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Sample records for 11a figure 11b

  1. A Family-Based Association Study of CYP11A1 and CYP11B1 Gene Polymorphisms With Autism in Chinese Trios.

    PubMed

    Deng, Hong-Zhu; You, Cong; Xing, Yu; Chen, Kai-Yun; Zou, Xiao-Bing

    2016-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders with the higher prevalence in males. Our previous studies have indicated lower progesterone levels in the children with autism spectrum disorder, suggesting involvement of the cytochrome P-450scc gene (CYP11A1) and cytochrome P-45011beta gene (CYP11B1) as candidate genes in autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the family-based genetic association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms, rs2279357 in the CYP11A1 gene and rs4534 and rs4541 in the CYP11B1 gene and autism spectrum disorder in Chinese children, which were selected according to the location in the coding region and 5' and 3' regions and minor allele frequencies of greater than 0.05 in the Chinese populations. The transmission disequilibrium test and case-control association analyses were performed in 100 Chinese Han autism spectrum disorder family trios. The genotype and allele frequency of the 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms had no statistical difference between the children with autism spectrum disorder and their parents (P> .05). Transmission disequilibrium test analysis showed transmission disequilibrium of CYP11A1 gene rs2279357 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (χ(2)= 5.038,P< .001). Our findings provide further support for the hypothesis that a susceptibility gene for autism spectrum disorder exists within or near the CYP11A1 gene in the Han Chinese population. PMID:26690694

  2. Cluster rotational bands in 11B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilov, A. N.; Demyanova, A. S.; Ogloblin, A. A.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Goncharov, S. A.; Trzaska, W.

    2016-05-01

    Differential cross-sections of 11B+α inelastic scattering at E(α) =65 MeV leading to most of the known 11B states at excitation energies up to 14 MeV were measured [1]. The data analysis was done using Modified diffraction model (MDM) [2] allowing determining radii of excited states. Radii of the states with excitation energies less than ˜ 7 MeV coincide with the radius of the ground state with an accuracy not less than 0.1 - 0.15 fm. This result is consistent with traditional view on shell structure of low-lying states in 11B. Most of the observed high-energy excited states are distributed among four rotational bands. Moments of inertia of band states are close to the moment of inertia of the Hoyle state of 12C. The calculated radii, related to these bands, are 0.7 - 1.0 fm larger than the radius of the ground state, and are close to the Hoyle state radius. These results are in agreement with existing predictions about various cluster structure of 11B at high excitation energies.

  3. [Isolation and functional analysis of GsTIFY11b relevant to salt and alkaline stress from Glycine soja].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Zhu, Yan-Ming; Cai, Hua; Li, Yong; Ji, Wei; Chen, Chao; An, Lin; Zhu, Yi

    2012-02-01

    Using homologous cloning and RT-PCR technology, we isolated a novel TIFY family gene, GsTIFY11b, from Glycine soja L. G07256, a species that is tolerant to saline and alkaline environments. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that GsTIFY11b was closely related to AtTIFY11a with 56% similarity in amino acid identity. Protein sequence analysis showed that GsTIFY11b protein also had conserved TIFY domain, N-terminal domain, and a C-terminal Jas motif. Quantitative realtime PCR analysis indicated that the expression of GsTIFY11b was induced by both saline and alkaline stresses. Two homozygous GsTIFY11b over-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis lines were obtained. Phenotypic analysis of the transgenic and wild-type Arabidopsis indicated that over-expressing GsTIFY11b in Arabidopsis did not enhance plant tolerance to saline and alkaline stresses, whereas it showed an increased sensitivity to saline stress during seed germination and seedling development. Expression analysis of saline stress response marker genes in transgenic and wild-type plants under stress condition indicated that GsTIFY11b regulated the expression of RD29B, KIN1, and DREB. The transient expression of a GsTIFY11b-GFP fusion protein in onion epidermal cells showed that GsTIFY11b was localized to the nucleus, suggesting a role as a transcriptional regulator in the saline stress response pathway. PMID:22382065

  4. Identification of BCL11B as a regulator of adipogenesis.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Jun; Ihara, Yusuke; Tsukamoto, Daisuke; Yasumoto, Keisuke; Hashidume, Tsutomu; Kamimura, Kenya; Nakai, Yuji; Hirano, Shigeki; Shimizu, Makoto; Kominami, Ryo; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes is controlled by several transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), which are known as master regulators of adipogenesis. BCL11B is a zinc finger-type transcription factor that regulates the development of the skin and central nervous and immune systems. Here, we found that BCL11B was expressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT), particularly the subcutaneous WAT and that BCL11B(-/-) mice had a reduced amount of subcutaneous WAT. During adipogenesis, BCL11B expression transiently increased in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The ability for adipogenesis was reduced in BCL11B knockdown 3T3-L1 cells and BCL11B(-/-) MEFs, whereas the ability for osteoblastogenesis was unaffected in BCL11B(-/-) MEFs. Luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that BCL11B stimulated C/EBPβ activity. Furthermore, the expression of downstream genes of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was not suppressed in BCL11B(-/-) MEFs during adipogenesis. Thus, this study identifies BCL11B as a novel regulator of adipogenesis, which works, at least in part, by stimulating C/EBPβ activity and suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:27586877

  5. Rab11b Regulates the Apical Recycling of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator in Polarized Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Silvis, Mark R.; Bertrand, Carol A.; Ameen, Nadia; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Butterworth, Michael B.; Bradbury, Neil A.

    2009-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP/PKA-activated anion channel, undergoes efficient apical recycling in polarized epithelia. The regulatory mechanisms underlying CFTR recycling are understood poorly, yet this process is required for proper channel copy number at the apical membrane, and it is defective in the common CFTR mutant, ΔF508. Herein, we investigated the function of Rab11 isoforms in regulating CFTR trafficking in T84 cells, a colonic epithelial line that expresses CFTR endogenously. Western blotting of immunoisolated Rab11a or Rab11b vesicles revealed localization of endogenous CFTR within both compartments. CFTR function assays performed on T84 cells expressing the Rab11a or Rab11b GDP-locked S25N mutants demonstrated that only the Rab11b mutant inhibited 80% of the cAMP-activated halide efflux and that only the constitutively active Rab11b-Q70L increased the rate constant for stimulated halide efflux. Similarly, RNAi knockdown of Rab11b, but not Rab11a, reduced by 50% the CFTR-mediated anion conductance response. In polarized T84 monolayers, adenoviral expression of Rab11b-S25N resulted in a 70% inhibition of forskolin-stimulated transepithelial anion secretion and a 50% decrease in apical membrane CFTR as assessed by cell surface biotinylation. Biotin protection assays revealed a robust inhibition of CFTR recycling in polarized T84 cells expressing Rab11b-S25N, demonstrating the selective requirement for the Rab11b isoform. This is the first report detailing apical CFTR recycling in a native expression system and to demonstrate that Rab11b regulates apical recycling in polarized epithelial cells. PMID:19244346

  6. PRELIMINARY PROJECT PLAN FOR LANSCE INTEGRATED FLIGHT PATHS 11A, 11B, 12, and 13

    SciTech Connect

    D. H. BULTMAN; D. WEINACHT - AIRES CORP.

    2000-08-01

    This Preliminary Project Plan Summarizes the Technical, Cost, and Schedule baselines for an integrated approach to developing several flight paths at the Manual Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. For example, the cost estimate is intended to serve only as a rough order of magnitude assessment of the cost that might be incurred as the flight paths are developed. Further refinement of the requirements and interfaces for each beamline will permit additional refinement and confidence in the accuracy of all three baselines (Technical, Cost, Schedule).

  7. Figure Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The figure has "figured" prominently in the choice of subject matter for many artists throughout history. Whether they may choose to depict it in an abstract or expressive form, most artists are quite capable of realistic portrayals of the human form. And all people know that one of the very first drawings made by young children is a symbol for…

  8. Identification of BCL11B as a regulator of adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Jun; Ihara, Yusuke; Tsukamoto, Daisuke; Yasumoto, Keisuke; Hashidume, Tsutomu; Kamimura, Kenya; Nakai, Yuji; Hirano, Shigeki; Shimizu, Makoto; Kominami, Ryo; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes is controlled by several transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), which are known as master regulators of adipogenesis. BCL11B is a zinc finger-type transcription factor that regulates the development of the skin and central nervous and immune systems. Here, we found that BCL11B was expressed in the white adipose tissue (WAT), particularly the subcutaneous WAT and that BCL11B−/− mice had a reduced amount of subcutaneous WAT. During adipogenesis, BCL11B expression transiently increased in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). The ability for adipogenesis was reduced in BCL11B knockdown 3T3-L1 cells and BCL11B−/− MEFs, whereas the ability for osteoblastogenesis was unaffected in BCL11B−/− MEFs. Luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that BCL11B stimulated C/EBPβ activity. Furthermore, the expression of downstream genes of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway was not suppressed in BCL11B−/− MEFs during adipogenesis. Thus, this study identifies BCL11B as a novel regulator of adipogenesis, which works, at least in part, by stimulating C/EBPβ activity and suppressing the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. PMID:27586877

  9. Go Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Describes the first assignment for an intermediate oil painting class in which the students painted the human figure. Explains that the assignment involved three techniques: (1) abstract application of acrylic paint; (2) oil "Paintstiks" from Shiva; and (3) a final layer of actual oil paint. (CMK)

  10. Inactivation of CD11b in a mouse transgenic model protects against sepsis-induced lung PMN infiltration and vascular injury.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Pei; Liu, Qinghui; Broman, Michael; Predescu, Dan; Frey, Randall S; Malik, Asrar B

    2005-04-14

    To inactivate chronically the beta2-integrin CD11b (Mac-1), we made a transgenic model in mice in which we expressed the CD11b antagonist polypeptide neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF). Using these mice, we determined the in vivo effects of CD11b inactivation on polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) function and acute lung injury (ALI) induced by Escherichia coli septicemia. In wild-type PMNs, CD11b expression was induced within 1 h after E. coli challenge, whereas this response was significantly reduced in NIF(+/+) PMNs. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed that NIF associated with CD11b in NIF(+/+) PMNs. To validate the effectiveness of CD11b blockade, we compared PMN function in NIF(+/+) and Mac-1-deficient (Mac-1(-/-)) mice. Adhesion of both Mac-1(-/-) and NIF(+/+) PMNs to endothelial cells in response to LPS was reduced in both types of PMNs and fully blocked only by the addition of anti-CD11a monoclonal antibody. This finding is indicative of intact CD11a function in the NIF(+/+) PMNs but the blockade of CD11b function. CD11b inactivation in NIF(+/+) mice interfered with lung PMN infiltration induced by E. coli and prevented the increase in lung microvessel permeability and edema formation, with most of the protection seen in the 1-h period after the E. coli. Thus our results demonstrate that CD11b plays a crucial role in mediating lung PMN sequestration and vascular injury in the early phase of gram-negative septicemia. The NIF(+/+) mouse model, in which CD11b is inactivated by binding to NIF, is a potentially useful model for in vivo assessment of the role of PMN CD11b in the mechanism of vascular inflammation. PMID:15831844

  11. Discovery and in Vivo Evaluation of Potent Dual CYP11B2 (Aldosterone Synthase) and CYP11B1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Erik L; Ksander, Gary; Monovich, Lauren G; Papillon, Julien P N; Liu, Qian; Miranda, Karl; Morris, Patrick; Rao, Chang; Burgis, Robin; Capparelli, Michael; Hu, Qi-Ying; Singh, Alok; Rigel, Dean F; Jeng, Arco Y; Beil, Michael; Fu, Fumin; Hu, Chii-Whei; LaSala, Daniel

    2013-12-12

    Aldosterone is a key signaling component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and as such has been shown to contribute to cardiovascular pathology such as hypertension and heart failure. Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is responsible for the final three steps of aldosterone synthesis and thus is a viable therapeutic target. A series of imidazole derived inhibitors, including clinical candidate 7n, have been identified through design and structure-activity relationship studies both in vitro and in vivo. Compound 7n was also found to be a potent inhibitor of 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1), which is responsible for cortisol production. Inhibition of CYP11B1 is being evaluated in the clinic for potential treatment of hypercortisol diseases such as Cushing's syndrome. PMID:24900631

  12. High-Throughput Screening based Identification of Small Molecule Antagonists of Integrin CD11b/CD18 Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Maiguel, Dony; Brown, Brock T.; Suyama, Eigo; Barth, Constantinos J.; Hedrick, Michael; Vasile, Stefan; Sergienko, Eduard; Schürer, Stephan; Gupta, Vineet

    2010-01-01

    Binding of leukocyte specific integrin CD11b/CD18 to its physiologic ligands is important for the development of normal immune response in vivo. Integrin CD11b/CD18 is also a key cellular effector of various inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, small molecules selectively inhibiting the function of integrin CD11b/CD18 are currently lacking. We used a newly described cell-based high throughput screening assay to identify a number of highly potent antagonists of integrin CD11b/CD18 from chemical libraries containing >100,000 unique compounds. Computational analyses suggest that the identified compounds cluster into several different chemical classes. A number of the newly identified compounds blocked adhesion of wild-type mouse neutrophils to CD11b/CD18 ligand fibrinogen. Mapping the most active compounds against chemical fingerprints of known antagonists of related integrin CD11a/CD18 shows little structural similarity, suggesting that the newly identified compounds are novel and unique. PMID:20188705

  13. Breakup of 87 MeV [sup 11]B

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfs, F.L.H.; White, C.A.; Bryan, D.C.; Freeman, C.G.; Herrick, D.M.; Kurz, K.L.; Mathews, D.H.; Perera, P.A.A.; Zanni, M.T. )

    1994-05-01

    A segmented focal plane detector has been used to study the breakup of 87 MeV [sup 11]B ions incident on a [sup 12]C target into [sup 4]He and [sup 7]Li fragments at relative energies between 0 and 4 MeV. The relative energy spectra are dominated by sequential breakup of the 9.28 MeV, 10.26+10.33 MeV, and 10.60 MeV excited states in [sup 11]B. The measured breakup yields decrease with increasing center-of-mass scattering angle, consistent with predictions made using single-step inelastic distorted wave Born approximation calculations. Applications of this technique to study the breakup of [sup 16]O at low relative energies will be discussed.

  14. Breakup of {sup 11}B at low relative energies

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, D.C.; White, C.A.; Wolfs, F.L.H.

    1993-04-01

    The authors have used the segmented focal plane detector of the Rochester Enge split-pole spectrograph to study the breakup of 87 MeV {sup 11}B ions incident on a {sup 12}C target into {sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li fragments at relative energies between 0 MeV and 4 MeV and at laboratory angles between 7.5{degrees} and 25{degrees}. The total kinetic energy spectra of the breakup fragments is dominated by elastic breakup (all reaction products are left in their ground state). The reconstructed relative energy spectra for elastic breakup are dominated by sequential breakup of {sup 11}B via the 9.27 MeV, 10.26 MeV, and 10.60 MeV excited states in {sup 11}B. The measured yields are compared with the calculated cross sections of exciting these states, using DWBA calculations and B(EL) values obtained from radiative capture measurements of {sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li.

  15. A putative 6-transmembrane nitrate transporter OsNRT1.1b plays a key role in rice under low nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiaorong; Feng, Huimin; Tan, Yawen; Xu, Yanling; Miao, Qisong; Xu, Guohua

    2016-06-01

    OsNRT1.1a is a low-affinity nitrate (NO3 (-) ) transporter gene. In this study, another mRNA splicing product, OsNRT1.1b, putatively encoding a protein with six transmembrane domains, was identified based on the rice genomic database and bioinformatics analysis. OsNRT1.1a/OsNRT1.1b expression in Xenopus oocytes showed OsNRT1.1a-expressing oocytes accumulated (15) N levels to about half as compared to OsNRT1.1b-expressing oocytes. The electrophysiological recording of OsNRT1.1b-expressing oocytes treated with 0.25 mM NO3 (-) confirmed (15) N accumulation data. More functional assays were performed to examine the function of OsNRT1.1b in rice. The expression of both OsNRT1.1a and OsNRT1.1b was abundant in roots and downregulated by nitrogen (N) deficiency. The shoot biomass of transgenic rice plants with OsNRT1.1a or OsNRT1.1b overexpression increased under various N supplies under hydroponic conditions compared to wild-type (WT). The OsNRT1.1a overexpression lines showed increased plant N accumulation compared to the WT in 1.25 mM NH4 NO3 and 2.5 mM NO3 (-) or NH4 (+) treatments, but not in 0.125 mM NH4 NO3 . However, OsNRT1.1b overexpression lines increased total N accumulation in all N treatments, including 0.125 mM NH4 NO3 , suggesting that under low N condition, OsNRT1.1b would accumulate more N in plants and improve rice growth, but also that OsNRT1.1a had no such function in rice plants. PMID:26220694

  16. Exoplanet HAT-P-11b Secondary Transit Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Richard K., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    We have conducted secondary eclipse observations of exoplanet HAT--11b, recently discovered by proposal G. Bakos and his colleagues. HAT-P-11b is the smallest transiting extrasolar planet yet found and one of only two known exo-Neptunes. We have observed the system at 3.6 microns for a period of 22 hours centered on the anticipated secondary eclipse time, to detect the eclipse and determine its phase. Once the secondary eclipse is located through analysis of the data, we will make a more focused series of observations in both the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands to fully characterize it. HAT-P-1lb has a period of 4.8878 days, radius of 0.422 RJ, mass of 0.081 MJ and semi major axis 0.053 AU. Measurements of the secondary eclipse will clarify two key issues; 1) the planetary brightness temperature and the nature of its atmosphere, and 2) the eccentricity of its orbit, with implications for its dynamical evolution. A precise determination of the orbit phase for the secondary eclipse will also be of great utility for Kepler observations of this system at visible wavelengths.

  17. Down regulation of BCL11B expression inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in malignant T cells by BCL11B-935-siRNA.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Chen, Si; Shen, Qi; Chen, Shaohua; Yang, Lijian; Grabarczyk, Piotr; Przybylski, Grzegorz K; Schmidt, Christian A; Li, Yangqiu

    2011-07-01

    To screen the highly efficient and specific B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 11B (BCL11B) small interfering RNA (siRNA) which are able to downregulate the BCL11B gene expression in human T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, thereby inhibiting the leukemic T-cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis, four BCL11B-siRNAs and the scrambled non-silencing siRNA control (sc) were designed and obtained by chemosynthesis. After nucleofection, BCL11B expression in the mRNA and the protein levels were measured by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting, respectively. The biological consequences based on the highly efficient and specific BCL11B-siRNA were demonstrated by CCK-8 kit, morphological changes (Hoechst 33258 staining), high-resolution imaging, and flow cytometry. Reduction in the BCL11B mRNA level was observed at 24 or 48 hours in molt-4 T cells with BCL11B-935-siRNA, BCL11B-434-siRNA, or BCL11B-748-siRNA, respectively. BCL11B protein expression levels were reduced by 34·77% and 41·73% in the BCL11B-935-siRNA- and BCL11B-434-siRNA-treated cells, compared with the control level at 72 hours. In comparison with BCL11B-434-siRNA treatment group, the Molt-4 cells transfected with the BCL11B-935-siRNA showed significantly inhibited proliferation and effectively induced apoptosis (P<0·05). When highly efficient and specific BCL11B-935-siRNA was used to analyze the inhibition of BCL11B mRNA level in primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells, similar result was obtained. In conclusion, siRNAs targeting the different exon domains resulted in different silencing effects and biological consequences. Suppression of BCL11B by RNA interference could inhibit the proliferation and induce the apoptosis effectively in leukemic T cells, which might be considered as a new target therapeutic strategy in T-cell malignancies. PMID:21756541

  18. Biological Roles of Hydroxysteroid (11-Beta) Dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1), HSD11B2, and Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1) in Sheep Conceptus Elongation.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Kelsey; Burns, Gregory; Spencer, Thomas E

    2015-08-01

    In sheep, the elongating conceptus synthesizes and secretes interferon tau (IFNT) as well as prostaglandins (PGs) and cortisol. The enzymes, hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) and HSD11B2 interconvert cortisone and cortisol. In sheep, HSD11B1 is expressed and active in the conceptus trophectoderm as well as in the endometrial luminal epithelia; in contrast, HSD11B2 expression is most abundant in conceptus trophectoderm. Cortisol is a biologically active glucocorticoid and ligand for the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1 or GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2 or MR). Expression of MR is not detectable in either the ovine endometrium or conceptus during early pregnancy. In tissues that do not express MR, HSD11B2 protects cells from the growth-inhibiting and/or proapoptotic effects of cortisol, particularly during embryonic development. In study one, an in utero loss-of-function analysis of HSD11B1 and HSD11B2 was conducted in the conceptus trophectoderm using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MAOs) that inhibit mRNA translation. Elongating, filamentous conceptuses were recovered on Day 14 from ewes infused with control morpholino or HSD11B2 MAO. In contrast, HSD11B1 MAO resulted in severely growth-retarded conceptuses or conceptus fragments with apoptotic trophectoderm. In study two, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 genome editing was used to determine the role of GR in conceptus elongation and development. Elongating, filamentous-type conceptuses (12-14 cm in length) were recovered from ewes gestating control embryos (n = 7/7) and gestating GR-edited embryos (n = 6/7). These results support the idea that the effects of HSD11B1-derived cortisol on conceptus elongation are indirectly mediated by the endometrium and are not directly mediated through GR in the trophectoderm. PMID:26085523

  19. Flavonoids exhibit diverse effects on CYP11B1 expression and cortisol synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Li-Chuan; Li, Lih-Ann

    2012-02-01

    CYP11B1 catalyzes the final step of cortisol biosynthesis. The effects of flavonoids on transcriptional expression and enzyme activity of CYP11B1 were investigated using the human adrenocortical H295R cell model. All tested nonhydroxylated flavones including 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone, α-naphthoflavone, and β-naphthoflavone upregulated CYP11B1 expression and cortisol production, whereas apigenin and quercetin exhibited potent cytotoxicity and CYP11B1 repression at high concentrations. Nonhydroxylated flavones stimulated CYP11B1-catalyzed cortisol formation at transcriptional level. Resveratrol increased endogenous and substrate-supported cortisol production like nonhydroxylated flavones tested, but it had no effect on CYP11B1 gene expression and enzyme activity. Resveratrol appeared to alter cortisol biosynthesis at an earlier step. The Ad5 element situated in the − 121/− 106 region was required for basal and flavone-induced CYP11B1 expression. Overexpression of COUP-TFI did not improve the responsiveness of Ad5 to nonhydroxylated flavones. Although COUP-TFI overexpression increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 promoter activation, its effect was not mediated through the common Ad5 element. Treating cells with PD98059 (a flavone-type MEK1 inhibitor) increased CYP11B1 promoter activity, but not involving ERK signaling because phosphorylation of ERK1/2 remained unvarying throughout the course of treatment. Likewise, AhR was not responsible for the CYP11B1-modulating effects of flavonoids because inconsistency with their effects on AhR activation. 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone and 8-Br-cAMP additively activated CYP11B1 promoter activity. H-89 reduced 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone-induced CYP11B1 promoter activation but to a lesser extent as compared to its inhibition on cAMP-induced transactivation. Our data suggest that constant exposure to nonhydroxylated flavones raises a potential risk of high basal and cAMP-induced cortisol synthesis in consequence of increased CYP11B1

  20. All about Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1993-01-01

    Uses diagrams and text to illustrate the use of Lissajous figures (the figures that are traced out when two simple harmonic motions are combined at right angles to each other) in teaching basic physics concepts. Covers the mathematics of the Lissajous Figure; demonstrating Lissajous Figures; and a typical class. (ZWH)

  1. Bcl11b is essential for group 2 innate lymphoid cell development

    PubMed Central

    Oliphant, Christopher J.; Englezakis, Alexandros; Yu, Yong; Clare, Simon; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Belz, Gabrielle; Liu, Pentao; Fallon, Padraic G.

    2015-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are often found associated with mucosal surfaces where they contribute to protective immunity, inappropriate allergic responses, and tissue repair. Although we know they develop from a common lymphoid progenitor in the bone marrow (BM), the specific lineage path and transcriptional regulators that are involved are only starting to emerge. After ILC2 gene expression analysis we investigated the role of Bcl11b, a factor previously linked to T cell commitment, in ILC2 development. Using combined Bcl11b-tom and Id2-gfp reporter mice, we show that Bcl11b is expressed in ILC2 precursors in the BM and maintained in mature ILC2s. In vivo deletion of Bcl11b, by conditional tamoxifen-induced depletion or by Bcl11b−/− fetal liver chimera reconstitution, demonstrates that ILC2s are wholly dependent on Bcl11b for their development. Notably, in the absence of Bcl11b there is a concomitant expansion of the RORγt+ ILC3 population, suggesting that Bcl11b may negatively regulate this lineage. Using Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection, we reveal that the absence of Bcl11b leads to impaired worm expulsion, caused by a deficit in ILC2s, whereas Citrobacter rodentium infection is cleared efficiently. These data clearly establish Bcl11b as a new factor in the differentiation of ILC2s. PMID:25964370

  2. Antiaging Gene Klotho Regulates Adrenal CYP11B2 Expression and Aldosterone Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Chen, Kai; Wang, Yongjun; Schuman, Mariano; Lei, Han; Sun, Zhongjie

    2016-06-01

    Deficiency of the antiaging gene Klotho (KL) induces renal damage and hypertension through unknown mechanisms. In this study, we assessed whether KL regulates expression of CYP11B2, a key rate-limiting enzyme in aldosterone synthesis, in adrenal glands. We found that haplodeficiency of KL(+/-) in mice increased the plasma level of aldosterone by 16 weeks of age, which coincided with spontaneous and persistent elevation of BP. Blockade of aldosterone actions by eplerenone reversed KL deficiency-induced hypertension and attenuated the kidney damage. Protein expression of CYP11B2 was upregulated in adrenal cortex of KL(+/-) mice. KL and CYP11B2 proteins colocalized in adrenal zona glomerulosa cells. Silencing of KL upregulated and overexpression of KL downregulated CYP11B2 expression in human adrenocortical cells. Notably, silencing of KL decreased expression of SF-1, a negative transcription factor of CYP11B2, but increased phosphorylation of ATF2, a positive transcription factor of CYP11B2, which may contribute to upregulation of CYP11B2 expression. Therefore, these results show that KL regulates adrenal CYP11B2 expression. KL deficiency-induced spontaneous hypertension and kidney damage may be partially attributed to the upregulation of CYP11B2 expression and aldosterone synthesis. PMID:26471128

  3. BCL11B regulates sutural patency in the mouse craniofacial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Kyrylkova, Kateryna; Iwaniec, Urszula T; Philbrick, Kenneth A; Leid, Mark

    2016-07-15

    The transcription factor BCL11B plays essential roles during development of the immune, nervous, and cutaneous systems. Here we show that BCL11B is expressed in both osteogenic and sutural mesenchyme of the developing craniofacial complex. Bcl11b(-/-) mice exhibit increased proliferation of osteoprogenitors, premature osteoblast differentiation, and enhanced skull mineralization leading to synostoses of facial and calvarial sutures. Ectopic expression of Fgfr2c, a gene implicated in craniosynostosis in mice and humans, and that of Runx2 was detected within the affected sutures of Bcl11b(-/-) mice. These data suggest that ectopic expression of Fgfr2c in the sutural mesenchyme, without concomitant changes in the expression of FGF ligands, appears to induce the RUNX2-dependent osteogenic program and craniosynostosis in Bcl11b(-/-) mice. PMID:26453795

  4. Study of rlastic and inelastic {sup 11}B +α scattering and search for cluster states of enlarged radius in {sup 11}B

    SciTech Connect

    Danilov, A. N. Demyanova, A. S.; Dmitriev, S. V.; Ogloblin, A. A.; Belyaeva, T. L.; Goncharov, S. A.; Gurov, Yu. B.; Maslov, V. A.; Sobolev, Yu. G.; Trzaska, W.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Heikkinen, P.; Julin, R.; Tyurin, G. P.; Burtebaev, N.; Zholdybayev, T.

    2015-09-15

    The differential cross sections for elastic and inelastic {sup 11}B + α scattering were measured at the alpha-particle energy of 65 MeV, the inelastic-scattering processes leading to the excitation of known states of {sup 11}B up to excitation energies of about 14 MeV. Data on elastic scattering were analyzed together with those that were published earlier for lower energies. The cross sections for inelastic scattering were analyzed on the basis of the distorted-wave method. A modified diffractionmodel was used to determine the root-mean-square radii of excited states. The radii of states whose excitation energies were below about 7MeV were found to agree with radius of the ground state to within 0.1 to 0.15 fm. This result complieswith the traditional idea that the low-lying states of {sup 11}B have a shell structure. The possibility that these states belong to the predicted rotational bands, which, if any, are truncated to three states, cannot be ruled out either. The majority of the observed highly excited states are distributed among four rotational bands. The moments of inertia of these bands are close; for the band based on the 3/2{sup −} state at E* = 8.56 MeV, they are even higher than those of the Hoyle state in the {sup 12}C nucleus. The measured radii of states associated with these bands of {sup 11}B are larger than the ground-state radius by 0.7 to 1.0 fm and are also close to the radius of the Hoyle state. The results of the present study agree with the existing predictions that the cluster structure of the {sup 11}B nucleus is diverse at high excitation energies. The hypothesis that the {sup 11}B nucleus features a “giant” state of size commensurate with those in heavy nuclei was not confirmed.

  5. Extracellular Release of CD11b by TLR9 Stimulation in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongbum; Kim, Te Ha; Wu, Guang; Park, Byoung Kwon; Ha, Ji-Hee; Kim, Yong-Sung; Lee, Keunwook; Lee, Younghee; Kwon, Hyung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    CpG-DNA upregulates the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cell surface markers. Investigators have shown that CD11b (integrin αM) regulates TLR-triggered inflammatory responses in the macrophages and dendritic cells. Therefore, we aimed to identify the effects of CpG-DNA on the expression of CD11b in macrophages. There was no significant change in surface expression of CD11b after CpG-DNA stimulation. However, CD11b was released into culture supernatants after stimulation with phosphorothioate-backbone modified CpG-DNA such as PS-ODN CpG-DNA 1826(S). In contrast, MB-ODN 4531 and non-CpG-DNA control (regardless of backbone type and liposome-encapsulation) failed to induce release of CD11b. Therefore, the context of the CpG-DNA sequence and phosphorothioate backbone modification may regulate the effects of CpG-DNA on CD11b release. Based on inhibitor studies, CD11b release is mediated by p38 MAP kinase activation, but not by the PI3K and NF-κB activation. CD11b release is mediated by lysosomal degradation and by vacuolar acidification in response to CpG-DNA stimulation. The amount of CD11b in the exosome precipitant was significantly increased by CpG-DNA stimulation in vivo and in vitro depending on TLR9. Our observations perhaps give more insight into understanding of the mechanisms involved in CpG-DNA-induced immunomodulation in the innate immunity. PMID:26954233

  6. On the predictions of the 11B solid state NMR parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czernek, Jiří; Brus, Jiří

    2016-07-01

    The set of boron containing compounds has been subject to the prediction of the 11B solid state NMR spectral parameters using DFT-GIPAW methods properly treating the solid phase effects. The quantification of the differences between measured and theoretical values has been presented, which is directly applicable in structural studies involving 11B nuclei. In particular, a simple scheme has been proposed, which is expected to provide for an estimate of the 11B chemical shift within ±2.0 ppm from the experimental value. The computer program, INFOR, enabling the visualization of concomitant Euler rotations related to the tensorial transformations has been presented.

  7. First Selective CYP11B1 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Cortisol-Dependent Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Outgoing from an etomidate-based design concept, we succeeded in the development of a series of highly active and selective inhibitors of CYP11B1, the key enzyme of cortisol biosynthesis, as potential drugs for the treatment of Cushing's syndrome and related diseases. Thus, compound 33 (IC50 = 152 nM) is the first CYP11B1 inhibitor showing a rather good selectivity toward the most important steroidogenic CYP enzymes aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2), the androgen-forming CYP17, and aromatase (estrogen synthase, CYP19). PMID:24900247

  8. Asynchronous combinatorial action of four regulatory factors activates Bcl11b for T cell commitment.

    PubMed

    Kueh, Hao Yuan; Yui, Mary A; Ng, Kenneth K H; Pease, Shirley S; Zhang, Jingli A; Damle, Sagar S; Freedman, George; Siu, Sharmayne; Bernstein, Irwin D; Elowitz, Michael B; Rothenberg, Ellen V

    2016-08-01

    During T cell development, multipotent progenitors relinquish competence for other fates and commit to the T cell lineage by turning on Bcl11b, which encodes a transcription factor. To clarify lineage commitment mechanisms, we followed developing T cells at the single-cell level using Bcl11b knock-in fluorescent reporter mice. Notch signaling and Notch-activated transcription factors collaborate to activate Bcl11b expression irrespectively of Notch-dependent proliferation. These inputs work via three distinct, asynchronous mechanisms: an early locus 'poising' function dependent on TCF-1 and GATA-3, a stochastic-permissivity function dependent on Notch signaling, and a separate amplitude-control function dependent on Runx1, a factor already present in multipotent progenitors. Despite their necessity for Bcl11b expression, these inputs act in a stage-specific manner, providing a multitiered mechanism for developmental gene regulation. PMID:27376470

  9. Molecular field theory analysis of R 3Co 11B 4 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang-Mu, Zhang; Rui-Wang, Huang; Zhong-Wu, Zhang

    2002-03-01

    The temperature dependence of magnetization of the R 3Co 11B 4 compounds has been analysed using the two-sublattice molecular field theory. The molecular field coefficients, nCoCo, nRCo, nRR, have been calculated by a numerical fitting process. The analytic form of the exchange field HR( T) varying with temperature for each of the R 3Co 11B 4 compounds is presented, and some results are discussed.

  10. Agonist Leukadherin-1 Increases CD11b/CD18-Dependent Adhesion Via Membrane Tethers

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Emrah; Faridi, Mohd. Hafeez; Kumar, Vinay; Deep, Shashank; Moy, Vincent T.; Gupta, Vineet

    2013-01-01

    Integrin CD11b/CD18 is a key adhesion receptor that mediates leukocyte migration and immune functions. Leukadherin-1 (LA1) is a small molecule agonist that enhances CD11b/CD18-dependent cell adhesion to its ligand ICAM-1. Here, we used single-molecule force spectroscopy to investigate the biophysical mechanism by which LA1-activated CD11b/CD18 mediates leukocyte adhesion. Between the two distinct populations of CD11b/CD18:ICAM-1 complex that participate in cell adhesion, the cytoskeleton(CSK)-anchored elastic elements and the membrane tethers, we found that LA1 enhanced binding of CD11b/CD18 on K562 cells to ICAM-1 via the formation of long membrane tethers, whereas Mn2+ additionally increased ICAM-1 binding via CSK-anchored bonds. LA1 activated wild-type and LFA1−/− neutrophils also showed longer detachment distances and time from ICAM-1-coated atomic force microscopy tips, but significantly lower detachment force, as compared to the Mn2+-activated cells, confirming that LA1 primarily increased membrane-tether bonds to enhance CD11b/CD18:ICAM-1 binding, whereas Mn2+ induced additional CSK-anchored bond formation. The results suggest that the two types of agonists differentially activate integrins and couple them to the cellular machinery, providing what we feel are new insights into signal mechanotransduction by such agents. PMID:24314082

  11. Novel Partners of SPAG11B Isoform D in the Human Male Reproductive Tract1

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Yashwanth; Hamil, Katherine G.; Tan, Jiann-an; Grossman, Gail; Petrusz, Peter; Hall, Susan H.; French, Frank S.

    2009-01-01

    Human sperm-associated antigen 11 (SPAG11) is closely related to beta-defensins in structure, expression, and function. Like the beta-defensins, SPAG11 proteins are predominantly expressed in the male reproductive tract, where their best-known major roles are in innate host defense and reproduction. Although several hypotheses have emerged to describe the evolution of beta-defensin and SPAG11 multifunctionality, few describe these multiple functions in terms of defensin interactions with specific proteins. To gain insight into the protein interaction potentials of SPAG11 and the signaling pathways that SPAG11 may influence, we used a yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis-epididymis library. The results reveal human SPAG11B isoform D (SPAG11B/D) interactions with tryptase alpha/beta 1 (TPSAB1), tetraspanin 7 (TSPAN7), and attractin (ATRN). These interactions were confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase affinity matrix binding. SPAG11B/D and the three interacting proteins are expressed in the proximal epididymis, and all function in immunity and fertility pathways. We analyzed the functional consequences of SPAG11B/D interaction with TPSAB1 and showed that SPAG11B/D is both a substrate and a potent inhibitor of TPSAB1 activity. Furthermore, we show that (like SPAG11B/D) TSPAN7 and ATRN are associated with spermatozoa. PMID:19535787

  12. BCL11B expression in intramembranous osteogenesis during murine craniofacial suture development

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Greg; van Bakel, Harm; Zhou, Xueyan; Losic, Bojan; Jabs, Ethylin Wang

    2014-01-01

    Sutures, where neighboring craniofacial bones are separated by undifferentiated mesenchyme, are major growth sites during craniofacial development. Pathologic fusion of bones within sutures occurs in a wide variety of craniosynostosis conditions and can result in dysmorphic craniofacial growth and secondary neurologic deficits. Our knowledge of the genes involved in suture formation is poor. Here we describe the novel expression pattern of the BCL11B transcription factor protein during murine embryonic craniofacial bone formation. We examined BCL11B protein expression at E14.5, E16.5, and E18.5 in 14 major craniofacial sutures of C57BL/6J mice. We found BCL11B expression to be associated with all intramembranous craniofacial bones examined. The most striking aspects of BCL11B expression were its high levels in suture mesenchyme and increasingly complementary expression with RUNX2 in differentiating osteoblasts during development. BCL11B was also expressed in mesenchyme at the non-sutural edges of intramembranous bones. No expression was seen in osteoblasts involved in endochondral ossification of the cartilaginous cranial base. BCL11B is expressed to potentially regulate the transition of mesenchymal differentiation and suture formation within craniofacial intramembranous bone. PMID:25511173

  13. Migration of CD11b+ accessory cells during murine lung regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chamoto, Kenji; Gibney, Barry C; Lee, Grace S; Ackermann, Maximilian; Konerding, Moritz A; Tsuda, Akira; Mentzer, Steven J

    2013-05-01

    In many mammalian species, the removal of one lung leads to growth of the remaining lung to near-baseline levels. In studying post-pneumonectomy mice, we used morphometric measures to demonstrate neoalveolarization within 21 days of pneumonectomy. Of note, the detailed histology during this period demonstrated no significant pulmonary inflammation. To identify occult blood-borne cells, we used a parabiotic model (wild-type/GFP) of post-pneumonectomy lung growth. Flow cytometry of post-pneumonectomy lung digests demonstrated a rapid increase in the number of cells expressing the hematopoietic membrane molecule CD11b; 64.5% of the entire GFP(+) population were CD11b(+). Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the CD11b(+) peripheral blood cells migrated into both the interstitial tissue and alveolar airspace compartments. Pneumonectomy in mice deficient in CD11b (CD18(-/-) mutants) demonstrated near-absent leukocyte migration into the airspace compartment (p<.001) and impaired lung growth as demonstrated by lung weight (p<.05) and lung volume (p<.05). Transcriptional activity of the partitioned CD11b(+) cells demonstrated significantly increased transcription of Angpt1, Il1b, and Mmp8, Mmp9, Ncam1, Sele, Sell, Selp in the alveolar airspace and Adamts2, Ecm1, Egf, Mmp7, Npr1, Tgfb2 in the interstitial tissue (>4-fold regulation; p<.05). These data suggest that blood-borne CD11b(+) cells represent a population of accessory cells contributing to post-pneumonectomy lung growth. PMID:23376466

  14. Novel partners of SPAG11B isoform D in the human male reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Yashwanth; Hamil, Katherine G; Tan, Jiann-An; Grossman, Gail; Petrusz, Peter; Hall, Susan H; French, Frank S

    2009-10-01

    Human sperm-associated antigen 11 (SPAG11) is closely related to beta-defensins in structure, expression, and function. Like the beta-defensins, SPAG11 proteins are predominantly expressed in the male reproductive tract, where their best-known major roles are in innate host defense and reproduction. Although several hypotheses have emerged to describe the evolution of beta-defensin and SPAG11 multifunctionality, few describe these multiple functions in terms of defensin interactions with specific proteins. To gain insight into the protein interaction potentials of SPAG11 and the signaling pathways that SPAG11 may influence, we used a yeast two-hybrid screening of a human testis-epididymis library. The results reveal human SPAG11B isoform D (SPAG11B/D) interactions with tryptase alpha/beta 1 (TPSAB1), tetraspanin 7 (TSPAN7), and attractin (ATRN). These interactions were confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase affinity matrix binding. SPAG11B/D and the three interacting proteins are expressed in the proximal epididymis, and all function in immunity and fertility pathways. We analyzed the functional consequences of SPAG11B/D interaction with TPSAB1 and showed that SPAG11B/D is both a substrate and a potent inhibitor of TPSAB1 activity. Furthermore, we show that (like SPAG11B/D) TSPAN7 and ATRN are associated with spermatozoa. PMID:19535787

  15. (11)B MAS NMR and First-Principles Study of the [OBO3] Pyramids in Borates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bing; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Biao-Chun; Mi, Jin-Xiao; Laskowski, Robert; Terskikh, Victor; Zhang, Xi; Yang, Lingyun; Botis, Sanda M; Sherriff, Barbara L; Pan, Yuanming

    2016-03-01

    Borates are built from the [Bϕ3] planar triangles and the [Bϕ4] tetrahedral groups, where ϕ denotes O or OH. However, the [Bϕ4] groups in some borates are highly distorted to include three normal B-O bonds and one anomalously long B-O bond and, therefore, are best described as the [OBO3] pyramids. Four synthetic borates of the boracite-type structures (Mg3B7O13Br, Cu3B7O13Br, Zn3B7O13Cl, and Mg3B7O13Cl) containing a range of [OBO3] pyramids were investigated by multifield (7.05, 14.1, and 21.1 T) (11)B magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR), triple quantum (3Q) MAS NMR experiments, as well as density functional theory calculations. The high-resolution (11)B MAS NMR spectra supported by theoretical predictions show that the [OBO3] pyramids are characterized by isotropic chemical shifts δiso((11)B) from 1.4(1) to 4.9(1) ppm and nuclear quadrupole parameters CQ((11)B) up to 1.3(1) MHz, both significantly different from those of the [BO4] and [BO3] groups in borates. These δiso((11)B) and CQ((11)B) values indicate that the [OBO3] pyramids represent an intermediate state between the [BO4] tetrahedra and [BO3] triangles and demonstrate that the (11)B NMR parameters of four-coordinate boron oxyanions are sensitive to local structural environments. The orientation of the calculated unique electronic field gradient tensor element Vzz of the [OBO3] pyramids is aligned approximately along the direction of the anomalously long B-O bond, corresponding to B-2pz with the lowest electron density. PMID:26914372

  16. CD11b(+) Mononuclear Cells Mitigate Hyperoxia-Induced Lung Injury in Neonatal Mice.

    PubMed

    Eldredge, Laurie C; Treuting, Piper M; Manicone, Anne M; Ziegler, Steven F; Parks, William C; McGuire, John K

    2016-02-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a common consequence of life-saving interventions for infants born with immature lungs. Resident tissue myeloid cells regulate lung pathology, but their role in BPD is poorly understood. To determine the role of lung interstitial myeloid cells in neonatal responses to lung injury, we exposed newborn mice to hyperoxia, a neonatal mouse lung injury model with features of human BPD. In newborn mice raised in normoxia, we identified a CD45(+) F4/80(+) CD11b(+), Ly6G(lo-int) CD71(+) population of cells in lungs of neonatal mice present in significantly greater percentages than in adult mice. In response to hyperoxia, surface marker and gene expression in whole lung macrophages/monocytes was biased to an alternatively activated phenotype. Partial depletion of these CD11b(+) mononuclear cells using CD11b-diphtheria toxin (DT) receptor transgenic mice resulted in 60% mortality by 40 hours of hyperoxia exposure with more severe lung injury, perivascular edema, and alveolar hemorrhage compared with DT-treated CD11b-DT receptor-negative controls, which displayed no mortality. These results identify an antiinflammatory population of CD11b(+) mononuclear cells that are protective in hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung injury in mice, and suggest that enhancing their beneficial functions may be a treatment strategy in infants at risk for BPD. PMID:26192732

  17. CD11b immunophenotyping identifies inflammatory profiles in the mouse and human lungs.

    PubMed

    Duan, M; Steinfort, D P; Smallwood, D; Hew, M; Chen, W; Ernst, M; Irving, L B; Anderson, G P; Hibbs, M L

    2016-03-01

    The development of easily accessible tools for human immunophenotyping to classify patients into discrete disease endotypes is advancing personalized therapy. However, no systematic approach has been developed for the study of inflammatory lung diseases with often complex and highly heterogeneous disease etiologies. We have devised an internally standardized flow cytometry approach that can identify parallel inflammatory alveolar macrophage phenotypes in both the mouse and human lungs. In mice, lung innate immune cell alterations during endotoxin challenge, influenza virus infection, and in two genetic models of chronic obstructive lung disease could be segregated based on the presence or absence of CD11b alveolar macrophage upregulation and lung eosinophilia. Additionally, heightened alveolar macrophage CD11b expression was a novel feature of acute lung exacerbations in the SHIP-1(-/-) model of chronic obstructive lung disease, and anti-CD11b antibody administration selectively blocked inflammatory CD11b(pos) but not homeostatic CD11b(neg) alveolar macrophages in vivo. The identification of analogous profiles in respiratory disease patients highlights this approach as a translational avenue for lung disease endotyping and suggests that heterogeneous innate immune cell phenotypes are an underappreciated component of the human lung disease microenvironment. PMID:26422753

  18. Experimental Study of p-11B Reaction Related to the Clean Fusion Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Erh-kang; Wang, Chang-wan; Yuan, Jian; Liu, Xiao-dong; Li, Cheng-bo; Sun, Zu-xun; Zhang, Pei-hua; Chen, Jin-xiang; Yang, Qi-xiang; Wang, Jian-yong; Ling-hua, Gong

    1998-11-01

    Whole continuous α spectra of the p-11B three-body sequential decay reaction have been measured by using a charge particle time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer with the high-resolution passivated implanted planar silicon detector. A characteristic shape of the saddle-type distribution was obtained. The Monte Carlo calculations show that observed α spectra can be interpreted by anisotropy sequential decay process of the intermediate nucleus 8Be (1) for the p-11B reaction. In the measurement, angular distributions were obtained for proton energies at 667 and 1370 keV, respectively. Total cross-sections for the 11B(p,α)8Be(2α) reaction related to the clean fusion fuel were also reported at two bombarding energies.

  19. 11B and constraints on neutrino oscillations and spectra from neutrino nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Austin, Sam M; Heger, Alexander; Tur, Clarisse

    2011-04-15

    We study the sensitivity to variations in the triple-alpha and 12C(α,γ)16O reaction rates, of the yield of the neutrino-process isotopes 7Li, 11B, 19F, 138La, and 180Ta in core-collapse supernovae. Compared to solar abundances, less than 15% of 7Li, about 25%-80% of 19F, and about half of 138La is produced in these stars. Over a range of ±2σ for each helium-burning rate, 11B is overproduced and the yield varies by an amount larger than the variation caused by the effects of neutrino oscillations. The total 11B yield, however, may eventually provide constraints on supernova neutrino spectra. PMID:21568548

  20. One-two step transfer observed in 16O+11B nuclear system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Sh.; Burtebayev, N.

    2015-06-01

    The angular distribution measurements for 16O ion beam elastically scattered from 11B target of thickness 32.9μg/cm2 at energy 22.4 MeV had been performed in the cyclotron DC-60 INP NNC RK. The previous measurements for 16O+11B nuclear system at energies 27, 30, 32.5 and 35 MeV showed an increase in the differential cross-section at backward angles due to the contribution of cluster transfer. Such transfer process could not be described in terms of optical model (OM); it could be described within the framework of distorted wave Born approximation method implemented in FRESCO code. Both one (5Li) and two-step transfer (proton transfer followed by Alpha transfer) were taken into considerations. We have extracted the spectroscopic amplitude (SA) for the configuration 16O→11B+5Li.

  1. Hypertonicity compromises renal mineralocorticoid receptor signaling through Tis11b-mediated post-transcriptional control.

    PubMed

    Viengchareun, Say; Lema, Ingrid; Lamribet, Khadija; Keo, Vixra; Blanchard, Anne; Cherradi, Nadia; Lombès, Marc

    2014-10-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mediates the Na(+)-retaining action of aldosterone. MR is highly expressed in the distal nephron, which is submitted to intense variations in extracellular fluid tonicity generated by the corticopapillary gradient. We previously showed that post-transcriptional events control renal MR abundance. Here, we report that hypertonicity increases expression of the mRNA-destabilizing protein Tis11b, a member of the tristetraprolin/ZFP36 family, and thereby, decreases MR expression in renal KC3AC1 cells. The 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of human and mouse MR mRNA, containing several highly conserved adenylate/uridylate-rich elements (AREs), were cloned downstream of a reporter gene. Luciferase activities of full-length or truncated MR Luc-3'-UTR mutants decreased drastically when cotransfected with Tis11b plasmid, correlating with an approximately 50% shorter half-life of ARE-containing transcripts. Using site-directed mutagenesis and RNA immunoprecipitation, we identified a crucial ARE motif within the MR 3'-UTR, to which Tis11b must bind for destabilizing activity. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments suggested that endogenous Tis11b physically interacts with MR mRNA in KC3AC1 cells, and Tis11b knockdown prevented hypertonicity-elicited repression of MR. Moreover, hypertonicity blunted aldosterone-stimulated expression of glucocorticoid-induced leucine-zipper protein and the α-subunit of the epithelial Na(+) channel, supporting impaired MR signaling. Challenging the renal osmotic gradient by submitting mice to water deprivation, diuretic administration, or high-Na(+) diet increased renal Tis11b and decreased MR expression, particularly in the cortex, thus establishing a mechanistic pathway for osmotic regulation of MR expression in vivo. Altogether, we uncovered a mechanism by which renal MR expression is regulated through mRNA turnover, a post-transcriptional control that seems physiologically relevant. PMID:24700863

  2. Hypertonicity Compromises Renal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Signaling through Tis11b-Mediated Post-Transcriptional Control

    PubMed Central

    Viengchareun, Say; Lema, Ingrid; Lamribet, Khadija; Keo, Vixra; Blanchard, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mediates the Na+-retaining action of aldosterone. MR is highly expressed in the distal nephron, which is submitted to intense variations in extracellular fluid tonicity generated by the corticopapillary gradient. We previously showed that post-transcriptional events control renal MR abundance. Here, we report that hypertonicity increases expression of the mRNA-destabilizing protein Tis11b, a member of the tristetraprolin/ZFP36 family, and thereby, decreases MR expression in renal KC3AC1 cells. The 3′-untranslated regions (3′-UTRs) of human and mouse MR mRNA, containing several highly conserved adenylate/uridylate-rich elements (AREs), were cloned downstream of a reporter gene. Luciferase activities of full-length or truncated MR Luc-3′-UTR mutants decreased drastically when cotransfected with Tis11b plasmid, correlating with an approximately 50% shorter half-life of ARE-containing transcripts. Using site-directed mutagenesis and RNA immunoprecipitation, we identified a crucial ARE motif within the MR 3′-UTR, to which Tis11b must bind for destabilizing activity. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments suggested that endogenous Tis11b physically interacts with MR mRNA in KC3AC1 cells, and Tis11b knockdown prevented hypertonicity-elicited repression of MR. Moreover, hypertonicity blunted aldosterone-stimulated expression of glucocorticoid-induced leucine-zipper protein and the α-subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel, supporting impaired MR signaling. Challenging the renal osmotic gradient by submitting mice to water deprivation, diuretic administration, or high-Na+ diet increased renal Tis11b and decreased MR expression, particularly in the cortex, thus establishing a mechanistic pathway for osmotic regulation of MR expression in vivo. Altogether, we uncovered a mechanism by which renal MR expression is regulated through mRNA turnover, a post-transcriptional control that seems physiologically relevant. PMID:24700863

  3. M31N2008-11b is a Galactic Dwarf Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, M. M.; Quimby, R.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    We observed M31N2008-11b (K. Itagaki, CBET#1588) with the Double Beam Spectrograph on the Palomar Hale 5-m telescope on UT Dec 4.221. This spectrum has a steep blue continuum, very narrow emission in H-alpha and broad absorption in H-beta through at least H-eta. Further, there is a faint blue counterpart in SDSS DR Supplement g-band imaging (g=22.8, r > 23.3).

