnetization, intrinsic coercivity, and magnetic energy product among the samples are approximately 5.2 kG, 2.0 kOe, and 3.1 MGOe, respectively, which indicates that the significantly higher values observed in crystalline, melt-spun Hf2Co11B ribbons are a consequence of the non-equilibrium solidification during the melt-spinning process. Application of high magnetic fields during annealing is observed to strongly affect the microstructural evolution, which may provide access to higher performance materials in Zr/Hf-Co hard ferromagnets. The crystal structure of HfCo7 and the related Zr analogues is unknown, and without knowledge of atomic positions powder diffraction cannot distinguish among proposed unit cells and symmetries found in the literature.« less

  5. Antagonism of CD11b with neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) inhibits vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Alexander A; Tang, Jie; Kern, Timothy S

    2013-01-01

    Leukocytes and proteins that govern leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells play a causal role in retinal abnormalities characteristic of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, including diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries. Leukocyte integrin αmβ2 (CD11b/CD18, MAC1), a protein mediating adhesion, has been shown to mediate damage to endothelial cells by activated leukocytes in vitro. We hypothesized that Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor (NIF), a selective antagonist of integrin αmβ2, would inhibit the diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries by inhibiting the excessive interaction between leukocytes and retinal endothelial cells in diabetes. Wild type animals and transgenic animals expressing NIF were made diabetic with streptozotocin and assessed for diabetes-induced retinal vascular abnormalities and leukocyte activation. To assess if the leukocyte blocking therapy compromised the immune system, animals were challenged with bacteria. Retinal superoxide production, leukostasis and leukocyte superoxide production were increased in wild type mice diabetic for 10 weeks, as was the ability of leukocytes isolated from diabetic animals to kill retinal endothelial cells in vitro. Retinal capillary degeneration was significantly increased in wild type mice diabetic 40 weeks. In contrast, mice expressing NIF did not develop any of these abnormalities, with the exception that non-diabetic and diabetic mice expressing NIF generated greater amounts of superoxide than did similar mice not expressing NIF. Importantly, NIF did not significantly impair the ability of mice to clear an opportunistic bacterial challenge, suggesting that NIF did not compromise immune surveillance. We conclude that antagonism of CD11b (integrin αmβ2) by NIF is sufficient to inhibit early stages of diabetic retinopathy, while not compromising the basic immune response.

  6. Evolution of magnetic properties and microstructure of Hf2Co11B alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Michael A.; Rios, Orlando

    2015-02-01

    Amorphous Hf2Co11B alloys produced by melt-spinning have been crystallized by annealing at 500-800 °C, and the products have been investigated using magnetization measurements, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal the evolution of the phase fractions, microstructure, and magnetic properties with both annealing temperature and time. Crystallization of the phase denoted HfCo7, which is associated with the development of coercivity, occurs slowly at 500 °C. Annealing at intermediate temperatures produces mixed phase samples containing some of the HfCo7 phase with the highest values of remanent magnetization and coercivity. The equilibrium structure at 800 °C contains HfCo3B2, Hf6Co23, and Co, and displays soft ferromagnetism. Maximum values for the remanent magnetization, intrinsic coercivity, and magnetic energy product among the samples are approximately 5.2 kG, 2.0 kOe, and 3.1 MGOe, respectively, which indicates that the significantly higher values observed in crystalline, melt-spun Hf2Co11B ribbons are a consequence of the non-equilibrium solidification during the melt-spinning process. Application of high magnetic fields during annealing is observed to strongly affect the microstructural evolution, which may provide access to higher performance materials in Zr/Hf-Co hard ferromagnets. The crystal structure of HfCo7 and the related Zr analogues is unknown, and without knowledge of atomic positions powder diffraction cannot distinguish among proposed unit cells and symmetries found in the literature.

  7. Gr-1+CD11b+ cells are responsible for tumor promoting effect of TGF-β in breast cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoyang; Pang, Yanli; Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Achyut, B R; Heger, Christopher; Goldsmith, Paul K; Lonning, Scott; Yang, Li

    2012-12-01

    One great challenge in our understanding of TGF-β cancer biology and the successful application of TGF-β-targeted therapy is that TGF-β works as both a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter. The underlying mechanisms for its functional change remain to be elucidated. Using 4T1 mammary tumor model that shares many characteristics with human breast cancer, particularly its ability to spontaneously metastasize to the lungs, we demonstrate that Gr-1+CD11b+ cells or myeloid derived suppressor cells are important mediators in TGF-β regulation of mammary tumor progression. Depletion of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells diminished the antitumor effect of TGF-β neutralization. Two mechanisms were involved: first, treatment with TGF-β neutralization antibody (1D11) significantly decreased the number of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells in tumor tissues and premetastatic lung. This is mediated through increased Gr-1+CD11b+ cell apoptosis. In addition, 1D11 treatment significantly decreased the expression of Th2 cytokines and Arginase 1. Interestingly, the number and property of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells in peripheral blood/draining lymph nodes correlated with tumor size and metastases in response to 1D11 treatment. Our data suggest that the efficacy of TGF-β neutralization depends on the presence of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells, and these cells could be good biomarkers for TGF-β-targeted therapy.

  8. Crystal structure of methyl (3RS,4SR,4aRS,11aRS,11bSR)-5-oxo-3,4,4a,5,7,8,9,10,11,11a-deca-hydro-3,11b-ep-oxy-azepino[2,1-a]iso-indole-4-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Toze, Flavien A A; Poplevin, Dmitry S; Zubkov, Fedor I; Nikitina, Eugeniya V; Porras, Ciara; Khrustalev, Victor N

    2015-10-01

    The title compound, C15H19NO4, is the a product of the esterification of the corresponding carbonic acid with methanol. The mol-ecule comprises a fused tetra-cyclic system containing three five-membered rings (2-pyrrolidinone, tetra-hydro-furan and di-hydro-furan) and one seven-membered ring (azepane). The five-membered rings have the usual envelope conformations, with the quaternary C atom being the flap atom for the 2-pyrrolidinone ring, and the ether O atom being the common flap atom for the remaining rings. The seven-membered azepane ring adopts a chair conformation with the methine and middle methyl-ene C atoms lying above and below the mean plane defined by the remaining five atoms. The carboxyl-ate substituent is rotated by 77.56 (5)° with respect to the base plane of the tetra-hydro-furan ring. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are bound by weak C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions into puckered layers parallel to (001).

  9. Crystal structure of methyl (3RS,4SR,4aRS,11aRS,11bSR)-5-oxo-3,4,4a,5,7,8,9,10,11,11a-deca­hydro-3,11b-ep­oxy­azepino[2,1-a]iso­indole-4-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Toze, Flavien A. A.; Poplevin, Dmitry S.; Zubkov, Fedor I.; Nikitina, Eugeniya V.; Porras, Ciara; Khrustalev, Victor N.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C15H19NO4, is the a product of the esterification of the corresponding carbonic acid with methanol. The mol­ecule comprises a fused tetra­cyclic system containing three five-membered rings (2-pyrrolidinone, tetra­hydro­furan and di­hydro­furan) and one seven-membered ring (azepane). The five-membered rings have the usual envelope conformations, with the quaternary C atom being the flap atom for the 2-pyrrolidinone ring, and the ether O atom being the common flap atom for the remaining rings. The seven-membered azepane ring adopts a chair conformation with the methine and middle methyl­ene C atoms lying above and below the mean plane defined by the remaining five atoms. The carboxyl­ate substituent is rotated by 77.56 (5)° with respect to the base plane of the tetra­hydro­furan ring. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are bound by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions into puckered layers parallel to (001). PMID:26594446

  10. Figure Analysis: An Implementation Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Figure analysis is a novel active learning teaching technique that reinforces visual literacy. Small groups of students discuss diagrams in class in order to learn content. The instructor then gives a brief introduction and later summarizes the content of the figure. This teaching technique can be used in place of lecture as a mechanism to deliver…

  11. Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mura, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)

  12. Integrin CD11b positively regulates TLR4-induced signalling pathways in dendritic cells but not in macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Guang Sheng; Bennett, Jason; Woollard, Kevin J.; Szajna, Marta; Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Taylor, Philip R.; Scott, Diane; Franzoso, Guido; Cook, H. Terence; Botto, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Tuned and distinct responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) underpin the balance between innate and adaptive immunity. However, the molecule(s) that confer these cell-type-specific LPS-induced effects remain poorly understood. Here we report that the integrin αM (CD11b) positively regulates LPS-induced signalling pathways selectively in myeloid dendritic cells but not in macrophages. In dendritic cells, which express lower levels of CD14 and TLR4 than macrophages, CD11b promotes MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signalling pathways. In particular, in dendritic cells CD11b facilitates LPS-induced TLR4 endocytosis and is required for the subsequent signalling in the endosomes. Consistent with this, CD11b deficiency dampens dendritic cell-mediated TLR4-triggered responses in vivo leading to impaired T-cell activation. Thus, by modulating the trafficking and signalling functions of TLR4 in a cell-type-specific manner CD11b fine tunes the balance between adaptive and innate immune responses initiated by LPS.

  13. Transcription Factor Bcl11b Controls Effector and Memory CD8 T cell Fate Decision and Function during Poxvirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Georges; Stanfield, Jessica; Tahiliani, Vikas; Desai, Pritesh; Hutchinson, Tarun E.; Lorentsen, Kyle J.; Cho, Jonathan J.; Avram, Dorina; Salek-Ardakani, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    CD8+ T cells play an important role in host resistance to many viral infections, but the underlying transcriptional mechanisms governing their differentiation and functionality remain poorly defined. By using a highly virulent systemic and respiratory poxvirus infection in mice, we show that the transcription factor Bcl11b provides a dual trigger that sustains the clonal expansion of virus-specific effector CD8+ T cells, while simultaneously suppressing the expression of surface markers associated with short-lived effector cell (SLEC) differentiation. Additionally, we demonstrate that Bcl11b supports the acquisition of memory precursor effector cell (MPEC) phenotype and, thus, its absence causes near complete loss of lymphoid and lung-resident memory cells. Interestingly, despite having normal levels of T-bet and Eomesodermin, Bcl11b-deficient CD8+ T cells failed to execute effector differentiation needed for anti-viral cytokine production and degranulation, suggesting a non-redundant role of Bcl11b in regulation of this program. Thus, Bcl11b is a critical player in fate decision of SLECs and MPECs, as well as effector function and memory formation. PMID:27790219

  14. On the implementation of a chain nuclear reaction of thermonuclear fusion on the basis of the p+11B process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Zagreev, B. V.; Matafonov, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    Various theoretical and experimental schemes for implementing a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of the p+11B reaction are considered. They include beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition upon plasma acceleration by ponderomotive forces, and the irradiation of a solid-state target from 11B with a proton beam under conditions of a Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdrops. The possibility of employing ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses to initiate the p+11B reaction under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed. This and some other weakly radioactive thermonuclear reactions are promising owing to their ecological cleanness—there are virtually no neutrons among fusion products. Nuclear reactions that follow the p+11B reaction may generate high-energy protons, sustaining a chain reaction, and this is an advantage of the p+11B option. The approach used also makes it possible to study nuclear reactions under conditions close to those in the early Universe or in the interior of stars.

  15. Ultraviolet Light B-Mediated Inhibition of Skin Catalase Activity Promotes Gr-1+CD11b+ Myeloid Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Nicholas J.; Tober, Kathleen L.; Burns, Erin M.; Schick, Jonathan S.; Riggenbach, Judith A.; Mace, Thomas A.; Bill, Matthew A.; Young, Gregory S.; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M.; Lesinski, Gregory B.

    2011-01-01

    Skin cancer incidence and mortality are higher in men compared to women, but the causes of this sex discrepancy remain largely unknown. Ultraviolet light exposure induces cutaneous inflammation and neutralizes cutaneous antioxidants. Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells are heterogeneous bone marrow-derived cells that promote inflammation-associated carcinogenesis. Reduced activity of catalase, an antioxidant present within skin, has been associated with skin carcinogenesis. We utilized the outbred, immune competent Skh-1 hairless mouse model of ultraviolet light B (UVB)-induced inflammation and non-melanoma skin cancer to further define sex discrepancies in UVB-induced inflammation. Our results demonstrated that male skin had relatively lower baseline catalase activity, which was inhibited following acute UVB exposure in both sexes. Further analysis revealed that skin catalase activity inversely correlated with splenic Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cell percentage. Acute UVB exposure induced Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cell skin infiltration, which was inhibited to a greater extent in males by topical catalase treatment. In chronic UVB studies, we demonstrated that the percentage of splenic Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells was 55% higher in male tumor-bearing mice compared to their female counterparts. Together, our findings indicate that lower skin catalase activity in male mice may at least in part contribute to increased UVB-induced Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells and subsequent skin carcinogenesis. PMID:22030957

  16. CMOS analog baseband circuitry for an IEEE 802.11 b/g/n WLAN transceiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Gong; Xiaojie, Chu; Qianqian, Lei; Min, Lin; Yin, Shi

    2012-11-01

    An analog baseband circuit for a direct conversion wireless local area network (WLAN) transceiver in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS occupying 1.26 mm2 is presented. The circuit consists of active-RC receiver (RX) 4th order elliptic lowpass filters(LPFs), transmit (PGAs) with DC offset cancellation (DCOC) servo loops, and on-chip output buffers. The RX baseband gain can be programmed in the range of -11 to 49 dB in 2 dB steps with 50-30.2 nV/√Hz input referred noise (IRN) and a 21 to -41 dBm in-band 3rd order interception point (IIP3). The RX/TX LPF cutoff frequencies can be switched between 5 MHz, 10 MHz, and 20 MHz to fulfill the multimode 802.11b/g/n requirements. The TX baseband gain of the I/Q paths are tuned separately from -1.6 to 0.9 dB in 0.1 dB steps to calibrate TX I/Q gain mismatches. By using an identical integrator based elliptic filter synthesis method together with global compensation applied to the LPF capacitor array, the power consumption of the RX LPF is considerably reduced and the proposed chip draws 26.8 mA/8 mA by the RX/TX baseband paths from a 1.2 V supply.

  17. Direct measurement of 11B(p ,γ )12C astrophysical S factors at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J. J.; Jia, B. L.; Xu, S. W.; Chen, S. Z.; Ma, S. B.; Hou, S. Q.; Hu, J.; Zhang, L. Y.; Yu, X. Q.

    2016-05-01

    We directly measure the absolute cross section of 11B(p ,γ )12C in the energy region of Ec .m .=130 -257 keV by using a thin target for the first time. This work is performed on a 320-kV platform at the Institute of Modern Physics in Lanzhou. The astrophysical S factors of this reaction are obtained for capture to the ground and first excited states of 12C. The properties of the known resonance at ˜150 keV are derived and agree with the previous results. However, in the energy region of 170-240 keV, our S factors are about 15%-50% larger than the adopted values in NACRE II and are also larger than the upper limits of NACRE II by up to ˜20 % . This indicates that our new reaction rate is enhanced by about 15%-50% compared to the NACRE II adopted rate in the temperature region 0.32-0.62 GK.

  18. Multimodal Imaging Using a 11B(d,nγ)12C Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattress, Jason; Rose, Paul; Mayer, Michal; Wonders, Marc; Wilhelm, Kyle; Erickson, Anna; Jovanovic, Igor; Multimodal Imaging; Nuclear Detection (MIND) in Active Interrogation Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Detection of shielded special nuclear material (SNM) still remains one of the greatest challenges facing nuclear security, where small signal-to-background ratios result from complex, challenging configurations of practical objects. Passive detection relies on the spontaneous radioactive decay, whereas active interrogation (AI) uses external probing radiation to identify and characterize the material. AI provides higher signal intensity, providing a more viable method for SNM detection. New and innovative approaches are needed to overcome specific application constraints, such as limited scanning time. We report on a new AI approach that integrates both neutron and gamma transmission signatures to deduce specific material properties that can be utilized to aid SNM identification. The approach uses a single AI source, single detector type imaging system based on the 11B(d,nγ)12C reaction and an array of eight EJ-309 liquid scintillators, respectively. An integral transmission imaging approach has been employed initially for both neutrons and photons, exploiting the detectors' particle discrimination properties. Representative object images using neutrons and photons will be presented.

  19. Complete kinematics measurement of the 11B(p,γ)3α reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diget, C. Aa; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Laursen, K. L.; Madsbøl, K. O.; Jørgensen, L.; Kirsebom, O. S.; Riisager, K.

    2012-09-01

    One of the first nuclear reactions measured after the invention of the accelerator by Cockroft and Walton was 11B+p, measured by Rutherford and Oliphant in 1933 [1, 2]. This reaction, however, is not yet fully understood at low incident proton energies [3], and the present paper therefore presents a new measurement with complete-kinematics data utilising modern large-area segmented silicon-strip detectors. The aim of the measurement is twofold: firstly, to fully characterise the triple-α decay of the T=1, 2+ state at 16.11 MeV in 12C; secondly, to search for γ decay of the 2+ state to lower lying states, in particular the newly suggested 2+ state around 9-10 MeV [4]. The isovector M1 population of lower lying 2+ states is strongly favoured over isovector E2 transitions to 0+ states, and the method is therefore a promising method to elucidating this timely question.

  20. THE OBLIQUE ORBIT OF THE SUPER-NEPTUNE HAT-P-11b

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Shporer, Avi; Bakos, Gaspar A.; Hartman, Joel D.

    2010-11-10

    We find the orbit of the Neptune-sized exoplanet HAT-P-11b to be highly inclined relative to the equatorial plane of its host star. This conclusion is based on spectroscopic observations of two transits, which allowed the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect to be detected with an amplitude of 1.5 m s{sup -1}. The sky-projected obliquity is 103{sup +26} {sub -10} deg. This is the smallest exoplanet for which spin-orbit alignment has been measured. The result favors a migration scenario involving few-body interactions followed by tidal dissipation. This finding also conforms with the pattern that the systems with the weakest tidal interactions have the widest spread in obliquities. We predict that the high obliquity of HAT-P-11 will be manifest in transit light curves from the Kepler spacecraft: starspot-crossing anomalies will recur at most once per stellar rotation period, rather than once per orbital period as they would for a well-aligned system.

  1. {alpha} resonance structure in {sup 11}B studied via resonant scattering of {sup 7}Li+{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S.; Binh, D. N.; Kahl, D.; Kubono, S.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Kawabata, T.; Teranishi, T.

    2011-03-15

    A new measurement of {alpha} resonant scattering on {sup 7}Li was performed over the excitation energy of 10.2-13.0 MeV in {sup 11}B at the low-energy RI beam facility CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator (CRIB) of the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS), University of Tokyo. The excitation function of {sup 7}Li+{alpha} at 180 deg. in the center-of-mass system was successfully measured for the first time with the inverse kinematics method, providing important information on the {alpha} cluster structure in {sup 11}B and the reaction rate of {sup 7}Li({alpha},{gamma}), which is relevant to the {sup 11}B production in the {nu} process in core-collapse supernovae. The excitation function of the {sup 7}Li({alpha},p) reaction cross section for 11.7-13.1 MeV was also measured.

  2. [sup 12]C([gamma],[ital p])[sup 11]B cross section from 80 to 157 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Harty, P.D.; McGeorge, J.C.; MacGregor, I.J.D.; Owens, R.O.; Annand, J.R.M.; Anthony, I.; Crawford, G.I.; Dancer, S.N.; Hall, S.J.; Kellie, J.D.; Miller, G.J. ); Schoch, B.; Beck, R.; Schmieden, H.; Vogt, J.M. ); Ryckebusch, J. )

    1995-04-01

    The [sup 12]C([gamma],[ital p])[sup 11]B differential cross section has been measured over proton angles ranging from 58[degree] to 128[degree], using tagged photons of energy 80--157 MeV, for low-lying regions of residual excitation energy in [sup 11]B. The data have been compared with four different types of calculation. It is shown that scaling of the cross section with momentum mismatch occurs for both the ground-state and excited-state data.

  3. Growth Hormone With Aromatase Inhibitor May Improve Height in CYP11B1 Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hawton, Katherine; Walton-Betancourth, Sandra; Rumsby, Gill; Raine, Joseph; Dattani, Mehul

    2017-02-01

    With an estimated prevalence of 1 in 100 000 births, 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and is caused by mutations in CYP11B1 Clinical features include virilization, early gonadotropin-independent precocious puberty, hypertension, and reduced stature. The current mainstay of management is with glucocorticoids to replace deficient steroids and to minimize adrenal sex hormone overproduction, thus preventing virilization and optimizing growth. We report a patient with CAH who had been suboptimally treated and presented to us at 6 years of age with precocious puberty, hypertension, tall stature, advanced bone age, and a predicted final height of 150 cm. Hormonal profiles and genetic analysis confirmed a diagnosis of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency. In addition to glucocorticoid replacement, the patient was commenced on growth hormone and a third-generation aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole, in an attempt to optimize his growth. After the initiation of this treatment, the patient's growth rate improved significantly and bone age advancement slowed. The patient reached a final height of 177.5 cm (0.81 SD score), 11.5 cm above his mid-parental height. This patient is only the second reported case of the use of an aromatase inhibitor in combination with growth hormone to optimize height in 11β-hydroxylase-deficient CAH. This novel treatment proved to be highly efficacious, with no adverse effects. It may therefore provide a promising option to promote growth in exceptional circumstances in individuals with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency presenting late with advanced skeletal maturation and consequent short stature.

  4. Kepler and Ground-Based Transits of the exo-Neptune HAT-P-11b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake; Sada, Pedro V.; Jackson, Brian; Peterson, Steven W.; Agol, Eric; Knutson, Heather A.; Jennings, Donald E.; Haase, Plynn; Bays, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We analyze 26 archival Kepler transits of the exo-Neptune HAT-P-11b, supplemented by ground-based transits observed in the blue (B band) and near-IR (J band). Both the planet and host star are smaller than previously believed; our analysis yields Rp = 4.31 R xor 0.06 R xor and Rs = 0.683 R solar mass 0.009 R solar mass, both about 3 sigma smaller than the discovery values. Our ground-based transit data at wavelengths bracketing the Kepler bandpass serve to check the wavelength dependence of stellar limb darkening, and the J-band transit provides a precise and independent constraint on the transit duration. Both the limb darkening and transit duration from our ground-based data are consistent with the new Kepler values for the system parameters. Our smaller radius for the planet implies that its gaseous envelope can be less extensive than previously believed, being very similar to the H-He envelope of GJ 436b and Kepler-4b. HAT-P-11 is an active star, and signatures of star spot crossings are ubiquitous in the Kepler transit data. We develop and apply a methodology to correct the planetary radius for the presence of both crossed and uncrossed star spots. Star spot crossings are concentrated at phases 0.002 and +0.006. This is consistent with inferences from Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements that the planet transits nearly perpendicular to the stellar equator. We identify the dominant phases of star spot crossings with active latitudes on the star, and infer that the stellar rotational pole is inclined at about 12 deg 5 deg to the plane of the sky. We point out that precise transit measurements over long durations could in principle allow us to construct a stellar Butterfly diagram to probe the cyclic evolution of magnetic activity on this active K-dwarf star.

  5. Strong-coupling s-wave Superconductor MgB2 : ^11B NMR Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotegawa, Hisashi; Ishida, Kenji; Kitaoka, Yoshio; Muranaka, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Norimasa; Takagiwa, Hiroyuki; Akimitsu, Jun

    2002-03-01

    We report nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) results on the recently discovered superconductor MgB_2. This binary compound exhibits a remarkably high superconducting (SC) transition temperature, Tc of ~40K, and thus attracts a great deal of attention. Numerous theoretical and experimental approaches have been performed in order to investigate SC characteristics in this compound. We have investigated a SC gap structure of MgB2 through the measurement of ^11B nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time, T_1. ^11(1/T_1T) is independent of the temperature (T) in the normal state, and decreases exponentially in the SC state, accompanied with a tiny coherence peak just below T_c. The T dependence of 1/T_1T in the SC state can be accounted for by an s-wave SC model with a large gap size of 2Δ /k_BTc ~ 5 which suggests to be in a strong-coupling regime. We carried out the measurement in Al-doped Mg_1-xAl_xB_2. 1/T1 in the SC state revealed that the size in SC gap is not changed by substituting Al for Mg. The reduction in Tc is shown to be due to the decrease of N(E_F). According to the McMillan equation, the experimental relation between Tc and the relative change in N(E_F) allowed us to estimate a characteristic phonon frequency ω ~ 700K and an electron-phonon coupling constant λ ~ 0.87. These results suggest that the high-Tc superconductivity in MgB2 is mediated by the strong electron-phonon coupling with high-frequency phonons.

  6. Regulation of StAR by the N-terminal Domain and Coinduction of SIK1 and TIS11b/Znf36l1 in Single Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Duan, Haichuan; Foong, Yee Hoon; Musaitif, Ibrahim; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The cholesterol transfer function of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is uniquely integrated into adrenal cells, with mRNA translation and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation occurring at the mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). The StAR C-terminal cholesterol-binding domain (CBD) initiates mitochondrial intermembrane contacts to rapidly direct cholesterol to Cyp11a1 in the inner membrane (IMM). The conserved StAR N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) includes a leader sequence targeting the CBD to OMM complexes that initiate cholesterol transfer. Here, we show how the NTD functions to enhance CBD activity delivers more efficiently from StAR mRNA in adrenal cells, and then how two factors hormonally restrain this process. NTD processing at two conserved sequence sites is selectively affected by StAR PKA phosphorylation. The CBD functions as a receptor to stimulate the OMM/IMM contacts that mediate transfer. The NTD controls the transit time that integrates extramitochondrial StAR effects on cholesterol homeostasis with other mitochondrial functions, including ATP generation, inter-organelle fusion, and the major permeability transition pore in partnership with other OMM proteins. PKA also rapidly induces two additional StAR modulators: salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) and Znf36l1/Tis11b. Induced SIK1 attenuates the activity of CRTC2, a key mediator of StAR transcription and splicing, but only as cAMP levels decline. TIS11b inhibits translation and directs the endonuclease-mediated removal of the 3.5-kb StAR mRNA. Removal of either of these functions individually enhances cAMP-mediated induction of StAR. High-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (HR-FISH) of StAR RNA reveals asymmetric transcription at the gene locus and slow RNA splicing that delays mRNA formation, potentially to synchronize with cholesterol import. Adrenal cells may retain slow transcription to integrate with intermembrane NTD activation. HR-FISH resolves individual 3.5-kb St

  7. Regulation of StAR by the N-terminal Domain and Coinduction of SIK1 and TIS11b/Znf36l1 in Single Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Duan, Haichuan; Foong, Yee Hoon; Musaitif, Ibrahim; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The cholesterol transfer function of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is uniquely integrated into adrenal cells, with mRNA translation and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation occurring at the mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). The StAR C-terminal cholesterol-binding domain (CBD) initiates mitochondrial intermembrane contacts to rapidly direct cholesterol to Cyp11a1 in the inner membrane (IMM). The conserved StAR N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) includes a leader sequence targeting the CBD to OMM complexes that initiate cholesterol transfer. Here, we show how the NTD functions to enhance CBD activity delivers more efficiently from StAR mRNA in adrenal cells, and then how two factors hormonally restrain this process. NTD processing at two conserved sequence sites is selectively affected by StAR PKA phosphorylation. The CBD functions as a receptor to stimulate the OMM/IMM contacts that mediate transfer. The NTD controls the transit time that integrates extramitochondrial StAR effects on cholesterol homeostasis with other mitochondrial functions, including ATP generation, inter-organelle fusion, and the major permeability transition pore in partnership with other OMM proteins. PKA also rapidly induces two additional StAR modulators: salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) and Znf36l1/Tis11b. Induced SIK1 attenuates the activity of CRTC2, a key mediator of StAR transcription and splicing, but only as cAMP levels decline. TIS11b inhibits translation and directs the endonuclease-mediated removal of the 3.5-kb StAR mRNA. Removal of either of these functions individually enhances cAMP-mediated induction of StAR. High-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (HR-FISH) of StAR RNA reveals asymmetric transcription at the gene locus and slow RNA splicing that delays mRNA formation, potentially to synchronize with cholesterol import. Adrenal cells may retain slow transcription to integrate with intermembrane NTD activation. HR-FISH resolves individual 3.5-kb St

  8. R-X Modeling Figures

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Joetta Marie; Miller, Thomas; Grogan, Brandon

    2016-10-26

    This document contains figures that will be included in an ORNL final report that details computational efforts to model an irradiation experiment performed on the Godiva IV critical assembly. This experiment was a collaboration between LANL and ORNL.

  9. Facts and Figures on Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room Position Statements AAPM Facts and Figures on Pain Overview What is Chronic Pain? Incidence of Pain, ... of them. Back to Top What is Chronic Pain? While acute pain is a normal sensation triggered ...

  10. EFFECT OF INHALED ENDOTOXIN ON AIRWAY AND CIRCULATING INFLAMMATORY CELL PHAGOCYTOSIS AND CD11B EXPRESSION IN ATOPIC ASTHMATIC SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of inhaled endotoxin on airway and circulating inflammatory cell phagocytosis and CD11b expression in atopic asthmatic subjects

    Neil E. Alexis, PhD, Marlowe W. Eldridge, MD, David B. Peden, MD, MS

    Chapel Hill and Research Triangle Park, NC

    Backgrou...

  11. In vivo transmigrated monocytes from patients with stable coronary artery disease have a reduced expression of CD11b.

    PubMed

    Paulsson, J M; Dadfar, E; Held, C; Jacobson, S H; Lundahl, J

    2008-08-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is characterized by infiltration of monocyte derived cells in the intima of the vessel wall. We hypothesized that accumulation of these cells is caused partly by an altered monocyte transmigration process in CAD. To gain insight into this issue we applied the skin blister method that allows collection of in vivo transmigrated cells at sites of local inflammation. Nineteen patients with stable CAD and 19 matched controls were enrolled. Markers of inflammation and gradients of chemokines, as well as adhesion molecule expression and up-regulation capacity, were studied. The expression of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IL-10, was similar in patients and controls, indicating that patients were in a stable phase of the disease. Expression of adhesion molecules, CD11b and very late activation antigen-4, on peripheral monocytes did not differ between patients and controls. However, following in vivo transmigration, monocytes in patients with CAD had a significantly reduced expression and mobilization of CD11b. The effect on CD11b could not be reproduced by in vitro stimulation with blister fluid, representing a local inflammatory milieu, or in an in vitro system of transmigration. These findings point towards differences in monocyte CD11b expression and availability at an inflammatory site between patients with CAD and healthy controls.

  12. IL-1α induces CD11b(low) alveolar macrophage proliferation and maturation during granuloma formation.

    PubMed

    Huaux, François; Lo Re, Sandra; Giordano, Giulia; Uwambayinema, Francine; Devosse, Raynal; Yakoub, Yousof; Panin, Nadtha; Palmai-Pallag, Mihaly; Rabolli, Virginie; Delos, Monique; Marbaix, Etienne; Dauguet, Nicolas; Couillin, Isabelle; Ryffel, Bernhard; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Lison, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Macrophages play a central role in immune and tissue responses of granulomatous lung diseases induced by pathogens and foreign bodies. Circulating monocytes are generally viewed as central precursors of these tissue effector macrophages. Here, we provide evidence that granulomas derive from alveolar macrophages serving as a local reservoir for the expansion of activated phagocytic macrophages. By exploring lung granulomatous responses to silica particles in IL-1-deficient mice, we found that the absence of IL-1α, but not IL-1β, was associated with reduced CD11b(high) phagocytic macrophage accumulation and fewer granulomas. This defect was associated with impaired alveolar clearance and resulted in the development of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Reconstitution of IL-1α(-/-) mice with recombinant IL-1α restored lung clearance functions and the pulmonary accumulation of CD11b(high) phagocytic macrophages. Mechanistically, IL-1α induced the proliferation of CD11b(low) alveolar macrophages and differentiated these cells into CD11b(high) macrophages which perform critical phagocytic functions and organize granuloma. We newly discovered here that IL-1α triggers lung responses requiring macrophage proliferation and maturation from tissue-resident macrophages.

  13. Myeloperoxidase deficiency enhances zymosan phagocytosis associated with up-regulation of surface expression of CD11b in mouse neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kenta; Motowaki, Takehiro; Tamura, Naoya; Aratani, Yasuaki

    2016-12-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a major component of neutrophils, catalyzes the production of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) from hydrogen peroxide and chloride anion. Phagocytosis is a critical event induced by neutrophils for host defense and inflammation. Interestingly, we found that MPO-deficient (MPO(-/-)) neutrophils engulfed larger amounts of zymosan than wild-type neutrophils. Blocking of the CD11b subunit of complement receptor 3 (CR3) as well as inhibition of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) dramatically reduced zymosan phagocytosis. In contrast, blocking of dectin-1, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), or spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) had no significant effects on phagocytosis. Western blotting analysis showed that inhibition of FAK decreased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, indicating that ERK1/2 is a downstream regulator of FAK in neutrophils. Importantly, we found that cell surface expression of CD11b and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 was significantly higher in zymosan-stimulated MPO(-/-) neutrophils than in zymosan-stimulated wild-type neutrophils. Pretreatment with the MPO inhibitor 4-aminobenzoic acid hydrazide dramatically enhanced both zymosan phagocytosis and the surface expression of CD11b in wild-type neutrophils, but not in MPO(-/-) neutrophils. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that up-regulation of the CD11b/FAK/ERK signaling pathway due to absence of MPO enhances the zymosan phagocytic activity of mouse neutrophils.

  14. Development of a Physical Employment Testing Battery for Infantry Soldiers: 11B Infantryman and 11C Infantryman - Indirect Fire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    USARIEM TECHNICAL REPORT T16-10 DEVELOPMENT OF A PHYSICAL EMPLOYMENT TESTING BATTERY FOR INFANTRY SOLDIERS: 11B INFANTRYMAN AND 11C...62 Study 3: Predictor Test Development .......................................................................... 72 Methods...112 D. Pre- Testing Training Schedule for Potential Study 1 Participants ............. 120 iv E. Minutes of the Infantry Subject Matter

  15. An Analysis of IEEE 802.11B and 802.16 Technologies as Part of the Tactical Internet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    MANET, MESH, C2PC, C2CE, 802.16, WIMAX, OFDM , COTS, Common Operational Picture, Common Tactical Picture, WLAN, Bridging, Tactical Internet, PRC- 119...19 a. AN/MRC-142 Digital Wideband Transmission System ( DWTS ...63 B. HARRIS CORPORATION’S IEEE 802.11B BASED SECNET-11 PRODUCTS

  16. Sintering process and critical current density of low activation Mg11B2 superconductors from low temperature to high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, Md; Somer, M.

    2016-08-01

    As the "low activation" superconductor, Mg11B2 has a potential application in superconducting coils for fusion reactor. In present work, the sintering process and critical current density of low activation Mg11B2 superconductors were systemically studied from low temperature to high temperature. It was found that the Jc and Hirr values of Mg11B2 bulks in present work are both obviously higher than that of those samples prepared in previous studies. Furthermore, the low-temperature sintered samples exhibit better Jc performance at high fields than the high-temperature sintered samples, due to strong grain boundaries pinning. On the other hand, the high-temperature sintered samples have higher Jc at low fields compared to low-temperature sintered samples, mainly owing to their better crystallinity and grain connectivity. The highest Jc value (2.20 ×105 A cm-2 at 20 K, self-field) is obtained in the Mg11B2 sample sintered at 850 °C for 45 min.

  17. Formation and decay of {sup 24}Mg in the {sup 13}N+{sup 11}B collision

    SciTech Connect

    Figuera, P.; Amorini, F.; Cabibbo, M.; Papalardo, G.; Rizzo, F.; Tudisco, S.; Bradfield-Smith, W.; Davinson, T.; Di Pietro, A.; Shotter, A. C.; Woods, P. J.; Cardella, G.; Papa, M.; Galster, W.; Leleux, P.; Musumarra, A.; Ninane, A.; Sukosd, C.

    1999-11-16

    Different aspects of the formation and decay of {sup 24}Mg in the collision {sup 13}N+{sup 11}B have been studied using a large solid angle and highly segmented Silicon strip detector. Results concerning the fusion cross section, the 6 {alpha} decay of {sup 24}Mg and the GDR gamma ray emission are discussed.

  18. Formation and Decay of {sup 24}Mg in the {sup 13}N+{sup 11}B Collision

    SciTech Connect

    P. Figuera; F. Amorini; W. Bradfield-Smith; M. Cabibbo; G. Cardella; T. Davinson; A. DiPietro; W. Galster; P. Leleux; A. Musumarra; A. Ninane; M. Papa; G. Pappalardo; F. Rizzo; A.C. Shotter; C. Sukosd; S. Tudisco; P.J. Woods

    1999-12-31

    Different aspects of the formation and decay of {sup 24}Mg in the collision {sup 13}N+{sup 11}B have been studied using a large solid angle and highly segmented Silicon strip detector. Results concerning the fusion cross section, the 6 {alpha} decay of {sup 24}Mg and the GDR gamma ray emission are discussed.

  19. 17 CFR 260.11b-6 - Definition of “self-liquidating paper” in section 311(b)(6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Rules Under Section 311 § 260.11b-6 Definition of “self-liquidating paper” in section 311(b)(6). The term self-liquidating paper, as used in section 311(b)(6) of the Act, means any draft, bill of exchange, acceptance or obligation which is made, drawn, negotiated or incurred by the obligor for the purpose...

  20. 17 CFR 260.11b-6 - Definition of “self-liquidating paper” in section 311(b)(6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Rules Under Section 311 § 260.11b-6 Definition of “self-liquidating paper” in section 311(b)(6). The term self-liquidating paper, as used in section 311(b)(6) of the Act, means any draft, bill of exchange, acceptance or obligation which is made, drawn, negotiated or incurred by the obligor for the purpose...

  1. 17 CFR 260.11b-6 - Definition of “self-liquidating paper” in section 311(b)(6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Rules Under Section 311 § 260.11b-6 Definition of “self-liquidating paper” in section 311(b)(6). The term self-liquidating paper, as used in section 311(b)(6) of the Act, means any draft, bill of exchange, acceptance or obligation which is made, drawn, negotiated or incurred by the obligor for the purpose...

