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Sample records for 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type

  1. Ribitol dehydrogenase of Klebsiella aerogenes. Sequence and properties of wild-type and mutant strains.

    PubMed Central

    Dothie, J M; Giglio, J R; Moore, C B; Taylor, S S; Hartley, B S

    1985-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the sequence of 249 amino acids in ribitol dehydrogenase-A from Klebsiella aerogenes. Continuous culture on xylitol yields strains that superproduce 'wild-type' enzyme but mutations appear to have arisen in this process. Other strains selected by such continuous culture produce enzymes with increased specific activity for xylitol but without loss of ribitol activity. One such enzyme, ribitol dehydrogenase-D, has Pro-196 for Gly-196. Another, ribitol dehydrogenase-B, has a different mutation. PMID:3904726

  2. Human dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 11 is a novel type of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi; Miyagi, Namiki; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Hara, Akira; Ikari, Akira

    2016-03-25

    We report characterization of a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily encoded in a human gene, DHRS11. The recombinant protein (DHRS11) efficiently catalyzed the conversion of the 17-keto group of estrone, 4- and 5-androstenes and 5α-androstanes into their 17β-hydroxyl metabolites with NADPH as a coenzyme. In contrast, it exhibited reductive 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity toward 5β-androstanes, 5β-pregnanes, 4-pregnenes and bile acids. Additionally, DHRS11 reduced α-dicarbonyls (such as diacetyl and methylglyoxal) and alicyclic ketones (such as 1-indanone and loxoprofen). The enzyme activity was inhibited in a mixed-type manner by flavonoids, and competitively by carbenoxolone, glycyrrhetinic acid, zearalenone, curcumin and flufenamic acid. The expression of DHRS11 mRNA was observed widely in human tissues, most abundantly in testis, small intestine, colon, kidney and cancer cell lines. Thus, DHRS11 represents a novel type of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase with unique catalytic properties and tissue distribution.

  3. Mitochondrial type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in fungal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, A. Pedro; Videira, Arnaldo

    2015-01-01

    During aerobic respiration, cells produce energy through oxidative phosphorylation, which includes a specialized group of multi-subunit complexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane known as the electron transport chain. However, this canonical pathway is branched into single polypeptide alternative routes in some fungi, plants, protists and bacteria. They confer metabolic plasticity, allowing cells to adapt to different environmental conditions and stresses. Type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases (also called alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases) are non-proton pumping enzymes that bypass complex I. Recent evidence points to the involvement of fungal alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in the process of programmed cell death, in addition to their action as overflow systems upon oxidative stress. Consistent with this, alternative NAD(P)H dehydrogenases are phylogenetically related to cell death - promoting proteins of the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF)-family. PMID:28357279

  4. Milk xanthine oxidase type D (dehydrogenase) and type O (oxidase). Purification, interconversion and some properties

    PubMed Central

    Battelli, Maria Giulia; Lorenzoni, E.; Stirpe, F.

    1973-01-01

    1. The xanthine oxidase of cow's milk, crude or purified, appears as an oxidase (type O), and can be converted almost completely into a NAD+-dependent dehydrogenase (type D) by treatment with dithioerythritol or dihydrolipoic acid, but only to a small extent by other thiols. 2. The D form of the enzyme is inhibited by NADH, which competes with NAD+. 3. The kinetic constants of the two forms of the enzyme are similar to those of the corresponding forms of rat liver xanthine oxidase. 4. Milk xanthine oxidase is converted into an irreversible O form by pretreatment with chymotrypsin, papain or subtilisin, but only partially with trypsin. 5. The enzyme as purified shows a major faster band and a minor slower band on gel electrophoresis. The slower band is greatly reinforced after xanthine oxidase is converted into the irreversible O form by chymotrypsin. ImagesFig. 5. PMID:4352904

  5. XoxF Acts as the Predominant Methanol Dehydrogenase in the Type I Methanotroph Methylomicrobium buryatense

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Frances

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many methylotrophic taxa harbor two distinct methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) systems for oxidizing methanol to formaldehyde: the well-studied calcium-dependent MxaFI type and the more recently discovered lanthanide-containing XoxF type. MxaFI has traditionally been accepted as the major functional MDH in bacteria that contain both enzymes. However, in this study, we present evidence that, in a type I methanotroph, Methylomicrobium buryatense, XoxF is likely the primary functional MDH in the environment. The addition of lanthanides increases xoxF expression and greatly reduces mxa expression, even under conditions in which calcium concentrations are almost 100-fold higher than lanthanide concentrations. Mutations in genes encoding the MDH enzymes validate our finding that XoxF is the major functional MDH, as XoxF mutants grow more poorly than MxaFI mutants under unfavorable culturing conditions. In addition, mutant and transcriptional analyses demonstrate that the lanthanide-dependent MDH switch operating in methanotrophs is mediated in part by the orphan response regulator MxaB, whose gene transcription is itself lanthanide responsive. IMPORTANCE Aerobic methanotrophs, bacteria that oxidize methane for carbon and energy, require a methanol dehydrogenase enzyme to convert methanol into formaldehyde. The calcium-dependent enzyme MxaFI has been thought to primarily carry out methanol oxidation in methanotrophs. Recently, it was discovered that XoxF, a lanthanide-containing enzyme present in most methanotrophs, can also oxidize methanol. In a methanotroph with both MxaFI and XoxF, we demonstrate that lanthanides transcriptionally control genes encoding the two methanol dehydrogenases, in part by controlling expression of the response regulator MxaB. Lanthanides are abundant in the Earth's crust, and we demonstrate that micromolar amounts of lanthanides are sufficient to suppress MxaFI expression. Thus, we present evidence that XoxF acts as the predominant

  6. The vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase system: variable class II type form elucidates separate stages of enzymogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmqvist, L; Estonius, M; Jörnvall, H