  4. B/Nb and δ 11B systematics in the Phlegrean Volcanic District, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonarini, S.; Leeman, W. P.; Civetta, L.; D'Antonio, M.; Ferrara, G.; Necco, A.

    2004-05-01

    Boron concentration and isotopic compositions were determined in representative products from the Phlegrean Volcanic District (PVD), which includes Campi Flegrei (CF), and the islands of Procida and Ischia. The most primitive products (from Procida and Ischia islands) are moderately enriched in B (4.6-12 ppm), whereas more evolved products of CF and Ischia Island are more enriched (21-118 ppm). The content of B is positively correlated with Nb, Zr, Th, La and, generally, with all incompatible elements. δ 11B values are generally lower and more uniform in samples from CF (-6.8 to - 10.6‰) compared with those from Procida (-3.6 to -8.5‰) and Ischia (-2.8 to -8.4‰) islands. Overall, B-enrichments relative to fluid-immobile elements of PVD are only slightly higher than those observed in mid-ocean ridge basalts and there is no significant correlation between δ 11B and B/immobile element ratios. For CF samples including the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) and most post-CI products, δ 11B is negatively correlated with 87Sr/ 86Sr, with extreme compositions represented by evolved products of the CI (higher δ 11B, lower 87Sr/ 86Sr) and less evolved shoshonite (lower δ 11B, higher 87Sr/ 86Sr). In contrast, samples from Procida, Ischia, and pre-CI products and one young shoshonite from CF define a distinct correlation with primitive trachybasalt as the high δ 11B, low 87Sr/ 86Sr end-member, and young shoshonites as the low δ 11B, high 87Sr/ 86Sr end-member. The overall interpretation of the geochemical and isotopic data suggests three conclusions: (1) Geochemical and isotopic variations of post-CI products from CF can be explained by mixing/mingling between at least two distinct magmas, i.e. the CI and the young shoshonite (Minopoli 1). (2) The isotopic trend described by Procida trachybasalts, Ischia samples, pre-CI samples from CF and Pigna St. Nicola shoshonite is a mantle trend suggesting the involvement in their genesis of a distinct component depleted in B, with

  5. Stellar figure sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, W. N.

    1973-01-01

    A compilation of analytical and experimental data is presented concerning the stellar figure sensor. The sensor is an interferometric device which is located in the focal plane of an orbiting large space telescope (LST). The device was designed to perform interferometry on the optical wavefront of a single star after it has propagated through the LST. An analytical model of the device was developed and its accuracy was verified by an operating laboratory breadboard. A series of linear independent control equations were derived which define the operations required for utilizing a focal plane figure sensor in the control loop for the secondary mirror position and for active control of the primary mirror.

  6. An update on 11B,10B fractionation in the fundamental reaction: 10B(OH)3 + 11B(OH)4- = 11B(OH)3 + 10B(OH)4-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klochko, K.; Tossell, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    It has recently been demonstrated experimentally by Byrne, et al. (2006) and Klochko, et al. (2006) that the equilibrium constant for the isotopic exchange reaction: 10B(OH)3 + 11B(OH)4- = 11B(OH)3 + 10B(OH)4- (1) has a value around 1.027 for seawater at 25°C, for total B concentrations from 0.01 to 0.05 molal. These experimental studies involved essentially the accurate determination of the small pKa difference between the 11B and 10B isotopomers of boric acid. This new equilibrium constant value is significantly higher than the traditional value of 1.0194 from Kakihana, et al. (1977). This result has been obscured in recent controversies (Honisch, et al., 2007). The new value agrees well with the ab initio quantum cluster calculated values of Liu and Tossell (2005) and with the ab initio MD harmonic values of Rustad and Bylaska (2007). We will present additional calculations supporting and extending the study of Liu and Tossell (2005) and will discuss the general unsuitability of methods such as Sanchez-Valle, et al. (2005) which employ experimental spectral data. We have also established that polyborate formation in solutions as concentrated as 0.50 molal total B has little effect on the equilibrium constant. A mechanism is also presented for the interaction of B(OH)3 and B(OH)4- with HCO3- species occurring on the calcite surface. References: Byrne, et al. Deep-Sea Research I (2006) 53, 684-688. Honisch, et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2007) 71, 1636-1641. Kakihana, et al. Bull. Chem. Soc. Jpn. (1977) 50, 158-163. Klochko, et al. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. (2006) 248, 276-285. Liu and Tossell Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2005) 69, 3995-4006. Rustad and Bylaska J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2007) 129, 2222-2223. Sanchez-Valle, et al. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta (2005) 69, 4301-4313.

  7. Figurative Language Awards Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Lisa

    Figurative language enlivens a text, providing visuals in the minds of readers. This lesson will have students listening to and reading selected texts as they seek out their favorite literary devices. During the five to seven 50-minute sessions, grade three through five students will: acquire a clear understanding of the concept of figurative…

  8. OECD in Figures, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "OECD in Figures" is a primary statistical source for key data on OECD countries, ranging from economic growth and employment to inflation, trade and environment. Information is presented in tabular form for: (1) Demography and Health; (2) Economy; (3) Energy; (4) Labour; (5) Science and Technology; (6) Environment; (7) Education; (8) Public…

  9. Transcription factor Bcl11b controls identity and function of mature innate lymphoid cells type II

    PubMed Central

    Califano, Danielle; Cho, Jonathan J.; Uddin, Mohammad N.; Lorentsen, Kyle J.; Yang, Qi; Bhandoola, Avinash; Li, Hongmin; Avram, Dorina

    2015-01-01

    Summary Type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) promote anti-helminth responses and contribute to allergies. Here we report that Bcl11b, previously considered a T-cell lineage identity transcription factor, acts directly upstream of the key ILC2 transcription factor Gfi1 to maintain its expression in mature ILC2s. Consequently, Bcl11b−/− ILC2s downregulated Gata3 and downstream genes, including Il1rl1, encoding IL-33 receptor, and upregulated Rorc and type-3 ILC (ILC3) genes. Additionally, independent of Gfi1, Bcl11b directly repressed expression of the ILC3 transcription factor Ahr, further contributing to silencing of ILC3 genes in ILC2s. Thus, Bcl11b−/− ILC2s lost their functions and gained ILC3 functions, expanding in response to the protease allergen papain, while at the same time producing ILC3, and not ILC2 cytokines, and causing increased airway infiltration of neutrophils instead of eosinophils. Our results broaden Bcl11b's role from a T-cell only transcription factor, and establish that Bcl11b sustains mature ILC2 genetic and functional programs and lineage fidelity. PMID:26231117

  10. Discovery of Triazole CYP11B2 Inhibitors with in Vivo Activity in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Hit-to-lead efforts resulted in the discovery of compound 19, a potent CYP11B2 inhibitor that displays high selectivity vs related CYPs, good pharmacokinetic properties in rat and rhesus, and lead-like physical properties. In a rhesus pharmacodynamic model, compound 19 displays robust, dose-dependent aldosterone lowering efficacy, with no apparent effect on cortisol levels. PMID:26288685

  11. Bcl11b: A New Piece to the Complex Puzzle of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Neuropathogenesis?

    PubMed

    Lennon, Matthew J; Jones, Simon P; Lovelace, Michael D; Guillemin, Gilles J; Brew, Bruce J

    2016-02-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an idiopathic, fatal, neurodegenerative disease of the human motor system. The pathogenesis of ALS is a topic of fascinating speculation and experimentation, with theories revolving around intracellular protein inclusions, mitochondrial structural issues, glutamate excitotoxicity and free radical formation. This review explores the rationale for the involvement of a novel protein, B-cell lymphoma/leukaemia 11b (Bcl11b) in ALS. Bcl11b is a multifunctional zinc finger protein transcription factor. It functions as both a transactivator and genetic suppressor, acting both directly, binding to promoter regions, and indirectly, binding to promoter-bound transcription factors. It has essential roles in the differentiation and growth of various cells in the central nervous system, immune system, integumentary system and cardiovascular system, to the extent that Bcl11b knockout mice are incompatible with extra-uterine life. It also has various roles in pathology including the suppression of latent retroviruses, thymic tumourigenesis and neurodegeneration. In particular its functions in neurodevelopment, viral latency and T-cell development suggest potential roles in ALS pathology. PMID:26563995

  12. Heparin Interaction with the Primed Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte CD11b Induces Apoptosis and Prevents Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Mazor, Meital; Mazor, Rafi; Kristal, Batya; Kistler, Erik B.; Ziv, Inbal; Chezar, Judith; Sela, Shifra

    2015-01-01

    Heparin is known to have anti-inflammatory effects, yet the mechanisms are not completely understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that heparin has a direct effect on activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs), changing their activation state, and can explain its anti-inflammatory effect. To test our hypothesis, we designed both in vitro and ex vivo studies to elucidate the mechanism by which heparin modulates PMNL functions and therefore the inflammatory response. We specifically tested the hypothesis that priming of PMNLs renders them more susceptible to heparin. Amplified levels of CD11b and increased rate of superoxide release manifested PMNL priming. Increase in cell priming resulted in a dose-dependent increase in heparin binding to PMNLs followed by augmented apoptosis. Blocking antibodies to CD11b inhibited heparin binding and abolished the apoptotic response. Moreover, heparin caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in the rate of superoxide release from PMNLs, which was blunted by blocking antibodies to CD11b. Altogether, this study shows that the interaction of heparin with the PMNL CD11b results in cell apoptosis and explains heparin's anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:26819958

  13. Prostate cancer promotes CD11b positive cells to differentiate into osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Kosuke; Sud, Sudha; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2009-01-01

    Bone is the preferred site of prostate cancer metastasis, contributing to the morbidity and mortality of this disease. A key step in the successful establishment of prostate cancer bone metastases is activation of osteoclasts with subsequent bone resorption causing the release of several growth factors from the bone matrix. CD11b+ cells in bone marrow are enriched for osteoclast precursors. Conditioned media from prostate cancer PC-3 cells induces CD11b+ cells from human peripheral blood to differentiate into functional osteoclasts with subsequent bone resorption. Analysis of PC-3 conditioned media revealed high amounts of IL-6 and IL-8. CD11b+ cells were cultured with M-CSF and RANKL, IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2, alone or in combination. All of these conditions induced osteoclast fusion, but cells cultured with M-CSF, IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2 were capable of limited bone resorption. Co-incubation with IL-6 and IL-8 and the RANK inhibitor, RANK-Fc, failed to inhibit osteoclast fusion and bone resorption, suggesting a potential RANKL-independent mechanism of functional osteoclast formation. This study demonstrates that functional osteoclasts can be derived from CD11b+ cells derived from human PBMCs. Prostate cancer cells secrete factors, including IL-6 and IL-8, that play an important role in osteoclast fusion by a RANKL-independent mechanism. PMID:19170075

  14. Immunosuppressive CD11b+Ly6Chi monocytes in pristane-induced lupus mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Huijuan; Wan, Suigui; Xia, Chang-Qing

    2016-06-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells with immunosuppressive functions have been described to be associated with one of the mechanisms by which malignant tumors escape immune surveillance. However, little is known about the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in autoimmunity. In the current study, when we attempted to characterize the peritoneal cells in pristane-induced lupus model, as reported previously, we observed that there were markedly increased CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes. Surprisingly, this type of monocytes was almost phenotypically identical to the reported monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Further analysis on how these CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) cells affected T cell response showed that they strongly suppressed T cell proliferation in vitro in a manner dependent on cell-cell contact, NO, and PGE2. In addition, we found that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes inhibited Th1 differentiation but enhanced development of forkhead box p3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells. Consistent with the in vitro experimental results, the in vivo adoptive cell transfer study showed that infusion of pristane-treated syngeneic CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes significantly suppressed the production of anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin antibodies induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin immunization. In addition, we found that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes were also increased significantly in spleen and peripheral blood and showed immunosuppressive characteristics similar to their peritoneal counterparts. Our findings indicate that CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes in a pristane-induced lupus mouse model are monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells instead of inflammatory monocytes, as demonstrated previously. To our knowledge, this is the first to describe myeloid-derived suppressor cells in a pristane-induced lupus mouse model, which may lead to a better understanding of the role of CD11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes in this specific pristane-induced lupus model. PMID:26657791

  15. Improved Superconducting properties in the Mg11B2 low activation superconductor prepared by low-temperature sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M.; Somer, M.

    2016-05-01

    Mg11B2 has a great application prospect in the superconducting coils for fusion reactor as the “low activation superconductors”. The un-doped Mg11B2 and Cu-doped Mg11B2 bulks using 11B as a boron precursor were fabricated by low-temperature sintering in present work. It was found that the prepared Mg11B2 low activation superconductors exhibit better Jc performance than all of other Mg11B2 samples reported in previous studies. As for Cu doped Mg11B2, minor Cu addition can obviously improve the Mg11B2 grain crystallization and reduce the amount of MgO impurity. Hence, improved grain connectivity and higher Jc at low fields is obtained in Cu doped Mg11B2 samples. For un-doped samples, refined grains and more MgO impurity with proper size brought about more flux pinning centers, resulting in better Jc performance at high fields.

  16. Improved Superconducting properties in the Mg(11)B2 low activation superconductor prepared by low-temperature sintering.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M; Somer, M

    2016-01-01

    Mg(11)B2 has a great application prospect in the superconducting coils for fusion reactor as the "low activation superconductors". The un-doped Mg(11)B2 and Cu-doped Mg(11)B2 bulks using (11)B as a boron precursor were fabricated by low-temperature sintering in present work. It was found that the prepared Mg(11)B2 low activation superconductors exhibit better Jc performance than all of other Mg(11)B2 samples reported in previous studies. As for Cu doped Mg(11)B2, minor Cu addition can obviously improve the Mg(11)B2 grain crystallization and reduce the amount of MgO impurity. Hence, improved grain connectivity and higher Jc at low fields is obtained in Cu doped Mg(11)B2 samples. For un-doped samples, refined grains and more MgO impurity with proper size brought about more flux pinning centers, resulting in better Jc performance at high fields. PMID:27149682

  17. Improved Superconducting properties in the Mg11B2 low activation superconductor prepared by low-temperature sintering

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M.; Somer, M.

    2016-01-01

    Mg11B2 has a great application prospect in the superconducting coils for fusion reactor as the “low activation superconductors”. The un-doped Mg11B2 and Cu-doped Mg11B2 bulks using 11B as a boron precursor were fabricated by low-temperature sintering in present work. It was found that the prepared Mg11B2 low activation superconductors exhibit better Jc performance than all of other Mg11B2 samples reported in previous studies. As for Cu doped Mg11B2, minor Cu addition can obviously improve the Mg11B2 grain crystallization and reduce the amount of MgO impurity. Hence, improved grain connectivity and higher Jc at low fields is obtained in Cu doped Mg11B2 samples. For un-doped samples, refined grains and more MgO impurity with proper size brought about more flux pinning centers, resulting in better Jc performance at high fields. PMID:27149682

  18. Site-selective 11B NMR studies on YbAlB4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, S.; Grbic, M. S.; Kimura, K.; Yoshida, M.; Takigawa, M.; Farrell, E. C. T. O.; Kuga, K.; Nakatsuji, S.; Harima, H.

    2016-02-01

    β-YbAlB4 is a distinctive heavy fermion superconductor that exhibits unconventional quantum criticality without tuning in a strongly intermediate valence state. In this paper, we report the result of 11B NMR measurements on the single crystals of, β-YbAlB4 and α- YbAlB4, the locally isostructural polymorph of β-YbAlB4. All 11B NMR lines for both samples were successfully assigned to inequivalent crystallographic sites by comparing the experimental results and the ab-initio calculation of the electric field gradient. In both compounds, the anisotropy of the Knight shift exhibits a characteristic radial pattern, indicating approximate axial symmetry of the hybridization between the Yb-4f electrons and the conduction electrons.

  19. IFN-γ licenses CD11b(+) cells to induce progression of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Shaabani, Namir; Honke, Nadine; Dolff, Sebastian; Görg, Boris; Khairnar, Vishal; Merches, Katja; Duhan, Vikas; Metzger, Sabine; Recher, Mike; Barthuber, Carmen; Hardt, Cornelia; Proksch, Peter; Häussinger, Dieter; Witzke, Oliver; Lang, Philipp A; Lang, Karl S

    2015-08-01

    Autoantibodies are a hallmark of autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune hepatitis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). High titers of anti-nuclear antibodies are used as surrogate marker for SLE, however their contribution to pathogenesis remains unclear. Using murine model of SLE and human samples, we studied the effect of immune stimulation on relapsing of SLE. Although autoantibodies bound to target cells in vivo, only additional activation of CD8(+) T cells converted this silent autoimmunity into overt disease. In mice as well as in humans CD8(+) T cells derived IFN-γ enhanced expression of Fc-receptors on CD11b(+) cells. High expression of Fc-receptors allowed CD11b(+) cells to bind to antibody covered target cells and to destroy them in vivo. We found that autoantibodies induce clinically relevant disease when adaptive immunity, specific for disease non-related antigen, is activated. PMID:26094774

  20. Fission fragment angular distributions for 11B and 19F+238U systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnik, A.; Kailas, S.; Chatterjee, A.; Navin, A.; Shrivastava, A.; Singh, P.; Samant, M. S.

    1995-12-01

    The fission fragment angular distributions were measured at energies above the fusion barrier, for the systems 11B and 19F + 238U. An analysis of the present data along with those already available for the systems 6,7Li, 12C, and 16O + 238U was made in terms of the saddle-point statistical model. While the anisotropies were ``normal'' for 6,7Li, 11B, 12C+238U systems, the ones for 16O and 19F+238U systems were found to be ``anomalous.'' The entrance channel mass asymmetry dependence of the anisotropies as observed here is consistent with the expectations of preequilibrium fission dynamics. This result emphasizes the importance of preequilibrium fission in heavy-ion induced fusion-fission reactions.

  1. New direct 11B NMR-based analysis of organoboranes through their potassium borohydrides.

    PubMed

    Medina, Jesus R; Cruz, Gabriel; Cabrera, Carlos R; Soderquist, John A

    2003-06-13

    Representative organoborane mixtures were quantitatively converted to their borohydrides through their reaction with activated KH (KH), permitting their detailed analysis by (11)B NMR. Through the treatment of commercial KH with a THF solution of lithium aluminum hydride (LAH), a dramatic change in the surface morphology results as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Energy dispersed spectroscopy (EDS) was employed to reveal that the LAH treatment deposits a significant amount of an unknown aluminum-containing species on the surface of the KH, which imparts a unique reactivity to the KH. Even highly hindered organoboranes are quantitatively converted to their borohydrides by replacing electronegative groups (e.g., OR, halogen) with hydrogen, retaining only the carbon ligation. Through this simple KH treatment, complex organoborane reaction mixtures are converted to the corresponding borohydrides whose (11)B NMR spectra normally exhibit resolved signals for the individual species present. The integration of these signals provides quantitative information on the relative amounts of each component of the mixture. New generalities for the effect of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-substituents have also been determined that provide a new, simple technique for the determination of the isomeric distribution in organoborane mixtures resulting from common organoborane processes (e.g., hydroboration). Moreover, the (1)H-coupled (11)B NMR spectra of these mixtures reveal the extent of alkylation for each species present. Representative organoboranes were examined by this new technique permitting a simple and convenient quantitative analysis of the regio- and diastereomeric composition of a variety of asymmetric organoborane processes. Previously unknown details of pinene-based hydroborations and reductions are revealed for the first time employing the KH (11)B NMR technique. PMID:12790565

  2. A three-body model of the {sup 11}B nucleus

    SciTech Connect

    Dubovichenko, S. B.

    2011-08-15

    The binding energy and the rms charge and mass radii have been calculated in terms of the single-channel three-body {sup 4}He{sup 4}He{sup 3}H model of the {sup 11}B nucleus with an expansion of the three-body wave function in a nonorthogonal Gaussian basis. Parameters of the wave function are presented and convergence of the three-body energy depending on the number of expansion terms is demonstrated.

  3. Conditional Deletion of Hsd11b2 in the Brain Causes Salt Appetite and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Louise C.; Ivy, Jessica R.; Wyrwoll, Caitlin; McNairn, Julie A.; Menzies, Robert I.; Christensen, Thorbjørn H.; Al-Dujaili, Emad A.S.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Mullins, John J.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Holmes, Megan C.

    2016-01-01

    Background— The hypertensive syndrome of Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2), allowing inappropriate activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor by endogenous glucocorticoid. Hypertension is attributed to sodium retention in the distal nephron, but 11βHSD2 is also expressed in the brain. However, the central contribution to Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess and other hypertensive states is often overlooked and is unresolved. We therefore used a Cre-Lox strategy to generate 11βHSD2 brain-specific knockout (Hsd11b2.BKO) mice, measuring blood pressure and salt appetite in adults. Methods and Results— Basal blood pressure, electrolytes, and circulating corticosteroids were unaffected in Hsd11b2.BKO mice. When offered saline to drink, Hsd11b2.BKO mice consumed 3 times more sodium than controls and became hypertensive. Salt appetite was inhibited by spironolactone. Control mice fed the same daily sodium intake remained normotensive, showing the intrinsic salt resistance of the background strain. Dexamethasone suppressed endogenous glucocorticoid and abolished the salt-induced blood pressure differential between genotypes. Salt sensitivity in Hsd11b2.BKO mice was not caused by impaired renal sodium excretion or volume expansion; pressor responses to phenylephrine were enhanced and baroreflexes impaired in these animals. Conclusions— Reduced 11βHSD2 activity in the brain does not intrinsically cause hypertension, but it promotes a hunger for salt and a transition from salt resistance to salt sensitivity. Our data suggest that 11βHSD2-positive neurons integrate salt appetite and the blood pressure response to dietary sodium through a mineralocorticoid receptor–dependent pathway. Therefore, central mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism could increase compliance to low-sodium regimens and help blood pressure management in cardiovascular disease. PMID

  4. Detection of the Secondary Eclipse of Exoplanet HAT P-11b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, R. K.; Deming, L. D.; Bakos, G.; Harrington, J.; Madhusudhan, N.; Noyes, R.; Seager, S.

    2010-01-01

    We have successfully conducted secondary eclipse observations of exoplanet HAT-P-11b using the Spitzer Space Telescope. HAT-P-11b was, until very recently, the smallest transiting extrasolar planet yet found and one of only two known exo-Neptunes. We observed the system at 3.6 microns for a period of 22 hours centered on the anticipated secondary eclipse time, to detect the eclipse and determine its phase. Having detected the secondary eclipse, we are at present making a more focused series of observations in both the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands to fully characterize it. HAT-P-11b has a period of 4.8878 days, radius of 0.422 RJ, mass of 0.081 MJ and semi-major axis 0.053 AU. Measurements of the secondary eclipse will serve to clarify two key issues; 1) the planetary brightness temperature and the nature of its atmosphere, and 2) the eccentricity of its orbit, with implications for its dynamical evolution. A precise determination of the orbit phase for the secondary eclipse will also be of great utility for Kepler observations of this system at visible wavelengths.

  5. Wireless Coexistence and EMC of Bluetooth and 802.11b Devices in Controlled Laboratory Settings.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Seth; Kainz, Wolfgang; Ruggera, Paul; Mendoza, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experimental testing that has been performed on wireless communication devices as victims of electromagnetic interference (EMI). Wireless victims included universal serial bus (USB) network adapters and personal digital assistants (PDAs) equipped with IEEE 802.11b and Bluetooth technologies. The experimental data in this paper was gathered in an anechoic chamber and a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell to ensure reliable and repeatable results. This testing includes: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing performed in accordance with IEC 60601-1-2, an in-band sweep of EMC testing, and coexistence testing. The tests in this study show that a Bluetooth communication was able to coexist with other Bluetooth devices with no decrease in throughput and no communication breakdowns. However, testing revealed a significant decrease in throughput and increase in communication breakdowns when an 802.11b source is near an 802.11b victim. In a hospital setting decreased throughput and communication breakdowns can cause wireless medical devices to fail. It is therefore vital to have an understanding of the effect EMI can have on wireless communication devices. PMID:22043254

  6. Inhibition of 11b-HSD1 by tetracyclic triterpenoids from Euphorbia kansui.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Zhou, Li-Yan; He, Hong-Ping; Leng, Ying; Yang, Zhen; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2012-01-01

    The roots of Euphorbia kansui are considered an important traditional folk medicine. In this study the ethanol extracts of E. kansui were investigated. A new tetracyclic triterpenoid, euphane-3b,20-dihydroxy-24-ene, in addition to five known triterpenoids with euphane skeletons were isolated. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physical and spectral techniques (1D-, 2D-NMR and MS, respectively). Furthermore, these compounds 1-6 exhibited strong inhibitory activity against human 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11b-HSD1), with IC(50) values of 34.86 nM, 1.115 mM, 16.08 nM, 2.815 nM, 26.47 nM, 15.99 nM, and 41.86 nM, respectively. The docking results show that the ring part of compounds can insert into the hydrophobic core of h11b-HSD1 and the alkane chain orientates toward the outside. The results presented herein provide a scientific explanation for the usage of the E. kansui in clinical treatment of diabetes. PMID:23047483

  7. Linking CD11b+ Dendritic Cells and Natural Killer T Cells to Plaque Inflammation in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rombouts, Miche; Ammi, Rachid; Van Brussel, Ilse; Roth, Lynn; De Winter, Benedicte Y.; Vercauteren, Sven R.; Hendriks, Jeroen M. H.; Lauwers, Patrick; Van Schil, Paul E.; De Meyer, Guido R. Y.; Fransen, Erik; Cools, Nathalie; Schrijvers, Dorien M.

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death and disability in our Western society. To investigate whether the dynamics of leukocyte (sub)populations could be predictive for plaque inflammation during atherosclerosis, we analyzed innate and adaptive immune cell distributions in blood, plaques, and lymphoid tissue reservoirs in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice and in blood and plaques from patients undergoing endarterectomy. Firstly, there was predominance of the CD11b+ conventional dendritic cell (cDC) subset in the plaque. Secondly, a strong inverse correlation was observed between CD11b+ cDC or natural killer T (NKT) cells in blood and markers of inflammation in the plaque (including CD3, T-bet, CCR5, and CCR7). This indicates that circulating CD11b+ cDC and NKT cells show great potential to reflect the inflammatory status in the atherosclerotic plaque. Our results suggest that distinct changes in inflammatory cell dynamics may carry biomarker potential reflecting atherosclerotic lesion progression. This not only is crucial for a better understanding of the immunopathogenesis but also bares therapeutic potential, since immune cell-based therapies are emerging as a promising novel strategy in the battle against atherosclerosis and its associated comorbidities. The cDC-NKT cell interaction in atherosclerosis serves as a good candidate for future investigations. PMID:27051078

  8. Wireless Coexistence and EMC of Bluetooth and 802.11b Devices in Controlled Laboratory Settings

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, Seth; Kainz, Wolfgang; Ruggera, Paul; Mendoza, Gonzalo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents experimental testing that has been performed on wireless communication devices as victims of electromagnetic interference (EMI). Wireless victims included universal serial bus (USB) network adapters and personal digital assistants (PDAs) equipped with IEEE 802.11b and Bluetooth technologies. The experimental data in this paper was gathered in an anechoic chamber and a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) cell to ensure reliable and repeatable results. This testing includes: Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing performed in accordance with IEC 60601-1-2, an in-band sweep of EMC testing, and coexistence testing. The tests in this study show that a Bluetooth communication was able to coexist with other Bluetooth devices with no decrease in throughput and no communication breakdowns. However, testing revealed a significant decrease in throughput and increase in communication breakdowns when an 802.11b source is near an 802.11b victim. In a hospital setting decreased throughput and communication breakdowns can cause wireless medical devices to fail. It is therefore vital to have an understanding of the effect EMI can have on wireless communication devices. PMID:22043254

  9. Analysis of atomic scale chemical environments of boron in coal by 11B solid state NMR.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takafumi; Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Kanehashi, Koji; Hayashi, Shunichi; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2011-02-01

    Atomic scale chemical environments of boron in coal has been studied by solid state NMR spectroscopy including magic angle spinning (MAS), satellite transition magic angle spinning (STMAS), and cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS). The (11)B NMR spectra can be briefly classified according to the degree of coalification. On the (11)B NMR spectra of lignite, bituminous, and sub-bituminous coals (carbon content of 70-90mass%), three sites assigned to four-coordinate boron ([4])B with small quadrupolar coupling constants (≤0.9 MHz) are observed. Two of the ([4])B sites in downfield are considered organoboron complexes with aromatic ligands, while the other in the most upper field is considered inorganic tetragonal boron (BO(4)). By contrast, on the (11)B NMR spectra of blind coal (carbon content >90mass%), the ([4])B which substitutes tetrahedral silicon of Illite is observed as a representative species. It has been considered that the organoboron is decomposed and released from the parent phase with the advance of coal maturation, and then the released boron reacts with the inorganic phase to substitute an element of inorganic minerals. Otherwise boron contained originally in inorganic minerals might remain preserved even under the high temperature condition that is generated during coalification. PMID:21175186

  10. Figuring Out Fat and Calories

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Figuring Out Fat and Calories KidsHealth > For Teens > Figuring Out Fat ... the truth on fat and calories? What Are Fat and Calories? Fats, or lipids , are nutrients in ...

  11. Lunar Regolith Figures of Merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Scjrader. Cjrostoam; Jpe (zer. Jams); Fourroux, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the lunar regolith figures of merit. The contents include: 1) A quick review of Figures-of-Merit (FoM); 2) Software Implementation of FoM Algorithms; and 3) Demonstration of the Software.

  12. 17 CFR 274.11b - Form N-3, registration statement of separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Form N-3, registration statement of separate accounts organized as management investment companies. 274.11b Section 274.11b Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940...

  13. Effect of Bcl11b genotypes and {gamma}-radiation on the development of mouse thymic lymphomas

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshikai, Yoshihiro; Sato, Toshihiro; Morita, Shinichi; Kohara, Yuki; Takagi, Ritsuo; Mishima, Yukio; Kominami, Ryo

    2008-08-22

    Bcl11b is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene and expressed in many tissues such as thymus, brain and skin. Irradiated Bcl11b{sup +/-} heterozygous mice mostly develop thymic lymphomas, but the preference of Bcl11b inactivation for thymic lymphomas remains to be addressed. We produced Bcl11b{sup +/-} heterozygous and Bcl11b wild-type mice of p53{sup +/-} background and compared their incidence of {gamma}-ray induced thymic lymphomas. Majority of the tumors in p53{sup +/-} mice were skin tumors, and only 5 (36%) of the 14 tumors were thymic lymphomas. In contrast, Bcl11b{sup +/-}p53{sup +/-} doubly heterozygous mice developed thymic lymphomas at the frequency of 27 (79%) of the 34 tumors developed (P = 0.008). This indicates the preference of Bcl11b impairment for thymic lymphoma development. We also analyzed loss of the wild-type alleles in the 27 lymphomas, a predicted consequence given by {gamma}-irradiation. However, the loss frequency was low, only six (22%) for Bcl11b and five (19%) for p53. The frequencies did not differ from those of spontaneously developed thymic lymphomas in the doubly heterozygous mice, though the latency of lymphoma development markedly differed between them. This suggests that the main contribution of irradiation at least in those mice is not for the tumor initiation by inducing allelic losses but probably for the promotion of thymic lymphoma development.

  14. Making better scientific figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug

    2016-04-01

    In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.

  15. CD11b+Ly6G- myeloid cells mediate mechanical inflammatory pain hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ghasemlou, Nader; Chiu, Isaac M; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Woolf, Clifford J

    2015-12-01

    Pain hypersensitivity at the site of inflammation as a result of chronic immune diseases, pathogenic infection, and tissue injury is a common medical condition. However, the specific contributions of the innate and adaptive immune system to the generation of pain during inflammation have not been systematically elucidated. We therefore set out to characterize the cellular and molecular immune response in two widely used preclinical models of inflammatory pain: (i) intraplantar injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) as a model of adjuvant- and pathogen-based inflammation and (ii) a plantar incisional wound as a model of tissue injury-based inflammation. Our findings reveal differences in temporal patterns of immune cell recruitment and activation states, cytokine production, and pain in these two models, with CFA causing a nonresolving granulomatous inflammatory response whereas tissue incision induced resolving immune and pain responses. These findings highlight the significant differences and potential clinical relevance of the incisional wound model compared with the CFA model. By using various cell-depletion strategies, we find that, whereas lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus G (Ly)6G(+)CD11b(+) neutrophils and T-cell receptor (TCR) β(+) T cells do not contribute to the development of thermal or mechanical pain hypersensitivity in either model, proliferating CD11b(+)Ly6G(-) myeloid cells were necessary for mechanical hypersensitivity during incisional pain, and, to a lesser extent, CFA-induced inflammation. However, inflammatory (CCR2(+)Ly6C(hi)) monocytes were not responsible for these effects. The finding that a population of proliferating CD11b(+)Ly6G(-) myeloid cells contribute to mechanical inflammatory pain provides a potential cellular target for its treatment in wound inflammation. PMID:26598697

  16. CD11b+Ly6G− myeloid cells mediate mechanical inflammatory pain hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemlou, Nader; Chiu, Isaac M.; Julien, Jean-Pierre; Woolf, Clifford J.

    2015-01-01

    Pain hypersensitivity at the site of inflammation as a result of chronic immune diseases, pathogenic infection, and tissue injury is a common medical condition. However, the specific contributions of the innate and adaptive immune system to the generation of pain during inflammation have not been systematically elucidated. We therefore set out to characterize the cellular and molecular immune response in two widely used preclinical models of inflammatory pain: (i) intraplantar injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) as a model of adjuvant- and pathogen-based inflammation and (ii) a plantar incisional wound as a model of tissue injury-based inflammation. Our findings reveal differences in temporal patterns of immune cell recruitment and activation states, cytokine production, and pain in these two models, with CFA causing a nonresolving granulomatous inflammatory response whereas tissue incision induced resolving immune and pain responses. These findings highlight the significant differences and potential clinical relevance of the incisional wound model compared with the CFA model. By using various cell-depletion strategies, we find that, whereas lymphocyte antigen 6 complex locus G (Ly)6G+CD11b+ neutrophils and T-cell receptor (TCR) β+ T cells do not contribute to the development of thermal or mechanical pain hypersensitivity in either model, proliferating CD11b+Ly6G− myeloid cells were necessary for mechanical hypersensitivity during incisional pain, and, to a lesser extent, CFA-induced inflammation. However, inflammatory (CCR2+Ly6Chi) monocytes were not responsible for these effects. The finding that a population of proliferating CD11b+Ly6G− myeloid cells contribute to mechanical inflammatory pain provides a potential cellular target for its treatment in wound inflammation. PMID:26598697

  17. High resolution 11B NMR of magnesium diboride using cryogenic magic angle spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckett, Peter; Denning, Mark S.; Heinmaa, Ivo; Dimri, Mukesh C.; Young, Edward A.; Stern, Raivo; Carravetta, Marina

    2012-09-01

    Static and magic-angle spinning 11B nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data at 4.7 T and 8.5 T have been obtained under cryogenic conditions on a diluted sample of magnesium diboride powder in the normal and superconducting state. The data provide accurate information on the magnetic shift and longitudinal relaxation time down to a temperature of 8 K, with a resolution improvement over the entire temperature range. The onset of superconductivity is unaffected by the sample rotation, as revealed by a steep variation of the magnetic shift just below the critical temperature.

  18. Structure-function integrity of the adult hippocampus depends on the transcription factor Bcl11b/Ctip2.

    PubMed

    Simon, R; Baumann, L; Fischer, J; Seigfried, F A; De Bruyckere, E; Liu, P; Jenkins, N A; Copeland, N G; Schwegler, H; Britsch, S

    2016-04-01

    The dentate gyrus is one of the only two brain regions where adult neurogenesis occurs. Throughout life, cells of the neuronal stem cell niche undergo proliferation, differentiation and integration into the hippocampal neural circuitry. Ongoing adult neurogenesis is a prerequisite for the maintenance of adult hippocampal functionality. Bcl11b, a zinc finger transcription factor, is expressed by postmitotic granule cells in the developing as well as adult dentate gyrus. We previously showed a critical role of Bcl11b for hippocampal development. Whether Bcl11b is also required for adult hippocampal functions has not been investigated. Using a tetracycline-dependent inducible mouse model under the control of the forebrain-specific CaMKIIα promoter, we show here that the adult expression of Bcl11b is essential for survival, differentiation and functional integration of adult-born granule cell neurons. In addition, Bcl11b is required for survival of pre-existing mature neurons. Consequently, loss of Bcl11b expression selectively in the adult hippocampus results in impaired spatial working memory. Together, our data uncover for the first time a specific role of Bcl11b in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and function. PMID:26915960

  19. CD11b regulates obesity-induced insulin resistance via limiting alternative activation and proliferation of adipose tissue macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chunxing; Yang, Qian; Xu, Chunliang; Cao, Jianchang; Jiang, Menghui; Chen, Qing; Cao, Gang; Han, Yanyan; Li, Fengying; Cao, Wei; Zhang, Liying; Zhang, Li; Shi, Yufang; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-associated inflammation is accompanied by the accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), which is believed to predispose obese individuals to insulin resistance. CD11b (integrin αM) is highly expressed on monocytes and macrophages and is critical for their migration and function. We found here that high-fat diet–induced insulin resistance was significantly reduced in CD11b-deficient mice. Interestingly, the recruitment of monocytes to adipose tissue is impaired when CD11b is deficient, although the cellularity of ATMs in CD11b-deficient mice is higher than that in wild-type mice. We further found that the increase in ATMs is caused mainly by their vigorous proliferation in the absence of CD11b. Moreover, the proliferation and alternative activation of ATMs are regulated by the IL-4/STAT6 axis, which is inhibited by CD11b through the activity of phosphatase SHP-1. Thus, CD11b plays a critical role in obesity-induced insulin resistance by limiting the proliferation and alternative activation of ATMs. PMID:26669445

  20. Structure‐function integrity of the adult hippocampus depends on the transcription factor Bcl11b/Ctip2

    PubMed Central

    Simon, R.; Baumann, L.; Fischer, J.; Seigfried, F. A.; De Bruyckere, E.; Liu, P.; Jenkins, N. A.; Copeland, N. G.; Schwegler, H.

    2016-01-01

    The dentate gyrus is one of the only two brain regions where adult neurogenesis occurs. Throughout life, cells of the neuronal stem cell niche undergo proliferation, differentiation and integration into the hippocampal neural circuitry. Ongoing adult neurogenesis is a prerequisite for the maintenance of adult hippocampal functionality. Bcl11b, a zinc finger transcription factor, is expressed by postmitotic granule cells in the developing as well as adult dentate gyrus. We previously showed a critical role of Bcl11b for hippocampal development. Whether Bcl11b is also required for adult hippocampal functions has not been investigated. Using a tetracycline‐dependent inducible mouse model under the control of the forebrain‐specific CaMKIIα promoter, we show here that the adult expression of Bcl11b is essential for survival, differentiation and functional integration of adult‐born granule cell neurons. In addition, Bcl11b is required for survival of pre‐existing mature neurons. Consequently, loss of Bcl11b expression selectively in the adult hippocampus results in impaired spatial working memory. Together, our data uncover for the first time a specific role of Bcl11b in adult hippocampal neurogenesis and function. PMID:26915960

  1. Integrin CD11b attenuates colitis by strengthening Src-Akt pathway to polarize anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang; Han, Chaofeng; Jin, Jing; Qin, Kewei; Zhang, Hua; Li, Tianliang; Li, Nan; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays a central role in regulation of intestinal mucosal homeostasis and prevention of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We previously reported that CD11b(hi) regulatory dendritic cells (DCs) can produce more IL-10, and CD11b can negatively regulate Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. However whether CD11b and its signaling can control autoimmunity via IL-10 production remains unclear. Here we found that CD11b deficient (Itgam(-/-)) mice were more susceptible to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, with more tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) while less IL-10 production. CD11b inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) while promoted activator protein 1 (AP-1) activation through activating sarcoma oncogene (Src), leading to decreased TNF-α while increased IL-10 production. Src interacted with and promoted c-casitas B lineage lymphoma proto-oncogene (c-Cbl)-mediated degradation of the inhibitory subunit p85 of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Importantly, Src inhibitor dasatinib aggravated DSS-induced colitis by decreasing IL-10 while increasing TNF-α in vivo. Therefore, CD11b promotes IL-10 production by activating Src-Akt signal pathway. An axis of CD11b-Src pathway is important in balancing homeostasis of TLR-induced pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:27188220

  2. Implications of the Secondary Eclipse of Exoplanet HAT-P-11b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Richard K.; Deming, L. D.; Bakos, G.; Harrington, J.; Madhusudhan, N.; Noyes, R.; Seager, S.

    2010-01-01

    We observed exoplanet HAT-P-11b and have successfully detected its secondary eclipse. We conducted observations using the Spitzer Space Telescope in the post-cryo mission at 3.6 microns for a period of 22 hours centered on the anticipated secondary eclipse time, to detect the eclipse and determine its phase. Having detected the secondary eclipse, we are at present making a more focused series of observations in both the 3.6 and 4.5 micron bands to fully characterize it. HAT-P-11b is one of only two known exo-Neptunes and has a period of 4.8878 days, radius of 0.422 RJ, mass of 0.081 MJ and semi-major axis 0.053 AU. Measurements of the secondary eclipse will serve to clarify two key issues; 1) the planetary brightness temperature and the nature of its atmosphere, and 2) the eccentricity of its orbit, with implications for its dynamical evolution. We discuss implications of these observations.

  3. Rare Mechanisms of Stopped Pion Absorption by 10,11B Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshev, B. A.; Gurov, Yu. B.; Korotkova, L. Yu.; Lapushkin, S. V.; Pritula, R. V.

    2015-06-01

    Correlation measurements of the stopped π--meson absorption reactions 10B(π-, dt)X and 11B(π-, tt)X were carried out at low energy pion channel of LAMPF with the two-arm multilayer semiconductor spectrometer of charged particles. The analysis of twodimensional distributions (Dalitz' diagram) and the momentum distribution of the residual nucleus allowed to identify the process of pion absorption on the intranuclear lithium clusters 5,6Li and to get the evidence on the existence of the configurations 5Li + 5Heg.s and 6Li + 5Heg.s in the boron nuclei 10,11B. The levels of 8Li* isotope with the resonance parameters (Ex, C): (8.7 ± 0.2, 1.9 ± 0.4) MeV and (10.1 ± 0.3, 4.0 ± 1.3) MeV were observed for the first time. These states break up with the triton emission: 8Li* → t + 5He..

  4. Is lightning a possible source of the radio emission on HAT-P-11b?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodosán, G.; Rimmer, P. B.; Helling, Ch.

    2016-09-01

    Lightning induced radio emission has been observed on Solar system planets. There have been many attempts to observe exoplanets in the radio wavelength, however, no unequivocal detection has been reported. Lecavelier des Etangs et al. carried out radio transit observations of the exoplanet HAT-P-11b, and suggested that a small part of the radio flux can be attributed to the planet. Here, we assume that this signal is real, and study if this radio emission could be caused by lightning with similar energetic properties like in the Solar system. We find that a lightning storm with 3.8 × 106 times larger flash densities than the Earth-storms with the largest lightning activity is needed to produce the observed signal from HAT-P-11b. The optical emission of such thunderstorm would be comparable to that of the host star. We show that HCN produced by lightning chemistry is observable 2-3 yr after the storm, which produces signatures in the L (3.0-4.0 μm) and N (7.5-14.5 μm) infrared bands. We conclude that it is unlikely that the observed radio signal was produced by lightning, however, future, combined radio and infrared observations may lead to lightning detection on planets outside the Solar system.

  5. Lightning as a possible source of the radio emission on HAT-P-11b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodosán, G.; Rimmer, P. B.; Helling, Ch.

    2016-04-01

    Lightning induced radio emission has been observed on Solar System planets. There have been many attempts to observe exoplanets in the radio wavelength, however, no unequivocal detection has been reported. Lecavelier des Etangs et al. (2013, A&A, 552, A65) carried out radio transit observations of the exoplanet HAT-P-11b, and suggested that a small part of the radio flux can be attributed to the planet. In the current letter, we assume that this signal is real, and study if this radio emission could be caused by lightning in the atmosphere of the planet. We find that a lightning storm with 530 times larger flash densities than the Earth-storms with the largest lightning activity is needed to produce the observed signal from HAT-P-11b. The optical counterpart would nevertheless be undetectable with current technology. We show that HCN produced by lightning chemistry of such thunderstorms is observable 2-3 years after the storm, which produces signatures in the L (3.0μm - 4.0μm) and N (7.5μm - 14.5μm) infrared bands. We conclude that future, combined radio and infrared observations may lead to lightning detection on planets outside the Solar System.

  6. Measurements of the {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 12}C){sup 24}Na and {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 10}Be){sup 26}Al proton transfer reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, P. N. de; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Benjamim, E. A.; Lima, G. F.; Moro, A. M.

    2006-08-15

    Angular distributions for the {sup 11}B+{sup 25}Mg elastic scattering, {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 12}C){sup 24}Na proton pickup, and {sup 25}Mg({sup 11}B,{sup 10}Be){sup 26}Al stripping reactions have been measured at E{sub {sup 11}B}=35 MeV. The angular distributions have been analyzed by the distorted-waves Born approximation calculations using the code fresco. The spectroscopic factors for the overlaps <{sup 25}Mg|{sup 26}Al>,<{sup 25}Mg|{sup 24}Na> for the ground state and excited states of {sup 26}Al and {sup 24}Na have been obtained and compared to previous measurements and shell-model calculations.

  7. The new possibility of the fusion p + 11B chain reaction being induced by intense laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Matafonov, A. P.; Zagreev, B. V.

    2015-09-01

    We discuss the experimental and theoretical principal schemes of a thermonuclear reactor, based on the fusion reaction p + 11B: beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition at the plasma, particle acceleration by nonlinear ponderomotive forces and irradiation of the solid 11B target by a proton beam at the Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdroplets. The fusion reaction p + 11B can be initiated by ultrashort high intensity laser pulses under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium. This may result in fusion products containing a small amount of neutrons and other nuclear radiation effects. It was found that the fusion reaction p + 11B produces further nuclear reactions and generates high-energy protons. The latter can support the chain reaction process. Our approach allows us to also investigate nuclear reactions in the early Universe and in stars.