  2. Combined use of 15N and 18O of nitrate and 11B to evaluate nitrate contamination in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Isotopic composition of NO3 (??15NNO3 and ??18ONO3) and B (??11B) were used to evaluate NO3 contamination and identify geochemical processes occurring in a hydrologically complex Basin and Range valley in northern Nevada with multiple potential sources of NO3. Combined use of these isotopes may be a useful tool in identifying NO3 sources because NO3 and B co-migrate in many environmental settings, their isotopes are fractionated by different environmental processes, and because wastewater and fertilizers may have distinct isotopic signatures for N and B. The principal cause of elevated NO3 concentrations in residential parts of the study area is wastewater and not natural NO3 or fertilizers. This is indicated by some samples with elevated NO3 concentrations plotting along ??15NNO3 and NO3 mixing lines between natural NO3 from the study area and theoretical septic-system effluent. This conclusion is supported by the presence of caffeine in one sample and the absence of samples with elevated NO3 concentrations that fall along mixing lines between natural NO3 and theoretical percolate below fertilized lawns. Nitrogen isotopes alone could not be used to determine NO3 sources in several wells because denitrification blurred the original isotopic signatures. The range of ??11B values in native ground water in the study area (-8.2??? to +21.2???) is large. The samples with the low ??11B values have a geochemical signature characteristic of hydrothermal systems. Physical and chemical data suggest B is not being strongly fractionated by adsorption onto clays. ??11B values from local STP effluent (-2.7???) and wash water from a domestic washing machine (-5.7???) were used to plot mixing lines between wastewater and native ground water. In general, wells with elevated NO3 concentrations fell along mixing lines between wastewater and background water on plots of ??11B against 1/B and Cl/B. Combined use of ??15N and ??11B in the study area was generally successful in

  3. KEPLER AND GROUND-BASED TRANSITS OF THE EXO-NEPTUNE HAT-P-11b

    SciTech Connect

    Deming, Drake; Jackson, Brian; Jennings, Donald E.; Sada, Pedro V.; Peterson, Steven W.; Haase, Flynn; Bays, Kevin; Agol, Eric; Knutson, Heather A.

    2011-10-10

    We analyze 26 archival Kepler transits of the exo-Neptune HAT-P-11b, supplemented by ground-based transits observed in the blue (B band) and near-IR (J band). Both the planet and host star are smaller than previously believed; our analysis yields R{sub p} = 4.31 R{sub +} {+-} 0.06 R{sub +} and R{sub s} = 0.683 R{sub sun} {+-} 0.009 R{sub sun}, both about 3{sigma} smaller than the discovery values. Our ground-based transit data at wavelengths bracketing the Kepler bandpass serve to check the wavelength dependence of stellar limb darkening, and the J-band transit provides a precise and independent constraint on the transit duration. Both the limb darkening and transit duration from our ground-based data are consistent with the new Kepler values for the system parameters. Our smaller radius for the planet implies that its gaseous envelope can be less extensive than previously believed, being very similar to the H-He envelope of GJ 436b and Kepler-4b. HAT-P-11 is an active star, and signatures of star spot crossings are ubiquitous in the Kepler transit data. We develop and apply a methodology to correct the planetary radius for the presence of both crossed and uncrossed star spots. Star spot crossings are concentrated at phases -0.002 and +0.006. This is consistent with inferences from Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements that the planet transits nearly perpendicular to the stellar equator. We identify the dominant phases of star spot crossings with active latitudes on the star, and infer that the stellar rotational pole is inclined at about 12{sup 0} {+-} 5{sup 0} to the plane of the sky. We point out that precise transit measurements over long durations could in principle allow us to construct a stellar Butterfly diagram to probe the cyclic evolution of magnetic activity on this active K-dwarf star.

  4. A reduced population of CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells has a limited impact on oral Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Santoscoy, María; Wenzel, Ulf Alexander; Persson, Emma; Yrlid, Ulf; Agace, William; Wick, Mary Jo

    2016-08-01

    CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells (DC) are the major migratory DC subset in the small intestine lamina propria (siLP) and their survival is dependent on the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4). Mice with a DC-specific deletion of irf4 (CD11c-cre.Irf4 mice) have reduced mucosal CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC and altered T cell differentiation to protein antigen. The influence of CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC on oral infection with the gastrointestinal pathogen Salmonella, however, is poorly understood and is investigated here. We show that, despite being infected with Salmonella, CD11c-cre.Irf4 mice (called Cre(+) mice) conserve the reduction in CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC observed in naive Cre(+) mice, particularly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) but also in the siLP at day 3 post infection. Moreover, Salmonella-infected Cre(+) mice have a similar bacterial burden in intestinal tissues (siLP, MLN and Peyer's patches) as well as the spleen compared to infected Cre(-) controls. The T cell compartment, including the frequency of IFN-γ and IL-17-producing T cells, is not altered in intestinal tissues of Salmonella-infected Cre(+) mice relative to infected Cre(-) controls. In addition, no difference between infected Cre(+) and Cre(-) mice was observed in either the concentration of IL-6 or IL-17 in whole tissue lysates of siLP, MLN or Peyer's patches or in the serum concentration of Salmonella-specific IgG and IgM. Overall the data suggest that the reduction of CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC in Cre(+) mice has little if any impact on Salmonella burden in infected tissues or eliciting effector functions important in host survival at later stages of the infection.

  5. Recruitment of bone marrow CD11b+Gr-1+ cells by polymeric nanoparticles for antigen cross-presentation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-Wun; Luo, Wen-Hui

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the function of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) on the activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses via the CD11b+Gr−1+ myeloid subpopulations in murine bone marrow (BM). PLGA NPs containing ovalbumin (OVA) were fabricated by the double-emulsion method. The CD11b+Gr-1lowLy-6Chigh and CD11b+Gr-1highLy-6Clow subsets from mice bone marrow were sorted and treated with the PLGA/OVA NPs, followed by co-culture with the carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labelled OT-I CD8+ cells. Co-culture of OT-I CD8+ T cells with PLGA/OVA NPs-primed CD11b+Gr-1+ subsets upregulated the expression of IL-2, TNF-α, INF-γ, granzyme B, and perforin, resulting in proliferation of CD8+ T cells and differentiation into effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In vivo proliferation of CFSE-labelled OT-I CD8+ cells in response to OVA was also obtained in the animals immunized with PLGA/OVA NPs. The results presented in this study demonstrate the ability of polymeric NPs to recruit two CD11b+Gr−1+ myeloid subsets for effective presentation of exogenous antigen to OT-I CD8+ T cells in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, leading to an induction of antigen-specific cell proliferation and differentiation into effector cells. PMID:28317931

  6. Recruitment of bone marrow CD11b+Gr-1+ cells by polymeric nanoparticles for antigen cross-presentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ya-Wun; Luo, Wen-Hui

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the function of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) on the activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses via the CD11b+Gr‑1+ myeloid subpopulations in murine bone marrow (BM). PLGA NPs containing ovalbumin (OVA) were fabricated by the double-emulsion method. The CD11b+Gr-1lowLy-6Chigh and CD11b+Gr-1highLy-6Clow subsets from mice bone marrow were sorted and treated with the PLGA/OVA NPs, followed by co-culture with the carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE)-labelled OT-I CD8+ cells. Co-culture of OT-I CD8+ T cells with PLGA/OVA NPs-primed CD11b+Gr-1+ subsets upregulated the expression of IL-2, TNF-α, INF-γ, granzyme B, and perforin, resulting in proliferation of CD8+ T cells and differentiation into effector cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In vivo proliferation of CFSE-labelled OT-I CD8+ cells in response to OVA was also obtained in the animals immunized with PLGA/OVA NPs. The results presented in this study demonstrate the ability of polymeric NPs to recruit two CD11b+Gr‑1+ myeloid subsets for effective presentation of exogenous antigen to OT-I CD8+ T cells in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, leading to an induction of antigen-specific cell proliferation and differentiation into effector cells.

  7. Figure analysis: An implementation dialogue.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Amy M

    2016-07-08

    Figure analysis is a novel active learning teaching technique that reinforces visual literacy. Small groups of students discuss diagrams in class in order to learn content. The instructor then gives a brief introduction and later summarizes the content of the figure. This teaching technique can be used in place of lecture as a mechanism to deliver information to students. Here, a "how to" guide is presented in the form of an in-class dialogue, displaying the difficulties in visual interpretation that some students may experience while figure analysis is being implemented in an upper-level, cell biology course. Additionally, the dialogue serves as a guide for instructors who may implement the active learning technique as they consider how to respond to students' concerns in class. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):345-348, 2016.

  8. Concepts and Figures in Geometric Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Efraim; Nachlieli, Talli

    1998-01-01

    Opens with the theoretical construct of figural concepts. Argues that geometrical figures are characterized by both conceptual and sensorial properties. Investigates the effects of interaction between conceptual and figural components. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  9. Effect of pressure on the intermediate-valence semiconductor SmB6: 11B-NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Kohei; Mito, Takeshi; Ueda, Ko-ichi; Koyama, Takehide; Kohara, Takao; Pristáš, Gabriel; Gabáni, Slavomír; Reiffers, Marián; Flachbart, Karol; Komaki, Yasuhiro; Kokubu, Mitsutane; Fukazawa, Hideto; Kohori, Yoh; Takeshita, Nao; Shitsevalova, Natalia

    2013-06-01

    We report the first high-pressure 11B-NMR studies above 3 GPa on the intermediate-valence semiconductor SmB6. A 11B-NMR line obtained at 4.9 GPa, the highest pressure for the measurements, and at 1.9 K shows quite similar a line shape to that at ambient pressure, indicating no structural or magnetic phase transition up to this pressure. The temperature dependence of the spin lattice relaxation rate 1/ T 1 at 4.9 GPa still exhibits an activation-type temperature dependence characteristic of semiconductors, which reveals an obvious decrease in the insulating gap by about 30% compared to the gap at ambient pressure. The present experimental facts of a finite insulator gap and no magnetic order at 4.9 GPa are consistent with recent transport measurements performed under better hydrostatic pressures.

  10. Infection-induced type I interferons activate CD11b on B-1 cells for subsequent lymph node accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Waffarn, Elizabeth E.; Hastey, Christine J.; Dixit, Neha; Choi, Youn Soo; Cherry, Simon; Kalinke, Ulrich; Simon, Scott I.; Baumgarth, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Innate-like B-1a lymphocytes rapidly redistribute to regional mediastinal lymph nodes (MedLN) during influenza infection to generate protective IgM. Here we demonstrate that influenza infection-induced type I interferons directly stimulate body cavity B-1 cells and are a necessary signal required for B-1 cell accumulation in MedLN. Vascular mimetic flow chamber studies show that type I interferons increase ligand-mediated B-1 cell adhesion under shear stress by inducing high-affinity conformation shifts of surface-expressed integrins. In vivo trafficking experiments identify CD11b as the non-redundant, interferon-activated integrin required for B-1 cell accumulation in MedLN. Thus CD11b on B-1 cells senses infection-induced innate signals and facilitates their rapid sequester into secondary lymphoid tissues, thereby regulating the accumulation of polyreactive IgM producers at sites of infection. PMID:26612263

  11. Limited Evaluation of an 802.11b Air-to-Air Wireless Data Link (Project Have HALO II)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    8 Figure A-1. Haigh - Farr ® Antenna Position on Bottom of C-12C Test Aircraft...A-1 Figure A-2. Haigh - Farr ® Antenna Position on Top of C-12C Test Aircraft ............................. A-1 Figure A-3. Test...Pilot School, Edwards AFB, June 2006. 3. Haigh - Farr Blade Antenna Data Sheet, Haigh - Farr Inc., Bedford, NH, 31 Jan 2007. http://www.haigh

  12. Choreography Styles in Figure Skating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moormann, Peter Paul

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…

  13. Storytelling Figures: A Pueblo Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    In a collaborative unit on pueblo storytelling figures involving art, music, language arts, and physical education, a teacher describes how she helped second graders understand the Pueblo pottery tradition by reading aloud literature covering the past and present. Lists folklore, fiction, poetry, nonfiction, professional resources, videos, CDs,…

  14. Development of a Physical Employment Testing Battery for Infantry Soldiers: 11B Infantryman and 11C Infantryman-Indirect Fire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    unique, important in protecting the Soldier, and frequently performed on missions in the field for these MOSs. In addition, the 11B and 11C also...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine I 5...STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; unlimited distribution 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental

  15. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency: functional consequences of four CYP11B1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Menabò, Soara; Polat, Seher; Baldazzi, Lilia; Kulle, Alexandra E; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Grötzinger, Joachim; Fanelli, Flaminia; Balsamo, Antonio; Riepe, Felix G

    2014-05-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is one of the most common autosomal recessive inherited endocrine disease. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD) is the second most common form of CAH. The aim of the study was to study the functional consequences of three novel and one previously described CYP11B1 gene mutations (p.(Arg143Trp), p.(Ala306Val), p.(Glu310Lys) and p.(Arg332Gln)) detected in patients suffering from classical and non-classical 11β-OHD. Functional analyses were performed by using a HEK293 cell in vitro expression system comparing wild type (WT) with mutant 11β-hydroxylase activity. Mutant proteins were examined in silico to study their effect on the three-dimensional structure of the protein. Two mutations (p.(Ala306Val) and p.(Glu310Lys)) detected in patients with classical 11β-OHD showed a nearly complete loss of 11β-hydroxylase activity. The mutations p.(Arg143Trp) and p.(Arg332Gln) detected in patients with non-classical 11β-OHD showed a partial functional impairment with approximately 8% and 6% of WT activity, respectively. Functional mutation analysis allows the classification of novel CYP11B1 mutations as causes of classical and non-classical 11β-OHD. The detection of patients with non-classical phenotypes underscores the importance to screen patients with a phenotype comparable to non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency for mutations in the CYP11B1 gene in case of a negative analysis of the CYP21A2 gene. As CYP11B1 mutations are most often individual for a family, the in vitro analysis of novel mutations is essential for clinical and genetic counselling.

  16. Two Novel CYP11B1 Gene Mutations in Patients from Two Croatian Families with 11β-Hydroxylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Dumic, Katja; Yuen, Tony; Grubic, Zorana; Kusec, Vesna; Barisic, Ingeborg; New, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD) is the second most common cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Mutations in the CYP11B1 gene, which encodes steroid 11β-hydroxylase, are responsible for this autosomal recessive disorder. Here, we describe the molecular genetics of two previously reported male siblings in whom diagnosis of 11β-OHD has been established based on their hormonal profiles displaying high levels of 11-deoxycortisol and hyperandrogenism. Both patients are compound heterozygous for a novel p.E67fs (c.199delG) mutation in exon 1 and a p.R448H (c.1343G>A) mutation in exon 8. We also report the biochemical and molecular genetics data of one new 11β-OHD patient. Sequencing of the CYP11B1 gene reveals that this patient is compound heterozygous for a novel, previously undescribed p.R141Q (c.422G>A) mutation in exon 3 and a p.T318R (c.953C>G) mutation in exon 5. All three patients are of Croatian (Slavic) origin and there is no self-reported consanguinity in these two families. Results of our investigation confirm that most of the CYP11B1 mutations are private. In order to elucidate the molecular basis for 11β-OHD in the Croatian/Slavic population, it is imperative to perform CYP11B1 genetic analysis in more patients from this region, since so far only four patients from three unrelated Croatian families have been analyzed. PMID:24987415

  17. IFN-γ differentially regulates subsets of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells in chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaoxia; Fang, Yimin; Hu, Shengfeng; Wu, Yongjian; Yang, Kun; Liao, Chunxin; Zhang, Yuanqing; Huang, Xi; Wu, Minhao

    2015-08-01

    During chronic inflammation, prolonged over-reactive immune response may lead to tissue destruction, while immune suppression hinders tissue repair and pathogen elimination. Therefore, precise regulation of the immune response is needed to avoid immuno-pathology. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is widely used in clinical treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the role of IFN-γ on CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cell differentiation and function, using a heat-killed Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced chronic inflammation model. After challenge with heat-killed BCG, two subpopulations of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cells were generated in the mouse spleen. Phenotypical, morphological and functional analysis indicated that the CD11b(+)Gr-1(high) Ly6G(high) Ly6C(low) subset was neutrophil-like myeloid-derived inducer cells (N-MDICs), which promoted T cell activation, while the other subset was CD11b(+)Gr-1(low) Ly6G(neg) Ly6C(high) monocyte-like myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) that displayed extensive suppressor function. IFN-γ treatment dampened N-MDICs-mediated T cell activation through up-regulating T cell suppressive mediators, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and arginase I. While for M-MDSCs, IFN-γ reduced their suppressing activity by decreasing the arginase activity. Our study provides evidence that IFN-γ balances the over-reactive vs compromised immune response through different regulation of distinct myeloid subsets, and therefore displays significant therapeutic potential for effective immuno-therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  18. Natural killer cells require monocytic Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) myeloid cells to eradicate orthotopically engrafted glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Baker, Gregory J; Chockley, Peter; Zamler, Daniel; Castro, Maria G; Lowenstein, Pedro R

    2016-06-01

    Malignant gliomas are resistant to natural killer (NK) cell immune surveillance. However, the mechanisms used by these cancers to suppress antitumor NK cell activity remain poorly understood. We have recently reported on a novel mechanism of innate immune evasion characterized by the overexpression of the carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-1 by both mouse and rat malignant glioma. Here, we investigate the cytokine profile of galectin-1-deficient GL26 cells and describe the process by which these tumors are targeted by the early innate immune system in RAG1(-/-) and C57BL/6J mice. Our data reveal that galectin-1 knockdown in GL26 cells heightens their inflammatory status leading to the rapid recruitment of Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) myeloid cells and NK1.1(+) NK cells into the brain tumor microenvironment, culminating in tumor clearance. We show that immunodepletion of Gr-1(+) myeloid cells in RAG1(-/-) mice permits the growth of galectin-1-deficient glioma despite the presence of NK cells, thus demonstrating an essential role for myeloid cells in the clearance of galectin-1-deficient glioma. Further characterization of tumor-infiltrating Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) cells reveals that these cells also express CCR2 and Ly-6C, markers consistent with inflammatory monocytes. Our results demonstrate that Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) myeloid cells, often referred to as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), are required for antitumor NK cell activity against galectin-1-deficient GL26 glioma. We conclude that glioma-derived galectin-1 represents an important factor in dictating the phenotypic behavior of monocytic Gr-1(+)/CD11b(+) myeloid cells. Galectin-1 suppression may be a valuable treatment approach for clinical glioma by promoting their innate immune-mediated recognition and clearance through the concerted effort of innate myeloid and lymphoid cell lineages.

  19. Coexpression of redox partners increases the hydrocortisone (cortisol) production efficiency in CYP11B1 expressing fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Hakki, Tarek; Zearo, Silvia; Drăgan, Călin-Aurel; Bureik, Matthias; Bernhardt, Rita

    2008-02-01

    Cytochromes P450 play a vital role in the steroid biosynthesis pathway of the adrenal gland. An example of an essential P450 cytochrome is the steroid 11beta-hydroxylase CYP11B1, which catalyses the conversion of 11-deoxycorticol to hydrocortisone. However, despite its high biotechnological potential, this enzyme has so far been unsuccessfully employed in present-day biotechnology due to a poor expression yield and inherent protein instability. In this study, CYP11B1 was biotransformed into various strains of the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, all of which also expressed the electron transfer proteins adrenodoxin and/or adrenodoxin reductase - central components of the mitochondrial P450 system - in order to maximise hydrocortisone production efficiency in our proposed model system. Site-directed mutagenesis of CYP11B1 at positions 52 and 78 was performed in order to evaluate the impact of altering the amino acids at these sites. It was found that the presence of an isoleucine at position 78 conferred the highest 11beta-hydroxylation activity of CYP11B1. Coexpression of adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase appeared to further increase the 11beta-hydroxylase activity of the enzyme (3.4 fold). Adrenodoxin mutants which were found to significantly enhance enzyme efficiency in other cytochromes in previous studies were also tested in our system. It was found that, in this case, the wild type adrenodoxin was more efficient. The new fission yeast strain TH75 coexpressing the wild type Adx and AdR displays high hydrocortisone production efficiency at an average of 1mM hydrocortisone over a period of 72h, the highest value published to date for this biotransformation. Finally, our research shows that pTH2 is an ideal plasmid for the coexpression of the mitochondrial electron transfer counterparts, adrenodoxin and adrenodoxin reductase, in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and so could serve as a convenient tool for future biotechnological applications.

  20. Critical role of CD11b+ macrophages and VEGF in inflammatory lymphangiogenesis, antigen clearance, and inflammation resolution.

    PubMed

    Kataru, Raghu P; Jung, Keehoon; Jang, Cholsoon; Yang, Hanseul; Schwendener, Reto A; Baik, Jung Eun; Han, Seung Hyun; Alitalo, Kari; Koh, Gou Young

    2009-05-28

    Using a bacterial pathogen-induced acute inflammation model in the skin, we defined the roles of local lymphatic vessels and draining lymph nodes (DLNs) in antigen clearance and inflammation resolution. At the peak day of inflammation, robust expansion of lymphatic vessels and profound infiltration of CD11b+/Gr-1+ macrophages into the inflamed skin and DLN were observed. Moreover, lymph flow and inflammatory cell migration from the inflamed skin to DLNs were enhanced. Concomitantly, the expression of lymphangiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C), VEGF-D, and VEGF-A were significantly up-regulated in the inflamed skin, DLNs, and particularly in enriched CD11b+ macrophages from the DLNs. Depletion of macrophages, or blockade of VEGF-C/D or VEGF-A, largely attenuated these phenomena, and produced notably delayed antigen clearance and inflammation resolution. Conversely, keratin 14 (K14)-VEGF-C transgenic mice, which have dense and enlarged lymphatic vessels in the skin dermis, exhibited accelerated migration of inflammatory cells from the inflamed skin to the DLNs and faster antigen clearance and inflammation resolution. Taken together, these results indicate that VEGF-C, -D, and -A derived from the CD11b+/Gr-1+ macrophages and local inflamed tissues play a critical role in promoting antigen clearance and inflammation resolution.

  1. Use of 87Sr/86Sr and δ11B to Identify Slag-Affected Sediment in Southern Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayless, E. Randall; Bullen, Thomas D.; Fitzpatrick, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Slag is a ubiquitous byproduct of the iron-smelting industry and influences geochemistry and water quality in adjacent geologic units, ground and surface water. Despite extensive slag deposition along the Indiana shoreline of Lake Michigan, definitive evidence that slag has affected lakebed sediments has not been established. Concerns for the protection of water and ecosystem resources in the Great Lakes motivated this study to determine if strontium and boron isotopes could be used to identify and delineate slag-affected bed sediment in Lake Michigan. Sixty-five samples of bed sediment were acquired from the southern lobe of Lake Michigan and analyzed for 87Sr/86Sr and ??11B. Samples immediately offshore from Indiana steel mills and slag-disposal sites contained higher median 87Sr/86Sr values (0.70881) than shoreline sediments collected elsewhere in the basin (0.70847) and uniquely decreased with increasing distance from the shoreline. The highest ??11B values occurred in sediments from the Indiana shoreline (+12.9 to 16.4???) but were also elevated in sediments collected offshore from three Lake Michigan cities (+11.7 to 12.7???). Contoured isotope data indicated that 82-154 km2 of bed sediment along the Indiana shoreline had elevated 87Sr/86Sr and ??11B values relative to shoreline sediments elsewhere in southern Lake Michigan.

  2. Ornithine decarboxylase, polyamines and CD11b expression in HL-60 cells during differentiation induced by retinoic acid.

    PubMed

    Stabellini, Giordano; Brugnoli, F; Calastrini, C; Vizzotto, L; Vertemati, M; Baroni, T; Caramelli, E; Marinucci, L; Pellati, A; Bertagnolo, V

    2004-01-01

    Polyamines (PA) and retinoic acid affect mammalian cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. Retinoic acid induces granulocytic differentiation of mieloid cell lines and, during this process, is responsible for the expression of CD11b, a surface antigen. In this study we investigate the effects of retinoic acid on HL-60 cells, monitoring ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity (enzyme rate of PA), putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD), spermine (SPM) levels, CD11b myeloid surface marker differentiation, cell cycle, and apoptosis. ODC activity and PUT levels are correlated with mieloid cell differentiation induced by retinoic acid treatment. Only the ODC/PUT ratio is connected with retinoic acid treated HL-60 cells. Treated cultures show a decrease of proliferation and a cell block in the G0/G1 phase, with consequent diminished S phase. The G0/G1 and S phases are significantly related to ODC activity and to PUT and SPD behavior, whereas in differentiating condition only the decrease of PUT is related to the S phase. CD11b expression, stimulated by retinoic acid treatment, is associated with the SPM trend. Total PA behavior agrees with apoptotic cell increase after 96 h of stimulation. Our data show that retinoic acid treatment modifies ODC activity and the turnover of PA. PUT, SPD and SPM, therefore, have a different role, and may be involved in the differentiative/apoptotic program of retinoic acid treated HL-60 cells.

  3. Theory in Biology: Figure 1 or Figure 7?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The pace of modern science is staggering. The quantities of data now flowing from DNA sequencers, fluorescence and electron microscopes, mass spectrometers and other mind-blowing instruments leave us faced with information overload. This explosion in data has brought on its heels a concomitant need for efforts at the kinds of synthesis and unification we see in theoretical physics. Often in cell biology, when theoretical modeling takes place, it is as a figure 7 reflection on experiments that have already been done, with data fitting providing a metric of success. Figure 1 theory, by way of contrast, is about living dangerously by turning our thinking into formal mathematical predictions and confronting that math with experiments that have not yet been done. PMID:26584768

  4. Theory in Biology: Figure 1 or Figure 7?

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rob

    2015-12-01

    The pace of modern science is staggering. The quantities of data now flowing from DNA sequencers, fluorescence and electron microscopes, mass spectrometers, and other mind-blowing instruments leave us faced with information overload. This explosion in data has brought on its heels a concomitant need for efforts at the kinds of synthesis and unification we see in theoretical physics. Often in cell biology, when theoretical modeling takes place, it is as a figure 7 reflection on experiments that have already been done, with data fitting providing a metric of success. Figure 1 theory, by way of contrast, is about living dangerously by turning our thinking into formal mathematical predictions and confronting that math with experiments that have not yet been done.

  5. Juvenile Paget’s Disease With Heterozygous Duplication In TNFRSF11A Encoding RANK

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Michael P.; Tau, Cristina; McAlister, William H.; Zhang, Xiafang; Novack, Deborah V.; Preliasco, Virginia; Santini-Araujo, Eduardo; Mumm, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Mendelian disorders of RANKL/OPG/RANK signaling feature the extremes of aberrant osteoclastogenesis and cause either osteopetrosis or rapid turnover skeletal disease. The patients with autosomal dominant accelerated bone remodeling have familial expansile osteolysis, early-onset Paget’s disease of bone, expansile skeletal hyperphosphatasia, or panostotic expansile bone disease due to heterozygous 18-, 27-, 15-, and 12-bp insertional duplications, respectively, within exon 1 of TNFRSF11A that encodes the signal peptide of RANK. Juvenile Paget’s disease (JPD), an autosomal recessive disorder, manifests extremely fast skeletal remodeling, and is usually caused by loss-of-function mutations within TNFRSF11B that encodes OPG. These disorders are ultra-rare. A 13-year-old Bolivian girl was referred at age 3 years. One femur was congenitally short and curved. Then, both bowed. Deafness at age 2 years involved missing ossicles and eroded cochleas. Teeth often had absorbed roots, broke, and were lost. Radiographs had revealed acquired tubular bone widening, cortical thickening, and coarse trabeculation. Biochemical markers indicated rapid skeletal turnover. Histopathology showed accelerated remodeling with abundant osteoclasts. JPD was diagnosed. Immobilization from a femur fracture caused severe hypercalcemia that responded rapidly to pamidronate treatment followed by bone turnover marker and radiographic improvement. No TNFRSF11B mutation was found. Instead, a unique heterozygous 15-bp insertional tandem duplication (87dup15) within exon 1 of TNFRSF11A predicted the same pentapeptide extension of RANK that causes expansile skeletal hyperphosphatasia (84dup15). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in TNFRSF11A and TNFRSF11B possibly impacted her phenotype. Our findings: i) reveal that JPD can be associated with an activating mutation within TNFRSF11A, ii) expand the range and overlap of phenotypes among the mendelian disorders of RANK activation, and iii) call for mutation

  6. Boron and Strontium isotope systematics in deeply subducted alpine-serpentinites: evidence of high-11B fluid flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonarini, Sonia; Scambelluri, Marco

    2010-05-01

    Boron and strontium isotope systematics are widely applied tracers to understand recycling processes during subduction. However, very few studies are addressed to the geochemical behaviour of these isotope ratios in high (HP) to ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) serpentinites that experienced pressure-temperature conditions similar to those of modern subduction zones. Here we present delta-11B and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the Erro-Tobbio peridotite (Ligurian Alps) a slice of serpentinized mantle involved in subduction and high-pressure recrystallization during the Alpine orogeny. The analyzed sample set includes serpentinized peridotite samples recrystallized at increasing P-T conditions: from relatively low P-T (chrysotile and lizardite are the dominant serpentine minerals) to eclogite-facies conditions (antigorite + olivine + Ti clinohumite form the stable paragenesis). During subduction, ductile deformation under HP conditions was focused in serpentinite mylonite shear zones (high-strain domains) surrounding volumes of HP serpentinized peridotite unaffected by plastic deformation (low-strain domains). The latter diffusely preserve serpentinized mantle peridotites with low P-T overprint retaining pristine mantle textures and assemblages. In general, the delta-11B in these products is heavy, with the majority of samples exceeding delta-11B of 16 permil and reaching extreme values of + 24 permil. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios range between 0.7044 and 0.7065, significantly lower than the values of serpentinites formed during interaction with seawater-dominated fluids and close to the seawater 87Sr/86Sr. In more detail, the low P-T serpentinized peridotites are characterized by the wider range of delta-11B variability (+3.8 to +24 permil). The low-strain HP peridotites show a comparably wide range in delta-11B (+6.8 to +20 permil). More homogeneous and generally higher delta-11B were measured in HP mylonitic serpentinites (delta-11B between +16.7 and +24 permil): these rocks also display

  7. Figural symbolism in Chinese ideographs.

    PubMed

    Koriat, A; Levy, I

    1979-07-01

    Hebrew-speaking subjects were presented with 42 pairs of Chinese characters designating antonymic concepts and were required to match them with their corresponding Hebrew words. Correct translation was significant and was related to foreign language study and academic experience. Highest success was found for the activity domain of the semantic differential and for attributes judged to afford a diagrammatic representation. Examination of the character-referent relationships suggested that translation success was due to principles of figural symbolism rather than to pictographic representation of the attributes in question. The results are seen as suggestive of the effects of figural symbolization on the invention and/or evolution of natural scripts and are discussed in terms of the manner in which the graphic medium has been fashioned to convey abstract concepts.

  8. CIRCULATING CD11B EXPRESSION CORRELATES WITH THE NEUTROPHIL RESPONSE AND AIRWAY MCD-14 EXPRESSION IS ENHANCED FOLLOWING OZONE EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We recently reported that baseline expression of circulating CD11b is associated with the magnitude of the neutrophil response following inhaled endotoxin. In this study, we examined whether circulating CD11b plays a similar role in the inflammatory response following inhaled ozo...

  9. Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells efficiently home to site of injury after intravenous administration and enhance diabetic wound healing by neoangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiaozhe; Lv, Gang; Huang, Jianhua; Min, Yongfen; Yang, Li; Lin, Pengnian Charles

    2014-06-01

    Vascularization is an important factor that affects diabetic wound healing. There is increasing evidence that myeloid cell lineages play a role in neovascularization. In this study, the efficiency of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to home to the site of injury and enhance diabetic wound healing by neoangiogenesis after intravenous administration was investigated. Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells were injected into tail vein after establishment of dorsal window chamber, hindlimb ischaemia and ear-punch injury in diabetic or non-diabetic mice. The Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells efficiently homed to the site of injury after intravenous administration and increased neoangiogenesis. The chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is robustly expressed by Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells. Inhibition of CXCR4 decreases the homing ability of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to the site of injury, which indicates that the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis plays an important role in the homing of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to the site of injury. In addition, Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells were found to improve blood flow recovery of ischaemic limb and enhance wound healing in diabetic mice by neoangiogenesis after intravenous administration. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells may serve as a potential cell therapy for diabetic wound healing.

  10. Gr-1intCD11b+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells accumulate in corneal allograft and improve corneal allograft survival.

    PubMed

    Choi, Wungrak; Ji, Yong Woo; Ham, Hwa-Yong; Yeo, Areum; Noh, Hyemi; Jin, Su-Eon; Song, Jong Suk; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Eung Kwon; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2016-12-01

    We identified the characteristics of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and investigated their mechanism of induction and their functional role in allograft rejection using a murine corneal allograft model. In mice, MDSCs coexpress CD11b and myeloid differentiation antigen Gr-1. Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells infiltrated allografted corneas between 4 d and 4 wk after surgery; however, the frequencies of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells were not different between accepted and rejected allografts or in peripheral blood or BM. Of interest, Gr-1(int)CD11b(+) cells, but not Gr-1(hi)CD11b(+) cells, infiltrated the accepted graft early after surgery and expressed high levels of immunosuppressive cytokines, including IL-10, TGF-β, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. This population remained until 4 wk after surgery. In vitro, only high dose (>100 ng/ml) of IFN-γ plus GM-CSF could induce immunosuppressive cytokine expression in Gr-1(int)CD11b(+) cells. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of Gr-1(int)CD11b(+) cells reduced T cell infiltration, which improved graft survival. In conclusion, high-dose IFN-γ in allograft areas is essential for development of Gr-1(int)CD11b(+) MDSCs in corneal allografts, and subtle environmental changes in the early period of the allograft can result in a large difference in graft survival.

  11. Preparation and Evaluation of 99mTc-labeled anti-CD11b Antibody Targeting Inflammatory Microenvironment for Colon Cancer Imaging.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dengfeng; Zou, Weihong; Li, Xiao; Xiu, Yan; Tan, Hui; Shi, Hongcheng; Yang, Xiangdong

    2015-06-01

    CD11b, an active constituent of innate immune response highly expressed in myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), can be used as a marker of inflammatory microenvironment, particularly in tumor tissues. In this research, we aimed to fabricate a (99m)Tc-labeled anti-CD11b antibody as a probe for CD11b(+) myeloid cells in colon cancer imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In situ murine colon tumor model was established in histidine decarboxylase knockout (Hdc(-/-)) mice by chemicals induction. (99m)Tc-labeled anti-CD11b was obtained with labeling yields of over 30% and radiochemical purity of over 95%. Micro-SPECT/CT scans were performed at 6 h post injection to investigate biodistributions and targeting of the probe. In situ colonic neoplasma as small as 3 mm diameters was clearly identified by imaging; after dissection of the animal, anti-CD11b immunofluorescence staining was performed to identify infiltration of CD11b+ MDSCs in microenvironment of colonic neoplasms. In addition, the images displayed intense signal from bone marrow and spleen, which indicated the origin and migration of CD11b(+) MDSCs in vivo, and these results were further proved by flow cytometry analysis. Therefore, (99m)Tc-labeled anti-CD11b SPECT displayed the potential to facilitate the diagnosis of colon tumor in very early stage via detection of inflammatory microenvironment.

  12. Electron spin resonance investigations of /sup 11/B/sup 12/C, /sup 11/B/sup 13/C, and /sup 10/B/sup 12/C in neon, argon, and krypton matrices at 4 K: Comparison with theoretical results

    SciTech Connect

    Knight L.B. Jr.; Cobranchi, S.T.; Petty, J.T.; Earl, E.; Feller, D.; Davidson, E.R.

    1989-01-15

    The first spectroscopic study of the diatomic radical BC is reported which confirms previous theoretical predictions of a /sup 4/summation/sup -/ electronic ground state. The nuclear hyperfine interactions (A tensors) obtained for /sup 11/B, /sup 10/B, and /sup 13/C from the electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements are compared with extensive ab initio CI calculations. The BC molecule is one of the first examples of a small high spin radical for such an in-depth experimental--theoretical comparison. The electronic structure of BC obtained from an analysis of the nuclear hyperfine interaction (hfi) is compared to that obtained from a Mulliken-type population analysis conducted on a CI wave function which yields A/sub iso/ and A/sub dip/ results in good agreement with the observed values. The BC radical was generated by the laser vaporization of a boron--carbon mixture and trapped in neon, argon, and krypton matrices at 4 K for a complete ESR characterization. The magnetic parameters (MHz) obtained for /sup 11/B/sup 13/C in solid neon are: g/sub parallel/ = 2.0015(3); g/sub perpendicular/ = 2.0020(3); D(zfs) = 1701(2); /sup 11/B: chemically bondA/sub parallel/chemically bond = 100(1); chemically bondA/sub perpendicular/chemically bond = 79(1); /sup 13/C: chemically bondA/sub parallel/chemically bond = 5(2) and chemically bondA/sub perpendicular/chemically bond = 15(1). Based on comparison with the theoretical results, the most likely choice of signs is that all A values are positive.

  13. Integrated genome-wide genotyping and gene expression profiling reveals BCL11B as a putative oncogene in acute myeloid leukemia with 14q32 aberrations.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Saman; Sanders, Mathijs A; Zeilemaker, Annelieke; Geertsma-Kleinekoort, Wendy M C; Koenders, Jasper E; Kavelaars, Francois G; Abbas, Zabiollah G; Mahamoud, Souad; Chu, Isabel W T; Hoogenboezem, Remco; Peeters, Justine K; van Drunen, Ellen; van Galen, Janneke; Beverloo, H Berna; Löwenberg, Bob; Valk, Peter J M

    2014-05-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia is a neoplasm characterized by recurrent molecular aberrations traditionally demonstrated by cytogenetic analyses. We used high density genome-wide genotyping and gene expression profiling to reveal acquired cryptic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia. By genome-wide genotyping of 137 cases of primary acute myeloid leukemia, we disclosed a recurrent focal amplification on chromosome 14q32, which included the genes BCL11B, CCNK, C14orf177 and SETD3, in two cases. In the affected cases, the BCL11B gene showed consistently high mRNA expression, whereas the expression of the other genes was unperturbed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on 40 cases of acute myeloid leukemia with high BCL11B mRNA expression [2.5-fold above median; 40 out of 530 cases (7.5%)] revealed 14q32 abnormalities in two additional cases. In the four BCL11B-rearranged cases the 14q32 locus was fused to different partner chromosomes. In fact, in two cases, we demonstrated that the focal 14q32 amplifications were integrated into transcriptionally active loci. The translocations involving BCL11B result in increased expression of full-length BCL11B protein. The BCL11B-rearranged acute myeloid leukemias expressed both myeloid and T-cell markers. These biphenotypic acute leukemias all carried FLT3 internal tandem duplications, a characteristic marker of acute myeloid leukemia. BCL11B mRNA expression in acute myeloid leukemia appeared to be strongly associated with expression of other T-cell-specific genes. Myeloid 32D(GCSF-R) cells ectopically expressing Bcl11b showed decreased proliferation rate and less maturation. In conclusion, by an integrated approach involving high-throughput genome-wide genotyping and gene expression profiling we identified BCL11B as a candidate oncogene in acute myeloid leukemia.