    1995-01-01

    A mixed-class alcohol dehydrogenase has been characterized from avian liver. Its functional properties resemble the classical class I type enzyme in livers of humans and animals by exhibiting low Km and kcat values with alcohols (Km = 0.7 mM with ethanol) and low Ki values with 4-methylpyrazole (4 microM). These values are markedly different from corresponding parameters of class II and III enzymes. In contrast, the primary structure of this avian liver alcohol dehydrogenase reveals an overall relationship closer to class II and to some extent class III (69 and 65% residue identities, respectively) than to class I or the other classes of the human alcohol dehydrogenases (52-61%), the presence of an insertion (four positions in a segment close to position 120) as in class II but in no other class of the human enzymes, and the presence of several active site residues considered typical of the class II enzyme. Hence, the avian enzyme has mixed-class properties, being functionally similar to class I, yet structurally similar to class II, with which it also clusters in phylogenetic trees of characterized vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenases. Comparisons reveal that the class II enzyme is approximately 25% more variable than the "variable" class I enzyme, which itself is more variable than the "constant" class III enzyme. The overall extreme, and the unusual chromatographic behavior may explain why the class II enzyme has previously not been found outside mammals. The properties define a consistent pattern with apparently repeated generation of novel enzyme activities after separate gene duplications. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7479907

  7. Novel and potent 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Harshani R; Vicker, Nigel; Allan, Gillian M; Smith, Andrew; Mahon, Mary F; Tutill, Helena J; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2005-04-21

    Structure-based drug design using the crystal structure of human 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1) led to the discovery of novel, selective, and the most potent inhibitors of 17beta-HSD1 reported to date. Compounds 1 and 2 contain a side chain with an m-pyridylmethyl-amide functionality extended from the 16beta position of a steroid scaffold. A mode of binding is proposed for these inhibitors, and 2 is a steroid-based 17beta-HSD1 inhibitor with the potential for further development.

  8. Chromosomal localization and structure of the human type II IMP dehydrogenase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Glesne, D.; Huberman, E. |; Collart, F.; Varkony, T.; Drabkin, H.

    1994-05-01

    We determined the chromosomal localization and structure of the gene encoding human type II inosine 5{prime}-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH, EC 1.1.1.205), an enzyme associated with cellular proliferation, malignant transformation, and differentiation. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers specific for type II IMPDH, we screened a panel of human-Chinese hamster cell somatic hybrids and a separate deletion panel of chromosome 3 hybrids and localized the gene to 3p21.1{yields}p24.2. Two overlapping yeast artificial chromosome clones containing the full gene for type II IMPDH were isolated and a physical map of 117 kb of human genomic DNA in this region of chromosome 3 was constructed. The gene for type II IMPDH was localized and oriented on this map and found to span no more than 12.5 kb.

  9. Identification and characterization of inosine 5-monophosphate dehydrogenase in Streptococcus suis type 2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-han; He, Kong-wang; Duan, Zhi-tao; Zhou, Jun-ming; Yu, Zheng-yu; Ni, Yan-xiu; Lu, Cheng-ping

    2009-11-01

    Streptococcus suis type 2 is a swine pathogen responsible for diverse diseases. Although many virulent factors have been identified and studied, relatively little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms of type 2. The aim of the study was to identify and understand the characterization of Inosine 5-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). A 957-bp gene, impdh, was identified in the virulent S. suis serotype 2 (SS2), and analysis of the predicted IMPDH sequence revealed IMP dehydrogenase/GMP reductase domain. The gene encoding for the IMPDH of S. suis was cloned and sequenced. The DNA sequence contained an open reading frame encoding for a 318 amino acid polypeptide exhibiting 23% sequence identity with the IMPDH from Streptococcus pyogenes (YP281355) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (ZP00404150). Using the pET(32) expression plasmid, the impdh gene was inducibly overexpressed in Escherichia coli to produce IMPDH with a hexahistidyl N-terminus to permit its purification. The (His)6 IMPDH protein was found to possess functional IMPDH enzymatic activity after the purification. The impdh-knockout SS2 mutant ( Delta IMPDH) constructed in this study was slower in growth and one pH unit higher than SS2-H after 6 h of culturing, and found to be attenuated in mouse models of infection for 2.5 times and not be capable of causing death in porcine models of infection in contrast with the parent SS2-H.

  10. 11-Beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 expression in white adipose tissue is strongly correlated with adiposity.

    PubMed

    Milagro, Fermin I; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2007-04-01

    Glucocorticoid action within the cells is regulated by the levels of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and two enzymes, 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11betaHSD1), which converts inactive to active glucocorticoids, and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11betaHSD2), which regulates the access of active glucocorticoids to the receptor by converting cortisol/corticosterone to the glucocorticoid-inactive form cortisone/dehydrocorticosterone. Male Wistar rats developed obesity by being fed a high-fat diet for 56 days, and GR, 11betaHSD1 and 11betaHSD2 gene expression were compared with control-diet fed animals. Gene expression analysis of 11betaHSD1, 11betaHSD2 and GR were performed by RT-PCR in subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue. High-fat fed animals overexpressed 11betaHSD2 in subcutaneous but not in retroperitoneal fat. Interestingly, mRNA levels strongly correlated in both tissues with different parameters related to obesity, such as body weight, adiposity and insulin resistance, suggesting that this gene is a reliable marker of adiposity in this rat model of obesity. Thus, 11betaHSD2 is expressed in adipose tissue by both adipocytes and stromal-vascular cells, which suggests that this enzyme may play an important role in preventing fat accumulation in adipose tissue.

  11. Benzothiazole derivatives as novel inhibitors of human 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiangdong; Vicker, Nigel; Ganeshapillai, Dharshini; Smith, Andrew; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2006-03-27

    Selective inhibitors of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) have considerable potential as treatments for metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 2 or obesity. Here, we report the discovery and synthesis of a series of novel benzothiazole derivatives and their inhibitory activities against 11beta-HSD1 from human hepatic microsomes measured using a radioimmunoassay (RIA) method. The benzothiazole derivatives 1 and 2 showed greater than 80% inhibition for 11beta-HSD1 at 10 microM and exhibited IC50 values in the low micromolar range. The preliminary SAR study suggested the introduction of a chlorine substituent at the 4 position of the benzothiazole ring greatly enhanced the inhibitory activities. Docking studies with the benzothiazole derivative 1 into the crystal structure of human 11beta-HSD1 revealed how the molecule may interact with the enzyme and cofactor.