  8. Flanking sequence determination and event specific detection of transgenic wheat B72-8-11b strain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Piqiao; Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Luan, Fengxia; Cao, Jijuan; Hou, Hesheng

    2013-03-01

    Exogenous fragment sequence and flanking sequence between exogenous fragment and recombinant chromosome of transgenic wheat B72-8-11b were successfully acquired through PCR amplification with cross-matched primers from exogenous genes. Newly acquired exogenous fragment covered the full-length sequence of transformed genes such as transformed plasmid and corresponding functional genes including marker uidA, promoter ubiquitin, lacZ, 1Dx5, and part of sequence of the wheat genome. A specific PCR detection method for transgenic wheat B72-8-11b strain was established on the basis of primers designed according to flanking sequence. The designed primers revealed specific amplification of 132 bp product of transgenic wheat B72-8-11b strain. This method is characteristics of high specificity, high reproducibility, rapid identification, and excellent accuracy for the identification of transgenic wheat B72-8-11b strain. PMID:23319185

  9. Tissue factor contributes to neutrophil CD11b expression in alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-treated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Luyendyk, James P.; Flanagan, Kevin C.; Williams, C. David; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Slusser, Joyce G.; Mackman, Nigel

    2011-02-01

    Cholestatic liver injury induced by alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) is provoked by injury to intrahepatic bile ducts and the progression of hepatic necrosis requires the procoagulant protein tissue factor (TF) and extrahepatic cells including neutrophils. Recent studies have shown that myeloid cell TF contributes to neutrophil activation. We tested the hypothesis that myeloid cell TF contributes to neutrophil activation in ANIT-treated mice. TF activity in liver homogenates increased significantly in TF{sup flox/flox} mice treated with ANIT, but not in TF{sup flox/flox}/LysMCre mice (TF{sup {Delta}Myeloid} mice), which have reduced TF expression in monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils. Myeloid cell-specific TF deficiency did not alter expression of the chemokines KC or MIP-2 but reduced hepatic neutrophil accumulation in ANIT-treated mice at 48 h as indicated by tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Myeloid cell TF deficiency significantly reduced CD11b expression by blood neutrophils in ANIT-treated mice, and this was associated with reduced plasma MPO protein levels, an index of neutrophil degranulation. However, myeloid cell-specific TF deficiency had no effect on ANIT-induced coagulation cascade activation. The increase in serum ALT and ALP activities in ANIT-treated mice was reduced by myeloid cell TF deficiency (p < 0.05), but the myeloid cell TF deficiency did not reduce hepatic necrosis at 48 h, as determined by histopathology and morphometry. The results suggest that myeloid cell TF contributes to neutrophil CD11b expression during cholestasis by a coagulation-independent pathway. However, the resultant reduction in neutrophil accumulation/activation is insufficient to substantially reduce ANIT hepatotoxicity, suggesting that myeloid cell TF is only one of many factors modulating hepatic necrosis during cholestasis. - Research Highlights: > Myeloid cell tissue factor contributes to liver procoagulant activity during acute cholestasis. > ANIT

  10. Integrin CD11b attenuates colitis by strengthening Src-Akt pathway to polarize anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang; Han, Chaofeng; Jin, Jing; Qin, Kewei; Zhang, Hua; Li, Tianliang; Li, Nan; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays a central role in regulation of intestinal mucosal homeostasis and prevention of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We previously reported that CD11bhi regulatory dendritic cells (DCs) can produce more IL-10, and CD11b can negatively regulate Toll-like receptors (TLRs)-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages. However whether CD11b and its signaling can control autoimmunity via IL-10 production remains unclear. Here we found that CD11b deficient (Itgam−/−) mice were more susceptible to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, with more tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) while less IL-10 production. CD11b inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) while promoted activator protein 1 (AP-1) activation through activating sarcoma oncogene (Src), leading to decreased TNF-α while increased IL-10 production. Src interacted with and promoted c-casitas B lineage lymphoma proto-oncogene (c-Cbl)-mediated degradation of the inhibitory subunit p85 of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Importantly, Src inhibitor dasatinib aggravated DSS-induced colitis by decreasing IL-10 while increasing TNF-α in vivo. Therefore, CD11b promotes IL-10 production by activating Src-Akt signal pathway. An axis of CD11b-Src pathway is important in balancing homeostasis of TLR-induced pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:27188220

  11. Gr-1+CD11b+ cells are responsible for tumor promoting effect of TGF-β in breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhaoyang; Pang, Yanli; Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Achyut, B.R.; Heger, Christopher; Goldsmith, Paul K.; Lonning, Scott; Yang, Li

    2012-01-01

    One great challenge in our understanding of TGF-β cancer biology and the successful application of TGF-β targeted therapy is that TGF-β works as both a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter. The underlying mechanisms for its functional change remain to be elucidated. Using 4T1 mammary tumor model that shares many characteristics with human breast cancer, particularly its ability to spontaneously metastasize to the lungs, we demonstrate that Gr-1+CD11b+ cells or myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are important mediators in TGF-β regulation of mammary tumor progression. Depletion of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells diminished the anti-tumor effect of TGF-β neutralization. Two mechanisms were involved: first, treatment with TGF-β neutralization antibody (1D11) significantly decreased the number of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells in tumor tissues and premetastatic lung. This is mediated through increased Gr-1+CD11b+ cell apoptosis. In addition, 1D11 treatment significantly decreased the expression of Th2 cytokines & Arginase 1. Interestingly, the number and property of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells in peripheral blood/draining lymph nodes correlated with tumor size and metastases in response to 1D11 treatment. Our data suggest that the efficacy of TGF-β neutralization depends on the presence of Gr-1+CD11b+ cells, and these cells could be good biomarkers for TGF-β targeted therapy. PMID:22487809

  12. Neutrophil migration across a cultured intestinal epithelium. Dependence on a CD11b/CD18-mediated event and enhanced efficiency in physiological direction.

    PubMed Central

    Parkos, C A; Delp, C; Arnaout, M A; Madara, J L

    1991-01-01

    Neutrophils (PMN) migrate across intestinal epithelia in many disease states. Although such migration serves as a histological index of disease activity, little is known concerning the molecular events underlying PMN-intestinal epithelial interactions. We have studied chemotactic peptide-driven movement of PMN across cultured monolayers of the human intestinal epithelial cell line T84. Using a transmigration microassay, we show that both the decreased transepithelial resistance (76 +/- 3%) and transmigration (4 +/- 0.6 x 10(5) PMN.cm-2, when PMN applied at 6 x 10(6).cm-2) are largely prevented by MAbs which recognize either subunit of the PMN surface heterodimeric adhesion glycoprotein, CD11b/CD18. In contrast, such PMN-epithelial interactions are unaffected by MAbs recognizing either of the remaining two alpha subunits CD11a or CD11c. PMN from a leukocyte adherence deficiency patient also failed to migrate across epithelial monolayers thus confirming a requirement for CD11/18 integrins. By modifying our microassay, we were able to assess PMN transmigration across T84 monolayers in the physiological direction (which, for technical reasons, has not been studied in epithelia): transmigration was again largely attenuated by MAb to CD18 or CD11b (86 +/- 2% and 73 +/- 3% inhibition, respectively) but was unaffected by MAb to CD11a, CD11c. For standard conditions of PMN density, PMN transmigration in the physiological direction was 5-20 times more efficient than in the routinely studied opposite direction. Images PMID:1682344

  13. Analysis of the 11B(d,n)12C Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridling, Nathan; Prior, Richard; Spraker, Mark; Weller, Henry; Perdue, Brent

    2006-10-01

    Studies have been performed on the ^11B(d,n)^12C reaction to measure the absolute astrophysical S factor and its energy dependence, the reaction cross section, and tensor and vector analyzing powers T20, T21, T22, and iT11. The motivation behind this research project is not only its relevance to nuclear astrophysics, but also in the reaction dynamics of (d,n) reactions at very low energies. PSD (Pulse shape discrimination) was used along with PAW (Physics Analysis Workstation) in order to extract the neutrons from the gamma-rays. Using a neutron response function fitting routine in Root, we have determined the number of neutron counts leading to the ground and first excited states of ^12C. These yields were used to construct the angular distributions of the cross section and analyzing powers. Ultimately, we will extract the reaction specific transition matrix elements.

  14. Measurement of the 8Li(α,n)11B reaction and astrophysical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizoi, Y.; Fukuda, T.; Matsuyama, Y.; Miyachi, T.; Miyatake, H.; Aoi, N.; Fukuda, N.; Notani, M.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Yoneda, K.; Ishihara, M.; Sakurai, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Yoshida, A.

    2000-12-01

    We have measured the 8Li(α,n)11B reaction directly and exclusively, and determined the total cross sections in the center-of-mass energy of 1.5-7.0 MeV, by using a new-type gas counter, multiple-sampling and tracking proportional chamber (MSTPC), and neutron counters. This experiment was performed in the condition of inverse kinematics. The 8Li beam was produced by the RIKEN projectile-fragment separator, and injected into the MSTPC filled with 4He gas, which worked as a detector gas and served as a target. The reaction cross section obtained in the present exclusive measurement is about half of the one obtained in previous inclusive measurements.

  15. No X-ray flux from M31N2008-11b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orio, Marina; Di Mille, F.; Bianchini, A.; Ciroi, S.

    2008-12-01

    The WZ Sge-type optical transient M31N2008-11b (K. Itagaki, CBET# 1588) was observed with the Swift X-ray telescope for a total exposure time of 2872 seconds on December 12, 2008 and it was not detected, with a 3 signa upper limit to the Swift XRT PC count rate of 0.0007 cts s(-1), and an upper limit of the unabsorbed flux approximately 3x10(-14) erg/ cm^2/s. If the object had the same optical to X-ray luminosity ratio in outburst as WZ Sge, it should have been detected with an approximate Swift XRT PC count rate of 0.11 cts/s.

  16. [Boron in dental hard tissues studied by 11B(p,alpha)8Be nuclear reaction].

    PubMed

    Torrisi, L; Rapisarda, E; Cicero, G

    1989-09-01

    Boron's low atomic number and low concentration make its measurement in hard dental tissues difficult. Using nuclear reaction, the 11B(p,alpha)8Be*, enamel, dentine and radicular cement of 18 dental elements, ten healthy and eight decayed teeth, both permanent and deciduous were studied. The highest Boron concentrations were found in the two most superficial microns of the vestibular enamel in non-decayed incisors, particularly deciduous ones. Premolar and molar teeth showed lower Boron concentrations than frontal ones, decayed teeth revealed hardly any Boron. In confirmation of the prevailing exogenous contribution of this karyostatic trace element, on average, Boron concentrations were 2.5 times as high as dentine and 10 times as high as cement. PMID:2811808

  17. Figure Analysis: An Implementation Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Figure analysis is a novel active learning teaching technique that reinforces visual literacy. Small groups of students discuss diagrams in class in order to learn content. The instructor then gives a brief introduction and later summarizes the content of the figure. This teaching technique can be used in place of lecture as a mechanism to deliver…

  18. Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mura, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)

  19. Antagonism of CD11b with Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor (NIF) Inhibits Vascular Lesions in Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Veenstra, Alexander A.; Tang, Jie; Kern, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Leukocytes and proteins that govern leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells play a causal role in retinal abnormalities characteristic of the early stages of diabetic retinopathy, including diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries. Leukocyte integrin αmβ2 (CD11b/CD18, MAC1), a protein mediating adhesion, has been shown to mediate damage to endothelial cells by activated leukocytes in vitro. We hypothesized that Neutrophil Inhibitory Factor (NIF), a selective antagonist of integrin αmβ2, would inhibit the diabetes-induced degeneration of retinal capillaries by inhibiting the excessive interaction between leukocytes and retinal endothelial cells in diabetes. Wild type animals and transgenic animals expressing NIF were made diabetic with streptozotocin and assessed for diabetes-induced retinal vascular abnormalities and leukocyte activation. To assess if the leukocyte blocking therapy compromised the immune system, animals were challenged with bacteria. Retinal superoxide production, leukostasis and leukocyte superoxide production were increased in wild type mice diabetic for 10 weeks, as was the ability of leukocytes isolated from diabetic animals to kill retinal endothelial cells in vitro. Retinal capillary degeneration was significantly increased in wild type mice diabetic 40 weeks. In contrast, mice expressing NIF did not develop any of these abnormalities, with the exception that non-diabetic and diabetic mice expressing NIF generated greater amounts of superoxide than did similar mice not expressing NIF. Importantly, NIF did not significantly impair the ability of mice to clear an opportunistic bacterial challenge, suggesting that NIF did not compromise immune surveillance. We conclude that antagonism of CD11b (integrin αmβ2) by NIF is sufficient to inhibit early stages of diabetic retinopathy, while not compromising the basic immune response. PMID:24205223

  20. Evolution of magnetic properties and microstructure of Hf2Co11B alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McGuire, Michael A.; Rios, Orlando

    2015-02-05

    Amorphous Hf2Co11B alloys produced by melt-spinning have been crystallized by annealing at 500-800 °C, and the products have been investigated using magnetization measurements, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal the evolution of the phase fractions, microstructure, and magnetic properties with both annealing temperature and time. Crystallization of the phase denoted HfCo7, which is associated with the development of coercivity, occurs slowly at 500 °C. Annealing at intermediate temperatures produces mixed phase samples containing some of the HfCo7 phase with the highest values of remanent magnetization and coercivity. The equilibrium structure at 800 °C contains HfCo3B2, Hf6Co23 andmore » Co, and displays soft ferromagnetism. Maximum values for the remanent magnetization, intrinsic coercivity, and magnetic energy product among the samples are approximately 5.2 kG, 2.0 kOe, and 3.1 MGOe, respectively, which indicates that the significantly higher values observed in crystalline, melt-spun Hf2Co11B ribbons are a consequence of the non-equilibrium solidification during the melt-spinning process. Application of high magnetic fields during annealing is observed to strongly affect the microstructural evolution, which may provide access to higher performance materials in Zr/Hf-Co hard ferromagnets. The crystal structure of HfCo7 and the related Zr analogues is unknown, and without knowledge of atomic positions powder diffraction cannot distinguish among proposed unit cells and symmetries found in the literature.« less

  1. Interferon regulatory factor-8 modulates the development of tumour-induced CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Trina J; Greeneltch, Kristy M; Reid, Julia E; Liewehr, David J; Steinberg, Seth M; Liu, Kebin; Abrams, Scott I

    2009-09-01

    Tumour-induced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) promote immune suppression and mediate tumour progression. However, the molecular basis for the generation of MDSC, which in mice co-express the CD11b(+) and Gr-1(+) cell surface markers remains unclear. Because CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells expand during progressive tumour growth, this suggests that tumour-induced events alter signalling pathways that affect normal myeloid cell development. Interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8), a member of the IFN-gamma regulatory factor family, is essential for normal myelopoiesis. We therefore examined whether IRF-8 modulated tumour-induced CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cell development or accumulation using both implantable (4T1) and transgenic (MMTV-PyMT) mouse models of mammary tumour growth. In the 4T1 model, both splenic and bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells of tumour-bearing mice displayed a marked reduction in IRF-8 expression compared to control populations. A causal link between IRF-8 expression and the emergence of tumour-induced CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells was explored in vivo using a double transgenic (dTg) mouse model designed to express transgenes for both IRF-8 and mammary carcinoma development. Despite the fact that tumour growth was unaffected, splenomegaly, as well as the frequencies and absolute numbers of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells were significantly lower in dTg mice when compared with single transgenic tumour-bearing mice. Overall, these data reveal that IRF-8 plays an important role in tumour-induced development and/or accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells, and establishes a molecular basis for the potential manipulation of these myeloid populations for cancer therapy. PMID:20196788

  2. Integrin CD11b positively regulates TLR4-induced signalling pathways in dendritic cells but not in macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Guang Sheng; Bennett, Jason; Woollard, Kevin J.; Szajna, Marta; Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Taylor, Philip R.; Scott, Diane; Franzoso, Guido; Cook, H. Terence; Botto, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Tuned and distinct responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) underpin the balance between innate and adaptive immunity. However, the molecule(s) that confer these cell-type-specific LPS-induced effects remain poorly understood. Here we report that the integrin αM (CD11b) positively regulates LPS-induced signalling pathways selectively in myeloid dendritic cells but not in macrophages. In dendritic cells, which express lower levels of CD14 and TLR4 than macrophages, CD11b promotes MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signalling pathways. In particular, in dendritic cells CD11b facilitates LPS-induced TLR4 endocytosis and is required for the subsequent signalling in the endosomes. Consistent with this, CD11b deficiency dampens dendritic cell-mediated TLR4-triggered responses in vivo leading to impaired T-cell activation. Thus, by modulating the trafficking and signalling functions of TLR4 in a cell-type-specific manner CD11b fine tunes the balance between adaptive and innate immune responses initiated by LPS.

  3. On the implementation of a chain nuclear reaction of thermonuclear fusion on the basis of the p+11B process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Zagreev, B. V.; Matafonov, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    Various theoretical and experimental schemes for implementing a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of the p+11B reaction are considered. They include beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition upon plasma acceleration by ponderomotive forces, and the irradiation of a solid-state target from 11B with a proton beam under conditions of a Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdrops. The possibility of employing ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses to initiate the p+11B reaction under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed. This and some other weakly radioactive thermonuclear reactions are promising owing to their ecological cleanness—there are virtually no neutrons among fusion products. Nuclear reactions that follow the p+11B reaction may generate high-energy protons, sustaining a chain reaction, and this is an advantage of the p+11B option. The approach used also makes it possible to study nuclear reactions under conditions close to those in the early Universe or in the interior of stars.

  4. Peculiarities of changes of some physicomechanical characteristics of monoisotopes {sup 10}B, {sup 11}B and natural {beta}-boron

    SciTech Connect

    Gabunia, D. . E-mail: d_gabunia@hotmail.com; Tsagareishvili, O.; Lezhava, D.; Gabunia, L.; Antadze, M.; Darsavelidze, G.; Tanaka, T.

    2006-09-15

    Real structure and some physicomechanical characteristics of the samples of natural beta-rhombohedral boron B as well as of its {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B monoisotopes have been studied. It was shown that the influence of {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B isotopes on physicomechanical properties of boron had a different character. In particular, the samples enriched with {sup 11}B had high values of microhardness, shear modulus (SM) and elastic limit if compared to those of boron, while the samples enriched with {sup 10}B monoisotopes were characterized with high values of thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) and thermal conductivity; lattice parameters a and c increased by the sequence: {sup 11}B, B, {sup 10}B. It was established that TEC, thermal conductivity, microhardness, SM and shear elastic limit increased in all samples at annealing for 5 h at 1500 deg. C regardless of isotope content. - Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of the SM in the samples of natural boron B, {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B monoisotopes.

  5. α1B-Adrenergic receptor signaling controls circadian expression of Tnfrsf11b by regulating clock genes in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Takao; Tanaka, Kenjiro; Togari, Akifumi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Circadian clocks are endogenous and biological oscillations that occur with a period of <24 h. In mammals, the central circadian pacemaker is localized in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and is linked to peripheral tissues through neural and hormonal signals. In the present study, we investigated the physiological function of the molecular clock on bone remodeling. The results of loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments both indicated that the rhythmic expression of Tnfrsf11b, which encodes osteoprotegerin (OPG), was regulated by Bmal1 in MC3T3-E1 cells. We also showed that REV-ERBα negatively regulated Tnfrsf11b as well as Bmal1 in MC3T3-E1 cells. We systematically investigated the relationship between the sympathetic nervous system and the circadian clock in osteoblasts. The administration of phenylephrine, a nonspecific α1-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist, stimulated the expression of Tnfrsf11b, whereas the genetic ablation of α1B-AR signaling led to the alteration of Tnfrsf11b expression concomitant with Bmal1 and Per2 in bone. Thus, this study demonstrated that the circadian regulation of Tnfrsf11b was regulated by the clock genes encoding REV-ERBα (Nr1d1) and Bmal1 (Bmal1, also known as Arntl), which are components of the core loop of the circadian clock in osteoblasts. PMID:26453621

  6. Integrin CD11b positively regulates TLR4-induced signalling pathways in dendritic cells but not in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ling, Guang Sheng; Bennett, Jason; Woollard, Kevin J; Szajna, Marta; Fossati-Jimack, Liliane; Taylor, Philip R; Scott, Diane; Franzoso, Guido; Cook, H Terence; Botto, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Tuned and distinct responses of macrophages and dendritic cells to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) underpin the balance between innate and adaptive immunity. However, the molecule(s) that confer these cell-type-specific LPS-induced effects remain poorly understood. Here we report that the integrin α(M) (CD11b) positively regulates LPS-induced signalling pathways selectively in myeloid dendritic cells but not in macrophages. In dendritic cells, which express lower levels of CD14 and TLR4 than macrophages, CD11b promotes MyD88-dependent and MyD88-independent signalling pathways. In particular, in dendritic cells CD11b facilitates LPS-induced TLR4 endocytosis and is required for the subsequent signalling in the endosomes. Consistent with this, CD11b deficiency dampens dendritic cell-mediated TLR4-triggered responses in vivo leading to impaired T-cell activation. Thus, by modulating the trafficking and signalling functions of TLR4 in a cell-type-specific manner CD11b fine tunes the balance between adaptive and innate immune responses initiated by LPS. PMID:24423728

  7. Cancer Facts and Figures 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts & Figures 2014 This annual report provides the estimated numbers of new cancer cases and deaths in ... and treatment. In 2014, there will be an estimated 1,665,540 new cancer cases diagnosed and ...

  8. Crystal structure of methyl (3RS,4SR,4aRS,11aRS,11bSR)-5-oxo-3,4,4a,5,7,8,9,10,11,11a-deca­hydro-3,11b-ep­oxy­azepino[2,1-a]iso­indole-4-carboxyl­ate

    PubMed Central

    Toze, Flavien A. A.; Poplevin, Dmitry S.; Zubkov, Fedor I.; Nikitina, Eugeniya V.; Porras, Ciara; Khrustalev, Victor N.

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C15H19NO4, is the a product of the esterification of the corresponding carbonic acid with methanol. The mol­ecule comprises a fused tetra­cyclic system containing three five-membered rings (2-pyrrolidinone, tetra­hydro­furan and di­hydro­furan) and one seven-membered ring (azepane). The five-membered rings have the usual envelope conformations, with the quaternary C atom being the flap atom for the 2-pyrrolidinone ring, and the ether O atom being the common flap atom for the remaining rings. The seven-membered azepane ring adopts a chair conformation with the methine and middle methyl­ene C atoms lying above and below the mean plane defined by the remaining five atoms. The carboxyl­ate substituent is rotated by 77.56 (5)° with respect to the base plane of the tetra­hydro­furan ring. In the crystal, the mol­ecules are bound by weak C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions into puckered layers parallel to (001). PMID:26594446

  9. Crystal structure of methyl (3RS,4SR,4aRS,11aRS,11bSR)-5-oxo-3,4,4a,5,7,8,9,10,11,11a-deca-hydro-3,11b-ep-oxy-azepino[2,1-a]iso-indole-4-carboxyl-ate.

    PubMed

    Toze, Flavien A A; Poplevin, Dmitry S; Zubkov, Fedor I; Nikitina, Eugeniya V; Porras, Ciara; Khrustalev, Victor N

    2015-10-01

    The title compound, C15H19NO4, is the a product of the esterification of the corresponding carbonic acid with methanol. The mol-ecule comprises a fused tetra-cyclic system containing three five-membered rings (2-pyrrolidinone, tetra-hydro-furan and di-hydro-furan) and one seven-membered ring (azepane). The five-membered rings have the usual envelope conformations, with the quaternary C atom being the flap atom for the 2-pyrrolidinone ring, and the ether O atom being the common flap atom for the remaining rings. The seven-membered azepane ring adopts a chair conformation with the methine and middle methyl-ene C atoms lying above and below the mean plane defined by the remaining five atoms. The carboxyl-ate substituent is rotated by 77.56 (5)° with respect to the base plane of the tetra-hydro-furan ring. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are bound by weak C-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions into puckered layers parallel to (001). PMID:26594446

  10. Multimodal Imaging Using a 11B(d,nγ)12C Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nattress, Jason; Rose, Paul; Mayer, Michal; Wonders, Marc; Wilhelm, Kyle; Erickson, Anna; Jovanovic, Igor; Multimodal Imaging; Nuclear Detection (MIND) in Active Interrogation Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Detection of shielded special nuclear material (SNM) still remains one of the greatest challenges facing nuclear security, where small signal-to-background ratios result from complex, challenging configurations of practical objects. Passive detection relies on the spontaneous radioactive decay, whereas active interrogation (AI) uses external probing radiation to identify and characterize the material. AI provides higher signal intensity, providing a more viable method for SNM detection. New and innovative approaches are needed to overcome specific application constraints, such as limited scanning time. We report on a new AI approach that integrates both neutron and gamma transmission signatures to deduce specific material properties that can be utilized to aid SNM identification. The approach uses a single AI source, single detector type imaging system based on the 11B(d,nγ)12C reaction and an array of eight EJ-309 liquid scintillators, respectively. An integral transmission imaging approach has been employed initially for both neutrons and photons, exploiting the detectors' particle discrimination properties. Representative object images using neutrons and photons will be presented.

  11. CMOS analog baseband circuitry for an IEEE 802.11 b/g/n WLAN transceiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Gong; Xiaojie, Chu; Qianqian, Lei; Min, Lin; Yin, Shi

    2012-11-01

    An analog baseband circuit for a direct conversion wireless local area network (WLAN) transceiver in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS occupying 1.26 mm2 is presented. The circuit consists of active-RC receiver (RX) 4th order elliptic lowpass filters(LPFs), transmit (PGAs) with DC offset cancellation (DCOC) servo loops, and on-chip output buffers. The RX baseband gain can be programmed in the range of -11 to 49 dB in 2 dB steps with 50-30.2 nV/√Hz input referred noise (IRN) and a 21 to -41 dBm in-band 3rd order interception point (IIP3). The RX/TX LPF cutoff frequencies can be switched between 5 MHz, 10 MHz, and 20 MHz to fulfill the multimode 802.11b/g/n requirements. The TX baseband gain of the I/Q paths are tuned separately from -1.6 to 0.9 dB in 0.1 dB steps to calibrate TX I/Q gain mismatches. By using an identical integrator based elliptic filter synthesis method together with global compensation applied to the LPF capacitor array, the power consumption of the RX LPF is considerably reduced and the proposed chip draws 26.8 mA/8 mA by the RX/TX baseband paths from a 1.2 V supply.

  12. Direct measurement of 11B(p ,γ )12C astrophysical S factors at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J. J.; Jia, B. L.; Xu, S. W.; Chen, S. Z.; Ma, S. B.; Hou, S. Q.; Hu, J.; Zhang, L. Y.; Yu, X. Q.

    2016-05-01

    We directly measure the absolute cross section of 11B(p ,γ )12C in the energy region of Ec .m .=130 -257 keV by using a thin target for the first time. This work is performed on a 320-kV platform at the Institute of Modern Physics in Lanzhou. The astrophysical S factors of this reaction are obtained for capture to the ground and first excited states of 12C. The properties of the known resonance at ˜150 keV are derived and agree with the previous results. However, in the energy region of 170-240 keV, our S factors are about 15%-50% larger than the adopted values in NACRE II and are also larger than the upper limits of NACRE II by up to ˜20 % . This indicates that our new reaction rate is enhanced by about 15%-50% compared to the NACRE II adopted rate in the temperature region 0.32-0.62 GK.

  13. THE OBLIQUE ORBIT OF THE SUPER-NEPTUNE HAT-P-11b

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Shporer, Avi; Bakos, Gaspar A.; Hartman, Joel D.

    2010-11-10

    We find the orbit of the Neptune-sized exoplanet HAT-P-11b to be highly inclined relative to the equatorial plane of its host star. This conclusion is based on spectroscopic observations of two transits, which allowed the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect to be detected with an amplitude of 1.5 m s{sup -1}. The sky-projected obliquity is 103{sup +26} {sub -10} deg. This is the smallest exoplanet for which spin-orbit alignment has been measured. The result favors a migration scenario involving few-body interactions followed by tidal dissipation. This finding also conforms with the pattern that the systems with the weakest tidal interactions have the widest spread in obliquities. We predict that the high obliquity of HAT-P-11 will be manifest in transit light curves from the Kepler spacecraft: starspot-crossing anomalies will recur at most once per stellar rotation period, rather than once per orbital period as they would for a well-aligned system.

  14. BSH distributions in the canine head and a human patient using 11B MRI.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, K M; Schweizer, M P; Glover, G H; Hadley, J R; Tippets, R; Tang, P P; Davis, W L; Heilbrun, M P; Johnson, S; Ghanem, T

    1995-07-01

    A 3D projection reconstruction (3DPR) method was used to obtain in vivo 11B images in a large canine brain tumor model and in a human infused with borocaptate sodium (BSH). Studies were performed in dogs with and without gliosarcomas implanted and grown to a size of 2-3 cm. The 3DPR method demonstrates a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that allows qualitative kinetic studies of the boron compound in normal and tumor tissue of the head. The measurements indicate initial uptake of the BSH compound in tumor to be less than that in muscle with no uptake in normal brain tissue. Moreover, uptake of BSH in tissue was found to lag the boron concentration in blood with delays that depend on tissue type. In addition, the first human boron images were obtained on a patient who underwent surgical resection and volumetric debulking of a large (7 cm) glioblastoma multiforme. BSH was readily taken up in residual tumor tissue, while diffusion into the resection volume was slower. PMID:7674898

  15. Quantitation of intracellular Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) pools in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Jones, D H; Anderson, D C; Burr, B L; Rudloff, H E; Smith, C W; Krater, S S; Schmalstieg, F C

    1988-12-01

    The adhesive glycoprotein Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) of the CD11/CD18 complex contributes to multiple neutrophil inflammatory functions. Activation of neutrophils by chemotactic stimuli results in a rapid, protein synthesis-independent increase in surface Mac-1 derived from incompletely defined intracellular compartments. Therefore, we developed a novel quantitative lectin immunoblot technique to define intracellular pools of Mac-1 in subcellular neutrophil fractions resolved on discontinuous Percoll gradients. In cavitates of unstimulated neutrophils, 30% and 26% of total Mac-1 was identified in beta [1.10 gm/ml; vitamin B12 binding protein (vit B12 B.P.)-rich] or pre-gamma (1.07 gm/ml; vit B12 B.P.-poor) granular fractions, respectively, whereas 24% was associated with the plasma membrane-rich gamma (1.06 gm/ml) fractions. N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) stimulation (10(-8) M, 15 min, 37 degrees C) significantly diminished Mac-1 in pre-gamma (-18% of total, P less than 0.05) but not beta fractions (+6% of total). Under these conditions, the content of Mac-1 in gamma fractions increased 13% in association with four- to eightfold increase in surface Mac-1 expression (OKM-1 binding). These findings suggest that chemotactic stimuli increase plasma membrane and/or surface Mac-1 on human neutrophils by mobilizing a novel intracellular granule pool. PMID:2903896

  16. Evaluation of exchange interactions in (Gd xY 1- x) 3Co 11B 4 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhiqiang; Tang, Wei; Qin, Hongxia; Zhang, Jianrong; Youwei, Du

    1998-01-01

    Two-sublattice molecular field theory (MFT) is employed to describe the temperature dependence of magnetization for (Gd xY 1- x) 3Co 11B 4 compounds. Three molecular field coefficients, nRCo, nCoCo, nRR, have been calculated by a numerical fitting process. MFT with a single coefficient provides quite a reasonable description for Y 3Co 11B 4. For x > 0, we find that nCoCo is the largest coefficient, implying that the magnetic interactions are dominated by exchange between cobalt 3d electrons.

  17. Analysis of 8Li(α,n)11B below the Coulomb barrier in the potential model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, T.; Grün, K.; Krauss, H.; Oberhummer, H.; Kwasniewicz, E.

    1992-04-01

    The reaction 8Li(α,n)11B is of interest in inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis. A distorted wave Born approximation calculation employing folding potentials is presented for energies below the Coulomb barrier. The recently observed resonance at about 540 keV center-of-mass energy can be reproduced. The astrophysical S factor is calculated for the ground-state transition as well as for the transitions to the first four excited states of 11B. The reaction rate is derived and compared to literature data. The inclusion of the excited states increases the rate by a factor of 1.5 compared to the ground-state transition.

  18. Regulation of StAR by the N-terminal Domain and Coinduction of SIK1 and TIS11b/Znf36l1 in Single Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Duan, Haichuan; Foong, Yee Hoon; Musaitif, Ibrahim; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The cholesterol transfer function of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is uniquely integrated into adrenal cells, with mRNA translation and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation occurring at the mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). The StAR C-terminal cholesterol-binding domain (CBD) initiates mitochondrial intermembrane contacts to rapidly direct cholesterol to Cyp11a1 in the inner membrane (IMM). The conserved StAR N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) includes a leader sequence targeting the CBD to OMM complexes that initiate cholesterol transfer. Here, we show how the NTD functions to enhance CBD activity delivers more efficiently from StAR mRNA in adrenal cells, and then how two factors hormonally restrain this process. NTD processing at two conserved sequence sites is selectively affected by StAR PKA phosphorylation. The CBD functions as a receptor to stimulate the OMM/IMM contacts that mediate transfer. The NTD controls the transit time that integrates extramitochondrial StAR effects on cholesterol homeostasis with other mitochondrial functions, including ATP generation, inter-organelle fusion, and the major permeability transition pore in partnership with other OMM proteins. PKA also rapidly induces two additional StAR modulators: salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) and Znf36l1/Tis11b. Induced SIK1 attenuates the activity of CRTC2, a key mediator of StAR transcription and splicing, but only as cAMP levels decline. TIS11b inhibits translation and directs the endonuclease-mediated removal of the 3.5-kb StAR mRNA. Removal of either of these functions individually enhances cAMP-mediated induction of StAR. High-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (HR-FISH) of StAR RNA reveals asymmetric transcription at the gene locus and slow RNA splicing that delays mRNA formation, potentially to synchronize with cholesterol import. Adrenal cells may retain slow transcription to integrate with intermembrane NTD activation. HR-FISH resolves individual 3.5-kb St

  19. Regulation of StAR by the N-terminal Domain and Coinduction of SIK1 and TIS11b/Znf36l1 in Single Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinwoo; Tong, Tiegang; Duan, Haichuan; Foong, Yee Hoon; Musaitif, Ibrahim; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Jefcoate, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The cholesterol transfer function of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is uniquely integrated into adrenal cells, with mRNA translation and protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation occurring at the mitochondrial outer membrane (OMM). The StAR C-terminal cholesterol-binding domain (CBD) initiates mitochondrial intermembrane contacts to rapidly direct cholesterol to Cyp11a1 in the inner membrane (IMM). The conserved StAR N-terminal regulatory domain (NTD) includes a leader sequence targeting the CBD to OMM complexes that initiate cholesterol transfer. Here, we show how the NTD functions to enhance CBD activity delivers more efficiently from StAR mRNA in adrenal cells, and then how two factors hormonally restrain this process. NTD processing at two conserved sequence sites is selectively affected by StAR PKA phosphorylation. The CBD functions as a receptor to stimulate the OMM/IMM contacts that mediate transfer. The NTD controls the transit time that integrates extramitochondrial StAR effects on cholesterol homeostasis with other mitochondrial functions, including ATP generation, inter-organelle fusion, and the major permeability transition pore in partnership with other OMM proteins. PKA also rapidly induces two additional StAR modulators: salt-inducible kinase 1 (SIK1) and Znf36l1/Tis11b. Induced SIK1 attenuates the activity of CRTC2, a key mediator of StAR transcription and splicing, but only as cAMP levels decline. TIS11b inhibits translation and directs the endonuclease-mediated removal of the 3.5-kb StAR mRNA. Removal of either of these functions individually enhances cAMP-mediated induction of StAR. High-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (HR-FISH) of StAR RNA reveals asymmetric transcription at the gene locus and slow RNA splicing that delays mRNA formation, potentially to synchronize with cholesterol import. Adrenal cells may retain slow transcription to integrate with intermembrane NTD activation. HR-FISH resolves individual 3.5-kb St

  20. Toward better understanding of B/Ca and δ11B proxies: An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikawa, J.; Penman, D. E.; Harper, D. T.; Farmer, J. R.; Zachos, J. C.; Hoenisch, B.; Zeebe, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    The abundance and isotopic composition of boron (B/Ca and δ11B) in marine biogenic carbonates is an important paleoceanographic tool to probe carbon cycling in the ocean-atmosphere system. These B-based proxies rely on a fundamental assumption that boron incorporation into carbonates occur via B(OH)4- adsorption with little isotopic fractionation, which is based on key results from the classic inorganic experiments performed in the late 1990s (e.g., Hemming et al., 1995, GCA, v59, 371-379; Sanyal et al., 2000, GCA, v64, 1551-1555). However, a collection of new experimental data published in recent years consistently suggests a more complicated picture for fluid-crystal element and isotope partitioning of B into inorganic carbonates. For instance, we performed novel inorganic calcite precipitation experiments by systematically adjusting solution pH as well as total B, total DIC and Ca concentrations (Uchikawa et al., 2015, GCA, v150, 171-191), and the results showcased apparent kinetic effects related to precipitation rate on B/Ca. Moreover, the results also indicated a dependence of B/Ca on the concentration ratio of total B to total DIC, which was interpreted as indirect evidence for potential B(OH)3 incorporation into synthetic calcite. Notably, relatively simple solutions of NaCl-CaCl2-B(OH)3 system were used for our previous experiments. This presentation features our latest results from similar experiments but using artificial seawater in order to close the gap between simplified experimental conditions to in-situ marine settings. Our preliminary results reveal a precipitation rate control even when artificial seawater is used for the experiments, making a strong case that kinetic effects on B/Ca are universal in inorganic carbonates. With the aid of new isotopic results, we also attempt to discuss possible scenarios of B incorporation pathway in inorganic systems.

  1. Kepler and Ground-Based Transits of the exo-Neptune HAT-P-11b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake; Sada, Pedro V.; Jackson, Brian; Peterson, Steven W.; Agol, Eric; Knutson, Heather A.; Jennings, Donald E.; Haase, Plynn; Bays, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We analyze 26 archival Kepler transits of the exo-Neptune HAT-P-11b, supplemented by ground-based transits observed in the blue (B band) and near-IR (J band). Both the planet and host star are smaller than previously believed; our analysis yields Rp = 4.31 R xor 0.06 R xor and Rs = 0.683 R solar mass 0.009 R solar mass, both about 3 sigma smaller than the discovery values. Our ground-based transit data at wavelengths bracketing the Kepler bandpass serve to check the wavelength dependence of stellar limb darkening, and the J-band transit provides a precise and independent constraint on the transit duration. Both the limb darkening and transit duration from our ground-based data are consistent with the new Kepler values for the system parameters. Our smaller radius for the planet implies that its gaseous envelope can be less extensive than previously believed, being very similar to the H-He envelope of GJ 436b and Kepler-4b. HAT-P-11 is an active star, and signatures of star spot crossings are ubiquitous in the Kepler transit data. We develop and apply a methodology to correct the planetary radius for the presence of both crossed and uncrossed star spots. Star spot crossings are concentrated at phases 0.002 and +0.006. This is consistent with inferences from Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements that the planet transits nearly perpendicular to the stellar equator. We identify the dominant phases of star spot crossings with active latitudes on the star, and infer that the stellar rotational pole is inclined at about 12 deg 5 deg to the plane of the sky. We point out that precise transit measurements over long durations could in principle allow us to construct a stellar Butterfly diagram to probe the cyclic evolution of magnetic activity on this active K-dwarf star.

  2. Figure analysis: An implementation dialogue.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Amy M

    2016-07-01

    Figure analysis is a novel active learning teaching technique that reinforces visual literacy. Small groups of students discuss diagrams in class in order to learn content. The instructor then gives a brief introduction and later summarizes the content of the figure. This teaching technique can be used in place of lecture as a mechanism to deliver information to students. Here, a "how to" guide is presented in the form of an in-class dialogue, displaying the difficulties in visual interpretation that some students may experience while figure analysis is being implemented in an upper-level, cell biology course. Additionally, the dialogue serves as a guide for instructors who may implement the active learning technique as they consider how to respond to students' concerns in class. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):345-348, 2016. PMID:26892173

  3. Sintering process and critical current density of low activation Mg11B2 superconductors from low temperature to high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, Md; Somer, M.

    2016-08-01

    As the "low activation" superconductor, Mg11B2 has a potential application in superconducting coils for fusion reactor. In present work, the sintering process and critical current density of low activation Mg11B2 superconductors were systemically studied from low temperature to high temperature. It was found that the Jc and Hirr values of Mg11B2 bulks in present work are both obviously higher than that of those samples prepared in previous studies. Furthermore, the low-temperature sintered samples exhibit better Jc performance at high fields than the high-temperature sintered samples, due to strong grain boundaries pinning. On the other hand, the high-temperature sintered samples have higher Jc at low fields compared to low-temperature sintered samples, mainly owing to their better crystallinity and grain connectivity. The highest Jc value (2.20 ×105 A cm-2 at 20 K, self-field) is obtained in the Mg11B2 sample sintered at 850 °C for 45 min.

  4. IL-1α induces CD11b(low) alveolar macrophage proliferation and maturation during granuloma formation.

    PubMed

    Huaux, François; Lo Re, Sandra; Giordano, Giulia; Uwambayinema, Francine; Devosse, Raynal; Yakoub, Yousof; Panin, Nadtha; Palmai-Pallag, Mihaly; Rabolli, Virginie; Delos, Monique; Marbaix, Etienne; Dauguet, Nicolas; Couillin, Isabelle; Ryffel, Bernhard; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Lison, Dominique

    2015-04-01

    Macrophages play a central role in immune and tissue responses of granulomatous lung diseases induced by pathogens and foreign bodies. Circulating monocytes are generally viewed as central precursors of these tissue effector macrophages. Here, we provide evidence that granulomas derive from alveolar macrophages serving as a local reservoir for the expansion of activated phagocytic macrophages. By exploring lung granulomatous responses to silica particles in IL-1-deficient mice, we found that the absence of IL-1α, but not IL-1β, was associated with reduced CD11b(high) phagocytic macrophage accumulation and fewer granulomas. This defect was associated with impaired alveolar clearance and resulted in the development of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). Reconstitution of IL-1α(-/-) mice with recombinant IL-1α restored lung clearance functions and the pulmonary accumulation of CD11b(high) phagocytic macrophages. Mechanistically, IL-1α induced the proliferation of CD11b(low) alveolar macrophages and differentiated these cells into CD11b(high) macrophages which perform critical phagocytic functions and organize granuloma. We newly discovered here that IL-1α triggers lung responses requiring macrophage proliferation and maturation from tissue-resident macrophages. PMID:25421226

  5. Formation and Decay of {sup 24}Mg in the {sup 13}N+{sup 11}B Collision

    SciTech Connect

    P. Figuera; F. Amorini; W. Bradfield-Smith; M. Cabibbo; G. Cardella; T. Davinson; A. DiPietro; W. Galster; P. Leleux; A. Musumarra; A. Ninane; M. Papa; G. Pappalardo; F. Rizzo; A.C. Shotter; C. Sukosd; S. Tudisco; P.J. Woods

    1999-12-31

    Different aspects of the formation and decay of {sup 24}Mg in the collision {sup 13}N+{sup 11}B have been studied using a large solid angle and highly segmented Silicon strip detector. Results concerning the fusion cross section, the 6 {alpha} decay of {sup 24}Mg and the GDR gamma ray emission are discussed.

  6. Formation and decay of {sup 24}Mg in the {sup 13}N+{sup 11}B collision

    SciTech Connect

    Figuera, P.; Amorini, F.; Cabibbo, M.; Papalardo, G.; Rizzo, F.; Tudisco, S.; Bradfield-Smith, W.; Davinson, T.; Di Pietro, A.; Shotter, A. C.; Woods, P. J.; Cardella, G.; Papa, M.; Galster, W.; Leleux, P.; Musumarra, A.; Ninane, A.; Sukosd, C.

    1999-11-16

    Different aspects of the formation and decay of {sup 24}Mg in the collision {sup 13}N+{sup 11}B have been studied using a large solid angle and highly segmented Silicon strip detector. Results concerning the fusion cross section, the 6 {alpha} decay of {sup 24}Mg and the GDR gamma ray emission are discussed.

  7. GM-CSF-licensed CD11b+ lung dendritic cells orchestrate Th2 immunity to Blomia tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qian; Ho, Adrian W S; Schlitzer, Andreas; Tang, Yafang; Wong, Kenneth H S; Wong, Fiona H S; Chua, Yen Leong; Angeli, Veronique; Mortellaro, Alessandra; Ginhoux, Florent; Kemeny, David M

    2014-07-15

    The Blomia tropicalis dust mite is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Although it is a leading cause of asthma, little is known how it induces allergy. Using a novel murine asthma model induced by intranasal exposure to B. tropicalis, we observed that a single intranasal sensitization to B. tropicalis extract induces strong Th2 priming in the lung draining lymph node. Resident CD11b(+) dendritic cells (DCs) preferentially transport Ag from the lung to the draining lymph node and are crucial for the initiation of Th2 CD4(+) T cell responses. As a consequence, mice selectively deficient in CD11b(+) DCs exhibited attenuated Th2 responses and more importantly did not develop any allergic inflammation. Conversely, mice deficient in CD103(+) DCs and CCR2-dependent monocyte-derived DCs exhibited similar allergic inflammation compared with their wild-type counterparts. We also show that CD11b(+) DCs constitutively express higher levels of GM-CSF receptor compared with CD103(+) DCs and are thus selectively licensed by lung epithelial-derived GM-CSF to induce Th2 immunity. Taken together, our study identifies GM-CSF-licensed CD11b(+) lung DCs as a key component for induction of Th2 responses and represents a potential target for therapeutic intervention in allergy. PMID:24943219

  8. 17 CFR 274.11b - Form N-3, registration statement of separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and on... INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11b Form N-3, registration statement of separate... to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts...

  9. 17 CFR 274.11b - Form N-3, registration statement of separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11b Form N-3, registration statement of separate... to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts...

  10. 17 CFR 274.11b - Form N-3, registration statement of separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11b Form N-3, registration statement of separate... to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts...

  11. 17 CFR 274.11b - Form N-3, registration statement of separate accounts organized as management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at... INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 Registration Statements § 274.11b Form N-3, registration statement of separate... to be filed pursuant to section 8(b) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 by separate accounts...

  12. Solid-state dynamics in the closo-carboranes: a (11)B MAS NMR and molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, Hernán; Kurkiewicz, Teresa; Thrippleton, Michael J; Wimperis, Stephen

    2015-03-19

    This work explores the dynamic behavior of the three closo-carborane isomers (formula C2B10H12) using modern solid-state magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR techniques and relates the experimental measurements to theoretical results obtained using molecular dynamics simulations. At high temperatures and at B0 = 9.4 T, the (11)B MAS line widths are narrow (40-90 Hz) for the three isomers. The rotational correlation times (τc) calculated by molecular dynamics are on the picosecond time scale, showing a quasi-isotropic rotation at these temperatures, typical for liquid systems. For all three isomers, the values of the (11)B spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) show discontinuities as the temperature is decreased, confirming the phase changes reported in the literature. At low temperatures, the (11)B MAS spectra of all three isomers exhibit much broader lines. The simulations showed that the molecular reorientation was anisotropic around different symmetry axes for each isomer, and this was supported by the values of the reduced quadrupolar parameter PQ(eff) derived from "dynamic shift" measurements using (11)B MQMAS NMR spectroscopy. The behavior of PQ(eff) as a function of temperature for p-carborane suggests that molecular reorientation is about the C5 symmetry axis of the molecule at low temperatures, and this was supported by the molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:25710751

  13. Antiretroviral Therapy Normalizes Autoantibody Profile of HIV Patients by Decreasing CD33+CD11b+HLA-DR+ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhefeng; Du, Ling; Hu, Ningjie; Byrd, Daniel; Amet, Tohti; Desai, Mona; Shepherd, Nicole; Lan, Jie; Han, Renzhi; Yu, Qigui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune manifestations are common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. However, the autoantibody spectrum associated with HIV infection and the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains to be determined. The plasma autoantibody spectrum for HIV patients was characterized by protein microarrays containing 83 autoantigens and confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) were analyzed by flow cytometry and their effects on autoantibodies production were determined by B cell ELISpot. Higher levels of autoantibody and higher prevalence of elevated autoantibodies were observed in ART-naive HIV patients compared to healthy subjects and HIV patients on ART. The highest frequency of CD33+CD11b+HLA-DR+ cells was observed in ART-naive HIV patients and was associated with the quantity of elevated autoantibodies. In addition, CD33+CD11b+HLA-DR+ cells other than Tregs or MDSCs boost the B cell response in a dose-dependent manner by in vitro assay. In summary, HIV infection leads to elevation of autoantibodies while ART suppresses the autoimmune manifestation by decreasing CD33+CD11b+HLA-DR+ cells in vivo. The roles of CD33+CD11b+HLA-DR+ cells on disease progression in HIV patients needs further assessment. PMID:27082567

  14. 17 CFR 260.11b-6 - Definition of “self-liquidating paper” in section 311(b)(6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Rules Under Section 311 § 260.11b-6 Definition of “self-liquidating paper” in section 311(b)(6). The term self-liquidating paper, as used in section 311(b)(6) of the Act, means any draft, bill of exchange... simultaneously with the creation of the creditor relationship with the obligor arising from the making,...

  15. 17 CFR 260.11b-6 - Definition of “self-liquidating paper” in section 311(b)(6).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Rules Under Section 311 § 260.11b-6 Definition of “self-liquidating paper” in section 311(b)(6). The term self-liquidating paper, as used in section 311(b)(6) of the Act, means any draft, bill of exchange... simultaneously with the creation of the creditor relationship with the obligor arising from the making,...

  16. Suppression of complete fusion due to breakup in the reactions {sup 10,11}B+{sup 209}Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Gasques, L. R.; Hinde, D. J.; Dasgupta, M.; Mukherjee, A.; Thomas, R. G.

    2009-03-15

    Above-barrier cross sections of fission and {alpha}-active heavy reaction products were measured for the reactions of {sup 10,11}B with {sup 209}Bi. Systematic analysis showed that the fission originates almost exclusively from complete fusion (CF). Existing measurements of above-barrier fusion products for the {sup 30}Si+{sup 186}W reaction, assumed to proceed exclusively through CF, were extrapolated to the current systems using statistical model calculations. This extrapolation showed that the heavy reaction products from the {sup 10,11}B+{sup 209}Bi reactions include substantial components from incomplete fusion as well as from CF. Compared with fusion calculations without breakup, the CF cross sections are suppressed by 15% for {sup 10}B and 7% for {sup 11}B. A consistent and systematic variation of the suppression of CF for reactions of the weakly bound nuclei {sup 6,7}Li, {sup 9}Be, and {sup 10,11}B on targets of {sup 208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi is found as a function of the breakup threshold energy.

  17. EFFECT OF INHALED ENDOTOXIN ON AIRWAY AND CIRCULATING INFLAMMATORY CELL PHAGOCYTOSIS AND CD11B EXPRESSION IN ATOPIC ASTHMATIC SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effect of inhaled endotoxin on airway and circulating inflammatory cell phagocytosis and CD11b expression in atopic asthmatic subjects

    Neil E. Alexis, PhD, Marlowe W. Eldridge, MD, David B. Peden, MD, MS

    Chapel Hill and Research Triangle Park, NC

    Backgrou...

  18. Combined use of 15N and 18O of nitrate and 11B to evaluate nitrate contamination in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiler, R.L.