  14. Integrated genome-wide genotyping and gene expression profiling reveals BCL11B as a putative oncogene in acute myeloid leukemia with 14q32 aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Saman; Sanders, Mathijs A.; Zeilemaker, Annelieke; Geertsma-Kleinekoort, Wendy M.C.; Koenders, Jasper E.; Kavelaars, Francois G.; Abbas, Zabiollah G.; Mahamoud, Souad; Chu, Isabel W.T.; Hoogenboezem, Remco; Peeters, Justine K.; van Drunen, Ellen; van Galen, Janneke; Beverloo, H. Berna; Löwenberg, Bob; Valk, Peter J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia is a neoplasm characterized by recurrent molecular aberrations traditionally demonstrated by cytogenetic analyses. We used high density genome-wide genotyping and gene expression profiling to reveal acquired cryptic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia. By genome-wide genotyping of 137 cases of primary acute myeloid leukemia, we disclosed a recurrent focal amplification on chromosome 14q32, which included the genes BCL11B, CCNK, C14orf177 and SETD3, in two cases. In the affected cases, the BCL11B gene showed consistently high mRNA expression, whereas the expression of the other genes was unperturbed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on 40 cases of acute myeloid leukemia with high BCL11B mRNA expression [2.5-fold above median; 40 out of 530 cases (7.5%)] revealed 14q32 abnormalities in two additional cases. In the four BCL11B-rearranged cases the 14q32 locus was fused to different partner chromosomes. In fact, in two cases, we demonstrated that the focal 14q32 amplifications were integrated into transcriptionally active loci. The translocations involving BCL11B result in increased expression of full-length BCL11B protein. The BCL11B-rearranged acute myeloid leukemias expressed both myeloid and T-cell markers. These biphenotypic acute leukemias all carried FLT3 internal tandem duplications, a characteristic marker of acute myeloid leukemia. BCL11B mRNA expression in acute myeloid leukemia appeared to be strongly associated with expression of other T-cell-specific genes. Myeloid 32D(GCSF-R) cells ectopically expressing Bcl11b showed decreased proliferation rate and less maturation. In conclusion, by an integrated approach involving high-throughput genome-wide genotyping and gene expression profiling we identified BCL11B as a candidate oncogene in acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:24441149

  15. Tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells induce angiogenesis through the synergistic action of CCL2 and CXCL16 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Han, Eun Chun; Lee, Jungwhoi; Ryu, Seung-Wook; Choi, Chulhee

    2014-01-24

    Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells can suppress innate and adaptive immunity, and the functional immunosuppressive characteristics of these cells can be modulated by the tumor microenvironment. Since Gr-1(+)CD11(+) cells are also involved in tumor-associated angiogenesis, we hypothesized that the angiogenic nature of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells could be regulated by the tumor milieu. To address this hypothesis, we imitated a tumor microenvironment by exposing Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells isolated from spleen of 4T1 mammary carcinoma-bearing mice to tumor-conditioned medium. Supernatants from tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells significantly induced capillary-like tube formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared to naive Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells. Incubation of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells with tumor-conditioned medium induced production of pro-angiogenic chemokines CCL2 and CXCL16. Pretreatment with an anti-CCL2 antibody, but not an anti-CXCL16 antibody, suppressed the angiogenic effects of tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells on HUVECs. Simultaneous neutralization of CCL2 and CXCL16 significantly inhibited tube formation and migration of HUVECs compared to the sole neutralization against CCL2. Supernatants from tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in HUVECs, and inhibition of the ERK pathway blocked angiogenic effects. ERK pathway activity was partially abrogated by neutralization of CCL2 and more suppressed by simultaneous neutralization of CCL2 and CXCL16. These results collectively indicate that CCL2 and CXCL16 chemokines produced by tumor-conditioned Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells synergistically induce angiogenesis in vitro by stimulating the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Thus, regulation of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) cells in the tumor microenvironment may contribute to angiogenesis through the secretion of pro-angiogenic chemokines.

  16. Lipopolysaccharide enhances FcγR-dependent functions in vivo through CD11b/CD18 up-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rubel, C; Miliani De Marval, P; Vermeulen, M; Isturiz, M A; Palermo, M S

    1999-01-01

    Fc receptors for immunoglobulin G (IgG) (FcγR) mediate several defence mechanisms in the course of inflammatory and infectious diseases. In Gram-negative infections, cellular wall lipopolysaccharides (LPS) modulate different immune responses. We have recently demonstrated that murine LPS in vivo treatment significantly increases FcγR-dependent clearance of immune complexes (IC). In addition, we and others have reported the induction of adhesion molecules on macrophages and neutrophils by LPS in vivo and by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in vitro. The aim of this paper was to investigate CD11b/CD18 participation in LPS enhancing effects on Fcγ-dependent functionality of tissue macrophages. Our results have demonstrated that LPS can enhance antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and IC-triggered cytotoxicity (IC-Ctx), two reactions which involve the Fcγ-receptor but different lytic mechanisms. In vitro incubation of splenocytes from LPS-treated mice with anti-CD11b/CD18 abrogated ADCC and IC-Ctx enhancement, without affecting FcγR expression. Similar results were obtained with physiological concentrations of fibrinogen. In this way cytotoxic values of LPS-splenocytes decreased to the basal levels of control mice. Time and temperature requirements for such inhibition strongly suggested that anti-CD11b/CD18 could modulate intracellular signals leading to downregulation of FcγR functionality. Data presented herein support the hypothesis that functional and/or physical associations between integrins and FcγR could be critical for the modulation of effector functions during an inflammatory response. PMID:10447764

  17. Trafficking CD11b-positive blood cells deliver therapeutic genes to the brain of amyloid depositing transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Lebson, Lori; Nash, Kevin; Kamath, Siddharth; Herber, Donna; Carty, Nikisha; Lee, Daniel; Li, Qingyou; Szekeres, Karoly; Jinwal, Umesh; Koren, John; Dickey, Chad A.; Gottschall, Paul; Morgan, Dave; Gordon, Marcia N

    2010-01-01

    A major question for gene therapy in brain concerns methods to administer therapeutic genes in a uniform manner over major portions of the brain. A second question in neuroimmunology concerns the extent to which monocytes migrate to the CNS in degenerative disorders. Here we show that CD11b+ cells (largely monocytes) isolated from the bone marrow of green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing donors spontaneously home to compacted amyloid plaques in the brain. Injections of these cells as a single pulse show a rapid clearance from circulation (90 minute half-life) and tissue residence half-lives of roughly 3 days. The uptake into brain was minimal in nontransgenic mice. In transgenic mice containing amyloid deposits, uptake was dramatically increased and associated with a corresponding decrease in monocyte uptake into peripheral organs compared to nontransgenic littermates. Twice weekly infusions of the CD11b+ bone marrow cells transfected with a genetically engineered form of the protease neprilysin completely arrest amyloid deposition in an aggressively depositing transgenic model. Exploiting the natural homing properties of peripherally derived blood cells to deliver therapeutic genes has the advantages of access to the entire CNS, expression largely restricted to sites of injury, low risk of immune reactivity, and fading of expression if adverse reactions are encountered. These observations support the feasibility of testing autologous monocytes for application of therapeutic genes in human CNS disease. Moreover, these data support the results from bone marrow grafts that circulating CD11b+ cells can enter the CNS without requiring the use of lethal irradiation. PMID:20660248

  18. Early infiltration of p40IL12+CCR7+CD11b+ cells is critical for fibrosis development

    PubMed Central

    Correa‐Costa, Matheus; Azevedo, Hatylas; Silva, Reinaldo Correia; Cruz, Mario Costa; Almeida, Maira Estanislau Soares; Hiyane, Meire Ioshie; Moreira‐Filho, Carlos Alberto; Santos, Marinilce Fagundes; Perez, Katia Regina; Cuccovia, Iolanda Midea; Camara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Macrophages are heterogeneous and thus can be correlated with distinct tissue outcomes after injury. Conflicting data have indicated that the M2‐related phenotype directly triggers fibrosis. Conversely, we hypothesize here that the inflammatory milieu provided by early infiltration of pro‐inflammatory macrophages dictates tissue scarring after injury. Methods and Results We first determined that tissue‐localized macrophages exhibit a pro‐inflammatory phenotype (p40IL12+CCR7+CD11b+) during the early phase of a chronic injury model, in contrast to a pro‐resolving phenotype (Arg1+IL10+CD206+CD11b+) at a later stage. Then, we evaluated the effects of injecting macrophages differentiated in vitro in the presence of IFNγ + LPS or IL4 + IL13 or non‐differentiated macrophages (hereafter, M0) on promoting inflammation and progression of chronic injury in macrophage‐depleted mice. In addition to enhancing the expression of pro‐inflammatory cytokines, the injection of M (IFNγ + LPS), but not M (IL4 + IL13) or M0, accentuated fibrosis while augmenting levels of anti‐inflammatory molecules, increasing collagen deposition and impairing organ function. We observed a similar profile after injection of sorted CCR7+CD11b+ cells and a more pronounced effect of M (IFNγ + LPS) cells originated from Stat6−/− mice. The injection of M (IFNγ + LPS) cells was associated with the up‐regulation of inflammation‐ and fibrosis‐related proteins (Thbs1, Mmp7, Mmp8, and Mmp13). Conclusions Our results suggest that pro‐inflammatory macrophages promote microenvironmental changes that may lead to fibrogenesis by inducing an inflammatory milieu that alters a network of extracellular‐related genes, culminating in tissue fibrosis. PMID:27621813

  19. CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1) is required for degranulation of human eosinophils induced by human recombinant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and platelet-activating factor.

    PubMed

    Horie, S; Kita, H

    1994-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests adhesion molecules play an important role in the function of leukocytes. Because human eosinophils are known to express beta 2 integrins, we hypothesized that these adhesion molecules mediate the effector function of eosinophils. Normal human eosinophils incubated in albumin-coated polystyrene plates released granule protein and produced superoxide anion when stimulated with human recombinant granulocyte-macrophage CSF (rGM-CSF), platelet-activating factor (PAF), or PMA. Simultaneous monitoring of eosinophil adhesion and degranulation showed that degranulation was always preceded by cellular adhesion regardless of stimuli. Furthermore, eosinophil degranulation induced by human rGM-CSF and PAF was abolished in suspension culture of the cells when the cell suspensions were gently stirred. To identify the molecules involved in this adhesion-dependent degranulation, we have investigated the effects of mAbs (mAb) against beta 2 integrins. mAb reactive with CD18 markedly inhibited the eosinophil adhesion and degranulation induced by PAF and human rGM-CSF. mAb reactive with CD11b also moderately inhibited the adhesion and degranulation. In contrast, mAb reactive with CD11a slightly enhanced or showed no effect on the adhesion and degranulation by human rGM-CSF or PAF. Superoxide production induced by human rGM-CSF and PAF was also abolished by the treatment of cells with anti-CD18 mAb. mAb against CD11b and CD18 had little effect on degranulation and superoxide production induced by PMA. These results indicate that CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1)-dependent cellular adhesion plays an important role in the degranulation and superoxide production of eosinophils induced by human rGM-CSF and PAF, and that these mechanisms may be employed in vivo where eosinophils contact with stromal cells and/or proteins.

  20. Hooke's figurations: a figural drawing attributed to Robert Hooke.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Matthew C

    2010-09-20

    The experimental philosopher Robert Hooke (1635-1703) is known to have apprenticed to the leading painter Peter Lely on his first arrival in London in the late 1640s. Yet the relevance of Hooke's artistic training to his mature draughtsmanship and identity has remained unclear. Shedding light on that larger interpretive problem, this article argues for the attribution to Hooke of a figural drawing now in Tate Britain (T10678). This attributed drawing is especially interesting because it depicts human subjects and bears Hooke's name functioning as an artistic signature, both highly unusual features for his draughtsmanship. From evidence of how this drawing was collected and physically placed alongside images by leading artists in the early eighteenth century, I suggest how it can offer new insight into the reception of Hooke and his graphic work in the early Enlightenment.

  1. Transcriptional reprogramming of CD11b+Esam(hi) dendritic cell identity and function by loss of Runx3.

    PubMed

    Dicken, Joseph; Mildner, Alexander; Leshkowitz, Dena; Touw, Ivo P; Hantisteanu, Shay; Jung, Steffen; Groner, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    Classical dendritic cells (cDC) are specialized antigen-presenting cells mediating immunity and tolerance. cDC cell-lineage decisions are largely controlled by transcriptional factor regulatory cascades. Using an in vivo cell-specific targeting of Runx3 at various stages of DC lineage development we show that Runx3 is required for cell-identity, homeostasis and function of splenic Esam(hi) DC. Ablation of Runx3 in DC progenitors led to a substantial decrease in splenic CD4(+)/CD11b(+) DC. Combined chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and gene expression analysis of purified DC-subsets revealed that Runx3 is a key gene expression regulator that facilitates specification and homeostasis of CD11b(+)Esam(hi) DC. Mechanistically, loss of Runx3 alters Esam(hi) DC gene expression to a signature characteristic of WT Esam(low) DC. This transcriptional reprogramming caused a cellular change that diminished phagocytosis and hampered Runx3(-/-) Esam(hi) DC capacity to prime CD4(+) T cells, attesting to the significant role of Runx3 in specifying Esam(hi) DC identity and function.

  2. Epigenetic regulation of the placental HSD11B2 barrier and its role as a critical regulator of fetal development.

    PubMed

    Togher, Katie L; Togher, Katie L; O'Keeffe, Majella M; O'Keeffe, Majella M; Khashan, Ali S; Khashan, Ali S; Gutierrez, Humberto; Gutierrez, Humberto; Kenny, Louise C; Kenny, Louise C; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2014-06-01

    "Fetal programming" is a term used to describe how early-life experience influences fetal development and later disease risk. In humans, prenatal stress-induced fetal programming is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, and a heightened risk of metabolic and neurological diseases later in life. A critical determinant of this is the regulation of fetal exposure to glucocorticoids by the placenta. Glucocorticoids are the mediators through which maternal stress influences fetal development. Excessive fetal glucocorticoid exposure during pregnancy results in low birth weight and abnormalities in a number of tissues. The amount of fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids depends on the expression of HSD11B2, an enzyme predominantly produced by the syncytiotrophoblast in the placenta. This protects the fetus by converting active glucocorticoids into inactive forms. In this review we examine recent findings regarding placental HSD11B2 that suggest that its epigenetic regulation may mechanistically link maternal stress and long-term health consequences in affected offspring.

  3. Epigenetic regulation of the placental HSD11B2 barrier and its role as a critical regulator of fetal development

    PubMed Central

    Togher, Katie L; Togher, Katie L; O'Keeffe, Majella M; O'Keeffe, Majella M; Khashan, Ali S; Khashan, Ali S; Gutierrez, Humberto; Gutierrez, Humberto; Kenny, Louise C; Kenny, Louise C; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2014-01-01

    “Fetal programming” is a term used to describe how early-life experience influences fetal development and later disease risk. In humans, prenatal stress-induced fetal programming is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, and a heightened risk of metabolic and neurological diseases later in life. A critical determinant of this is the regulation of fetal exposure to glucocorticoids by the placenta. Glucocorticoids are the mediators through which maternal stress influences fetal development. Excessive fetal glucocorticoid exposure during pregnancy results in low birth weight and abnormalities in a number of tissues. The amount of fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids depends on the expression of HSD11B2, an enzyme predominantly produced by the syncytiotrophoblast in the placenta. This protects the fetus by converting active glucocorticoids into inactive forms. In this review we examine recent findings regarding placental HSD11B2 that suggest that its epigenetic regulation may mechanistically link maternal stress and long-term health consequences in affected offspring. PMID:24717516

  4. (11)B Solid-State NMR Interaction Tensors of Linear Two-Coordinate Boron: The Dimesitylborinium Cation.

    PubMed

    Alain, Amanda E; Shoji, Yoshiaki; Fukushima, Takanori; Bryce, David L

    2015-12-21

    Borinium cations (R2B(+)) are of particular fundamental and applied interest in part due to their pronounced Lewis acidity which enables unique chemical transformations. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of magic-angle spinning and stationary powdered samples of the dicoordinate boron cation in the recently reported dimesitylborinium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate compound (Shoji et al. Nature Chem. 2014, 6, 498) is applied to characterize the (11)B electric field gradient (EFG) and chemical shift (CS) tensors. The experimental data are consistent with linear C-B(+)-C geometry. The (11)B quadrupolar coupling constant, 5.44 ± 0.08 MHz, and the span of the CS tensor, 130 ± 1 ppm, are both particularly large relative to literature data for a variety of boron functional groups, and represent the first such data for the linear C-B(+)-C borinium moiety. The NMR data are similar to those for the neutral tricoordinate analogue, trimesitylborane, but contrast with those of the Cp*2B(+) cation. Quantum chemical calculations are applied to provide additional insights into the relationship between the NMR observables and the molecular and electronic structure of the dimesitylborinium cation.

  5. Pancreatic islet expression of chemokine CCL2 suppresses autoimmune diabetes via tolerogenic CD11c+ CD11b+ dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Kriegel, Martin A; Rathinam, Chozhavendan; Flavell, Richard A

    2012-02-28

    Development of type 1 diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse is preceded by an immune cell infiltrate in the pancreatic islets. The exact role of the attracted cells is still poorly understood. Chemokine CCL2/MCP-1 is known to attract CCR2(+) monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs). We have previously shown that transgenic expression of CCL2 in pancreatic islets via the rat insulin promoter induces nondestructive insulitis on a nonautoimmune background. We report here an unexpected reduction of diabetes development on the NOD background despite an increased islet cell infiltrate with markedly increased numbers of CD11c(+) CD11b(+) DCs. These DCs exhibited a hypoactive phenotype with low CD40, MHC II, CD80/CD86 expression, and reduced TNF-α but elevated IL-10 secretions. They failed to induce proliferation of diabetogenic CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Pancreatic lymph node CD4(+) T cells were down-regulated ex vivo and expressed the anergy marker Grail. By using an in vivo transfer system, we show that CD11c(+) CD11b(+) DCs from rat insulin promoter-CCL2 transgenic NOD mice were the most potent cells suppressing diabetes development. These findings support an unexpected beneficial role for CCL2 in type 1 diabetes with implications for current strategies interfering with the CCL2/CCR2 axis in humans, and for dendritic cell biology in autoimmunity.

  6. Rab11b mediates melanin transfer between donor melanocytes and acceptor keratinocytes via coupled exo/endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Tarafder, Abul K; Bolasco, Giulia; Correia, Maria S; Pereira, Francisco J C; Iannone, Lucio; Hume, Alistair N; Kirkpatrick, Niall; Picardo, Mauro; Torrisi, Maria R; Rodrigues, Inês P; Ramalho, José S; Futter, Clare E; Barral, Duarte C; Seabra, Miguel C

    2014-04-01

    The transfer of melanin from melanocytes to keratinocytes is a crucial process underlying maintenance of skin pigmentation and photoprotection against UV damage. Here, we present evidence supporting coupled exocytosis of the melanin core, or melanocore, by melanocytes and subsequent endocytosis by keratinocytes as a predominant mechanism of melanin transfer. Electron microscopy analysis of human skin samples revealed three lines of evidence supporting this: (1) the presence of melanocores in the extracellular space; (2) within keratinocytes, melanin was surrounded by a single membrane; and (3) this membrane lacked the melanosomal membrane protein tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1). Moreover, co-culture of melanocytes and keratinocytes suggests that melanin exocytosis is specifically induced by keratinocytes. Furthermore, depletion of Rab11b, but not Rab27a, caused a marked decrease in both keratinocyte-stimulated melanin exocytosis and transfer to keratinocytes. Thus, we propose that the predominant mechanism of melanin transfer is keratinocyte-induced exocytosis, mediated by Rab11b through remodeling of the melanosome membrane, followed by subsequent endocytosis by keratinocytes.

  7. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein represses the expression of the BCL11B tumor suppressor in T-cells.

    PubMed

    Takachi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Masahiko; Takahashi-Yoshita, Manami; Higuchi, Masaya; Obata, Miki; Mishima, Yukio; Okuda, Shujiro; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Matsuoka, Masao; Saitoh, Akihiko; Green, Patrick L; Fujii, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATL), which is an aggressive form of T-cell malignancy. HTLV-1 oncoproteins, Tax and HBZ, play crucial roles in the immortalization of T-cells and/or leukemogenesis by dysregulating the cellular functions in the host. Recent studies show that HTLV-1-infected T-cells have reduced expression of the BCL11B tumor suppressor protein. In the present study, we explored whether Tax and/or HBZ play a role in downregulating BCL11B in HTLV-1-infected T-cells. Lentiviral transduction of Tax in a human T-cell line repressed the expression of BCL11B at both the protein and mRNA levels, whereas the transduction of HBZ had little effect on the expression. Tax mutants with a decreased activity for the NF-κB, CREB or PDZ protein pathways still showed a reduced expression of the BCL11B protein, thereby implicating a different function of Tax in BCL11B downregulation. In addition, the HTLV-2 Tax2 protein reduced the BCL11B protein expression in T-cells. Seven HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, including three ATL-derived cell lines, showed reduced BCL11B mRNA and protein expression relative to an uninfected T-cell line, and the greatest reductions were in the cells expressing Tax. Collectively, these results indicate that Tax is responsible for suppressing BCL11B protein expression in HTLV-1-infected T-cells; Tax-mediated repression of BCL11B is another mechanism that Tax uses to promote oncogenesis of HTLV-1-infected T-cells.

  8. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein represses the expression of the BCL11B tumor suppressor in T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Takachi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Masahiko; Takahashi-Yoshita, Manami; Higuchi, Masaya; Obata, Miki; Mishima, Yukio; Okuda, Shujiro; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Matsuoka, Masao; Saitoh, Akihiko; Green, Patrick L; Fujii, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiological agent of adult T cell leukemia (ATL), which is an aggressive form of T-cell malignancy. HTLV-1 oncoproteins, Tax and HBZ, play crucial roles in the immortalization of T-cells and/or leukemogenesis by dysregulating the cellular functions in the host. Recent studies show that HTLV-1-infected T-cells have reduced expression of the BCL11B tumor suppressor protein. In the present study, we explored whether Tax and/or HBZ play a role in downregulating BCL11B in HTLV-1-infected T-cells. Lentiviral transduction of Tax in a human T-cell line repressed the expression of BCL11B at both the protein and mRNA levels, whereas the transduction of HBZ had little effect on the expression. Tax mutants with a decreased activity for the NF-κB, CREB or PDZ protein pathways still showed a reduced expression of the BCL11B protein, thereby implicating a different function of Tax in BCL11B downregulation. In addition, the HTLV-2 Tax2 protein reduced the BCL11B protein expression in T-cells. Seven HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, including three ATL-derived cell lines, showed reduced BCL11B mRNA and protein expression relative to an uninfected T-cell line, and the greatest reductions were in the cells expressing Tax. Collectively, these results indicate that Tax is responsible for suppressing BCL11B protein expression in HTLV-1-infected T-cells; Tax-mediated repression of BCL11B is another mechanism that Tax uses to promote oncogenesis of HTLV-1-infected T-cells. PMID:25613934

  9. Small GTPases Rab8a and Rab11a Are Dispensable for Rhodopsin Transport in Mouse Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Guoxin; Gerstner, Cecilia D.; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Boye, Sanford L.; Hauswirth, William W.; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Rab11a and Rab8a are ubiquitous small GTPases shown as required for rhodopsin transport in Xenopus laevis and zebrafish photoreceptors by dominant negative (dn) disruption of function. Here, we generated retina-specific Rab11a (retRab11a) and Rab8a (retRab8a) single and double knockout mice to explore the consequences in mouse photoreceptors. Rhodopsin and other outer segment (OS) membrane proteins targeted correctly to OS and electroretinogram (ERG) responses in all three mutant mouse lines were indistinguishable from wild-type (WT). Further, AAV (adeno-associated virus)-mediated expression of dnRab11b in retRab11a-/- retina, or expression of dnRab8b in retRab8a-/- retina did not cause OS protein mislocalization. Finally, a retRab8a-/- retina injected at one month of age with AAVs expressing dnRab11a, dnRab11b, dnRab8b, and dnRab10 (four dn viruses on Rab8a-/- background) and harvested three months later exhibited normal OS protein localization. In contrast to results obtained with dnRab GTPases in Xenopus and zebrafish, mouse Rab11a and Rab8a are dispensable for proper rhodopsin and outer segment membrane protein targeting. Absence of phenotype after expression of four dn Rab GTPases in a Rab8a-/- retina suggests that Rab8b and Rab11b paralogs maybe dispensable as well. Our data thus demonstrate significant interspecies variation in photoreceptor membrane protein and rhodopsin trafficking. PMID:27529348

  10. PHOBOS Experiment: Figures and Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The PHOBOS Collaboration

    PHOBOS consists of many silicon detectors surrounding the interaction region. With these detectors physicists can count the total number of produced particles and study the angular distributions of all the products. Physicists know from other branches of physics that a characteristic of phase transitions are fluctuations in physical observables. With the PHOBOS array they look for unusual events or fluctuations in the number of particles and angular distribution. The articles that have appeared in refereed science journals are listed here with separate links to the supporting data plots, figures, and tables of numeric data.  See also supporting data for articles in technical journals at http://www.phobos.bnl.gov/Publications/Technical/phobos_technical_publications.htm and from conference proceedings at http://www.phobos.bnl.gov/Publications/Proceedings/phobos_proceedings_publications.htm

  11. Experimental evaluation of the isotopic exchange equilibrium 10B(OH) 3+ 11B(OH) 4-= 11B(OH) 3+ 10B(OH) 4- in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Robert H.; Yao, Wensheng; Klochko, Kateryna; Tossell, John A.; Kaufman, Alan J.

    2006-04-01

    The precision of spectrophotometric measurements of indicator absorbance ratios is sufficient to allow evaluation of small isotopically induced differences in the dissociation constant of boric acid ( KB). The quotient of 11KB and 10KB, obtained using isotopically ⩾99% pure borate/boric acid buffers, provides an equilibrium constant for the reaction 10B(OH) 3+ 11B(OH) 4-⇔ 11B(OH) 3+ 10B(OH) 4- which heretofore had not been experimentally determined. Previous theoretical and semi-empirical evaluations of this equilibrium, which is important for assessments of the paleo-pH of seawater and the paleo- pCO 2 of the atmosphere, have yielded constants, 11-10KB= 10KB/ 11KB, that have ranged between 1.0194 and approximately 1.033. The experimentally determined value 11-10KB=1.028 5±0.001 6 (mean±95% confidence interval) obtained at 25 °C and 0.63 molal (mol kg -1 H 2O) ionic strength is in much better agreement with recent theoretical assessments of 11-10KB that have ranged between 1.026 and 1.033, than the much-cited original estimate (1.0194) of Kakihana et al. (1977) [Fundamental studies on the ion-exchange separation of boron isotopes. Bulletin of Chemical Society of Japan 50, 158-163]. Since the activity quotient for the fractionation reaction is almost equal to unity, it is expected that the 11-10KB value obtained in this study will be applicable over a wide range of solution compositions and ionic strengths.

  12. Finding Figurative Language in "The Phantom Tollbooth."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Lisa

    This lesson is an exploration of figurative language using the novel "The Phantom Tollbooth" and various Web resources. Students examine figurative language in the story and create a chart representing the literal and figurative meanings of words and phrases. During the four to eight 40-minute class sessions, middle school students will: read the…

  13. Simultaneous mobilization of Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) and formyl peptide chemoattractant receptors in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Graves, V; Gabig, T; McCarthy, L; Strour, E F; Leemhuis, T; English, D

    1992-08-01

    Mobilization of a distinct subset of specific granules provides a physiologically important mechanism to recruit Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) from an intracellular pool to the external surface of the neutrophil plasma membrane, where the functionally active heterodimer mediates several adherence-dependent processes that are crucial for adequate host defense and cellular inflammatory responses. We observed similar characteristics for translocation of Mac-1 and neutrophil formyl peptide receptors (FPR) and hypothesize that the readily accessible pools of both Mac-1 and FPR are colocalized within this specific granule subset. Plasma membrane levels of both FPR (assessed with 3H-FMLP) and Mac-1 (assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC]-Mo-1-labeled cells) were markedly downregulated in cells prepared at low temperature from blood cooled to 4 degrees C immediately after removal from the circulation. Levels of both FPR and Mac-1 remained low on cells held at 4 degrees C. Upon warming, spontaneous upregulation of Mac-1 and FPR occurred with similar kinetics and temperature dependency. Translocation of both Mac-1 and FPR was markedly potentiated by exposure of cells to either fluoride ion (which has been shown by others to specifically elicit exocytosis of gelatinase-rich and vitamin B-12 binding protein-poor granules) or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), a cytokine that markedly potentiates the neutrophils' host defense capabilities. Levels of both FPR and Mac-1 on F-- or GM-CSF-treated neutrophils exceeded those present on cells incubated at 37 degrees C for extended time intervals, indicating that stimulated translocation may involve mobilization of an additional granule subset. Scatchard analysis showed that only low-affinity FPR were translocated during spontaneous and stimulus-dependent upregulation. To directly compare FPR levels on the surface of cells displaying varying levels of Mac-1 within a

  14. Cross section asymmetry of two-body carbon disintegration 12C (γ , p)11B with polarized photons at energy 40-50 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdeinyi, D.; Brudvik, J.; Fissum, K.; Ganenko, V.; Hansen, K.; Isaksson, L.; Livingston, K.; Lundin, M.; Nilsson, B.; Schroder, B.

    2017-01-01

    The cross section asymmetry of 12C (γ ,p01)11B and 12C (γ ,p2-6)11B reactions has been studied at the energy range 40-55 MeV, using linearly polarized tagged photons of the MAX-lab facility. The asymmetry of the 12C (γ ,p01)11B processes, which assume the one-body mechanism of the reaction, is Σ ≈ 0.82 ± 0.05 for photon energies 45-50 MeV. The asymmetry for the 12C (γ ,p2-6)11B reactions, which produce a maximum at excitation energy ∼ 6 MeV, is Σ ≈ 0.53 ± 0.13 for a photon energy 49 MeV. It is close to the asymmetry of reaction of the free deuteron photodisintegration, and can be resulted from the two-body mechanism of the photon absorption.

  15. The cAMP pathway regulates mRNA decay through phosphorylation of the RNA-binding protein TIS11b/BRF1

    PubMed Central

    Rataj, Felicitas; Planel, Séverine; Desroches-Castan, Agnès; Le Douce, Juliette; Lamribet, Khadija; Denis, Josiane; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Cherradi, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    TPA-inducible sequence 11b/butyrate response factor 1 (TIS11b/BRF1) belongs to the tristetraprolin (TTP) family of zinc-finger proteins, which bind to mRNAs containing AU-rich elements in their 3′-untranslated region and target them for degradation. Regulation of TTP family function through phosphorylation by p38 MAP kinase and Akt/protein kinase B signaling pathways has been extensively studied. In contrast, the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) in the control of TTP family activity in mRNA decay remains largely unknown. Here we show that PKA activation induces TIS11b gene expression and protein phosphorylation. Site-directed mutagenesis combined with kinase assays and specific phosphosite immunodetection identified Ser-54 (S54) and Ser-334 (S334) as PKA target amino acids in vitro and in vivo. Phosphomimetic mutation of the C-terminal S334 markedly increased TIS11b half-life and, unexpectedly, enhanced TIS11b activity on mRNA decay. Examination of protein–protein interactions between TIS11b and components of the mRNA decay machinery revealed that mimicking phosphorylation at S334 enhances TIS11b interaction with the decapping coactivator Dcp1a, while preventing phosphorylation at S334 potentiates its interaction with the Ccr4-Not deadenylase complex subunit Cnot1. Collectively our findings establish for the first time that cAMP-elicited phosphorylation of TIS11b plays a key regulatory role in its mRNA decay-promoting function. PMID:27708140

  16. cAMP-dependent posttranscriptional regulation of steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR) protein by the zinc finger protein ZFP36L1/TIS11b.

    PubMed

    Duan, Haichuan; Cherradi, Nadia; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Jefcoate, Colin

    2009-04-01

    Star is expressed in steroidogenic cells as 3.5- and 1.6-kb transcripts that differ only in their 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTR). In mouse MA10 testis and Y-1 adrenal lines, Br-cAMP preferentially stimulates 3.5-kb mRNA. ACTH is similarly selective in primary bovine adrenocortical cells. The 3.5-kb form harbors AU-rich elements (AURE) in the extended 3'-UTR, which enhance turnover. After peak stimulation of 3.5-kb mRNA, degradation is seen. Star mRNA turnover is enhanced by the zinc finger protein ZFP36L1/TIS11b, which binds to UAUUUAUU repeats in the extended 3'-UTR. TIS11b is rapidly stimulated in each cell type in parallel with Star mRNA. Cotransfection of TIS11b selectively decreases cytomegalovirus-promoted Star mRNA and luciferase-Star 3'-UTR reporters harboring the extended 3'-UTR. Direct complex formation was demonstrated between TIS11b and the extended 3'-UTR of the 3.5-kb Star. AURE mutations revealed that TIS11b-mediated destabilization required the first two UAUUUAUU motifs. HuR, which also binds AURE, did not affect Star expression. Targeted small interfering RNA knockdown of TIS11b specifically enhanced stimulation of 3.5-kb Star mRNA in bovine adrenocortical cells, MA-10, and Y-1 cells but did not affect the reversals seen after peak stimulation. Direct transfection of Star mRNA demonstrated that Br-cAMP stimulated a selective turnover of 3.5-kb mRNA independent of AURE, which may correspond to these reversal processes. Steroidogenic acute regulatory (STAR) protein induction was halved by TIS11b knockdown, concomitant with decreased cholesterol metabolism. TIS11b suppression of 3.5-kb mRNA is therefore surprisingly coupled to enhanced Star translation leading to increased cholesterol metabolism.

  17. 8Li({alpha},n)11B at Big Bang Temperatures: Neutron Counting With a Low Intensity 8Li Radioactive Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, S.; Rolfs, C.; Strieder, F.; Figuera, P.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Calabretta, L.; Cosentino, L.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietro, A.; Lamia, L.; Pappalardo, L.; Pizzone, R.G.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Rinollo, A.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.

    2004-02-27

    The cross section of 8Li({alpha},n)11B is very important for the study of primordial nucleosinthesys models. In this paper we report on the production of a 8Li beam via the 7Li(d,p)8Li reaction at the Laboratori Nazionali del Sud. Also, a novel experimental technique for measuring the reaction 8Li({alpha},n)11B at energies of astrophysical interest has been implemented and tested.

  18. HAT-P-11b: A SUPER-NEPTUNE PLANET TRANSITING A BRIGHT K STAR IN THE KEPLER FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, G. A.; Torres, G.; Pal, A.; Hartman, J.; Noyes, R. W.; Latham, D. W.; Sasselov, D. D.; Sipocz, B.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Kovacs, Gabor; Fernandez, J.; Kovacs, Geza; Moor, A.; Fischer, D. A.; Isaacson, H.; Johnson, J. A.; Marcy, G. W.; Howard, A.; Butler, R. P.; Vogt, S.

    2010-02-20

    We report on the discovery of HAT-P-11b, the smallest radius transiting extrasolar planet (TEP) discovered from the ground, and the first hot Neptune discovered to date by transit searches. HAT-P-11b orbits the bright (V = 9.587) and metal rich ([Fe/H] = +0.31 +- 0.05) K4 dwarf star GSC 03561-02092 with P = 4.8878162 +- 0.0000071 days and produces a transit signal with depth of 4.2 mmag, the shallowest found by transit searches that is due to a confirmed planet. We present a global analysis of the available photometric and radial velocity (RV) data that result in stellar and planetary parameters, with simultaneous treatment of systematic variations. The planet, like its near-twin GJ 436b, is somewhat larger than Neptune (17 M{sub +}, 3.8 R{sub +}) both in mass M{sub p} = 0.081 +- 0.009 M{sub J}(25.8 +- 2.9 M{sub +}) and radius R{sub p} = 0.422 +- 0.014 R{sub J}(4.73 +- 0.16 R{sub +}). HAT-P-11b orbits in an eccentric orbit with e = 0.198 +- 0.046 and omega = 355.{sup 0}2 +- 17.{sup 0}3, causing a reflex motion of its parent star with amplitude 11.6 +- 1.2 m s{sup -1}, a challenging detection due to the high level of chromospheric activity of the parent star. Our ephemeris for the transit events is T{sub c} = 2454605.89132 +- 0.00032 (BJD), with duration 0.0957 +- 0.0012 days, and secondary eclipse epoch of 2454608.96 +- 0.15 days (BJD). The basic stellar parameters of the host star are M{sub *} = 0.809{sup +0.020}{sub -0.027} M{sub sun}, R{sub *} = 0.752 +- 0.021 R{sub sun}, and T{sub eff*} = 4780 +- 50 K. Importantly, HAT-P-11 will lie on one of the detectors of the forthcoming Kepler mission; this should make possible fruitful investigations of the detailed physical characteristic of both the planet and its parent star at unprecedented precision. We discuss an interesting constraint on the eccentricity of the system by the transit light curve and stellar parameters. This will be particularly useful for eccentric TEPs with low-amplitude RV variations in Kepler

  19. Preclinical and Early Clinical Profile of a Highly Selective and Potent Oral Inhibitor of Aldosterone Synthase (CYP11B2)

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Dietmar; Delporte, Marie-Laure; Palermo, Giuseppe; Amrein, Kurt; Mohr, Susanne; De Vera Mudry, Maria Cristina; Brown, Morris J.; Ferber, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Primary hyperaldosteronism is a common cause of resistant hypertension. Aldosterone is produced in the adrenal by aldosterone synthase (AS, encoded by the gene CYP11B2). AS shares 93% homology to 11β-hydroxylase (encoded by the gene CYP11B1), responsible for cortisol production. This homology has hitherto impeded the development of a drug, which selectively suppresses aldosterone but not cortisol production, as a new treatment for primary hyperaldosteronism. We now report the development of RO6836191 as a potent (Ki 13 nmol/L) competitive inhibitor of AS, with in vitro selectivity >100-fold over 11β-hydroxylase. In cynomolgus monkeys challenged with synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone, single doses of RO6836191 inhibited aldosterone synthesis without affecting the adrenocorticotropic hormone–induced rise in cortisol. In repeat-dose toxicity studies in monkeys, RO6836191 reproduced the adrenal changes of the AS−/− mouse: expansion of the zona glomerulosa; increased expression of AS (or disrupted green fluorescent protein gene in the AS−/− mouse); hypertrophy, proliferation, and apoptosis of zona glomerulosa cells. These changes in the monkey were partially reversible and partially preventable by electrolyte supplementation and treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. In healthy subjects, single doses of RO6836191, across a 360-fold dose range, reduced plasma and urine aldosterone levels with maximum suppression at a dose of 10 mg, but unchanged cortisol, on adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge, up to 360 mg, and increase in the precursors 11-deoxycorticosterone and 11-deoxycortisol only at or >90 mg. In conclusion, RO6836191 demonstrates that it is possible to suppress aldosterone production completely in humans without affecting cortisol production. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01995383. PMID:27872236

  20. Evolution of magnetic properties and microstructure of Hf{sub 2}Co{sub 11}B alloys

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Michael A. Rios, Orlando

    2015-02-07

    Amorphous Hf{sub 2}Co{sub 11}B alloys produced by melt-spinning have been crystallized by annealing at 500–800 °C, and the products have been investigated using magnetization measurements, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal the evolution of the phase fractions, microstructure, and magnetic properties with both annealing temperature and time. Crystallization of the phase denoted HfCo{sub 7}, which is associated with the development of coercivity, occurs slowly at 500 °C. Annealing at intermediate temperatures produces mixed phase samples containing some of the HfCo{sub 7} phase with the highest values of remanent magnetization and coercivity. The equilibrium structure at 800 °C contains HfCo{sub 3}B{sub 2}, Hf{sub 6}Co{sub 23}, and Co, and displays soft ferromagnetism. Maximum values for the remanent magnetization, intrinsic coercivity, and magnetic energy product among the samples are approximately 5.2 kG, 2.0 kOe, and 3.1 MGOe, respectively, which indicates that the significantly higher values observed in crystalline, melt-spun Hf{sub 2}Co{sub 11}B ribbons are a consequence of the non-equilibrium solidification during the melt-spinning process. Application of high magnetic fields during annealing is observed to strongly affect the microstructural evolution, which may provide access to higher performance materials in Zr/Hf-Co hard ferromagnets. The crystal structure of HfCo{sub 7} and the related Zr analogues is unknown, and without knowledge of atomic positions powder diffraction cannot distinguish among proposed unit cells and symmetries found in the literature.