  12. Agrobacterium tumefaciens type II NADH dehydrogenase. Characterization and interactions with bacterial and thylakoid membranes.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Laetitia; Desplats, Carine; Mus, Florence; Cuiné, Stéphan; Cournac, Laurent; Peltier, Gilles

    2006-08-01

    Type II NADH dehydrogenases (NDH-2) are monomeric enzymes that catalyse quinone reduction and allow electrons to enter the respiratory chain in different organisms including higher plant mitochondria, bacteria and yeasts. In this study, an Agrobacterium tumefaciens gene encoding a putative alternative NADH dehydrogenase (AtuNDH-2) was isolated and expressed in Escherichia coli as a (His)6-tagged protein. The purified 46 kDa protein contains FAD as a prosthetic group and oxidizes both NADH and NADPH with similar Vmax values, but with a much higher affinity for NADH than for NADPH. AtuNDH-2 complements the growth (on a minimal medium) of an E. coli mutant strain deficient in both NDH-1 and NDH-2, and is shown to supply electrons to the respiratory chain when incubated with bacterial membranes prepared from this mutant. By measuring photosystem II chlorophyll fluorescence on thylakoid membranes prepared from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we show that AtuNDH-2 is able to stimulate NADH-dependent reduction of the plastoquinone pool. We discuss the possibility of using heterologous expression of NDH-2 enzymes to improve nonphotochemical reduction of plastoquinones and H2 production in C. reinhardtii.

  13. Discovery of Adamantyl Heterocyclic Ketones as Potent 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiangdong; Vicker, Nigel; Thomas, Mark P; Pradaux-Caggiano, Fabienne; Halem, Heather; Culler, Michael D; Potter, Barry V L

    2011-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) plays a key role in converting intracellular cortisone to physiologically active cortisol, which is implicated in the development of several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome. Inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity with selective inhibitors has beneficial effects on various conditions, including diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity, and therefore constitutes a promising strategy to discover novel therapies for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. A series of novel adamantyl heterocyclic ketones provides potent and selective inhibitors of human 11β-HSD1. Lead compounds display low nanomolar inhibition against human and mouse 11β-HSD1 and are selective with no activity against 11β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD1. Selected potent 11β-HSD1 inhibitors show moderate metabolic stability upon incubation with human liver microsomes and weak inhibition of human CYP450 enzymes. PMID:21608132

  14. Novel inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: templates for design.

    PubMed

    Allan, Gillian M; Vicker, Nigel; Lawrence, Harshani R; Tutill, Helena J; Day, Joanna M; Huchet, Marion; Ferrandis, Eric; Reed, Michael J; Purohit, Atul; Potter, Barry V L

    2008-04-15

    The 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) catalyze the interconversion between the oxidized and reduced forms of androgens and estrogens at the 17 position. The 17beta-HSD type 1 enzyme (17beta-HSD1) catalyzes the reduction of estrone (E1) to estradiol and is expressed in malignant breast cells. Inhibitors of this enzyme thus have potential as treatments for hormone dependent breast cancer. Syntheses and biological evaluation of novel non-steroidal inhibitors designed to mimic the E1 template are reported using information from potent steroidal inhibitors. Of the templates investigated biphenyl ethanone was promising and led to inhibitors with IC(50) values in the low micromolar range.

  15. Novel, potent inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    PubMed

    Allan, Gillian M; Bubert, Christian; Vicker, Nigel; Smith, Andrew; Tutill, Helena J; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2006-03-27

    Many breast tumours are hormone-responsive and rely on estrogens for their sustained growth and development. The enzyme 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1) is primarily responsible for the conversion of estrone (E1) into the most potent of the human estrogens 17beta-estradiol (E2). Here we report the syntheses, inhibitory activities and docking studies for a novel series of pyrazole amides which have been discovered with the aim of probing the structure activity relationships (SAR) for such a template and of using this template to mimic the potent inhibitor 1 (Fig. 1). Amides containing an aromatic pyridyl moiety have been found to give the best inhibition, indicating that the pyridyl group interacts beneficially in the active site. This work has shown that extension from this position on the pyrazole template is well tolerated and the optimization of such systems is under investigation.

  16. Modification of substrate specificity in single point mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens type II NADH dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Desplats, C; Beyly, A; Cuiné, S; Bernard, L; Cournac, L; Peltier, G

    2007-08-21

    Type II NADH dehydrogenases (NDH-2) are monomeric flavoenzymes catalyzing electron transfer from NADH to quinones. While most NDH-2 preferentially oxidize NADH, some of these enzymes have been reported to efficiently oxidize NADPH. With the aim to modify the NADPH vs NADH specificity of the relatively NADH specific Agrobacterium tumefaciens NDH-2, two conserved residues (E and A) of the substrate binding domain were, respectively, mutated to Q and S. We show that when E was replaced by Q at position 203 the enzyme was able to oxidize NADPH as efficiently as NADH. Growth on a minimal medium of an Escherichia coli double mutant lacking both NDH-1 and NDH-2 was restored more efficiently when mutated proteins able to oxidize NADPH were expressed. The biotechnological interest of expressing such modified enzymes in photosynthetic organisms is discussed.

  17. Novel non-steroidal inhibitors of human 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    PubMed

    Vicker, Nigel; Su, Xiangdong; Ganeshapillai, Dharshini; Smith, Andrew; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2007-05-01

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) regulates glucocorticoid action at the pre-receptor stage by converting cortisone to cortisol. 11beta-HSD1 is selectively expressed in many tissues including the liver and adipose tissue where metabolic events are important. Metabolic syndrome relates to a number of metabolic abnormalities and currently has a prevalence of >20% in adult Americans. 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors are being investigated by many major pharmaceutical companies for type 2 diabetes and other abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome. In this area of intense interest a number of structural types of 11beta-HSD1 inhibitor have been identified. It is important to have an array of structural types as the physicochemical properties of the compounds will determine tissue distribution, HPA effects, and ultimately clinical utility. Here we report the discovery and synthesis of three structurally different series of novel 11beta-HSD1 inhibitors that inhibit human 11beta-HSD1 in the low micromolar range. Docking studies with 1-3 into the crystal structure of human 11beta-HSD1 reveal how the molecules may interact with the enzyme and cofactor and give further scope for structure based drug design in the optimisation of these series.