    2005-01-01

    Isotopic composition of NO3 (??15NNO3 and ??18ONO3) and B (??11B) were used to evaluate NO3 contamination and identify geochemical processes occurring in a hydrologically complex Basin and Range valley in northern Nevada with multiple potential sources of NO3. Combined use of these isotopes may be a useful tool in identifying NO3 sources because NO3 and B co-migrate in many environmental settings, their isotopes are fractionated by different environmental processes, and because wastewater and fertilizers may have distinct isotopic signatures for N and B. The principal cause of elevated NO3 concentrations in residential parts of the study area is wastewater and not natural NO3 or fertilizers. This is indicated by some samples with elevated NO3 concentrations plotting along ??15NNO3 and NO3 mixing lines between natural NO3 from the study area and theoretical septic-system effluent. This conclusion is supported by the presence of caffeine in one sample and the absence of samples with elevated NO3 concentrations that fall along mixing lines between natural NO3 and theoretical percolate below fertilized lawns. Nitrogen isotopes alone could not be used to determine NO3 sources in several wells because denitrification blurred the original isotopic signatures. The range of ??11B values in native ground water in the study area (-8.2??? to +21.2???) is large. The samples with the low ??11B values have a geochemical signature characteristic of hydrothermal systems. Physical and chemical data suggest B is not being strongly fractionated by adsorption onto clays. ??11B values from local STP effluent (-2.7???) and wash water from a domestic washing machine (-5.7???) were used to plot mixing lines between wastewater and native ground water. In general, wells with elevated NO3 concentrations fell along mixing lines between wastewater and background water on plots of ??11B against 1/B and Cl/B. Combined use of ??15N and ??11B in the study area was generally successful in

  19. A reduced population of CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells has a limited impact on oral Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Santoscoy, María; Wenzel, Ulf Alexander; Persson, Emma; Yrlid, Ulf; Agace, William; Wick, Mary Jo

    2016-08-01

    CD103(+)CD11b(+) dendritic cells (DC) are the major migratory DC subset in the small intestine lamina propria (siLP) and their survival is dependent on the transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4). Mice with a DC-specific deletion of irf4 (CD11c-cre.Irf4 mice) have reduced mucosal CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC and altered T cell differentiation to protein antigen. The influence of CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC on oral infection with the gastrointestinal pathogen Salmonella, however, is poorly understood and is investigated here. We show that, despite being infected with Salmonella, CD11c-cre.Irf4 mice (called Cre(+) mice) conserve the reduction in CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC observed in naive Cre(+) mice, particularly in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) but also in the siLP at day 3 post infection. Moreover, Salmonella-infected Cre(+) mice have a similar bacterial burden in intestinal tissues (siLP, MLN and Peyer's patches) as well as the spleen compared to infected Cre(-) controls. The T cell compartment, including the frequency of IFN-γ and IL-17-producing T cells, is not altered in intestinal tissues of Salmonella-infected Cre(+) mice relative to infected Cre(-) controls. In addition, no difference between infected Cre(+) and Cre(-) mice was observed in either the concentration of IL-6 or IL-17 in whole tissue lysates of siLP, MLN or Peyer's patches or in the serum concentration of Salmonella-specific IgG and IgM. Overall the data suggest that the reduction of CD103(+)CD11b(+) DC in Cre(+) mice has little if any impact on Salmonella burden in infected tissues or eliciting effector functions important in host survival at later stages of the infection. PMID:27262930

  20. Choreography Styles in Figure Skating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moormann, Peter Paul

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…

  1. A Figural Education with Lyotard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Derek R.

    2015-01-01

    While there was a flurry of articles throughout the 1990s in philosophy of education on Lyotard, there are still several key concepts in his "oeuvre" that have import for but remain largely underdeveloped or absent in the field. One of the most interesting of these absent concepts is Lyotard's notion of the figural. In this paper, I…

  2. Figuring out a scientific understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Clive

    1993-12-01

    This article attempts to place analogy and metaphor within the wider context of all figurative language, and to trace the relationship between that kind of expression and the supposedly literal and direct accounts of nature that scientists have built up.I explore the functions of figures of speech in the development of new scientific ideas, and trace how they fade or die as each area of scientific knowledge matures. What we then take to be the literal words of scientific description are in effect the remnants of old figures of speech that have grown so familiar that their earlier metaphorical quality is easily overlooked. The conventional separation of figurative and literal cannot be sustained, and a new understanding of their relationship is needed.The practical implications of this analysis are to do with how we can reactivate the dormant metaphors in ordinary scientific language, so that learners may hear again the human voice of scientists who developed the ways of talking we now take for granted. To reactivate the system of thought behind any established way of talking, we must be able to get the learners to understand that language works as a medium of interpretation and persuasion, and not simply a system of descriptive labeling. These two views of language are compared and contrasted.

  3. Storytelling Figures: A Pueblo Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    In a collaborative unit on pueblo storytelling figures involving art, music, language arts, and physical education, a teacher describes how she helped second graders understand the Pueblo pottery tradition by reading aloud literature covering the past and present. Lists folklore, fiction, poetry, nonfiction, professional resources, videos, CDs,…

  4. KEPLER AND GROUND-BASED TRANSITS OF THE EXO-NEPTUNE HAT-P-11b

    SciTech Connect

    Deming, Drake; Jackson, Brian; Jennings, Donald E.; Sada, Pedro V.; Peterson, Steven W.; Haase, Flynn; Bays, Kevin; Agol, Eric; Knutson, Heather A.

    2011-10-10

    We analyze 26 archival Kepler transits of the exo-Neptune HAT-P-11b, supplemented by ground-based transits observed in the blue (B band) and near-IR (J band). Both the planet and host star are smaller than previously believed; our analysis yields R{sub p} = 4.31 R{sub +} {+-} 0.06 R{sub +} and R{sub s} = 0.683 R{sub sun} {+-} 0.009 R{sub sun}, both about 3{sigma} smaller than the discovery values. Our ground-based transit data at wavelengths bracketing the Kepler bandpass serve to check the wavelength dependence of stellar limb darkening, and the J-band transit provides a precise and independent constraint on the transit duration. Both the limb darkening and transit duration from our ground-based data are consistent with the new Kepler values for the system parameters. Our smaller radius for the planet implies that its gaseous envelope can be less extensive than previously believed, being very similar to the H-He envelope of GJ 436b and Kepler-4b. HAT-P-11 is an active star, and signatures of star spot crossings are ubiquitous in the Kepler transit data. We develop and apply a methodology to correct the planetary radius for the presence of both crossed and uncrossed star spots. Star spot crossings are concentrated at phases -0.002 and +0.006. This is consistent with inferences from Rossiter-McLaughlin measurements that the planet transits nearly perpendicular to the stellar equator. We identify the dominant phases of star spot crossings with active latitudes on the star, and infer that the stellar rotational pole is inclined at about 12{sup 0} {+-} 5{sup 0} to the plane of the sky. We point out that precise transit measurements over long durations could in principle allow us to construct a stellar Butterfly diagram to probe the cyclic evolution of magnetic activity on this active K-dwarf star.

  5. The estimate on lunar figure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, B. X.

    2008-10-01

    In 1799 Laplace had discovered that the lunar three principal momentum are not in equilibrium with the Moon's current orbital and rotational state.Some authors suggested that the Moon may carry a fossil figure. Before more 3 billion years the liquid Moon was closer to the Earth and revolved faster.Then the Moon migrated outwards and revolved slow down. During the early part of this migration, the Moon was continually subjected to tidal and rotational stretching and formed into an ellipsoid. Then the Moon cooled and solidified quickly. Eventually, the solid Moon's lithosphere was stable, so that we may see the very early lunar figure. In this paper, by using the lunar libration parameters and the spherical-harmonic gravity coefficient, the length of three radii a, b, c of the ellipsoid and the Moon's figure as an equilibrium tidal have been calculated. Then three conclusions can be obtained; (1) In the beginning the Moon may be very close to the Earth, before about 3 billion years the moon may cooled and solidified, and the present Moon are in the fossil figure. (2) In the third section of this paper, we demonstrate that the tidal deformation of liquid Moon was 1.934 times then the equilibrium tide. So that if to calculating the true lunar figure by using the lunar spherical-harmonic gravity coefficients, the effects of Liquid Love number hf = 1.934must be considered. (3) According to the difference between a, b, and c, the lunar distance (1.7455×108m) and spin period 3.652day can be calculated. So that the lunar orbits period was 8.34day. Hence the Moon was locked closely into a resonance orbit in the ratio 2:1 when the Moon froze.

  6. Study of the neutron and proton capture reactions 10,11B(n, γ), 11B(p, γ), 14C(p, γ), and 15N(p, γ) at thermal and astrophysical energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubovichenko, Sergey; Dzhazairov-Kakhramanov, Albert

    2014-07-01

    We have studied the neutron-capture reactions 10,11B(n, γ) and the role of the 11B(n, γ) reaction in seeding r-process nucleosynthesis. The possibility of the description of the available experimental data for cross-sections of the neutron capture reaction on 10B at thermal and astrophysical energies, taking into account the resonance at 475 keV, was considered within the framework of the modified potential cluster model (MPCM) with forbidden states (FS) and accounting for the resonance behavior of the scattering phase shifts. In the framework of the same model, the possibility of describing the available experimental data for the total cross-sections of the neutron radiative capture on 11B at thermal and astrophysical energies were considered with taking into account the 21 and 430 keV resonances. Description of the available experimental data on the total cross-sections and astrophysical S-factor of the radiative proton capture on 11B to the GS of 12C was treated at astrophysical energies. The possibility of description of the experimental data for the astrophysical S-factor of the radiative proton capture on 14C to the GS of 15N at astrophysical energies, and the radiative proton capture on 15N at the energies from 50 to 1500 keV was considered in the framework of the MPCM with the classification of the orbital states according to Young tableaux. It was shown that, on the basis of the M1 and the E1 transitions from different states of the p15N scattering to the GS of 16O in the p15N channel, it is quite succeed to explain general behavior of the S-factor in the considered energy range in the presence of two resonances.

  7. Relationship of Genetic Polymorphisms of Aldosterone Synthase Gene Cytochrome P450 11B2 and Mineralocorticoid Receptors with Coronary Artery Disease in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chi-Hung; Ueng, Kwo-Chang; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wu, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Po-Hui

    2016-01-01

    The aldosterone synthase gene, cytochrome P450 11B2 (CYP11B2), and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) genes have been reported to be associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CYP11B2 (CYP11B2 T-344C) and MR (MR C3514G and MR C4582A) with CAD in Taiwanese. Six hundred and nine unrelated male and female subjects who received elective coronary angiography were recruited from Chung Shan Medical University Hospital. The enrolled subjects were those who had a positive noninvasive test. CYP11B2 T-344C, MR C3514G and MR C4582A were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. We found that women with CYP11B2 C/C had a higher risk of developing CAD. However, there were no significant differences in the genotype distributions of MR C3514G and MR C4582A between the women with and without CAD. In multivariate analysis, CYP11B2 T-344C was most significantly associated with CAD in Taiwanese women. In conclusions, CYP11B2 C/C was more significantly associated with the development of CAD than diabetes mellitus or hypertension. This implies that CYP11B2 C/C plays a more important role than some conventional risk factors in the development of CAD in Taiwanese women. PMID:26941570

  8. Obliquely incident ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Dai, Yifan; Xie, Xuhui; Li, Shengyi

    2015-10-01

    A new ion beam figuring (IBF) technique, obliquely incident IBF (OI-IBF), is proposed. In OI-IBF, the ion beam bombards the optical surface obliquely with an invariable incident angle instead of perpendicularly as in the normal IBF. Due to the higher removal rate in oblique incidence, the process time in OI-IBF can be significantly shortened. The removal rates at different incident angles were first tested, and then a test mirror was processed by OI-IBF. Comparison shows that in the OI-IBF technique with a 30 deg incident angle, the process time was reduced by 56.8%, while keeping the same figure correcting ability. The experimental results indicate that the OI-IBF technique is feasible and effective to improve the surface correction process efficiency.

  9. A patient with refractory testicular adrenal rest tumour in the setting of cyp11b1 deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mohammad Reza; Rezvanian, Hassan; Siavash, Mansour; Parham, Mahmoud; Mahzouni, Parvin

    2009-01-01

    Testicular adrenal rest tumour (TART) due to CYP11B1 deficiency is a very rare clinical finding. Only seven cases have been reported previously. Here, the case of a 19-year-old boy with classic CYP11B1 deficiency and large testicles refractory to medical treatment that led to orchidectomy is reported. The clinical and laboratory manifestations of this patient are discussed and compared with that of the previously reported cases. The patient presented with rapid body growth, precocious puberty, hypertension, recurrent hypokalaemic paralysis and testicular enlargement. The most important differential diagnosis of his latter presentation is Leydig cell tumour (LCT). It was found that positive family history of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), hypertension, bilaterality, hypokalaemia and multiple hypoechoic masses on ultrasonography of the testes are in favour of a diagnosis of TART. Conversely, high titres of tumour markers and presence of Reinke crystalloids are supportive of a diagnosis of LCT. PMID:21686875

  10. Infection-induced type I interferons activate CD11b on B-1 cells for subsequent lymph node accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Waffarn, Elizabeth E.; Hastey, Christine J.; Dixit, Neha; Choi, Youn Soo; Cherry, Simon; Kalinke, Ulrich; Simon, Scott I.; Baumgarth, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Innate-like B-1a lymphocytes rapidly redistribute to regional mediastinal lymph nodes (MedLN) during influenza infection to generate protective IgM. Here we demonstrate that influenza infection-induced type I interferons directly stimulate body cavity B-1 cells and are a necessary signal required for B-1 cell accumulation in MedLN. Vascular mimetic flow chamber studies show that type I interferons increase ligand-mediated B-1 cell adhesion under shear stress by inducing high-affinity conformation shifts of surface-expressed integrins. In vivo trafficking experiments identify CD11b as the non-redundant, interferon-activated integrin required for B-1 cell accumulation in MedLN. Thus CD11b on B-1 cells senses infection-induced innate signals and facilitates their rapid sequester into secondary lymphoid tissues, thereby regulating the accumulation of polyreactive IgM producers at sites of infection. PMID:26612263

  11. Juvenile Paget’s Disease With Heterozygous Duplication In TNFRSF11A Encoding RANK

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Michael P.; Tau, Cristina; McAlister, William H.; Zhang, Xiafang; Novack, Deborah V.; Preliasco, Virginia; Santini-Araujo, Eduardo; Mumm, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Mendelian disorders of RANKL/OPG/RANK signaling feature the extremes of aberrant osteoclastogenesis and cause either osteopetrosis or rapid turnover skeletal disease. The patients with autosomal dominant accelerated bone remodeling have familial expansile osteolysis, early-onset Paget’s disease of bone, expansile skeletal hyperphosphatasia, or panostotic expansile bone disease due to heterozygous 18-, 27-, 15-, and 12-bp insertional duplications, respectively, within exon 1 of TNFRSF11A that encodes the signal peptide of RANK. Juvenile Paget’s disease (JPD), an autosomal recessive disorder, manifests extremely fast skeletal remodeling, and is usually caused by loss-of-function mutations within TNFRSF11B that encodes OPG. These disorders are ultra-rare. A 13-year-old Bolivian girl was referred at age 3 years. One femur was congenitally short and curved. Then, both bowed. Deafness at age 2 years involved missing ossicles and eroded cochleas. Teeth often had absorbed roots, broke, and were lost. Radiographs had revealed acquired tubular bone widening, cortical thickening, and coarse trabeculation. Biochemical markers indicated rapid skeletal turnover. Histopathology showed accelerated remodeling with abundant osteoclasts. JPD was diagnosed. Immobilization from a femur fracture caused severe hypercalcemia that responded rapidly to pamidronate treatment followed by bone turnover marker and radiographic improvement. No TNFRSF11B mutation was found. Instead, a unique heterozygous 15-bp insertional tandem duplication (87dup15) within exon 1 of TNFRSF11A predicted the same pentapeptide extension of RANK that causes expansile skeletal hyperphosphatasia (84dup15). Single nucleotide polymorphisms in TNFRSF11A and TNFRSF11B possibly impacted her phenotype. Our findings: i) reveal that JPD can be associated with an activating mutation within TNFRSF11A, ii) expand the range and overlap of phenotypes among the mendelian disorders of RANK activation, and iii) call for mutation

  12. New results on the Trojan Horse Method applied to the {sup 10,11}B+p reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Spitaleri, C.; Romano, S.; Lamia, L.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Sergi, M. L.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.; Del Szanto, M. G.; Carlin, N.; Munhoz, M. G.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Neto, R. Liguori; De Moura, M. M.; Souza, F. A.

    2009-05-04

    Light elements lithium, beryllium and boron (LiBeB) were used in the last years as 'possible probes' for stellar structure. They are mainly destroyed by (p,{alpha}) reactions and cross section measurements for such channels are then needed. In this work a resume of the recent results, obtained via Trojan Horse Method, about the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be and {sup 10}B(p,{alpha}){sup 7}Be reactions are shown.

  13. In silico structure-function analysis of pathological variation in the HSD11B2 gene sequence.

    PubMed

    Manning, Jonathan R; Bailey, Matthew A; Soares, Dinesh C; Dunbar, Donald R; Mullins, John J

    2010-08-01

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11betaHSD2) is a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) responsible for inactivating cortisol and preventing its binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Nonfunctional mutations in HSD11B2, the gene encoding 11betaHSD2, cause the hypertensive syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME). Like other such Mendelian disorders, AME is rare but has nevertheless helped to illuminate principles fundamental to the regulation of blood pressure. Furthermore, polymorphisms in HSD11B2 have been associated with salt sensitivity, a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. It is therefore highly likely that sequence variation in HSD11B2, having subtle functional ramifications, will affect blood pressure in the wider population. In this study, a three-dimensional homology model of 11betaHSD2 was created and used to hypothesize the functional consequences in terms of protein structure of published mutations in HSD11B2. This approach underscored the strong genotype-phenotype correlation of AME: severe forms of the disease, associated with little in vivo enzyme activity, arise from mutations occurring in invariant alignment positions. These were predicted to exert gross structural changes in the protein. In contrast, those mutations causing a mild clinical phenotype were in less conserved regions of the protein that were predicted to be relatively more tolerant to substitution. Finally, a number of pathogenic mutations are shown to be associated with regions predicted to participate in dimer formation, and in protein stabilization, which may therefore suggest molecular mechanisms of disease. PMID:20571110

  14. Complete and Incomplete Fusion Competition in 11B-INDUCED Fission Reactions on 197Au at the Intermediate Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demekhina, N. A.; Karapetyan, G. S.; Balabekyan, A. R.

    2015-06-01

    Above Coulomb barrier cross sections of fission fragment production were measured in reactions of 11B with 197Au target. Induced-activity method was used for measurement the fission decay channel of the composite nuclei. Systematic of the fission fragment charge and mass distributions was used for fission cross section calculation. Fission fraction of the composite nuclei decay was compared with PACE-4 mode calculations. Estimated suppression for fission fraction followed the complete fusion have been obtained 35%.

  15. IFN-γ differentially regulates subsets of Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells in chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaoxia; Fang, Yimin; Hu, Shengfeng; Wu, Yongjian; Yang, Kun; Liao, Chunxin; Zhang, Yuanqing; Huang, Xi; Wu, Minhao

    2015-08-01

    During chronic inflammation, prolonged over-reactive immune response may lead to tissue destruction, while immune suppression hinders tissue repair and pathogen elimination. Therefore, precise regulation of the immune response is needed to avoid immuno-pathology. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is widely used in clinical treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we evaluated the role of IFN-γ on CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cell differentiation and function, using a heat-killed Mycobacterium bovis BCG-induced chronic inflammation model. After challenge with heat-killed BCG, two subpopulations of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid cells were generated in the mouse spleen. Phenotypical, morphological and functional analysis indicated that the CD11b(+)Gr-1(high) Ly6G(high) Ly6C(low) subset was neutrophil-like myeloid-derived inducer cells (N-MDICs), which promoted T cell activation, while the other subset was CD11b(+)Gr-1(low) Ly6G(neg) Ly6C(high) monocyte-like myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) that displayed extensive suppressor function. IFN-γ treatment dampened N-MDICs-mediated T cell activation through up-regulating T cell suppressive mediators, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and arginase I. While for M-MDSCs, IFN-γ reduced their suppressing activity by decreasing the arginase activity. Our study provides evidence that IFN-γ balances the over-reactive vs compromised immune response through different regulation of distinct myeloid subsets, and therefore displays significant therapeutic potential for effective immuno-therapy of chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26021804

  16. Identification of seven novel CYP11B1 gene mutations in Chinese patients with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojing; Nie, Min; Lu, Lin; Tong, Anli; Chen, Shi; Lu, Zhaolin

    2015-08-01

    Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD), one of common cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by virilization, precocious pseudo-puberty, and hypertension. It is caused by CYP11B1 gene mutation. We performed molecular genetic analysis of the CYP11B1 gene in six patients with preliminary clinical diagnosis of 11β-OHD and four patients identified as potential 11β-OHD from a CAH cohort in which CYP21A2 gene mutations consecutively screened. Seven novel CYP11B1 mutations, including p.R454H, p.Q472P, p.Q155X, p.K173X, IVS2-1G>A, R454A fs 573X, and g.2704_g.3154del, and six previously described mutations (p.P94L, p.G267S, p.G379V, p.R448H, p.R454C and p.R141X) were identified. These mutations mainly clustered in exons 3 and 8. Eight of twenty alleles carried mutations occurring at the Arg454 position, which is a mutational hot spot for Han Chinese. The pathogenic nature of novel p.R454H mutation was predicted by protein sequence alignment and in silico analysis. All the identified mutations were responsible for the clinical features observed in these ten unrelated Chinese patients. This study expands the CYP11B1 mutation spectrum and provides evidence for prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling. Genetic analysis is an alternative approach to help clinicians confirm uncertain 11β-OHD diagnosis, facilitating reasonable steroid replacement. PMID:25911436

  17. In silico structure-function analysis of pathological variation in the HSD11B2 gene sequence

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Matthew A.; Soares, Dinesh C.; Dunbar, Donald R.; Mullins, John J.

    2010-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2) is a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) responsible for inactivating cortisol and preventing its binding to the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Nonfunctional mutations in HSD11B2, the gene encoding 11βHSD2, cause the hypertensive syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME). Like other such Mendelian disorders, AME is rare but has nevertheless helped to illuminate principles fundamental to the regulation of blood pressure. Furthermore, polymorphisms in HSD11B2 have been associated with salt sensitivity, a major risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. It is therefore highly likely that sequence variation in HSD11B2, having subtle functional ramifications, will affect blood pressure in the wider population. In this study, a three-dimensional homology model of 11βHSD2 was created and used to hypothesize the functional consequences in terms of protein structure of published mutations in HSD11B2. This approach underscored the strong genotype-phenotype correlation of AME: severe forms of the disease, associated with little in vivo enzyme activity, arise from mutations occurring in invariant alignment positions. These were predicted to exert gross structural changes in the protein. In contrast, those mutations causing a mild clinical phenotype were in less conserved regions of the protein that were predicted to be relatively more tolerant to substitution. Finally, a number of pathogenic mutations are shown to be associated with regions predicted to participate in dimer formation, and in protein stabilization, which may therefore suggest molecular mechanisms of disease. PMID:20571110

  18. The heteromeric transcription factor GABP activates the ITGAM/CD11b promoter and induces myeloid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ripperger, Tim; Manukjan, Georgi; Meyer, Johann; Wolter, Sabine; Schambach, Axel; Bohne, Jens; Modlich, Ute; Li, Zhixiong; Skawran, Britta; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Steinemann, Doris

    2015-09-01

    The heteromeric transcription factor GA-binding protein (GABP) consists of two subunits, the alpha subunit (GABPA) carrying the DNA-binding ETS domain, and the beta subunit (GABPB1) harbouring the transcriptional activation domain. GABP is involved in haematopoietic stem cell maintenance and differentiation of myeloid and lymphoid lineages in mice. To elucidate the molecular function of GABP in human haematopoiesis, the present study addressed effects of ectopic overexpression of GABP focussing on the myeloid compartment. Combined overexpression of GABPA and GABPB1 caused a proliferation block in cell lines and drastically reduced the colony-forming capacity of murine lineage-negative cells. Impaired proliferation resulted from perturbed cellular cycling and induction of myeloid differentiation shown by surface markers and myelomonocytic morphology of U937 cells. Depending on the dosage and functional integrity of GABP, ITGAM expression was induced. ITGAM encodes CD11b, the alpha subunit of integrin Mac-1, whose beta subunit, ITGB2/CD18, was already described to be regulated by GABP. Finally, Shield1-dependent proteotuning, luciferase reporter assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that GABP activates the ITGAM/CD11b promoter via three binding sites close to the translational start site. In conclusion, the present study supports the crucial role of GABP in myeloid cell differentiation and identified ITGAM/CD11b as a novel GABP target gene. PMID:26170143

  19. Detailed study for 16O → 12C + α and 12C → 11B + p spectroscopic factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Sh.; Burtebayev, N.; Amangeldi, N.

    2014-10-01

    We have measured the angular distributions for 16O elastically scattered on 12C nuclei at energy 28 MeV and also for 12C ion beam elastically scattered on 11B target nuclei at energy 18 MeV. These measurements were performed in the cyclotron DC-60 INP NNC RK. Calculations were performed using both empirical Woods-Saxon and double folding optical model potentials. Both elastic scattering and transfer reaction were taken into consideration. We have extracted the spectroscopic factors for the configurations 16O → 12C + α and 12C → 11B + p and compared them with other calculated or extracted values at different energies from literature. The extracted spectroscopic factor for the configuration 12C → 11B + p from the current work is in the range 2.7-3.1, which is very close to Cohen-Kurath prediction. While for the configuration 16O → 12C + α, spectroscopic factors show fluctuation with energy which could be due to the well-known resonant-like behavior observed in 16O + 12C excitation function.

  20. Antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes target airway CD103+ and CD11b+ dendritic cells to suppress allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Daniels, N J; Hyde, E; Ghosh, S; Seo, K; Price, K M; Hoshino, K; Kaisho, T; Okada, T; Ronchese, F

    2016-01-01

    Allergic airway inflammation is driven by the recognition of inhaled allergen by T helper type 2 (Th2) cells in the airway and lung. Allergen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) can strongly reduce airway inflammation, however, the mechanism of their inhibitory activity is not fully defined. We used mouse models to show that allergen-specific CTLs reduced early cytokine production by Th2 cells in lung, and their subsequent accumulation and production of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13. In addition, treatment with specific CTLs also increased the proportion of caspase(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in mediastinal lymph node (MLN), and decreased the numbers of CD103(+) and CD11b(+) DCs in the lung. This decrease required expression of the cytotoxic mediator perforin in CTLs and of the appropriate MHC-antigen ligand on DCs, suggesting that direct CTL-DC contact was necessary. Lastly, lung imaging experiments revealed that in airway-challenged mice XCR1-GFP(+) DCs, corresponding to the CD103(+) DC subset, and XCR1-GFP(-) CD11c(+) cells, which include CD11b(+) DCs and alveolar macrophages, both clustered in the areas surrounding the small airways and were closely associated with allergen-specific CTLs. Thus, allergen-specific CTLs reduce allergic airway inflammation by depleting CD103(+) and CD11b(+) DC populations in the lung, and may constitute a mechanism through which allergic immune responses are regulated. PMID:26104914

  1. Development of non-viral vehicles for targeted gene transfer into microglia via the integrin receptor CD11b

    PubMed Central

    Smolny, Markus; Rogers, Mary-Louise; Shafton, Anthony; Rush, Robert A.; Stebbing, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Microglial activation is a central event in neurodegeneration. Novel technologies are sought for that specifically manipulate microglial function in order to delineate their role in onset and progression of neuropathologies. We investigated for the first time whether non-viral gene delivery based on polyethyleneglycol–polyethyleneimine conjugated to the monoclonal anti-CD11b antibody OX42 (“OX42-immunogene”) could be used to specifically target microglia. We first conducted immunofluorescence studies with the OX42 antibody and identified its microglial integrin receptor CD11b as a potential target for receptor-mediated gene transfer based on its cellular specificity in mixed glia culture and in vivo and found that the OX42 antibody is rapidly internalized and trafficked to acidic organelles in absence of activation of the respiratory burst. We then performed transfection experiments with the OX42-immunogene in vitro and in rat brain showing that the OX42-immunogene although internalized was degraded intracellularly and did not cause substantial gene expression in microglia. Investigation of specific barriers to microglial gene transfer revealed that aggregated OX42-immunogene polyplexes stimulated the respiratory burst that likely involved Fcγ-receptors. Transfections in the presence of the endosomolytic agent chloroquine improved transfection efficiency indicating that endosomal escape may be limited. This study identifies CD11b as an entry point for antibody-mediated gene transfer into microglia and takes important steps toward the further development of OX42-immunogenes. PMID:25346658

  2. Bcl11b SWI/SNF-complex subunit modulates intestinal adenoma and regeneration after γ-irradiation through Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Akira; Katsuragi, Yoshinori; Otsuka, Kensuke; Tomita, Masanori; Obata, Miki; Iwasaki, Tomohiro; Abe, Manabu; Sato, Toshihiro; Ochiai, Masako; Sakuraba, Yoshiyuki; Aoyagi, Yutaka; Gondo, Yoichi; Sakimura, Kenji; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Mishima, Yukio; Kominami, Ryo

    2015-06-01

    SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes constitute a highly related family of multi-subunit complexes to modulate transcription, and SWI/SNF subunit genes are collectively mutated in 20% of all human cancers. Bcl11b is a SWI/SNF subunit and acts as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor in leukemia/lymphomas. Here, we show expression of Bcl11b in intestinal crypt cells and promotion of intestinal tumorigenesis by Bcl11b attenuation in Apc (min/+) mice. Of importance, mutations or allelic loss of BCL11B was detected in one-third of human colon cancers. We also show that attenuated Bcl11b activity in the crypt base columnar (CBC) cells expressing the Lgr5 stem cell marker enhanced regeneration of intestinal epithelial cells after the radiation-induced injury. Interestingly, BCL11B introduction in human cell lines downregulated transcription of β-catenin target genes, whereas Bcl11b attenuation in Lgr5(+) CBCs increased expression of β-catenin targets including c-Myc and cyclin D1. Together, our results argue that Bcl11b impairment promotes tumor development in mouse and human intestine at least in part through deregulation of β-catenin pathway. PMID:25827435

  3. CIRCULATING CD11B EXPRESSION CORRELATES WITH THE NEUTROPHIL RESPONSE AND AIRWAY MCD-14 EXPRESSION IS ENHANCED FOLLOWING OZONE EXPOSURE IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We recently reported that baseline expression of circulating CD11b is associated with the magnitude of the neutrophil response following inhaled endotoxin. In this study, we examined whether circulating CD11b plays a similar role in the inflammatory response following inhaled ozo...

  4. Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells efficiently home to site of injury after intravenous administration and enhance diabetic wound healing by neoangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xiaozhe; Lv, Gang; Huang, Jianhua; Min, Yongfen; Yang, Li; Lin, Pengnian Charles

    2014-01-01

    Vascularization is an important factor that affects diabetic wound healing. There is increasing evidence that myeloid cell lineages play a role in neovascularization. In this study, the efficiency of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to home to the site of injury and enhance diabetic wound healing by neoangiogenesis after intravenous administration was investigated. Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells were injected into tail vein after establishment of dorsal window chamber, hindlimb ischaemia and ear-punch injury in diabetic or non-diabetic mice. The Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells efficiently homed to the site of injury after intravenous administration and increased neoangiogenesis. The chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is robustly expressed by Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells. Inhibition of CXCR4 decreases the homing ability of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to the site of injury, which indicates that the CXCR4/SDF-1 axis plays an important role in the homing of Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells to the site of injury. In addition, Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells were found to improve blood flow recovery of ischaemic limb and enhance wound healing in diabetic mice by neoangiogenesis after intravenous administration. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that Gr-1+CD11b+ myeloid cells may serve as a potential cell therapy for diabetic wound healing. PMID:24645717

  5. BCL11B is a General Transcriptional Repressor of the HIV-1 Long Terminal Repeat in T Lymphocytes through recruitment of the NuRD Complex

    PubMed Central

    Cismasiu, Valeriu B.; Paskaleva, Elena; Daya, Sneha Suman; Canki, Mario; Duus, Karen; Avram, Dorina

    2008-01-01

    In this study we provide evidence that the transcription factor BCL11B represses expression from the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) in T lymphocytes through direct association with the HIV-1 LTR. We also demonstrate that the NuRD corepressor complex mediates BCL11B transcriptional repression of the HIV-1 LTR. In addition, BCL11B and the NuRD complex repressed TAT-mediated transactivation of the HIV-1 LTR in T lymphocytes, pointing to a potential role in initiation of silencing. In support of all the above results, we demonstrate that BCL11B affects HIV-1 replication and virus production, most likely by blocking LTR transcriptional activity. BCL11B showed specific repression for the HIV-1 LTR sequences isolated from seven different HIV-1 subtypes, demonstrating that it is a general transcriptional repressor for all LTRs. PMID:18768194

  6. Enhanced spatial resolution on figures versus grounds.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Lauren N; Cosman, Joshua D; Vecera, Shaun P

    2016-07-01

    Much is known about the cues that determine figure-ground assignment, but less is known about the consequences of figure-ground assignment on later visual processing. Previous work has demonstrated that regions assigned figural status are subjectively more shape-like and salient than background regions. The increase in subjective salience of figural regions could be caused by a number of processes, one of which may be enhanced perceptual processing (e.g., an enhanced neural representation) of figures relative to grounds. We explored this hypothesis by having observers perform a perceptually demanding spatial resolution task in which targets appeared on either figure or ground regions. To rule out a purely attentional account of figural salience, observers discriminated targets on the basis of a region's color (red or green), which was equally likely to define the figure or the ground. The results of our experiments showed that targets appearing on figures were discriminated more accurately than those appearing in ground regions. In addition, targets appearing on figures were discriminated better than those presented in regions considered figurally neutral, but targets appearing within ground regions were discriminated more poorly than those appearing in figurally neutral regions. Taken together, our findings suggest that when two regions share a contour, regions assigned as figure are perceptually enhanced, whereas regions assigned as ground are perceptually suppressed. PMID:27048441

  7. Hooke's figurations: a figural drawing attributed to Robert Hooke.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Matthew C

    2010-09-20

    The experimental philosopher Robert Hooke (1635-1703) is known to have apprenticed to the leading painter Peter Lely on his first arrival in London in the late 1640s. Yet the relevance of Hooke's artistic training to his mature draughtsmanship and identity has remained unclear. Shedding light on that larger interpretive problem, this article argues for the attribution to Hooke of a figural drawing now in Tate Britain (T10678). This attributed drawing is especially interesting because it depicts human subjects and bears Hooke's name functioning as an artistic signature, both highly unusual features for his draughtsmanship. From evidence of how this drawing was collected and physically placed alongside images by leading artists in the early eighteenth century, I suggest how it can offer new insight into the reception of Hooke and his graphic work in the early Enlightenment. PMID:20973449

  8. Cross-Talk between cAMP and MAPK Pathways in HSD11B2 Induction by hCG in Placental Trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Qun; Li, Wenjiao; Li, Jianneng; Wang, Wangsheng; Liu, Chao; Sun, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Overexposure of the fetus to glucocorticoids in gestation is detrimental to fetal development. The passage of maternal glucocorticoids into the fetal circulation is governed by 11beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 (HSD11B2) in the placental syncytiotrophoblasts. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) plays an important role in maintaining placental HSD11B2 expression via activation of the cAMP pathway. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the activation of the cAMP pathway by hCG and subsequent phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways in the regulation of placental HSD11B2 expression in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts. We found that treatment of the placental syncytiotrophoblasts with either hCG or dibutyl cAMP (dbcAMP) could promote the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. Inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB203580 not only reduced the basal HSD11B2 mRNA and protein levels but also attenuated HSD11B2 levels induced by either hCG or dbcAMP. By contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2 with PD98059 increased the basal mRNA and protein levels of HSD11B2 and had no effect on HSD11B2 mRNA and protein levels induced by either hCG or dbcAMP. These data suggest that p38 MAPK is involved in both basal and hCG/cAMP-induced expression of HSD11B2, and ERK1/2 may play a role opposite to p38 MAPK at least in the basal expression of HSD11B2 in human placental syncytiotrophoblasts and that there is complicated cross-talk between hCG/cAMP and MAPK cascades in the regulation of placental HSD11B2 expression. PMID:25229504

  9. Juvenile paget's disease in an Iranian kindred with vitamin D deficiency and novel homozygous TNFRSF11B mutation.

    PubMed

    Saki, Forough; Karamizadeh, Zohreh; Nasirabadi, Shiva; Mumm, Steven; McAlister, William H; Whyte, Michael P

    2013-06-01

    Juvenile Paget's disease (JPD) is a rare heritable osteopathy characterized biochemically by markedly increased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity emanating from generalized acceleration of skeletal turnover. Affected infants and children typically suffer bone pain and fractures and deformities, become deaf, and have macrocranium. Some who survive to young adult life develop blindness from retinopathy engendered by vascular microcalcification. Most cases of JPD are caused by osteoprotegerin (OPG) deficiency due to homozygous loss-of-function mutations within the TNFRSF11B gene that encodes OPG. We report a 3-year-old Iranian girl with JPD and craniosynostosis who had vitamin D deficiency in infancy. She presented with fractures during the first year-of-life followed by bone deformities, delayed development, failure-to-thrive, and pneumonias. At 1 year-of-age, biochemical studies of serum revealed marked hyperphosphatasemia together with low-normal calcium and low inorganic phosphate and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. Several family members in previous generations of this consanguineous kindred may also have had JPD and vitamin D deficiency. Mutation analysis showed homozygosity for a unique missense change (c.130T>C, p.Cys44Arg) in TNFRSF11B that would compromise the cysteine-rich domain of OPG that binds receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Both parents were heterozygous for this mutation. The patient's serum OPG level was extremely low and RANKL level markedly elevated. She responded well to rapid oral vitamin D repletion followed by pamidronate treatment given intravenously. Our patient is the first Iranian reported with JPD. Her novel mutation in TNFRSF11B plus vitamin D deficiency in infancy was associated with severe JPD uniquely complicated by craniosynostosis. Pamidronate treatment with vitamin D sufficiency can be effective therapy for the skeletal disease caused by the OPG deficiency form of JPD. PMID:23322328

  10. Inhibition of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) by torasemide prevents atrial fibrosis and atrial fibrillation in mice.

    PubMed

    Adam, Oliver; Zimmer, Christina; Hanke, Nina; Hartmann, Rolf W; Klemmer, Birgit; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2015-08-01

    Loop diuretics are used for fluid control in patients with heart failure. Furosemide and torasemide may exert differential effects on myocardial fibrosis. Here, we studied the effects of torasemide and furosemide on atrial fibrosis and remodeling during atrial fibrillation. In primary neonatal cardiac fibroblasts, torasemide (50μM, 24h) but not furosemide (50μM, 24h) reduced the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF; 65±6%) and the pro-fibrotic miR-21 (44±23%), as well as the expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX; 57±8%), a regulator of collagen crosslinking. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) expression and activity were not altered. Torasemide but not furosemide inhibited human aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) activity in transfected lung fibroblasts (V79MZ cells) by 75±1.8%. The selective CYP11B2 inhibitor SL242 mimicked the torasemide effects. Mice with cardiac overexpression of Rac1 GTPase (RacET), which develop atrial fibrosis and spontaneous AF with aging, were treated long-term (8months) with torasemide (10mg/kg/day), furosemide (40mg/kg/day) or vehicle. Treatment with torasemide but not furosemide prevented atrial fibrosis in RacET as well as the up-regulation of CTGF, LOX, and miR-2, whereas MR expression and activity remained unaffected. These effects correlated with a reduced prevalence of atrial fibrillation (33% RacET+Tora vs. 80% RacET). Torasemide but not furosemide inhibits CYP11B2 activity and reduces the expression of CTGF, LOX, and miR-21. These effects are associated with prevention of atrial fibrosis and a reduced prevalence of atrial fibrillation in mice. PMID:26047574

  11. Early infiltration of p40IL12+CCR7+CD11b+ cells is critical for fibrosis development

    PubMed Central

    Correa‐Costa, Matheus; Azevedo, Hatylas; Silva, Reinaldo Correia; Cruz, Mario Costa; Almeida, Maira Estanislau Soares; Hiyane, Meire Ioshie; Moreira‐Filho, Carlos Alberto; Santos, Marinilce Fagundes; Perez, Katia Regina; Cuccovia, Iolanda Midea; Camara, Niels Olsen Saraiva

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Macrophages are heterogeneous and thus can be correlated with distinct tissue outcomes after injury. Conflicting data have indicated that the M2‐related phenotype directly triggers fibrosis. Conversely, we hypothesize here that the inflammatory milieu provided by early infiltration of pro‐inflammatory macrophages dictates tissue scarring after injury. Methods and Results We first determined that tissue‐localized macrophages exhibit a pro‐inflammatory phenotype (p40IL12+CCR7+CD11b+) during the early phase of a chronic injury model, in contrast to a pro‐resolving phenotype (Arg1+IL10+CD206+CD11b+) at a later stage. Then, we evaluated the effects of injecting macrophages differentiated in vitro in the presence of IFNγ + LPS or IL4 + IL13 or non‐differentiated macrophages (hereafter, M0) on promoting inflammation and progression of chronic injury in macrophage‐depleted mice. In addition to enhancing the expression of pro‐inflammatory cytokines, the injection of M (IFNγ + LPS), but not M (IL4 + IL13) or M0, accentuated fibrosis while augmenting levels of anti‐inflammatory molecules, increasing collagen deposition and impairing organ function. We observed a similar profile after injection of sorted CCR7+CD11b+ cells and a more pronounced effect of M (IFNγ + LPS) cells originated from Stat6−/− mice. The injection of M (IFNγ + LPS) cells was associated with the up‐regulation of inflammation‐ and fibrosis‐related proteins (Thbs1, Mmp7, Mmp8, and Mmp13). Conclusions Our results suggest that pro‐inflammatory macrophages promote microenvironmental changes that may lead to fibrogenesis by inducing an inflammatory milieu that alters a network of extracellular‐related genes, culminating in tissue fibrosis. PMID:27621813

  12. Lipopolysaccharide enhances FcγR-dependent functions in vivo through CD11b/CD18 up-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Rubel, C; Miliani De Marval, P; Vermeulen, M; Isturiz, M A; Palermo, M S

    1999-01-01

    Fc receptors for immunoglobulin G (IgG) (FcγR) mediate several defence mechanisms in the course of inflammatory and infectious diseases. In Gram-negative infections, cellular wall lipopolysaccharides (LPS) modulate different immune responses. We have recently demonstrated that murine LPS in vivo treatment significantly increases FcγR-dependent clearance of immune complexes (IC). In addition, we and others have reported the induction of adhesion molecules on macrophages and neutrophils by LPS in vivo and by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in vitro. The aim of this paper was to investigate CD11b/CD18 participation in LPS enhancing effects on Fcγ-dependent functionality of tissue macrophages. Our results have demonstrated that LPS can enhance antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and IC-triggered cytotoxicity (IC-Ctx), two reactions which involve the Fcγ-receptor but different lytic mechanisms. In vitro incubation of splenocytes from LPS-treated mice with anti-CD11b/CD18 abrogated ADCC and IC-Ctx enhancement, without affecting FcγR expression. Similar results were obtained with physiological concentrations of fibrinogen. In this way cytotoxic values of LPS-splenocytes decreased to the basal levels of control mice. Time and temperature requirements for such inhibition strongly suggested that anti-CD11b/CD18 could modulate intracellular signals leading to downregulation of FcγR functionality. Data presented herein support the hypothesis that functional and/or physical associations between integrins and FcγR could be critical for the modulation of effector functions during an inflammatory response. PMID:10447764

  13. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 38

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures to Part 38 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems Pt. 38, Figures Figures to Part 38 ER28SE98.000...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 38

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figures to Part 38 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems Pt. 38, Figures Figures to Part 38 ER28SE98.000...

  15. Preadolescent male perceptions of action figure physiques.

    PubMed

    Baghurst, Timothy; Carlston, David; Wood, Julie; Wyatt, Frank B

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the preference and reasoning of 176 preadolescent and adolescent males when presented with original and current action figures that had statistically different physiques. Current action figures were perceived as significantly more muscular and healthier. Participants also preferred to resemble current action figures citing muscularity and size for their preference. PMID:18023792

  16. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 38

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures to Part 38 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems Pt. 38, Figures Figures to Part 38 ER28SE98.000...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 38

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figures to Part 38 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY SPECIFICATIONS FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, and similar vehicles, and systems Pt. 38, Figures Figures to Part 38 ER28SE98.000...

  18. PHOBOS Experiment: Figures and Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The PHOBOS Collaboration

    PHOBOS consists of many silicon detectors surrounding the interaction region. With these detectors physicists can count the total number of produced particles and study the angular distributions of all the products. Physicists know from other branches of physics that a characteristic of phase transitions are fluctuations in physical observables. With the PHOBOS array they look for unusual events or fluctuations in the number of particles and angular distribution. The articles that have appeared in refereed science journals are listed here with separate links to the supporting data plots, figures, and tables of numeric data.  See also supporting data for articles in technical journals at http://www.phobos.bnl.gov/Publications/Technical/phobos_technical_publications.htm and from conference proceedings at http://www.phobos.bnl.gov/Publications/Proceedings/phobos_proceedings_publications.htm

  19. Small GTPases Rab8a and Rab11a Are Dispensable for Rhodopsin Transport in Mouse Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Guoxin; Gerstner, Cecilia D.; Frederick, Jeanne M.; Boye, Sanford L.; Hauswirth, William W.; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Rab11a and Rab8a are ubiquitous small GTPases shown as required for rhodopsin transport in Xenopus laevis and zebrafish photoreceptors by dominant negative (dn) disruption of function. Here, we generated retina-specific Rab11a (retRab11a) and Rab8a (retRab8a) single and double knockout mice to explore the consequences in mouse photoreceptors. Rhodopsin and other outer segment (OS) membrane proteins targeted correctly to OS and electroretinogram (ERG) responses in all three mutant mouse lines were indistinguishable from wild-type (WT). Further, AAV (adeno-associated virus)-mediated expression of dnRab11b in retRab11a-/- retina, or expression of dnRab8b in retRab8a-/- retina did not cause OS protein mislocalization. Finally, a retRab8a-/- retina injected at one month of age with AAVs expressing dnRab11a, dnRab11b, dnRab8b, and dnRab10 (four dn viruses on Rab8a-/- background) and harvested three months later exhibited normal OS protein localization. In contrast to results obtained with dnRab GTPases in Xenopus and zebrafish, mouse Rab11a and Rab8a are dispensable for proper rhodopsin and outer segment membrane protein targeting. Absence of phenotype after expression of four dn Rab GTPases in a Rab8a-/- retina suggests that Rab8b and Rab11b paralogs maybe dispensable as well. Our data thus demonstrate significant interspecies variation in photoreceptor membrane protein and rhodopsin trafficking. PMID:27529348

  20. (11)B Solid-State NMR Interaction Tensors of Linear Two-Coordinate Boron: The Dimesitylborinium Cation.

    PubMed

    Alain, Amanda E; Shoji, Yoshiaki; Fukushima, Takanori; Bryce, David L

    2015-12-21

    Borinium cations (R2B(+)) are of particular fundamental and applied interest in part due to their pronounced Lewis acidity which enables unique chemical transformations. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of magic-angle spinning and stationary powdered samples of the dicoordinate boron cation in the recently reported dimesitylborinium tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate compound (Shoji et al. Nature Chem. 2014, 6, 498) is applied to characterize the (11)B electric field gradient (EFG) and chemical shift (CS) tensors. The experimental data are consistent with linear C-B(+)-C geometry. The (11)B quadrupolar coupling constant, 5.44 ± 0.08 MHz, and the span of the CS tensor, 130 ± 1 ppm, are both particularly large relative to literature data for a variety of boron functional groups, and represent the first such data for the linear C-B(+)-C borinium moiety. The NMR data are similar to those for the neutral tricoordinate analogue, trimesitylborane, but contrast with those of the Cp*2B(+) cation. Quantum chemical calculations are applied to provide additional insights into the relationship between the NMR observables and the molecular and electronic structure of the dimesitylborinium cation. PMID:26624205

  1. Epigenetic regulation of the placental HSD11B2 barrier and its role as a critical regulator of fetal development

    PubMed Central

    Togher, Katie L; Togher, Katie L; O'Keeffe, Majella M; O'Keeffe, Majella M; Khashan, Ali S; Khashan, Ali S; Gutierrez, Humberto; Gutierrez, Humberto; Kenny, Louise C; Kenny, Louise C; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2014-01-01

    “Fetal programming” is a term used to describe how early-life experience influences fetal development and later disease risk. In humans, prenatal stress-induced fetal programming is associated with increased risk of preterm birth, and a heightened risk of metabolic and neurological diseases later in life. A critical determinant of this is the regulation of fetal exposure to glucocorticoids by the placenta. Glucocorticoids are the mediators through which maternal stress influences fetal development. Excessive fetal glucocorticoid exposure during pregnancy results in low birth weight and abnormalities in a number of tissues. The amount of fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids depends on the expression of HSD11B2, an enzyme predominantly produced by the syncytiotrophoblast in the placenta. This protects the fetus by converting active glucocorticoids into inactive forms. In this review we examine recent findings regarding placental HSD11B2 that suggest that its epigenetic regulation may mechanistically link maternal stress and long-term health consequences in affected offspring. PMID:24717516

  2. Folate Receptor β Regulates Integrin CD11b/CD18 Adhesion of a Macrophage Subset to Collagen.

    PubMed

    Machacek, Christian; Supper, Verena; Leksa, Vladimir; Mitulovic, Goran; Spittler, Andreas; Drbal, Karel; Suchanek, Miloslav; Ohradanova-Repic, Anna; Stockinger, Hannes

    2016-09-15

    Folate, also known as vitamin B9, is necessary for essential cellular functions such as DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. It is supplied to the cell via several transporters and receptors, including folate receptor (FR) β, a GPI-anchored protein belonging to the folate receptor family. As FRβ shows a restricted expression to cells of myeloid origin and only a subset of activated macrophages and placental cells have been shown to express functional FRβ, it represents a promising target for future therapeutic strategies. In this study, we performed affinity purification and mass spectrometric analysis of the protein microenvironment of FRβ in the plasma membrane of human FRβ(+) macrophages and FRβ-transduced monocytic THP-1 cells. In this manner, we identified a novel role of FRβ: that is, we report functional interactions of FRβ with receptors mediating cellular adhesion, in particular the CD11b/CD18 β2 integrin heterodimer complement receptor type 3/Mac-1. This interaction results in impeded adhesion of FRβ(+) human primary macrophages and THP-1 cells to collagen in comparison with their FRβ(-) counterparts. We further show that FRβ is only expressed by human macrophages when differentiated with M-CSF. These findings thus identify FRβ as a novel CD11b/CD18 regulator for trafficking and homing of a subset of macrophages on collagen. PMID:27534550

  3. Transcriptional Reprogramming of CD11b+Esamhi Dendritic Cell Identity and Function by Loss of Runx3

    PubMed Central

    Dicken, Joseph; Mildner, Alexander; Leshkowitz, Dena; Touw, Ivo P.; Hantisteanu, Shay; Jung, Steffen; Groner, Yoram

    2013-01-01

    Classical dendritic cells (cDC) are specialized antigen-presenting cells mediating immunity and tolerance. cDC cell-lineage decisions are largely controlled by transcriptional factor regulatory cascades. Using an in vivo cell-specific targeting of Runx3 at various stages of DC lineage development we show that Runx3 is required for cell-identity, homeostasis and function of splenic Esamhi DC. Ablation of Runx3 in DC progenitors led to a substantial decrease in splenic CD4+/CD11b+ DC. Combined chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and gene expression analysis of purified DC-subsets revealed that Runx3 is a key gene expression regulator that facilitates specification and homeostasis of CD11b+Esamhi DC. Mechanistically, loss of Runx3 alters Esamhi DC gene expression to a signature characteristic of WT Esamlow DC. This transcriptional reprogramming caused a cellular change that diminished phagocytosis and hampered Runx3-/- Esamhi DC capacity to prime CD4+ T cells, attesting to the significant role of Runx3 in specifying Esamhi DC identity and function. PMID:24204843

  4. Secondary Eclipse Observations of the Low-Mass Hot-Jupiter WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, M. Oliver; Harrington, J.; Blecic, J.; Foster, A.; Stevenson, K. B.; Cubillos, P.; Collier Cameron, A.; UCF Exoplanets Group

    2013-10-01

    WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b is a hot-Jupiter planet that orbits a K3 dwarf every 3.722 days at a distance of 0.0439 AU. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope in 2009 (Harrington, P.I.) and 2010 (Knutson, P.I), we observed five secondary eclipses of WASP-11b/HAT-P-10b: two in the 3.6-micron channel, two in the 4.5-micron channel, and one in the 8-micron channel. We present eclipse-depth measurements, estimates of infrared brightness temperatures, and the first constraints on the atmospheric pressure and temperature profile and chemical compositions. We also refine its orbit using our own secondary-eclipse measurements in combination with external radial-velocity and transit observations from both professional and amateur observers. Spitzer is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. This work was supported in part by NASA Planetary Atmospheres grant NNX13AF38G.