  1. Anti-CD11b monoclonal antibody reduces ischemic cell damage after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rat.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Chopp, M; Zhang, R L; Bodzin, G; Chen, Q; Rusche, J R; Todd, R F

    1994-04-01

    We investigated the effect of an anti-CD11b monoclonal antibody (1B6c) on ischemic cell damage after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. We divided animals into three groups: MAb 1 group (n = 5)--rats were subjected to 2 hours of transient occlusion and 1B6c (1 mg/kg) was administered intravenously at 0 and 22 hours of reperfusion; MAb 2 group (n = 5)--same experimental protocol as MAb 1 group, except that the initial dose of 1B6c was increased to 2 mg/kg; and control group (n = 5)--same experimental protocol as MAb 2 group, except that an isotype-matched control antibody was administered. Animals were weighed and tested for neurological function before and after occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Forty-six hours after reperfusion, brain sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histology evaluation. We observed a significant reduction of weight loss and improvement in neurological function after ischemia in the MAb 2 animals compared to MAb 1 and vehicle-treated animals (p < 0.05). The lesion volume was significantly smaller in the MAb 2 group (19.5 +/- 1.9%) compared to MAb 1 (29.9 +/- 2.6%) and vehicle-treated (34.2 +/- 5.4%) groups (p < 0.01). Tissue polymorphonuclear cell numbers were reduced in both 1B6c-administered groups. Our data demonstrate that administration of anti-CD11b antibody results in a dose-dependent, significant functional improvement and reduction of ischemic cell damage after transient focal cerebral ischemia in the rat.

  2. Improvement in the transport critical current density and microstructure of isotopic Mg11B2 monofilament wires by optimizing the sintering temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Wenbin; Jie, Hyunseock; Patel, Dipak; Lu, Yao; Luzin, Vladimir; Devred, Arnaud; Somer, Mehmet; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Kim, Jung Ho; Ma, Zongqing; Dou, Shi Xue; Hossain, Md. Shahriar Al

    2016-11-01

    Superconducting wires are widely used in fabricating magnetic coils in fusion reactors. In consideration of the stability of 11B against neutron irradiation and lower induced radio-activation properties, MgB2 superconductor with 11B serving as boron source is an alternative candidate to be used in fusion reactor with severe irradiation environment. In present work, a batch of monofilament isotopic Mg11B2 wires with amorphous 11B powder as precursor were fabricated using powder-in-tube (PIT) process at different sintering temperature, and the evolution of their microstructure and corresponding superconducting properties was systemically investigated. Accordingly, the best transport critical current density (Jc) = 2 × 104 A/cm2 was obtained at 4.2 K and 5 T, which is even comparable to multi-filament Mg11B2 isotope wires reported in other work. Surprisingly, transport Jc vanished in our wire which was heat-treated at excessively high temperature (800 °C). Combined with microstructure observation, it was found that lots of big interconnected microcracks and voids that can isolate the MgB2 grains formed in this whole sample, resulting in significant deterioration in inter-grain connectivity. The results can be a constructive guide in fabricating Mg11B2 wires to be used as magnet coils in fusion reactor systems such as ITER-type tokamak magnet.

  3. Improvement in the transport critical current density and microstructure of isotopic Mg(11)B2 monofilament wires by optimizing the sintering temperature.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenbin; Jie, Hyunseock; Patel, Dipak; Lu, Yao; Luzin, Vladimir; Devred, Arnaud; Somer, Mehmet; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Kim, Jung Ho; Ma, Zongqing; Dou, Shi Xue; Hossain, Md Shahriar Al

    2016-11-08

    Superconducting wires are widely used in fabricating magnetic coils in fusion reactors. In consideration of the stability of (11)B against neutron irradiation and lower induced radio-activation properties, MgB2 superconductor with (11)B serving as boron source is an alternative candidate to be used in fusion reactor with severe irradiation environment. In present work, a batch of monofilament isotopic Mg(11)B2 wires with amorphous (11)B powder as precursor were fabricated using powder-in-tube (PIT) process at different sintering temperature, and the evolution of their microstructure and corresponding superconducting properties was systemically investigated. Accordingly, the best transport critical current density (Jc) = 2 × 10(4) A/cm(2) was obtained at 4.2 K and 5 T, which is even comparable to multi-filament Mg(11)B2 isotope wires reported in other work. Surprisingly, transport Jc vanished in our wire which was heat-treated at excessively high temperature (800 °C). Combined with microstructure observation, it was found that lots of big interconnected microcracks and voids that can isolate the MgB2 grains formed in this whole sample, resulting in significant deterioration in inter-grain connectivity. The results can be a constructive guide in fabricating Mg(11)B2 wires to be used as magnet coils in fusion reactor systems such as ITER-type tokamak magnet.

  4. Improvement in the transport critical current density and microstructure of isotopic Mg11B2 monofilament wires by optimizing the sintering temperature

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Wenbin; Jie, Hyunseock; Patel, Dipak; Lu, Yao; Luzin, Vladimir; Devred, Arnaud; Somer, Mehmet; Shahabuddin, Mohammed; Kim, Jung Ho; Ma, Zongqing; Dou, Shi Xue; Hossain, Md. Shahriar Al

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting wires are widely used in fabricating magnetic coils in fusion reactors. In consideration of the stability of 11B against neutron irradiation and lower induced radio-activation properties, MgB2 superconductor with 11B serving as boron source is an alternative candidate to be used in fusion reactor with severe irradiation environment. In present work, a batch of monofilament isotopic Mg11B2 wires with amorphous 11B powder as precursor were fabricated using powder-in-tube (PIT) process at different sintering temperature, and the evolution of their microstructure and corresponding superconducting properties was systemically investigated. Accordingly, the best transport critical current density (Jc) = 2 × 104 A/cm2 was obtained at 4.2 K and 5 T, which is even comparable to multi-filament Mg11B2 isotope wires reported in other work. Surprisingly, transport Jc vanished in our wire which was heat-treated at excessively high temperature (800 °C). Combined with microstructure observation, it was found that lots of big interconnected microcracks and voids that can isolate the MgB2 grains formed in this whole sample, resulting in significant deterioration in inter-grain connectivity. The results can be a constructive guide in fabricating Mg11B2 wires to be used as magnet coils in fusion reactor systems such as ITER-type tokamak magnet. PMID:27824144

  5. PDE11A negatively regulates lithium responsivity

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, G.; Agostino, M.J.; Bishara, K.; Capell, W.R.; Fisher, J.L.; Hegde, S.; Ibrahim, B.A.; Pilarzyk, Kaitlyn; Sabin, C.; Tuczkewycz, Taras; Wilson, Steven; Kelly, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium responsivity in patients with bipolar disorder has been genetically associated with Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A), and lithium decreases PDE11A mRNA in IPSC-derived hippocampal neurons originating from lithium responsive patients. PDE11 is an enzyme uniquely enriched in the hippocampus that breaks down cAMP and cGMP. Here, we determined if decreasing PDE11A expression is sufficient to increase lithium responsivity in mice. In dorsal hippocampus (DHIPP) and ventral hippocampus (VHIPP), lithium-responsive C57BL/6J and 129S6/SvEvTac mice show decreased PDE11A4 protein expression relative to lithium-unresponsive BALB/cJ mice. In VHIPP, C57BL/6J mice also show differences in PDE11A4 compartmentalization relative to BALB/cJ mice. In contrast, neither PDE2A nor PDE10A expression differ among the strains. The compartment-specific differences in PDE11A4 protein expression are explained by a coding SNP at amino acid 499, which falls within the GAF-B homodimerization domain. Relative to the BALB/cJ 499T, the C57BL/6J 499A decreases PDE11A4 homodimerization, which removes PDE11A4 from the membrane. Consistent with the observation that lower PDE11A4 expression correlates with better lithium responsiveness, we found that Pde11a KO mice given 0.4% lithium chow for 3+ weeks exhibit greater lithium responsivity relative to WT littermates in tail suspension, an antidepressant predictive assay, and amphetamine hyperlocomotion, an anti-manic predictive assay. Reduced PDE11A4 expression may represent a lithium-sensitive pathophysiology, because both C57BL/6J and Pde11a KO mice show increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 relative to BALB/cJ and PDE11A WT mice, respectively. Our finding that PDE11A4 negatively regulates lithium responsivity in mice suggests that the PDE11A SNPs identified in patients may be functionally relevant. PMID:27646265

  6. 99mTc-labelled anti-CD11b SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of plaque destabilization tightly linked to inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guobing; Hu, Yan; Xiao, Jie; Li, Xiao; Li, Yanli; Tan, Hui; Zhao, Yanzhao; Cheng, Dengfeng; Shi, Hongcheng

    2016-01-01

    It remains challenging to predict the risk of rupture for a specific atherosclerotic plaque timely, a thrombotic trigger tightly linked to inflammation. CD11b, is a biomarker abundant on inflammatory cells, not restricted to monocytes/macrophages. In this study, we fabricated a probe named as 99mTc-MAG3-anti-CD11b for detecting inflamed atherosclerotic plaques with single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). The ApoE-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice were selected to establish animal models, with C57BL/6J mice used for control. A higher CD11b+-cell recruitment with higher CD11b expression and more serious whole-body inflammatory status were identified in ApoE−/− mice. The probe showed high in vitro affinity and specificity to the Raw-264.7 macrophages, as well as inflammatory cells infiltrated in atherosclerotic plaques, either in ex vivo fluorescent imaging or in in vivo micro-SPECT/CT imaging, which were confirmed by ex vivo planar gamma imaging, Oil-Red-O staining and CD11b-immunohistochemistry staining. A significant positive relationship was identified between the radioactivity intensity on SPECT/CT images and the CD11b expression in plaques. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of anti-CD11b antibody mediated noninvasive SPECT/CT imaging of inflammatory leukocytes in murine atherosclerotic plaques. This imaging strategy can identify inflammation-rich plaques at risk for rupture and evaluate the effectiveness of inflammation-targeted therapies in atheroma. PMID:26877097

  7. Serum IL8 and mRNA level of CD11b in circulating neutrophils are increased in clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis with active interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Chen, Jie; Yan, Qingran; Guo, Qiang; Bao, Chunde

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess serum IL8 and the potential activity of circulating neutrophils on relative messenger RNA (mRNA) levels and their relationship with disease activity in clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (CADM) associated with interstitial lung disease (ILD). We studied 18 CADM patients and compared them with 18 classic dermatomyositis (DM) patients and 18 healthy control subjects. Serum IL8 level and mRNA expressions of neutrophils (chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 1 (CXCR1), cluster of differentiation molecule 11b (CD11b), cluster of differentiation 64 (CD64), myeloid cell leukemia 1 (MCL1), interleukin-18 (IL18)) were detected. The overproduction of serum IL8 level was most significant in the CADM group with active period. The mRNA expressions of CD11b, IL18, and MCL1 were greatly increased in the neutrophils in patients with CADM compared with DM or healthy controls. Up-expressions of CD11b, IL18, and MCL1 were detected in the neutrophils in CADM patients of active period compared with remission period. A positive correlation was found between CD11b mRNA level and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) score, in CADM associated with ILD. Serum IL8 level and mRNA levels of CD11b, MCL1, and IL18 in circulating neutrophils are related with the disease activity of CADM-ILD. The mRNA level of CD11b is positively correlated with HRCT score in CADM-ILD.

  8. CD11c/CD18 Dominates Adhesion of Human Monocytes, Macrophages and Dendritic Cells over CD11b/CD18

    PubMed Central

    Ungai-Salánki, Rita; Orgován, Norbert; Szabó, Bálint; Horváth, Róbert; Erdei, Anna; Bajtay, Zsuzsa

    2016-01-01

    Complement receptors CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) belong to the family of beta2 integrins and are expressed mainly by myeloid cell types in humans. Previously, we proved that CR3 rather than CR4 plays a key role in phagocytosis. Here we analysed how CD11b and CD11c participate in cell adhesion to fibrinogen, a common ligand of CR3 and CR4, employing human monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) highly expressing CD11b as well as CD11c. We determined the exact numbers of CD11b and CD11c on these cell types by a bead-based technique, and found that the ratio of CD11b/CD11c is 1.2 for MDDCs, 1.7 for MDMs and 7.1 for monocytes, suggesting that the function of CD11c is preponderant in MDDCs and less pronounced in monocytes. Applying state-of-the-art biophysical techniques, we proved that cellular adherence to fibrinogen is dominated by CD11c. Furthermore, we found that blocking CD11b significantly enhances the attachment of MDDCs and MDMs to fibrinogen, demonstrating a competition between CD11b and CD11c for this ligand. On the basis of the cell surface receptor numbers and the measured adhesion strength we set up a model, which explains the different behavior of the three cell types. PMID:27658051

  9. CD11c/CD18 Dominates Adhesion of Human Monocytes, Macrophages and Dendritic Cells over CD11b/CD18.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Noémi; Lukácsi, Szilvia; Ungai-Salánki, Rita; Orgován, Norbert; Szabó, Bálint; Horváth, Róbert; Erdei, Anna; Bajtay, Zsuzsa

    Complement receptors CR3 (CD11b/CD18) and CR4 (CD11c/CD18) belong to the family of beta2 integrins and are expressed mainly by myeloid cell types in humans. Previously, we proved that CR3 rather than CR4 plays a key role in phagocytosis. Here we analysed how CD11b and CD11c participate in cell adhesion to fibrinogen, a common ligand of CR3 and CR4, employing human monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) highly expressing CD11b as well as CD11c. We determined the exact numbers of CD11b and CD11c on these cell types by a bead-based technique, and found that the ratio of CD11b/CD11c is 1.2 for MDDCs, 1.7 for MDMs and 7.1 for monocytes, suggesting that the function of CD11c is preponderant in MDDCs and less pronounced in monocytes. Applying state-of-the-art biophysical techniques, we proved that cellular adherence to fibrinogen is dominated by CD11c. Furthermore, we found that blocking CD11b significantly enhances the attachment of MDDCs and MDMs to fibrinogen, demonstrating a competition between CD11b and CD11c for this ligand. On the basis of the cell surface receptor numbers and the measured adhesion strength we set up a model, which explains the different behavior of the three cell types.

  10. Generation of antigen-presenting cells from tumor-infiltrated CD11b myeloid cells with DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine.

    PubMed

    Daurkin, Irina; Eruslanov, Evgeniy; Vieweg, Johannes; Kusmartsev, Sergei

    2010-05-01

    Tumor-recruited CD11b myeloid cells, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells, play a significant role in tumor progression, as these cells are involved in tumor-induced immune suppression and tumor neovasculogenesis. On the other hand, the tumor-infiltrated CD11b myeloid cells could potentially be a source of immunostimulatory antigen-presenting cells (APCs), since most of these cells represent common precursors of both dendritic cells and macrophages. Here, we investigated the possibility of generating mature APCs from tumor-infiltrated CD11b myeloid cells. We demonstrate that in vitro exposure of freshly excised mouse tumors to DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine, AZA) results in selective elimination of tumor cells, but, surprisingly it also enriches CD45(+) tumor-infiltrated cells. The majority of "post-AZA" surviving CD45(+) tumor-infiltrated cells were represented by CD11b myeloid cells. A culture of isolated tumor-infiltrated CD11b cells in the presence of AZA and GM-CSF promoted their differentiation into mature F4/80/CD11c/MHC class II-positive APCs. These tumor-derived myeloid APCs produced substantially reduced amounts of immunosuppressive (IL-13, IL-10, PGE(2)), pro-angiogenic (VEGF, MMP-9) and pro-inflammatory (IL-1beta, IL-6, MIP-2) mediators than their precursors, freshly isolated tumor-infiltrated CD11b cells. Vaccinating naïve mice with ex vivo generated tumor-derived APCs resulted in the protection of 70% mice from tumor outgrowth. Importantly, no loading of tumor-derived APC with exogenous antigen was needed to stimulate T cell response and induce the anti-tumor effect. Collectively, our results for the first time demonstrate that tumor-infiltrated CD11b myeloid cells can be enriched and differentiated in the presence of DNA demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine into mature tumor-derived APCs, which could be used for cancer immunotherapy.

  11. Assessment of Proton Microbeam Analysis of 11B for Quantitative Microdistribution Analysis of Boronated Neutron Capture Agent Analogs in Biological Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Bench, G; Grant, P G; Ueda, D L; Autry-Conwell, S A; Hou, Y; Boggan, J E

    2002-12-04

    Purpose: To assess the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* nuclear reaction for quantitatively mapping the in-vivo sub-cellular distribution of boron within gliosarcoma tumors treated with boronated neutron capture therapy agent (NCTA) analogs. Materials and Methods: Intracranial tumors were produced in Fisher 344 rats using a 9L gliosarcoma model. Fourteen days later, the majority of rats were treated with f-boronophenylalanine and sacrificed 30 or 180 minutes after intravenous injection. Freeze dried tumor cryosections were imaged using the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* nuclear reaction and proton microbeams obtained from the nuclear microprobe at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Results/Discussion: With{sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* analysis, {sup 11}B distributions within cells can be quantitatively imaged with spatial resolutions down to 1.5 {micro}m, minimum detection limits of 0.8 mg/kg and acquisition times of several hours. These capabilities offer advantages over alpha track autoradiography, electron energy loss spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for 'B quantitation in tissues. However, the spatial resolution, multi-isotope capability and analysis times achieved with SIMS are superior to those achieved with {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* analysis. Conclusions: When accuracy in quantitation is crucial, the assessing the microdistribution of {sup 11}B. {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* reaction is well suited for Otherwise, SIMS may well be better suited to image the microdistribution of boron associated with NCTAs in biological tissues.

  12. The complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18) agonist Leukadherin‐1 suppresses human innate inflammatory signalling

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, A. L.; Fürnrohr, B. G.; Vyse, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) is a multi‐functional receptor expressed predominantly on myeloid and natural killer (NK) cells. The R77H variant of CD11b, encoded by the ITGAM rs1143679 polymorphism, is associated robustly with development of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and impairs CR3 function, including its regulatory role on monocyte immune signalling. The role of CR3 in NK cell function is unknown. Leukadherin‐1 is a specific small‐molecule CR3 agonist that has shown therapeutic promise in animal models of vascular injury and inflammation. We show that Leukadherin‐1 pretreatment reduces secretion of interferon (IFN)‐γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)‐1β by monokine‐stimulated NK cells. It was associated with a reduction in phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (pSTAT)‐5 following interleukin (IL)‐12 + IL‐15 stimulation (P < 0·02) and increased IL‐10 secretion following IL‐12 + IL‐18 stimulation (P < 0·001). Leukadherin‐1 pretreatment also reduces secretion of IL‐1β, IL‐6 and TNF by Toll‐like receptor (TLR)‐2 and TLR‐7/8‐stimulated monocytes (P < 0·01 for all). The R77H variant did not affect NK cell response to Leukadherin‐1 using ex‐vivo cells from homozygous donors; nor did the variant influence CR3 expression by these cell types, in contrast to a recent report. These data extend our understanding of CR3 biology by demonstrating that activation potently modifies innate immune inflammatory signalling, including a previously undocumented role in NK cell function. We discuss the potential relevance of this to the pathogenesis of SLE. Leukadherin‐1 appears to mediate its anti‐inflammatory effect irrespective of the SLE‐risk genotype of CR3, providing further evidence to support its evaluation of Leukadherin‐1 as a potential therapeutic for autoimmune disease. PMID:27118513

  13. Recommended reference figures for geophysics and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. A.; Okeefe, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Specific reference figures are recommended for consistent use in geophysics and geodesy. The selection of appropriate reference figure for geophysical studies suggests a relationship between the Antarctic negative gravity anomaly and the great shrinkage of the Antarctic ice cap about 4-5 million years ago. The depression of the south polar regions relative to the north polar regions makes the Southern Hemisphere flatter than the Northern Hemisphere, thus producing the third harmonic (pear-shaped) contribution to the earth's figure.

  14. Incomplete figure perception and invisible masking.

    PubMed

    Chikhman, Valery; Shelepin, Yuri; Foreman, Nigel; Merkuljev, Aleksey; Pronin, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    The Gollin test (measuring recognition thresholds for fragmented line drawings of everyday objects and animals) has traditionally been regarded as a test of incomplete figure perception or 'closure', though there is a debate about how such closure is achieved. Here, figural incompleteness is considered to be the result of masking, such that absence of contour elements of a fragmented figure is the result of the influence of an 'invisible' mask. It is as though the figure is partly obscured by a mask having parameters identical to those of the background. This mask is 'invisible' only consciously, but for the early stages of visual processing it is real and has properties of multiplicative noise. Incomplete Gollin figures were modeled as the figure covered by the mask with randomly distributed transparent and opaque patches. We adjusted the statistical characteristics of the contour image and empty noise patches and processed those using spatial and spatial-frequency measures. Across 73 figures, despite inter-subject variability, mean recognition threshold was always approximately 15% of total contour in naive observers. Recognition worsened with increasing spectral similarity between the figure and the 'invisible' mask. Near threshold, the spectrum of the fragmented image was equally similar to that of the 'invisible' mask and complete image. The correlation between spectral parameters of figures at threshold and complete figures was greatest for figures that were most easily recognised. Across test sessions, thresholds reduced when either figure or mask parameters were familiar. We argue that recognition thresholds for Gollin stimuli in part reflect the extraction of signal from noise.

  15. Figure-ground assignment in pigeons: evidence for a figural benefit.

    PubMed

    Lazareva, Olga E; Castro, Leyre; Vecera, Shaun P; Wasserman, Edward A

    2006-07-01

    Four pigeons discriminated whether a target spot appeared on a colored figural shape or on a differently colored background by first pecking the target and then reporting its location: on the figure or the background. We recorded three dependent variables: target detection time, choice response time, and choice accuracy. The birds were faster to detect the target, to report its location, and to learn the correct response on figure trials than on background trials. Later tests suggested that the pigeons might have attended to the figural region as a whole rather than using local properties in performing the figure-background discrimination. The location of the figural region did not affect figure-ground assignment. Finally, when 4 other pigeons had to detect and peck the target without making a choice report, no figural advantage emerged in target detection time, suggesting that the birds' attention may not have been automatically summoned to the figural region.

  16. The HPV16 E7 Oncoprotein Disrupts Dendritic Cell Function and Induces the Systemic Expansion of CD11b+Gr1+ Cells in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Damian-Morales, Gabriela; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolás; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc M.; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Rodríguez-Uribe, Genaro; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Lambert, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein on dendritic cells (DCs) and CD11b+Gr1+ cells using the K14E7 transgenic mouse model. Materials and Methods. The morphology of DCs was analyzed in male mouse skin on epidermal sheets using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to determine the percentages of DCs and CD11b+Gr1+ cells in different tissues and to evaluate the migration of DCs. Results. In the K14E7 mouse model, the morphology of Langerhans cells and the migratory activity of dendritic cells were abnormal. An increase in CD11b+Gr1+ cells was observed in the blood and skin of K14E7 mice, and molecules related to CD11b+Gr1+ chemoattraction (MCP1 and S100A9) were upregulated. Conclusions. These data suggest that the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein impairs the function and morphology of DCs and induces the systemic accumulation of CD11b+Gr1+ cells. PMID:27478837

  17. Rac1 regulates skin tumors by regulation of keratin 17 through recruitment and interaction with CD11b+Gr1+ cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ying; Zhu, Shaojun; Liu, Juanjuan; Wang, Dong; Deng, Anmei; Wang, Zhipeng

    2014-01-01

    Rac1 is a member of the Rho family of small GTPases that control cells proliferation, differentiation, migration, and inflammation. Rac1 is crucial in tumorigenesis and development. Keratin17 and CD11b+Gr1+ cells are considered to regulate skin inflmmation. Here we discuss the regulation of Rac1 on skin tumor formation and its relationship. In samples from human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), Rac1 activity was higher in cancer tissues than in normal skin and activity correlated with keratin 17 overexpression. In a DMBA/TPA-induced mouse skin tumor model, inhibition of Rac1 activity and depletion of CD11b+Gr1+ cells resulted in significant tumor formation. TPA induced recruitment of CD11b+Gr1+ cells into dermis; however, Rac1 inhibitor abolished this recruitment. In vitro, Rac1 induced interferon (IFN) and interlukin (IL6) production in keratinocytes, repression of keratin 17 inhibited IFN and IL6 production induced by Rac1. Moreover, both inhibition of Rac1 activity and repression of keratin 17 restricted proliferation and induction of differentiation in keratinocytes. Coculture of CD11b+Gr1+ cells with keratinocytes activated Wnt pathway in keratinocytes, resulting in enhanced Rac1 activity, overexpression of keratin 17, and hyperproliferation of keratinocytes. Our results suggested that hyperactive Rac1 recruited and interacted with CD11b+Gr1+ cells, inducing keratin 17-regulated inflammation and promoting skin tumor formation. PMID:24962779

  18. The effect of interleukin 17 and Toll-like receptor 2 on CD11b expression and apoptosis of neutrophils in zymosaninduced arthritis and paw oedema

    PubMed Central

    Milanova, Viktoriya; Ivanovska, Nina

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of interleukin (IL)-17 on Ly6G+ cell apoptosis in zymosan-induced arthritis (ZIA) and oedema (ZIO). Zymosan injection at the ankle joint caused swelling and coincided with histological joint alterations and IL-17A expression in areas with cell infiltrates. Flow cytometry of blood demonstrated increased frequencies of Ly6G+CD11b+ cells and their decreased apoptosis in ZIA. Annexin V+ neutrophils had lower CD11b expression, unlike Annexin V− cells. Cell survival for 12 hours was affected neither by IL-17 nor by zymosan alone, while both stimuli diminished Annexin V+ cell frequencies and up-regulated CD11b on Annexin V− cells. Interleukin 17 antagonised to the effects of zymosan in 24-hour cultures. The administration of IL-17 in ZIO increased paw thickness, enlarged the blood Ly6G+ pool, elevated CD11b expression and decreased apoptosis. We suggest that altered neutrophil apoptosis in arthritis can be overcome by anti-IL-17 therapy combined with an inhibition of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and CD11b signalling. PMID:26155114

  19. Highly Expression of CD11b and CD32 on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Patients with Adult-Onset Still’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Choi, Bunsoon; Suh, Chang-Hee; Han, Mi Hwa; Jung, Ju-Yang; Sayeed, Hasan M.; Kim, Ye Won; Sohn, Seonghyang

    2017-01-01

    Background: We investigated the potential role of several pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs; CD11b, CD11c, CD32, CD206, CD209, and dectin-1) in adult-onset Still’s disease (AOSD). Methods: The study included 13 untreated AOSD patients, 19 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (as a disease control), and 19 healthy controls (HCs). The PRRs were quantified in peripheral blood using flow cytometry. The serum levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17), IL-18, and IL-23 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Significantly higher mean frequencies of cells presenting CD11b and CD32 from whole blood were observed in patients with AOSD than in patients with RA or HC. The levels of IL-17, IL-18, and IL-23 were elevated in AOSD patients compared to HCs. CD11b frequencies from whole cells correlated with systemic scores, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, aspartate transaminase levels, interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels, and IL-18. Frequencies of CD209 from granulocytes were significantly correlated with systemic scores, and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and levels of C-reactive protein, ferritin, LDH, IL-23, and interleukin-18 (IL-18). Conclusions: Elevated frequencies of circulating CD11b-positive cells and positive correlations with disease activity markers suggest that circulating CD11b-positive cells contribute to the pathogenesis of AOSD. PMID:28106835

  20. FUNCTIONAL ROLES FOR THE STRIATAL-ENRICHED TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR, BCL11B, IN THE CONTROL OF STRIATAL GENE EXPRESSION AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL DYSREGULATION IN HUNTINGTON'S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Desplats, Paula A.; Lambert, James R.; Thomas, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptional dysregulation has emerged as a central pathogenic mechanism in Huntington's disease (HD), which is associated with neuropathological changes predominantly in the striatum. Here we demonstrate that expression of Bcl11b (a.k.a. CTIP2), a transcription factor exhibiting highly-enriched localization in adult striatum, is significantly decreased in HD cells, mouse models and human subjects and that overexpression of Bcl11b attenuates toxic effects of mutant huntingtin in cultured striatal neurons. We show that Bcl11b directly activates the proximal promoter regions of striatal-enriched genes and can increase mRNA levels of striatal-expressing genes. We further demonstrate an interaction between Bcl11b and huntingtin protein in cultured cells and brain homogenates from HD R6/1 and YAC72 transgenic mice. We propose that sequestration and/or decreased expression of Bcl11b in HD is responsible, at least in part, for the dysregulation of striatal gene expression observed in HD and may contribute to the specificity of pathology observed in this disease. PMID:18595722

  1. On the implementation of a chain nuclear reaction of thermonuclear fusion on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B process

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Zagreev, B. V.; Matafonov, A. P.

    2015-07-15

    Various theoretical and experimental schemes for implementing a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B reaction are considered. They include beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition upon plasma acceleration by ponderomotive forces, and the irradiation of a solid-state target from {sup 11}B with a proton beam under conditions of a Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdrops. The possibility of employing ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses to initiate the p+{sup 11}B reaction under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed. This and some other weakly radioactive thermonuclear reactions are promising owing to their ecological cleanness—there are virtually no neutrons among fusion products. Nuclear reactions that follow the p+{sup 11}B reaction may generate high-energy protons, sustaining a chain reaction, and this is an advantage of the p+{sup 11}B option. The approach used also makes it possible to study nuclear reactions under conditions close to those in the early Universe or in the interior of stars.

  2. A Bayesian Atmospheric Retrieval Performed on HAT-P-16b and WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntyre, Kathleen J.; Harrington, Joseph; Challener, Ryan C.; Hardin, Matthew Ryan; Bowman, Oliver Oliver; Foster, Andrew S. D.; Lenius, Maria; Hartman, Joel D.; Bakos, Gaspar; Blecic, Jasmina; Cubillos, Patricio; Ariston Hardy, Ryan; Cameron, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    HAT-P-16b is a hot (equilibrium temperature 1626 ± 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and efficient energy redistribution), 4.19 ± 0.09 Jupiter-mass exoplanet orbiting an F8 star every 2.775960 ± 0.000003 days (Buchhave et al 2010). WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b is a cooler (1020 ± 17 K), 0.487 ± 0.018 Jupiter-mass exoplanet orbiting a K3 star every 3.7224747 ± 0.0000065 days (Bakos et al. 2009, co-discovered by West et al. 2008). We observed secondary eclipses of both planets using the 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels of the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera (program ID 60003). We applied our Bayesian Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (BART) code to constrain the temperature-pressure profiles and atmospheric molecular abundances of the two planets. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX12AI69G and NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program grant NNX13AF38G.

  3. Highly-focused boron implantation in diamond and imaging using the nuclear reaction 11B(p, α)8Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ynsa, M. D.; Ramos, M. A.; Skukan, N.; Torres-Costa, V.; Jakšić, M.

    2015-04-01

    Diamond is an especially attractive material because of its gemological value as well as its unique mechanical, chemical and physical properties. One of these properties is that boron-doped diamond is an electrically p-type semiconducting material at practically any boron concentration. This property makes it possible to use diamonds for multiple industrial and technological applications. Boron can be incorporated into pure diamond by different techniques including ion implantation. Although typical energies used to dope diamond by ion implantation are about 100 keV, implantations have also been performed with energies above MeV. In this work CMAM microbeam setup has been used to demonstrate capability to implant boron with high energies. An 8 MeV boron beam with a size of about 5 × 3 μm2 and a beam current higher than 500 pA has been employed while controlling the beam position and fluence at all irradiated areas. The subsequent mapping of the implanted boron in diamond has been obtained using the strong and broad nuclear reaction 11B(p, α)8Be at Ep = 660 keV. This reaction has a high Q-value (8.59 MeV for α0 and 5.68 MeV for α1) and thus is almost interference-free. The sensitivity of the technique is studied in this work.

  4. A programmable baseband chain for a WCDMA/WLAN (802.11b) multi-standard zero-IF receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez de Llera Gonzalez, Delia; Ismail, Mohammed

    2005-06-01

    As we move towards convergent 4G Wireless encompassing both 3G cellular (WCDMA) for wide area networks and Wireless LAN for "hot-spots", the development of low power, low cost multi-band multi-standard wireless chipset solutions is a must. To this end this paper presents a programmable architecture for an analog baseband chain intended for use in a zero-IF multi-standard WCDMA/WLAN(802.11b) radio receiver. It also addresses the DC offset cancellation in the baseband chain. This is one of the major impairments in zero-IF receivers whose simplicity makes them suitable for single-chip multi-standard designs but where DC offset can reduce the receiver performance if a proper DC offset cancellation scheme is not devised. System level design of the baseband chain is given leading to design specifications of the different blocks in the chain. Extensive simulations carried out in MATLAB/SimuLink at the system level and in Cadence design tools at the circuit level show the performance of the system. The circuits will be fabricated in a 0.18μm CMOS process for a 1.8 V power supply.

  5. A hookworm glycoprotein that inhibits neutrophil function is a ligand of the integrin CD11b/CD18.

    PubMed

    Moyle, M; Foster, D L; McGrath, D E; Brown, S M; Laroche, Y; De Meutter, J; Stanssens, P; Bogowitz, C A; Fried, V A; Ely, J A

    1994-04-01

    The chronic survival of many endoparasites is dependent on the ability of these organisms to escape the host immune response. Identification of the molecular mechanisms by which these organisms evade this response may yield novel approaches in the development of anti-inflammatory agents. We describe here the discovery and characterization of a novel 41-kilodalton glycoprotein from the canine hookwork (Ancylostoma caninum) that potently inhibits CD11/CD18-dependent neutrophil function in vitro. Neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) blocks the adhesion of activated human neutrophils to vascular endothelial cells as well as the release of H2O2 from activated neutrophils, over a similar concentration range (IC50 10-20 nM). Studies aimed at determining the nature of the NIF binding site on neutrophils revealed selective, high affinity binding of this protein to the integrin CD11b/CD18. A cDNA encoding NIF was isolated from a canine hookworm cDNA library. NIF comprises a mature polypeptide of 257 amino acids, preceded by a 17-amino acid leader. The mature protein has 10 cysteines and has seven potential N-linked glycosylation sites. NIF has no significant sequence homologies to any previously reported protein. As such, NIF represents a prototype of a novel class of leukocyte function inhibitors.

  6. Occipital network for figure/ground organization.

    PubMed

    Likova, Lora T; Tyler, Christopher W

    2008-08-01

    To study the cortical mechanism of figure/ground categorization in the human brain, we employed fMRI and the temporal-asynchrony paradigm. This paradigm is able to eliminate any differential activation for local stimulus features, and thus to identify only global perceptual interactions. Strong segmentation of the image into different spatial configurations was generated solely from temporal asynchronies between zones of homogeneous dynamic noise. The figure/ground configuration was a single geometric figure enclosed in a larger surround region. In a control condition, the figure/ground organization was eliminated by segmenting the noise field into many identical temporal-asynchrony stripes. The manipulation of the type of perceptual organization triggered dramatic reorganization in the cortical activation pattern. The figure/ground configuration generated suppression of the ground representation (limited to early retinotopic visual cortex, V1 and V2) and strong activation in the motion complex hMT+/V5+; conversely, both responses were abolished when the figure/ground organization was eliminated. These results suggest that figure/ground processing is mediated by top-down suppression of the ground representation in the earliest visual areas V1/V2 through a signal arising in the motion complex. We propose a model of a recurrent cortical architecture incorporating suppressive feedback that operates in a topographic manner, forming a figure/ground categorization network distinct from that for "pure" scene segmentation and thus underlying the perceptual organization of dynamic scenes into cognitively relevant components.

  7. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory…

  8. Key Figures on Vocational Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mossoux, Anne France, Ed.

    This brochure identifies key figures on vocational education and training (VET) and VET-related topics in Europe using harmonized data from Eurostat. Throughout, figures of candidate countries are compared to those of European Union (EU) member states. Background information on the education and training systems is as follows: increasing numbers…

  9. "Blessed": Musical Talent, Smartness, & Figured Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore smartness and talent as social constructs. Drawing on Holland et al.'s (1998) figured identities, this article explores the figuring of abilities by elucidating the voices of African American high school chorus students. Critical Race Theory (CRT) helps to unpack normalized language and practices that…

  10. Automatic figure classification in bioscience literature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehyun; Ramesh, Balaji Polepalli; Yu, Hong

    2011-10-01

    Millions of figures appear in biomedical articles, and it is important to develop an intelligent figure search engine to return relevant figures based on user entries. In this study we report a figure classifier that automatically classifies biomedical figures into five predefined figure types: Gel-image, Image-of-thing, Graph, Model, and Mix. The classifier explored rich image features and integrated them with text features. We performed feature selection and explored different classification models, including a rule-based figure classifier, a supervised machine-learning classifier, and a multi-model classifier, the latter of which integrated the first two classifiers. Our results show that feature selection improved figure classification and the novel image features we explored were the best among image features that we have examined. Our results also show that integrating text and image features achieved better performance than using either of them individually. The best system is a multi-model classifier which combines the rule-based hierarchical classifier and a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier, achieving a 76.7% F1-score for five-type classification. We demonstrated our system at http://figureclassification.askhermes.org/.