  18. Kinetic behaviour of succinate dehydrogenase of three fibre types in skeletal muscle. I. Effects of temperature and a competitive inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Y; Shono, M

    1984-11-01

    The kinetic behaviour of succinate dehydrogenase [EC 1.3.99.1] in three fibre types of rat gastrocnemius was examined by a quantitative histochemical method without disruption of the cellular structure. 2-(2-Benzothiazolyl)-3-(4-phthalhydrazidyl)-5-styryl-t etrazolium chloride (BPST) and phenazine methosulphate were used as electron acceptors. On measurement of the absorbance value at 530 nm of BPST formazan, produced by the succinate dehydrogenase reaction in sections, it was found that the staining intensity of succinate dehydrogenase was linearly proportional to both the incubation time and the thickness of the slice therefore, the initial velocity of the staining could be calculated. By Michaelis-Menten (1913) treatment of the dependence of the initial velocity on the substrate concentration in the absence and the presence of a competitive inhibitor, malonate, the Km and Vmax values for succinate and the Ki value for malonate were obtained. The Km and Ki values of the three fibre types were similar. The ration of the Vmax values of type A, B and C fibres was 1.0:2.0:3.3. The temperature dependence of the kinetic parameters was very similar in the three fibre types. These findings confirm that the differences in the staining intensity of the three fibre types reflect differences in the amounts, but not the properties, of succinate dehydrogenase.

  19. Discovery of BI 135585, an in vivo efficacious oxazinanone-based 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Linghang; Tice, Colin M; Xu, Zhenrong; Zhao, Wei; Cacatian, Salvacion; Ye, Yuan-Jie; Singh, Suresh B; Lindblom, Peter; McKeever, Brian M; Krosky, Paula M; Zhao, Yi; Lala, Deepak; Kruk, Barbara A; Meng, Shi; Howard, Lamont; Johnson, Judith A; Bukhtiyarov, Yuri; Panemangalore, Reshma; Guo, Joan; Guo, Rong; Himmelsbach, Frank; Hamilton, Bradford; Schuler-Metz, Annette; Schauerte, Heike; Gregg, Richard; McGeehan, Gerard M; Leftheris, Katerina; Claremon, David A

    2017-07-15

    A potent, in vivo efficacious 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β HSD1) inhibitor (11j) has been identified. Compound 11j inhibited 11β HSD1 activity in human adipocytes with an IC50 of 4.3nM and in primary human adipose tissue with an IC80 of 53nM. Oral administration of 11j to cynomolgus monkey inhibited 11β HSD1 activity in adipose tissue. Compound 11j exhibited >1000× selectivity over other hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, displays desirable pharmacodynamic properties and entered human clinical trials in 2011. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The crystal structure of SDR-type pyridoxal 4-dehydrogenase of Mesorhizobium loti.

    PubMed

    Chu, Huy Nhat; Kobayashi, Jun; Mikami, Bunzo; Yagi, Toshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Pyridoxal 4-dehydrogenase catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of pyridoxal to 4-pyridoxolactone and is involved in degradation pathway I of pyridoxine, a vitamin B(6) compound. Its crystal structure was elucidated for the first time. Molecular replacement with (S)-1-phenylthanol dehydrogenase (PDB code 2EW8) was adopted to determine the tertiary structure of the NAD(+)-bound enzyme.

  1. Gene expression of type 2 17 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in scalp hairs of hirsute women.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Isabel O; Lhullier, Cintia; Brum, Ilma S; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2003-09-01

    Androgens are the main hormonal regulators of human hair growth and they are related to clinical conditions such as hirsutism. The aim of this study was to analyze the gene expression of androgen receptor (AR) and type 2 17 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17 beta-HSD) in keratinocytes of plucked scalp hairs from hirsute patients and normal subjects. We studied 58 women with hirsutism (31 with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), 27 with idiopathic hirsutism (IH)); 15 control women; and 10 control men. Hirsutism was assessed by a modified Ferriman-Gallwey method. Hormonal status was assessed between days 2 and 10 of the menstrual cycle or on any day when the patients were amenorrheic. AR and type 2 17 beta-HSD mRNA levels were estimated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). AR expression was similar in all groups. Type 2 17 beta-HSD gene expression in untreated hirsute patients was lower (2.1+/-0.10) than in normal women (3.1+/-0.17), and similar to men (1.8+/-0.22). Comparing hirsute patients, type 2 17 beta-HSD expression was higher in treated PCOS (3.0+/-0.34 versus 2.2+/-0.13) and IH patients (2.5+/-0.19 versus 2.0+/-0.15); hirsutism score was lower (P=0.003, PCOS; P=0.003, IH); and SHBG levels were higher (P=0.001, PCOS; P=0.024, IH) in treated patients. The free androgen index was lower in treated women (P=0.024 for the IH group). In conclusion, the lower expression of type 2 17 beta-HSD mRNA in scalp hairs of untreated hirsute patients suggests androgen metabolism disturbances with predominance of more potent androgens, as occurs in men. The enzyme's higher gene expression in treated hirsute patients could be an indirect evidence of restored enzyme activity and intracellular androgen metabolism.

  2. A mutational analysis of the active site of human type II inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Futer, Olga; Sintchak, Michael D; Caron, Paul R; Nimmesgern, Elmar; DeCenzo, Maureen T; Livingston, David J; Raybuck, Scott A

    2002-01-31

    The oxidation of IMP to XMP is the rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine ribonucleotides. This NAD-dependent reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Based upon the recent structural determination of IMPDH complexed to oxidized IMP (XMP*) and the potent uncompetitive inhibitor mycophenolic acid (MPA), we have selected active site residues and prepared mutants of human type II IMPDH. The catalytic parameters of these mutants were determined. Mutations G326A, D364A, and the active site nucleophile C331A all abolish enzyme activity to less than 0.1% of wild type. These residues line the IMP binding pocket and are necessary for correct positioning of the substrate, Asp364 serving to anchor the ribose ring of the nucleotide. In the MPA/NAD binding site, significant loss of activity was seen by mutation of any residue of the triad Arg322, Asn303, Asp274 which form a hydrogen bonding network lining one side of this pocket. From a model of NAD bound to the active site consistent with the mutational data, we propose that these resides are important in binding the ribose ring of the nicotinamide substrate. Additionally, mutations in the pair Thr333, Gln441, which lies close to the xanthine ring, cause a significant drop in the catalytic activity of IMPDH. It is proposed that these residues serve to deliver the catalytic water molecule required for hydrolysis of the cysteine-bound XMP* intermediate formed after oxidation by NAD.