  5. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 648 - Figure 1 to Part 648

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 648 1 Figure 1 to Part 648 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Pt. 648, Figure 1 Figure 1...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 648 - Figure 1 to Part 648

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 648 1 Figure 1 to Part 648 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Pt. 648, Figure 1 Figure 1...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 648 - Figure 1 to Part 648

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 648 1 Figure 1 to Part 648 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Pt. 648, Figure 1 Figure 1...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 648 - Figure 1 to Part 648

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 648 1 Figure 1 to Part 648 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Pt. 648, Figure 1 Figure 1...

  9. Solving the Large Discrepancy Between Inclusive and Exclusive Measurements of the 8Li + 4He → 11B + n Reaction Cross Section at Astrophysical Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cognata, M.; Del Zoppo, A.; Alba, R.; Cherubini, S.; Colonna, N.; Di Pietro, A.; Figuera, P.; Gulino, M.; Lamia, L.; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Tumino, A.

    2009-12-01

    A solution of the large discrepancy existing between inclusive and exclusive measurements of the 8Li + 4He → 11B + n reaction cross section at E cm < 3 MeV is evaluated. This problem has profound astrophysical relevance for this reaction is of great interest in big bang and r-process nucleosynthesis. By means of a novel technique, a comprehensive study of all existing 8Li + 4He → 11B + n cross section data is carried out, setting up a consistent picture in which all the inclusive measurements provide the reliable value of the cross section. New unambiguous signatures of the strong branch pattern non-uniformities, near the threshold of higher 11B excited levels, are presented and their possible origin, in terms of the cluster structure of the involved excited states of 11B and 12Bnuclei, is discussed.

  10. Bevacizumab specifically decreases elevated levels of circulating KIT+CD11b+ cells and IL-10 in metastatic breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Cattin, Sarah; Fellay, Benoît; Pradervand, Sylvain; Trojan, Andreas; Ruhstaller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether bevacizumab exerts its anti-tumor properties through systemic effects beyond local inhibition of angiogenesis and how these effects can be monitored in patients, remain largely elusive. To address these questions, we investigated bone marrow-derived cells and cytokines in the peripheral blood of metastatic breast cancer patients undergoing therapy with bevacizumab. Methods Circulating endothelial cells (CEC), circulating endothelial progenitor (CEP) and circulating CD11b+ cells in metastatic breast cancer patients before and during therapy with paclitaxel alone (n = 11) or in combination with bevacizumab (n = 10) were characterized using flow cytometry, real time PCR and RNASeq. Circulating factors were measured by ELISA. Aged-matched healthy donors were used as baseline controls (n = 12). Results Breast cancer patients had elevated frequencies of CEC, CEP, TIE2+CD11b+ and KIT+CD11b+ cell subsets. CEC decreased during therapy, irrespective of bevacizumab, while TIE2+CD11b+ remained unchanged. KIT+CD11b+ cells decreased in response to paclitaxel with bevacizumab, but not paclitaxel alone. Cancer patients expressed higher mRNA levels of the M2 polarization markers CD163, ARG1 and IL-10 in CD11b+ cells and increased levels of the M2 cytokines IL-10 and CCL20 in plasma. M1 activation markers and cytokines were low or equally expressed in cancer patients compared to healthy donors. Chemotherapy with paclitaxel and bevacizumab, but not with paclitaxel alone, significantly decreased IL-10 mRNA in CD11b+ cells and IL-10 protein in plasma. Conclusions This pilot study provides evidence of systemic immunomodulatory effects of bevacizumab and identified circulating KIT+CD11b+ cells and IL-10 as candidate biomarkers of bevacizumab activity in metastatic breast cancer patients. PMID:26840567

  11. Bone marrow-derived CD11b+Jagged2+ cells promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and metastasization in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Caiado, Francisco; Carvalho, Tânia; Rosa, Isadora; Remédio, Leonor; Costa, Ana; Matos, João; Heissig, Beate; Yagita, Hideo; Hattori, Koichi; da Silva, João Pereira; Fidalgo, Paulo; Pereira, António Dias; Dias, Sérgio

    2013-07-15

    Timely detection of colorectal cancer metastases may permit improvements in their clinical management. Here, we investigated a putative role for bone marrow-derived cells in the induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) as a marker for onset of metastasis. In ectopic and orthotopic mouse models of colorectal cancer, bone marrow-derived CD11b(Itgam)(+)Jagged2 (Jag2)(+) cells infiltrated primary tumors and surrounded tumor cells that exhibited diminished expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of vimentin, 2 hallmarks of EMT. In vitro coculture experiments showed that the bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cells induced EMT through a Notch-dependent pathway. Using neutralizing antibodies, we imposed a blockade on CD11b(+) cells' recruitment to tumors, which decreased the tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cell population of interest, decreasing tumor growth, restoring E-cadherin expression, and delaying EMT. In support of these results, we found that peripheral blood levels of CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cells in mouse models of colorectal cancer and in a cohort of untreated patients with colorectal cancer were indicative of metastatic disease. In patients with colorectal cancer, the presence of circulating CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cells was accompanied by loss of E-cadherin in the corresponding patient tumors. Taken together, our results show that bone marrow-derived CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cells, which infiltrate primary colorectal tumors, are sufficient to induce EMT in tumor cells, thereby triggering onset of metastasis. Furthermore, they argue that quantifying circulating CD11b(+)Jag2(+) cells in patients may offer an indicator of colorectal cancer progression to metastatic levels of the disease. PMID:23722542

  12. Small molecule agonists of integrin CD11b/CD18 do not induce global conformational changes and are significantly better than activating antibodies in reducing vascular injury

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, Mohd Hafeez; Altintas, Mehmet M.; Gomez, Camilo; Duque, Juan Camilo; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I.; Gupta, Vineet

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND CD11b/CD18 is a key adhesion receptor that mediates leukocyte adhesion, migration and immune functions. We recently identified novel compounds, leukadherins, that allosterically enhance CD11b/CD18-dependent cell adhesion and reduce inflammation in vivo, suggesting integrin activation to be a novel mechanism of action for the development of anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Since a number of well-characterized anti-CD11b/CD18 activating antibodies are currently available, we wondered if such biological agonists could also become therapeutic leads following this mechanism of action. METHODS We compared the two types of agonists using in vitro cell adhesion and wound-healing assays and using animal model systems. We also studied effects of the two types of agonists on outside-in signaling in treated cells. RESULTS Both types of agonists similarly enhanced integrin-mediated cell adhesion and decreased cell migration. However, unlike leukadherins, the activating antibodies produced significant CD11b/CD18 macro clustering and induced phosphorylation of key proteins involved in outside-in signaling. Studies using conformation reporter antibodies showed that leukadherins did not induce global conformational changes in CD11b/CD18 explaining the reason behind their lack of ligand-mimetic outside-in signaling. In vivo, leukadherins reduced vascular injury in a dose-dependent fashion, but, surprisingly, the anti-CD11b activating antibody ED7 was ineffective. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that small molecule allosteric agonists of CD11b/CD18 have clear advantages over the biologic activating antibodies and provide a mechanistic basis for the difference. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE CD11b/CD18 activation represents a novel strategy for reducing inflammatory injury. Our study establishes small molecule leukadherins as preferred agonists over activating antibodies for future development as novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:23454649

  13. Low dose monoethyl phthalate (MEP) exposure triggers proliferation by activating PDX-1 at 1.1B4 human pancreatic beta cells.

    PubMed

    Güven, Celal; Dal, Fulya; Aydoğan Ahbab, Müfide; Taskin, Eylem; Ahbab, Süleyman; Adin Çinar, Suzan; Sırma Ekmekçi, Sema; Güleç, Çağrı; Abacı, Neslihan; Akçakaya, Handan

    2016-07-01

    Phthalate plasticizers used in a wide range of common plastic products are released into the environment and may pose a risk of increased incidence of type 2 diabetes. In this work, we studied the effects of monoethyl phthalate (MEP), the metabolite of diethyl phthalate, exposure on 1.1B4 human pancreatic beta cells at low doses (1-1000 nM). We showed that MEP treatment induced proliferation in 1.1B4 cells. Also PCNA protein expression levels were increased related to proliferation induction. It has been noted that phthalates can exert estrogen mediated response by interacting with ER. In our study 24 h MEP treatment decreased ERα protein expression level conversely it increased the same protein expression level after 72 h treatment. Also MEP treatment decreased ERβ expression after 72 h at 1.1B4 cells. Our results further show that insulin content of 1.1B4 cells were increased with low dose MEP treatment. Along with our insulin content results, PDX- 1 expression levels were also increased at 1.1B4 cells with MEP treatment. These findings suggest that MEP acts as an estrogenic compound and PPARγ agonist at lower concentrations. Also it should be noted that PDX-1 may be a critical regulator of 1.1B4 cells treated with MEP. PMID:27133914

  14. Recommended reference figures for geophysics and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. A.; Okeefe, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Specific reference figures are recommended for consistent use in geophysics and geodesy. The selection of appropriate reference figure for geophysical studies suggests a relationship between the Antarctic negative gravity anomaly and the great shrinkage of the Antarctic ice cap about 4-5 million years ago. The depression of the south polar regions relative to the north polar regions makes the Southern Hemisphere flatter than the Northern Hemisphere, thus producing the third harmonic (pear-shaped) contribution to the earth's figure.

  15. HAT-P-11b: A SUPER-NEPTUNE PLANET TRANSITING A BRIGHT K STAR IN THE KEPLER FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Bakos, G. A.; Torres, G.; Pal, A.; Hartman, J.; Noyes, R. W.; Latham, D. W.; Sasselov, D. D.; Sipocz, B.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Kovacs, Gabor; Fernandez, J.; Kovacs, Geza; Moor, A.; Fischer, D. A.; Isaacson, H.; Johnson, J. A.; Marcy, G. W.; Howard, A.; Butler, R. P.; Vogt, S.

    2010-02-20

    We report on the discovery of HAT-P-11b, the smallest radius transiting extrasolar planet (TEP) discovered from the ground, and the first hot Neptune discovered to date by transit searches. HAT-P-11b orbits the bright (V = 9.587) and metal rich ([Fe/H] = +0.31 +- 0.05) K4 dwarf star GSC 03561-02092 with P = 4.8878162 +- 0.0000071 days and produces a transit signal with depth of 4.2 mmag, the shallowest found by transit searches that is due to a confirmed planet. We present a global analysis of the available photometric and radial velocity (RV) data that result in stellar and planetary parameters, with simultaneous treatment of systematic variations. The planet, like its near-twin GJ 436b, is somewhat larger than Neptune (17 M{sub +}, 3.8 R{sub +}) both in mass M{sub p} = 0.081 +- 0.009 M{sub J}(25.8 +- 2.9 M{sub +}) and radius R{sub p} = 0.422 +- 0.014 R{sub J}(4.73 +- 0.16 R{sub +}). HAT-P-11b orbits in an eccentric orbit with e = 0.198 +- 0.046 and omega = 355.{sup 0}2 +- 17.{sup 0}3, causing a reflex motion of its parent star with amplitude 11.6 +- 1.2 m s{sup -1}, a challenging detection due to the high level of chromospheric activity of the parent star. Our ephemeris for the transit events is T{sub c} = 2454605.89132 +- 0.00032 (BJD), with duration 0.0957 +- 0.0012 days, and secondary eclipse epoch of 2454608.96 +- 0.15 days (BJD). The basic stellar parameters of the host star are M{sub *} = 0.809{sup +0.020}{sub -0.027} M{sub sun}, R{sub *} = 0.752 +- 0.021 R{sub sun}, and T{sub eff*} = 4780 +- 50 K. Importantly, HAT-P-11 will lie on one of the detectors of the forthcoming Kepler mission; this should make possible fruitful investigations of the detailed physical characteristic of both the planet and its parent star at unprecedented precision. We discuss an interesting constraint on the eccentricity of the system by the transit light curve and stellar parameters. This will be particularly useful for eccentric TEPs with low-amplitude RV variations in Kepler

  16. Evolution of magnetic properties and microstructure of Hf{sub 2}Co{sub 11}B alloys

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Michael A. Rios, Orlando

    2015-02-07

    Amorphous Hf{sub 2}Co{sub 11}B alloys produced by melt-spinning have been crystallized by annealing at 500–800 °C, and the products have been investigated using magnetization measurements, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The results reveal the evolution of the phase fractions, microstructure, and magnetic properties with both annealing temperature and time. Crystallization of the phase denoted HfCo{sub 7}, which is associated with the development of coercivity, occurs slowly at 500 °C. Annealing at intermediate temperatures produces mixed phase samples containing some of the HfCo{sub 7} phase with the highest values of remanent magnetization and coercivity. The equilibrium structure at 800 °C contains HfCo{sub 3}B{sub 2}, Hf{sub 6}Co{sub 23}, and Co, and displays soft ferromagnetism. Maximum values for the remanent magnetization, intrinsic coercivity, and magnetic energy product among the samples are approximately 5.2 kG, 2.0 kOe, and 3.1 MGOe, respectively, which indicates that the significantly higher values observed in crystalline, melt-spun Hf{sub 2}Co{sub 11}B ribbons are a consequence of the non-equilibrium solidification during the melt-spinning process. Application of high magnetic fields during annealing is observed to strongly affect the microstructural evolution, which may provide access to higher performance materials in Zr/Hf-Co hard ferromagnets. The crystal structure of HfCo{sub 7} and the related Zr analogues is unknown, and without knowledge of atomic positions powder diffraction cannot distinguish among proposed unit cells and symmetries found in the literature.

  17. 7 CFR 201.11a - Hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hybrid. 201.11a Section 201.11a Agriculture... REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.11a Hybrid. If any one kind or kind and variety of seed present in excess of 5 percent is “hybrid” seed, it shall be designated “hybrid” on the label. The...

  18. "Blessed": Musical Talent, Smartness, & Figured Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore smartness and talent as social constructs. Drawing on Holland et al.'s (1998) figured identities, this article explores the figuring of abilities by elucidating the voices of African American high school chorus students. Critical Race Theory (CRT) helps to unpack normalized language and practices that…

  19. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Why have we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at…

  20. Plasma surface figuring of large optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jourdain, R.; Castelli, M.; Morantz, P.; Shore, P.

    2012-04-01

    Fast figuring of large optical components is well known as a highly challenging manufacturing issue. Different manufacturing technologies including: magnetorheological finishing, loose abrasive polishing, ion beam figuring are presently employed. Yet, these technologies are slow and lead to expensive optics. This explains why plasma-based processes operating at atmospheric pressure have been researched as a cost effective means for figure correction of metre scale optical surfaces. In this paper, fast figure correction of a large optical surface is reported using the Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) process. Achievements are shown following the scaling-up of the RAP figuring process to a 400 mm diameter area of a substrate made of Corning ULE®. The pre-processing spherical surface is characterized by a 3 metres radius of curvature, 2.3 μm PVr (373nm RMS), and 1.2 nm Sq nanometre roughness. The nanometre scale correction figuring system used for this research work is named the HELIOS 1200, and it is equipped with a unique plasma torch which is driven by a dedicated tool path algorithm. Topography map measurements were carried out using a vertical work station instrumented by a Zygo DynaFiz interferometer. Figuring results, together with the processing times, convergence levels and number of iterations, are reported. The results illustrate the significant potential and advantage of plasma processing for figuring correction of large silicon based optical components.

  1. Figure-Associated Text Summarization and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J.; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903). PMID:25643357

  2. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory…

  3. Figuring "Success" in a Bilingual High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Ali; Andrade, Norma; Bartlett, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    Using the concept of figured worlds, this article demonstrates how the faculty, staff, and students of Gregorio Luperon High School in New York City figured "success" by prioritizing the students' linguistic and cultural resources. "Success" was constructed specifically through granting Spanish high status, developing positive teacher-student…

  4. Automatic figure classification in bioscience literature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehyun; Ramesh, Balaji Polepalli; Yu, Hong

    2011-10-01

    Millions of figures appear in biomedical articles, and it is important to develop an intelligent figure search engine to return relevant figures based on user entries. In this study we report a figure classifier that automatically classifies biomedical figures into five predefined figure types: Gel-image, Image-of-thing, Graph, Model, and Mix. The classifier explored rich image features and integrated them with text features. We performed feature selection and explored different classification models, including a rule-based figure classifier, a supervised machine-learning classifier, and a multi-model classifier, the latter of which integrated the first two classifiers. Our results show that feature selection improved figure classification and the novel image features we explored were the best among image features that we have examined. Our results also show that integrating text and image features achieved better performance than using either of them individually. The best system is a multi-model classifier which combines the rule-based hierarchical classifier and a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier, achieving a 76.7% F1-score for five-type classification. We demonstrated our system at http://figureclassification.askhermes.org/. PMID:21645638

  5. The Development of Ambiguous Figure Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Doherty, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ambiguous figures have fascinated researchers for almost 200 years. The physical properties of these figures remain constant, yet two distinct interpretations are possible; these reverse (switch) from one percept to the other. The consensus is that reversal requires complex interaction of perceptual bottom-up and cognitive top-down elements. The…

  6. Human Figure Drawings: Abusing the Abused.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardos, Achilles N.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to previous article (Motta, Little, and Tobin, this issue) which reviewed data-based studies on figure drawings and found little support for their validity or use in assessing personality, behavior, emotion, or intellectual functioning. Notes recent approaches to interpretation of human figure drawings and cites flaws in argument against…

  7. Figure-associated text summarization and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at figshare.com (http://figshare.com/articles/Figure_Associated_Text_Summarization_and_Evaluation/858903). PMID:25643357

  8. Detector array evaluation and figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dereniak, Eustace L.

    1990-01-01

    The commonly used methods to evaluate the performance of a two-dimensional focal-plane array using charge transfer devices are reviewed. Two figures of merit that attempt to combine quantum efficiency, read noise and dark-current generation into a single parameter are discussed. The figures of merit are suggested as possible alternatives to the D asterisk.

  9. Aspects of Reference in Figurative Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pankhurst, Anne

    1995-01-01

    This study considers some problems of reference found in figurative language, particularly in metaphor and metonymy. Analysis is based on the notion that the effects communicated by figurative language depend to a large extent on reference to more than one concept, experience, or entity, and that the presence of multiple potential referents…

  10. Equilibrium figures in geodesy and geophysics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, H.

    There is an enormous literature on geodetic equilibrium figures, but the various works have not always been interrelated, also for linguistic reasons (English, French, German, Italian, Russian). The author attempts to systematize the various approaches and to use the standard second-order theory for a study of the deviation of the actual earth and of the equipotential reference ellipsoid from an equilibrium figure.

  11. 46 CFR 69.123 - Figures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figures. 69.123 Section 69.123 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Standard Measurement System § 69.123 Figures. EC01FE91.042 EC01FE91.043 EC01FE91.044...

  12. 99mTc-labelled anti-CD11b SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of plaque destabilization tightly linked to inflammation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guobing; Hu, Yan; Xiao, Jie; Li, Xiao; Li, Yanli; Tan, Hui; Zhao, Yanzhao; Cheng, Dengfeng; Shi, Hongcheng

    2016-01-01

    It remains challenging to predict the risk of rupture for a specific atherosclerotic plaque timely, a thrombotic trigger tightly linked to inflammation. CD11b, is a biomarker abundant on inflammatory cells, not restricted to monocytes/macrophages. In this study, we fabricated a probe named as (99m)Tc-MAG3-anti-CD11b for detecting inflamed atherosclerotic plaques with single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). The ApoE-knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice were selected to establish animal models, with C57BL/6J mice used for control. A higher CD11b(+)-cell recruitment with higher CD11b expression and more serious whole-body inflammatory status were identified in ApoE(-/-) mice. The probe showed high in vitro affinity and specificity to the Raw-264.7 macrophages, as well as inflammatory cells infiltrated in atherosclerotic plaques, either in ex vivo fluorescent imaging or in in vivo micro-SPECT/CT imaging, which were confirmed by ex vivo planar gamma imaging, Oil-Red-O staining and CD11b-immunohistochemistry staining. A significant positive relationship was identified between the radioactivity intensity on SPECT/CT images and the CD11b expression in plaques. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of anti-CD11b antibody mediated noninvasive SPECT/CT imaging of inflammatory leukocytes in murine atherosclerotic plaques. This imaging strategy can identify inflammation-rich plaques at risk for rupture and evaluate the effectiveness of inflammation-targeted therapies in atheroma. PMID:26877097

  13. Assessment of Proton Microbeam Analysis of 11B for Quantitative Microdistribution Analysis of Boronated Neutron Capture Agent Analogs in Biological Tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Bench, G; Grant, P G; Ueda, D L; Autry-Conwell, S A; Hou, Y; Boggan, J E

    2002-12-04

    Purpose: To assess the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* nuclear reaction for quantitatively mapping the in-vivo sub-cellular distribution of boron within gliosarcoma tumors treated with boronated neutron capture therapy agent (NCTA) analogs. Materials and Methods: Intracranial tumors were produced in Fisher 344 rats using a 9L gliosarcoma model. Fourteen days later, the majority of rats were treated with f-boronophenylalanine and sacrificed 30 or 180 minutes after intravenous injection. Freeze dried tumor cryosections were imaged using the {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* nuclear reaction and proton microbeams obtained from the nuclear microprobe at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Results/Discussion: With{sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* analysis, {sup 11}B distributions within cells can be quantitatively imaged with spatial resolutions down to 1.5 {micro}m, minimum detection limits of 0.8 mg/kg and acquisition times of several hours. These capabilities offer advantages over alpha track autoradiography, electron energy loss spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for 'B quantitation in tissues. However, the spatial resolution, multi-isotope capability and analysis times achieved with SIMS are superior to those achieved with {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* analysis. Conclusions: When accuracy in quantitation is crucial, the assessing the microdistribution of {sup 11}B. {sup 11}B(p, {alpha}){sup 8}Be* reaction is well suited for Otherwise, SIMS may well be better suited to image the microdistribution of boron associated with NCTAs in biological tissues.

  14. 99mTc-labelled anti-CD11b SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of plaque destabilization tightly linked to inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guobing; Hu, Yan; Xiao, Jie; Li, Xiao; Li, Yanli; Tan, Hui; Zhao, Yanzhao; Cheng, Dengfeng; Shi, Hongcheng

    2016-01-01

    It remains challenging to predict the risk of rupture for a specific atherosclerotic plaque timely, a thrombotic trigger tightly linked to inflammation. CD11b, is a biomarker abundant on inflammatory cells, not restricted to monocytes/macrophages. In this study, we fabricated a probe named as 99mTc-MAG3-anti-CD11b for detecting inflamed atherosclerotic plaques with single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). The ApoE-knockout (ApoE−/−) mice were selected to establish animal models, with C57BL/6J mice used for control. A higher CD11b+-cell recruitment with higher CD11b expression and more serious whole-body inflammatory status were identified in ApoE−/− mice. The probe showed high in vitro affinity and specificity to the Raw-264.7 macrophages, as well as inflammatory cells infiltrated in atherosclerotic plaques, either in ex vivo fluorescent imaging or in in vivo micro-SPECT/CT imaging, which were confirmed by ex vivo planar gamma imaging, Oil-Red-O staining and CD11b-immunohistochemistry staining. A significant positive relationship was identified between the radioactivity intensity on SPECT/CT images and the CD11b expression in plaques. In summary, this study demonstrates the feasibility of anti-CD11b antibody mediated noninvasive SPECT/CT imaging of inflammatory leukocytes in murine atherosclerotic plaques. This imaging strategy can identify inflammation-rich plaques at risk for rupture and evaluate the effectiveness of inflammation-targeted therapies in atheroma. PMID:26877097

  15. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1509 - Figure 3 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1509 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.066...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1509 - Figure 1 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 1 to Part 1509 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.064...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 EC03OC91.063...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1509 - Figure 1 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 1 to Part 1509 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.064...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1509 - Figure 3 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1509 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.066...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 EC03OC91.063...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  4. The complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18) agonist Leukadherin-1 suppresses human innate inflammatory signalling.

    PubMed

    Roberts, A L; Fürnrohr, B G; Vyse, T J; Rhodes, B

    2016-09-01

    Complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) is a multi-functional receptor expressed predominantly on myeloid and natural killer (NK) cells. The R77H variant of CD11b, encoded by the ITGAM rs1143679 polymorphism, is associated robustly with development of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and impairs CR3 function, including its regulatory role on monocyte immune signalling. The role of CR3 in NK cell function is unknown. Leukadherin-1 is a specific small-molecule CR3 agonist that has shown therapeutic promise in animal models of vascular injury and inflammation. We show that Leukadherin-1 pretreatment reduces secretion of interferon (IFN)-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β by monokine-stimulated NK cells. It was associated with a reduction in phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (pSTAT)-5 following interleukin (IL)-12 + IL-15 stimulation (P < 0·02) and increased IL-10 secretion following IL-12 + IL-18 stimulation (P < 0·001). Leukadherin-1 pretreatment also reduces secretion of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-7/8-stimulated monocytes (P < 0·01 for all). The R77H variant did not affect NK cell response to Leukadherin-1 using ex-vivo cells from homozygous donors; nor did the variant influence CR3 expression by these cell types, in contrast to a recent report. These data extend our understanding of CR3 biology by demonstrating that activation potently modifies innate immune inflammatory signalling, including a previously undocumented role in NK cell function. We discuss the potential relevance of this to the pathogenesis of SLE. Leukadherin-1 appears to mediate its anti-inflammatory effect irrespective of the SLE-risk genotype of CR3, providing further evidence to support its evaluation of Leukadherin-1 as a potential therapeutic for autoimmune disease. PMID:27118513

  5. The HPV16 E7 Oncoprotein Disrupts Dendritic Cell Function and Induces the Systemic Expansion of CD11b+Gr1+ Cells in a Transgenic Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Damian-Morales, Gabriela; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolás; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc M.; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Rodríguez-Uribe, Genaro; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Lambert, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein on dendritic cells (DCs) and CD11b+Gr1+ cells using the K14E7 transgenic mouse model. Materials and Methods. The morphology of DCs was analyzed in male mouse skin on epidermal sheets using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to determine the percentages of DCs and CD11b+Gr1+ cells in different tissues and to evaluate the migration of DCs. Results. In the K14E7 mouse model, the morphology of Langerhans cells and the migratory activity of dendritic cells were abnormal. An increase in CD11b+Gr1+ cells was observed in the blood and skin of K14E7 mice, and molecules related to CD11b+Gr1+ chemoattraction (MCP1 and S100A9) were upregulated. Conclusions. These data suggest that the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein impairs the function and morphology of DCs and induces the systemic accumulation of CD11b+Gr1+ cells. PMID:27478837

  6. On the implementation of a chain nuclear reaction of thermonuclear fusion on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B process

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, V. S.; Krainov, V. P.; Zagreev, B. V.; Matafonov, A. P.

    2015-07-15

    Various theoretical and experimental schemes for implementing a thermonuclear reactor on the basis of the p+{sup 11}B reaction are considered. They include beam collisions, fusion in degenerate plasmas, ignition upon plasma acceleration by ponderomotive forces, and the irradiation of a solid-state target from {sup 11}B with a proton beam under conditions of a Coulomb explosion of hydrogen microdrops. The possibility of employing ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses to initiate the p+{sup 11}B reaction under conditions far from thermodynamic equilibrium is discussed. This and some other weakly radioactive thermonuclear reactions are promising owing to their ecological cleanness—there are virtually no neutrons among fusion products. Nuclear reactions that follow the p+{sup 11}B reaction may generate high-energy protons, sustaining a chain reaction, and this is an advantage of the p+{sup 11}B option. The approach used also makes it possible to study nuclear reactions under conditions close to those in the early Universe or in the interior of stars.

  7. CD11b+Ly6C++Ly6G- Cells with Suppressive Activity Towards T Cells Accumulate in Lungs of Influenza a Virus-Infected Mice

    PubMed Central

    Milanez-Almeida, P.; Ulas, T.; Pasztoi, M.; Glage, S.; Schughart, K.; Lutz, M. B.; Schultze, J. L.; Huehn, J.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) infection causes an acute respiratory disease characterized by a strong inflammatory immune response and severe immunopathology. Proinflammatory mechanisms are well described in the murine IAV infection model, but less is known about the mechanisms leading to the resolution of inflammation. Here, we analyzed the contribution of CD11b+Ly6C++Ly6G– cells to this process. An accumulation of CD11b+Ly6C++Ly6G– cells within the lungs was observed during the course of IAV infection. Phenotypic characterization of these CD11b+Ly6C++Ly6G– cells by flow cytometry and RNA-Seq revealed an activated phenotype showing both pro- and anti-inflammatory features, including the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by a fraction of cells in an IFN-γ-dependent manner. Moreover, CD11b+Ly6C++Ly6G– cells isolated from lungs of IAV-infected animals displayed suppressive activity when tested in vitro, and iNOS inhibitors could abrogate this suppressive activity. Collectively, our data suggest that during IAV infection, CD11b+Ly6C++Ly6G– cells acquire immunoregulatory function, which might contribute to the prevention of pathology during this life-threatening disease. PMID:26716013

  8. The HPV16 E7 Oncoprotein Disrupts Dendritic Cell Function and Induces the Systemic Expansion of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) Cells in a Transgenic Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Damian-Morales, Gabriela; Serafín-Higuera, Nicolás; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Cortés-Malagón, Enoc M; Bonilla-Delgado, José; Rodríguez-Uribe, Genaro; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Lambert, Paul F; Gariglio, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein on dendritic cells (DCs) and CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells using the K14E7 transgenic mouse model. Materials and Methods. The morphology of DCs was analyzed in male mouse skin on epidermal sheets using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to determine the percentages of DCs and CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells in different tissues and to evaluate the migration of DCs. Results. In the K14E7 mouse model, the morphology of Langerhans cells and the migratory activity of dendritic cells were abnormal. An increase in CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells was observed in the blood and skin of K14E7 mice, and molecules related to CD11b(+)Gr1(+) chemoattraction (MCP1 and S100A9) were upregulated. Conclusions. These data suggest that the HPV16 E7 oncoprotein impairs the function and morphology of DCs and induces the systemic accumulation of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells. PMID:27478837

  9. Performance Analysis of Multicast Video Streaming in IEEE 802.11 b/g/n Testbed Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostuch, Aleksander; Gierłowski, Krzysztof; Wozniak, Jozef

    The aim of the work is to analyse capabilities and limitations of different IEEE 802.11 technologies (IEEE 802.11 b/g/n), utilized for both multicast and unicast video streaming transmissions directed to mobile devices. Our preliminary research showed that results obtained with currently popular simulation tools can be drastically different than these possible in real-world environment, so, in order to correctly evaluate performance of video streaming, a simple wireless test-bed infrastructure has been created. The results show a strong dependence of the quality of video streaming on the chosen transmission technology. At the same time there are significant differences in perception quality between multicast (1:n) and unicast (1:1) streams, and also between devices offered by different manufacturers. The overall results seem to demonstrate, that, while multicast support quality in different products is still varied and often requires additional configuration, it is possible to select a WiFi access point model and determine the best system parameters to ensure a good video transfer conditions in terms of acceptable QoP/E (Quality of Perception/Exellence).

  10. Highly-focused boron implantation in diamond and imaging using the nuclear reaction 11B(p, α)8Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ynsa, M. D.; Ramos, M. A.; Skukan, N.; Torres-Costa, V.; Jakšić, M.

    2015-04-01

    Diamond is an especially attractive material because of its gemological value as well as its unique mechanical, chemical and physical properties. One of these properties is that boron-doped diamond is an electrically p-type semiconducting material at practically any boron concentration. This property makes it possible to use diamonds for multiple industrial and technological applications. Boron can be incorporated into pure diamond by different techniques including ion implantation. Although typical energies used to dope diamond by ion implantation are about 100 keV, implantations have also been performed with energies above MeV. In this work CMAM microbeam setup has been used to demonstrate capability to implant boron with high energies. An 8 MeV boron beam with a size of about 5 × 3 μm2 and a beam current higher than 500 pA has been employed while controlling the beam position and fluence at all irradiated areas. The subsequent mapping of the implanted boron in diamond has been obtained using the strong and broad nuclear reaction 11B(p, α)8Be at Ep = 660 keV. This reaction has a high Q-value (8.59 MeV for α0 and 5.68 MeV for α1) and thus is almost interference-free. The sensitivity of the technique is studied in this work.

  11. On some necessary conditions for p-11B ignition in the hot spots of a plasma focus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vita, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Recently, it has been predicted that hydrogen-boron (p-11B) nuclear fusion may attain ignition in the hot spots observed in a plasma focus (PF) pinch, due to their huge values of particle density, magnetic field and (reportedly) ion temperature. Accordingly, large magnetic fields should raise electronic Landau levels, thus reducing collisional exchange of energy from ion to electrons and Bremsstrahlung losses. Moreover, large particle densities, together with ion viscous heating, should allow fulfilment of Lawson criterion and provide effective screening of cyclotron radiation. We invoke both well-known, empirical scaling laws of PF physics, Connor-Taylor scaling laws, Poynting balance of electromagnetic energy and the balance of generalised helicity. We show that the evolution of PF hot spots is a succession of relaxed states, described by the double Beltrami solutions of Hall-MHD equations of motion. We obtain some necessary conditions for ignition, which are violated in most realistic conditions. Large electromagnetic fields in the hot spot accelerate electrons at supersonic velocities and trigger turbulence, which raises electric resistivity and Joule heating, thus spoiling further compression. Ignition is only possible if a significant fraction of the Bremsstrahlung-radiated power is reflected back into the plasma. Injection of angular momentum decreases the required reflection coefficient.

  12. Measurement of the 12C(e,e‧p)11B two-body breakup reaction at high missing momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaghan, P.; Shneor, R.; Subedi, R.; Anderson, B. D.; Aniol, K.; Annand, J.; Arrington, J.; Benaoum, H. B.; Benmokhtar, F.; Bertin, P.; Bertozzi, W.; Boeglin, W.; Chen, J. P.; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E.; Ciofi degli Atti, C.; Cisbani, E.; Cosyn, W.; Craver, B.; de Jager, C. W.; Feuerbach, R. J.; Folts, E.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gayou, O.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, O.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Holmstrom, T.; Ibrahim, H.; Igarashi, R.; Jans, E.; Jiang, X.; Kaufman, L.; Kelleher, A.; Kolarkar, A.; Kuchina, E.; Kumbartzki, G.; LeRose, J. J.; Lindgren, R.; Liyanage, N.; Margaziotis, D. J.; Markowitz, P.; Marrone, S.; Mazouz, M.; Meekins, D.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Morita, H.; Nanda, S.; Perdrisat, C. F.; Piasetzky, E.; Potokar, M.; Punjabi, V.; Qiang, Y.; Reinhold, J.; Reitz, B.; Ron, G.; Rosner, G.; Ryckebusch, J.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Segal, J.; Shahinyan, A.; Širca, S.; Slifer, K.; Solvignon, P.; Sulkosky, V.; Thompson, N.; Ulmer, P. E.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Voutier, E.; Wang, K.; Watson, J. W.; Weinstein, L. B.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Wood, S.; Yao, H.; Zheng, X.; Zhu, L.

    2014-10-01

    The five-fold differential cross section for the 12C{{(e,{{e}^{\\prime }}p)}^{11}}B reaction was determined over a missing momentum range of 200-400 MeV\\;{{c}^{-1}}, in a kinematics regime with {{x}_{B}}\\gt 1 and {{Q}^{2}}=2.0 {{(GeV\\;{{c}^{-1}})}^{2}}. A comparison of the results with previous lower missing momentum data and with theoretical models are presented. The extracted distorted momentum distribution is shown to be consistent with previous data and extends the range of available data up to 400 MeV\\;{{c}^{-1}}. The theoretical calculations are from two very different approaches, one mean field and the other short range correlated; yet for this system the two approaches show striking agreement with the data and each other up to a missing momentum value of 325 MeV\\;{{c}^{-1}}. For larger momenta, the calculations diverge which is likely due to the factorization approximation used in the short range approach.

  13. Advanced figure sensor operations and maintenance manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    This manual contains procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining the optical figure sensor and its associated electronic controls. The optical figure sensor, a system of integrated components, comprises: (1) a phase measuring modified interferometer employing a single frequency 6328 A laser, and a Vidissector; (2) a two-axis automatic thermal compensation control mount; (3) a five degree of freedom manual adjustment stand; and (4) a control console. This instrument provides real time output data of optical figure errors for spherical mirrors, and is also capable of measuring aspherical mirrors if a null corrector is added.

  14. Crystallographic and magnetic properties of R{sub 3}Co{sub 11}B{sub 4}(R = Y and Gd) compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalczyk, A.; Stefanski, P.

    1994-03-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of R{sub 3}Co{sub 11}B{sub 4} compounds, where R = Y and Gd are investigated. X-ray analysis reveals that the R{sub 3}Co{sub 11}B{sub 4} alloys crystallize in the hexagonal Ce{sub 3}Co{sub 11}B{sub 4} structure. The unit cell of the structure contains 18 atoms. The rare earth atoms are distributed in two different crystallographic sites, the Co atoms in three different positions and B is located in one type of site. The lattice constants, Curie temperature and saturation magnetization at 4.2 K are determined. The mean field approximation yields a 4f-3d exchange integral of J{sub RCo}/k{sub B} = {minus}20.9 K. The properties of these compounds are compared with those of R-Co alloys.

  15. Enhanced expression of PD-L1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma-derived CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells and its contribution to immunosuppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Fuse, Hiroki; Tomihara, Kei; Heshiki, Wataru; Yamazaki, Manabu; Akyu-Takei, Rie; Tachinami, Hidetake; Furukawa, Ken-Ichiro; Sakurai, Kotaro; Rouwan, Moniruzzaman; Noguchi, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Cancer is often associated with dysregulation of both the humoral and cellular immune response, which in some instances is believed to result from changes in immune cell populations. For example, immunosuppressive CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells have been shown to proliferate in the tumor microenvironment and surrounding tissues, highlighting the relationship between tumor growth and impairment of the immune response. However, the role of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancer progression has not been fully characterized because these cells are heterogeneous with properties influenced by the type and location of the tumor. Here, we show that CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells are elevated in the peripheral blood, spleen, and tumor of mice with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The phenotype and function of these cells varied depending on the tissue of origin. In particular, CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells in tumors expressed PD-L1 more abundantly than those in other tissues. Accordingly, CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells from tumors, but not from the spleen, suppressed T cell proliferation in vitro. The results suggest that tumor-derived or immune factors result in the accumulation of phenotypically and functionally diverse populations of CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells in mice with oral squamous cell carcinoma. The data also indicate that PD-L1 expression in CD11b(+)Gr-1(+) cells contributes to immune suppression, implying that targeting both myeloid-derived suppressor cells and PD-L1 would be an effective immunotherapeutic strategy against oral cancer. PMID:27424179

  16. CD103+CD11b+ Dendritic Cells Induce Th17 T Cells in Muc2-Deficient Mice with Extensively Spread Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, Ulf A.; Jonstrand, Caroline; Hansson, Gunnar C.; Wick, Mary Jo

    2015-01-01

    Mucus alterations are a feature of ulcerative colitis (UC) and can drive inflammation by compromising the mucosal barrier to luminal bacteria. The exact pathogenesis of UC remains unclear, but CD4+ T cells reacting to commensal antigens appear to contribute to pathology. Given the unique capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) to activate naive T cells, colon DCs may activate pathogenic T cells and contribute to disease. Using Muc2-/- mice, which lack a functional mucus barrier and develop spontaneous colitis, we show that colitic animals have reduced colon CD103+CD11b- DCs and increased CD103-CD11b+ phagocytes. Moreover, changes in colonic DC subsets and distinct cytokine patterns distinguish mice with distally localized colitis from mice with colitis spread proximally. Specifically, mice with proximally spread, but not distally contained, colitis have increased IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17, TNFα, and IFNγ combined with decreased IL-10 in the distal colon. These individuals also have increased numbers of CD103+CD11b+ DCs in the distal colon. CD103+CD11b+ DCs isolated from colitic but not noncolitic mice induced robust differentiation of Th17 cells but not Th1 cells ex vivo. In contrast, CD103-CD11b+ DCs from colitic Muc2-/- mice induced Th17 as well as Th1 differentiation. Thus, the local environment influences the capacity of intestinal DC subsets to induce T cell proliferation and differentiation, with CD103+CD11b+ DCs inducing IL-17-producing T cells being a key feature of extensively spread colitis. PMID:26121642

  17. Comprehension of Figurative Language in Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.

    1985-01-01

    A review of developmental studies concerning metaphor, idiom, and proverb comprehension suggest a variety of assessment tasks for language impaired children. Also suggested are such intervention considerations as the comprehension of literal meaning of figurative expressions before nonliteral meanings. (CL)

  18. Significant Figure Rules for General Arithmetic Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, D. M.

    1989-01-01

    Provides some significant figure rules used in chemistry including the general theoretical basis; logarithms and antilogarithms; exponentiation (with exactly known exponents); sines and cosines; and the extreme value rule. (YP)

  19. [Implementation of paragraph 11b of the German Animal Welfare Act on the basis of the so-called "Quality Breeding" Report].

    PubMed

    Schmitz, J

    2004-03-01

    Enforcement of paragraph 11b of the German Animal Welfare Act is a responsibility of breeders and their organisations as well as executive local authorities. The Report on Defective Breeds of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture describes numerous breeding traits which are in conflict with animal welfare and gives valuable information for fancy or pet breeding. Yet a selection has to be made for taking legal actions, following specific criteria. With four examples different cases are presented, each requiring a different approach by the veterinarian authorities. Court decisions in Hessen concerning bans on breeding white cats and crested ducks show that the paragraph 11b is executable. PMID:15195961

  20. Ion beam figuring system in NUDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lin; Xie, Xuhui; Dai, Yifan; Jiao, Changjun; Li, Shengyi

    2007-12-01

    Ion beam figuring (IBF) is an optical fabrication technique that provides highly deterministic process to correct surface figure error of previously polished surfaces by using a directed, inert and neutralized ion beam to physically sputter material from the optic surface. Recently, an ion beam figuring system KDIFS-500 has been designed and built in National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) of the P.R. China. KDIFS-500 is capable of processing workpiece up to Φ500mm. Line scanning process was discussed in detail for estimating the parameters of the beam removal function (BRF) in process. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate that the BRF increases gradually in process and by employing a stability control, the BRF can be kept stable in process. Finally, a Φ95 mm plano optical sample of CVD coated SiC substrate has been figured in two process iterations for demonstrating the correction capability of the KDIFS-500. Their figure convergence ratios reached 5.8 and 2.1 respectively. The actual figure residual errors were basically consistent with the predicted error. These consistencies indicated that the IBF processes on KDIFS-500 are predictable deterministic processes.

  1. Ion beam figuring of small optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drueding, Thomas W.; Fawcett, Steven C.; Wilson, Scott R.; Bifano, Thomas G.

    1995-12-01

    Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The process involves bombarding a component with a stable beam of accelerated particles that selectively removes material from the surface. Figure corrections are achieved by rastering the fixed-current beam across the workplace at appropriate, time-varying velocities. Unlike conventional methods, ion figuring is a noncontact technique and thus avoids such problems as edge rolloff effects, tool wear, and force loading of the workpiece. This work is directed toward the development of the precision ion machining system at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. This system is designed for processing small (approximately equals 10-cm diam) optical components. Initial experiments were successful in figuring 8-cm-diam fused silica and chemical-vapor-deposited SiC samples. The experiments, procedures, and results of figuring the sample workpieces to shallow spherical, parabolic (concave and convex), and non-axially-symmetric shapes are discussed. Several difficulties and limitations encountered with the current system are discussed. The use of a 1-cm aperture for making finer corrections on optical components is also reported.

  2. CO2 over the past 5 million years: Continuous simulation and new δ11B-based proxy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stap, Lennert B.; de Boer, Bas; Ziegler, Martin; Bintanja, Richard; Lourens, Lucas J.; van de Wal, Roderik S. W.

    2016-04-01

    During the past five million yrs, benthic δ18O records indicate a large range of climates, from warmer than today during the Pliocene Warm Period to considerably colder during glacials. Antarctic ice cores have revealed Pleistocene glacial-interglacial CO2 variability of 60-100 ppm, while sea level fluctuations of typically 125 m are documented by proxy data. However, in the pre-ice core period, CO2 and sea level proxy data are scarce and there is disagreement between different proxies and different records of the same proxy. This hampers comprehensive understanding of the long-term relations between CO2, sea level and climate. Here, we drive a coupled climate-ice sheet model over the past five million years, inversely forced by a stacked benthic δ18O record. We obtain continuous simulations of benthic δ18O, sea level and CO2 that are mutually consistent. Our model shows CO2 concentrations of 300 to 470 ppm during the Early Pliocene. Furthermore, we simulate strong CO2 variability during the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene. These features are broadly supported by existing and new δ11B-based proxy CO2 data, but less by alkenone-based records. The simulated concentrations and variations therein are larger than expected from global mean temperature changes. Our findings thus suggest a smaller Earth System Sensitivity than previously thought. This is explained by a more restricted role of land ice variability in the Pliocene. The largest uncertainty in our simulation arises from the mass balance formulation of East Antarctica, which governs the variability in sea level, but only modestly affects the modeled CO2 concentrations.

  3. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of a Thermophilic Endoglucanase, AcCel12B from Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Gao, Gui; Li, Yuwei; Yang, Liangzhen; Liang, Yanli; Jin, Hanyong; Han, Weiwei; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Zuoming

    2015-01-01

    The gene ABK52392 from the thermophilic bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B was predicted to be endoglucanase and classified into glycoside hydrolase family 12. ABK52392 encodes a protein containing a catalytic domain and a carbohydrate binding module. ABK52392 was cloned and functionally expressed in Escherichia coli. After purification by Ni-NTA agarose affinity chromatography and Q-Sepharose® Fast Flow chromatography, the properties of the recombinant protein (AcCel12B) were characterized. AcCel12B exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.5 and 75 °C. The half-lives of AcCel12B at 60 and 70 °C were about 90 and 2 h, respectively, under acidic conditions. The specific hydrolytic activities of AcCel12B at 70 °C and pH 4.5 for sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and regenerated amorphous cellulose (RAC) were 118.3 and 104.0 U·mg−1, respectively. The Km and Vmax of AcCel12B for CMC were 25.47 mg·mL−1 and 131.75 U·mg−1, respectively. The time course of hydrolysis for RAC was investigated by measuring reducing ends in the soluble and insoluble phases. The total hydrolysis rate rapidly decreased after the early stage of incubation and the generation of insoluble reducing ends decreased earlier than that of soluble reducing ends. High thermostability of the cellulase indicates its potential commercial significance and it could be exploited for industrial application in the future. PMID:26506341

  4. Decadal variability in seawater pH in the West Pacific: Evidence from coral δ11B records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Gangjian; Wang, Zhibing; Ke, Ting; Liu, Ying; Deng, Wenfeng; Chen, Xuefei; Xu, Jifeng; Zeng, Ti; Xie, Luhua

    2015-11-01

    Long-term seawater pH records are essential for evaluating the rates of ocean acidification (OA) driven by anthropogenic emissions. Widespread, natural decadal variability in seawater pH superimposes on the long-term anthropogenic variations, likely influencing the OA rates estimated from the pH records. Here, we report a record of annual seawater pH estimated using the δ11B proxy over the past 159 years reconstructed from a Porites coral collected to the east of Hainan Island in the northern South China Sea (SCS). By coupling this time series with previously reported long-term seawater pH records in the West Pacific, the decadal variability in seawater pH records and its possible driving mechanisms were investigated. The results indicate that large decadal variability in seawater pH has occurred off eastern Hainan Island over the past 159 years, in agreement with previous records. The Qiongdong upwelling system, which controls nutrient supplies, regulates surface water productivity, and is driven by the East Asian summer monsoon, is the primary control of this decadal variability, while terrestrial inputs appear not influence significantly. Meanwhile the impacts of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) systems on seawater pH off eastern Hainan Island is likely limited. In contrast, the PDO is the main factor to influence the decadal seawater pH variability offshore the East Australia, while the mechanism controlling the decadal seawater pH variability in Guam is not clear yet. Meanwhile, The rate of decrease in seawater pH estimated from coral records are significantly different in different regions and over different time spans, which may reflect a combination of natural decadal variability in seawater pH and long-term variations. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms driving natural variability in seawater pH is important for improving estimates of ocean acidification rates driven by anthropogenic emissions.