  11. Detector array evaluation and figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dereniak, Eustace L.

    1990-01-01

    The commonly used methods to evaluate the performance of a two-dimensional focal-plane array using charge transfer devices are reviewed. Two figures of merit that attempt to combine quantum efficiency, read noise and dark-current generation into a single parameter are discussed. The figures of merit are suggested as possible alternatives to the D asterisk.

  12. Analysis of That Mysterious Figure 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a quantitative analysis of the "figure 8" found on the globes of most earth science textbooks, using an exercise of year's eccentric shadow plotting techniques. Indicates that the exercise can serve to change a student's abstract "figure 8" to his real learning experience. (CC)

  13. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  14. The Development of Ambiguous Figure Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Doherty, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ambiguous figures have fascinated researchers for almost 200 years. The physical properties of these figures remain constant, yet two distinct interpretations are possible; these reverse (switch) from one percept to the other. The consensus is that reversal requires complex interaction of perceptual bottom-up and cognitive top-down elements. The…

  15. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Why have we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at…

  16. CD103+CD11b+ Dendritic Cells Induce Th17 T Cells in Muc2-Deficient Mice with Extensively Spread Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Ulf A.; Jonstrand, Caroline; Hansson, Gunnar C.; Wick, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Mucus alterations are a feature of ulcerative colitis (UC) and can drive inflammation by compromising the mucosal barrier to luminal bacteria. The exact pathogenesis of UC remains unclear, but CD4+ T cells reacting to commensal antigens appear to contribute to pathology. Given the unique capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) to activate naive T cells, colon DCs may activate pathogenic T cells and contribute to disease. Using Muc2-/- mice, which lack a functional mucus barrier and develop spontaneous colitis, we show that colitic animals have reduced colon CD103+CD11b- DCs and increased CD103-CD11b+ phagocytes. Moreover, changes in colonic DC subsets and distinct cytokine patterns distinguish mice with distally localized colitis from mice with colitis spread proximally. Specifically, mice with proximally spread, but not distally contained, colitis have increased IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, TNFα, and IFNγ combined with decreased IL-10 in the distal colon. These individuals also have increased numbers of CD103+CD11b+ DCs in the distal colon. CD103+CD11b+ DCs isolated from colitic but not noncolitic mice induced robust differentiation of Th17 cells but not Th1 cells ex vivo. In contrast, CD103-CD11b+ DCs from colitic Muc2-/- mice induced Th17 as well as Th1 differentiation. Thus, the local environment influences the capacity of intestinal DC subsets to induce T cell proliferation and differentiation, with CD103+CD11b+ DCs inducing IL-17-producing T cells being a key feature of extensively spread colitis. PMID:26121642

  17. Enhanced expression of PD-L1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma-derived CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells and its contribution to immunosuppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Hiroki; Tomihara, Kei; Heshiki, Wataru; Yamazaki, Manabu; Akyu-Takei, Rie; Tachinami, Hidetake; Furukawa, Ken-Ichiro; Sakurai, Kotaro; Rouwan, Moniruzzaman; Noguchi, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Cancer is often associated with dysregulation of both the humoral and cellular immune response, which in some instances is believed to result from changes in immune cell populations. For example, immunosuppressive CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells have been shown to proliferate in the tumor microenvironment and surrounding tissues, highlighting the relationship between tumor growth and impairment of the immune response. However, the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer progression has not been fully characterized because these cells are heterogeneous with properties influenced by the type and location of the tumor. Here, we show that CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells are elevated in the peripheral blood, spleen, and tumor of mice with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The phenotype and function of these cells varied depending on the tissue of origin. In particular, CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells in tumors expressed PD-L1 more abundantly than those in other tissues. Accordingly, CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells from tumors, but not from the spleen, suppressed T cell proliferation in vitro. The results suggest that tumor-derived or immune factors result in the accumulation of phenotypically and functionally diverse populations of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells in mice with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The data also indicate that PD-L1 expression in CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells contributes to immune suppression, implying that targeting both myeloid-derived suppressor cells and PD-L1 would be an effective immunotherapeutic strategy against oral cancer.

  18. T Cell–Derived Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Contributes to Dry Eye Disease Pathogenesis by Promoting CD11b+ Myeloid Cell Maturation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Dohlman, Thomas H.; Ding, Julia; Dana, Reza; Chauhan, Sunil K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Growing evidence suggests that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) contributes to T helper 17 (Th17) cell–associated immunoinflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of T cell–derived GM-CSF on CD11b+ myeloid cell function in dry eye disease (DED). Methods In a murine model of DED, quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA were used to measure GM-CSF expression at the ocular surface, and flow cytometry was used to enumerate GM-CSF producing Th17 cells. A granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor neutralizing antibody was used topically in vivo and in an in vitro culture system to evaluate the role of GM-CSF in recruiting and maturing CD11b+ cells. Clinical disease severity was evaluated after topical administration of GM-CSF neutralizing antibody. Results In dry eye disease, GM-CSF is significantly upregulated at the ocular surface and the frequency of GM-CSF producing Th17 cells is significantly increased in the draining lymph nodes. In vitro neutralization of GM-CSF from CD4+ T cells derived from DED mice suppresses major histocompatibility complex II expression by CD11b+ cells and CD11b+ cell migration. Topical neutralization of GM-CSF in a murine model of DED suppresses CD11b+ maturation and migration, as well as Th17 cell induction, yielding a reduction in clinical signs of disease. Conclusions T helper 17 cell–derived GM-CSF contributes to DED pathogenesis by promoting CD11b+ cell activation and migration to the ocular surface. PMID:28241321

  19. CD103+ lung dendritic cells (LDCs) induce stronger Th1/Th17 immunity to a bacterial lung infection than CD11b(hi) LDCs.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Sudhanshu; Peng, Ying; Wang, Shuhe; Yang, Xi

    2017-02-13

    Recent studies suggest differential roles for CD103+ and CD11b(hi) lung dendritic cells (LDCs) in host defense against viral and bacterial infections. In this study, we examined the contribution of these LDC subsets in protective immunity to chlamydial lung infection using a Chlamydia muridarum mouse infection model. We found that CD103+ LDCs showed higher expression of costimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80 and CD86) and increased production of cytokines (IL-12p70, IL-10, IL-23 and IL-6) compared with CD11b(hi) LDCs, but the expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) was similar between the two subsets. More importantly, we found, in adoptive transfer experiments, that the mice receiving CD103+ LDCs from Chlamydia-infected mice exhibited better protection than the recipients of CD11b(hi) LDCs, which was associated with more robust Th1/Th17 cytokine responses. In addition, in vitro experiments showed that CD103+ LDCs induced stronger IFN-γ and IL-17 responses, when cocutured with chlamydial antigen-primed CD4+ T cells, than CD11b(hi) LDCs. Furthermore, the blockade of PD1 in the culture of CD4+ T cells with either CD103+ or CD11b(hi) LDCs enhanced production of IFN-γ and IL-17. In conclusion, our data provide direct evidence that CD103+ LDCs are more potent in promoting Th1/Th17 immunity to chlamydial lung infection than CD11b(hi) LDCs.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 13 February 2017; doi:10.1038/cmi.2016.68.

  20. Association of Aldosterone Synthase Polymorphism (CYP11B2 -344T>C) and Genetic Ancestry with Atrial Fibrillation and Serum Aldosterone in African Americans with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Bress, Adam; Han, Jin; Patel, Shitalben R.; Desai, Ankit A.; Mansour, Ibrahim; Groo, Vicki; Progar, Kristin; Shah, Ebony; Stamos, Thomas D.; Wing, Coady; Garcia, Joe G. N.; Kittles, Rick; Cavallari, Larisa H.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which aldosterone synthase genotype (CYP11B2) and genetic ancestry correlate with atrial fibrillation (AF) and serum aldosterone in African Americans with heart failure. Clinical data, echocardiographic measurements, and a genetic sample for determination of CYP11B2 -344T>C (rs1799998) genotype and genetic ancestry were collected from 194 self-reported African Americans with chronic, ambulatory heart failure. Genetic ancestry was determined using 105 autosomal ancestry informative markers. In a sub-set of patients (n = 126), serum was also collected for determination of circulating aldosterone. The CYP11B2 −344C allele frequency was 18% among the study population, and 19% of patients had AF. Multiple logistic regression revealed that the CYP11B2 −344CC genotype was a significant independent predictor of AF (OR 12.7, 95% CI 1.60–98.4, p = 0.0150, empirical p = 0.011) while holding multiple clinical factors, left atrial size, and percent European ancestry constant. Serum aldosterone was significantly higher among patients with AF (p = 0.036), whereas increased West African ancestry was inversely correlated with serum aldosterone (r = −0.19, p = 0.037). The CYP11B2 −344CC genotype was also overrepresented among patients with extreme aldosterone elevation (≥90th percentile, p = 0.0145). In this cohort of African Americans with chronic ambulatory heart failure, the CYP11B2 −344T>C genotype was a significant independent predictor of AF while holding clinical, echocardiographic predictors, and genetic ancestry constant. In addition, increased West African ancestry was associated with decreased serum aldosterone levels, potentially providing an explanation for the lower risk for AF observed among African Americans. PMID:23936266

  1. Expansion of CD11b(+)Ly6G (+)Ly6C (int) cells driven by medroxyprogesterone acetate in mice bearing breast tumors restrains NK cell effector functions.

    PubMed

    Spallanzani, Raúl Germán; Dalotto-Moreno, Tomás; Raffo Iraolagoitia, Ximena Lucía; Ziblat, Andrea; Domaica, Carolina Inés; Avila, Damián Ezequiel; Rossi, Lucas Ezequiel; Fuertes, Mercedes Beatriz; Battistone, María Agustina; Rabinovich, Gabriel Adrián; Salatino, Mariana; Zwirner, Norberto Walter

    2013-12-01

    The progesterone analog medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is widely used as a hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women and as contraceptive. However, prolonged administration of MPA is associated with increased incidence of breast cancer through ill-defined mechanisms. Here, we explored whether exposure to MPA during mammary tumor growth affects myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs; CD11b(+)Gr-1(+), mostly CD11b(+)Ly6G(+)Ly6C(int) and CD11b(+)Ly6G(-)Ly6C(high) cells) and natural killer (NK) cells, potentially restraining tumor immunosurveillance. We used the highly metastatic 4T1 breast tumor (which does not express the classical progesterone receptor and expands MDSCs) to challenge BALB/c mice in the absence or in the presence of MPA. We observed that MPA promoted the accumulation of NK cells in spleens of tumor-bearing mice, but with reduced degranulation ability and in vivo cytotoxic activity. Simultaneously, MPA induced a preferential expansion of CD11b(+)Ly6G(+)Ly6C(int) cells in spleen and bone marrow of 4T1 tumor-bearing mice. In vitro, MPA promoted nuclear mobilization of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in 4T1 cells and endowed these cells with the ability to promote a preferential differentiation of bone marrow cells into CD11b(+)Ly6G(+)Ly6C(int) cells that displayed suppressive activity on NK cell degranulation. Sorted CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells from MPA-treated tumor-bearing mice exhibited higher suppressive activity on NK cell degranulation than CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells from vehicle-treated tumor-bearing mice. Thus, MPA, acting through the GR, endows tumor cells with an enhanced capacity to expand CD11b(+)Ly6G(+)Ly6C(int) cells that subsequently display a stronger suppression of NK cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity. Our results describe an alternative mechanism by which MPA may affect immunosurveillance and have potential implication in breast cancer incidence.

  2. [Implementation of paragraph 11b of the German Animal Welfare Act on the basis of the so-called "Quality Breeding" Report].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, J

    2004-03-01

    Enforcement of paragraph 11b of the German Animal Welfare Act is a responsibility of breeders and their organisations as well as executive local authorities. The Report on Defective Breeds of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture describes numerous breeding traits which are in conflict with animal welfare and gives valuable information for fancy or pet breeding. Yet a selection has to be made for taking legal actions, following specific criteria. With four examples different cases are presented, each requiring a different approach by the veterinarian authorities. Court decisions in Hessen concerning bans on breeding white cats and crested ducks show that the paragraph 11b is executable.

  3. CD45/CD11b Positive Subsets of Adult Lung Anchorage-Independent Cells Harness Epithelial Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Yakov; Sen, Namita; Levantini, Elena; Keller, Steven; Ingenito, Edward P; Ciner, Aaron; Sackstein, Robert; Shapiro, Steven D

    2015-01-01

    Compensatory growth is mediated by multiple cell types that interact during organ repair. To elucidate the relationship between the stem/progenitor cells that proliferate or differentiate and the somatic cells of lung, we utilized a novel ex vivo pneumoexplant system. Applying this technique, we identified a sustained culture of repopulating adult progenitors in the form of free floating anchorage-independent cells (AICs). AICs did not express integrin proteins α5, β3, and β7, and constituted 37% of the total culture at day 14, yielding a mixed yet conserved population that recapitulated RNA expression patterns of the healthy lung. AICs exhibited rapid proliferation manifested by a marked 60-fold increase in cell numbers by day 21. Over 50% of the AIC population was cKit+ or double-positive for CD45+ and CD11b+ antigenic determinants, consistent with cells of hematopoietic origin. The latter subset was found to be enriched with prosurfactant protein-C and SCGB1A1 expressing putative stem cells and with aquaporin-5 producing cells, characteristic of terminally differentiated alveolar epithelial type-1 pneumocytes. AICs undergo remodeling to form a cellular lining at the air/gel interface, and TGFβ1 treatment modifies protein expression, implying direct-differentiation of this population. These data confirm the active participation of clonogenic hematopietic stem cells in a mammalian model of lung repair and validate mixed stem/somatic cell cultures, which embrace sustained cell viability, proliferation, and differentiation, for use in studies of compensatory pulmonary growth. PMID:22585451

  4. Complete genome of the cellyloytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evloutionary adaptations

    SciTech Connect

    Barabote, Ravi D.; Xie, Gary; Leu, David H.; Normand, Philippe; Necsulea, Anamaria; Daubin, Vincent; Medigue, Claudine; Adney, William S.; Xu,Xin Clare; Lapidus, Alla; Detter, Chris; Pujic, Petar; Bruce, David; Lavire, Celine; Challacombe, Jean F.; Brettin, Thomas S.; Berry, Alison M.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 Mb genome of the cellulolytic actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B. New secreted glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases were identified in the genome, revealing a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire far greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism. A sizable fraction of these hydrolytic enzymes break down plant cell walls and the remaining either degrade components in fungal cell walls or metabolize storage carbohydrates such as glycogen and trehalose, implicating the relative importance of these different carbon sources. A novel feature of the A. cellulolyticus secreted cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes is that they are fused to multiple tandemly arranged carbohydrate binding modules (CBM), from families 2 and 3. Interestingly, CBM3 was found to be always N-terminal to CBM2, suggesting a functional constraint driving this organization. While the catalytic domains of these modular enzymes are either diverse or unrelated, the CBMs were found to be highly conserved in sequence and may suggest selective substrate-binding interactions. For the most part, thermophilic patterns in the genome and proteome of A. cellulolyticus were weak, which may be reflective of the recent evolutionary history of A. cellulolyticus since its divergence from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant endosymbiont and soil dweller. However, ribosomal proteins and non-coding RNAs (rRNA and tRNAs) in A. cellulolyticus showed thermophilic traits suggesting the importance of adaptation of cellular translational machinery to environmental temperature. Elevated occurrence of IVYWREL amino acids in A. cellulolyticus orthologs compared to mesophiles, and inverse preferences for G and A at the first and third codon positions also point to its ongoing thermoadaptation. Additional interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot

  5. CO2 over the past 5 million years: Continuous simulation and new δ11B-based proxy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stap, Lennert B.; de Boer, Bas; Ziegler, Martin; Bintanja, Richard; Lourens, Lucas J.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.

    2016-04-01

    During the past five million yrs, benthic δ18O records indicate a large range of climates, from warmer than today during the Pliocene Warm Period to considerably colder during glacials. Antarctic ice cores have revealed Pleistocene glacial-interglacial CO2 variability of 60-100 ppm, while sea level fluctuations of typically 125 m are documented by proxy data. However, in the pre-ice core period, CO2 and sea level proxy data are scarce and there is disagreement between different proxies and different records of the same proxy. This hampers comprehensive understanding of the long-term relations between CO2, sea level and climate. Here, we drive a coupled climate-ice sheet model over the past five million years, inversely forced by a stacked benthic δ18O record. We obtain continuous simulations of benthic δ18O, sea level and CO2 that are mutually consistent. Our model shows CO2 concentrations of 300 to 470 ppm during the Early Pliocene. Furthermore, we simulate strong CO2 variability during the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. These features are broadly supported by existing and new δ11B-based proxy CO2 data, but less by alkenone-based records. The simulated concentrations and variations therein are larger than expected from global mean temperature changes. Our findings thus suggest a smaller Earth System Sensitivity than previously thought. This is explained by a more restricted role of land ice variability in the Pliocene. The largest uncertainty in our simulation arises from the mass balance formulation of East Antarctica, which governs the variability in sea level, but only modestly affects the modeled CO2 concentrations.

  6. New insights on the mechanism of palladium-catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride from 11B NMR measurements.

    PubMed

    Guella, G; Zanchetta, C; Patton, B; Miotello, A

    2006-08-31

    To gain insight on the mechanistic aspects of the palladium-catalyzed hydrolysis of NaBH(4) in alkaline media, the kinetics of the reaction has been investigated by (11)B NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) measurements taken at different times during the reaction course. Working with BH(4)(-) concentration in the range 0.05-0.1 M and with a [substrate]/[catalyst] molar ratio of 0.03-0.11, hydrolysis has been found to follow a first-order kinetic dependence from concentration of both the substrate and the catalyst (Pd/C 10 wt %). We followed the reaction of NaBH(4) and its perdeuterated analogue NaBD(4) in H(2)O, in D(2)O and H(2)O/D(2)O mixtures. When the process was carried out in D(2)O, deuterium incorporation in BH(4)(-) afforded BH(4)(-)(n)D(n)(-) (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) species, and a competition between hydrolysis and hydrogen/deuterium exchange processes was observed. By fitting the kinetics NMR data by nonlinear least-squares regression techniques, the rate constants of the elementary steps involved in the palladium-catalyzed borohydride hydrolysis have been evaluated. Such a regression analysis was performed on a reaction scheme wherein the starting reactant BH(4)(-) is allowed both to reversibly exchange hydrogen with deuterium atoms of D(2)O and to irreversibly hydrolyze into borohydroxy species B(OD)(4)(-). In contrast to acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, our results indicate that in the palladium-catalyzed process the rate constants of the exchange processes are higher than those of the corresponding hydrolysis reactions.

  7. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Gary; Detter, John C; Bruce, David C; Challacombe, Jean F; Brettin, Thomas S; Necsulea, Anamaria; Daubin, Vincent; Medigue, Claudine; Adney, William S; Xu, Xin C; Lapidus, Alla; Pujic, Pierre; Berry, Alison M; Barabote, Ravi D; Leu, David; Normand, Phillipe

    2009-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 MB genome of the actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B, that surprisingly reveals thermophilic amino acid usage in only the cytosolic subproteome rather than its whole proteome. Thermophilic amino acid usage in the partial proteome implies a recent, ongoing evolution of the A. cellulolyticus genome since its divergence about 200-250 million years ago from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant symbiont. Differential amino acid usage in the predicted subproteomes of A. cellulolyticus likely reflects a stepwise evolutionary process of modern thermophiles in general. An unusual occurrence of higher G+C in the non-coding DNA than in the transcribed genome reinforces a late evolution from a higher G+C common ancestor. Comparative analyses of the A. cellulolyticus genome with those of Frankia and other closely-related actinobacteria revealed that A. cellulolyticus genes exhibit reciprocal purine preferences at the first and third codon positions, perhaps reflecting a subtle preference for the dinucleotide AG in its mRNAs, a possible adaptation to a thermophilic environment. Other interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote reveal streamlining for adaptation to its specialized ecological niche. These include a low occurrence of pseudo genes or mobile genetic elements, a flagellar gene complement previously unknown in this organism, and presence of laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. New glycoside hydrolases relevant for lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction were identified in the genome, indicating a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire several-fold greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism.

  8. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Thermophilic Endoglucanase, AcCel12B from Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Gao, Gui; Li, Yuwei; Yang, Liangzhen; Liang, Yanli; Jin, Hanyong; Han, Weiwei; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Zuoming

    2015-01-01

    The gene ABK52392 from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B was predicted to be endoglucanase and classified into glycoside hydrolase family 12. ABK52392 encodes a protein containing a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate binding module. ABK52392 was cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. After purification by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography and Q-Sepharose® Fast Flow chromatography, the properties of the recombinant protein (AcCel12B) were characterized. AcCel12B exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.5 and 75 °C. The half-lives of AcCel12B at 60 and 70 °C were about 90 and 2 h, respectively, under acidic conditions. The specific hydrolytic activities of AcCel12B at 70 °C and pH 4.5 for sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC) were 118.3 and 104.0 U·mg−1, respectively. The Km and Vmax of AcCel12B for CMC were 25.47 mg·mL−1 and 131.75 U·mg−1, respectively. The time course of hydrolysis for RAC was investigated by measuring reducing ends in the soluble and insoluble phases. The total hydrolysis rate rapidly decreased after the early stage of incubation and the generation of insoluble reducing ends decreased earlier than that of soluble reducing ends. High thermostability of the cellulase indicates its potential commercial significance and it could be exploited for industrial application in the future. PMID:26506341

  9. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1509 - Figure 3 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1509 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.066...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 EC03OC91.063...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1509 - Figure 1 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 1 to Part 1509 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.064...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1509 - Figure 1 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 1 to Part 1509 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.064...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 EC03OC91.063...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1509 - Figure 3 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1509 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.066...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  18. Accurate Ab Initio Calculation of the Isotopic Exchange Equilibrium 10B(OH)3 + 11B(OH)4- = 11B(OH)3 + 10B(OH)4- In Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tossell, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    For more than a decade the B isotopic compositions of marine carbonates have been used as paleo-pH proxies for seawater and to reconstruct paleo-[CO2] concentrations in the atmosphere. A necessary step is this process is the accurate determination of the equilibrium constant, K, for the reaction shown in the title above. This equilibrium constant has been recently calculated using ab initio quantum chemical methods applied to nanoclusters containing the solutes B(OH)3 and B(OH)4- coordinated by large numbers of explicit solvent molecules, a computationally difficult procedure. To obtain the most accurate possible value for K the calculated vibrational frequencies were scaled to best fit the limited experimental data available. The value of K obtained (@ 25°C) was 1.027 (significantly larger than the long used value of 1.0194). Even more recently a purely experimental value of K= 1.0265 ± 0.0015 has been obtained through an accurate spectrophotometric determination of the difference of pKa's of commercially available bulk samples of >99% enriched 10B(OH)3(s) and 11B(OH)3 (s). Since we now know the correct experimental value and have a calculation, admittedly a difficult and slightly parameterized one, which matches the experimental result (which was obtained after the calculation), it is worthwhile to analyze the steps in the theoretical calculation of K in more detail. We need to establish a general procedure which can yield accurate K values for other similar aqueous species even if we have no accurate experimental value for K and no vibrational spectral data. To this end we will examine the dependence of the calculated values of vibrational frequencies, isotopomer frequency differences and K values on a number of factors, including (a) the quantum mechanical level (basis set and treatment of electron correlation) used for the free solutes, (b) the incorporation of aqueous medium effects, (c) the effects of vibrational anharmonicity, (d) incorporation of the

  19. Advanced figure sensor operations and maintenance manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    This manual contains procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining the optical figure sensor and its associated electronic controls. The optical figure sensor, a system of integrated components, comprises: (1) a phase measuring modified interferometer employing a single frequency 6328 A laser, and a Vidissector; (2) a two-axis automatic thermal compensation control mount; (3) a five degree of freedom manual adjustment stand; and (4) a control console. This instrument provides real time output data of optical figure errors for spherical mirrors, and is also capable of measuring aspherical mirrors if a null corrector is added.

  20. CD11B EXPRESSION IN THE AIRWAY IS ASSOCIATED WITH ASTHMA SEVERITY, AIRWAY INFLAMMATION, AND REDUCED PERCENTAGE OF CD-54POSITIVE BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IN ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CD11b and its counter receptor CD54 (ICAM-1) are both essential for migration of blood monocytes and neutrophils into tissues in response to inflammatory stimuli. Methods: Forty induced sputum and peripheral blood samples were taken over a six week period from nine atopic adults...

  1. Activation of mucosal mast cells promotes inflammation-related colon cancer development through recruiting and modulating inflammatory CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingzhi; Yi, Hong-Gan; Wu, Zhiyuan; Han, Wenxiao; Chen, Kun; Zang, Mengya; Wang, Dongmei; Zhao, Xinhua; Wang, Hongying; Qu, Chunfeng

    2015-08-10

    Mast cells (MCs) have been reported to be one of the important immunoregulatory cells in promoting the development of colitis-related colon cancer (CRC). It is not clear which MC subtypes play critical roles in CRC progression from colitis to cancer because mucosal mast cells (MMCs) are distinct from connective tissue mast cells (CTMCs) in maintaining intestinal barrier function under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions. In the current study, we found that MMC numbers and the gene expressions of MMC-specific proteases increased significantly in an induced CRC murine model. The production of mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) after MMC activation not only resulted in the accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) inflammatory cells in the colon tissues but also modulated the activities of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells to support tumor cell growth and to inhibit T cell activation. Blocking the MMC activity in mice that had developed colitis-related epithelium dysplasia, CD11b(+)Gr1(+) infiltration was reduced and CRC development was inhibited. Our results suggest that MMC activation recruited and modulated the CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells to promote CRC and that MMCs can be potential therapeutic targets for the prevention of CRC development.

  2. Eotaxin increases the expression of CD11b/CD18 and adhesion properties in IL5, but not fMLP-prestimulated human peripheral blood eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, J; Moshfegh, A; Grönneberg, R; Halldén, G

    1998-04-01

    A selective recruitment of eosinophils to sites of inflammation is claimed to be controlled by regulation of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. In animal models, eotaxin has been suggested to be a potent chemokine since it in cooperation with interleukin-5 induce selective chemotaxis and infiltration of eosinophils to lung tissue after an allergen provocation. We have investigated the in vitro effect of eotaxin on human peripheral blood eosinophils with respect to CD11b/CD18 expression and adhesion properties to the matrix protein fibronectin. We did not find any effect of eotaxin per se on CD11b/CD18 expression, neither on eosinophils from healthy subjects nor from patients with asymptomatic pollen related asthma. However, eotaxin significantly upregulated the quantitative level of CD11b/CD18 and increased the adhesion to fibronectin in eosinophils from healthy subjects preincubated in vitro with interleukin-5, but not in eosinophils preincubated with fMLP. Moreover, eosinophils harvested 24 hours after an in vivo allergen inhalation provocation in asthmatics, upregulated CD11b/CD18 after in vitro incubation with eotaxin alone.

  3. Tumor-induced CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells exacerbate immune-mediated hepatitis in mice in a CD40-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M; Wiltrout, Robert H; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A; Manns, Michael P; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F

    2015-04-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing (TB) mice. We studied hepatic MDSCs in two murine models of immune-mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of TB mice with Concanavalin A (Con A) or α-galactosylceramide resulted in increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) serum levels in comparison to tumor-free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSCs into naïve mice exacerbated Con A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells revealed a polarized proinflammatory gene signature after Con A treatment. An IFN-γ-dependent upregulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) cells along with an upregulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Con A treatment was observed. Con A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) MDSCs as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSCs led to increased arginase activity upon Con A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40(-/-) tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased ROS production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSCs act as proinflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner.

  4. Prophylactic orthosteric inhibition of leukocyte integrin CD11b/CD18 prevents long-term fibrotic kidney failure in cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dehnadi, Abbas; Benedict Cosimi, A.; Neal Smith, Rex; Li, Xiangen; Alonso, José L.; Means, Terry K.; Arnaout, M. Amin

    2017-01-01

    Ischaemic acute kidney injury (AKI), an inflammatory disease process, often progresses to chronic kidney disease (CKD), with no available effective prophylaxis. This is in part due to lack of clinically relevant CKD models in non-human primates. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of the archetypal innate immune receptor CD11b/CD18 prevents progression of AKI to CKD in cynomolgus monkeys. Severe ischaemia-reperfusion injury of the right kidney, with subsequent periods of the left ureter ligation, causes irreversible right kidney failure 3, 6 or 9 months after AKI. Moreover, prophylactic inactivation of CD11b/CD18, using the orthosteric CD11b/CD18 inhibitor mAb107, improves microvascular perfusion and histopathology, reduces intrarenal pro-inflammatory mediators and salvages kidney function long term. These studies reveal an important early role of CD11b+ leukocytes in post-ischaemic kidney fibrosis and failure, and suggest a potential early therapeutic intervention to mitigate progression of ischaemic AKI to CKD in humans. PMID:28071653

  5. Past to Present: Undergrowth with Two Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes the historical, cultural, and artistic elements of Vincent van Gogh's oil on canvas "Undergrowth with Two Figures" of 1980. The article concludes with questions for students to consider in relation to these aspects of the painting.

  6. Rhetoric Denuded and Redressed: Figs and Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulakos, John; Whitson, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Replies to an article in this issue that responds to an earlier article by these authors. Replies aesthetically in aphorisms, subsuming philosophical argument within a vortex of figuration and thus troping the knowledge drive while privileging "doxa" over "episteme." (SR)

  7. Field Calibration of the δ11B-pH Proxy in Corals and Calcified Algae at a Shallow Hydrothermal Vent and Adjacent Coral Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, R. D.; Christopher, S. J.; Young, C.; Brainard, R. E.; Butterfield, D. A.; Stewart, J.

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing interest in using the boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of biogenic carbonates as a proxy for seawater pH to better understand recent ocean acidification. The utility of this proxy hinges on the production of robust species-specific δ11B-pH calibrations; yet, challenges remain in the interpretation of boron isotope data due to biases introduced by physiological, environmental, and analytical factors. The shallow hydrothermal vents in the Maug Islands caldera (Marianas Islands) and the adjacent coral reefs exhibit a localized gradient > 1 pH unit. This gradient was used as a natural laboratory to assess the efficacy of using skeletal δ11B in a variety of corals (Porites spp., Pocillipora spp., Acropora spp.) and calcified algae (Halimeda spp. and Corallinales) as biosensors of seawater pH. Three sites were selected representing oceanic background, intermediate, and low pH zones, and direct seawater pH measurements were recorded for 3 months using SeaFETs. Corals and algae growing naturally in situ were collected from these 3 sites. In addition, corals and algae collected from a background location were stained and transplanted to these sites and allowed to grow for 3 months. Measurements of δ11B in skeletal material made by multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry are compared to direct seawater pH measurements to assess the sensitivity and robustness of the δ11B proxy in these candidate biosensors in predicting ambient pH in the field. These data will inform ongoing efforts by the Archive of Coral Ecosystem Specimens (ACES) to collect marine carbonates for analysis and archival in the Marine Environmental Specimen Bank for broad-scale, long-term monitoring of ocean acidification and the associated impacts to coral reefs. Concurrent analyses of other trace elements, heavy metals, and isotopes in these samples will also be performed to assess their utility as biosensors for additional water chemistry parameters on coral reefs.

  8. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Whyhave we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at the evolution of significant figures over the last 300 years, from Newton to Millikan to modern authors, sheds some light on their purpose moving forward. While there is much discussion for and against their use, especially in chemistry, a review of earlier versions of the rules suggests that we have lost some items of value, most notably, a significant figure rule for angles. In addition, we have lost the emphasis that the significant figure rules were designed to calculate an approximate (not exact) precision. Now that the significant figure rules are ingrained into our introductory physics sequence, we would be wise to reiterate that these are just general "rules of thumb."

  9. Ion beam figuring of small optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drueding, Thomas W.; Fawcett, Steven C.; Wilson, Scott R.; Bifano, Thomas G.

    1995-12-01

    Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The process involves bombarding a component with a stable beam of accelerated particles that selectively removes material from the surface. Figure corrections are achieved by rastering the fixed-current beam across the workplace at appropriate, time-varying velocities. Unlike conventional methods, ion figuring is a noncontact technique and thus avoids such problems as edge rolloff effects, tool wear, and force loading of the workpiece. This work is directed toward the development of the precision ion machining system at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. This system is designed for processing small (approximately equals 10-cm diam) optical components. Initial experiments were successful in figuring 8-cm-diam fused silica and chemical-vapor-deposited SiC samples. The experiments, procedures, and results of figuring the sample workpieces to shallow spherical, parabolic (concave and convex), and non-axially-symmetric shapes are discussed. Several difficulties and limitations encountered with the current system are discussed. The use of a 1-cm aperture for making finer corrections on optical components is also reported.

  10. LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) triggers hydrogen peroxide production by canine neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Lu, H; Ballantyne, C; Smith, C W

    2000-07-01

    The respiratory burst of neutrophils stimulated by chemotactic factors is markedly augmented by Mac-1-dependent adhesion such as the interaction of Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) with intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1; CD54) expressed on the surface of parenchymal cells (e.g., cardiac myocytes). In the current study, we evaluate the hypothesis that lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; CD11a/CD18) can also trigger the respiratory burst in neutrophils. To isolate LFA-1/ICAM-1 interactions from Mac-1/ ICAM-1 interactions, full-length chimeric ICAM-1 was developed and expressed in L cells with domains 1 and 2 from canine ICAM-1 and domains 3-5 from human ICAM-1 (C1,2;H3-5). We have shown that canine neutrophils do not bind to human ICAM-1. We demonstrated that chimeric ICAM-1 C1,2;H3-5 supported only LFA-1-dependent adhesion of canine neutrophils and that such adhesion triggered rapid onset of H2O2 production from canine neutrophils. The following seven experimental conditions distinguished LFA-1-dependent H2O2 production from Mac-1-dependent production: It did not require exogenous chemotactic stimulation; H2O2 release was more rapid, but the amount released was <40% of that mediated by Mac-1 adhesion; it was inhibited by anti-CD11a and anti-ICAM-1 antibodies; in contrast to that mediated by Mac-1, it was not inhibited by anti-CD11b antibody, neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF), or cytochalasin B or H7. Thus, canine neutrophils seem to be able to utilize two members of the beta2 integrin family to interact with ICAM-1 and signal H2O2 production, with LFA-1 at an early stage without prior chemotactic stimulation and Mac-1 at a later stage requiring chemotactic stimulation.

  11. Wet-Etch Figuring Optical Figuring by Controlled Application of Liquid Etchant

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J

    2001-02-13

    WET-ETCH FIGURING (WEF) is an automated method of precisely figuring optical materials by the controlled application of aqueous etchant solution. This technology uses surface-tension-gradient-driven flow to confine and stabilize a wetted zone of an etchant solution or other aqueous processing fluid on the surface of an object. This wetted zone can be translated on the surface in a computer-controlled fashion for precise spatial control of the surface reactions occurring (e.g. chemical etching). WEF is particularly suitable for figuring very thin optical materials because it applies no thermal or mechanical stress to the material. Also, because the process is stress-free the workpiece can be monitored during figuring using interferometric metrology, and the measurements obtained can be used to control the figuring process in real-time--something that cannot be done with traditional figuring methods.

  12. Intra-shell boron isotope ratios in the symbiont-bearing benthic foraminiferan Amphistegina lobifera: Implications for δ 11B vital effects and paleo-pH reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollion-Bard, C.; Erez, J.

    2010-03-01

    The boron isotope composition of marine carbonates is considered to be a seawater pH proxy. Nevertheless, the use of δ 11B has some limitations such as the knowledge of the fractionation factor ( α4-3) between boric acid and the borate ion and the amplitude of "vital effects" on this proxy that are not well constrained. Using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) we have examined the internal variability of the boron isotope ratio in the shallow water, symbionts bearing foraminiferan Amphistegina lobifera. Specimens were cultured at constant temperature (24 ± 0.1 °C) in seawater with pH ranging between 7.90 and 8.45. Intra-shell boron isotopes showed large variability with an upper limit value of ≈30‰. Our results suggest that the fractionation factor α4-3 of 0.97352 ( Klochko et al., 2006) is in better agreement with our experiments and with direct pH measurements in seawater vacuoles associated with the biomineralization process in these foraminifera. Despite the large variability of the skeletal pH values in each cultured specimen, it is possible to link the lowest calculated pH values to the experimental culture pH values while the upper pH limit is slightly below 9. This variability can be interpreted as follows: foraminifera variably increase the pH at the biomineralization site to about 9. This increase above ambient seawater pH leads to a range in δ 11B11B) for each seawater pH. This Δ 11B is linearly correlated with the culture seawater pH with a slope of -13.1 per pH unit, and is independent of the fractionation factor α4-3, or the δ 11B sw through time. It may also be independent of the p KB (the dissociation constant of boric acid) value. Therefore, Δ 11B in foraminifera can potentially reconstruct paleo-pH of seawater.

  13. Minimizing Uncertainty in Cryogenic Surface Figure Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Peter; Mink, Ronald G.; Chambers, John; Robinson, F. David; Content, David; Davila, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    A new facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center is designed to measure with unusual accuracy the surface figure of mirrors at cryogenic temperatures down to 12 K. The facility is currently configured for spherical mirrors with a radius of curvature (ROC) of 600 mm, and apertures of about 150 mm or less. The goals of the current experiment were to 1) Obtain the best possible estimate of test mirror surface figure, S(x,y) at 87 K and 20 K; 2) Obtain the best estimate of the cryo-change, Delta (x,y): the change in surface figure between room temperature and the two cryo-temperatures; and 3) Determine the uncertainty of these measurements, using the definitions and guidelines of the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. A silicon mirror was tested, and the cry-change from room temperature to 20K was found to be 3.7 nm rms, with a standard uncertainty of 0.23 nm in the rms statistic. Both the cryo-change figure and the uncertainty are among the lowest such figures yet published. This report describes the facilities, experimental methods, and uncertainty analysis of the measurements.