  3. Hypertension in mice lacking 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2

    PubMed Central

    Kotelevtsev, Yuri; Brown, Roger W.; Fleming, Stewart; Kenyon, Christopher; Edwards, Christopher R.W.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Mullins, John J.

    1999-01-01

    Deficiency of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) in humans leads to the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess (SAME), in which cortisol illicitly occupies mineralocorticoid receptors, causing sodium retention, hypokalemia, and hypertension. However, the disorder is usually incompletely corrected by suppression of cortisol, suggesting additional and irreversible changes, perhaps in the kidney. To examine this further, we produced mice with targeted disruption of the 11β-HSD2 gene. Homozygous mutant mice (11β-HSD2–/–) appear normal at birth, but ∼50% show motor weakness and die within 48 hours. Both male and female survivors are fertile but exhibit hypokalemia, hypotonic polyuria, and apparent mineralocorticoid activity of corticosterone. Young adult 11β-HSD2–/– mice are markedly hypertensive, with a mean arterial blood pressure of 146 ± 2 mmHg, compared with 121 ± 2 mmHg in wild-type controls and 114 ± 4 mmHg in heterozygotes. The epithelium of the distal tubule of the nephron shows striking hypertrophy and hyperplasia. These histological changes do not readily reverse with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism in adulthood. Thus, 11β-HSD2–/– mice demonstrate the major features of SAME, providing a unique rodent model to study the molecular mechanisms of kidney resetting leading to hypertension. J. Clin. Invest. 103:683–689 (1999) PMID:10074485

  4. Ginsenoside Rb1 increases insulin sensitivity through suppressing 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bing; Ding, Li; Zhang, Haoqiang; Chu, Yafen; Chang, Zhaohui; Yu, Yali; Guo, Dandan; Zhang, Shuping; Liu, Xuezheng

    2017-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) is a major component of ginseng, which has been shown to ameliorate hyperglycemia in rodents and in humans with undetermined mechanisms. Here, we analyzed the molecular mechanisms by which GRb1 reduces the insulin resistance in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced mouse model for type 2 diabetes (T2D). HFD was applied for 4 weeks to induce T2D in mice, after which GRb1 was administrated and the effects on the fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were analyzed. We found that HFD increased fasting blood glucose, glucose tolerance and reduced insulin sensitivity, which were all ameliorated by GRb1. GRb1 seemed to reduce the levels of 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I (11β-HSD1) in liver and adipose tissue, to exert its anti-diabetes effects. Overexpression of 11β-HSD1 completely abolished the effects of GRb1 on HFD-induced increases in fasting blood glucose and glucose tolerance, and decreases in insulin sensitivity. Together, our data suggest that GRb1 may increase insulin sensitivity through suppressing 11β-HSD1 in treatment of T2D. PMID:28386332

  5. Cloning, characterization, and regulation of the human type II IMP dehydrogenase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Glesne, D.A.; Huberman, E. |

    1997-01-01

    Human type II inosine 5{prime}-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH, EC 1.1.1.205) is the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo guanine nucleotide biosynthesis. Regulated IMPDH activity is associated with cellular proliferation, transformation, and differentiation. The authors cloned and sequenced the entire gene for type II IMPDH and here provide details regarding the organization of the gene and the characterization of its promoter. The gene spans approximately 5 kb and is disrupted by 12 introns. The transcriptional start sites were determined by S1 nuclease mapping to be somewhat heterogeneous but predominated at 102 and 85 nucleotides from the translational initiation codon. Through the use of heterologous gene constructs and transient transfection assays, a minimal promoter from {minus}206 to {minus}85 was defined. This promoter is TATA-less and contains several transcription factor motifs including four potential Sp 1 binding sites. The minimal promoter is GC-rich (69%) and resembles a CpG island. Through the use of gel mobility shift assays, nuclear proteins were shown to specifically interact with this minimal promoter. Stable transfectants were used to demonstrate that the down-regulation of IMPDH gene expression in response to reduced cellular proliferation occurs by a transcriptional mechanism.

  6. XoxF-Type Methanol Dehydrogenase from the Anaerobic Methanotroph “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera”

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming L.; Wessels, Hans J. C. T.; Pol, Arjan; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.; Jetten, Mike S. M.; van Niftrik, Laura

    2014-01-01

    “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera” is a newly discovered anaerobic methanotroph that, surprisingly, oxidizes methane through an aerobic methane oxidation pathway. The second step in this aerobic pathway is the oxidation of methanol. In Gram-negative bacteria, the reaction is catalyzed by pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (MDH). The genome of “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” putatively encodes three different MDHs that are localized in one large gene cluster: one so-called MxaFI-type MDH and two XoxF-type MDHs (XoxF1 and XoxF2). MxaFI MDHs represent the canonical enzymes, which are composed of two PQQ-containing large (α) subunits (MxaF) and two small (β) subunits (MxaI). XoxF MDHs are novel, ecologically widespread, but poorly investigated types of MDHs that can be phylogenetically divided into at least five different clades. The XoxF MDHs described thus far are homodimeric proteins containing a large subunit only. Here, we purified a heterotetrameric MDH from “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” that consisted of two XoxF and two MxaI subunits. The enzyme was localized in the periplasm of “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” cells and catalyzed methanol oxidation with appreciable specific activity and affinity (Vmax of 10 μmol min−1 mg−1 protein, Km of 17 μM). PQQ was present as the prosthetic group, which has to be taken up from the environment since the known gene inventory required for the synthesis of this cofactor is lacking. The MDH from “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” is the first representative of type 1 XoxF proteins to be described. PMID:25527536