  5. Complete genome of the cellyloytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evloutionary adaptations

    SciTech Connect

    Barabote, Ravi D.; Xie, Gary; Leu, David H.; Normand, Philippe; Necsulea, Anamaria; Daubin, Vincent; Medigue, Claudine; Adney, William S.; Xu,Xin Clare; Lapidus, Alla; Detter, Chris; Pujic, Petar; Bruce, David; Lavire, Celine; Challacombe, Jean F.; Brettin, Thomas S.; Berry, Alison M.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 Mb genome of the cellulolytic actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B. New secreted glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases were identified in the genome, revealing a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire far greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism. A sizable fraction of these hydrolytic enzymes break down plant cell walls and the remaining either degrade components in fungal cell walls or metabolize storage carbohydrates such as glycogen and trehalose, implicating the relative importance of these different carbon sources. A novel feature of the A. cellulolyticus secreted cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzymes is that they are fused to multiple tandemly arranged carbohydrate binding modules (CBM), from families 2 and 3. Interestingly, CBM3 was found to be always N-terminal to CBM2, suggesting a functional constraint driving this organization. While the catalytic domains of these modular enzymes are either diverse or unrelated, the CBMs were found to be highly conserved in sequence and may suggest selective substrate-binding interactions. For the most part, thermophilic patterns in the genome and proteome of A. cellulolyticus were weak, which may be reflective of the recent evolutionary history of A. cellulolyticus since its divergence from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant endosymbiont and soil dweller. However, ribosomal proteins and non-coding RNAs (rRNA and tRNAs) in A. cellulolyticus showed thermophilic traits suggesting the importance of adaptation of cellular translational machinery to environmental temperature. Elevated occurrence of IVYWREL amino acids in A. cellulolyticus orthologs compared to mesophiles, and inverse preferences for G and A at the first and third codon positions also point to its ongoing thermoadaptation. Additional interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot

  6. Complete genome of the cellulolytic thermophile Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B provides insights into its ecophysiological and evolutionary adaptations

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Gary; Detter, John C; Bruce, David C; Challacombe, Jean F; Brettin, Thomas S; Necsulea, Anamaria; Daubin, Vincent; Medigue, Claudine; Adney, William S; Xu, Xin C; Lapidus, Alla; Pujic, Pierre; Berry, Alison M; Barabote, Ravi D; Leu, David; Normand, Phillipe

    2009-01-01

    We present here the complete 2.4 MB genome of the actinobacterial thermophile, Acidothermus cellulolyticus 11B, that surprisingly reveals thermophilic amino acid usage in only the cytosolic subproteome rather than its whole proteome. Thermophilic amino acid usage in the partial proteome implies a recent, ongoing evolution of the A. cellulolyticus genome since its divergence about 200-250 million years ago from its closest phylogenetic neighbor Frankia, a mesophilic plant symbiont. Differential amino acid usage in the predicted subproteomes of A. cellulolyticus likely reflects a stepwise evolutionary process of modern thermophiles in general. An unusual occurrence of higher G+C in the non-coding DNA than in the transcribed genome reinforces a late evolution from a higher G+C common ancestor. Comparative analyses of the A. cellulolyticus genome with those of Frankia and other closely-related actinobacteria revealed that A. cellulolyticus genes exhibit reciprocal purine preferences at the first and third codon positions, perhaps reflecting a subtle preference for the dinucleotide AG in its mRNAs, a possible adaptation to a thermophilic environment. Other interesting features in the genome of this cellulolytic, hot-springs dwelling prokaryote reveal streamlining for adaptation to its specialized ecological niche. These include a low occurrence of pseudo genes or mobile genetic elements, a flagellar gene complement previously unknown in this organism, and presence of laterally-acquired genomic islands of likely ecophysiological value. New glycoside hydrolases relevant for lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction were identified in the genome, indicating a diverse biomass-degrading enzyme repertoire several-fold greater than previously characterized, and significantly elevating the industrial value of this organism.

  7. Does phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) hold promise as a future therapeutic target?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michy P

    2015-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) is the most recently discovered 3', 5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. By breaking down both cAMP and cGMP, PDE11A is a critical regulator of intracellular signaling. To date, PDE11A has been implicated to play a role in tumorigenesis, brain function, and inflammation. Here, we consolidate and, where necessary, reconcile the PDE11A literature to evaluate this enzyme as a potential therapeutic target. We compare the results and methodologies of numerous studies that report conflicting tissue expression profiles for PDE11A. We conclude that PDE11A expression is relatively restricted in the body, with reliable expression reported in tissues such as the brain (particularly the hippocampus), the prostate, and the adrenal gland. Each of the four PDE11A splice variants (PDE11A1-4) appears to exhibit a distinct tissue expression profile and has a unique N-terminal regulatory region, suggesting that each isoform could be individually targeted with a small molecule or biologic. Progress has been made in identifying a tool PDE11A inhibitor as well as an activator; however, the functional effects of these pharmacological tools remain to be determined. Importantly, PDE11A knockout mice do exist and appear healthy into late age, suggesting a potential safety window for targeting this enzyme. Considering the implication of PDE11A in disease-relevant biology, the potential to selectively target specific PDE11A variants, and the possibility of either activating or inhibiting the enzyme, we believe PDE11A holds promise as a potential future therapeutic target. PMID:25159071

  8. Wet-Etch Figuring Optical Figuring by Controlled Application of Liquid Etchant

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J

    2001-02-13

    WET-ETCH FIGURING (WEF) is an automated method of precisely figuring optical materials by the controlled application of aqueous etchant solution. This technology uses surface-tension-gradient-driven flow to confine and stabilize a wetted zone of an etchant solution or other aqueous processing fluid on the surface of an object. This wetted zone can be translated on the surface in a computer-controlled fashion for precise spatial control of the surface reactions occurring (e.g. chemical etching). WEF is particularly suitable for figuring very thin optical materials because it applies no thermal or mechanical stress to the material. Also, because the process is stress-free the workpiece can be monitored during figuring using interferometric metrology, and the measurements obtained can be used to control the figuring process in real-time--something that cannot be done with traditional figuring methods.

  9. CD40 dependent exacerbation of immune mediated hepatitis by hepatic CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells in tumor bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Kapanadze, Tamar; Medina-Echeverz, José; Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Weiss, Jonathan M.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Kapoor, Veena; Hawk, Nga; Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Manns, Michael P.; Wang, Ena; Marincola, Francesco M.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2015-01-01

    Immunosuppressive CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) accumulate in the livers of tumor-bearing mice. We studied hepatic MDSC in two murine models of immune mediated hepatitis. Unexpectedly, treatment of tumor bearing mice with Concanavalin A or α-Galactosylceramide resulted in increased ALT and AST serum levels in comparison to tumor free mice. Adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC into naïve mice exacerbated Concanavalin A induced liver damage. Hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells revealed a polarized pro-inflammatory gene signature after Concanavalin A treatment. An interferon gamma- dependent up-regulation of CD40 on hepatic CD11b+Gr-1+ cells along with an up-regulation of CD80, CD86, and CD1d after Concanavalin A treatment was observed. Concanavalin A treatment resulted in a loss of suppressor function by tumor-induced CD11b+Gr-1+ MDSC as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species-mediated hepatotoxicity. CD40 knockdown in hepatic MDSC led to increased arginase activity upon Concanavalin A treatment and lower ALT/AST serum levels. Finally, blockade of arginase activity in Cd40−/− tumor-induced myeloid cells resulted in exacerbation of hepatitis and increased reactive oxygen species production in vivo. Our findings indicate that in a setting of acute hepatitis, tumor-induced hepatic MDSC act as pro-inflammatory immune effector cells capable of killing hepatocytes in a CD40-dependent manner. PMID:25616156

  10. Non-canonical Wnt signaling through Wnt5a/b and a novel Wnt11 gene, Wnt11b, regulates cell migration during avian gastrulation

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Katharine M.; Garriock, Robert J.; Yatskievych, Tatiana A.; D’Agostino, Susan L.; Antin, Parker B.; Krieg, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms regulating cell ingression, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migration movements during amniote gastrulation is steadily improving. In the frog and fish embryo, Wnt5 and Wnt11 ligands are expressed around the blastopore and play an important role in regulating cell movements associated with gastrulation. In the chicken embryo, although Wnt5a and Wnt5b are expressed in the primitive streak, the known Wnt11 gene is expressed in paraxial and intermediate mesoderm and in differentiated myocardial cells. Here, we identify a previously uncharacterized chicken Wnt11 gene, Wnt11b, that is orthologous to the frog Wnt11 and zebrafish Wnt11 (silberblick) genes. Chicken Wnt11b is expressed in the primitive streak in a pattern similar to chicken Wnt5a and Wnt5b. When non-canonical Wnt signaling is blocked using a Dishevelled dominant negative protein, gastrulation movements are inhibited and cells accumulate in the primitive streak. Furthermore, disruption of non-canonical Wnt signaling by overexpression of full length or dominant negative Wnt11b or Wnt5a constructions abrogates normal cell migration through the primitive streak. We conclude that non-canonical Wnt signaling, mediated in part by Wnt11b, is important for regulation of gastrulation cell movements in the avian embryo. PMID:18602094

  11. The alternative splicing regulator Tra2b is required for somitogenesis and regulates splicing of an inhibitory Wnt11b isoform

    PubMed Central

    Dichmann, Darwin S; Walentek, Peter; Harland, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Alternative splicing is pervasive in vertebrates, yet little is known about most isoforms or their regulation. transformer-2b (tra2b) encodes a splicing regulator whose endogenous function is poorly understood. Tra2b knockdown in Xenopus results in embryos with multiple defects, including defective somitogenesis. Using RNA-seq, we identify 142 splice changes, mostly intron retention and exon skipping, of which 89% are not in current annotations. A previously not described isoform of wnt11b retains the last intron, resulting in a truncated ligand (Wnt11b-short). We show that this isoform acts as a dominant-negative in cardiac gene induction and pronephric tubule formation. To determine the contribution of Wnt11b-short to the tra2b phenotype, we induce retention of intron4 in wnt11b, which recapitulates the failure to form somites but not other tra2b morphant defects. This alternative splicing of a Wnt ligand adds intricacy to a complex signaling pathway and highlights intron retention as a regulatory mechanism. PMID:25620705

  12. The transcription factor Bcl11b is specifically expressed in group 2 innate lymphoid cells and is essential for their development

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yong; Wang, Cui; Clare, Simon; Wang, Juexuan; Lee, Song-Choon; Brandt, Cordelia; Burke, Shannon; Lu, Liming; He, Daqian; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.; Dougan, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), or ILC2s, are a subset of recently identified ILCs, which play important roles in innate immunity by producing type 2 effector cytokines. Several transcription factors have been found to have critical functions in the development of both ILC2s and T cells. We report here that Bcl11b, a transcription factor essential in T cell lineage commitment and maintenance, is specifically expressed in progenitors committed to the ILC2 lineage and is required for ILC2 development. The Bcl11b gene is expressed in ∼28% of ILC progenitors (ILCPs; common helper innate lymphoid progenitors or ILCPs expressing either ID2 or promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger, respectively). Both in vitro and in vivo, these Bcl11b-expressing early ILCPs generate only ILC2s. Inactivation of Bcl11b causes a complete loss of ILC2 development from hematopoietic progenitors, which is confirmed upon immune challenge with either papain administration or influenza virus infection. PMID:25964371

  13. Tim-3/galectin-9 pathway: regulation of Th1 immunity through promotion of CD11b+Ly-6G+ myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Dardalhon, Valerie; Anderson, Ana C; Karman, Jozsef; Apetoh, Lionel; Chandwaskar, Rucha; Lee, David H; Cornejo, Melanie; Nishi, Nozomu; Yamauchi, Akira; Quintana, Francisco J; Sobel, Raymond A; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Kuchroo, Vijay K

    2010-08-01

    IFN-gamma plays a central role in antitumor immunity. T cell Ig and mucin domain (Tim-3) is expressed on IFN-gamma-producing Th1 cells; on interaction with its ligand, galectin-9, Th1 immunity is terminated. In this study, we show that transgenic overexpression of Tim-3 on T cells results in an increase in CD11b(+)Ly-6G(+) cells and inhibition of immune responses. Molecular characterization of CD11b(+)Ly-6G(+) cells reveals a phenotype consistent with granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Accordingly, we find that modulation of the Tim-3/galectin-9 (Gal-9) pathway impacts on tumor growth. Similarly, overexpression of Tim-3 ligand, Gal-9, results in an increase in CD11b(+)Ly-6G(+) cells and inhibition of immune responses. Loss of Tim-3 restores normal levels of CD11b(+)Ly-6G(+) cells and normal immune responses in Gal-9 transgenic mice. Our data uncover a novel mechanism by which the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway regulates immune responses and identifies this pathway as a therapeutic target in diseases where myeloid-derived suppressor cells are disadvantageous. PMID:20574007

  14. CD11B EXPRESSION IN THE AIRWAY IS ASSOCIATED WITH ASTHMA SEVERITY, AIRWAY INFLAMMATION, AND REDUCED PERCENTAGE OF CD-54POSITIVE BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES IN ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CD11b and its counter receptor CD54 (ICAM-1) are both essential for migration of blood monocytes and neutrophils into tissues in response to inflammatory stimuli. Methods: Forty induced sputum and peripheral blood samples were taken over a six week period from nine atopic adults...

  15. Field Calibration of the δ11B-pH Proxy in Corals and Calcified Algae at a Shallow Hydrothermal Vent and Adjacent Coral Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, R. D.; Christopher, S. J.; Young, C.; Brainard, R. E.; Butterfield, D. A.; Stewart, J.

    2015-12-01

    There is increasing interest in using the boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of biogenic carbonates as a proxy for seawater pH to better understand recent ocean acidification. The utility of this proxy hinges on the production of robust species-specific δ11B-pH calibrations; yet, challenges remain in the interpretation of boron isotope data due to biases introduced by physiological, environmental, and analytical factors. The shallow hydrothermal vents in the Maug Islands caldera (Marianas Islands) and the adjacent coral reefs exhibit a localized gradient > 1 pH unit. This gradient was used as a natural laboratory to assess the efficacy of using skeletal δ11B in a variety of corals (Porites spp., Pocillipora spp., Acropora spp.) and calcified algae (Halimeda spp. and Corallinales) as biosensors of seawater pH. Three sites were selected representing oceanic background, intermediate, and low pH zones, and direct seawater pH measurements were recorded for 3 months using SeaFETs. Corals and algae growing naturally in situ were collected from these 3 sites. In addition, corals and algae collected from a background location were stained and transplanted to these sites and allowed to grow for 3 months. Measurements of δ11B in skeletal material made by multi-collector inductively coupled mass spectrometry are compared to direct seawater pH measurements to assess the sensitivity and robustness of the δ11B proxy in these candidate biosensors in predicting ambient pH in the field. These data will inform ongoing efforts by the Archive of Coral Ecosystem Specimens (ACES) to collect marine carbonates for analysis and archival in the Marine Environmental Specimen Bank for broad-scale, long-term monitoring of ocean acidification and the associated impacts to coral reefs. Concurrent analyses of other trace elements, heavy metals, and isotopes in these samples will also be performed to assess their utility as biosensors for additional water chemistry parameters on coral reefs.

  16. Response of Acropora digitifera to ocean acidification: constraints from δ11B, Sr, Mg, and Ba compositions of aragonitic skeletons cultured under variable seawater pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kentaro; Holcomb, Michael; Takahashi, Asami; Kurihara, Haruko; Asami, Ryuji; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Sowa, Kohki; Rankenburg, Kai; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; McCulloch, Malcolm

    2015-12-01

    The response of Acropora digitifera to ocean acidification is determined using geochemical proxy measurements of the skeletal composition of A. digitifera cultured under a range of pH levels. We show that the chemical composition (δ11B, Sr/Ca, Mg/Ca, and Ba/Ca) of the coral skeletons can provide quantitative constraints on the effects of seawater pH on the pH in the calcification fluid (pHCF) and the mechanisms controlling the incorporation of trace elements into coral aragonite. With the decline of seawater pH, the skeletal δ11B value decreased, while the Sr/Ca ratio showed an increasing trend. The relationship between Mg/Ca and Ba/Ca versus seawater pH was not significant. Inter-colony variation of δ11B was insignificant, although inter-colony variation was observed for Ba/Ca. The decreasing trend of pHCF calculated from δ11B was from ~8.5, 8.4, and 8.3 for seawater pH of ~8.1, 7.8, and 7.4, respectively. Model calculations based on Sr/Ca and pHCF suggest that upregulation of pHCF occurs via exchange of H+ with Ca2+ with kinetic effects (Rayleigh fractionation), reducing Sr/Ca relative to inorganic deposition of aragonite from seawater. We show that it is possible to constrain the overall carbonate chemistry of the calcifying fluid with estimates of the carbonate saturation of the calcifying fluid ( Ω CF) being derived from skeletal Sr/Ca and pHCF (from δ11B). These estimates suggest that the aragonite saturation state of the calcifying fluid Ω CF is elevated by a factor of 5-10 relative to ambient seawater under all treatment conditions.

  17. Correlations between 11B NMR parameters and structural characters in borate and borosilicate minerals investigated by high-resolution MAS NMR and ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bing; Sun, Zhaohua; Yao, Yefeng; Pan, Yuanming

    2012-05-01

    Borates consisting of diverse fundamental building blocks (FBB) formed from complex polymerization of planar triangular [Bϕ3] groups and tetrahedral [Bϕ4] groups, where ϕ = O and OH, provide an excellent opportunity for investigation of correlations between the NMR parameters and local structures. However, previous studies suggested that the 11B NMR parameters in borates are insensitive to local structural environments other than the B coordination number, in contrast to those documented for 29Si, 23Na and 27Al in silicates, and no correlation between 11B chemical shifts and the sum of bond valences has been established for borate minerals with hydroxyl groups or molecular water in the structures. In this study, high-resolution NMR spectra have been acquired at the ultra high field of 21 T as well as at 14 T for selected borate and borosilicate minerals, and have been used to extract high-precision NMR parameters by using combined ab initio theoretical calculations and spectral simulations. These new NMR parameters reveal subtle correlations with various structural characters, especially the effects of the 11B chemical shifts from the bridging oxygen atom(s), site symmetry, symmetry of FBB, the sum of bond valences, as well as the next-nearest-neighbor cations and hydrogen bonding. Also, these results provide new insights into the shielding mechanism for 11B in borate and borosilicate minerals. In particular, this study demonstrates that the small variation in 11B chemical shifts can still be used to probe the local structural environments and that the established correlations can be used to investigate the structural details in borates and amorphous materials.

  18. Software systems for modeling articulated figures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Cary B.

    1989-01-01

    Research in computer animation and simulation of human task performance requires sophisticated geometric modeling and user interface tools. The software for a research environment should present the programmer with a powerful but flexible substrate of facilities for displaying and manipulating geometric objects, yet insure that future tools have a consistent and friendly user interface. Jack is a system which provides a flexible and extensible programmer and user interface for displaying and manipulating complex geometric figures, particularly human figures in a 3D working environment. It is a basic software framework for high-performance Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations for modeling and manipulating geometric objects in a general but powerful way. It provides a consistent and user-friendly interface across various applications in computer animation and simulation of human task performance. Currently, Jack provides input and control for applications including lighting specification and image rendering, anthropometric modeling, figure positioning, inverse kinematics, dynamic simulation, and keyframe animation.

  19. Figure control concepts for segmented reflector telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boussalis, D.; Chu, C. C.; Ih, C.-H. C.; Wang, S. J.; Ryaciotaki-Boussalis, H. A.

    1989-01-01

    Control analysis activities related to the development of figure control technologies for large space telescopes with precision segmented actively controlled primary reflectors are reviewed. The Precision Segmented Reflector (PSR) configuration is described along with the development and use of the PSR models. Geometric and dynamic models, characterization of figure estimation errors and optimal sensor placement, and the development of quasi-static and dynamic control concepts are outlined. The structure of a quasi-static controller is presented, that utilizes edge sensor measurements to estimate displacement errors at the actuator level and generates figure correction commands. The second approach considers decentralization of the reflector system at the panel level, while the third considers decentralization at the actuator level.

  20. 7 CFR 201.11a - Hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.11a Hybrid. If any one kind or kind and variety of seed present in excess of 5 percent is “hybrid” seed, it shall be designated “hybrid” on the label. The...

  1. 7 CFR 201.11a - Hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.11a Hybrid. If any one kind or kind and variety of seed present in excess of 5 percent is “hybrid” seed, it shall be designated “hybrid” on the label. The...

  2. 7 CFR 201.11a - Hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.11a Hybrid. If any one kind or kind and variety of seed present in excess of 5 percent is “hybrid” seed, it shall be designated “hybrid” on the label. The...

  3. 7 CFR 201.11a - Hybrid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.11a Hybrid. If any one kind or kind and variety of seed present in excess of 5 percent is “hybrid” seed, it shall be designated “hybrid” on the label. The...

  4. Crystal structure of (3S*,4S*,4aS*,5R*,6R*,6aS*,7R*,11aS*,11bR*)-5,6-bis(benzo-yloxy)-3,4a-dihy-droxy-4,7,11b-trimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,11,11a,11b-dodeca-hydro-phenanthro[3,2-b]furan-4-carb-oxy-lic acid methanol monosolvate.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Sadaf; Erharuyi, Osayemwenre; Falodun, Abiodun; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Yousuf, Sammer

    2015-10-01

    The title compound, C34H36O9·CH3OH, is a diterpenoid isolated from the roots of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Swartz. The three trans-fused six-membered rings are in chair, chair and half-chair conformations. The mean plane of this fused-ring system makes dihedral angles of 67.95 (15) and 83.72 (14)° with the two phenyl rings of the benzo-yloxy groups. An intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming an infinite chain along the b-axis direction. PMID:26594451

  5. [Figures of anima in the Odyssey].

    PubMed

    Meneghello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Feminine characters in the Odyssey show different aspects of the archetype: Mother and Anima (C.G. Jung). From an Analytical Psychology perspective the encounters of Odysseus with goddesses: Circe, Calypso, Ino are looked at as different and successive stages of the hero's way into the inconscious, who shows himself in feminine figures, being masculine the consciousness of the hero. Nausicaa is a new, nearly-human figure of Anima who appears after the symbolic death of Odysseus and leads him to the royal couple Alcinous-Arete: in front of them all he finds his new, reborn, personality by creating and narrating his own myth. PMID:25807734

  6. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  7. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  8. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  9. Root-Canal Therapy: A Means of Treating Oral Pain and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Mitchell

    1988-01-01

    What is root-canal treatment? This article shows how endodontic treatment (root-canal therapy) can preserve teeth that would otherwise be extracted, and how tooth-pulp pathology can be diagnosed. Some clinical examples illustrate how non-dental infections can masquerade as dental problems, and vice versa. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3aFigure 3bFigure 3cFigure 4aFigure 4bFigure 4cFigure 5Figure 6aFigure 6bFigure 7Figure 8aFigure 8bFigure 9Figure 10Figure 11aFigure 11b PMID:21253195

  10. Induction of neutrophil respiratory burst by tumour necrosis factor-alpha; priming effect of solid-phase fibronectin and intervention of CD11b-CD18 integrins.

    PubMed Central

    Dapino, P; Dallegri, F; Ottonello, L; Sacchetti, C

    1993-01-01

    Human neutrophils, added to fibronectin (FN)-coated polystyrene wells and exposed to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), were found to exhibit a prolonged production of superoxide anion (O2-) after a lag period of approx 30 min. The O2- production, but not the cell adherence to FN, was completely inhibited by two MoAbs against CD18 and by a MoAb against CD11b, suggesting the involvement of CD11b-CD18 integrins in the neutrophil oxidative response. When neutrophils were induced to adhere to FN by incubation for 30 min on FN-coated surfaces and then washed to remove non-adherent cells, FN-anchored cells exhibited a rapid onset of O2- production in response to TNF-alpha. This suggests that FN primes neutrophils for the TNF-alpha-mediated respiratory burst. The O2- production by adherent neutrophils could be inhibited by anti-CD11b and anti-CD18 MoAbs only when the MoAbs were present both during the induction of adherence and during the subsequent exposure of FN-bound cells to TNF-alpha. The incapacity of MoAbs, added to neutrophils during the induction of adherence, to modify the characteristics of the subsequent neutrophil response to TNF-alpha suggests that the FN-mediated cell priming is independent of the interaction of CD11b-CD18 integrins with the FN substrate. The results are consistent with the intervention of three classes of cell receptors in the TNF-alpha-induced oxidative burst of neutrophils plated on FN: (i) neutrophil FN-binding sites, distinct from CD11b-CD18 and responsible for the cell priming; (ii) CD11b-CD18 integrins, absolutely required for permitting the cell triggering; and (iii) TNF-alpha receptors, responsible for switching on a rapid cell response in primed cells. The requirement of multiple classes of receptors for the full expression of the cell function can be envisaged as a natural precautionary measure to control the neutrophil responsiveness to TNF-alpha and, in turn, the TNF-alpha-dependent neutrophil-mediated oxidative injury

  11. Induction of neutrophil respiratory burst by tumour necrosis factor-alpha; priming effect of solid-phase fibronectin and intervention of CD11b-CD18 integrins.

    PubMed

    Dapino, P; Dallegri, F; Ottonello, L; Sacchetti, C

    1993-12-01

    Human neutrophils, added to fibronectin (FN)-coated polystyrene wells and exposed to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), were found to exhibit a prolonged production of superoxide anion (O2-) after a lag period of approx 30 min. The O2- production, but not the cell adherence to FN, was completely inhibited by two MoAbs against CD18 and by a MoAb against CD11b, suggesting the involvement of CD11b-CD18 integrins in the neutrophil oxidative response. When neutrophils were induced to adhere to FN by incubation for 30 min on FN-coated surfaces and then washed to remove non-adherent cells, FN-anchored cells exhibited a rapid onset of O2- production in response to TNF-alpha. This suggests that FN primes neutrophils for the TNF-alpha-mediated respiratory burst. The O2- production by adherent neutrophils could be inhibited by anti-CD11b and anti-CD18 MoAbs only when the MoAbs were present both during the induction of adherence and during the subsequent exposure of FN-bound cells to TNF-alpha. The incapacity of MoAbs, added to neutrophils during the induction of adherence, to modify the characteristics of the subsequent neutrophil response to TNF-alpha suggests that the FN-mediated cell priming is independent of the interaction of CD11b-CD18 integrins with the FN substrate. The results are consistent with the intervention of three classes of cell receptors in the TNF-alpha-induced oxidative burst of neutrophils plated on FN: (i) neutrophil FN-binding sites, distinct from CD11b-CD18 and responsible for the cell priming; (ii) CD11b-CD18 integrins, absolutely required for permitting the cell triggering; and (iii) TNF-alpha receptors, responsible for switching on a rapid cell response in primed cells. The requirement of multiple classes of receptors for the full expression of the cell function can be envisaged as a natural precautionary measure to control the neutrophil responsiveness to TNF-alpha and, in turn, the TNF-alpha-dependent neutrophil-mediated oxidative injury

  12. Intra-shell boron isotope ratios in the symbiont-bearing benthic foraminiferan Amphistegina lobifera: Implications for δ 11B vital effects and paleo-pH reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollion-Bard, C.; Erez, J.

    2010-03-01

    The boron isotope composition of marine carbonates is considered to be a seawater pH proxy. Nevertheless, the use of δ 11B has some limitations such as the knowledge of the fractionation factor ( α4-3) between boric acid and the borate ion and the amplitude of "vital effects" on this proxy that are not well constrained. Using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) we have examined the internal variability of the boron isotope ratio in the shallow water, symbionts bearing foraminiferan Amphistegina lobifera. Specimens were cultured at constant temperature (24 ± 0.1 °C) in seawater with pH ranging between 7.90 and 8.45. Intra-shell boron isotopes showed large variability with an upper limit value of ≈30‰. Our results suggest that the fractionation factor α4-3 of 0.97352 ( Klochko et al., 2006) is in better agreement with our experiments and with direct pH measurements in seawater vacuoles associated with the biomineralization process in these foraminifera. Despite the large variability of the skeletal pH values in each cultured specimen, it is possible to link the lowest calculated pH values to the experimental culture pH values while the upper pH limit is slightly below 9. This variability can be interpreted as follows: foraminifera variably increase the pH at the biomineralization site to about 9. This increase above ambient seawater pH leads to a range in δ 11B11B) for each seawater pH. This Δ 11B is linearly correlated with the culture seawater pH with a slope of -13.1 per pH unit, and is independent of the fractionation factor α4-3, or the δ 11B sw through time. It may also be independent of the p KB (the dissociation constant of boric acid) value. Therefore, Δ 11B in foraminifera can potentially reconstruct paleo-pH of seawater.

  13. Adolescent Girls' Parasocial Interactions with Media Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theran, Sally A.; Newberg, Emily M.; Gleason, Tracy R.

    2010-01-01

    We examined aspects of adolescent girls' parasocial interactions in the context of typical development. Parasocial interactions are defined as symbolic, one-sided quasi-interactions between a viewer and a media figure. In total, 107 adolescent girls were examined; 94% reported engaging in parasocial interactions to some degree. Preoccupied…

  14. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  15. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  16. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  17. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  18. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  19. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  20. Fading-Figure Tracing in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Chiyoko; Inui, Toshio; Iwata, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe impairment of visuospatial abilities. Figure-drawing abilities, which are thought to reflect visuospatial abilities, have yet to be fully investigated in WS. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether drawing abilities differ between WS individuals and…

  1. Participation in the Figured World of Graffiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Imuris; Weiss, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on ethnographic work with two "crews" of young graffiti artists in southern Mexico City. The crews share certain characteristics with gangs or urban tribes, but more with "communities of practice": they live in the "figured world" of graffiti, a community of practice at the local and global level. Through participation,…

  2. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  3. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  4. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  5. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  6. Cylindrical optic figuring dwell time optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluschka, Eugene

    2000-11-01

    The Constellation-X, grazing incidence, x-ray telescope may be fabricated from replicated segments. A series of mandrels will serve as the 'masters' in the replication processes. Diamond turning (milling) followed by abrasive figuring followed by a super polishing are the steps currently envisioned in making just one (of many) mandrel. The abrasive figuring of a mandrel is accomplished by moving a grinding tool along a helical path on this almost cylindrical surface. The measurement of the surface is, however, performed along 'axial' scan lines which intercept this helical path. This approach to figuring and measuring permits a relatively simple scheme to be implemented for the determination of the optimal dwell times of the figuring tool. These optimal dwell times are determined by a deconvolution which approaches the problem in a linear programming context and uses the Simplex Method. The approach maximizes the amount of material removed at any point subject to inequality constraints. The effects of using these 'optimum' dwell times is to significantly improve the tools effectiveness at removing the higher spatial frequencies while staying (strictly) within the bounds and constraints imposed by the hardware. In addition, the ringing at the edges of the optic, frequently present in deconvolution problems, is completely eliminated.

  7. Go Figure. HEADJAM. Teaching Guide [and Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MATHCOUNTS Foundation, Alexandria, VA.

    The HeadJam series is comprised of six programs exploring mathematics, science, and critical thinking skills. It is an award-winning, educational videotape series for middle school students that explores multi-disciplinary skills in a highly entertaining way. The teacher's guide and 22-minute video, "Go Figure," demonstrate how math is used in the…

  8. The Offerings of Fringe Figures and Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels-Schwarzpaul, A.-Chr.

    2015-01-01

    "The Western tradition", as passe-partout, includes fringe figures, émigrés and migrants. Rather than looking to resources at the core of the Western tradition to overcome its own blindnesses, I am more interested in its gaps and peripheries, where other thoughts and renegade knowledges take hold. It is in the contact zones with…

  9. Mirror Figuring Techniques of Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F.

    2004-05-01

    Between the years 1773 to 1818, Sir William Herschel constructed dozens of speculum telescope mirrors, with diameters ranging from 6 - 48 inches. Very little, if any, detailed information has ever been published on the specifics of his mirror figuring efforts. The reason for this certainly relates to his desire to closely guard mirror production trade secrets. Upon Herschel's death, all telescope-making documents were passed on to his only son, Sir John Herschel. These materials are now in the possession of the British RAS and primarily consist of: a) a four volume series entitled "Experiments on the Construction of Specula," b) a 129 page treaty called "On the Construction of Specula," and c) a 179 page manuscript entitled "Results of Experiments on the Construction of Mirrors." It is suggested that publication was further delayed and then eventually abandoned due to silver-coated glass mirrors coming into favor. A recent investigation by the author, of the unpublished manuscripts on the construction of specula, suggests that Herschel's mirror figuring techniques did not involve any guess work; in fact, his methods were highly refined -- never leaving to chance the evolution of a spherical surface into the required paraboloid. At the heart of Herschel's figuring techniques were a series of aperture diaphragms (similar to the Couder masks used by modern telescope makers) that were placed over the mirror, which allowed for the precise determination of its curvature at various predefined zones. With this information, Herschel was able to vary his figuring strokes with his polishing tool accordingly. In addition, all mirrors were subsequently "star tested," sometimes with aperture diaphragms in place, allowing for field examination of the mirror's "distinctness" or performance. Double stars and the planet Saturn were favorite targets used to analyze and then correct a mirror's figure.

  10. The major ion, 87Sr/86Sr, and δ11B geochemistry of groundwater in the Wyodak-Anderson coal bed aquifer (Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, Damien; Jacobson, Andrew D.; Cividini, Damien; Chabaux, François

    2015-11-01

    We developed a multicomponent, 1D advective transport model that describes the downgradient evolution of solute concentrations, 87Sr/86Sr ratios, and δ11B values in the Wyodak-Anderson Coal Bed (WACB) aquifer located in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the chemical vulnerability of groundwater to potential environmental change stemming from the extraction of coal bed methane and shale gas. Model calculations demonstrate that coupling between microbial activity and the dissolved carbonate system controls major ion transport in the WACB aquifer. The analysis of 87Sr/86Sr ratios further reveals the importance of ion-exchange reactions. Similarly, δ11B data emphasize the significance of pH-dependent surface reactions and demonstrate the vulnerability of the aquifer to the long-term acidification of recharge water.

  11. A metastable hard magnetic phase in the crystallization process of the Fe75Si11B10Nb3Sn1 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremaschi, V.; Arcondo, B.; Vázquez, M.; Sirkin, H.

    1999-11-01

    A very interesting characteristic of FeSiB based amorphous alloys is its soft magnetic behavior. Most of these alloys remains soft along the crystallization process up to the nucleation of the iron borides. Examples of this are the widely studied Finemet and the FeSiBSn. In this work the crystallization of Fe76Si11B10Nb3 and Fe75Si11B10Nb3Sn1 is studied by means of X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and coercive magnetic field measurements after one hour isothermal annealing at different temperatures. In the crystallization process of the latter alloy a hard magnetic phase appeared when the samples were annealed above 773 K. The soft magnetic behavior was recovered after annealing at 873 K. The hyperfine parameters as well as the X-ray diffraction patterns are reported.

  12. Selective and inducible targeting of CD11b+ mononuclear phagocytes in the murine lung with hCD68-rtTA transgenic systems.

    PubMed

    McCubbrey, Alexandra L; Barthel, Lea; Mould, Kara J; Mohning, Michael P; Redente, Elizabeth F; Janssen, William J

    2016-07-01

    During homeostasis two distinct macrophage (Mø) populations inhabit the lungs: tissue Mø (often called interstitial Mø) and resident alveolar Mø (resAMø). During acute lung inflammation, monocytes from the circulation migrate to areas of injury where they mature into a third Mø population: recruited Mø. Resident AMø uniquely express low levels of CD11b and high levels of CD11c. In comparison, recruited Mø and tissue Mø express high levels of CD11b and low levels of CD11c. It is likely that these three Mø subpopulations play distinct roles in injury and disease states; however, tools with which to individually target or track these populations are lacking. Here we demonstrate the utility of an hCD68-rtTA transgenic system for specific, robust, and inducible targeting of CD11b(+) recruited Mø and tissue Mø in the murine lung with negligible activation in resAMø. Using hCD68rtTA-GFP reporter mice, we show both during homeostasis and inflammation that administration of doxycycline induces tet-On reporter expression in recruited Mø and tissue Mø but not in resident AMø. We further demonstrate how hCD68-rtTA can be effectively combined with tet-On Cre to target these same recMø and tissue Mø. Accordingly, the hCD68-rtTA system is a powerful new tool that can be used for lineage tracing, fate mapping, and gene deletion in a variety of murine models, thereby enabling sophisticated investigation of the unique role of these CD11b(+) Mø during lung heath and disease. PMID:27190063

  13. Canine Recombinant Adenovirus Vector Induces an Immunogenicity-Related Gene Expression Profile in Skin-Migrated CD11b+ -Type DCs

    PubMed Central

    Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Bonneau, Michel; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs) could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2) as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b+ -type and CD103+ -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b+ -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103+ -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b+ -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b+ DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103+ DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23300693

  14. Determination of δ11B by HR-ICP-MS from mass limited samples: Application to natural carbonates and water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Sambuddha; Owen, Robert; Kerr, Joanna; Greaves, Mervyn; Elderfield, Henry

    2014-09-01

    We present an improved method for accurate and precise determination of the boron isotopic composition (11B/10B) of carbonate and water samples using a mineral acid matrix and HR-ICP-MS. Our method for δ11B determination utilizes a micro-distillation based boron purification technique for both carbonate and seawater matrices. The micro-distillation method is characterized by low blank (⩽0.01 ng-B) and 99.8 ± 5.7% boron recovery. We also report a new ICP-MS method, performed in a hydrofluoric acid matrix, using a jet interface fitted Thermo® Element XR that consumes <3.0 ng-B per quintuplicate analyses (±0.5‰, 2σ, n = 5). A comparatively high matrix tolerance limit of ⩽50 ppb Na/K/Mg/Ca characterizes our ICP-MS method. With an extremely low procedural blank (⩽0.05 ± 0.01 ng-B) the present isotope method is optimized for rapid (∼25 samples per session) analysis of small masses of carbonates (foraminifera, corals) with low boron abundance and small volume water samples (seawater, porewater, river water). Our δ11B estimates of seawater (39.8 ± 0.5‰, 2σ, n = 30); SRM AE-120 (-20.2 ± 0.5‰, 2s, n = 33); SRM AE-121 (19.8 ± 0.4‰, 2s, n = 16); SRM AE-122 (39.6 ± 0.5‰, 2s, n = 16) are within analytical uncertainty of published values. We apply this new method to assess the impacts of laboratory handling induced sample contamination and seawater physio-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, and salinity) on marine carbonate bound δ11B by analyzing core-top planktonic foraminifera samples.

  15. Phagocytosis Is the Main CR3-Mediated Function Affected by the Lupus-Associated Variant of CD11b in Human Myeloid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cortini, Andrea; Szajna, Marta; Malik, Talat H.; McDonald, Jacqueline U.; Pickering, Matthew C.; Cook, H. Terence; Taylor, Philip R.; Botto, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The CD11b/CD18 integrin (complement receptor 3, CR3) is a surface receptor on monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells that plays a crucial role in several immunological processes including leukocyte extravasation and phagocytosis. The minor allele of a non-synonymous CR3 polymorphism (rs1143679, conversation of arginine to histidine at position 77: R77H) represents one of the strongest genetic risk factor in human systemic lupus erythematosus, with heterozygosity (77R/H) being the most common disease associated genotype. Homozygosity for the 77H allele has been reported to reduce adhesion and phagocytosis in human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages, respectively, without affecting surface expression of CD11b. Herein we comprehensively assessed the influence of R77H on different CR3-mediated activities in monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells. R77H did not alter surface expression of CD11b including its active form in any of these cell types. Using two different iC3b-coated targets we found that the uptake by heterozygous 77R/H macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils was significantly reduced compared to 77R/R cells. Allele-specific transduced immortalized macrophage cell lines demonstrated that the minor allele, 77H, was responsible for the impaired phagocytosis. R77H did not affect neutrophil adhesion, neutrophil transmigration in vivo or Toll-like receptor 7/8-mediated cytokine release by monocytes or dendritic cells with or without CR3 pre-engagement by iC3b-coated targets. Our findings demonstrate that the reduction in CR3-mediated phagocytosis associated with the 77H CD11b variant is not macrophage-restricted but demonstrable in other CR3-expressing professional phagocytic cells. The association between 77H and susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus most likely relates to impaired waste disposal, a key component of lupus pathogenesis. PMID:23451151

  16. Pseudoislet formation enhances gene expression, insulin secretion and cytoprotective mechanisms of clonal human insulin-secreting 1.1B4 cells.

    PubMed

    Green, Alastair D; Vasu, Srividya; McClenaghan, Neville H; Flatt, Peter R

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the effects of cell communication on human beta cell function and resistance to cytotoxicity using the novel human insulin-secreting cell line 1.1B4 configured as monolayers and pseudoislets. Incubation with the incretin gut hormones GLP-1 and GIP caused dose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion from 1.1B4 cell monolayers and pseudoislets. The secretory responses were 1.5-2.7-fold greater than monolayers. Cell viability (MTT), DNA damage (comet assay) and apoptosis (acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining) were investigated following 2-h exposure of 1.1B4 monolayers and pseudoislets to ninhydrin, H2O2, streptozotocin, glucose, palmitate or cocktails of proinflammatory cytokines. All agents tested decreased viability and increased DNA damage and apoptosis in both 1.1B4 monolayers and pseudoislets. However, pseudoislets exhibited significantly greater resistance to cytotoxicity (1.5-2.7-fold increases in LD50) and lower levels of DNA damage (1.3-3.4-fold differences in percentage tail DNA and olive tail moment) and apoptosis (1.3-1.5-fold difference) compared to monolayers. Measurement of gene expression by reverse-transcription, real-time PCR showed that genes involved with insulin secretion (INS, PDX1, PCSK1, PCSK2, GLP1R and GIPR), cell-cell communication (GJD2, GJA1 and CDH1) and antioxidant defence (SOD1, SOD2, GPX1 and CAT) were significantly upregulated in pseudoislets compared to monolayers, whilst the expression of proapoptotic genes (NOS2, MAPK8, MAPK10 and NFKB1) showed no significant differences. In summary, these data indicate cell-communication associated with three-dimensional islet architecture is important both for effective insulin secretion and for protection of human beta cells against cytotoxicity. PMID:25559846

  17. A Novel Mutation in the CYP11B1 Gene Causes Steroid 11β-Hydroxylase Deficient Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia with Reversible Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Mohammad A; Shati, Ayed A; Zou, Minjing; Alsuheel, Ali M; Alhayani, Abdullah A; Al-Qahtani, Saleh M; Gilban, Hessa M; Meyer, Brain F; Shi, Yufei

    2015-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency is the second most common form of CAH, resulting from a mutation in the CYP11B1 gene. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency results in excessive mineralcorticoids and androgen production leading to hypertension, precocious puberty with acne, enlarged penis, and hyperpigmentation of scrotum of genetically male infants. In the present study, we reported 3 male cases from a Saudi family who presented with penile enlargement, progressive darkness of skin, hypertension, and cardiomyopathy. The elder patient died due to heart failure and his younger brothers were treated with hydrocortisone and antihypertensive medications. Six months following treatment, cardiomyopathy disappeared with normal blood pressure and improvement in the skin pigmentation. The underlying molecular defect was investigated by PCR-sequencing analysis of all coding exons and intron-exon boundary of the CYP11B1 gene. A novel biallelic mutation c.780 G>A in exon 4 of the CYP11B1 gene was found in the patients. The mutation created a premature stop codon at amino acid 260 (p.W260 (∗) ), resulting in a truncated protein devoid of 11β-hydroxylase activity. Interestingly, a somatic mutation at the same codon (c.779 G>A, p.W260 (∗) ) was reported in a patient with papillary thyroid cancer (COSMIC database). In conclusion, we have identified a novel nonsense mutation in the CYP11B1 gene that causes classic steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficient CAH. Cardiomyopathy and cardiac failure can be reversed by early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26265915

  18. Lack of Muc1-regulated beta-catenin stability results in aberrant expansion of CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid derived suppressor cells from the bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Tze Wei; Bradley, Judy M.; Mukherjee, Pinku; Gendler, Sandra J.

    2009-01-01

    Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells that inhibit T cell activity and contribute to the immune suppression characteristic of most tumors. We discovered that bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells from the Muc1 knockout (KO) mice differentiated into CD11b+Gr1+ MDSCs in vitro under GM-CSF and IL-4 signaling. MUC1 is a tumor-associated mucin and its cytoplasmic tail (MUC1-CT) can regulate beta-catenin to promote oncogenesis. Given the importance of beta-catenin in hematopoiesis, we hypothesized that the MUC1 regulation of beta-catenin is important for MDSC development. Our current study shows that the aberrant development of BM progenitors into CD11b+Gr1+ MDSCs is dependent on the down regulation of beta-catenin levels that occurs in the absence of Muc1. In light of this, KO mice showed enhanced EL4 tumor growth and were able to better tolerate allogeneic BM185 tumor growth, with an accumulation of CD11b+Gr1+ cells in the blood and tumor draining lymph nodes. WT mice were able to similarly tolerate allogeneic tumor growth when they were injected with CD11b+Gr1+ cells from tumor-bearing KO mice, suggesting that tolerance of allogeneic tumors is dependent on MDSC-mediated immune suppression. This further delineates the ability of Muc1 to control MDSC development which could directly impact tumorigenesis. Knowledge of the biology by which Muc1 regulates the development of myeloid progenitors into MDSCs would also be very useful in enhancing the efficacy of cancer vaccines in the face of tumor immune suppression. PMID:19351842

  19. Lack of association of CYP11B2-344C/T polymorphism with essential hypertension: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian-Fei; Jing, Jun; Tan, Hu; Song, Min-Bao; Yu, Shi-Yong; Huang, Lan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A meta-analysis was carried out to evaluate the correlation between CYP11B2-344C/T polymorphism and essential hypertension susceptibility. Methods: By retrieving relevant databases and collecting domestic and international literatures about the correlation between CYP11B2-344C/T polymorphism and essential hypertension, the quality of literature were evaluated according to NEWCASTLE-OTTAWA case-control study quality rating scale (NOS). RevMan 5.0 was used to select the best genetic model, analysis the heterogeneity, calculate combined OR and the 95% CI. Results: 8532 subjects were included in this study. Compared with the control group, the OR (95% CI) values of dominant model, recessive model, and additive model were 1.01 (95% CI: 0.81~1.25), 1.03 (95% CI: 0.83~1.19) and 1.10 (95% CI: 0.93-1.29). Conclusion: There is no evidence to confirm that CYP11B2 (-344C/T) polymorphism is associated with susceptibility of essential hypertension. PMID:26309573

  20. Gr-1dimCD11b+ Immature Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells, but not Neutrophils, are Markers of Lethal Tuberculosis Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tsiganov, Evgeny N.; Verbina, Elena M.; Radaeva, Tatyana V.; Sosunov, Vasily V.; Kosmiadi, George A.; Nikitina, Irina Yu.; Lyadova, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis disease (TB) may progress at different rates and have different outcomes. Neutrophils have been implicated in TB progression; however, data on their role during TB are controversial. Here we show that in mice, TB progression is associated with the accumulation of cells that express neutrophilic markers Gr-1 and Ly-6G, but do not belong to conventional neutrophils. The cells exhibit unsegmented nuclei, have Gr-1dimLy-6GdimCD11b+ phenotype and express F4/80, CD49d, Ly-6C, CD117, CD135 markers characteristic not of neutrophils, but of immature myeloid cells. The cells accumulate in the lungs, bone marrow, spleen and blood at the advanced (pre-lethal) stage of M. tuberculosis infection and represent a heterogeneous population of myeloid cells at different stages of their differentiation. The accumulation of Gr-1dimCD11b+ cells is accompanied by the disappearance of conventional neutrophils (Gr-1hiLy-6Ghi-expressing cells). The Gr-1dimCD11b+ cells suppress T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production in vitro via NO-dependent mechanisms, i.e. they exhibit characteristics of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). These results document the generation of MDSCs during TB, suggesting their role in TB pathogenesis, and arguing that neutrophils do not contribute to TB pathology at the advanced disease stage. PMID:24711621

  1. Hydrogen Sulfide Attenuates the Recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ Myeloid Cells and Regulates Bax/Bcl-2 Signaling in Myocardial Ischemia Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youen; Li, Hua; Zhao, Gang; Sun, Aijun; Zong, Nobel C.; Li, Zhaofeng; Zhu, Hongming; Zou, Yunzeng; Yang, Xiangdong; Ge, Junbo

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide, an endogenous signaling molecule, plays an important role in the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system. Using a mouse model of myocardial infarction, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of the H2S donor sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). The results demonstrated that the administration of NaHS improved survival, preserved left ventricular function, limited infarct size, and improved H2S levels in cardiac tissue to attenuate the recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and to regulate the Bax/Bcl-2 pathway. Furthermore, the cardioprotective effects of NaHS were enhanced by inhibiting the migration of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells from the spleen into the blood and by attenuating post-infarction inflammation. These observations suggest that the novel mechanism underlying the cardioprotective function of H2S is secondary to a combination of attenuation the recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and regulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 apoptotic signaling. PMID:24758901

  2. Depletion of macrophages in CD11b diphtheria toxin receptor mice induces brain inflammation and enhances inflammatory signaling during traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Frieler, Ryan A; Nadimpalli, Sameera; Boland, Lauren K; Xie, Angela; Kooistra, Laura J; Song, Jianrui; Chung, Yutein; Cho, Kae W; Lumeng, Carey N; Wang, Michael M; Mortensen, Richard M

    2015-10-22

    Immune cells have important roles during disease and are known to contribute to secondary, inflammation-induced injury after traumatic brain injury. To delineate the functional role of macrophages during traumatic brain injury, we depleted macrophages using transgenic CD11b-DTR mice and subjected them to controlled cortical impact. We found that macrophage depletion had no effect on lesion size assessed by T2-weighted MRI scans 28 days after injury. Macrophage depletion resulted in a robust increase in proinflammatory gene expression in both the ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres after controlled cortical impact. Interestingly, this sizeable increase in inflammation did not affect lesion development. We also showed that macrophage depletion resulted in increased proinflammatory gene expression in the brain and kidney in the absence of injury. These data demonstrate that depletion of macrophages in CD11b-DTR mice can significantly modulate the inflammatory response during brain injury without affecting lesion formation. These data also reveal a potentially confounding inflammatory effect in CD11b-DTR mice that must be considered when interpreting the effects of macrophage depletion in disease models. PMID:26208897

  3. MyD88-dependent expansion of an immature GR-1+CD11b+ population induces T cell suppression and Th2 polarization in sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Delano, Matthew J.; Scumpia, Philip O.; Weinstein, Jason S.; Coco, Dominique; Nagaraj, Srinivas; Kelly-Scumpia, Kindra M.; O'Malley, Kerri A.; Wynn, James L.; Antonenko, Svetlana; Al-Quran, Samer Z.; Swan, Ryan; Chung, Chun-Shiang; Atkinson, Mark A.; Ramphal, Reuben; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.; Reeves, Wesley H.; Ayala, Alfred; Phillips, Joseph; LaFace, Drake; Heyworth, Paul G.; Clare-Salzler, Michael; Moldawer, Lyle L.