  14. Software systems for modeling articulated figures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Cary B.

    1989-01-01

    Research in computer animation and simulation of human task performance requires sophisticated geometric modeling and user interface tools. The software for a research environment should present the programmer with a powerful but flexible substrate of facilities for displaying and manipulating geometric objects, yet insure that future tools have a consistent and friendly user interface. Jack is a system which provides a flexible and extensible programmer and user interface for displaying and manipulating complex geometric figures, particularly human figures in a 3D working environment. It is a basic software framework for high-performance Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations for modeling and manipulating geometric objects in a general but powerful way. It provides a consistent and user-friendly interface across various applications in computer animation and simulation of human task performance. Currently, Jack provides input and control for applications including lighting specification and image rendering, anthropometric modeling, figure positioning, inverse kinematics, dynamic simulation, and keyframe animation.

  15. The major ion, 87Sr/86Sr, and δ11B geochemistry of groundwater in the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed aquifer (Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, Damien; Jacobson, Andrew D.; Cividini, Damien; Chabaux, François

    2015-11-01

    We developed a multicomponent, 1D advective transport model that describes the downgradient evolution of solute concentrations, 87Sr/86Sr ratios, and δ11B values in the Wyodak-Anderson Coal Bed (WACB) aquifer located in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the chemical vulnerability of groundwater to potential environmental change stemming from the extraction of coal bed methane and shale gas. Model calculations demonstrate that coupling between microbial activity and the dissolved carbonate system controls major ion transport in the WACB aquifer. The analysis of 87Sr/86Sr ratios further reveals the importance of ion-exchange reactions. Similarly, δ11B data emphasize the significance of pH-dependent surface reactions and demonstrate the vulnerability of the aquifer to the long-term acidification of recharge water.

  16. First Observation of the nu(17)-nu(4) Difference Bands of Diborane (10)B(2)H(6) and (11)B(2)H(6).

    PubMed

    Flaud; Lafferty; Bürger; Pawelke; Domenech; Bermejo

    2000-10-01

    An analysis of the nu(17)-nu(4) difference bands near 800 cm(-1) of two isotopic species, (10)B(2)H(6) and (11)B(2)H(6), of diborane has been carried out using infrared spectra recorded with a resolution of ca. 0.003 cm(-1). In addition, the nu(17) band of (10)B(2)H(6) has been recorded and assigned. Since this band in (11)B(2)H(6) had already been studied (R. L. Sams, T. A. Blake, S. W. Sharpe, J.-M. Flaud, and W. J. Lafferty, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 331-342 (1998)), it was possible to derive precise energy levels and Hamiltonian constants for the 4(1) vibrational states of both isotopic species. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells induce nitric oxide synthase-dependent differentiation of CD11b+ cells that expedite hematopoietic recovery.

    PubMed

    Trento, Cristina; Marigo, Ilaria; Pievani, Alice; Galleu, Antonio; Dolcetti, Luigi; Wang, Chun-Yin; Serafini, Marta; Bronte, Vincenzo; Dazzi, Francesco

    2017-02-09

    Bone marrow microenvironment is fundamental for hematopoietic homeostasis. Numerous efforts have been made to reproduce or manipulate its activity to facilitate engraftment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation but clinical results remain unconvincing. This probably reflects the complexity of the hematopoietic niche. Recent data have demonstrated the fundamental role of stromal and myeloid cells in regulating hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and mobilization in the bone marrow. In this study we unveil a novel interaction by which bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells induce the rapid differentiation of CD11b+ myeloid cells from bone marrow progenitors. Such an activity requires the expression of nitric oxide synthase-2. Importantly, the administration of these mesenchymal stromal cells-educated CD11b+ cells accelerates hematopoietic reconstitution in bone marrow transplant recipients. We conclude that the liaison between mesenchymal stromal cells and myeloid cells is fundamental in hematopoietic homeostasis and suggests that it can be harnessed in clinical transplantation.

  18. Water content, δD and δ11B tracking in the Vanuatu arc magmas (Aoba Island): Insights from olivine-hosted melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métrich, Nicole; Deloule, Etienne

    2014-10-01

    Ion microprobe measurements of H and B isotopic ratios and H2O, B and trace element contents are reported here for a series of melt inclusions typical of alkaline basalts of Aoba Island in the central part of Vanuatu arc (Southwestern Pacific). The melt inclusions, hosted in olivine Fo86-90, display large ranges in trace element concentrations and hydrogen (δD from - 48.2 to + 61.7‰) and boron (δ11B from - 11.9 to + 6.4‰) isotopic compositions. The high deuterium enrichment (δD ≥ 0‰) observed in a small subset of melt inclusions requires a proton diffusion loss through the olivine network, in addition to late-stage magma interactions with aqueous saline fluids. These melt inclusions are therefore not considered as representative of the magma from which the olivine grew. In most melt inclusions, positive correlations between H2O, K2O, Ba and Sr lead us to determine the K2O/H2O (1.5 ± 0.2), H2O/Ba (46 ± 3 × 10- 4) and H2O/Sr (29 ± 2 × 10- 4) ratios of Aoba basalts. Overall correlations between δ11B, B/Nb, and B/Nd testify to the mixing between slab-derived fluids, preferentially enriched in δ11B and fluid mobile elements and a relatively depleted MORB-type mantle wedge beneath Aoba Island. Heavy δ11B (on average 5.4 ± 0.7‰) indicate slab-derived fluids, possibly involving serpentine, which would have a mean δD value of - 28.4 ± 7‰. The chemical and isotopic variability recorded by Aoba magmas (melt inclusions) is consistent with the geodynamic context of ridge-arc collision in the central segment of Vanuatu arc.

  19. Lack of Muc1-regulated beta-catenin stability results in aberrant expansion of CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells from the bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Tze Wei; Bradley, Judy M.; Mukherjee, Pinku; Gendler, Sandra J.

    2009-01-01

    Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells that inhibit T cell activity and contribute to the immune suppression characteristic of most tumors. We discovered that bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells from the Muc1 knockout (KO) mice differentiated into CD11b+Gr1+ MDSCs in vitro under GM-CSF and IL-4 signaling. MUC1 is a tumor-associated mucin and its cytoplasmic tail (MUC1-CT) can regulate beta-catenin to promote oncogenesis. Given the importance of beta-catenin in hematopoiesis, we hypothesized that the MUC1 regulation of beta-catenin is important for MDSC development. Our current study shows that the aberrant development of BM progenitors into CD11b+Gr1+ MDSCs is dependent on the down regulation of beta-catenin levels that occurs in the absence of Muc1. In light of this, KO mice showed enhanced EL4 tumor growth and were able to better tolerate allogeneic BM185 tumor growth, with an accumulation of CD11b+Gr1+ cells in the blood and tumor draining lymph nodes. WT mice were able to similarly tolerate allogeneic tumor growth when they were injected with CD11b+Gr1+ cells from tumor-bearing KO mice, suggesting that tolerance of allogeneic tumors is dependent on MDSC-mediated immune suppression. This further delineates the ability of Muc1 to control MDSC development which could directly impact tumorigenesis. Knowledge of the biology by which Muc1 regulates the development of myeloid progenitors into MDSCs would also be very useful in enhancing the efficacy of cancer vaccines in the face of tumor immune suppression. PMID:19351842

  20. Psoriasis and cardiovascular risk factors: increased serum myeloperoxidase and corresponding immunocellular overexpression by Cd11b+ CD68+ macrophages in skin lesions

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lauren Y; Soler, David C; Debanne, Sarah M; Grozdev, Ivan; Rodriguez, Myriam E; Feig, Rivka L; Carman, Teresa L; Gilkeson, Robert C; Orringer, Carl E; Kern, Elizabeth F; McCormick, Thomas S; Cooper, Kevin D; Korman, Neil J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recent studies report independent associations between psoriasis, cardiovascular (CV) events and risk factors. Blood Myeloperoxidase (MPO) from activated myeloid cells is associated with CV risk mainly through lipid oxidation, induction of endothelial dysfunction and release of IL-12 from macrophages. Objectives: To elucidate associations between psoriasis and conventional CV risk factors. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of 100 psoriasis patients and 53 controls, group matched on age, gender and body mass index, to assess levels of MPO in serum, as well as immunohistochemical staining from psoriasis skin lesions, psoriasis uninvolved skin, and normal skin. Results: Although the groups did not differ on waist circumference, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine or personal history of CV events, psoriasis patients had significantly higher waist-to-hip ratios, blood pressures, proportion of current smokers, and lower high density lipoprotein level than controls. Serum MPO level was elevated 2.5 fold (P<0.001) in psoriasis patients, even after adjusting for the CV risk factors on which the groups differed. MPO did correlate with coronary artery calcification, carotid plaque, carotid intima media thickness and flow mediated dilation, but did not correlate with psoriasis severity. However, MPO was highly expressed in lesional psoriatic skin and colocalized predominantly with CD45+ CD11b+ leukocytes. CD11b+ cell density correlated with circulation MPO levels. Conclusion: Lesional skin CD11b+ leukocytes activated to generate MPO may contribute to serum levels of MPO. Lesional CD11b+ cell activity may be an alternative measure of disease burden to PASI that underlies the MPO biomarker for systemic inflammation related to Cardiovascular Disease. PMID:24349618

  1. Pseudoislet formation enhances gene expression, insulin secretion and cytoprotective mechanisms of clonal human insulin-secreting 1.1B4 cells.

    PubMed

    Green, Alastair D; Vasu, Srividya; McClenaghan, Neville H; Flatt, Peter R

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the effects of cell communication on human beta cell function and resistance to cytotoxicity using the novel human insulin-secreting cell line 1.1B4 configured as monolayers and pseudoislets. Incubation with the incretin gut hormones GLP-1 and GIP caused dose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion from 1.1B4 cell monolayers and pseudoislets. The secretory responses were 1.5-2.7-fold greater than monolayers. Cell viability (MTT), DNA damage (comet assay) and apoptosis (acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining) were investigated following 2-h exposure of 1.1B4 monolayers and pseudoislets to ninhydrin, H2O2, streptozotocin, glucose, palmitate or cocktails of proinflammatory cytokines. All agents tested decreased viability and increased DNA damage and apoptosis in both 1.1B4 monolayers and pseudoislets. However, pseudoislets exhibited significantly greater resistance to cytotoxicity (1.5-2.7-fold increases in LD50) and lower levels of DNA damage (1.3-3.4-fold differences in percentage tail DNA and olive tail moment) and apoptosis (1.3-1.5-fold difference) compared to monolayers. Measurement of gene expression by reverse-transcription, real-time PCR showed that genes involved with insulin secretion (INS, PDX1, PCSK1, PCSK2, GLP1R and GIPR), cell-cell communication (GJD2, GJA1 and CDH1) and antioxidant defence (SOD1, SOD2, GPX1 and CAT) were significantly upregulated in pseudoislets compared to monolayers, whilst the expression of proapoptotic genes (NOS2, MAPK8, MAPK10 and NFKB1) showed no significant differences. In summary, these data indicate cell-communication associated with three-dimensional islet architecture is important both for effective insulin secretion and for protection of human beta cells against cytotoxicity.

  2. Determination of δ11B by HR-ICP-MS from mass limited samples: Application to natural carbonates and water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Sambuddha; Owen, Robert; Kerr, Joanna; Greaves, Mervyn; Elderfield, Henry

    2014-09-01

    We present an improved method for accurate and precise determination of the boron isotopic composition (11B/10B) of carbonate and water samples using a mineral acid matrix and HR-ICP-MS. Our method for δ11B determination utilizes a micro-distillation based boron purification technique for both carbonate and seawater matrices. The micro-distillation method is characterized by low blank (⩽0.01 ng-B) and 99.8 ± 5.7% boron recovery. We also report a new ICP-MS method, performed in a hydrofluoric acid matrix, using a jet interface fitted Thermo® Element XR that consumes <3.0 ng-B per quintuplicate analyses (±0.5‰, 2σ, n = 5). A comparatively high matrix tolerance limit of ⩽50 ppb Na/K/Mg/Ca characterizes our ICP-MS method. With an extremely low procedural blank (⩽0.05 ± 0.01 ng-B) the present isotope method is optimized for rapid (∼25 samples per session) analysis of small masses of carbonates (foraminifera, corals) with low boron abundance and small volume water samples (seawater, porewater, river water). Our δ11B estimates of seawater (39.8 ± 0.5‰, 2σ, n = 30); SRM AE-120 (-20.2 ± 0.5‰, 2s, n = 33); SRM AE-121 (19.8 ± 0.4‰, 2s, n = 16); SRM AE-122 (39.6 ± 0.5‰, 2s, n = 16) are within analytical uncertainty of published values. We apply this new method to assess the impacts of laboratory handling induced sample contamination and seawater physio-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, and salinity) on marine carbonate bound δ11B by analyzing core-top planktonic foraminifera samples.

  3. Canine Recombinant Adenovirus Vector Induces an Immunogenicity-Related Gene Expression Profile in Skin-Migrated CD11b+ -Type DCs

    PubMed Central

    Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Bonneau, Michel; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs) could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2) as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b+ -type and CD103+ -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b+ -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103+ -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b+ -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b+ DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103+ DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23300693

  4. [Figures of anima in the Odyssey].

    PubMed

    Meneghello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Feminine characters in the Odyssey show different aspects of the archetype: Mother and Anima (C.G. Jung). From an Analytical Psychology perspective the encounters of Odysseus with goddesses: Circe, Calypso, Ino are looked at as different and successive stages of the hero's way into the inconscious, who shows himself in feminine figures, being masculine the consciousness of the hero. Nausicaa is a new, nearly-human figure of Anima who appears after the symbolic death of Odysseus and leads him to the royal couple Alcinous-Arete: in front of them all he finds his new, reborn, personality by creating and narrating his own myth.

  5. Metrics of Justice. A Sundial's Nomological Figuration.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines a polyhedral dial from the British Museum made by the instrument maker Ulrich Schniep, and discusses the status of multifunctional scientific instruments. It discerns a multifaceted iconic meaning considering different dimensions such as scientific functionality (astronomy), the complex allegorical figure of Justice (iconography), and the representation of the sovereign (politics), the court and the Kunstkammer of Albrecht v of Bavaria. As a numen mixtum the figure of "Justicia" touches different fields that go far beyond pure astronomical measurement and represents the power of the ruler as well as the rules of economic justice.

  6. Activation and increase of radio-sensitive CD11b+ recruited Kupffer cells/macrophages in diet-induced steatohepatitis in FGF5 deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Manabu; Ikarashi, Masami; Miyazaki, Hiromi; Hanaka, Hiromi; Imaki, Junko; Seki, Shuhji

    2016-01-01

    We have recently reported that Kupffer cells consist of two subsets, radio-resistant resident CD68+ Kupffer cells and radio-sensitive recruited CD11b+ Kupffer cells/macrophages (Mφs). Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is characterized not only by hepatic steatosis but also chronic inflammation and fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the immunological mechanism of diet-induced steatohepatitis in fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) deficient mice. After consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks, FGF5 null mice developed severe steatohepatitis and fibrosis resembling human NASH. F4/80+ Mφs which were both CD11b and CD68 positive accumulated in the liver. The production of TNF and FasL indicated that they are the pivotal effectors in this hepatitis. The weak phagocytic activity and lack of CRIg mRNA suggested that they were recruited Mφs. Intermittent exposure to 1 Gy irradiation markedly decreased these Mφs and dramatically inhibited liver inflammation without attenuating steatosis. However, depletion of the resident subset by clodronate liposome (c-lipo) treatment increased the Mφs and tended to exacerbate disease progression. Recruited CD11b+ CD68+ Kupffer cells/Mφs may play an essential role in steatohepatitis and fibrosis in FGF5 null mice fed with a HFD. Recruitment and activation of bone marrow derived Mφs is the key factor to develop steatohepatitis from simple steatosis. PMID:27708340

  7. Kinetic Analysis of BCL11B Multisite Phosphorylation–Dephosphorylation and Coupled Sumoylation in Primary Thymocytes by Multiple Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors with multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs) are not uncommon, but comprehensive information on site-specific dynamics and interdependence is comparatively rare. Assessing dynamic changes in the extent of PTMs has the potential to link multiple sites both to each other and to biological effects observable on the same time scale. The transcription factor and tumor suppressor BCL11B is critical to three checkpoints in T-cell development and is a target of a T-cell receptor-mediated MAP kinase signaling. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectroscopy was used to assess changes in relative phosphorylation on 18 of 23 serine and threonine residues and sumoylation on one of two lysine resides in BCL11B. We have resolved the composite phosphorylation–dephosphorylation and sumoylation changes of BCL11B in response to MAP kinase activation into a complex pattern of site-specific PTM changes in primary mouse thymocytes. The site-specific resolution afforded by MRM analyses revealed four kinetic patterns of phosphorylation and one of sumoylation, including both rapid simultaneous site-specific increases and decreases at putative MAP kinase proline-directed phosphorylation sites, following stimulation. These data additionally revealed a novel spatiotemporal bisphosphorylation motif consisting of two kinetically divergent proline-directed phosphorylation sites spaced five residues apart. PMID:25423098

  8. KELT-10b and KELT-11b: Two Sub-Jupiter Mass Planets well-Suited for Atmospheric Characterization in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.

    2015-12-01

    The Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) project is a photometric survey in both the northern and southern hemispheres for transiting planets around bright stars (8 < V < 11), and has discovered 15 planets to date. Of these, several possess unique characteristics that make them especially well suited for study of planet atmospheres. Here, I present the first two discoveries from the KELT-South survey. KELT-10b is an inflated transiting sub-Jupiter mass planet (0.68 MJ) around a V=10.7 early G-star. It has the 3rd deepest transit (1.4%) in the southern hemisphere for a star V < 12.5, making it a great target for transmission spectroscopy. KELT-11b is a highly inflated transiting Saturn mass planet (0.22 MJ) orbiting one of the brightest planet-hosting stars in the southern hemisphere. Interestingly, KELT-11b's host star is a clear sub-giant star (log(g) ~ 3.7). I will discuss their impact for atmospheric characterization. For example, the highly inflated nature of the KELT-11b planet provides the ability to study a sub-Jupiter atmosphere at very low planetary gravity, while the sub-giant nature of its host star allows us to study the effects of post main sequence evolution of a host star on a hot Jupiter.

  9. Gr-1dimCD11b+ immature myeloid-derived suppressor cells but not neutrophils are markers of lethal tuberculosis infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsiganov, Evgeny N; Verbina, Elena M; Radaeva, Tatiana V; Sosunov, Vasily V; Kosmiadi, George A; Nikitina, Irina Yu; Lyadova, Irina V

    2014-05-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) disease may progress at different rates and have different outcomes. Neutrophils have been implicated in TB progression; however, data on their role during TB are controversial. In this study, we show that in mice, TB progression is associated with the accumulation of cells that express neutrophilic markers Gr-1 and Ly-6G but do not belong to conventional neutrophils. The cells exhibit unsegmented nuclei, have Gr-1(dim)Ly-6G(dim)CD11b(+) phenotype, and express F4/80, CD49d, Ly-6C, CD117, and CD135 markers characteristic not of neutrophils but of immature myeloid cells. The cells accumulate in the lungs, bone marrow, spleen, and blood at the advanced (prelethal) stage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and represent a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells at different stages of their differentiation. The accumulation of Gr-1(dim)CD11b(+) cells is accompanied by the disappearance of conventional neutrophils (Gr-1(hi)Ly-6G(hi)-expressing cells). The Gr-1(dim)CD11b(+) cells suppress T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production in vitro via NO-dependent mechanisms, that is, they exhibit characteristics of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. These results document the generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells during TB, suggesting their role in TB pathogenesis, and arguing that neutrophils do not contribute to TB pathology at the advanced disease stage.

  10. Hydrogen Sulfide Attenuates the Recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ Myeloid Cells and Regulates Bax/Bcl-2 Signaling in Myocardial Ischemia Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youen; Li, Hua; Zhao, Gang; Sun, Aijun; Zong, Nobel C.; Li, Zhaofeng; Zhu, Hongming; Zou, Yunzeng; Yang, Xiangdong; Ge, Junbo

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, an endogenous signaling molecule, plays an important role in the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system. Using a mouse model of myocardial infarction, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of the H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). The results demonstrated that the administration of NaHS improved survival, preserved left ventricular function, limited infarct size, and improved H2S levels in cardiac tissue to attenuate the recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and to regulate the Bax/Bcl-2 pathway. Furthermore, the cardioprotective effects of NaHS were enhanced by inhibiting the migration of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells from the spleen into the blood and by attenuating post-infarction inflammation. These observations suggest that the novel mechanism underlying the cardioprotective function of H2S is secondary to a combination of attenuation the recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and regulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 apoptotic signaling. PMID:24758901

  11. Conventional and monocyte-derived CD11b(+) dendritic cells initiate and maintain T helper 2 cell-mediated immunity to house dust mite allergen.

    PubMed

    Plantinga, Maud; Guilliams, Martin; Vanheerswynghels, Manon; Deswarte, Kim; Branco-Madeira, Filipe; Toussaint, Wendy; Vanhoutte, Leen; Neyt, Katrijn; Killeen, Nigel; Malissen, Bernard; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N

    2013-02-21

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for mounting allergic airway inflammation, but it is unclear which subset of DCs performs this task. By using CD64 and MAR-1 staining, we reliably separated CD11b(+) monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) from conventional DCs (cDCs) and studied antigen uptake, migration, and presentation assays of lung and lymph node (LN) DCs in response to inhaled house dust mite (HDM). Mainly CD11b(+) cDCs but not CD103(+) cDCs induced T helper 2 (Th2) cell immunity in HDM-specific T cells in vitro and asthma in vivo. Studies in Flt3l(-/-) mice, lacking all cDCs, revealed that moDCs were also sufficient to induce Th2 cell-mediated immunity but only when high-dose HDM was given. The main function of moDCs was the production of proinflammatory chemokines and allergen presentation in the lung during challenge. Thus, we have identified migratory CD11b(+) cDCs as the principal subset inducing Th2 cell-mediated immunity in the LN, whereas moDCs orchestrate allergic inflammation in the lung.

  12. Depletion of macrophages in CD11b diphtheria toxin receptor mice induces brain inflammation and enhances inflammatory signaling during traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Frieler, Ryan A; Nadimpalli, Sameera; Boland, Lauren K; Xie, Angela; Kooistra, Laura J; Song, Jianrui; Chung, Yutein; Cho, Kae W; Lumeng, Carey N; Wang, Michael M; Mortensen, Richard M

    2015-10-22

    Immune cells have important roles during disease and are known to contribute to secondary, inflammation-induced injury after traumatic brain injury. To delineate the functional role of macrophages during traumatic brain injury, we depleted macrophages using transgenic CD11b-DTR mice and subjected them to controlled cortical impact. We found that macrophage depletion had no effect on lesion size assessed by T2-weighted MRI scans 28 days after injury. Macrophage depletion resulted in a robust increase in proinflammatory gene expression in both the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres after controlled cortical impact. Interestingly, this sizeable increase in inflammation did not affect lesion development. We also showed that macrophage depletion resulted in increased proinflammatory gene expression in the brain and kidney in the absence of injury. These data demonstrate that depletion of macrophages in CD11b-DTR mice can significantly modulate the inflammatory response during brain injury without affecting lesion formation. These data also reveal a potentially confounding inflammatory effect in CD11b-DTR mice that must be considered when interpreting the effects of macrophage depletion in disease models.

  13. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  14. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  15. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  16. Assessing the impact of diagenesis on δ11B, δ13C, δ18O, Sr/Ca and B/Ca values in fossil planktic foraminiferal calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, Kirsty M.; Anagnostou, Eleni; Pearson, Paul N.; Foster, Gavin L.

    2015-10-01

    The geochemical composition of foraminiferal tests is a valuable archive for the reconstruction of paleo-climatic, -oceanographic and -ecological changes. However, dissolution of biogenic calcite and precipitation of inorganic calcite (overgrowth and recrystallization) at the seafloor and in the sediment column can potentially alter the original geochemical composition of the foraminiferal test, biasing any resulting paleoenvironmental reconstruction. The δ11B of planktic foraminiferal calcite is a promising ocean pH-proxy but the effect of diagenesis is still poorly known. Here we present new δ11B, δ13C, δ18O, Sr/Ca and B/Ca data from multiple species of planktic foraminifera from time-equivalent samples for two low latitude sites: clay-rich Tanzanian Drilling Project (TDP) Site 18 from the Indian Ocean containing well-preserved ('glassy') foraminifera and carbonate-rich Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 865 from the central Pacific Ocean hosting recrystallized ('frosty') foraminifera. Our approach makes the assumption that environmental conditions were initially similar at both sites so most chemical differences are attributable to diagenesis. Planktic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C records show offsets in both relative and absolute values between the two sites consistent with earlier findings that these isotopic ratios are strongly influenced by diagenetic alteration. Sr/Ca and B/Ca ratios in planktic foraminiferal calcite are also offset between the two sites but there is little change in the relative difference between surface and deep dwelling taxa. In contrast, δ11B values indicate no large differences between well-preserved and recrystallized foraminifera suggesting that despite extensive diagenetic alteration the δ11B of biogenic calcite appears robust, potentially indicative of a lack of free exchange of boron between pore fluids and the recrystallizing CaCO3. Our finding may remove one potential source of uncertainty in δ11B based p

  17. The Offerings of Fringe Figures and Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels-Schwarzpaul, A.-Chr.

    2015-01-01

    "The Western tradition", as passe-partout, includes fringe figures, émigrés and migrants. Rather than looking to resources at the core of the Western tradition to overcome its own blindnesses, I am more interested in its gaps and peripheries, where other thoughts and renegade knowledges take hold. It is in the contact zones with…

  18. Cylindrical optic figuring dwell time optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluschka, Eugene

    2000-11-01

    The Constellation-X, grazing incidence, x-ray telescope may be fabricated from replicated segments. A series of mandrels will serve as the 'masters' in the replication processes. Diamond turning (milling) followed by abrasive figuring followed by a super polishing are the steps currently envisioned in making just one (of many) mandrel. The abrasive figuring of a mandrel is accomplished by moving a grinding tool along a helical path on this almost cylindrical surface. The measurement of the surface is, however, performed along 'axial' scan lines which intercept this helical path. This approach to figuring and measuring permits a relatively simple scheme to be implemented for the determination of the optimal dwell times of the figuring tool. These optimal dwell times are determined by a deconvolution which approaches the problem in a linear programming context and uses the Simplex Method. The approach maximizes the amount of material removed at any point subject to inequality constraints. The effects of using these 'optimum' dwell times is to significantly improve the tools effectiveness at removing the higher spatial frequencies while staying (strictly) within the bounds and constraints imposed by the hardware. In addition, the ringing at the edges of the optic, frequently present in deconvolution problems, is completely eliminated.

  19. Go Figure. HEADJAM. Teaching Guide [and Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MATHCOUNTS Foundation, Alexandria, VA.

    The HeadJam series is comprised of six programs exploring mathematics, science, and critical thinking skills. It is an award-winning, educational videotape series for middle school students that explores multi-disciplinary skills in a highly entertaining way. The teacher's guide and 22-minute video, "Go Figure," demonstrate how math is used in the…

  20. Noise figure of hybrid optical parametric amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Marhic, Michel E

    2012-12-17

    Following a fiber optical parametric amplifier, used as a wavelength converter or in the phase-sensitive mode, by a phase-insensitive amplifier (PIA) can significantly reduce four-wave mixing between signals in broadband systems. We derive the quantum mechanical noise figures (NF) for these two hybrid configurations, and show that adding the PIA only leads to a moderate increase in NF.

  1. Computerized Testing: The Hidden Figures Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study adapted the Hidden Figures Test for use on PLATO and determined the reliability of the computerized version compared to the paper and pencil version. Results indicate the test was successfully adapted with some modifications, and it was judged reliable although it may be measuring additional constructs. (MBR)

  2. Human Figure Drawings of Vietnamese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delatte, Joseph G. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Some characteristics of the human figure drawings of 93 Vietnamese children were investigated. Drawings were scored according to the Goodenough method. Mental age scores were high in relation to chronological age and this result is explained in terms of cultural emphasis on the value of copying well. (SE)

  3. Facts and Figures about Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Chinese Teachers, San Francisco, CA.

    In this brief collection of facts and figures about Chinese Americans, information and data are presented on the geographic location of Chinese in America, the pattern of Chinese immigration to the United States, and income and occupations of Chinese Americans. In addition, a brief chronology of Chinese American history is presented. (Author/AM)

  4. Data Behind the Figures in AAS Journals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biemesderfer, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Substantial amounts of digital data are produced in the scientific enterprise, and much of it is carefully analyzed and processed. Often resulting from a good deal of intellectual effort, many of these highly-processed products are published in the scholarly literature. Many of these data - or more precisely, representations of these data - are committed to the scholarly record in the forms of figures and tables that appear within articles: the AAS journals publish more than 30,000 figures and nearly 10,000 tables each year. For more than a decade, the AAS journals have accepted machine-readable tables that provide the data behind (some of) the tables, and recently the journals have started to encourage the submission of the data behind figures. (See the related poster by Greg Schwarz.) During this time, the journals have been refining techniques for acquiring and managing the digital data that underlie figures and tables. In 2012 the AAS was awarded a grant by the US NSF so that the journals can extend the methods for providing access to these data objects, through a deeper collaboration with the VO and with organizations like DataCite, and by spearheading discussions about the formats and metadata that will best facilitate long-term data management and access. An important component of these activities is educating scientists about the importance and benefits of making such data sets available.

  5. Cultural Impact on Human Figure Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Serna, Marcelo; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A human figure drawing instrument was administered to Black children from the Virgin Islands and Georgia and to White children from Mexico. Both cultural and sex differences occurred, influencing the drawings. Black children from different cultures differed from each other on this instrument. (Author/BEF)

  6. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  7. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  8. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  9. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  10. T'ang Dynasty Tomb Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selle, Penny

    1988-01-01

    Uses a print of a T'ang Dynasty tomb figure to acquaint grades 10-12 students with the tools needed for developing aesthetic judgement and artistic criticism. Includes background on the artwork and instructional strategies to help students describe the object, analyze the artmaking process, and formulate their own opinions. (GEA)

  11. Fading-Figure Tracing in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Chiyoko; Inui, Toshio; Iwata, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe impairment of visuospatial abilities. Figure-drawing abilities, which are thought to reflect visuospatial abilities, have yet to be fully investigated in WS. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether drawing abilities differ between WS individuals and…

  12. Participation in the Figured World of Graffiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Imuris; Weiss, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on ethnographic work with two "crews" of young graffiti artists in southern Mexico City. The crews share certain characteristics with gangs or urban tribes, but more with "communities of practice": they live in the "figured world" of graffiti, a community of practice at the local and global…

  13. Mirror Figuring Techniques of Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F.

    2004-05-01

    Between the years 1773 to 1818, Sir William Herschel constructed dozens of speculum telescope mirrors, with diameters ranging from 6 - 48 inches. Very little, if any, detailed information has ever been published on the specifics of his mirror figuring efforts. The reason for this certainly relates to his desire to closely guard mirror production trade secrets. Upon Herschel's death, all telescope-making documents were passed on to his only son, Sir John Herschel. These materials are now in the possession of the British RAS and primarily consist of: a) a four volume series entitled "Experiments on the Construction of Specula," b) a 129 page treaty called "On the Construction of Specula," and c) a 179 page manuscript entitled "Results of Experiments on the Construction of Mirrors." It is suggested that publication was further delayed and then eventually abandoned due to silver-coated glass mirrors coming into favor. A recent investigation by the author, of the unpublished manuscripts on the construction of specula, suggests that Herschel's mirror figuring techniques did not involve any guess work; in fact, his methods were highly refined -- never leaving to chance the evolution of a spherical surface into the required paraboloid. At the heart of Herschel's figuring techniques were a series of aperture diaphragms (similar to the Couder masks used by modern telescope makers) that were placed over the mirror, which allowed for the precise determination of its curvature at various predefined zones. With this information, Herschel was able to vary his figuring strokes with his polishing tool accordingly. In addition, all mirrors were subsequently "star tested," sometimes with aperture diaphragms in place, allowing for field examination of the mirror's "distinctness" or performance. Double stars and the planet Saturn were favorite targets used to analyze and then correct a mirror's figure.

  14. Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Chapman; Henry N. , Taylor; John S.

    2010-02-16

    A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

  15. Recommended Figures of Merit for Green Monopropellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall. William M.; Deans, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrazine propellant has historically been used as a rocket thruster monopropellant since the mid-1960s. Mission managers are well aware of its characteristics and performance. However, it is a known toxic chemical and a wide effort is underway to reduce and/or eliminate its use worldwide. Several new propellant combinations have been developed in the last few years which tout or promise to provide same or better performance as hydrazine while being "non-toxic" or "green". Yet, there is no consistent definition for what constitutes "non-toxic" or "green", and thus no good figure of merit for which to compare. This paper seeks to review the three major categories of figures of merit, and discusses how they might be used to assess the viability of a propellant.

  16. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Significant figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, David

    2000-05-01

    The interesting article on `University students' conceptions of basic astronomy concepts' by Ricardo Trumper (2000 Phys. Educ. 35 9-15) was spoiled by a lack of attention to detail. The percentages for the student responses were mostly quoted to three figures but the sample size of 76 allows for only two at most. As well as making the article much less `readable', the decimal point in the percentage figure implies a measurement accuracy that is just not there in reality. Sociologists and newspaper reporters have long been guilty of this kind of accidental deception. If we physicists don't set an example in our own journals how can we ever expect it to stop?

  17. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z. ); Church, E.L. . Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center)

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. High figure of merit thermoelectrics - Theoretical considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vining, Cronin B.

    1990-01-01

    The thermoelectric figure of merit of a semiconductor, ZT, can be calculated from a small number of microscopic material parameters, the material composition, the doping level, and the temperature. The functional dependence of ZT on these parameters has been studied for a range of material parameters using a recently developed model which accurately and self-consistently describes the thermoelectric properties of n-type silicon-germanium alloys. ZT values several times larger than current state-of-the-art values of ZT of about 1 are shown to be entirely consistent with existing theory, even using material parameters already observed. A search for materials with much higher figure of merit values therefore remains of interest, in spite of several decades of relatively slow progress in this area.

  19. Adolescent girls' parasocial interactions with media figures.

    PubMed

    Theran, Sally A; Newberg, Emily M; Gleason, Tracy R

    2010-01-01

    We examined aspects of adolescent girls' parasocial interactions in the context of typical development. Parasocial interactions are defined as symbolic, one-sided quasi-interactions between a viewer and a media figure. In total, 107 adolescent girls were examined; 94% reported engaging in parasocial interactions to some degree. Preoccupied attachment style predicted the degree of involvement in and emotional intensity of parasocial interactions. Results suggest that parasocial interactions are characteristic of girls with preoccupied attachment, but are also part of normative development.

  20. Figure-Ground Segmentation Using Factor Graphs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huiying; Coughlan, James; Ivanchenko, Volodymyr

    2009-06-04

    Foreground-background segmentation has recently been applied [26,12] to the detection and segmentation of specific objects or structures of interest from the background as an efficient alternative to techniques such as deformable templates [27]. We introduce a graphical model (i.e. Markov random field)-based formulation of structure-specific figure-ground segmentation based on simple geometric features extracted from an image, such as local configurations of linear features, that are characteristic of the desired figure structure. Our formulation is novel in that it is based on factor graphs, which are graphical models that encode interactions among arbitrary numbers of random variables. The ability of factor graphs to express interactions higher than pairwise order (the highest order encountered in most graphical models used in computer vision) is useful for modeling a variety of pattern recognition problems. In particular, we show how this property makes factor graphs a natural framework for performing grouping and segmentation, and demonstrate that the factor graph framework emerges naturally from a simple maximum entropy model of figure-ground segmentation.We cast our approach in a learning framework, in which the contributions of multiple grouping cues are learned from training data, and apply our framework to the problem of finding printed text in natural scenes. Experimental results are described, including a performance analysis that demonstrates the feasibility of the approach.

  1. Generating Ambiguous Figure-Ground Images.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ying-Miao; Chu, Hung-Kuo; Chi, Ming-Te; Lee, Ruen-Rone; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2016-02-26

    Ambiguous figure-ground images, mostly represented as binary images, are fascinating as they present viewers a visual phenomena of perceiving multiple interpretations from a single image. In one possible interpretation, the white region is seen as a foreground figure while the black region is treated as shapeless background. Such perception can reverse instantly at any moment. In this paper, we investigate the theory behind this ambiguous perception and present an automatic algorithm to generate such images. We model the problem as a binary image composition using two object contours and approach it through a three-stage pipeline. The algorithm first performs a partial shape matching to find a good partial contour matching between objects. This matching is based on a content-aware shape matching metric, which captures features of ambiguous figure-ground images. Then we combine matched contours into a compound contour using an adaptive contour deformation, followed by computing an optimal cropping window and image binarization for the compound contour that maximize the completeness of object contours in the final composition. We have tested our system using a wide range of input objects and generated a large number of convincing examples with or without user guidance. The efficiency of our system and quality of results are verified through an extensive experimental study.

  2. Altered expression of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase in tumor-infiltrated CD11b myeloid cells: a mechanism for immune evasion in cancer.

    PubMed

    Eruslanov, Evgeniy; Kaliberov, Sergei; Daurkin, Irina; Kaliberova, Lyudmila; Buchsbaum, Donald; Vieweg, Johannes; Kusmartsev, Sergei

    2009-06-15

    Many cancers are known to produce high amounts of PGE(2), which is involved in both tumor progression and tumor-induced immune dysfunction. The key enzyme responsible for the biological inactivation of PGE(2) in tissue is NAD(+)-dependent 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH). It is well established that cancer cells frequently show down-regulated expression of 15-PGDH, which plays a major role in catabolism of the PGE(2). Here we demonstrate that tumor-infiltrated CD11b cells are also deficient for the 15-PGDH gene. Targeted adenovirus-mediated delivery of 15-PGDH gene resulted in substantial inhibition of tumor growth in mice with implanted CT-26 colon carcinomas. PGDH-mediated antitumor effect was associated with attenuated tumor-induced immune suppression and substantially reduced secretion of immunosuppressive mediators and cytokines such as PGE(2), IL-10, IL-13, and IL-6 by intratumoral CD11b cells. We show also that introduction of 15-PGDH gene in tumor tissue is sufficient to redirect the differentiation of intratumoral CD11b cells from immunosuppressive M2-oriented F4/80(+) tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) into M1-oriented CD11c(+) MHC class II-positive myeloid APCs. Notably, the administration of the 15-PGDH gene alone demonstrated a significant therapeutic effect promoting tumor eradication and long-term survival in 70% of mice with preestablished tumors. Surviving mice acquired antitumor T cell-mediated immune response. This study for the first time demonstrates an important role of the 15-PGDH in regulation of local antitumor immune response and highlights the potential to be implemented to enhance the efficacy of cancer therapy and immunotherapy.