  7. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 deficiency in bone marrow-derived cells reduces atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kipari, Tiina; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Iqbal, Javaid; Man, Tak-Yung; Miller, Eileen; Coutinho, Agnes E; Zhang, Zhenguang; Sullivan, Katie M; Mitic, Tijana; Livingstone, Dawn E W; Schrecker, Christopher; Samuel, Kay; White, Christopher I; Bouhlel, M Amine; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia; Staels, Bart; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R; Savill, John S; Chapman, Karen E; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2013-04-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 (11β-HSD1) converts inert cortisone into active cortisol, amplifying intracellular glucocorticoid action. 11β-HSD1 deficiency improves cardiovascular risk factors in obesity but exacerbates acute inflammation. To determine the effects of 11β-HSD1 deficiency on atherosclerosis and its inflammation, atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO) mice were treated with a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor or crossed with 11β-HSD1-KO mice to generate double knockouts (DKOs) and challenged with an atherogenic Western diet. 11β-HSD1 inhibition or deficiency attenuated atherosclerosis (74-76%) without deleterious effects on plaque structure. This occurred without affecting plasma lipids or glucose, suggesting independence from classical metabolic risk factors. KO plaques were not more inflamed and indeed had 36% less T-cell infiltration, associated with 38% reduced circulating monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and 36% lower lesional vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Bone marrow (BM) cells are key to the atheroprotection, since transplantation of DKO BM to irradiated ApoE-KO mice reduced atherosclerosis by 51%. 11β-HSD1-null macrophages show 76% enhanced cholesterol ester export. Thus, 11β-HSD1 deficiency reduces atherosclerosis without exaggerated lesional inflammation independent of metabolic risk factors. Selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitors promise novel antiatherosclerosis effects over and above their benefits for metabolic risk factors via effects on BM cells, plausibly macrophages.

  8. Discovery of novel inhibitors of human 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiangdong; Vicker, Nigel; Trusselle, Melanie; Halem, Heather; Culler, Michael D; Potter, Barry V L

    2009-03-25

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSDs) are key enzymes regulating the pre-receptor metabolism of glucocorticoid hormones, which play essential roles in various vital physiological processes. The modulation of 11beta-HSD type 1 activity with selective inhibitors has beneficial effects on various conditions including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity. Therefore, inhibition of tissue-specific glucocorticoid action by regulating 11beta-HSD1 constitutes a promising treatment for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Here we report the discovery of a series of novel adamantyl carboxamides as selective inhibitors of human 11beta-HSD1 in HEK-293 cells transfected with the HSD11B1 gene. Compounds 9 and 14 show inhibitory activity against 11beta-HSD1 with IC(50) values in 100nM range. Docking studies with the potent compound 8 into the crystal structure of human 11beta-HSD1 (1XU9) reveals how the molecule may interact with the enzyme and cofactor.

  9. The design of novel 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vicker, Nigel; Sharland, Christopher M; Heaton, Wesley B; Gonzalez, Ana M Ramos; Bailey, Helen V; Smith, Andrew; Springall, Jeremy S; Day, Joanna M; Tutill, Helena J; Reed, Michael J; Purohit, Atul; Potter, Barry V L

    2009-03-25

    17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17beta-HSD3) is expressed at high levels in the testes and seminal vesicles but has also been shown to be present in prostate tissue, suggesting its potential involvement in both gonadal and non-gonadal testosterone biosynthesis. The role of 17beta-HSD3 in testosterone biosynthesis makes this enzyme an attractive molecular target for small molecule inhibitors for the treatment of prostate cancer. Here we report the design of selective inhibitors of 17beta-HSD3 as potential anti-cancer agents. Due to 17beta-HSD3 being a membrane-bound protein a crystal structure is not yet available. A homology model of 17beta-HSD3 has been built to aid structure-based drug design. This model has been used with docking studies to identify a series of lead compounds that may give an insight as to how inhibitors interact with the active site. Compound 1 was identified as a potent selective inhibitor of 17beta-HSD3 with an IC(50)=700nM resulting in the discovery of a novel lead series for further optimisation. Using our homology model as a tool for inhibitor design compound 5 was discovered as a novel potent and selective inhibitor of 17beta-HSD3 with an IC(50) approximately 200nM.

  10. Changing glucocorticoid action: 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in acute and chronic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Karen E; Coutinho, Agnes E; Zhang, Zhenguang; Kipari, Tiina; Savill, John S; Seckl, Jonathan R

    2013-09-01

    Since the discovery of cortisone in the 1940s and its early success in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoids have remained the mainstay of anti-inflammatory therapies. However, cortisone itself is intrinsically inert. To be effective, it requires conversion to cortisol, the active glucocorticoid, by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1). Despite the identification of 11β-HSD in liver in 1953 (which we now know to be 11β-HSD1), its physiological role has been little explored until recently. Over the past decade, however, it has become apparent that 11β-HSD1 plays an important role in shaping endogenous glucocorticoid action. Acute inflammation is more severe with 11β-HSD1-deficiency or inhibition, yet in some inflammatory settings such as obesity or diabetes, 11β-HSD1-deficiency/inhibition is beneficial, reducing inflammation. Current evidence suggests both beneficial and detrimental effects may result from 11β-HSD1 inhibition in chronic inflammatory disease. Here we review recent evidence pertaining to the role of 11β-HSD1 in inflammation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'CSR 2013'.

  11. Changing glucocorticoid action: 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in acute and chronic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Karen E.; Coutinho, Agnes E.; Zhang, Zhenguang; Kipari, Tiina; Savill, John S.; Seckl, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of cortisone in the 1940s and its early success in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoids have remained the mainstay of anti-inflammatory therapies. However, cortisone itself is intrinsically inert. To be effective, it requires conversion to cortisol, the active glucocorticoid, by the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1). Despite the identification of 11β-HSD in liver in 1953 (which we now know to be 11β-HSD1), its physiological role has been little explored until recently. Over the past decade, however, it has become apparent that 11β-HSD1 plays an important role in shaping endogenous glucocorticoid action. Acute inflammation is more severe with 11β-HSD1-deficiency or inhibition, yet in some inflammatory settings such as obesity or diabetes, 11β-HSD1-deficiency/inhibition is beneficial, reducing inflammation. Current evidence suggests both beneficial and detrimental effects may result from 11β-HSD1 inhibition in chronic inflammatory disease. Here we review recent evidence pertaining to the role of 11β-HSD1 in inflammation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled ‘CSR 2013’. PMID:23435016