    2007-01-01

    Polymicrobial sepsis alters the adaptive immune response and induces T cell suppression and Th2 immune polarization. We identify a GR-1+CD11b+ population whose numbers dramatically increase and remain elevated in the spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow during polymicrobial sepsis. Phenotypically, these cells are heterogeneous, immature, predominantly myeloid progenitors that express interleukin 10 and several other cytokines and chemokines. Splenic GR-1+ cells effectively suppress antigen-specific CD8+ T cell interferon (IFN) γ production but only modestly suppress antigen-specific and nonspecific CD4+ T cell proliferation. GR-1+ cell depletion in vivo prevents both the sepsis-induced augmentation of Th2 cell–dependent and depression of Th1 cell–dependent antibody production. Signaling through MyD88, but not Toll-like receptor 4, TIR domain–containing adaptor-inducing IFN-β, or the IFN-α/β receptor, is required for complete GR-1+CD11b+ expansion. GR-1+CD11b+ cells contribute to sepsis-induced T cell suppression and preferential Th2 polarization. PMID:17548519

  4. The nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of the synthetic AhPDF1.1b plant defensin evidences the structural feature within the γ-motif.

    PubMed

    Meindre, Fanny; Lelièvre, Dominique; Loth, Karine; Mith, Oriane; Aucagne, Vincent; Berthomieu, Pierre; Marquès, Laurence; Delmas, Agnès F; Landon, Céline; Paquet, Françoise

    2014-12-16

    Plant defensins (PDF) are cysteine-rich peptides that are major actors in the innate immunity in plants. Besides their antifungal activity, some PDF such as Arabidopsis halleri PDF1.1b confer zinc tolerance in plants. Here we present (i) an efficient protocol for the production of AhPDF1.1b by solid-phase peptide synthesis followed by controlled oxidative folding to obtain the highly pure native form of the defensin and (ii) the three-dimensional (3D) nuclear magnetic resonance structure of AhPDF1.1b, the first 3D structure of plant defensin obtained with a synthetic peptide. Its fold is organized around the typical cysteine-stabilized α-helix β-sheet motif and contains the γ-core motif involved in the antifungal activity of all plant defensins. On the basis of our structural analysis of AhPDF1 defensins combined with previous biological data for antifungal and zinc tolerance activities, we established the essential role of cis-Pro41 within the γ-core. In fact, the four consecutive residues (Val39-Phe40-Pro41-Ala42) are strictly conserved for plant defensins able to tolerate zinc. We hypothesized that structural and/or dynamic features of this sequence are related to the ability of the defensin to chelate zinc. PMID:25419866

  5. Association between the CYP11B2 gene -344T>C polymorphism and coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Liu, H L; Han, W; Yu, S J; Zhang, J

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the association between the CYP11B2 gene -344T>C polymorphism and coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. However, the specific association is still controversial. To address this issue, PubMed, EMBASE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases were searched for eligible articles that reported on the relationship between the CYP11B2 gene -344T>C polymorphism and CAD, and were published before April 2014. Data from five separate studies with 3687 subjects were analyzed by meta-analysis. No significant variation in CAD risk was detected by any of the genetic models in the overall study population. Taking into account the effect of ethnicity, further stratified analyses demonstrated significant association in both Caucasian (TT vs TC: OR = 0.80, 95%CI = 0.64-1.00) and Asian populations (TT vs TC: OR = 1.25, 95%CI = 1.01-1.54; dominant model: OR = 0.80, 95%CI = 0.66-0.98). The pooled ORs were not substantially altered after the exclusion of one study in the control group that deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, highlighting the reliability of our meta-analysis results. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that the -344T>C polymorphism in the CYP11B2 gene might be associated with susceptibility to CAD in Caucasians and Asians. PMID:25966076

  6. KELT-10b and KELT-11b: Two Sub-Jupiter Mass Planets well-Suited for Atmospheric Characterization in the Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Joseph E.

    2015-12-01

    The Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) project is a photometric survey in both the northern and southern hemispheres for transiting planets around bright stars (8 < V < 11), and has discovered 15 planets to date. Of these, several possess unique characteristics that make them especially well suited for study of planet atmospheres. Here, I present the first two discoveries from the KELT-South survey. KELT-10b is an inflated transiting sub-Jupiter mass planet (0.68 MJ) around a V=10.7 early G-star. It has the 3rd deepest transit (1.4%) in the southern hemisphere for a star V < 12.5, making it a great target for transmission spectroscopy. KELT-11b is a highly inflated transiting Saturn mass planet (0.22 MJ) orbiting one of the brightest planet-hosting stars in the southern hemisphere. Interestingly, KELT-11b's host star is a clear sub-giant star (log(g) ~ 3.7). I will discuss their impact for atmospheric characterization. For example, the highly inflated nature of the KELT-11b planet provides the ability to study a sub-Jupiter atmosphere at very low planetary gravity, while the sub-giant nature of its host star allows us to study the effects of post main sequence evolution of a host star on a hot Jupiter.

  7. Variable-spot ion beam figuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lixiang; Qiu, Keqiang; Fu, Shaojun

    2016-03-01

    This paper introduces a new scheme of ion beam figuring (IBF), or rather variable-spot IBF, which is conducted at a constant scanning velocity with variable-spot ion beam collimated by a variable diaphragm. It aims at improving the reachability and adaptation of the figuring process within the limits of machine dynamics by varying the ion beam spot size instead of the scanning velocity. In contrast to the dwell time algorithm in the conventional IBF, the variable-spot IBF adopts a new algorithm, which consists of the scan path programming and the trajectory optimization using pattern search. In this algorithm, instead of the dwell time, a new concept, integral etching time, is proposed to interpret the process of variable-spot IBF. We conducted simulations to verify its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results indicate the variable-spot IBF is a promising alternative to the conventional approach.

  8. Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Chapman; Henry N. , Taylor; John S.

    2010-02-16

    A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

  9. Recommended Figures of Merit for Green Monopropellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William M.; Deans, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrazine propellant has historically been used as a rocket thruster monopropellant since the mid-1960s. Mission managers are well aware of its characteristics and performance. However, it is a known toxic chemical and a wide effort is underway to reduce and/or eliminate its use worldwide. Several new propellant combinations have been developed in the last few years which tout or promise to provide same or better performance as hydrazine while being "non-toxic" or "green". Yet, there is no consistent definition for what constitutes "non-toxic" or "green", and thus no good figure of merit for which to compare. This paper seeks to review the three major categories of figures of merit, and discusses how they might be used to assess the viability of a propellant.

  10. Phenotypic, metabolic, and molecular genetic characterization of six patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by novel mutations in the CYP11B1 gene.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy-Hoang; Eiden-Plach, Antje; Hannemann, Frank; Malunowicz, Ewa M; Hartmann, Michaela F; Wudy, Stefan A; Bernhardt, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of steroidogenesis. Steroid 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD) due to mutations in the CYP11B1 gene is the second most common form of CAH. In this study, 6 patients suffering from CAH were diagnosed with 11β-OHD using urinary GC-MS steroid metabolomics analysis. The molecular basis of the disorder was investigated by molecular genetic analysis of the CYP11B1 gene, functional characterization of splicing and missense mutations, and analysis of the missense mutations in a computer model of CYP11B1. All patients presented with abnormal clinical signs of hyperandrogenism. Their urinary steroid metabolomes were characterized by excessive excretion rates of metabolites of 11-deoxycortisol as well as metabolites of 11-deoxycorticosterone, and allowed definite diagnosis. Patient 1 carries compound heterozygous mutations consisting of a novel nonsense mutation p.Q102X (c.304C>T) in exon 2 and the known missense mutation p.T318R (c.953C>G) in exon 5. Two siblings (patient 2 and 3) were compound heterozygous carriers of a known splicing mutation c.1200+1G>A in intron 7 and a known missense mutation p.R448H (c.1343G>A) in exon 8. Minigene experiments demonstrated that the c.1200+1G>A mutation caused abnormal pre-mRNA splicing (intron retention). Two further siblings (patient 4 and 5) were compound heterozygous carriers of a novel missense mutation p.R332G (c.994C>G) in exon 6 and the known missense mutation p.R448H (c.1343G>A) in exon 8. A CYP11B1 activity study in COS-1 cells showed that only 11% of the enzyme activity remained in the variant p.R332G. Patient 6 carried a so far not described homozygous deletion g.2470_5320del of 2850 bp corresponding to a loss of the CYP11B1 exons 3-8. The breakpoints of the deletion are embedded into two typical 6 base pair repeats (GCTTCT) upstream and downstream of the gene. Experiments analyzing the influence of mutations on splicing and on enzyme

  11. Assessing the impact of diagenesis on δ11B, δ13C, δ18O, Sr/Ca and B/Ca values in fossil planktic foraminiferal calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, Kirsty M.; Anagnostou, Eleni; Pearson, Paul N.; Foster, Gavin L.

    2015-10-01

    The geochemical composition of foraminiferal tests is a valuable archive for the reconstruction of paleo-climatic, -oceanographic and -ecological changes. However, dissolution of biogenic calcite and precipitation of inorganic calcite (overgrowth and recrystallization) at the seafloor and in the sediment column can potentially alter the original geochemical composition of the foraminiferal test, biasing any resulting paleoenvironmental reconstruction. The δ11B of planktic foraminiferal calcite is a promising ocean pH-proxy but the effect of diagenesis is still poorly known. Here we present new δ11B, δ13C, δ18O, Sr/Ca and B/Ca data from multiple species of planktic foraminifera from time-equivalent samples for two low latitude sites: clay-rich Tanzanian Drilling Project (TDP) Site 18 from the Indian Ocean containing well-preserved ('glassy') foraminifera and carbonate-rich Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 865 from the central Pacific Ocean hosting recrystallized ('frosty') foraminifera. Our approach makes the assumption that environmental conditions were initially similar at both sites so most chemical differences are attributable to diagenesis. Planktic foraminiferal δ18O and δ13C records show offsets in both relative and absolute values between the two sites consistent with earlier findings that these isotopic ratios are strongly influenced by diagenetic alteration. Sr/Ca and B/Ca ratios in planktic foraminiferal calcite are also offset between the two sites but there is little change in the relative difference between surface and deep dwelling taxa. In contrast, δ11B values indicate no large differences between well-preserved and recrystallized foraminifera suggesting that despite extensive diagenetic alteration the δ11B of biogenic calcite appears robust, potentially indicative of a lack of free exchange of boron between pore fluids and the recrystallizing CaCO3. Our finding may remove one potential source of uncertainty in δ11B based p

  12. Figures of Equilibrium among Binary Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hestroffer, D.; Tanga, P.

    2005-12-01

    The original idea of Farinella et al. [1] that rubble pile asteroids can have figures of equilibrium, is rehabilitated. Albeit asteroids generally have a broad distribution of shapes and do not follow sequences of (hydrostatic) equilibrium, we show that some asteroids are indeed Jacobi or Darwin ellipsoids. Such statement is obtained from an analysis of their ellipsoidal shape (a:b:c) together with recent measures of their mass and bulk density [2,3]. This means that both their shape and adimensional rotation frequency sbond Ω =Ω /(π ρ G) follow sequences of equilibrium [4,5]. Jacobi and Darwin figures are obtained for uniformly rotating mass of (inviscid as well as compressible) fluids and relatively large angular momentum. Interestingly these objects appear to preferably be binaries. We moreover show that the porosity of such objects is relatively large (approx. 40%) indicating that they are loose rubble piles, yet with dense packing. Last we show that, given the observed bulk-densities, these bodies must be homogeneous bodies of uniform density distribution. Thus, though solid-solid friction must occur in such aggregates, the surface of these bodies is a surface of level similar to that of inviscid fluids. Comparison to other asteroids of similar mass either possessing a moonlet or with no known satellites should shed light on their formation history and/or constrains on collisional evolution. Binaries with low eccentricities and inclination (hence prograde orbit) should preferably be the outcome of catastrophic disruption as is supposed for members of dynamical family [6,7]. Future work and analysis of the typical reaccumulation time scales, typical angular momentum, possible post-reaccumulation cosmic shaking, etc. shall help to know how the fate of collisions or catastrophic breakup of a parent body can differ yielding to binaries with equilibrium figures. In any case the existence of a figure of equilibrium appears to be highly correlated to the presence

  13. Protein Kinase C-Mediated Phosphorylation of BCL11B at Serine 2 Negatively Regulates Its Interaction with NuRD Complexes during CD4+ T-Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Dubuissez, Marion; Loison, Ingrid; Paget, Sonia; Vorng, Han; Ait-Yahia, Saliha; Rohr, Olivier; Tsicopoulos, Anne; Leprince, Dominique

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor BCL11B/CTIP2 is a major regulatory protein implicated in various aspects of development, function and survival of T cells. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated phosphorylation and SUMOylation modulate BCL11B transcriptional activity, switching it from a repressor in naive murine thymocytes to a transcriptional activator in activated thymocytes. Here, we show that BCL11B interacts via its conserved N-terminal MSRRKQ motif with endogenous MTA1 and MTA3 proteins to recruit various NuRD complexes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation of BCL11B Ser2 does not significantly impact BCL11B SUMOylation but negatively regulates NuRD recruitment by dampening the interaction with MTA1 or MTA3 (MTA1/3) and RbAp46 proteins. We detected increased phosphorylation of BCL11B Ser2 upon in vivo activation of transformed and primary human CD4(+) T cells. We show that following activation of CD4(+) T cells, BCL11B still binds to IL-2 and Id2 promoters but activates their transcription by recruiting P300 instead of MTA1. Prolonged stimulation results in the direct transcriptional repression of BCL11B by KLF4. Our results unveil Ser2 phosphorylation as a new BCL11B posttranslational modification linking PKC signaling pathway to T-cell receptor (TCR) activation and define a simple model for the functional switch of BCL11B from a transcriptional repressor to an activator during TCR activation of human CD4(+) T cells. PMID:27161321

  14. Figures of merit for laser beam quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milster, T. D.; Walker, E. P.

    1993-01-01

    It was shown how full-width at half maximum (FWHM), full-width at 1/e(sup 2) (FW1/e(sup 2)), Strehl ratio, and encircled energy figures of merit vary with different types of aberration and measurement methods. The array sampling method and the slit-scan method are examined in detail. Our irradiance in the exit pupil of the optical system is a simple gaussian. It was found that in general the slit-scan method and the array method do not yield the same result. The width measurements for the central lobe of the diffraction pattern are very insensitive to aberration.

  15. Noise figure of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Keisuke; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-09-15

    Amplified dispersive Fourier transformation (ADFT) is a powerful tool for fast real-time spectroscopy as it overcomes the limitations of traditional optical spectrometers. ADFT maps the spectrum of an optical pulse into a temporal waveform using group-velocity dispersion and simultaneously amplifies it in the optical domain. It greatly simplifies spectroscopy by replacing the diffraction grating and detector array in the conventional spectrometer with a dispersive fiber and single-pixel photodetector, enabling ultrafast real-time spectroscopic measurements. Following our earlier work on the theory of ADFT, here we study the effect of noise on ADFT. We derive the noise figure of ADFT and discuss its dependence on various parameters.

  16. Infrared thermal imaging figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    Commercially available types of infrared thermal imaging instruments, both viewers (qualitative) and imagers (quantitative) are discussed. The various scanning methods by which thermal images (thermograms) are generated will be reviewed. The performance parameters (figures of merit) that define the quality of performance of infrared radiation thermometers will be introduced. A discussion of how these parameters are extended and adapted to define the performance of thermal imaging instruments will be provided. Finally, the significance of each of the key performance parameters of thermal imaging instruments will be reviewed and procedures currently used for testing to verify performance will be outlined.

  17. Antigen targeting to CD11b+ dendritic cells in association with TLR4/TRIF signaling promotes strong CD8+ T cell responses.

    PubMed

    Dadaglio, Gilles; Fayolle, Catherine; Zhang, Xiaoming; Ryffel, Bernard; Oberkampf, Marine; Felix, Tristan; Hervas-Stubbs, Sandra; Osicka, Radim; Sebo, Peter; Ladant, Daniel; Leclerc, Claude

    2014-08-15

    Deciphering the mechanisms that allow the induction of strong immune responses is crucial to developing efficient vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Based on the discovery that the adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis binds to the CD11b/CD18 integrin, we developed a highly efficient detoxified adenylate cyclase-based vector (CyaA) capable of delivering a large variety of Ags to the APC. This vector allows the induction of protective and therapeutic immunity against viral and tumoral challenges as well as against transplanted tumors in the absence of any added adjuvant. Two therapeutic vaccine candidates against human papilloma viruses and melanoma have been developed recently, based on the CyaA vector, and are currently in clinical trials. We took advantage of one of these highly purified vaccines, produced under good manufacturing practice-like conditions, to decipher the mechanisms by which CyaA induces immune responses. In this study, we demonstrate that CyaA binds both human and mouse CD11b(+) dendritic cells (DCs) and induces their maturation, as shown by the upregulation of costimulatory and MHC molecules and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Importantly, we show that DCs sense CyaA through the TLR4/Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β pathway, independent of the presence of LPS. These findings show that CyaA possesses the intrinsic ability to not only target DCs but also to activate them, leading to the induction of strong immune responses. Overall, this study demonstrates that Ag delivery to CD11b(+) DCs in association with TLR4/Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β activation is an efficient strategy to promote strong specific CD8(+) T cell responses. PMID:25024388

  18. TNFα-mediated Hsd11b1 binding of NF-κB p65 is associated with suppression of 11β-HSD1 in muscle

    PubMed Central

    Doig, Craig L; Bashir, Jamila; Zielinska, Agnieszka E; Cooper, Mark S; Stewart, Paul M; Lavery, Gareth G

    2014-01-01

    The activity of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which converts inactive cortisone (11-dehydrocorticosterone (11-DHC)) (in mice) into the active glucocorticoid (GC) cortisol (corticosterone in mice), can amplify tissue GC exposure. Elevated TNFα is a common feature in a range of inflammatory disorders and is detrimental to muscle function in diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We have previously demonstrated that 11β-HSD1 activity is increased in the mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) by TNFα treatment and suggested that this is an autoregulatory anti-inflammatory mechanism. This upregulation was mediated by the P2 promoter of the Hsd11b1 gene and was dependent on the NF-κB signalling pathway. In this study, we show that in contrast to MSCs, in differentiated C2C12 and primary murine myotubes, TNFα suppresses Hsd11b1 mRNA expression and activity through the utilization of the alternative P1 promoter. As with MSCs, in response to TNFα treatment, NF-κB p65 was translocated to the nucleus. However, ChIP analysis demonstrated that the direct binding was seen at position −218 to −245 bp of the Hsd11b1 gene's P1 promoter but not at the P2 promoter. These studies demonstrate the existence of differential regulation of 11β-HSD1 expression in muscle cells through TNFα/p65 signalling and the P1 promoter, further enhancing our understanding of the role of 11β-HSD1 in the context of inflammatory disease. PMID:24413279

  19. Anisotropic Fermi Couplings due to Large Unquenched Orbital Angular Momentum: Q-band 1H, 14N and 11B ENDOR of bistrispyrazolylborate Co(II)

    PubMed Central

    Myers, William K.; Scholes, Charles P.; Tierney, David L.

    2009-01-01

    We report Q-band ENDOR of 1H, 14N, and 11B at the g|| extreme of the EPR spectrum of bistrispyrazolylborate Co(II), Co(Tp)2 and two structural analogs. This trigonally symmetric, high-spin (hs) S = 3/2 Co(II) complex shows large unquenched ground–state orbital angular momentum, which leads to highly anisotropic electronic g-values [g|| = 8.48, g⊥ = 1.02]. The large g-anisotropy is shown to result in large dipolar couplings near g|| and uniquely anisotropic 14N Fermi couplings, which arise from spin transferred to the nitrogen 2s orbital (2.2 %) via anti-bonding interactions with singly occupied metal dx2−y2 and dz2 orbitals. Large, well-resolved 1H and 11B dipolar couplings were also observed. Taken in concert with our previous X-band ENDOR measurements at g⊥ (Myers, et al, Inorg. Chem. 2008, 47, 6701–6710), the present data allow a detailed analysis of the dipolar hyperfine tensors of two of the four symmetry distinct protons in the parent molecule. In the substituted analogs, changes in hyperfine coupling due to altered metal-proton distances give further evidence of an anisotropic Fermi contact interaction. For the pyrazolyl 3H proton, the data indicate a 0.2 MHz anisotropic contact interaction and ~ 4 % transfer of spin away from Co(II). Dipolar coupling also dominates for the axial boron atoms, consistent with their distance from the Co(II) ion, and resolved 11B quadrupolar coupling showed ~ 30 % electronic inequivalence between the B-H and B-C sp3 bonds. This is the first comprehensive ENDOR study of any hs Co(II) species and lays the foundation for future development. PMID:19591466

  20. A solid-state (11)b NMR and computational study of boron electric field gradient and chemical shift tensors in boronic acids and boronic esters.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Joseph W E; Bryce, David L

    2010-04-22

    The results of a solid-state (11)B NMR study of a series of 10 boronic acids and boronic esters with aromatic substituents are reported. Boron-11 electric field gradient (EFG) and chemical shift (CS) tensors obtained from analyses of spectra acquired in magnetic fields of 9.4 and 21.1 T are demonstrated to be useful for gaining insight into the molecular and electronic structure about the boron nucleus. Data collected at 21.1 T clearly show the effects of chemical shift anisotropy (CSA), with tensor spans (Omega) on the order of 10-40 ppm. Signal enhancements of up to 2.95 were achieved with a DFS-modified QCPMG pulse sequence. To understand the relationship between the measured tensors and the local structure better, calculations of the (11)B EFG and magnetic shielding tensors for these compounds were conducted. The best agreement was found between experimental results and those obtained from GGA revPBE DFT calculations. A positive correlation was found between Omega and the dihedral angle (phi(CCBO)), which describes the orientation of the boronic acid/ester functional group relative to an aromatic system bound to boron. The small boron CSA is discussed in terms of paramagnetic shielding contributions as well as diamagnetic shielding contributions. Although there is a region of overlap, both Omega and the (11)B quadrupolar coupling constants tend to be larger for boronic acids than for the esters. We conclude that the span is generally the most characteristic boron NMR parameter of the molecular and electronic environment for boronic acids and esters, and show that the values result from a delicate interplay of several competing factors, including hydrogen bonding, the value of phi(CCBO), and the electron-donating or withdrawing substituents bound to the aromatic ring. PMID:20337440

  1. Association Analysis between the Polymorphisms of HSD11B1 and H6PD and Risk of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qiuqin; Wu, Di; Xia, Yankai; Wu, Jie; Wang, Xinru

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms of HSD11B1 (rs846908) and H6PD (rs6688832 and rs17368528) are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Chinese population. Materials and Methods A case-control study was implemented to investigate the association between HSD11B1 and H6PD polymorphisms and PCOS. Patients with PCOS (n = 335) and controls (n = 354) were recruited in this study. Genetic variants of HSD11B1 (rs846908) and H6PD (rs6688832 and rs17368528) were analyzed by TaqMan method. Results We found a significantly 0.79-fold lower risk of G allele of rs6688832 in control group compared with the patients with PCOS (adjusted OR, 0.79; 95%CI = 0.63–0.99; P = 0.040). Additionally, significant difference in the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was observed between AA and AG genotype in rs6688832. The rs6688832 AG genotype was associated with lower level of FSH (P = 0.039) and higher risk of hyperandrogenism (P = 0.016) in patients with PCOS. When all subjects were divided into different subgroups according to age and body mass index (BMI), we found that the frequency of G allele of rs6688832 was significantly higher in controls than that in PCOS patients in the subgroup of BMI > 23 (adjusted OR, 0.70; 95% CI = 0.50–0.98; P = 0.037). Conclusions Our findings showed a statistical association between H6PD rs6688832 and PCOS risk in Chinese population. The G allele of rs6688832 in H6PD might exert potential genetic protective role against the development of PCOS, especially in overweight women. PCOS patients with AG genotype of rs6688832 might confer risk to the phenotype of hyperandrogenemia of PCOS. PMID:26452272

  2. γ-Tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice augments development of CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero and allergic inflammation in neonates.

    PubMed

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Soveg, Frank; Cook-Mills, Joan M

    2016-04-15

    γ-Tocopherol increases responses to allergen challenge in allergic adult mice, but it is not known whether γ-tocopherol regulates the development of allergic disease. Development of allergic disease often occurs early in life. In clinical studies and animal models, offspring of allergic mothers have increased responsiveness to allergen challenge. Therefore, we determined whether γ-tocopherol augments development of allergic responses in offspring of allergic female mice. Allergic female mice were supplemented with γ-tocopherol starting at mating. The pups from allergic mothers developed allergic lung responses, whereas pups from saline-treated mothers did not respond to allergen challenge. The γ-tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice increased the numbers of eosinophils twofold in the pup bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs after allergen challenge. There was also about a twofold increase in pup lung CD11b(+) subsets of CD11c(+) dendritic cells and in numbers of these dendritic cells expressing the transcription factor IRF4. There was no change in several CD11b(-) dendritic cell subsets. Furthermore, maternal supplementation with γ-tocopherol increased the number of fetal liver CD11b(+)CD11c(+) dendritic cells twofold in utero. In the pups, γ-tocopherol increased lung expression of the inflammatory mediators CCL11, amphiregulin, activin A, and IL-5. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with γ-tocopherol increased fetal development of subsets of dendritic cells that are critical for allergic responses and increased development of allergic responses in pups from allergic mothers. These results have implications for supplementation of allergic mothers with γ-tocopherol in prenatal vitamins. PMID:26801566

  3. Comparing modern measurements of the {sup 11}B(d,n{gamma}{sub 15.1}){sup 12}C excitation function with previous values

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, Kevin W.; Massey, Thomas N.; Ingram, David C.

    2013-04-19

    A possible means of active interrogation of special nuclear materials is detection of signature emissions following induced photofission. This method requires a probe gamma-ray beam to induce the photofission. The {sup 11}B(d,n{gamma}{sub 15.1}){sup 12}C reaction is a candidate for the source of this probe beam. The reaction is prolific and the produced 15.1 MeV gamma-ray is close to a photofission cross-section peak for {sup 235,238}U and {sup 238,239}Pu. In order to model an active interrogation system using the {sup 11}B(d,n{gamma}{sub 15.1}){sup 12}C reaction as a source probe an accurate value for its differential crosssection must be included in data libraries. Measurements of the differential cross-section for the {sup 11}B(d,n{gamma}{sub 15.1}){sup 12}C reaction have been carried out with a BGO detector and found to differ from previous measurements reported by Kavanagh (1958) and Kuan (1964). The discrepancy in the measurements may be explained by examining the detector response function used by Kavanagh and presumably Kuan to that modeled with MCNP5. A comparison of the MCNP5 and Kavanagh detector response functions normalized to the 15.1 MeV gamma-ray peak pulse height shows a factor of approximately 1.7 difference in integrated counts. Applying this correction to the differential cross-section previously reported by Kuan brings the values into agreement, within uncertainties, to the more recent measurements. The evaluation of the detector response function for the 15.1 MeV gamma-ray signal in the NaI detector reported by Kavanagh to that modeled by MCNP5 is shown. This result is applied to the comparison of recent measurements on the {sup 11}B(d,n{gamma}{sub 15.1}){sup 12}C reaction differential cross-section to those previously reported.

  4. A Greek girl with 11β-hydroxylase deficiency due to compound heterozygosity for two novel mutations in CYP11B1 gene

    PubMed Central

    Marakaki, Chrisanthi; Papadopoulou, Anna; Karapanou, Olga; Papadimitriou, Dimitrios T; Kleanthous, Kleanthis

    2015-01-01

    Summary 11β-hydroxylase deficiency (11β-OHD), an autosomal recessive inherited disorder, accounts for 5–8% of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In Greece, no cases of 11β-OHD have been described so far. The patient presented at the age of 13 months with mild virilization of external genitalia and pubic hair development since the age of 3 months. Hormonal profile showed elevated 11-deoxycortisol, adrenal androgens and ACTH levels. ACTH stimulation test was compatible with 11β-OHD. DNA of the proband and her parents was isolated and genotyped for CYP11B1 gene coding cytochrome P450c11. The girl was found to be compound heterozygous for two CYP11B1 novel mutations, p.Ala386Glu (exon 7), inherited from the father and p.Leu471Argin (exon 9) from the mother. Hydrocortisone supplementation therapy was initiated. Four years after presentation she remains normotensive, her growth pattern is normal and the bone age remains advanced despite adequate suppression of adrenal androgens. Learning points 11β-hydroxylase (CYP11B1) deficiency (11OHD; OMIM +202010) is the second most common cause of CAH accounting for approximately 5–8% of cases with an incidence of 1:100 000–1:200 000 live births in non-consanguineous populations. Two CYP11B1 inactivating novel mutations, p.Ala386Glu and p.Leu471Arg are reported Regarding newborn females, in utero androgen excess results in ambiguous genitalia, whereas in the male newborn diagnosis may go undetected. In infancy and childhood adrenal androgen overproduction results in peripheral precocious puberty in boys and various degrees of virilization in girls. Accumulation of 11-deoxycorticosterone and its metabolites causes hypertension in about two thirds of patients. Diagnosis lies upon elevated 11-deoxycortisol and DOC plus upstream precursors, such as 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and Δ4-androstenedione. The established treatment of steroid 11β-OHD is similar to that of steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency and consists of

  5. [The endemic goitre in figurative arts].

    PubMed

    Giampalmo, A

    1996-01-01

    For the past fifteen years the author has been collecting photografic documentation of works of figurative arts (graffiti, mosiac, engravings, paintings and sculptures) made at different times and places, in which he found mostly unintentional display of diseases or deformities that would be clearly identified in nosography in the light of today's knowledge. In this study the author intends to illustrate briefly different cases on endemic goitre - whose representation is particularly frequent in figurative arts - in chronological order, beginning with the most ancient ones and focussing on Italian portraying of the Nativity and the Passion of Christ, where the most striking infirmities and disabilities were mirrored and commonly accepted. This study whose interest lies between a scientific and a humanistic one has also importance in the field of art, and especially in relevant philological research which is of particular importance to us pathologists. At last it contribute to establish the epidemiology of some diseases and the knowledge of historical and geographical pathology. PMID:11623474

  6. Interferometer for optical waviness and figure testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freischlad, Klaus R.

    1997-09-01

    A novel instrument is described for the optical, non-contact measurement of the waviness and figure component of the surface texture of flat surface. Here the spatial frequency range for waviness is typically chosen from 1.25/mm to 0.05/mm, whereas the global figure error contains the lower spatial frequencies. The special requirements on the dynamic range, the spatial resolution, and the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurement are discussed. The presented instrument consists of a white-light, extended-source, phase-shifting Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The special design employing low temporal and spatial coherence avoids coherent speckle noise on the measured surface maps while providing good spatial resolution. Thus in the waviness frequency band the modulation transfer function exceeds 0.75, an the RMS- precision is 0.1nm over the measurement area of 100mm in diameter. Measurement examples of typical applications, e.g. substrates for hard disks and flat panel displays, are shown.

  7. Surface figure control for coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.; Spence, Paul A.; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The optic section has an optical section thickness.sup.2 /optical section diameter ratio of between about 5 to 10 mm, and a thickness variation between front and back surfaces of less than about 10%. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  8. Measurements of the 11B(d,nγ15.1)12C differential cross-section on thick and thin targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Kevin W.; Massey, Thomas N.; Carter, D. E.; Ingram, David C.

    2013-06-01

    The differential cross-section for the 15.1 MeV gamma ray produced by the 11B(d,nγ)12C reaction in a thick natural boron target has been measured for incident deuteron energies ranging from reaction threshold to 5 MeV. Measurements for a thin natural boron target have been carried out over a similar incident deuteron energy range. These results are compared to previous measurements made by Kavanagh (1958) and Kuan (1964). Measurements of the combined thick target yield for the 6.129, 6.917, and 7.116 MeV gamma rays from the 19F(p,αγ)16O reaction have been carried out on a stopping thickness sulfur hexafluoride gas cell for effective incident proton energies ranging from 1 to 4 MeV as a consistency check on the procedure used for normalization of the detector response function. The results for the 11B(d,nγ15.1)12C yield a significantly lower cross-section than that previously reported, while the measurements of the 19F(p,αγ) reaction are consistent with previous measurements made by Fessler (2000) and Micklich (2003).

  9. High sensitivity boron quantification in bulk silicon using the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be nuclear reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Moro, Marcos V.; Silva, Tiago F. da; Added, Nemitala; Rizutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H.; Neira, John B.; Neto, Joao B. F.

    2013-05-06

    There is a great need to quantify sub-ppm levels of boron in bulk silicon. There are several methods to analyze B in Si: Nuclear Reaction Analysis using the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be reaction exhibits a quantification limit of some hundreds ppm of B in Si. Heavy Ion Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis offers a detection limit of 5 to 10 at. ppm. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry is the method of choice of the semiconductor industry for the analysis of B in Si. This work verifies the use of NRA to quantify B in Si, and the corresponding detection limits. Proton beam with 1.6 up to 2.6 MeV was used to obtain the cross-section of the {sup 11}B(p,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 8}Be nuclear reaction at 170 Degree-Sign scattering angle. The results show good agreementwith literature indicating that the quantification of boron in silicon can be achieved at 100 ppm level (high sensitivity) at LAMFI-IFUSP with about 16% uncertainty. Increasing the detection solid angle and the collected beam charge, can reduce the detection limit to less than 100 ppm meeting present technological needs.

  10. Determination of the bond-angle distribution in vitreous B{sub 2}O{sub 3} by {sup 11}B double rotation (DOR) NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, I.; Howes, A.P.; Parkinson, B.G.; Anupold, T.; Samoson, A.; Brown, S.P.; Harrison, P.F.; Holland, D.; Dupree, R.

    2009-09-15

    The B-O-B bond angle distributions for both ring and non-ring boron sites in vitreous B{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been determined by {sup 11}B double rotation (DOR) NMR and multiple-quantum (MQ) DOR NMR. The [B{sub 3}O{sub 6}] boroxol rings are observed to have a mean internal B-O-B angle of 120.0+-0.7 deg. with a small standard deviation, sigma{sub R}=3.2+-0.4 deg., indicating that the rings are near-perfect planar, hexagonal structures. The rings are linked predominantly by non-ring [BO{sub 3}] units, which share oxygens with the boroxol ring, with a mean B{sub ring}-O-B{sub non-ring} angle of 135.1+-0.6 deg. and sigma{sub NR}=6.7+-0.4 deg. In addition, the fraction of boron atoms, f, which reside in the boroxol rings has been measured for this sample as f=0.73+-0.01. - Graphical abstract: Connectivities and B-O-B bond angle distributions of ring and non-ring boron atoms in v-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been determined by {sup 11}B double rotation (DOR) NMR, multiple-quantum (MQ) DOR NMR and spin-diffusion DOR. Near-perfect planar, hexagonal [B{sub 3}O{sub 6}] boroxol rings are shown to be present. Display Omitted

  11. Modulation of aldosterone levels by -344 C/T CYP11B2 polymorphism and spironolactone use in resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Vanessa; de Faria, Ana Paula Cabral; Barbaro, Natália Ruggeri; Sabbatini, Andréa Rodrigues; Modolo, Rodrigo; Lacchini, Riccardo; Moreno, Heitor

    2014-03-01

    Interindividual variability in plasma aldosterone levels comprises environmental and genetic sources. Increased aldosterone levels have been associated with higher risk of hypertension and target-organ damage related to hypertension. Aldosterone excess and intravascular volume expansion are implicated in pathophysiology of resistant hypertension (RH). We sought to investigate whether -344 C/T polymorphism (rs1799998) in aldosterone synthase gene (CYP11B2) is associated with plasma aldosterone levels in patients with resistant hypertension. Sixty-two patients with resistant hypertension were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Genotypes were obtained by allelic discrimination assay using real time polymerase chain reaction. Multivariable linear regression was used to identify whether TT genotype was a predictor of aldosterone levels. No differences in clinical and laboratorial parameters were found among genotype groups. We found an additive effect of the T allele on plasma aldosterone concentration in RH. Also, there was higher aldosterone levels in TT homozygous under use of spironolactone compared with C carriers and compared with TT subjects who was not under use of spironolactone. TT genotype and the use of spironolactone were significant predictors of aldosterone levels in RH subjects. Plasma aldosterone concentration is significantly associated with -344 C/T CYP11B2 polymorphism and with the treatment with spironolactone in resistant hypertensive subjects. PMID:24388430

  12. Poetry and the Teaching of Figurative Language Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Harold K., Jr.

    Many teachers note the importance of student ability to analyze and understand intricate uses of figurative language in reading. Research in recent years has focused on the prevalence of figures of speech in textbooks and other reading, suggesting that the fostering of figurative language skills should become a more common feature of language…

  13. Enactivism, Figural Apprehension and Knowledge Objectification: An Exploration of Figural Pattern Generalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Duncan; Schafer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the inter-relationship between the embodied processes of pattern generalisation and the visualisation of pictorial cues. A research framework is established for analysing pupils' multiple visualisations of figural cues in the context of pattern generalisation. The research framework centres on a novel combination of three…

  14. Figure Control of Lightweight Optical Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Song, Haiping

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the use of fuzzy logic controllers in modifying the figure of a piezoceramic bimorph mirror. Non-contact electron actuation technology is used to actively control a bimorph mirror comprised two PZT-5H wafers by varying the electron flux and electron voltages. Due to electron blooming generated by the electron flux, it is difficult to develop an accurate control model for the bimorph mirror through theoretical analysis alone. The non-contact shape control system with electron flux blooming can be approximately described with a heuristic model based on experimental data. Two fuzzy logic feedback controllers are developed to control the shape of the bimorph mirror according to heuristic fuzzy inference rules generated from previous experimental results. Validation of the proposed fuzzy logic controllers is also discussed.

  15. Precision Segmented Reflector figure control system architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, E.; Eldred, D.; Briggs, C.; Kiceniuk, T.; Agronin, M.

    1989-01-01

    A control system architecture for an actively controlled segmented reflector is described along with a design realization for achieving precision alignment of reflector panels. Performance requirements are derived in part from the Large Deployable Reflector, which is a representative mission, and error allocations are made which consider mirror panel surface errors, position measurement and figure estimation, and position control of both quasi-static and dynamic disturbances. The design uses multiple wavelength interferometric edge sensors and voice coil actuators in conjunction with a hybrid control strategy to correct panel position errors. A unit cell shown to be central to the concept is analyzed. The cell integrates the sensing, actuation, and mechanical functions of a control module together with a reflector panel to form a unitized assembly.

  16. Interdependent figure-of-merit software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, K.; Kirsch, T.

    1989-01-01

    This program was undertaken in order to understand the complex nature of interdependent performance in space missions. At the first step in a planned sequence of progress, a spread sheet program was developed to evaluate different fuel/oxidizer combinations for a specific Martian mission. This program is to be linked with output attained using sophisticated software produced by Gordon and McBride. The programming to date makes use of 11 independent parameters. Optimization is essential when faced with the incredible magnitude of costs, risks, and benefits involved with space exploration. A system of weights needs to be devised on which to measure the options. It was the goal to devise a Figure of Merit (FoM) on which different choices can be presented and made. The plan was to model typical missions to Mars, identify the parameters, and vary them until the best one is found. Initially, most of the focus was placed on propellant selection.

  17. Structure analysis for plane geometry figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tianxiao; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Keqiang; Tang, Zhi

    2013-12-01

    As there are increasing numbers of digital documents for education purpose, we realize that there is not a retrieval application for mathematic plane geometry images. In this paper, we propose a method for retrieving plane geometry figures (PGFs), which often appear in geometry books and digital documents. First, detecting algorithms are applied to detect common basic geometry shapes from a PGF image. Based on all basic shapes, we analyze the structural relationships between two basic shapes and combine some of them to a compound shape to build the PGF descriptor. Afterwards, we apply matching function to retrieve candidate PGF images with ranking. The great contribution of the paper is that we propose a structure analysis method to better describe the spatial relationships in such image composed of many overlapped shapes. Experimental results demonstrate that our analysis method and shape descriptor can obtain good retrieval results with relatively high effectiveness and efficiency.

  18. A Computer Graphics Human Figure Application Of Biostereometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetter, William A.

    1980-07-01

    A study of improved computer graphic representation of the human figure is being conducted under a National Science Foundation grant. Special emphasis is given biostereometrics as a primary data base from which applications requiring a variety of levels of detail may be prepared. For example, a human figure represented by a single point can be very useful in overview plots of a population. A crude ten point figure can be adequate for queuing theory studies and simulated movement of groups. A one hundred point figure can usefully be animated to achieve different overall body activities including male and female figures. A one thousand point figure si-milarly animated, begins to be useful in anthropometrics and kinesiology gross body movements. Extrapolations of this order-of-magnitude approach ultimately should achieve very complex data bases and a program which automatically selects the correct level of detail for the task at hand. See Summary Figure 1.

  19. A figure control sensor for the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartman, R.; Dubovitsky, S.

    1988-01-01

    A sensing and control system is required to maintain high optical figure quality in a segmented reflector. Upon detecting a deviation of the segmented surface from its ideal form, the system drives segment mounted actuators to realign the individual segments and thereby return the surface to its intended figure. When the reflector is in use, a set of figure sensors will determine positions of a number of points on the back surface of each of the reflector's segments, each sensor being assigned to a single point. By measuring the positional deviations of these points from previously established nominal values, the figure sensors provide the control system with the information required to maintain the reflector's optical figure. The optical lever, multiple wavelength interferometer, and electronic capacitive sensor, the most promising technologies for the development of the figure sensor, are illustrated. It is concluded that to select a particular implementation of the figure sensors, performance requirement will be refined and relevant technologies investigated further.

  20. Imaging monocytes with iron oxide nanoparticles targeted towards the monocyte integrin MAC-1 (CD11b/CD18) does not result in improved atherosclerotic plaque detection by in vivo MRI.

    PubMed

    von zur Muhlen, C; Fink-Petri, A; Salaklang, J; Paul, D; Neudorfer, I; Berti, V; Merkle, A; Peter, K; Bode, C; von Elverfeldt, D

    2010-01-01

    Imaging of macrophages with superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) has been performed to improve detection of atherosclerotic plaque inflammation in human and mouse studies by molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since affinity of the monocyte/macrophage integrin MAC-1 (CD11b/CD18) is upregulated in inflammation, we generated a contrast agent targeting CD11b (CD11b-SPIOs) for improved macrophage detection in plaques. CD11b-SPIOs and non-targeted SPIOs (control-SPIOs) were incubated in vitro with human monocytes/macrophages. As quantified by SPIO-induced MRI signal extinction, intracellular iron-content was significantly higher in monoytes/macrophages incubated with CD11b-SPIO than with control-SPIO in vitro (p < 0.05), suggesting an improved uptake of CD11b-SPIOs into monocytes. Therefore, the aortic arch (AA) and vessel branches of ApoE(-/-)-knockout mice on a Western-type diet were imaged before and 48 h after contrast agent injection of either CD11b-SPIOs or control-SPIOs, using a 9.4 T animal MRI system. The SPIO-induced change in the MRI signal was quantified, as well as the macrophage-content by anti-CD68 immunhistochemistry and the iron-content by Prussian-blue staining. However, SPIO-induced signal extinction in in vivo-MRI was similar in CD11b-SPIO and control-SPIO-injected animals, with a non-significant trend towards an improved uptake of CD11b-SPIOs in the subclavian artery and subsections of the AA. These data correlated well with the results obtained by histology. Although in vitro MRI-data indicated an increased uptake of targeted CD11b-SPIOs in monocytes/macrophages, in vivo mouse data do not allow improved atherosclerotic plaque detection compared WITH non-targeted SPIOs. Therefore, CD11b-targeted MRI contrast labelling of monocytes/macrophages does not seem to be a successful strategy in stable atherosclerotic plaques such as found in the ApoE(-/-)-knockout-model. However, the impressive correlation between MRI and histology data

  1. δ 11B, Sr, Mg and B in a modern Porites coral: the relationship between calcification site pH and skeletal chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Nicola; Finch, Adrian A.; EIMF

    2010-03-01

    Sr/Ca, B/Ca, Mg/Ca and δ 11B were determined at high spatial resolution across ˜1 year of a modern Hawaiian Porites lobata coral by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). We observe significant variations in B/Ca, Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca and δ 11B over short skeletal distances (nominally equivalent to periods of <20 days). This heterogeneity probably reflects variations in the composition of the extracellular calcifying fluid (ECF) from which the skeleton precipitates. Calcification site pH (total scale) was estimated from skeletal δ 11B and ranged from 8.3 to 8.8 (± ˜0.1) with a mean of ˜8.6. Sr/Ca and B/Ca heterogeneity is not simply correlated with calcification site pH, as might be expected if Ca-ATPase activity increases the pH and decreases the Sr/Ca and B(OH) 4-/CO 32- ratios of the ECF. We produced a simple model of the ECF composition and the skeleton deposited from it, over a range of calcium transport and carbonate scenarios, which can account for these observed geochemical variations. The relationship between the pH and Sr/Ca of the ECF is dependent on the concentration of DIC at the calcification site. At higher DIC concentrations the ECF has a high capacity to buffer the [H +] changes induced by Ca-ATPase pumping. Conversely, at low DIC concentrations, this buffering capacity is reduced and ECF pH changes more rapidly in response to Ca-ATPase pumping. The absence of a simple correlation between ECF pH and skeletal Sr/Ca implies that calcification occurred under a range of DIC concentrations, reflecting variations in the respiration and photosynthesis of the coral and symbiotic zooxanthellate in the overlying coral tissues. Our observations have important implications for the use of coral skeletons as indicators of palaeo-ocean pH.

  2. Fc block treatment, dead cells exclusion, and cell aggregates discrimination concur to prevent phenotypical artifacts in the analysis of subpopulations of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) myelomonocytic cells.

    PubMed

    Kuonen, Francois; Touvrey, Cedric; Laurent, Julien; Ruegg, Curzio

    2010-11-01

    It is well established that cancer cells can recruit CD11b(+) myeloid cells to promote tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. Increasing interest has emerged on the identification of subpopulations of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) myeloid cells using flow cytometry techniques. In the literature, however, discrepancies exist on the phenotype of these cells (Coffelt et al., Am J Pathol 2010;176:1564-1576). Since flow cytometry analysis requires particular precautions for accurate sample preparation and trustable data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation, some discrepancies might be due to technical reasons rather than biological grounds. We used the syngenic orthotopic 4T1 mammary tumor model in immunocompetent BALB/c mice to analyze and compare the phenotype of CD11b(+) myeloid cells isolated from peripheral blood and from tumors, using six-color flow cytometry. We report here that the nonspecific antibody binding through Fc receptors, the presence of dead cells and cell doublets in tumor-derived samples concur to generate artifacts in the phenotype of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) subpopulations. We show that the heterogeneity of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) subpopulations analyzed without particular precautions was greatly reduced upon Fc block treatment, dead cells, and cell doublets exclusion. Phenotyping of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) cells was particularly sensitive to these parameters compared to circulating CD11b(+) cells. Taken together, our results identify Fc block treatment, dead cells, and cell doublets exclusion as simple but crucial steps for the proper analysis of tumor-infiltrating CD11b(+) cell populations. PMID:20824631

  3. A case of figurate urticaria by etanercept.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Maurizio; Sullo, Maria Giuseppa; Mascolo, Annamaria; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Romano, Francesca; Puca, Rosa Valentina; Capuano, Annalisa; Rossi, Francesco; Schiavo, Ada Lo

    2016-01-01

    Etanercept is a competitive inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) a polypeptide hormone, involved in the development of the immune system, in host defense and immune surveillance. Even if the etanercept mechanism of action is not completely understood, it is supposed that it negatively modulates biological responses mediated by molecules (cytokines, adhesion molecules, or proteinases) induced or regulated by TNF. For this reason, it is widely used in the treatment of immunologicals diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic active, ankylosing spondylitis, and plaque psoriasis. Etanercept has a good tolerability profile. Adverse events related to skin are rare, arising usually in about 5% of patients treated with anti-TNF α. In this scenario, we describe a case of figurate urticaria arose after the re-administration of etanercept in a patient affected by psoriasis and hepatitis B. A 65-year-old man, affected by psoriasis, was hospitalized in September 2014 to the Regional Center for the treatment of psoriasis and Biological Drugs of Second University of Naples for progressive extension of psoriatic skin lesions. The laboratory analysis detected positivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens. For this reason, it was administered to him lamivudine 100 mg/die about 30 days before to start etanercept treatment. The etanercept therapy has resulted in a progressive improving of skin manifestations, and the patient decided individually to stop the therapy. Afterwards, for worsening of the psoriatic lesions, he was again hospitalized and treated with the same therapeutic schedule (lamivudine followed by etanercept). Ten days after the start of therapy, the patient showed the onset of urticarial rash. Due to this, the treatment with lamivudine and etanercept was suspended and the patient's clinical conditions improved. It is probably that immunological disorders due to etanercept therapy and HBV infection could

  4. A case of figurate urticaria by etanercept

    PubMed Central

    Sessa, Maurizio; Sullo, Maria Giuseppa; Mascolo, Annamaria; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Romano, Francesca; Puca, Rosa Valentina; Capuano, Annalisa; Rossi, Francesco; Schiavo, Ada Lo

    2016-01-01

    Etanercept is a competitive inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) a polypeptide hormone, involved in the development of the immune system, in host defense and immune surveillance. Even if the etanercept mechanism of action is not completely understood, it is supposed that it negatively modulates biological responses mediated by molecules (cytokines, adhesion molecules, or proteinases) induced or regulated by TNF. For this reason, it is widely used in the treatment of immunologicals diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic active, ankylosing spondylitis, and plaque psoriasis. Etanercept has a good tolerability profile. Adverse events related to skin are rare, arising usually in about 5% of patients treated with anti-TNF α. In this scenario, we describe a case of figurate urticaria arose after the re-administration of etanercept in a patient affected by psoriasis and hepatitis B. A 65-year-old man, affected by psoriasis, was hospitalized in September 2014 to the Regional Center for the treatment of psoriasis and Biological Drugs of Second University of Naples for progressive extension of psoriatic skin lesions. The laboratory analysis detected positivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens. For this reason, it was administered to him lamivudine 100 mg/die about 30 days before to start etanercept treatment. The etanercept therapy has resulted in a progressive improving of skin manifestations, and the patient decided individually to stop the therapy. Afterwards, for worsening of the psoriatic lesions, he was again hospitalized and treated with the same therapeutic schedule (lamivudine followed by etanercept). Ten days after the start of therapy, the patient showed the onset of urticarial rash. Due to this, the treatment with lamivudine and etanercept was suspended and the patient's clinical conditions improved. It is probably that immunological disorders due to etanercept therapy and HBV infection could

  5. PyMIF enhances the inflammatory response in a rodent model by stimulating CD11b(+) Ly6C(+) cells accumulation in spleen.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Shao, D; Lin, Y; Luo, M; Wang, Z; Yao, M; Hao, X; Wei, C; Gao, Y; Deng, W; Wang, H

    2016-06-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (PMIF) expressed by Plasmodium parasites has been proved to be similar to the mammalian MIF in both structure and biological activity and is a critical upstream regulator in antimalaria innate immunity. In this work, using a genetically modified (MIF-KO) strain of highly lethal rodent Plasmodium yoelii 17XL (Py17XL), we found that PyMIF could increase the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors by eliciting the CD11b(+) Ly6C(+) cells accumulated in the spleen of infected mouse. In addition, the chemotactic effect of PyMIF was demonstrated to associate with cell receptors CXCR2, CXCR4 and the cell surface markers ICAM-1, LFA-4. PMID:27028001

  6. Measurement of the 12C(e,e'p)11B Two-Body Breakup Reaction at High Missing Momentum Values

    SciTech Connect

    Monaghan, P; Shneor, R; Subedi, R; Anderson, B D; Aniol, K; Annand, J; Arrington, J; Benaoum, H; Benmokhtar, F; Bertin, P; Bertozzi, W; Boeglin, W; Chen, J P; Choi, Seonho; Chudakov, E; Ciofi degli-Atti, C; Cisbani, E; Cosyn, W; Craver, B; de Jager, C W; Feuerbach, R J; Folts, E; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilad, S; Gilman, R; Glamazdin, O; Gomez, J; Hansen, O; Higinbotham, D W; Holmstrom, T; Ibrahim, H; Igarashi, R; Jans, E; Jiang, X; Jiang, Y; Kaufman, L; Kelleher, A; Kolarkar, A; Kuchina, E; Kumbartzki, G; LeRose, J J; Lindgren, R; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Markowitz, P; Marrone, S; Mazouz, M; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Morita, H; Nanda, S; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Potokar, M; Punjabi, V; Qiang, Y; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Ron, G; Rosner, G; Ryckebusch, J; Saha, A; Sawatzky, B; Segal, J; Shahinyan, A; Sirca, S; Slifer, K; Solvignon, P; Sulkosky, V; Thompson, N; Ulmer, P E; Urciuoli, G M; Voutier, E; Wang, K; Watson, J W; Weinstein, L B; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Yao, H; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2014-08-01

    The five-fold differential cross section for the 12C(e,e'p)11B reaction was determined over a missing momentum range of 200-400 MeV/c, in a kinematics regime with Bjorken x > 1 and Q2 = 2.0 (GeV/c)2. A comparison of the results and theoretical models and previous lower missing momentum data is shown. The theoretical calculations agree well with the data up to a missing momentum value of 325 MeV/c and then diverge for larger missing momenta. The extracted distorted momentum distribution is shown to be consistent with previous data and extends the range of available data up to 400 MeV/c.