  3. Anisotropic Fermi couplings due to large unquenched orbital angular momentum: Q-band (1)H, (14)N, and (11)B ENDOR of bis(trispyrazolylborate) cobalt(II).

    PubMed

    Myers, William K; Scholes, Charles P; Tierney, David L

    2009-08-05

    We report Q-band ENDOR of (1)H, (14)N, and (11)B at the g( parallel) extreme of the EPR spectrum of bis(trispyrazolylborate) cobalt(II) [Co(Tp)(2)] and two structural analogs. This trigonally symmetric, high-spin (hs) S = 3/2 Co(II) complex shows large unquenched ground-state orbital angular momentum, which leads to highly anisotropic electronic g-values (g( parallel) = 8.48, g( perpendicular) = 1.02). The large g-anisotropy is shown to result in large dipolar couplings near g( parallel) and uniquely anisotropic (14)N Fermi couplings, which arise from spin transferred to the nitrogen 2s orbital (2.2%) via antibonding interactions with singly occupied metal d(x(2)-y(2)) and d(z(2)) orbitals. Large, well-resolved (1)H and (11)B dipolar couplings were also observed. Taken in concert with our previous X-band ENDOR measurements at g( perpendicular) ( Myers, W. K.; et al. Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47, 6701-6710 ), the present data allow a detailed analysis of the dipolar hyperfine tensors of two of the four symmetry distinct protons in the parent molecule. In the substituted analogs, changes in hyperfine coupling due to altered metal-proton distances give further evidence of an anisotropic Fermi contact interaction. For the pyrazolyl 3H proton, the data indicate a 0.2 MHz anisotropic contact interaction and approximately 4% transfer of spin away from Co(II). Dipolar coupling also dominates for the axial boron atoms, consistent with their distance from the Co(II) ion, and resolved (11)B quadrupolar coupling showed approximately 30% electronic inequivalence between the B-H and B-C sp(3) bonds. This is the first comprehensive ENDOR study of any hs Co(II) species and lays the foundation for future development.

  4. Changes in area affect figure-ground assignment in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Lazareva, Olga F; Vecera, Shaun P; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-03-05

    A critical cue for figure-ground assignment in humans is area: smaller regions are more likely to be perceived as figures than are larger regions. To see if pigeons are similarly sensitive to this cue, we trained birds to report whether a target appeared on a colored figure or on a differently colored background. The initial training figure was either smaller than (Experiments 1 and 2) or the same area as (Experiment 2) the background. After training, we increased or decreased the size of the figure. When the original training shape was smaller than the background, pigeons' performance improved with smaller figures (and worsened with larger figures); when the original training shape was the same area as the background, pigeons' performance worsened when they were tested with smaller figures. A smaller figural region appeared to improve the figure-ground discrimination only when size was a relevant cue in the initial discrimination.

  5. Phase evolution, structure, and magnetic properties of Nd8.4Fe86Mo1.1B4.5 nanocomposite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, B. Z.; Sui, Y. C.; Sun, X. K.; Xiong, L. Y.; O'Shea, M. J.; Zhang, Z. D.

    2002-05-01

    The relationship between the phase evolution, nanostructure, exchange coupling, and magnetic properties of Nd8.4Fe86Mo1.1B4.5 magnets prepared by melt spinning (MS) and mechanical milling (MM) are studied by x-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, positron lifetime measurements, high resolution transmission electron microscopy observations, and magnetization measurements. The maximum magnetic energy product (BH)max for MM magnets annealed at 650 °C or below are notably higher than those of the corresponding MS samples due to the larger amount of the Nd(Fe,Mo)7 present in the MS samples.

  6. Climate sensitivity derived from orbital-scale, δ11B-based pCO2 estimates in the early Pleistocene, ~1.5 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyez, K. A.; Hoenisch, B.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations in the late Pleistocene have been characterized from ancient air bubbles trapped within polar ice sheets. Ice-core records clearly demonstrate the glacial-interglacial relationship between the global carbon cycle and climate, but they are so far limited to the last 800 ky, when glacial cycles occurred approximately every 100-ky. Boron isotope ratios (δ11B) recorded in the tests of fossil planktic foraminifera offer an opportunity to extend the atmospheric pCO2 record into the early Pleistocene, when glacial cycles instead occurred approximately every 41-ky. We present a new high-resolution record of planktic foraminiferal d11B, Mg/Ca (a sea surface temperature proxy) and salinity estimates from the deconvolution of δ18O and Mg/Ca. Combined with reasonable assumptions of ocean alkalinity, these data allow us to estimate pCO2 over three of the 41-ky climate cycles at ~1.5 Ma. Our results confirm the hypothesis that climate and atmospheric pCO2 were coupled beyond ice core records and provide new constraints for studies of long-term CO2 storage and release, regional controls on the early Pleistocene carbon cycle, and estimating climate sensitivity before the mid-Pleistocene transition.

  7. Endogenous PMN sialidase activity exposes activation epitope on CD11b/CD18 which enhances its binding interaction with ICAM-1.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chiguang; Zhang, Lei; Almulki, Lama; Faez, Sepideh; Whitford, Melissa; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali; Cross, Alan S

    2011-08-01

    Diapedesis is a dynamic, highly regulated process by which leukocytes are recruited to inflammatory sites. We reported previously that removal of sialyl residues from PMNs enables these cells to become more adherent to EC monolayers and that sialidase activity within intracellular compartments of resting PMNs translocates to the plasma membrane following activation. We did not identify which surface adhesion molecules were targeted by endogenous sialidase. Upon activation, β2 integrin (CD11b/CD18) on the PMN surface undergoes conformational change, which allows it to bind more tightly to the ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 on the EC surface. Removal of sialyl residues from CD18 and CD11b, by exogenous neuraminidase or mobilization of PMN sialidase, unmasked activation epitopes, as detected by flow cytometry and enhanced binding to ICAM-1. One sialidase isoform, Neu1, colocalized with CD18 on confocal microscopy. Using an autoperfused microflow chamber, desialylation of immobilized ICAM-1 enhanced leukocyte arrest in vivo. Further, treatment with a sialidase inhibitor in vivo reversed endotoxin-induced binding of leukocytes to ICAM-1, thereby suggesting a role for leukocyte sialidase in the cellular arrest. These data suggest that PMN sialidase could be a physiologic source of the enzymatic activity that removes sialyl residues on β2 integrin and ICAM-1, resulting in their enhanced interaction. Thus, PMN sialidase may be an important regulator of the recruitment of these cells to inflamed sites.

  8. A novel homozygous mutation IVS6+5G>T in CYP11B1 gene in a Vietnamese patient with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Mai; Nguyen, Thu Hien; Ngo, Diem Ngoc; Vu, Chi Dung; Nguyen, Thi Kim Lien; Nong, Van Hai; Nguyen, Huy Hoang

    2015-07-10

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disease which is characterized by a deficiency of one of the enzymes involved in the synthesis of cortisol from cholesterol by the adrenal cortex. CAH cases arising from impaired 11β-hydroxylase are the second most common form. Mutations in the CYP11B1 gene are the cause of 11β-hydroxylase deficiency. This study was performed on a patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia and with premature development such as enlarged penis, muscle development, high blood pressure, and bone age equivalent of 5 years old at 2 years of chronological age. Biochemical tests for steroids confirmed the diagnosis of CAH. We used PCR and sequencing to screen for mutations in CYP11B1 gene. Results showed that the patient has a novel homozygous mutation of guanine (G) to thymine (T) in intron 6 (IVS6+5G>T). The analysis of this mutation by MaxEntScan boundary software indicated that this mutant could affect the gene splicing during transcription.

  9. Eimeria bovis-triggered neutrophil extracellular trap formation is CD11b-, ERK 1/2-, p38 MAP kinase- and SOCE-dependent.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Caro, Tamara; Mena Huertas, Sandra Jaqueline; Conejeros, Ivan; Alarcón, Pablo; Hidalgo, María A; Burgos, Rafael A; Hermosilla, Carlos; Taubert, Anja

    2015-03-05

    Eimeria bovis is an important coccidian parasite that causes high economic losses in the cattle industry. We recently showed that polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) react upon E. bovis sporozoite exposure by neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. We focused here on the molecular mechanisms that are involved in this process. The sporozoite encounter led to an enhanced surface expression of neutrophil CD11b suggesting a potential role of this receptor in E. bovis-mediated NETosis. Antibody-mediated blockage of CD11b confirmed this assumption and led to a significantly decreased sporozoite-triggered NET. In addition, E. bovis-induced NETosis was found to be Ca(2+)-dependent since the inhibition of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) significantly diminished NET. Furthermore, NADPH oxidase, neutrophil elastase (NE) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were confirmed as key molecules in sporozoite-triggered NETosis, as inhibition thereof blocked parasite-triggered NET. PMN degranulation analyses revealed a significant release of matrix metalloprotease-9 containing granules upon sporozoite exposure. We further show a significantly enhanced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in sporozoite-exposed PMN indicating a key role of this signaling pathway in E. bovis-mediated NETosis. Accordingly, ERK 1/2 and p38 MAPK inhibition led to a significant decrease in NET formation. Finally, we demonstrate that sporozoite-induced NETosis is neither a stage-, species-, nor host-specific process.

  10. Effects of deformations and orientations in the fission of the actinide nuclear system 254Fm* formed in the 11B + 243Am reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Sharma, Manoj K.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2012-12-01

    We have studied the decay of actinide nuclear system 254Fm* formed in 11B + 243Am reaction using the dynamical cluster decay model (DCM), with choices of spherical, quadrupole deformation β2 alone and higher multipole deformations β2-β4. For β2 deformations, the optimum orientations θiopt are used whereas for higher multipole deformations the compact orientations θic of decaying fragments are taken in to account. Besides static-β2 deformations, the effects of dynamical-β2 deformations are also explored. The calculated cross sections find excellent agreement with the available experimental data with spherical as well as deformed choices of fragmentations, enabling us to account for the role of important nuclear deformation effects in the 11B-induced nuclear reaction. Spontaneous decay of 254Fm with cold elongated configuration and optimum orientation is also worked out. The mass distributions of excited fermium isotopes in the neighborhood of 254Fm* are also explored. In addition, the roles of temperature, angular momentum, and fission fragment anisotropies are investigated in the context of the chosen reaction.

  11. Determination of the bond-angle distribution in vitreous B{sub 2}O{sub 3} by {sup 11}B double rotation (DOR) NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, I.; Howes, A.P.; Parkinson, B.G.; Anupold, T.; Samoson, A.; Brown, S.P.; Harrison, P.F.; Holland, D.; Dupree, R.

    2009-09-15

    The B-O-B bond angle distributions for both ring and non-ring boron sites in vitreous B{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been determined by {sup 11}B double rotation (DOR) NMR and multiple-quantum (MQ) DOR NMR. The [B{sub 3}O{sub 6}] boroxol rings are observed to have a mean internal B-O-B angle of 120.0+-0.7 deg. with a small standard deviation, sigma{sub R}=3.2+-0.4 deg., indicating that the rings are near-perfect planar, hexagonal structures. The rings are linked predominantly by non-ring [BO{sub 3}] units, which share oxygens with the boroxol ring, with a mean B{sub ring}-O-B{sub non-ring} angle of 135.1+-0.6 deg. and sigma{sub NR}=6.7+-0.4 deg. In addition, the fraction of boron atoms, f, which reside in the boroxol rings has been measured for this sample as f=0.73+-0.01. - Graphical abstract: Connectivities and B-O-B bond angle distributions of ring and non-ring boron atoms in v-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been determined by {sup 11}B double rotation (DOR) NMR, multiple-quantum (MQ) DOR NMR and spin-diffusion DOR. Near-perfect planar, hexagonal [B{sub 3}O{sub 6}] boroxol rings are shown to be present. Display Omitted

  12. Thermoelectric figure of merit in topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ryuji; Murakami, Shuichi

    2011-07-01

    Transport behavior of two-dimensional topological insulators is theoretically studied in narrow ribbon geometry. The system has perfectly conducting edge channels, which are free from backscattering. At high temperature, the bulk states dominate in the transport phenomenon. However, at low temperature the conducting channels along the edges become dominant. It causes a bulk-to-edge crossover. Namely, by lowering temperature, the figure of merit first decreases by a competition between the bulk and the edge transport, and then increases again because the edge transport become larger.

  13. Surface figure control for coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.; Spence, Paul A.; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The optic section has an optical section thickness.sup.2 /optical section diameter ratio of between about 5 to 10 mm, and a thickness variation between front and back surfaces of less than about 10%. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  14. Figures of Merit for Lunar Simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, Frederick

    The collection and analysis of lunar samples from 1969 to present has yielded large amounts of data. Published analyses give some idea of the complex nature of the regolith at all scales, rocks, soils and the smaller particulates commonly referred to as dust. Data recently acquired in support of NASA's simulant effort has markedly increased our knowledge and quantitatively demonstrates that complexity. It is anticipated that future analyses will further add to the known complexity. In an effort to communicate among the diverse technical communities performing research on or research using regolith samples and simulants, a set of Figures of Merit (FoM) have been devised. The objective is to allow consistent and concise comparative communication between researchers from multiple organizations and nations engaged in lunar exploration. This paper describes Figures of Merit in a working draft of an international standard for Lunar Simulants. The FoM methodology uses scientific understanding of the lunar samples to formulate parameters which are reproducibly quantifiable. Advanced work at NASA has evolved this effort to the point that formal definitions, supporting mathematics and functioning code have implemented the concept for testing.

  15. Figure-ground separation by cue integration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiangyu; von der Malsburg, Christoph

    2008-06-01

    This letter presents an improved cue integration approach to reliably separate coherent moving objects from their background scene in video sequences. The proposed method uses a probabilistic framework to unify bottom-up and top-down cues in a parallel, "democratic" fashion. The algorithm makes use of a modified Bayes rule where each pixel's posterior probabilities of figure or ground layer assignment are derived from likelihood models of three bottom-up cues and a prior model provided by a top-down cue. Each cue is treated as independent evidence for figure-ground separation. They compete with and complement each other dynamically by adjusting relative weights from frame to frame according to cue quality measured against the overall integration. At the same time, the likelihood or prior models of individual cues adapt toward the integrated result. These mechanisms enable the system to organize under the influence of visual scene structure without manual intervention. A novel contribution here is the incorporation of a top-down cue. It improves the system's robustness and accuracy and helps handle difficult and ambiguous situations, such as abrupt lighting changes or occlusion among multiple objects. Results on various video sequences are demonstrated and discussed. (Video demos are available at http://organic.usc.edu:8376/ approximately tangx/neco/index.html .).

  16. Figure-ground organization in real and subjective contours: a new ambiguous figure, some novel measures of ambiguity, and apparent distance across regions of figure and ground.

    PubMed

    Shank, M D; Walker, J T

    1989-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of organization, luminance contrast, sector angle, and orientation on a new, highly ambiguous Cs-keyhole figure. Organization and contrast were the most important factors, and sector angle also influenced figure-ground relationships. There was no significant effect of orientation, nor was there any significant interaction between any of the factors. Several new measures of figure-ground organization were developed, such as ambiguity ratios based on reaction times and on ratings of the strength of perceived organizations, providing new quantitative measures of figure-ground relationships. Distances measured across figural regions appeared smaller than equal distances across the ground in the new reversible figure, and also in Rubin's classic vase-face figure presented in real and subjective contours. Inducing a perceptual set to see a particular organization in a reversible figure influenced the apparent distance across that organization. Several possible explanations of the observed effects are considered: (1) an instance of Emmert's law, based on the difference in apparent depth of figure and ground; (2) an aspect of the Müller-Lyer illusion; (3) a feature-detector model of contour attraction; (4) a natural set or predisposition to see a figure as smaller; and (5) framing effects. The first two explanations appear the most promising.

  17. Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Each year EPA releases the Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures report, formerly called Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: Facts and Figures. It includes information on Municipal Solid Waste generation, recycling, an

  18. Fc block treatment, dead cells exclusion, and cell aggregates discrimination concur to prevent phenotypical artifacts in the analysis of subpopulations of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) myelomonocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Kuonen, Francois; Touvrey, Cedric; Laurent, Julien; Ruegg, Curzio

    2010-11-01

    It is well established that cancer cells can recruit CD11b(+) myeloid cells to promote tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. Increasing interest has emerged on the identification of subpopulations of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) myeloid cells using flow cytometry techniques. In the literature, however, discrepancies exist on the phenotype of these cells (Coffelt et al., Am J Pathol 2010;176:1564-1576). Since flow cytometry analysis requires particular precautions for accurate sample preparation and trustable data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation, some discrepancies might be due to technical reasons rather than biological grounds. We used the syngenic orthotopic 4T1 mammary tumor model in immunocompetent BALB/c mice to analyze and compare the phenotype of CD11b(+) myeloid cells isolated from peripheral blood and from tumors, using six-color flow cytometry. We report here that the nonspecific antibody binding through Fc receptors, the presence of dead cells and cell doublets in tumor-derived samples concur to generate artifacts in the phenotype of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) subpopulations. We show that the heterogeneity of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) subpopulations analyzed without particular precautions was greatly reduced upon Fc block treatment, dead cells, and cell doublets exclusion. Phenotyping of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) cells was particularly sensitive to these parameters compared to circulating CD11b(+) cells. Taken together, our results identify Fc block treatment, dead cells, and cell doublets exclusion as simple but crucial steps for the proper analysis of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) cell populations.

  19. 19 CFR 132.11a - Time of presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time of presentation. 132.11a Section 132.11a... TREASURY QUOTAS Administration of Quotas § 132.11a Time of presentation. (a) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the time of presentation of an entry/entry summary for...

  20. 11B and 27Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation and Knight shift of Mg1-xAlxB2: Evidence for an anisotropic Fermi surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papavassiliou, G.; Pissas, M.; Karayanni, M.; Fardis, M.; Koutandos, S.; Prassides, K.

    2002-10-01

    We report a detailed study of the 11B and 27Al NMR spin-lattice relaxation rates (1/T1) and the 27Al Knight shift (K) in Mg1-xAlxB2, 0<=x<=1. The evolution of (1/T1T) and K with x is in excellent agreement with the prediction of ab initio calculations of a highly anisotropic Fermi surface, consisting mainly of hole-type two-dimensional (2D) cylindrical sheets from bonding 2px,y boron orbitals. The density of states at the Fermi level also decreases sharply on Al doping and the 2D sheets collapse at x~0.55, where the superconducting phase disappears.

  1. Figure Control of Lightweight Optical Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Song, Haiping

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the use of fuzzy logic controllers in modifying the figure of a piezoceramic bimorph mirror. Non-contact electron actuation technology is used to actively control a bimorph mirror comprised two PZT-5H wafers by varying the electron flux and electron voltages. Due to electron blooming generated by the electron flux, it is difficult to develop an accurate control model for the bimorph mirror through theoretical analysis alone. The non-contact shape control system with electron flux blooming can be approximately described with a heuristic model based on experimental data. Two fuzzy logic feedback controllers are developed to control the shape of the bimorph mirror according to heuristic fuzzy inference rules generated from previous experimental results. Validation of the proposed fuzzy logic controllers is also discussed.

  2. Structure analysis for plane geometry figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tianxiao; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Keqiang; Tang, Zhi

    2013-12-01

    As there are increasing numbers of digital documents for education purpose, we realize that there is not a retrieval application for mathematic plane geometry images. In this paper, we propose a method for retrieving plane geometry figures (PGFs), which often appear in geometry books and digital documents. First, detecting algorithms are applied to detect common basic geometry shapes from a PGF image. Based on all basic shapes, we analyze the structural relationships between two basic shapes and combine some of them to a compound shape to build the PGF descriptor. Afterwards, we apply matching function to retrieve candidate PGF images with ranking. The great contribution of the paper is that we propose a structure analysis method to better describe the spatial relationships in such image composed of many overlapped shapes. Experimental results demonstrate that our analysis method and shape descriptor can obtain good retrieval results with relatively high effectiveness and efficiency.

  3. Implanting 1.1B4 human β-cell pseudoislets improves glycaemic control in diabetic severe combined immune deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Green, Alastair D; Vasu, Srividya; McClenaghan, Neville H; Flatt, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the potential of implanting pseudoislets formed from human insulin-releasing β-cell lines as an alternative to islet transplantation. METHODS In this study, the anti-diabetic potential of novel human insulin releasing 1.1B4 β-cells was evaluated by implanting the cells, either as free cell suspensions, or as three-dimensional pseudoislets, into the subscapular region of severe combined immune deficient mice rendered diabetic by single high-dose administration of streptozotocin. Metabolic parameters including food and fluid intake, bodyweight and blood glucose were monitored throughout the study. At the end of the study animals were given an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Animals were then culled and blood and tissues were collected for analysis. Insulin and glucagon contents of plasma and tissues were measured by insulin radioimmunoassay and chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbance assay respectively. Histological analyses of pancreatic islets were carried out by quantitative fluorescence immunohistochemistry staining. RESULTS Both pseudoislet and cell suspension implants yielded well vascularised β-cell masses of similar insulin content. This was associated with progressive amelioration of hyperphagia (P < 0.05), polydipsia (P < 0.05), body weight loss (P < 0.05), hypoinsulinaemia (P < 0.05), hyperglycaemia (P < 0.05 - P < 0.001) and glucose tolerance (P < 0.01). Islet morphology was also significantly improved in both groups of transplanted mice, with increased β-cell (P < 0.05 - P < 0.001) and decreased alpha cell (P < 0.05 - P < 0.001) areas. Whereas mice receiving 1.1B4 cell suspensions eventually exhibited hypoglycaemic complications, pseudoislet recipients displayed a more gradual amelioration of diabetes, and achieved stable blood glucose control similar to non-diabetic mice at the end of the study. CONCLUSION Although further work is needed to address safety issues, these results provide proof of concept for possible therapeutic applicability of human β-cell line pseudoislets in diabetes. PMID:27895821

  4. Identification of functional consequence of a novel selection signature in CYP11b1 gene for milk fat content in Bubalus bubalis

    PubMed Central

    Maryam, J.; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Nadeem, Asif; Yaqub, Tahir; Hashmi, Abu Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection for traits of economic importance is an emerging approach carrying tremendous potentials. Many of polygenic traits as milk fat, protein and yield have been characterize at genomic level and important selection signatures have been identified. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are potential loci for affecting many of dairy capabilities. Present study was conducted for genomic dissection of CYP11b1 gene in riverine buffaloes and seven genetic variations were identified. Out of these, one novel polymorphism (p.A313T) was found well associated with milk fat %age. AB genotyped buffaloes were found to have higher milk fat %age (8.9%) for this loci. p.A313T was further validated at larger data set by restriction digestion using CviAII enzyme. Functional consequences of this locus were also predicted by studying three dimensional structure of CYP11b1 protein. For this purpose, 3D protein model was predicted by homology modeling, secondary structural attributes were determined, signal peptide was predicted and a transmembrane helix was also identified. One of polymorphism (p.Y205L) was found in the vicinity of functionally significant F-G loop region, which is the part of protein gets attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane. But this variation could not be associated and needs further investigation. p.A30V, a popular selection marker in cattle, was found in buffaloes as well but could not be associated and might need further confirmation on larger data set. Results of this study illustrate the impending potential of this gene in determining dairy capabilities of buffaloes and might have a role in selection of superior dairy buffaloes. PMID:26629413

  5. A Computer Graphics Human Figure Application Of Biostereometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetter, William A.

    1980-07-01

    A study of improved computer graphic representation of the human figure is being conducted under a National Science Foundation grant. Special emphasis is given biostereometrics as a primary data base from which applications requiring a variety of levels of detail may be prepared. For example, a human figure represented by a single point can be very useful in overview plots of a population. A crude ten point figure can be adequate for queuing theory studies and simulated movement of groups. A one hundred point figure can usefully be animated to achieve different overall body activities including male and female figures. A one thousand point figure si-milarly animated, begins to be useful in anthropometrics and kinesiology gross body movements. Extrapolations of this order-of-magnitude approach ultimately should achieve very complex data bases and a program which automatically selects the correct level of detail for the task at hand. See Summary Figure 1.

  6. A case of figurate urticaria by etanercept

    PubMed Central

    Sessa, Maurizio; Sullo, Maria Giuseppa; Mascolo, Annamaria; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Romano, Francesca; Puca, Rosa Valentina; Capuano, Annalisa; Rossi, Francesco; Schiavo, Ada Lo

    2016-01-01

    Etanercept is a competitive inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) a polypeptide hormone, involved in the development of the immune system, in host defense and immune surveillance. Even if the etanercept mechanism of action is not completely understood, it is supposed that it negatively modulates biological responses mediated by molecules (cytokines, adhesion molecules, or proteinases) induced or regulated by TNF. For this reason, it is widely used in the treatment of immunologicals diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic active, ankylosing spondylitis, and plaque psoriasis. Etanercept has a good tolerability profile. Adverse events related to skin are rare, arising usually in about 5% of patients treated with anti-TNF α. In this scenario, we describe a case of figurate urticaria arose after the re-administration of etanercept in a patient affected by psoriasis and hepatitis B. A 65-year-old man, affected by psoriasis, was hospitalized in September 2014 to the Regional Center for the treatment of psoriasis and Biological Drugs of Second University of Naples for progressive extension of psoriatic skin lesions. The laboratory analysis detected positivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens. For this reason, it was administered to him lamivudine 100 mg/die about 30 days before to start etanercept treatment. The etanercept therapy has resulted in a progressive improving of skin manifestations, and the patient decided individually to stop the therapy. Afterwards, for worsening of the psoriatic lesions, he was again hospitalized and treated with the same therapeutic schedule (lamivudine followed by etanercept). Ten days after the start of therapy, the patient showed the onset of urticarial rash. Due to this, the treatment with lamivudine and etanercept was suspended and the patient's clinical conditions improved. It is probably that immunological disorders due to etanercept therapy and HBV infection could

  7. HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 axes contribute to the recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells in hypoxic microenvironment of HNSCC.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guiquan; Tang, Yaling; Geng, Ning; Zheng, Min; Jiang, Jian; Li, Ling; Li, Kaide; Lei, Zhengge; Chen, Wei; Fan, Yunlong; Ma, Xiangrui; Li, Longjiang; Wang, Xiaoyi; Liang, Xinhua

    2014-02-01

    CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells have gained much attention due to their roles in tumor immunity suppression as well as promotion of angiogenesis, invasion, and metastases. However, the mechanisms by which CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells recruit to the tumor site have not been well clarified. In the present study, we showed that hypoxia could stimulate the migration of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through increased production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)- and HIF-2α-dependent MIF regulated chemotaxis, differentiation, and pro-angiogenic function of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through binding to CD74/CXCR2, and CD74/CXCR4 complexes, and then activating p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathways. Knockdown (KD) of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HNSCC cells decreased MIF level but failed to inhibit the CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell migration, because HIF-1α/2α KD enhanced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity that increased IL-6 secretion. Simultaneously blocking NF-κB and HIF-1α/HIF-2α had better inhibitory effect on CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell recruitment in the hypoxic zone than individually silencing HIF-1α/2α or NF-κB. In conclusion, the interaction between HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 axes plays an important role in the hypoxia-induced accumulation of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and tumor growth in HNSCC.

  8. Thermoelectric Figure of Merit in Anisotropic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bies, W.; Radtke, R. J.; Ehrenreich, H.

    1998-03-01

    General expressions for the electrical conductivity, thermopower, and electronic thermal conductivity are derived for anisotropic materials including their full tensorial character and properly treating the effects of the sample boundaries. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT constructed from these quantities is proved to be maximal only when the electric field (in thermoelectric coolers) or thermal gradient (in power generators) is applied along the direction of highest conductivity. Fields applied along directions for which the conductivity tensor is non-diagonal induce transverse electric fields and thermal gradients which may be larger in magnitude than the applied fields. These fields reduce ZT below that expected from anisotropy alone. Numerical results are presented for bulk n-type Bi_2Te3 and quantum well and quantum wire geometries using semiclassical transport theory in the effective mass and relaxation time approximations. The effects of multi-valley conduction and confinement-induced splitting of the valley degeneracy are included. Surprisingly, this model predicts generally that the thermopower and hence ZT are independent of the direction of the applied fields in the limit of vanishing lattice thermal conductivity.

  9. An economics figure of merit in ALPS

    SciTech Connect

    Shatilla, Y.A.

    2000-07-01

    One of the most pressing issues facing the deregulated nuclear electric power industry is its economic competitiveness when compared to other sources of electrical power. Traditionally, finding the optimum loading pattern (LP) that meets all the safety and operational objective functions and at the same time produces the most attractive economical solutions is an iterative process. This is because (a) LP search tools usually lack the capability to generate equilibrium solutions and (b) economics objective functions are hard to include in the search process. In this paper, the Westinghouse Advanced Loading Pattern Search code (ALPS) has been demonstrated to successfully find LPs that meet user-defined operational and safety as well as economics objectives. This has been made possible by the development of TULIP language that allows the integration of external procedures into the search process of the main program, ALPS. In the example given, an economic figure of merit (EFM) has been defined and included via TULIP script into the fuel management optimization problem of a three-loop Westinghouse core operating an 18-month cycle. The LPs found by ALPS exhibit a clear trend of meeting and, in some cases, exceeding the EFM objective function defined for the ALPS search process a priori.

  10. Birth delays skew developing world's fertility figures.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    This article explains that birth delays skew developing world's fertility figures. When successive groups of women who have delayed childbearing start having children, the rapid fertility decline stalls. Such change in the timing of childbearing skews the total fertility rate (TFR). Analysis of the tempo component of TFR trends in Taiwan suggests that tempo effects reduced its TFR by about 10% in the late 1970s and early 1990s and by about 19% in the late 1980s. In Colombia, on the basis of increasing mean maternal age at childbirth between the 1970s and the late 1980s, tempo distortions of the TFR during the most of the 1980s seem likely. Moreover, many developing countries are now experiencing rapid fertility declines that are in part attributable to tempo changes. These changes have accelerated past fertility transitions, but they also make these countries vulnerable to future stalls in fertility when the delays in childbearing end. Since fertility reductions caused by tempo effects lead to real declines in birth rates and hence in population growth, countries that wish to reduce birth rates can take actions that encourage women to delay marriage and the onset of childbearing.

  11. SLC11A1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    SLC11A1 is a membrane associated divalent transition metal (iron and manganese) transporter involved in iron metabolism and host resistance to certain pathogens. SLC11A1 is a member of the solute carrier family 11 (proton-coupled divalent metal ion transporters) family. Mutations in the SLC11A1 gene are involved in susceptibility to infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and leprosy, and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn disease. Several alternatively spliced variants have been identified.

  12. Upper eyelid retraction in Graves' ophthalmopathy: a new surgical technique and a study of the abnormal levator muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Small, R G

    1988-01-01

    A new surgical procedure, the proximal levator technique, achieves recession of the retracted upper eyelid in Graves' ophthalmopathy by sectioning the levator muscle proximal to Whitnall's ligament and fixing eyelid position with sutures that permit postoperative adjustment. This technique deserves further study. Enlargement of the proximal levator muscle in Graves' eye disease is shown on orbital CT scans and is found at surgery when the proximal levator technique is employed. Histologic and morphometric studies demonstrate increased levator muscle fiber size as well as increased extracellular volume. These findings suggest that levator muscle hypertrophy is important in the pathogenesis of upper eyelid retraction in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 3 C FIGURE 3 D FIGURE 4 A,B FIGURE 4 C,D,E FIGURE 4 F,G FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 13 A FIGURE 13 B FIGURE 14 A FIGURE 14 B FIGURE 15 A FIGURE 15 B FIGURE 16 A FIGURE 16 B FIGURE 17 A FIGURE 17 B FIGURE 18 A FIGURE 18 B FIGURE 19 A FIGURE 19 B FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:2979032

  13. Deep-sea coral δ13C: A tool to reconstruct the difference between seawater pH and δ11B-derived calcifying fluid pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Patrick; Goodkin, Nathalie F.; Stewart, Joseph A.; Foster, Gavin L.; Sikes, Elisabeth L.; White, Helen K.; Hennige, Sebastian; Roberts, J. Murray

    2016-01-01

    The boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of coral skeleton is a proxy for seawater pH. However, δ11B-based pH estimates must account for the pH difference between seawater and the coral calcifying fluid, ΔpH. We report that skeletal δ11B and ΔpH are related to the skeletal carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) in four genera of deep-sea corals collected across a natural pH range of 7.89-8.09, with ΔpH related to δ13C by ΔpH = 0.029 × δ13C + 0.929, r2 = 0.717. Seawater pH can be reconstructed by determining ΔpH from δ13C and subtracting it from the δ11B-derived calcifying fluid pH. The uncertainty for reconstructions is ±0.12 pH units (2 standard deviations) if estimated from regression prediction intervals or between ±0.04 and ±0.06 pH units if estimated from confidence intervals. Our new approach quantifies and corrects for vital effects, offering improved accuracy relative to an existing δ11B versus seawater pH calibration with deep-sea scleractinian corals.

  14. Channelling experiments on the lattice location of hydrogen in metals using the nuclear reaction 1H(11B, α)αα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Eiichi

    1992-03-01

    In order to locate hydrogen dissolved in metals a nuclear reaction 1H(11B, α)αα was applied to a channelling method. As an example of this application the results of the following two experiments were briefly reported. (1) The lattice location of H in V was investigated under a <001> compressive stress of 7 kg/mm2 below the elastic limit. The configuration of hydrogen is extremely sensitive to compressive stress and changes from a tetrahedral (T) site to a diplaced-T or 4T configuration. On release of this stress the hydrogen atoms returned to T-sites. (2) To elucidate the mechanism of the enhancement of the terminal solubility for hydrogen (TSH) in Nb on alloying with undersized Mo atoms, the state of hydrogen was studied in Nb-based Nb-Mo dilute alloys. It was demonstrated that H atoms are trapped by Mo atoms and located at sites displaced from T-sites by about 0.6 Å. This result supports the trapping model for the enhancement of the TSH in the region of low Mo concentration.

  15. Anomalous spin dynamics in CdCu2(BO3)2 revealed by 11B NMR and ZF-μ SR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.-J.; Do, S.-H.; Yoon, Sungwon; Jang, Z. H.; Suh, B. J.; Lee, J. H.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P. L.; Luetkens, H.; Choi, K.-Y.

    2014-12-01

    We report 11B nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and zero-field muon spin relaxation (ZF-μ SR ) measurements of the anisotropic spin tetramer system CdCu2(BO3) 2 , which consists of strongly interacting Cu(1) dimers and weakly coupled nonfrustrated Cu(2) spins. Long-range magnetic order is observed at TN=9.8 K by a critical divergence of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1 /T1 and an appearance of well-defined muon-spin precessions. In addition, we find the spectroscopic signature for a magnetic anomaly at T*=6.5 K, a few kelvins below TN. For temperatures below T*,1 /T1 ceases to follow a T4.9 (1 ) behavior. Instead, upon cooling below T*, both 1 /T1 and 1 /T2 become temperature-independent with a subsequent small drop. The muon frequency and the relative fraction of the Cu magnetic sites show anomalies mostly for Cu(2) spins at T*. This is ascribed to a Cu(2) spin reorientation. Site-specific change in magnetic structure is discussed in terms of the energy hierarchy of involved exchange interactions and an additional intertetramer interaction that controls magnetism at temperature T*.

  16. Study on a compact and adaptable Thomson Spectrometer for laser-initiated 11B(p,α)8Be reactions and low-medium energy particle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consoli, F.; De Angelis, R.; Bonasera, A.; Sura, J.; Andreoli, P.; Cristofari, G.; Cipriani, M.; Di Giorgio, G.; Ingenito, F.; Barbarino, M.; Labaune, C.; Baccou, C.; Depierreux, S.; Goyon, C.; Yahia, V.

    2016-05-01

    Thomson Spectrometers are of primary importance in the discrimination of particles produced by laser-plasma interaction, according to their energy and charge-mass ratio. We describe here a detailed study on a set of Thomson Spectrometers, adaptable to different experimental situations, with the aim of being placed directly within the experimental chamber, rather than in additional extensions, in order to increase the solid angle of observation. These instruments are suitable for detection of low-medium energy particles and can be effectively employed in laser-plasma experiments of 11B(p,α)8Be fusion. They are provided with permanent magnets, have small dimensions and compact design. In these small configurations electric and magnetic fringing fields play a primary role for particle deflection, and their accurate characterization is required. It was accomplished by means of COMSOL electromagnetic solver coupled to an effective analytical model, very suitable for practical use of the spectrometers. Data from experimental measurements of the magnetic fields have been also used. We describe the application of the spectrometers to an experiment of laser-plasma interaction, coupled to Imaging Plate detectors. Data analysis for spectrum and yield of the detected radiation is discussed in detail.

  17. Crenarchaeota affiliated with group 1.1b are prevalent in coastal mineral soils of the Ross Sea region of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ayton, J; Aislabie, J; Barker, G M; Saul, D; Turner, S

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the presence and diversity of Archaea within mineral and ornithogenic soils from 12 locations across the Ross Sea region. Archaea were not abundant but DNA sufficient for producing 16S rRNA gene clone libraries was extracted from 18 of 51 soil samples, from four locations. A total of 1452 clones were analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism and assigned to 43 operational taxonomic units from which representatives were sequenced. Archaea were primarily restricted to coastal mineral soils which showed a predominance of Crenarchaeota belonging to group 1.1b (> 99% of clones). These clones were assigned to six clusters (A through F), based on shared identity to sequences in the GenBank database. Ordination indicated that soil chemistry and water content determined archaeal community structure. This is the first comprehensive study of the archaeal community in Antarctic soils and as such provides a reference point for further investigation of microbial function in this environment.

  18. Increased frequencies of CD11b(+) CD33(+) CD14(+) HLA-DR(low) myeloid-derived suppressor cells are an early event in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Berenice M; Loquai, Carmen; Gerwe, Alexander; Bacher, Nicole; Steinbrink, Kerstin; Grabbe, Stephan; Tuettenberg, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are a heterogeneous cell population characterized by immunosuppressive activity. Elevated levels of MDSC in peripheral blood are found in inflammatory diseases as well as in malignant tumors where they are supposed to be major contributors to mechanisms of tumor-associated tolerance. We investigated the frequency and function of MDSC in peripheral blood of melanoma patients and observed an accumulation of CD11b(+) CD33(+) CD14(+) HLA-DR(low) MDSC in all stages of disease (I-IV), including early stage I patients. Disease progression and enhanced tumor burden did not result in a further increase in frequencies or change in phenotype of MDSC. By investigation of specific MDSC-associated cytokines in patients' sera, we found an accumulation of IL-8 in all stages of disease. T-cell proliferation assays revealed that MDSC critically contribute to suppressed antigen-specific T-cell reactivity and thus might explain the frequently observed transient effects of immunotherapeutic strategies in melanoma patients.