  12. Diversity and Evolutionary Analysis of Iron-Containing (Type-III) Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Gaona-López, Carlos; Julián-Sánchez, Adriana; Riveros-Rosas, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity is widely distributed in the three domains of life. Currently, there are three non-homologous NAD(P)+-dependent ADH families reported: Type I ADH comprises Zn-dependent ADHs; type II ADH comprises short-chain ADHs described first in Drosophila; and, type III ADH comprises iron-containing ADHs (FeADHs). These three families arose independently throughout evolution and possess different structures and mechanisms of reaction. While types I and II ADHs have been extensively studied, analyses about the evolution and diversity of (type III) FeADHs have not been published yet. Therefore in this work, a phylogenetic analysis of FeADHs was performed to get insights into the evolution of this protein family, as well as explore the diversity of FeADHs in eukaryotes. Results showed that FeADHs from eukaryotes are distributed in thirteen protein subfamilies, eight of them possessing protein sequences distributed in the three domains of life. Interestingly, none of these protein subfamilies possess protein sequences found simultaneously in animals, plants and fungi. Many FeADHs are activated by or contain Fe2+, but many others bind to a variety of metals, or even lack of metal cofactor. Animal FeADHs are found in just one protein subfamily, the hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase (HOT) subfamily, which includes protein sequences widely distributed in fungi, but not in plants), and in several taxa from lower eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea. Fungi FeADHs are found mainly in two subfamilies: HOT and maleylacetate reductase (MAR), but some can be found also in other three different protein subfamilies. Plant FeADHs are found only in chlorophyta but not in higher plants, and are distributed in three different protein subfamilies. FeADHs are a diverse and ancient protein family that shares a common 3D scaffold with a patchy distribution in eukaryotes. The majority of sequenced FeADHs from eukaryotes are distributed in just two subfamilies, HOT

  13. Diversity and Evolutionary Analysis of Iron-Containing (Type-III) Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Gaona-López, Carlos; Julián-Sánchez, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity is widely distributed in the three domains of life. Currently, there are three non-homologous NAD(P)+-dependent ADH families reported: Type I ADH comprises Zn-dependent ADHs; type II ADH comprises short-chain ADHs described first in Drosophila; and, type III ADH comprises iron-containing ADHs (FeADHs). These three families arose independently throughout evolution and possess different structures and mechanisms of reaction. While types I and II ADHs have been extensively studied, analyses about the evolution and diversity of (type III) FeADHs have not been published yet. Therefore in this work, a phylogenetic analysis of FeADHs was performed to get insights into the evolution of this protein family, as well as explore the diversity of FeADHs in eukaryotes. Principal Findings Results showed that FeADHs from eukaryotes are distributed in thirteen protein subfamilies, eight of them possessing protein sequences distributed in the three domains of life. Interestingly, none of these protein subfamilies possess protein sequences found simultaneously in animals, plants and fungi. Many FeADHs are activated by or contain Fe2+, but many others bind to a variety of metals, or even lack of metal cofactor. Animal FeADHs are found in just one protein subfamily, the hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase (HOT) subfamily, which includes protein sequences widely distributed in fungi, but not in plants), and in several taxa from lower eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea. Fungi FeADHs are found mainly in two subfamilies: HOT and maleylacetate reductase (MAR), but some can be found also in other three different protein subfamilies. Plant FeADHs are found only in chlorophyta but not in higher plants, and are distributed in three different protein subfamilies. Conclusions/Significance FeADHs are a diverse and ancient protein family that shares a common 3D scaffold with a patchy distribution in eukaryotes. The majority of sequenced FeADHs from

  14. Acetoin production by wild-type strains and a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Hillman, J D; Andrews, S W; Dzuback, A L

    1987-06-01

    Eleven different laboratory strains of Streptococcus mutans representing the various serogroups were found to produce an average of 6.0 +/- 4.8 mM acetoin when grown in glucose-containing medium under aerobic conditions. None of the strains produced detectable acetoin when grown anaerobically. A lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant produced acetoin both aerobically and anaerobically and in substantially greater amounts than the wild-type strains did. Substitution of mannitol for glucose resulted in decreased acetoin production by wild-type strains and the lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant, indicating a role for NADH2 in the regulation of the acetoin pathway. Pyruvate incorporated into the growth medium of a wild-type strain caused acetoin to be produced anaerobically and stimulated acetoin production aerobically. Cell extracts of a wild-type S. mutans strain were capable of producing acetoin from pyruvate and were (partly) dependent on thiamine PPi. Extracts prepared from aerobically grown cells had approximately twice the acetoin-producing activity as did extracts prepared from anaerobically grown cells. The results indicate that acetoin production by S. mutans may represent an auxiliary reaction of pyruvate dehydrogenase in this organism.

  15. Acetoin production by wild-type strains and a lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant of Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, J D; Andrews, S W; Dzuback, A L

    1987-01-01

    Eleven different laboratory strains of Streptococcus mutans representing the various serogroups were found to produce an average of 6.0 +/- 4.8 mM acetoin when grown in glucose-containing medium under aerobic conditions. None of the strains produced detectable acetoin when grown anaerobically. A lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant produced acetoin both aerobically and anaerobically and in substantially greater amounts than the wild-type strains did. Substitution of mannitol for glucose resulted in decreased acetoin production by wild-type strains and the lactate dehydrogenase-deficient mutant, indicating a role for NADH2 in the regulation of the acetoin pathway. Pyruvate incorporated into the growth medium of a wild-type strain caused acetoin to be produced anaerobically and stimulated acetoin production aerobically. Cell extracts of a wild-type S. mutans strain were capable of producing acetoin from pyruvate and were (partly) dependent on thiamine PPi. Extracts prepared from aerobically grown cells had approximately twice the acetoin-producing activity as did extracts prepared from anaerobically grown cells. The results indicate that acetoin production by S. mutans may represent an auxiliary reaction of pyruvate dehydrogenase in this organism. PMID:3570471