  7. 19 CFR 132.11a - Time of presentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time of presentation. 132.11a Section 132.11a... TREASURY QUOTAS Administration of Quotas § 132.11a Time of presentation. (a) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the time of presentation of an entry/entry summary for...

  8. Tourmaline geochemistry and δ11B variations as a guide to fluid-rock interaction in the Habachtal emerald deposit, Tauern Window, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbull, Robert B.; Krienitz, Marc-Sebastian; Grundmann, Günter; Wiedenbeck, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Tourmalines from the Habachtal emerald deposit in the Eastern Alps formed together with emerald in a ductile shear zone during blackwall metasomatism between pelitic country rocks and a serpentinite body. Electron microprobe and secondary ion mass spectrometric (SIMS) analyses provide a record of chemical and B-isotope variations in tourmalines which represent an idealized profile from metapelites into the blackwall sequence of biotite and chlorite schists. Tourmaline is intermediate schorl-dravite in the country rock and become increasingly dravitic in the blackwall zones, while F and Cr contents increase and Al drops. Metasomatic tourmaline from blackwall zones is typically zoned optically and chemically, with rim compositions rich in Mg, Ti, Ca and F compared with the cores. The total range in δ11B values is -13.8 to -5.1‰ and the within-sample variations are typically 3-5‰. Both of these ranges are beyond the reach of closed-system fractionation at the estimated 500-550°C conditions of formation, and at least two boron components with contrasting isotopic composition are indicated. A key observation from tourmaline core analyses is a systematic shift in δ11B from the country rock (-14 to -10‰) to the inner blackwall zones (-9 to -5‰). We suggest that two separate fluids were channeled and partially mixed in the Habachtal shear zone during blackwall alteration and tourmaline-emerald mineralization. A regional metamorphic fluid carried isotopically light boron as observed in the metapelite country rocks. The other fluid is derived from the serpentinite association and has isotopically heavier boron typical for MORB or altered oceanic crust.

  9. α-Tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice inhibits development of CD11c+CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero and allergic inflammation in neonates

    PubMed Central

    Abdala-Valencia, Hiam; Berdnikovs, Sergejs; Soveg, Frank W.

    2014-01-01

    α-Tocopherol blocks responses to allergen challenge in allergic adult mice, but it is not known whether α-tocopherol regulates the development of allergic disease. Development of allergic disease often occurs early in life. In clinical studies and animal models, offspring of allergic mothers have increased responsiveness to allergen challenge. Therefore, we determined whether α-tocopherol blocked development of allergic responses in offspring of allergic female mice. Allergic female mice were supplemented with α-tocopherol starting at mating. The pups from allergic mothers developed allergic lung responses, whereas pups from saline-treated mothers did not respond to the allergen challenge, and α-tocopherol supplementation of allergic female mice resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in eosinophils in the pup bronchoalveolar lavage and lungs after allergen challenge. There was also a reduction in pup lung CD11b+ dendritic cell subsets that are critical to development of allergic responses, but there was no change in several CD11b− dendritic cell subsets. Furthermore, maternal supplementation with α-tocopherol reduced the number of fetal liver CD11b+ dendritic cells in utero. In the pups, there was reduced allergen-induced lung mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-33, TSLP, CCL11, and CCL24. Cross-fostering pups at the time of birth demonstrated that α-tocopherol had a regulatory function in utero. In conclusion, maternal supplementation with α-tocopherol reduced fetal development of subsets of dendritic cells that are critical for allergic responses and reduced development of allergic responses in pups from allergic mothers. These results have implications for supplementation of allergic mothers with α-tocopherol. PMID:25015974

  10. Identification of functional consequence of a novel selection signature in CYP11b1 gene for milk fat content in Bubalus bubalis

    PubMed Central

    Maryam, J.; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Nadeem, Asif; Yaqub, Tahir; Hashmi, Abu Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Genomic selection for traits of economic importance is an emerging approach carrying tremendous potentials. Many of polygenic traits as milk fat, protein and yield have been characterize at genomic level and important selection signatures have been identified. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are potential loci for affecting many of dairy capabilities. Present study was conducted for genomic dissection of CYP11b1 gene in riverine buffaloes and seven genetic variations were identified. Out of these, one novel polymorphism (p.A313T) was found well associated with milk fat %age. AB genotyped buffaloes were found to have higher milk fat %age (8.9%) for this loci. p.A313T was further validated at larger data set by restriction digestion using CviAII enzyme. Functional consequences of this locus were also predicted by studying three dimensional structure of CYP11b1 protein. For this purpose, 3D protein model was predicted by homology modeling, secondary structural attributes were determined, signal peptide was predicted and a transmembrane helix was also identified. One of polymorphism (p.Y205L) was found in the vicinity of functionally significant F-G loop region, which is the part of protein gets attached to the inner mitochondrial membrane. But this variation could not be associated and needs further investigation. p.A30V, a popular selection marker in cattle, was found in buffaloes as well but could not be associated and might need further confirmation on larger data set. Results of this study illustrate the impending potential of this gene in determining dairy capabilities of buffaloes and might have a role in selection of superior dairy buffaloes. PMID:26629413

  11. Astrophysical SE2 factor of the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction through the 12C(11B, 7Li)16O transfer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Du, X. C.; Li, Z. H.; Li, Y. J.; Pang, D. Y.; Su, J.; Yan, S. Q.; Fan, Q. W.; Gan, L.; Han, Z. Y.; Li, E. T.; Li, X. Y.; Lian, G.; Liu, J. C.; Pei, C. J.; Qiao, L. H.; Shen, Y. P.; Su, Y.; Wang, Y. B.; Zeng, S.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, W. P.

    2016-02-01

    The 12C(α, γ)16O reaction plays a key role in the evolution of stars with masses of M > 0.55 M⊙. At the Gamow peak (Ec.m. = 300 ke V, T9 = 0.2), the cross section of the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction is so small (about 10-17 barn) that the direct measurement in ground laboratory is not feasible with the existing technology. Up to now, the cross sections at lower energies can only be extrapolated from the data at higher energies. However, two subthreshold resonances, locating at Ex = 7.117 MeV and Ex = 6.917 MeV, make this extrapolation more complicated. In this work the 6.917 MeV subthreshold resonance in the 12C(α, γ)16O reaction was investigated via the 12C(11B, 7Li)16O reaction. The experiment was performed using the Q3D magnetic spectrograph at HI-13 tandem accelerator. We measured the angular distribution of the 12C(11B, 7Li)16O transfer reaction leading to the 6.917 MeV state. Based on DWBA analysis, we derived the square of ANC of the 6.917 MeV level in 16O to be (2.45± 0.28) ×1010 fm-1, with which the reduced-α width can be computed. Finally, we calculated the astrophysical SE2 factor of the 6.917 MeV resonance to be 67.6 ± 7.7 ke V b.

  12. An economics figure of merit in ALPS

    SciTech Connect

    Shatilla, Y.A.

    2000-07-01

    One of the most pressing issues facing the deregulated nuclear electric power industry is its economic competitiveness when compared to other sources of electrical power. Traditionally, finding the optimum loading pattern (LP) that meets all the safety and operational objective functions and at the same time produces the most attractive economical solutions is an iterative process. This is because (a) LP search tools usually lack the capability to generate equilibrium solutions and (b) economics objective functions are hard to include in the search process. In this paper, the Westinghouse Advanced Loading Pattern Search code (ALPS) has been demonstrated to successfully find LPs that meet user-defined operational and safety as well as economics objectives. This has been made possible by the development of TULIP language that allows the integration of external procedures into the search process of the main program, ALPS. In the example given, an economic figure of merit (EFM) has been defined and included via TULIP script into the fuel management optimization problem of a three-loop Westinghouse core operating an 18-month cycle. The LPs found by ALPS exhibit a clear trend of meeting and, in some cases, exceeding the EFM objective function defined for the ALPS search process a priori.

  13. Figure skater level moderates balance training.

    PubMed

    Saunders, N W; Hanson, N J; Koutakis, P; Chaudhari, A M; Devor, S T

    2013-04-01

    It was suggested that baseline levels of postural control in figure skaters might influence the effectiveness of neuromuscular training. The aims of the present study were to investigate the baseline association of skater skill level with standard center of pressure metrics and time to stabilization, and to determine if skill level influenced the effectiveness of a 6-week neuromuscular training program. There was no main effect of skill level for any baseline center of pressure metric for either test. There was no main effect of skill level on the percent change in any metric for the single leg stance following training. However, skill level did influence landing test outcome measures. The difference in percent change of root mean squared was evident for the mediolateral (low: 24.5±16.50% vs. high: 2.42±14.99%) and anterior-posterior (low: 6.66±9.21% vs. high: - 4.03±5.91%) axes. Percent change in anterior-posterior time to stabilization also differed by skill level (low: - 0.73%±4.74 vs. high: - 5.61%±2.76). Note that this study was underpowered with 26 subjects and 14 subjects contributing to baseline and post-training assessments, respectively. Though no baseline differences in postural control were observed, compared with low skill levels, high skill levels benefitted more from training. PMID:23184479

  14. Resolving the formation of modern Chladni figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, P. H.; Tung, J. C.; Liang, H. C.; Chiang, P. Y.; Huang, K. F.; Chen, Y. F.

    2015-09-01

    The resonant spectrum of a thin plate driven with a mechanical oscillator is precisely measured to distinguish modern Chladni figures (CFs) observed at the resonant frequencies from classical CFs observed at the non-resonant frequencies. Experimental results reveal that modern CFs generally display an important characteristic of avoided crossings of nodal lines, whereas the nodal lines of classical CFs form a regular grid. The formation of modern CFs and the resonant frequency spectrum are resolved with a theoretical model that characterizes the interaction between the plate and the driving source into the inhomogeneous Kirchhoff-Love equation. The derived formula for determining resonant frequencies is shown to be exactly identical to the meromorphic function given in singular billiards that deals with the coupling strength on the transition between integrable and chaotic features. The good agreement between experimental results and theoretical predictions verifies the significant role of the strong-coupling effect in the formation of modern CFs. More importantly, it is confirmed that the apparatus for generating modern CFs can be developed to serve as an expedient system for exploring the nodal domains of chaotic wave functions as well as the physics of the strong coupling with a point scatterer.

  15. Figuring the Acceleration of the Simple Pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberherr, Martin

    2011-12-01

    The centripetal acceleration has been known since Huygens' (1659) and Newton's (1684) time.1,2 The physics to calculate the acceleration of a simple pendulum has been around for more than 300 years, and a fairly complete treatise has been given by C. Schwarz in this journal.3 But sentences like "the acceleration is always directed towards the equilibrium position" beside the picture of a swing on a circular arc can still be found in textbooks, as e.g. in Ref. 4. Vectors have been invented by Grassmann (1844)5 and are conveniently used to describe the acceleration in curved orbits, but acceleration is more often treated as a scalar with or without sign, as the words acceleration/deceleration suggest. The component tangential to the orbit is enough to deduce the period of the simple pendulum, but it is not enough to discuss the forces on the pendulum, as has been pointed out by Santos-Benito and A. Gras-Marti.6 A suitable way to address this problem is a nice figure with a catch for classroom discussions or homework. When I plotted the acceleration vectors of the simple pendulum in their proper positions, pictures as in Fig. 1 appeared on the screen. The endpoints of the acceleration vectors, if properly scaled, seemed to lie on a curve with a familiar shape: a cardioid. Is this true or just an illusion?

  16. Advances in precision mirror figure metrology (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z.; Furenlid, K. ); Church, E.L. )

    1992-01-01

    New developments in optical measurement techniques have made it possible to test the surface quality on grazing incidence optics with extreme precision and accuracy. An instrument developed at Brookhaven, the Long Trace Profiler (LTP), measures the figure of large (up to 1 m long) cylindrical aspheres with nanometer accuracy. The LTP optical system is based around a common-path interferometer design belonging to the class of slope measuring interferometers and, as such, it is very robust, stable, and vibration insensitive. A unique error correction technique removes the effect of tilt errors in the optical head as it traverses the air bearing, thus allowing one to accurately measure the absolute surface profile and radius of curvature. This is of critical importance to the manufacture of long-radius spherical optics used in high-resolution soft x-ray monochromators and in the testing of mirror bending systems. This talk will review the principle of operation of the LTP, probe the factors limiting the performance of the system, and will examine the current state of the art in synchrotron radiation mirror manufacturing quality (as viewed by our metrology techniques). This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH00016.

  17. 2008 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures.

    PubMed

    2008-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the seventh leading cause of all deaths in the United States and the fifth leading cause of death in Americans older than the age of 65 years. More than 5 million Americans are estimated to have Alzheimer's disease. Every 71 seconds someone in America develops Alzheimer's disease; by 2050 it is expected to occur every 33 seconds. During the coming decades, baby boomers are projected to add 10 million people to these numbers. By 2050, the incidence of Alzheimer's disease is expected to approach nearly a million people per year, with a total estimated prevalence of 11 to 16 million persons. Significant cost implications related to Alzheimer's disease and other dementias include an estimated $148 billion annually in direct (Medicare/Medicaid) and indirect (eg, caregiver lost wages and out-of-pocket expenses, decreased business productivity) costs. Not included in these figures are the estimated 10 million caregivers who annually provide $89 billion in unpaid services to individuals with Alzheimer's disease. This report provides information to increase understanding of the public health impact of Alzheimer's disease, including incidence and prevalence, mortality, lifetime risks, costs, and impact on family caregivers. PMID:18631956

  18. Lighting, backlighting and watercolor illusions and the laws of figurality.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Baingio; Reeves, Adam

    2006-01-01

    We report some novel 'lighting' and 'backlighting' effects in plane figures similar to those which induce the 'watercolor illusion', that is, figures made with outlines composed of juxtaposed parallel lines varying in brightness and chromatic color. These new effects show 'illumination' as an emergent percept, and show how arrangements of 'dark and light' along the boundaries of various plane figures model the volume and strengthen the illusion of depth. To account for these various effects we propose several phenomenological 'laws of figurality' to add to the Gestalt laws of organization and figure-ground segregation. We offer a set of meta-laws which are speculative but which serve to integrate and organize the phenomenological laws. These laws indicate how luminance gradient profiles across boundary contours define both the 3D appearance of figures and the properties of the light reflected from their volumetric shapes. PMID:16862844

  19. 2009 Alzheimer's disease facts and figures.

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the sixth leading cause of all deaths in the United States, and the fifth leading cause of death in Americans aged 65 and older. Whereas other major causes of death have been on the decrease, deaths attributable to AD have been rising dramatically. Between 2000 and 2006, heart-disease deaths decreased nearly 12%, stroke deaths decreased 18%, and prostate cancer-related deaths decreased 14%, whereas deaths attributable to AD increased 47%. An estimated 5.3 million Americans have AD; the approximately 200,000 persons under age 65 years with AD comprise the younger-onset AD population. Every 70 seconds, someone in America develops AD; by 2050, this time is expected to decrease to every 33 seconds. Over the coming decades, the "baby-boom" population is projected to add 10 million people to these numbers. In 2050, the incidence of AD is expected to approach nearly a million people per year, with a total estimated prevalence of 11 to 16 million people. Significant cost implications related to AD and other dementias include an estimated $148 billion annually in direct (Medicare/Medicaid) and indirect (e.g., decreased business productivity) costs. Not included in these figures is the $94 billion in unpaid services to individuals with AD provided annually by an estimated 10 million caregivers. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an important component in the continuum from healthy cognition to dementia. Understanding which individuals with MCI are at highest risk for eventually developing AD is key to our ultimate goal of preventing AD. This report provides information meant to increase an understanding of the public-health impact of AD, including incidence and prevalence, mortality, lifetime risks, costs, and impact on family caregivers. This report also sets the stage for a better understanding of the relationship between MCI and AD. PMID:19426951

  20. HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 axes contribute to the recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells in hypoxic microenvironment of HNSCC.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guiquan; Tang, Yaling; Geng, Ning; Zheng, Min; Jiang, Jian; Li, Ling; Li, Kaide; Lei, Zhengge; Chen, Wei; Fan, Yunlong; Ma, Xiangrui; Li, Longjiang; Wang, Xiaoyi; Liang, Xinhua

    2014-02-01

    CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells have gained much attention due to their roles in tumor immunity suppression as well as promotion of angiogenesis, invasion, and metastases. However, the mechanisms by which CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells recruit to the tumor site have not been well clarified. In the present study, we showed that hypoxia could stimulate the migration of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through increased production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)- and HIF-2α-dependent MIF regulated chemotaxis, differentiation, and pro-angiogenic function of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through binding to CD74/CXCR2, and CD74/CXCR4 complexes, and then activating p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathways. Knockdown (KD) of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HNSCC cells decreased MIF level but failed to inhibit the CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell migration, because HIF-1α/2α KD enhanced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity that increased IL-6 secretion. Simultaneously blocking NF-κB and HIF-1α/HIF-2α had better inhibitory effect on CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell recruitment in the hypoxic zone than individually silencing HIF-1α/2α or NF-κB. In conclusion, the interaction between HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 axes plays an important role in the hypoxia-induced accumulation of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and tumor growth in HNSCC. PMID:24709424

  1. HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 Axes Contribute to the Recruitment of CD11b+Gr-1+ Myeloid Cells in Hypoxic Microenvironment of HNSCC12

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guiquan; Tang, Yaling; Geng, Ning; Zheng, Min; Jiang, Jian; Li, Ling; Li, Kaide; Lei, Zhengge; Chen, Wei; Fan, Yunlong; Ma, Xiangrui; Li, Longjiang; Wang, Xiaoyi; Liang, Xinhua

    2014-01-01

    CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells have gained much attention due to their roles in tumor immunity suppression as well as promotion of angiogenesis, invasion, and metastases. However, the mechanisms by which CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells recruit to the tumor site have not been well clarified. In the present study, we showed that hypoxia could stimulate the migration of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through increased production of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) by head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α)- and HIF-2α-dependent MIF regulated chemotaxis, differentiation, and pro-angiogenic function of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells through binding to CD74/CXCR2, and CD74/CXCR4 complexes, and then activating p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinases (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathways. Knockdown (KD) of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HNSCC cells decreased MIF level but failed to inhibit the CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell migration, because HIF-1α/2α KD enhanced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity that increased IL-6 secretion. Simultaneously blocking NF-κB and HIF-1α/HIF-2α had better inhibitory effect on CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cell recruitment in the hypoxic zone than individually silencing HIF-1α/2α or NF-κB. In conclusion, the interaction between HIF-α/MIF and NF-κB/IL-6 axes plays an important role in the hypoxia-induced accumulation of CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid cells and tumor growth in HNSCC. PMID:24709424

  2. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Bockhorst, Joseph P; Conroy, John M; Agarwal, Shashank; O'Leary, Dianne P; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org. PMID:22815711

  3. Molecular mechanism of constitutively active Rab11A was revealed by crystal structure of Rab11A S20V.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Young; Shin, Young-Cheul; Yoon, Jong Hwan; Kim, Chang Min; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Jeon, Ju-Hong; Park, Hyun Ho

    2016-03-01

    Rab11A is a small GTP-binding protein involved in the regulation of vesicle trafficking during recycling of endosomes. Substitution of S20 to V (S20V) at Rab11A inhibits the GTP hydrolysis activity of Rab11A. This mutation is known to be constitutively in an active form. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human Rab11A S20V mutant form complexed with GTP at a resolution of 2.4 Å. Without adding any substrate, Rab11A contained non-hydrolyzed natural substrate GTP in the nucleotide binding pocket with Mg(2+). In our observations, substituted V20 of Rab11A was found to interfere with proper localization of the water molecule, which mediated GTP hydrolysis, resulting in GTP being locked in an active form of Rab11A S20V. PMID:26879265

  4. Figures and First Years: Examining first-year Calculus I student ability to incorporate figures into technical reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonacci, Nathan; Rogers, Michael; Pfaff, Thomas

    This three-year study focused on first-year Calculus I students and their abilities to incorporate figures into technical reports. Students were handed guidelines as part of their Multidisciplinary Sustainability Education Module meant to aid them in crafting effective figures. Figure-specific questionnaires were added in the class to gain insight into the quantitative literacy skills students possessed both before starting their course and after its completion. Reviews of the figures in 78 technical reports written by 106 students showed repeated failure to refer to figures in discussion sections and use them in evidence-based arguments. Analysis of quantitative literacy skills revealed that the students could both read and interpret figures, suggesting that issues with literacy were not the main contributor to the sub-par graphs.

  5. BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mars, M.

    2009-08-01

    Compact fluid bodies in equilibrium under its own gravitational field are abundant in the Universe and a proper treatment of them can only be carried out using the full theory of General Relativity. The problem is of enormous complexity as it involves two very different regimes, namely the interior and the exterior of the fluid, coupled through the surface of the body. This problem is very challenging both from a purely theoretical point of view, as well as regarding the obtaining of realistic models and the description of their physical properties. It is therefore an excellent piece of news that the book 'Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium' by R Meinel, M Ansorg, A Kleinwächter, G Neugebauer and D Petroff has been recently published. This book approaches the topic in depth and its contents will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working on gravitation, including theoreticians in general relativity, mathematical physicists, astrophysicists and numerical relativists. This is an advanced book that intends to present some of the present-day results on this topic. The most basic results are presented rather succinctly, and without going into the details, of their derivations. Although primarily not intended to serve as a textbook, the presentation is nevertheless self-contained and can therefore be of interest both for experts on the field as well as for anybody wishing to learn more about rotating self-gravitating compact bodies in equilibrium. It should be remarked, however, that this book makes a rather strong selection of topics and concentrates fundamentally on presenting the main results obtained by the authors during their research in this field. The book starts with a chapter where the fundamental aspects of rotating fluids in equilibrium, including its thermodynamic properties, are summarized. Of particular interest are the so-called mass-shedding limit, which is the limit where the body is rotating so fast that it is on the verge of starting

  6. Mucoceles of the sphenoid sinus: neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Alper, M G

    1976-01-01

    Seven examples of mucocele of the sphenoid sinus have been described. The characteristic symptoms and signs have been described, and the diagnostic neuroradiologic features have been demonstrated. The condition is not a benign one, as is demonstrated by total blindness which occurred in one patient (Case 2). A high index of suspicion for this condition with early referral for neuroradiologic diagnosis leads to proper management and treatment which is usually successful. Images FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 7 F FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C FIGURE 13 PMID:867637

  7. Conditions of Mytilus edulis extracellular body fluids and shell composition in a pH-treatment experiment: Acid-base status, trace elements and δ11B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinemann, Agnes; Fietzke, Jan; Melzner, Frank; BöHm, Florian; Thomsen, JöRn; Garbe-SchöNberg, Dieter; Eisenhauer, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Mytilus edulis were cultured for 3 months under six different seawater pCO2 levels ranging from 380 to 4000 μatm. Specimen were taken from Kiel Fjord (Western Baltic Sea, Germany) which is a habitat with high and variable seawater pCO2 and related shifts in carbonate system speciation (e.g., low pH and low CaCO3 saturation state). Hemolymph (HL) and extrapallial fluid (EPF) samples were analyzed for pH and total dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) to calculate pCO2 and [HCO3-]. A second experiment was conducted for 2 months with three different pCO2 levels (380, 1400 and 4000 μatm). Boron isotopes (δ11B) were investigated by LA-MC-ICP-MS (Laser Ablation-Multicollector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry) in shell portions precipitated during experimental treatment time. Additionally, elemental ratios (B/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in the EPF of specimen from the second experiment were measured via ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry). Extracellular pH was not significantly different in HL and EPF but systematically lower than ambient water pH. This is due to high extracellular pCO2 values, a prerequisite for metabolic CO2 excretion. No accumulation of extracellular [HCO3-] was measured. Elemental ratios (B/Ca, Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca) in the EPF increased slightly with pH which is in accordance with increasing growth and calcification rates at higher seawater pH values. Boron isotope ratios were highly variable between different individuals but also within single shells. This corresponds to a high individual variability in fluid B/Ca ratios and may be due to high boron concentrations in the organic parts of the shell. The mean δ11B value shows no trend with pH but appears to represent internal pH (EPF) rather than ambient water pH.

  8. Deep-sea coral δ13C: A tool to reconstruct the difference between seawater pH and δ11B-derived calcifying fluid pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Patrick; Goodkin, Nathalie F.; Stewart, Joseph A.; Foster, Gavin L.; Sikes, Elisabeth L.; White, Helen K.; Hennige, Sebastian; Roberts, J. Murray

    2016-01-01

    The boron isotopic composition (δ11B) of coral skeleton is a proxy for seawater pH. However, δ11B-based pH estimates must account for the pH difference between seawater and the coral calcifying fluid, ΔpH. We report that skeletal δ11B and ΔpH are related to the skeletal carbon isotopic composition (δ13C) in four genera of deep-sea corals collected across a natural pH range of 7.89-8.09, with ΔpH related to δ13C by ΔpH = 0.029 × δ13C + 0.929, r2 = 0.717. Seawater pH can be reconstructed by determining ΔpH from δ13C and subtracting it from the δ11B-derived calcifying fluid pH. The uncertainty for reconstructions is ±0.12 pH units (2 standard deviations) if estimated from regression prediction intervals or between ±0.04 and ±0.06 pH units if estimated from confidence intervals. Our new approach quantifies and corrects for vital effects, offering improved accuracy relative to an existing δ11B versus seawater pH calibration with deep-sea scleractinian corals.

  9. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10 to Part 223—Flounder TED...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions Pt. 89, Subpt. D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 89—Figures EC01MR92.000 EC01MR92.001...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions Pt. 89, Subpt. D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 89—Figures EC01MR92.000 EC01MR92.001...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions Pt. 90, Subpt. D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 90—Figures EC01MR92.085 EC01MR92.086...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Procedures Pt. 90, Subpt. E, App. B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 90—Figures EC01MR92.087...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions Pt. 90, Subpt. D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 90—Figures EC01MR92.085 EC01MR92.086...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Procedures Pt. 90, Subpt. E, App. B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 90—Figures EC01MR92.087...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED.... D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 91—Figures ER04OC96.013 ER04OC96.014...

  4. Interpreting Children's Human Figure Drawings: Basic Guidelines for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Yuehong Chen; Mullis, Fran

    2008-01-01

    The literature was reviewed and summarized to provide common interpretations of human figure drawings. Basic guidelines for interpreting human figure drawings (i.e., face and head, body, arms and hands, and legs and feet) are presented. Expectations for students at different developmental levels (ages 1 1/2 through adolescence) are identified, and…

  5. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  7. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  10. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  9. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1509 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509—Headform Probe EC03OC91.065...

  1. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  13. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform Probe EC03OC91.062...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1509 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509—Headform Probe EC03OC91.065...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform Probe EC03OC91.062...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  16. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  17. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  18. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  19. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 22 to Part 679 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 22 Figure 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Figure 22 to Part 679...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figure 11 to Part 223...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 22 to Part 679 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 22 Figure 22 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Figure 22 to Part 679...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figure 11 to Part 223...

  4. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  9. Transformation of the Incomplete Figure in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the developmental changes in young children's perception. A matching completion task consisting of three geometric figures and one bird-like figure were completed by children 3-5 years of age ("N" = 99). The rotation effect, in which the correct response decreased with orientation (45°, 90° 135°, and…

  10. Enactivism and Figural Apprehension in the Context of Pattern Generalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish a research framework for an investigation into the extent to which pupils are able to visualise figural cues in multiple ways within the context of pattern generalisation. Enactivism, along with the constructs of knowledge objectification and figural apprehension, are identified as forming an ideal theoretical…

  11. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  13. The contributions of figure and ground textures to segmentation.

    PubMed

    Bravo, M J; Blake, R

    1992-09-01

    Several models of texture segmentation use spatial gradients in the activity of early filters to locate texture boundaries. The models assume that these filters are identical to those involved in the detection and discrimination of near threshold patterns. The models differ in how activity gradients from different types of filters are combined. We examined this question by measuring the respective contributions of a figure and a ground texture to segmentation. Vertical and horizontal line segments were used to construct two perfectly discriminable textures and these textures were used to construct four types of displays. Each display contained an obliquely oriented figure, but the displays differed in the way this figure was defined. Displays consisted of either (1) a horizontally textured figure on a blank background, (2) a blank figure on a vertically textured background, (3) a horizontally textured figure on a vertically textured background or (4) a figure with a mixed texture (50% vertical lines, 50% horizontal lines) on a blank background. In a two-alternative forced-choice experiment, observers were asked to judge the figure's orientation (right or left oblique), and the contrast of the textures was varied across trials. The resulting psychometric functions for segmentation were very similar for the four types of displays, suggesting ways in which a simple model of segmentation should be modified. PMID:1455752

  14. Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-01-01

    A highly flexible learning tool, referred to as a dynamic reaction figure, is described. Application of these figures can (i) yield the correct chemical equation by simply following a set of menu driven directions; (ii) present the underlying "mechanism" in chemical reactions; and (iii) help to solve quantitative problems in a number of different…

  15. Estimating the Volumes of Solid Figures with Curved Surfaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Donald

    1991-01-01

    Several examples of solid figures that calculus students can use to exercise their skills at estimating volume are presented. Although these figures are bounded by surfaces that are portions of regular cylinders, it is interesting to note that their volumes can be expressed as rational numbers. (JJK)

  16. High Focus Drawing: A Revolutionary Approach to Drawing the Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullan, James

    This book encourages art students to draw the entire human figure at once, rather than isolated portions of the body. The approach focuses on the energy that suffuses every part of the body and produces liverly, seamless figure drawings without construction lines. Examples from Master works and student works are used to demonstrate the approach…

  17. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart... - Test Specimens

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test Specimens 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT... Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201—Test Specimens EC03OC91.006...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  4. Common injuries and medical problems in singles figure skaters.

    PubMed

    Porter, Emily B

    2013-01-01

    Figure skating continues to increase in popularity as both a recreational and competitive sport. Skaters continue to "push the envelope" in perfecting more technically difficult skills. With their strenuous training programs, skaters are at risk from chronic overuse injuries, which tend to plague singles skaters more often than acute injuries. The majority of injuries occur in the lower extremities or low back. Figure skaters also are at risk for particular medical problems, such as exercise-induced bronchospasm and disordered eating. Sports Medicine physicians are sure to encounter figure skaters and their "Sports-specific problems" in their practice and should be knowledgeable about the common maladies that can plague figure skaters. This article reviews the most common injuries and medical problems in singles figure skaters. PMID:24030306

  5. CGH Figure Testing of Aspherical Mirrors in Cold Vacuums

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Victor John; Ohl, Raymond G.; Mink, Ronald G.; Arnold, Steven

    2009-01-01

    An established method of room-temperature interferometric null testing of mirrors having simple shapes (e.g., flat, spherical, or spheroidal) has been augmented to enable measurement of errors in the surface figures of off-axis, non-axisymmetric, aspherical mirrors when the mirrors are located inside cryogenic vacuum chambers. The established method involves the use of a computer-generated hologram (CGH), functionally equivalent to a traditional null lens, to modify the laser beam of an imaging interferometer to obtain a reference wavefront that matches the ideal surface figure of a mirror under test. The CGH is inserted at the appropriate position and orientation in the optical path of the imaging interferometer, which, in turn, is appropriately positioned and oriented with respect to the mirror under test. Deviations of the surface figure of the mirror from the ideal surface figure manifest themselves as interference fringes. Interferograms are recorded and analyzed to deduce figure errors.

  6. Boron isotopes as pH proxy: A new look at boron speciation in deep-sea corals using 11B MAS NMR and EELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollion-Bard, Claire; Blamart, Dominique; Trebosc, Julien; Tricot, Grégory; Mussi, Alexandre; Cuif, Jean-Pierre

    2011-02-01

    Dissolved boron in modern seawater occurs in the form of two species, trigonal boric acid B(OH) 3 and tetrahedral borate ion B(OH)4-. One of the key assumption in the use of boron isotopic compositions of carbonates as pH proxy is that only borate ions, B(OH)4-, are incorporated into the carbonate. Here, we investigate the speciation of boron in deep-sea coral microstructures ( Lophelia pertusa specimen) by using high field magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ( 11B MAS NMR) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). We observe both boron coordination species, but in different proportions depending on the coral microstructure, i.e. centres of calcification versus fibres. These results suggest that careful sampling is necessary before performing boron isotopic measurements in deep-sea corals. By combining the proportions of B(OH) 3 and B(OH)4- determined by NMR and our previous ion microprobe boron isotope measurements, we propose a new equation for the relation between seawater pH and boron isotopic composition in deep-sea corals.

  7. Activation-Induced TIM-4 Expression Identifies Differential Responsiveness of Intestinal CD103+ CD11b+ Dendritic Cells to a Mucosal Adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Alfonso J.; Ronchese, Franca

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage and dendritic cell (DC) populations residing in the intestinal lamina propria (LP) are highly heterogeneous and have disparate yet collaborative roles in the promotion of adaptive immune responses towards intestinal antigen. Under steady-state conditions, macrophages are efficient at acquiring antigen but are non-migratory. In comparison, intestinal DC are inefficient at antigen uptake but migrate to the mesenteric lymph nodes (mLN) where they present antigen to T cells. Whether such distinction in the roles of DC and macrophages in the uptake and transport of antigen is maintained under immunostimulatory conditions is less clear. Here we show that the scavenger and phosphatidylserine receptor T cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin (TIM)-4 is expressed by the majority of LP macrophages at steady-state, whereas DC are TIM-4 negative. Oral treatment with the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT) induces expression of TIM-4 on a proportion of CD103+ CD11b+ DC in the LP. TIM-4+ DC selectively express high levels of co-stimulatory molecules after CT treatment and are detected in the mLN a short time after appearing in the LP. Importantly, intestinal macrophages and DC expressing TIM-4 are more efficient than their TIM-4 negative counterparts at taking up apoptotic cells and soluble antigen ex vivo. Taken together, our results show that CT induces phenotypic changes to migratory intestinal DC that may impact their ability to take up local antigens and in turn promote the priming of mucosal immunity. PMID:27379516

  8. Study on a compact and adaptable Thomson Spectrometer for laser-initiated 11B(p,α)8Be reactions and low-medium energy particle detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consoli, F.; De Angelis, R.; Bonasera, A.; Sura, J.; Andreoli, P.; Cristofari, G.; Cipriani, M.; Di Giorgio, G.; Ingenito, F.; Barbarino, M.; Labaune, C.; Baccou, C.; Depierreux, S.; Goyon, C.; Yahia, V.

    2016-05-01

    Thomson Spectrometers are of primary importance in the discrimination of particles produced by laser-plasma interaction, according to their energy and charge-mass ratio. We describe here a detailed study on a set of Thomson Spectrometers, adaptable to different experimental situations, with the aim of being placed directly within the experimental chamber, rather than in additional extensions, in order to increase the solid angle of observation. These instruments are suitable for detection of low-medium energy particles and can be effectively employed in laser-plasma experiments of 11B(p,α)8Be fusion. They are provided with permanent magnets, have small dimensions and compact design. In these small configurations electric and magnetic fringing fields play a primary role for particle deflection, and their accurate characterization is required. It was accomplished by means of COMSOL electromagnetic solver coupled to an effective analytical model, very suitable for practical use of the spectrometers. Data from experimental measurements of the magnetic fields have been also used. We describe the application of the spectrometers to an experiment of laser-plasma interaction, coupled to Imaging Plate detectors. Data analysis for spectrum and yield of the detected radiation is discussed in detail.

  9. {sup 11}B NMR in YbNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C single crystals: Crossover from localized moments to Fermi-liquid behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Sala, R.; Borsa, F.; Lee, E.; Canfield, P.C.

    1997-09-01

    Data of {sup 11}B NMR in a single crystal of YbNi{sub 2}B{sub 2}C are reported in the temperature range 1.7{endash}300 K and for two orientations of the external magnetic field with respect to the tetragonal c axis of the crystal. For T{gt}50K both the Knight shift K and the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate T{sub 1}{sup {minus}1} can be accounted for by the presence of localized 4f moments at the Yb{sup 3+} site which polarize the conduction electrons via the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida mechanism. On the other hand, at low temperatures, T{lt}5K, the relaxation rate T{sub 1}{sup {minus}1} obeys a Korringa-like law with a constant value of T{sub 1}T typical of a normal metal with high density of states at the Fermi level and no localized moments. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Electric-field-gradient tensor and boron site-resolved {sup 11}B NMR in single-crystalline YB{sub 12}

    SciTech Connect

    Fojud, Z.; Jurga, S.; Herzig, P.; Zogal, O. J.; Pietraszko, A.; Dukhnenko, A.; Shitsevalova, N.

    2007-05-01

    {sup 11}B NMR measurements on a single crystal of YB{sub 12} have been performed at room temperature at a frequency of 128.4 MHz. The electric-field-gradient (EFG) tensor components and the principal axes calculated previously by first-principles methods have been verified experimentally. Three magnetically different boron-atom groups in the B{sub 12} cluster were clearly observed for the crystal orientation used in this work. This distinction results from different EFG-tensor orientations with respect to magnetic field and not from different quadrupolar splittings ({nu}{sub Q}) or asymmetry-parameter values ({eta}). The magnetically different boron atoms have been identified through the calculated angle dependence of the satellite transitions (0 deg. -360 deg.). Very satisfactory agreement between the calculated and experimental angular dependencies of the EFG tensor has been obtained. Similarly, the quadrupolar splittings and asymmetry parameters agree very well with those previously determined from NMR measurements on a powder sample of YB{sub 12}.

  11. Channelling experiments on the lattice location of hydrogen in metals using the nuclear reaction 1H(11B, α)αα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Eiichi

    1992-03-01

    In order to locate hydrogen dissolved in metals a nuclear reaction 1H(11B, α)αα was applied to a channelling method. As an example of this application the results of the following two experiments were briefly reported. (1) The lattice location of H in V was investigated under a <001> compressive stress of 7 kg/mm2 below the elastic limit. The configuration of hydrogen is extremely sensitive to compressive stress and changes from a tetrahedral (T) site to a diplaced-T or 4T configuration. On release of this stress the hydrogen atoms returned to T-sites. (2) To elucidate the mechanism of the enhancement of the terminal solubility for hydrogen (TSH) in Nb on alloying with undersized Mo atoms, the state of hydrogen was studied in Nb-based Nb-Mo dilute alloys. It was demonstrated that H atoms are trapped by Mo atoms and located at sites displaced from T-sites by about 0.6 Å. This result supports the trapping model for the enhancement of the TSH in the region of low Mo concentration.

  12. Forward-Angle Yields Of {sup 6,8}He and {sup 9}Li Isotopes in {sup 11}B(33 AMeV)+{sup 9}Be Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Artukh, A. G.; Klygin, S. A.; Kononenko, G. A.; Teterev, Yu. G.; Sereda, Yu. M.; Vorontsov, A. N.; Erdemchimeg, B.; Kaminski, G.; Vishnevski, I. N.; Ostashko, V. V.; Pavlenko, Yu. N.; Kovtun, V. E.; Koshchiy, E. I.; Foshchan, A. G.

    2010-04-30

    Using fragment-separator COMBAS [1] in forward-angle measurements the velocity, isotopic and element distributions of products with Z<7 in {sup 11}B(33 AMeV)+{sup 9}Be reaction have been studied. The yields of {sup 6,8}He and {sup 9}Li isotopes on the {sup 9}Be thick target (332.6 mg/cm{sup 2}) as a function of momentum acceptance of fragment -separator COMBAS have been measured. The production rates per 1pmuA of the primary beam of exotic nuclei of {sup 6}He(6.9centre dot10{sup 5} pps), {sup 8}He(2centre dot10{sup 4} pps) and {sup 9}Li(4.3centre dot10 {sup 5}pps) which can be used as secondary radioactive beams of halo -like nuclei have been determined. The two-neutron halo nuclei {sup 6,8}He and {sup 9}Li are of great current interest both as very neutron-rich nuclei with a significant neutron skin and in understanding the interactions of very neutron-rich nuclei. The {sup 9}Li beam may be helpful in understanding of sub barrier fusion enhancement independent of the presence of the halo nucleons in used neutron--rich projectiles.

  13. The Prediction of Success in Engineering Graphics Using the Group Embedded Figures Test and the Hidden Figures Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Russell C.; Davis, Paul D.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to continue the assessment of the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), to assess the value of the Hidden Figures Test (HFT), and to assess the usefulness of the two instruments used in combination as tools for predicting student success and early identification of students who may need special assistance in engineering…

  14. Phosphorylation of bovine adrenodoxin by protein kinase CK2 affects the interaction with its redox partner cytochrome P450scc (CYP11A1).

    PubMed

    Bureik, Matthias; Zöllner, Andy; Schuster, Norbert; Montenarh, Mathias; Bernhardt, Rita

    2005-03-15

    Adrenodoxin (Adx), a [2Fe-2S] vertebrate-type ferredoxin, transfers electrons from the NADPH-dependent flavoprotein Adx reductase (AdR) to mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzymes of the CYP11A and CYP11B families, which catalyze key reactions in steroid hormone biosynthesis. Adx is a known phosphoprotein, but the kinases that phosphorylate Adx have remained mostly obscure. The aim of this study was to identify previously unknown Adx phosphorylating kinases and to acquire a deeper insight into the functional consequences of such a modification. Here, we show for the first time that bovine Adx is a substrate of protein kinase CK2, whereas bovine CYP11A1, CYP11B1, and AdR are not phosphorylated by this kinase. CK2 phosphorylation of mature Adx requires the presence of both the catalytic alpha-subunit and the regulatory beta-subunit of CK2 and takes place exclusively at residue Thr-71, which is located within the redox partner interaction domain of the protein. We created two Adx mutants, Adx-T71E (imitating a phosphorylation) and Adx-T71V (which cannot be phosphorylated at this site), respectively, and investigated how these mutations affected the interaction of Adx with its redox partners. These data were supplemented with detailed spectroscopic and functional assays using the phosphorylated protein. All Adx species behaved like wild type (Adx-WT) with respect to their redox potential, iron-sulfur cluster symmetry, and overall backbone structure. Substrate conversion assays catalyzed by CYP11A1 showed an increase in product formation when Adx-T71E or CK2-phosphorylated Adx were used as electron carrier instead of Adx-WT, whereas the activity toward CYP11B1 was not altered using these Adx species. Additionally, Adx-T71E represents the only full-length Adx mutant which leads to an increase in CYP11A1 product formation. Therefore, characterizing this full-length mutant helps to improve our knowledge on the functional effects of phosphorylations on complex redox systems

  15. Ion Figuring of Replicated X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantey, Thomas M.; Gregory, Don A.

    1997-01-01

    This investigation included experiments to demonstrate ion beam figuring effects on electroless nickel with the expressed desire to figure X-ray optic mandrels. It was important to establish that ion beam figuring did not induce any adverse effects to the nickel surface. The ion beam has consistently been shown to be an excellent indicator of the quality of the subsurface. Polishing is not the only cause for failure in the ion beam final figuring process, the material composition is equally important. Only by careful consideration of both these factors can the ion beam final figuring process achieve its greatest potential. The secondary goal was to construct a model for representing the ion beam material removal rate. Representing the ion beam removal rate is only an approximation and has a number of limiting factors. The resolution of the metrology apparatus limits the modeling of the beam function as well. As the surface error corrections demand more precision in the final figuring, the model representing beam function must be equally precise. The precision to which the beam function can be represented is not only determined by the model but also by the measurements producing that model. The method developed for determining the beam function has broad application to any material destined to be ion beam figured.

  16. Fast figuring of large optics by reactive atom plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Marco; Jourdain, Renaud; Morantz, Paul; Shore, Paul

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of ground-based astronomical observatories will require fabrication and maintenance of extremely large segmented mirrors tens of meters in diameter. At present, the large production of segments required by projects like E-ELT and TMT poses time frames and costs feasibility questions. This is principally due to a bottleneck stage in the optical fabrication chain: the final figuring step. State-of-the-art figure correction techniques, so far, have failed to meet the needs of the astronomical community for mass production of large, ultra-precise optical surfaces. In this context, Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) is proposed as a candidate figuring process that combines nanometer level accuracy with high material removal rates. RAP is a form of plasma enhanced chemical etching at atmospheric pressure based on Inductively Coupled Plasma technology. The rapid figuring capability of the RAP process has already been proven on medium sized optical surfaces made of silicon based materials. In this paper, the figure correction of a 3 meters radius of curvature, 400 mm diameter spherical ULE mirror is presented. This work demonstrates the large scale figuring capability of the Reactive Atom Plasma process. The figuring is carried out by applying an in-house developed procedure that promotes rapid convergence. A 2.3 μm p-v initial figure error is removed within three iterations, for a total processing time of 2.5 hours. The same surface is then re-polished and the residual error corrected again down to λ/20 nm rms. These results highlight the possibility of figuring a metre-class mirror in about ten hours.

  17. Tracking the elusive effect of the Mueller-Lyer figure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Anthony Wayne

    The perceptual scaling of extent for an arrows-only Muller-Lyer figure is examined from the theoretical framework of Intentional Dynamics. This framework defines effects that goal constraints have on a perceiving-acting cycle within an event perception explanation of this century-old problem. The classic strain effect and a novel rotational effect are proposed as arising from an ecology of a pair of dual constraints: the light and figure plus the perceptual system and muscle-control system. This ecology is assumed to function successfully under the soft constraint of an intention. This approach unifies and extends past research through modeling with finite element methods the light field for which the figure serves as boundary conditions. Participant data significantly matched the strain and rotational effects as predicted by the light field model. The experimental apparatus permitted participants to see a black figure on a computer screen's white background and to track and report perceptions with mouse movements. Experiments included static (presented in ordered and random sequences) and dynamically moving figure layouts. In the first sub-set of Experiment Set I, participants controlled the length of a report bar to "fit the gap" between the figure's vertices. For the second sub-set, independent and dependent variables were swapped; participants controlled the figure's angle magnitude so that the gap between vertices matched the length of a presented report bar. The intention remained to "fit the gap." In Experiment Set II, participants adjusted a Muller-Lyer figure about its midpoint to report whether a rotational effect occurred. The figure contained asymmetrical phase relations among its fins. The experimental intention was to "keep the figure horizontal." Experiments elicited expected Muller-Lyer effects (strain or rotation) with no significant difference among presentation methods such that the light field's event trace generatively specified the effect

  18. Figuring technology of nonaxisymmetric errors with a spiral path.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Changjun; Li, Shengyi; Xie, Xuhui

    2009-08-01

    Figuring technology of nonaxisymmetric errors using a spiral path is presented. Based on an approximation of a removal function, a finite-field nonlinear model is deduced from the computer-controlled optics shaping principle. We then present a modified Richardson-Lucy iterative algorithm to deconvolute the dwell time. With a velocity realization method for dwell time on a spiral path, the figuring technology comes into being. Simulations are made to validate these algorithms. Theoretical and simulation studies demonstrate that the figuring technology is a novel method for inexpensive fabrication of precision mirrors. PMID:19649028

  19. Breath Figure Method for Construction of Honeycomb Films

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yingying; Jin, Mingliang; Zhou, Guofu; Shui, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Honeycomb films with various building units, showing potential applications in biological, medical, physicochemical, photoelectric, and many other areas, could be prepared by the breath figure method. The ordered hexagonal structures formed by the breath figure process are related to the building units, solvents, substrates, temperature, humidity, air flow, and other factors. Therefore, by adjusting these factors, the honeycomb structures could be tuned properly. In this review, we summarized the development of the breath figure method of fabricating honeycomb films and the factors of adjusting honeycomb structures. The organic-inorganic hybrid was taken as the example building unit to discuss the preparation, mechanism, properties, and applications of the honeycomb films. PMID:26343734

  20. Thermoelectric figure of merit of strongly correlated superlattice semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, W.; Bedell, K.S.

    1999-06-01

    The Anderson lattice Hamiltonian was solved using the slave-boson mean-field approximation to get the energy bands of a strongly correlated semiconductor. The transport properties were calculated in the relaxation-time approximation, and the thermoelectric figure of merit was obtained for the strongly correlated semiconductor and a variety of superlattice structures. We found that at room temperature the dimensionless quantity ZT, thermoelectric figure of merit multiplied by temperature, can reach nearly 1.4 for a quantum wire lattice structure. We believe that it may be possible to find high values of the figure of merit for strongly correlated superlattice semiconductors. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}