  19. IL27 controls skin tumorigenesis via accumulation of ETAR-positive CD11b cells in the pre-malignant skin

    PubMed Central

    Dibra, Denada; Mitra, Abhisek; Newman, Melissa; Xia, Xueqing; Keenan, Camille; Cutrera, Jeffry J.; Mathis, J. Michael; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Myers, Jeffrey; Li, Shulin

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of a permissive pre-malignant niche in concert with mutant stem are key triggers to initiate skin carcinogenesis. An understudied area of research is finding upstream regulators of both these triggers. IL27, a pleiotropic cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties, was found to be a key regulator of both. Two step skin carcinogenesis model and K15-KRASG12D mouse model were used to understand the role of IL27 in skin tumors. CD11b−/− mice and small-molecule of ETAR signaling (ZD4054) inhibitor were used in vivo to understand mechanistically how IL27 promotes skin carcinogenesis. Interestingly, using in vivo studies, IL27 promoted papilloma incidence primarily through IL27 signaling in bone-marrow derived cells. Mechanistically, IL27 initiated the establishment of the pre-malignant niche and expansion of mutated stem cells in K15-KRASG12D mouse model by driving the accumulation of Endothelin A receptor (ETAR)-positive CD11b cells in the skin—a novel category of pro-tumor inflammatory identified in this study. These findings are clinically relevant, as the number of IL27RA-positive cells in the stroma is highly related to tumor de-differentiation in patients with squamous cell carcinomas. PMID:27738312

  20. Sport-specific injuries and medical problems of figure skaters.

    PubMed

    Porter, Emily B; Young, Craig C; Niedfeldt, Mark W; Gottschlich, Laura M

    2007-09-01

    Figure skating is becoming increasingly popular as both a recreational and competitive sport. As the number of figure skating participants increases, so will the number of active patients who present to their primary care physician with sport-related injuries and medical problems. Figure skating is a unique sport that continues to evolve and progress with participants partaking in more difficult moves and more rigorous training programs. Common problems in figure skating include acute musculo-skeletal injuries and chronic overuse injuries, which primarily occur in the foot, ankle, knee, leg, hip, and lower back. Figure skaters are also more likely to endure specific medical problems such as exercise-induced bronchospasm and eating disorders. Primary care physicians are able to contribute to their figure skating patient's health by recognition and appropriate treatment of acute injuries and prevention of chronic injuries and other medical problems.

  1. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Bockhorst, Joseph P; Conroy, John M; Agarwal, Shashank; O'Leary, Dianne P; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org.

  2. Higher-order figure discrimination in fly and human vision.

    PubMed

    Aptekar, Jacob W; Frye, Mark A

    2013-08-19

    Visually-guided animals rely on their ability to stabilize the panorama and simultaneously track salient objects, or figures, that are distinct from the background in order to avoid predators, pursue food resources and mates, and navigate spatially. Visual figures are distinguished by luminance signals that produce coherent motion cues as well as more enigmatic 'higher-order' statistical features. Figure discrimination is thus a complex form of motion vision requiring specialized neural processing. In this minireview, we will highlight recent advances in understanding the perceptual, behavioral, and neurophysiological basis of higher-order figure detection in flies, much of which is grounded in the historical perspective and mechanistic underpinnings of human psychophysics.

  3. Surface reconstruction, figure-ground modulation, and border-ownership.

    PubMed

    Jeurissen, Danique; Self, Matthew W; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    The Differentiation-Integration for Surface Completion (DISC) model aims to explain the reconstruction of visual surfaces. We find the model a valuable contribution to our understanding of figure-ground organization. We point out that, next to border-ownership, neurons in visual cortex code whether surface elements belong to a figure or the background and that this is influenced by attention. We furthermore suggest that there must be strong links between object recognition and figure-ground assignment in order to resolve the status of interior contours. Incorporation of these factors in neurocomputational models will further improve our understanding of surface reconstruction, figure-ground organization, and border-ownership.

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mars, M.

    2009-08-01

    Compact fluid bodies in equilibrium under its own gravitational field are abundant in the Universe and a proper treatment of them can only be carried out using the full theory of General Relativity. The problem is of enormous complexity as it involves two very different regimes, namely the interior and the exterior of the fluid, coupled through the surface of the body. This problem is very challenging both from a purely theoretical point of view, as well as regarding the obtaining of realistic models and the description of their physical properties. It is therefore an excellent piece of news that the book 'Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium' by R Meinel, M Ansorg, A Kleinwächter, G Neugebauer and D Petroff has been recently published. This book approaches the topic in depth and its contents will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working on gravitation, including theoreticians in general relativity, mathematical physicists, astrophysicists and numerical relativists. This is an advanced book that intends to present some of the present-day results on this topic. The most basic results are presented rather succinctly, and without going into the details, of their derivations. Although primarily not intended to serve as a textbook, the presentation is nevertheless self-contained and can therefore be of interest both for experts on the field as well as for anybody wishing to learn more about rotating self-gravitating compact bodies in equilibrium. It should be remarked, however, that this book makes a rather strong selection of topics and concentrates fundamentally on presenting the main results obtained by the authors during their research in this field. The book starts with a chapter where the fundamental aspects of rotating fluids in equilibrium, including its thermodynamic properties, are summarized. Of particular interest are the so-called mass-shedding limit, which is the limit where the body is rotating so fast that it is on the verge of starting

  5. Figures and First Years: Examining first-year Calculus I student ability to incorporate figures into technical reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonacci, Nathan; Rogers, Michael; Pfaff, Thomas

    This three-year study focused on first-year Calculus I students and their abilities to incorporate figures into technical reports. Students were handed guidelines as part of their Multidisciplinary Sustainability Education Module meant to aid them in crafting effective figures. Figure-specific questionnaires were added in the class to gain insight into the quantitative literacy skills students possessed both before starting their course and after its completion. Reviews of the figures in 78 technical reports written by 106 students showed repeated failure to refer to figures in discussion sections and use them in evidence-based arguments. Analysis of quantitative literacy skills revealed that the students could both read and interpret figures, suggesting that issues with literacy were not the main contributor to the sub-par graphs.

  6. Dendritic cell fate is determined by BCL11A

    PubMed Central

    Ippolito, Gregory C.; Dekker, Joseph D.; Wang, Yui-Hsi; Lee, Bum-Kyu; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Lin, Jian; Wall, Jason K.; Lee, Baeck-Seung; Staudt, Louis M.; Liu, Yong-Jun; Iyer, Vishwanath R.; Tucker, Haley O.

    2014-01-01

    The plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC) is vital to the coordinated action of innate and adaptive immunity. pDC development has not been unequivocally traced, nor has its transcriptional regulatory network been fully clarified. Here we confirm an essential requirement for the BCL11A transcription factor in fetal pDC development, and demonstrate this lineage-specific requirement in the adult organism. Furthermore, we identify BCL11A gene targets and provide a molecular mechanism for its action in pDC commitment. Embryonic germ-line deletion of Bcl11a revealed an absolute cellular, molecular, and functional absence of pDCs in fetal mice. In adults, deletion of Bcl11a in hematopoietic stem cells resulted in perturbed yet continued generation of progenitors, loss of downstream pDC and B-cell lineages, and persisting myeloid, conventional dendritic, and T-cell lineages. Challenge with virus resulted in a marked reduction of antiviral response in conditionally deleted adults. Genome-wide analyses of BCL11A DNA binding and expression revealed that BCL11A regulates transcription of E2-2 and other pDC differentiation modulators, including ID2 and MTG16. Our results identify BCL11A as an essential, lineage-specific factor that regulates pDC development, supporting a model wherein differentiation into pDCs represents a primed “default” pathway for common dendritic cell progenitors. PMID:24591644

  7. Increasing the potency of neutralizing single-domain antibodies by functionalization with a CD11b/CD18 binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Rossotti, Martin A; González-Techera, Andrés; Guarnaschelli, Julio; Yim, Lucia; Camacho, Ximena; Fernández, Marcelo; Cabral, Pablo; Leizagoyen, Carmen; Chabalgoity, José A; González-Sapienza, Gualberto

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant single domain antibodies (nanobodies) constitute an attractive alternative for the production of neutralizing therapeutic agents. Their small size warrants rapid bioavailability and fast penetration to sites of toxin uptake, but also rapid renal clearance, which negatively affects their performance. In this work, we present a new strategy to drastically improve the neutralizing potency of single domain antibodies based on their fusion to a second nanobody specific for the complement receptor CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1). These bispecific antibodies retain a small size (˜30 kDa), but acquire effector functions that promote the elimination of the toxin-immunocomplexes. The principle was demonstrated in a mouse model of lethal toxicity with tetanus toxin. Three anti-tetanus toxin nanobodies were selected and characterized in terms of overlapping epitopes and inhibition of toxin binding to neuron gangliosides. Bispecific constructs of the most promising monodomain antibodies were built using anti Mac-1, CD45 and MHC II nanobodies. When co-administered with the toxin, all bispecific antibodies showed higher toxin-neutralizing capacity than the monomeric ones, but only their fusion to the anti-endocytic receptor Mac-1 nanobody allowed the mice to survive a 10-fold lethal dose. In a model of delayed neutralization of the toxin, the anti- Mac-1 bispecific antibodies outperformed a sheep anti-toxin polyclonal IgG that had shown similar neutralization potency in the co-administration experiments. This strategy should have widespread application in the development of nanobody-based neutralizing therapeutics, which can be produced economically and more safely than conventional antisera. PMID:26192995

  8. Social stress enhances IL-1beta and TNF-alpha production by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated CD11b+ cells.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Michael T; Kinsey, Steven G; Padgett, David A; Sheridan, John F; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz

    2009-09-07

    Psychological stress is associated with an increased expression of markers of peripheral inflammation, and there is a growing literature describing a link between periodontal pathogens and systemic inflammation. The hypothesis of the present work is that exposing mice to the social stressor, called social disruption (SDR), would enhance the inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from the oral pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis. Mice were exposed to SDR for 2h per day on 6 consecutive days. On the morning following the last cycle of SDR, mice were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the open field test and novel object test. The mice were sacrificed the following day and their spleens harvested. Spleen cells were stimulated with LPS derived from P. gingivalis in the absence or presence of increasing doses of corticosterone. Social disruption resulted in anxiety-like behavior, and the production of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha was significantly higher in spleen cells from mice exposed to SDR in comparison to levels from non-stressed control mice. In addition, the viability of spleen cells from mice exposed to SDR was significantly greater than the viability of cells from non-stressed control mice, even in the presence of high doses of corticosterone. The use of cultures enriched for CD11b+ cells indicated that the stressor was affecting the activity of splenic myeloid cells. This study demonstrates that social stress enhances the inflammatory response to an oral pathogen and could provide a critical clue in the reported associations between stress, inflammation, and oral pathogens.

  9. Effects of HDM2 antagonism on sunitinib resistance, p53 activation, SDF-1 induction, and tumor infiltration by CD11b+/Gr-1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The studies reported herein were undertaken to determine if the angiostatic function of p53 could be exploited as an adjunct to VEGF-targeted therapy in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods Nude/beige mice bearing human RCC xenografts were treated with various combinations of sunitinib and the HDM2 antagonist MI-319. Tumors were excised at various time points before and during treatment and analyzed by western blot and IHC for evidence of p53 activation and function. Results Sunitinib treatment increased p53 levels in RCC xenografts and transiently induced the expression of p21waf1, Noxa, and HDM2, the levels of which subsequently declined to baseline (or undetectable) with the emergence of sunitinib resistance. The development of resistance and the suppression of p53-dependent gene expression temporally correlated with the induction of the p53 antagonist HDMX. The concurrent administration of MI-319 markedly increased the antitumor and anti-angiogenic activities of sunitinib and led to sustained p53-dependent gene expression. It also suppressed the expression of the chemokine SDF-1 (CXCL12) and the influx of CD11b+/Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) otherwise induced by sunitinib. Although p53 knockdown markedly reduced the production of the angiostatic peptide endostatin, the production of endostatin was not augmented by MI-319 treatment. Conclusions The evasion of p53 function (possibly through the expression of HDMX) is an essential element in the development of resistance to VEGF-targeted therapy in RCC. The maintenance of p53 function through the concurrent administration of an HDM2 antagonist is an effective means of delaying or preventing the development of resistance. PMID:23497256

  10. Local and average crystal structure and displacements of La{sup 11}B{sub 6} and EuB{sub 6} as a function of temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, C.H.; Sarrao, J.L.; Hundley, M.F.; Cornelius, A.L.; Kwei, G.H.; Bianchi, A.; Fisk, Z.; Lawrence, J.M.

    2001-01-30

    Measurements of both the average crystal structure from Rietveld refinement of neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data and the local structure from La L{sub III}-edge x-ray-absorption fine-structure (XAFS) are presented for a La{sup 11}B{sub 6} sample as a function of temperature ({approx}10-320 K). These data are compared to XAFS results on a EuB{sub 6} sample. The single-site La and B positional distribution widths and the La-B and La-La bond length distribution widths and their temperature dependence are compared. This comparison allows an estimate of the La and B site displacements, and we find that these sublattices are only slightly correlated with each other. Moreover, while the temperature dependence of the displacement parameters of the average sites from diffraction fit an Einstein model well, the temperature dependence of the La-B bond length distribution width requires at least two vibrational frequencies, corresponding to the La and B frequencies of the individual sites. XAFS data on EuB{sub 6} indicate that the situation is the same in the Eu compound. In addition, comparisons between data taken below and above the ferromagnetic transition temperature for EuB{sub 6} place stringent limits on the lattice involvement in the associated metal-insulator transition and the ensuing large magnetoresistance effect. This lack of lattice involvement in the magnetoresistance transition is in sharp contrast to the strong lattice involvement observed in the colossal magnetoresistance lanthanum manganese perovskites.

  11. Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-01-01

    A highly flexible learning tool, referred to as a dynamic reaction figure, is described. Application of these figures can (i) yield the correct chemical equation by simply following a set of menu driven directions; (ii) present the underlying "mechanism" in chemical reactions; and (iii) help to solve quantitative problems in a number of different…

  12. The Young Child's Pictorial Representation of the Human Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Maureen V.; Mason, Sarah

    1998-01-01

    Examined reasons why young children typically omit the torso in human figure drawings. Found that more children produced a conventional figure when they constructed a manikin than when they were asked to draw, suggesting that children omit torsos because they have not yet devised a way of drawing them, rather than forgetting them or having an…

  13. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart... - Test Specimens

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test Specimens 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT... Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201—Test Specimens EC03OC91.006...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Percentile Male Pt. 572, Subpt. F, App. A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 572—Figures EC01AU91.168...

  17. Transformation of the Incomplete Figure in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the developmental changes in young children's perception. A matching completion task consisting of three geometric figures and one bird-like figure were completed by children 3-5 years of age ("N" = 99). The rotation effect, in which the correct response decreased with orientation (45°, 90° 135°, and 180°), was…

  18. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  19. The naked truth about my classical nude figures.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Roger

    2002-02-28

    The story 'Concerns raised over nudes at cancer clinic' (news February 13) does not truly reflect the situation. Although the hospital authorities had concerns about placing the classical nude figures in the hospital environment, the overwhelming response from the public has been positive. Moreover, considerable support for the figures has come from cancer patients.

  20. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  1. 40 CFR Figure B-1 to Subpart B of... - Example

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Example B Figure B-1 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Fig. B-1 Figure B-1 to Subpart B...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions Pt. 90, Subpt. D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 90—Figures EC01MR92.085 EC01MR92.086...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Procedures Pt. 90, Subpt. E, App. B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 90—Figures EC01MR92.087...

  4. 40 CFR Figure B-1 to Subpart B of... - Example

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Example B Figure B-1 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Fig. B-1 Figure B-1 to Subpart B...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED.... D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 91—Figures ER04OC96.013 ER04OC96.014...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions Pt. 89, Subpt. D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 89—Figures EC01MR92.000 EC01MR92.001...

  7. 40 CFR Figure B-1 to Subpart B of... - Example

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Example B Figure B-1 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Fig. B-1 Figure B-1 to Subpart B...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  9. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  11. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform Probe EC03OC91.062...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform Probe EC03OC91.062...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  13. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  14. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1509 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509—Headform Probe EC03OC91.065...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1509 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509—Headform Probe EC03OC91.065...

  7. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  6. 40 CFR 89.5 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 89.5 Section 89.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... will indicate the model year (if applicable) and the topic. (b) Figures for each subpart appear in an... appendix. The figure title will indicate the model year (if applicable) and the topic....

  7. 40 CFR 91.5 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 91.5 Section 91.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... consecutively by order of appearance in the appendix. The table title will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for... order or appearance in the appendix. The figure title will indicate the topic....

  8. 40 CFR 91.5 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 91.5 Section 91.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... consecutively by order of appearance in the appendix. The table title will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for... order or appearance in the appendix. The figure title will indicate the topic....

  9. 40 CFR 91.5 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 91.5 Section 91.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... consecutively by order of appearance in the appendix. The table title will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for... order or appearance in the appendix. The figure title will indicate the topic....

  10. 40 CFR 91.5 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 91.5 Section 91.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... consecutively by order of appearance in the appendix. The table title will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for... order or appearance in the appendix. The figure title will indicate the topic....

  11. 40 CFR 91.5 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 91.5 Section 91.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... consecutively by order of appearance in the appendix. The table title will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for... order or appearance in the appendix. The figure title will indicate the topic....

  12. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  14. Naive Prediction of Pathology from Human Figure Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkell, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The present study investigated the degree of accuracy of five groups of judges in inferring pathology in human figure drawings. It was suggested that intuition gained through several years of unsystematic observation of figure drawings played the major role in their interpretation. (Author)

  15. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  18. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  19. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figure 11 to Part 223...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  4. Interpreting Children's Human Figure Drawings: Basic Guidelines for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Yuehong Chen; Mullis, Fran

    2008-01-01

    The literature was reviewed and summarized to provide common interpretations of human figure drawings. Basic guidelines for interpreting human figure drawings (i.e., face and head, body, arms and hands, and legs and feet) are presented. Expectations for students at different developmental levels (ages 1 1/2 through adolescence) are identified, and…

  5. Mucoceles of the sphenoid sinus: neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Alper, M G

    1976-01-01

    Seven examples of mucocele of the sphenoid sinus have been described. The characteristic symptoms and signs have been described, and the diagnostic neuroradiologic features have been demonstrated. The condition is not a benign one, as is demonstrated by total blindness which occurred in one patient (Case 2). A high index of suspicion for this condition with early referral for neuroradiologic diagnosis leads to proper management and treatment which is usually successful. Images FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 7 F FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C FIGURE 13 PMID:867637

  6. 11. A DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF THE WEST INCLINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. A DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF THE WEST INCLINED END POST, AND OF THE PIN CONNECTION OF THE SOUTHWESTERN VERTICAL MEMBER. - Wells County Bridge No. 74, Spanning Rock Creek Ditch at County Road 400, Bluffton, Wells County, IN

  7. The Prediction of Success in Engineering Graphics Using the Group Embedded Figures Test and the Hidden Figures Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Russell C.; Davis, Paul D.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to continue the assessment of the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), to assess the value of the Hidden Figures Test (HFT), and to assess the usefulness of the two instruments used in combination as tools for predicting student success and early identification of students who may need special assistance in engineering…

  8. Figure-ground segregation: A fully nonlocal approach.

    PubMed

    Dimiccoli, Mariella

    2016-09-01

    We present a computational model that computes and integrates in a nonlocal fashion several configural cues for automatic figure-ground segregation. Our working hypothesis is that the figural status of each pixel is a nonlocal function of several geometric shape properties and it can be estimated without explicitly relying on object boundaries. The methodology is grounded on two elements: multi-directional linear voting and nonlinear diffusion. A first estimation of the figural status of each pixel is obtained as a result of a voting process, in which several differently oriented line-shaped neighborhoods vote to express their belief about the figural status of the pixel. A nonlinear diffusion process is then applied to enforce the coherence of figural status estimates among perceptually homogeneous regions. Computer simulations fit human perception and match the experimental evidence that several cues cooperate in defining figure-ground segregation. The results of this work suggest that figure-ground segregation involves feedback from cells with larger receptive fields in higher visual cortical areas.

  9. Ion Figuring of Replicated X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantey, Thomas M.; Gregory, Don A.

    1997-01-01

    This investigation included experiments to demonstrate ion beam figuring effects on electroless nickel with the expressed desire to figure X-ray optic mandrels. It was important to establish that ion beam figuring did not induce any adverse effects to the nickel surface. The ion beam has consistently been shown to be an excellent indicator of the quality of the subsurface. Polishing is not the only cause for failure in the ion beam final figuring process, the material composition is equally important. Only by careful consideration of both these factors can the ion beam final figuring process achieve its greatest potential. The secondary goal was to construct a model for representing the ion beam material removal rate. Representing the ion beam removal rate is only an approximation and has a number of limiting factors. The resolution of the metrology apparatus limits the modeling of the beam function as well. As the surface error corrections demand more precision in the final figuring, the model representing beam function must be equally precise. The precision to which the beam function can be represented is not only determined by the model but also by the measurements producing that model. The method developed for determining the beam function has broad application to any material destined to be ion beam figured.

  10. Figure-ground modulation in awake primate thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Helen E.; Andolina, Ian M.; Shipp, Stewart D.; Adams, Daniel L.; Cudeiro, Javier; Salt, Thomas E.; Sillito, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Figure-ground discrimination refers to the perception of an object, the figure, against a nondescript background. Neural mechanisms of figure-ground detection have been associated with feedback interactions between higher centers and primary visual cortex and have been held to index the effect of global analysis on local feature encoding. Here, in recordings from visual thalamus of alert primates, we demonstrate a robust enhancement of neuronal firing when the figure, as opposed to the ground, component of a motion-defined figure-ground stimulus is located over the receptive field. In this paradigm, visual stimulation of the receptive field and its near environs is identical across both conditions, suggesting the response enhancement reflects higher integrative mechanisms. It thus appears that cortical activity generating the higher-order percept of the figure is simultaneously reentered into the lowest level that is anatomically possible (the thalamus), so that the signature of the evolving representation of the figure is imprinted on the input driving it in an iterative process. PMID:25901330

  11. Figure-ground modulation in awake primate thalamus.

    PubMed

    Jones, Helen E; Andolina, Ian M; Shipp, Stewart D; Adams, Daniel L; Cudeiro, Javier; Salt, Thomas E; Sillito, Adam M

    2015-06-02

    Figure-ground discrimination refers to the perception of an object, the figure, against a nondescript background. Neural mechanisms of figure-ground detection have been associated with feedback interactions between higher centers and primary visual cortex and have been held to index the effect of global analysis on local feature encoding. Here, in recordings from visual thalamus of alert primates, we demonstrate a robust enhancement of neuronal firing when the figure, as opposed to the ground, component of a motion-defined figure-ground stimulus is located over the receptive field. In this paradigm, visual stimulation of the receptive field and its near environs is identical across both conditions, suggesting the response enhancement reflects higher integrative mechanisms. It thus appears that cortical activity generating the higher-order percept of the figure is simultaneously reentered into the lowest level that is anatomically possible (the thalamus), so that the signature of the evolving representation of the figure is imprinted on the input driving it in an iterative process.

  12. In Vivo Conditions Enable IFNAR-Independent Type I Interferon Production by Peritoneal CD11b+ Cells upon Thogoto Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kochs, Georg; Anzaghe, Martina; Kronhart, Stefanie; Wagner, Valentina; Gogesch, Patricia; Scheu, Stefanie; Lienenklaus, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type I interferons (IFNs) crucially contribute to host survival upon viral infections. Robust expression of type I IFNs (IFN-α/β) and induction of an antiviral state critically depend on amplification of the IFN signal via the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR). A small amount of type I IFN produced early upon virus infection binds the IFNAR and activates a self-enhancing positive feedback loop, resulting in induction of large, protective amounts of IFN-α. Unexpectedly, we found robust, systemic IFN-α expression upon infection of IFNAR knockout mice with the orthomyxovirus Thogoto virus (THOV). The IFNAR-independent IFN-α production required in vivo conditions and was not achieved during in vitro infection. Using replication-incompetent THOV-derived virus-like particles, we demonstrate that IFNAR-independent type I IFN induction depends on viral polymerase activity but is largely independent of viral replication. To discover the cell type responsible for this effect, we used type I IFN reporter mice and identified CD11b+ F4/80+ myeloid cells within the peritoneal cavity of infected animals as the main source of IFNAR-independent type I IFN, corresponding to the particular tropism of THOV for this cell type. IMPORTANCE Type I IFNs are crucial for the survival of a host upon most viral infections, and, moreover, they shape subsequent adaptive immune responses. Production of protective amounts of type I IFN critically depends on the positive feedback amplification via the IFNAR. Unexpectedly, we observed robust IFNAR-independent type I IFN expression upon THOV infection and unraveled molecular mechanisms and determined the tissue and cell type involved. Our data indicate that the host can effectively use alternative pathways to induce type I IFN responses if the classical feedback amplification is not available. Understanding how type I IFN can be produced in large amounts independently of IFNAR-dependent enhancement will identify mechanisms which might

  13. Immature myeloid Gr-1+ CD11b+ cells from lipopolysaccharide-immunosuppressed mice acquire inhibitory activity in the bone marrow and migrate to lymph nodes to exert their suppressive function.

    PubMed

    Landoni, Veronica I; Martire-Greco, Daiana; Rodriguez-Rodrigues, Nahuel; Chiarella, Paula; Schierloh, Pablo; Isturiz, Martin A; Fernández, Gabriela C

    2016-02-01

    Secondary infections due to post-sepsis immunosuppression are a major cause of death in patients with sepsis. Repetitive inoculation of increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into mice mimics the immunosuppression associated with sepsis. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs, Gr-1(+) CD11b(+)) are considered a major component of the immunosuppressive network, interfering with T-cell responses in many pathological conditions. We used LPS-immunosuppressed (IS) mice to address whether MDSCs acquired their suppressive ability in the bone marrow (BM) and whether they could migrate to lymph nodes (LNs) to exert their suppressive function. Our results showed that Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) cells of IS mice already had the potential to inhibit T-cell proliferation in the BM. Moreover, soluble factors present in the BM from IS mice were responsible for inducing this inhibitory ability in control BM cells. In addition, migration of Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) to LNs in vivo was maximal when cells obtained from the BM of IS mice were inoculated into an IS context. In this regard, we found chemoattractant activity in cell-free LN extracts (LNEs) from IS mice and an increased expression of the LN-homing chemokine receptor C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) in IS BM Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) cells. These results indicate that Gr-1(+) CD11b(+) cells found in BM from IS mice acquire their suppressive activity in the same niche where they are generated, and migrate to LNs to exert their inhibitory role. A better understanding of MDSC generation and/or regulation of factors able to induce their inhibitory function may provide new and more effective tools for the treatment of sepsis-associated immunosuppression.

  14. Method development to quantify Bv8 expression in circulating CD11b+ cells in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) exhibiting Anti-VEGF refractoriness.

    PubMed

    Catchpole, Timothy; Daniels, Tad; Perkins, Jill; Csaky, Karl G

    2016-07-01

    A subset of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD) subjects appears to be refractory to the effects of anti-VEGF treatment and require frequent intravitreal injections. Prokineticin-2 (Bv8) expression in CD11b(+) cells has been linked to anti-VEGF response. We have developed a reproducible method to quantify gene expression in circulating CD11b + cells. Utilizing this method we tested the hypothesis that high Bv8 expression in circulating CD11b(+) cells is associated with anti-VEGF refractoriness in nvAMD patients. Two groups of nvAMD subjects undergoing treatment with anti-VEGF agents were recruited and classified as refractory or non-refractory to anti-VEGF treatment (n = 33 for each group). Two blood draws were obtained from each subject 1-9 months apart. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and CD11b(+) cells were purified via magnetic bead separation. RNA was purified, and relative expression of Bv8 among the subjects was compared via quantitative PCR analysis. Utilizing this approach no significant difference was detected in the mean LogRQ values between the first and second blood draws (t-test, p = 0.826) indicating low intra-patient variability and demonstrating good reproducibility of the assay. There was no significant difference in Bv8 expression between nvAMD subjects classified as refractory versus non-refractory. We were unable to find a correlation between Bv8 expression in CD11b + cells and anti-VEGF refractoriness in human nvAMD subjects. Relatively high expression in Bv8 in these subjects did not correlate with clinical treatment history, as measured by the frequency of injections. Utilizing this well characterized technique, studies are underway to examine alternative gene expression profiles in various circulating cell populations that may contribute to anti-VEGF refractoriness.

  15. Fast figuring of large optics by reactive atom plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Marco; Jourdain, Renaud; Morantz, Paul; Shore, Paul

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of ground-based astronomical observatories will require fabrication and maintenance of extremely large segmented mirrors tens of meters in diameter. At present, the large production of segments required by projects like E-ELT and TMT poses time frames and costs feasibility questions. This is principally due to a bottleneck stage in the optical fabrication chain: the final figuring step. State-of-the-art figure correction techniques, so far, have failed to meet the needs of the astronomical community for mass production of large, ultra-precise optical surfaces. In this context, Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) is proposed as a candidate figuring process that combines nanometer level accuracy with high material removal rates. RAP is a form of plasma enhanced chemical etching at atmospheric pressure based on Inductively Coupled Plasma technology. The rapid figuring capability of the RAP process has already been proven on medium sized optical surfaces made of silicon based materials. In this paper, the figure correction of a 3 meters radius of curvature, 400 mm diameter spherical ULE mirror is presented. This work demonstrates the large scale figuring capability of the Reactive Atom Plasma process. The figuring is carried out by applying an in-house developed procedure that promotes rapid convergence. A 2.3 μm p-v initial figure error is removed within three iterations, for a total processing time of 2.5 hours. The same surface is then re-polished and the residual error corrected again down to λ/20 nm rms. These results highlight the possibility of figuring a metre-class mirror in about ten hours.

  16. Breath Figure Method for Construction of Honeycomb Films

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yingying; Jin, Mingliang; Zhou, Guofu; Shui, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Honeycomb films with various building units, showing potential applications in biological, medical, physicochemical, photoelectric, and many other areas, could be prepared by the breath figure method. The ordered hexagonal structures formed by the breath figure process are related to the building units, solvents, substrates, temperature, humidity, air flow, and other factors. Therefore, by adjusting these factors, the honeycomb structures could be tuned properly. In this review, we summarized the development of the breath figure method of fabricating honeycomb films and the factors of adjusting honeycomb structures. The organic-inorganic hybrid was taken as the example building unit to discuss the preparation, mechanism, properties, and applications of the honeycomb films. PMID:26343734

  17. Surface Figure Measurement of Silicon Carbide Mirrors at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Peter; Mink, Ronald G.; Chambers, John; Robinson, F. David; Content, David; Davila, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    The surface figure of a developmental silicon carbide mirror, cooled to 87 K and then 20 K within a cryostat, was measured with unusually high precision at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The concave spherical mirror, with a radius of 600 mm and a clear aperture of 150 mm, was fabricated of sintered silicon carbide. The mirror was mounted to an interface plate representative of an optical bench, made of the material Cesic@, a composite of silicon, carbon, and silicon carbide. The change in optical surface figure as the mirror and interface plate cooled from room temperature to 20 K was 3.7 nm rms, with a standard uncertainty of 0.23 nm in the rms statistic. Both the cryo-change figure and the uncertainty are among the lowest such figures yet published. This report describes the facilities, experimental methods, and uncertainty analysis of the measurements.

  18. A new figure of merit for wideband vibration energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. Q.; Badel, A.; Formosa, F.; Wu, Y. P.

    2015-12-01

    The performance evaluation method is a very important part in the field of vibration energy harvesting. It provides the ability to compare and rate different vibration energy harvesters (VEHs). Considering the lack of a well-recognized tool, this article proposed a new systematic figure of merit for the appraisement of wideband VEHs. Extensive investigations are first performed for some classic figures for linear VEHs. With the common fundamental information obtained, the proposed figure integrates four essential factors: the revised energy harvester effectiveness, the mechanical quality factor, the normalized bandwidth and the effective mass density. Special considerations are devoted to the properties of wideband VEHs about the operation range and the average power in this domain which are related to the performance target of stable power output. Afterward, this new figure is applied to some literature VEHs and demonstrated to present good evaluations of wideband VEHs. Moreover, it exhibits the ability to point out the improvement information of the concerned VEHs further developments.

  19. [Effective English writing for tables and figures in andrological papers].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong-He; Lu, Jin-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Tables and figures play a critical role in enhancing the quality of an andrological paper. As visual elements, well-presented tables and figures can reduce the length of the manuscript and meanwhile efficiently capture a large amount of information by clear and concise display of detailed results and complex relationships, patterns and trends, offer explicit statistical or graphical support to important ideas, and add to the value of the whole paper. The effectiveness of a table or figure lies not only in its well-crafted structural design, but even more in its language presentation. This article presents some essential and practical guidelines to effective English writing of the title, body and footnotes of tables and figures in andrological papers.

  20. High-precision Photogrammetric Surface Figure Measurements under Cryogenic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Z.; Qian, Y.; Fan, S. H.; Liu, C. R.; Wang, H. R.; Zuo, Y. X.; Cheng, J. Q.; Yang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Limited by the working temperature of the measurement equipments, most of the high-precision surface figure measurement techniques cannot be applied under a cryogenic environment. This paper reports the first attempt to measure the surface figure of a high-precision terahertz reflector panel under low temperatures based on photogrammetry. The measurement employs a high resolution industrial camera sitting on an automatic experimental platform which enables photos been taken in an automatic fashion inside a climate chamber. A repeatable accuracy of 2.1 μm rms is achieved under the cryogenic environment. Furthermore, surface figure measured by a three-coordinate measuring machine under room temperature is used to calibrate the thickness variation of the paper targets. By this technique, the surface figure of an aluminum prototype panel of the 5 meter Dome A Terahertz Telescope (DATE5) is measured from room temperature down to -55°C.

  1. Figuring Large Mandrels for Forming X-Ray Mirrors Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Geraldine; Fleetwood, Charles; Content, David; Saha, Timo; Kolos, Linette; Colella, David

    2004-01-01

    Constellation X mirrors are discussed in this presentation. Topics include:assemblies, mirror segments, optical assemble pathfinder mandrels, the figuring process, and a best quadrant,clear aperture, and full aperture.

  2. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS... Apparatus Views ER25MR08.001...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS... Apparatus Views ER25MR08.001...

  4. Figuring out the Statistics of the ICC World Cup 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiwalkar, Jyoti P.; Deshpande, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of cricket match results from the ICC World Cup 2011. We believe that such data provide good material for interesting classroom exercises. (Contains 7 tables and 1 figure.)

  5. 13. WEST ELEVATION, POWERHOUSE, WITH FIGURES AND AUTOMOBILES Historic photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WEST ELEVATION, POWERHOUSE, WITH FIGURES AND AUTOMOBILES Historic photograph no. 1646, no date, held at Media Arts and Services Department, Pacific Gas & Electric Co., San Francisco, CA. - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

  6. 40 CFR 90.6 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 90.6 Section 90.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for each subpart appear in an appendix at the end of the subpart... the topic....

  7. 40 CFR 90.6 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 90.6 Section 90.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for each subpart appear in an appendix at the end of the subpart... the topic....

  8. 40 CFR 90.6 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 90.6 Section 90.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for each subpart appear in an appendix at the end of the subpart... the topic....

  9. 40 CFR 90.6 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 90.6 Section 90.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for each subpart appear in an appendix at the end of the subpart... the topic....

  10. 40 CFR 90.6 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 90.6 Section 90.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for each subpart appear in an appendix at the end of the subpart... the topic....

  11. Significant Figures in Measurements with Uncertainty: A Working Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilchis, Abraham

    2017-03-01

    Generally speaking, students have difficulty reporting out measurements and estimates of quantities used in the laboratory, and with handling the significant figures associated with them. When required to make calculation involving quantities with different numbers of significant figures, they have difficulty in assigning the corresponding digits to the final result. When in addition, the quantities have uncertainty, the operations entailed pose an even greater challenge. The article advocates for some working rules for students (and teachers) in an effort to combat this problem.

  12. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart N of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures to Subpart N of Part 572 Transportation... Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N1 Figures to Subpart N of Part 572 ER18JY02.000 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N2 ER18JY02.001 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N3 ER18JY02.002 Pt. 572,...

  13. Precise method for investigation of Lissajous generalized figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Stanisław

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the Lissajous generalized figure and the original instrument for its investigation. Two specially prepared electrodynamic loudspeakers—a horizontal and a vertical—cause oscillations in two mirrors. It is possible to precisely control the motion of the mirrors, achieve a high frequency of oscillation and investigate anharmonic vibrations because loudspeakers are powered by electronic generators. Eccentric mounting, and rotation of a vertical loudspeaker, also allow composition of the oscillations in inclined directions, which generates Lissajous’ generalized figures.

  14. Constellation-X Cylinder Figuring and Polishing Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Arsenovic, Petar; Content, David; Saha, Timo; Strojny, Carl; Wright, Geraldine; Fleetwood, Charles

    2001-01-01

    In support of Goddard's Constellation-X mandrel manufacturing effort a series of fabrication experiments are being performed to determine a best approach. Currently, polishing immediately after diamond turning, produces a RMS surface roughness of 0.31 nm, on a nickel plated aluminum mandrel. Studies currently under way will incorporate an abrasive figuring step followed by a polishing operation. The current diamond turning, figuring and polishing procedures will be described and the results presented.

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. U, App. A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572—Figures ER14DE06.000 ER16JN08.006 ER14DE06.002 ER14DE06.003...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED..., App. B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 91—Figures ER04OC96.044 ER04OC96.045 ER04OC96.046...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. U, App. A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572—Figures ER14DE06.000 ER16JN08.006 ER14DE06.002 ER14DE06.003...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572... Dummy, Small Adult Female Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. V, App. A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572—Figures ER14DE06.009 ER14DE06.010 ER14DE06.011 ER14DE06.012 ER14DE06.013...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572... Dummy, Small Adult Female Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. V, App. A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part572—Figures ER14DE06.009 ER14DE06.010 ER14DE06.011 ER14DE06.012 ER14DE06.013...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572... Dummy, Small Adult Female Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. V, App. A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572—Figures ER14DE06.009 ER14DE06.010 ER14DE06.011 ER14DE06.012 ER14DE06.013...