  16. Type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases are targeted to mitochondria and chloroplasts or peroxisomes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Carrie, Chris; Murcha, Monika W; Kuehn, Kristina; Duncan, Owen; Barthet, Michelle; Smith, Penelope M; Eubel, Holger; Meyer, Etienne; Day, David A; Millar, A Harvey; Whelan, James

    2008-09-03

    We found that four type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases (ND) in Arabidopsis are targeted to two locations in the cell; NDC1 was targeted to mitochondria and chloroplasts, while NDA1, NDA2 and NDB1 were targeted to mitochondria and peroxisomes. Targeting of NDC1 to chloroplasts as well as mitochondria was shown using in vitro and in vivo uptake assays and dual targeting of NDC1 to plastids relies on regions in the mature part of the protein. Accumulation of NDA type dehydrogenases to peroxisomes and mitochondria was confirmed using Western blot analysis on highly purified organelle fractions. Targeting of ND proteins to mitochondria and peroxisomes is achieved by two separate signals, a C-terminal signal for peroxisomes and an N-terminal signal for mitochondria.

  17. Inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 ameliorates obesity-related insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Shao, Shiying; Zhang, Xiaojie; Zhang, Muxun

    2016-09-09

    Excess 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) may be implicated in the development of obesity related metabolic disorders. The present study measured the expression level of 11β-HSD1 in visceral adipose tissues from 23 patients undergoing abdominal operation. Correlation of 11β-HSD1 expression with BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), HOMA-IR, and serum lipids was evaluated by spearman correlation analysis. High-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats were orally dosed with BVT.2733 for 4 weeks. Weight, plasma insulin, and lipids were detected at the end of the treatment. The effects of 11β-HSD1 inhibition on the key insulin-signaling cascade and adipocytokines were measured by western blot and ELISA respectively. 11β-HSD1 was increased in patients with central obesity, the expression level of which was closely related with WHR (r = 0.5851), BMI (r = 0.4952), and HOMA-IR (r = 0.4637). Obesity related insulin resistance in high-fat DIO rats, as reflected by a marked decrease in IRS-1, IRS-2, GLUT4, and PI3K, could be attenuated by 11β-HSD1 inhibition. Furthermore, the down-regulation of 11β-HSD1 could correct the disordered profiles of adipocytokines including adiponectin, IL-6, and TNF-α. These findings indicated that 11β-HSD1 inhibition can give a potential benefit in reducing obesity and lowering insulin resistance by modulating the insulin-signaling pathway and adipocytokine production. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Enhanced 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in stress adaptation in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Quinkler, M; Troeger, H; Eigendorff, E; Maser-Gluth, C; Stiglic, A; Oelkers, W; Bähr, V; Diederich, S

    2003-02-01

    The 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSDs) convert cortisol to its inactive metabolite cortisone and vice versa. 11beta-HSD type 1 (11beta-HSD-1) functions as a reductase in vivo, regulating intracellular cortisol levels and its access to the glucocorticoid receptor. In contrast, 11beta-HSD-2 only mediates oxidation of natural glucocorticoids, and protects the mineralocorticoid receptor from high cortisol concentrations. We investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of ACTH on the recently characterized 11beta-HSDs in guinea pig liver and kidney. Tissue slices of untreated guinea pigs were incubated with (3)H-labelled cortisol or cortisone and ACTH(1-24) (10(-10) and 10(-9) mol/l). The 11beta-HSD activities in liver and kidney slices were not influenced by in vitro incubation with ACTH(1-24). In addition, guinea pigs were treated with ACTH(1-24) or saline injections s.c. for 3 days. Liver and kidney tissue slices of these animals were incubated with (3)H-labelled cortisol or cortisone. In vivo ACTH treatment significantly increased reductase and decreased oxidase activity in liver and kidney. Furthermore, 11beta-HSD-1 activity assessed by measurement of the urinary ratio of (tetrahydrocortisol (THF)+5alphaTHF)/(tetrahydrocortisone) was significantly increased after ACTH treatment compared with the control group. Plasma levels of cortisol, cortisone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione increased significantly following in vivo ACTH treatment. The enhanced reductase activity of the hepatic and renal 11beta-HSD-1 is apparently caused by cortisol or other ACTH-dependent steroids rather than by ACTH itself. This may be an important fine regulation of the glucocorticoid tonus for stress adaptation in every organ, e.g. enhanced gluconeogenesis in liver.

  19. Rosiglitazone decreases 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Mai, Knut; Andres, Janin; Bobbert, Thomas; Maser-Gluth, Christiane; Möhlig, Matthias; Bähr, Volker; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Spranger, Joachim; Diederich, Sven

    2007-09-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonist rosiglitazone increases insulin sensitivity, which, in animal models, is comparable to the effect of a reduction in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) activity. We therefore investigated whether rosiglitazone-induced insulin sensitivity is associated with changes in 11beta-HSD1 activity in different tissues. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp were performed in seven male volunteers [age 59.3 +/- 3.0 years, body mass index (BMI) 29.3 +/- 4.1 kg/m(2)] with impaired glucose tolerance before and after 8 weeks of rosiglitazone treatment. To assess hepatic 11beta-HSD1 activity, serum cortisol levels were measured after oral administration of cortisone acetate. 11beta-HSD1 activity and mRNA expression were assessed in abdominal subcutaneous fat biopsies. Total-body 11beta-HSD activities were estimated by calculating the urinary ratios of glucocorticoid metabolites. As expected, rosiglitazone improved insulin resistance and postprandial hyperglycaemia. In parallel, 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression [100 +/- 0% (reference) vs. 68.5 +/- 9.3%, P < 0.01] and activity [0.18 +/- 0.02 vs. 0.13 +/- 0.02 pmol/min/mg, P < 0.05] decreased in abdominal subcutaneous fat, while an increase in hepatic 11beta-HSD1 activity was detected [the area under the curve (AUC) for the cortisol/cortisone ratio was 1319 +/- 76 vs. 955 +/- 59; P < 0.05]. No changes in BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and whole-body 11beta-HSD1 activity were found. Part of the beneficial effects of rosiglitazone may be mediated by a reduction in the 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression and activity in subcutaneous abdominal fat.

  20. Cortisone-reductase deficiency associated with heterozygous mutations in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Alexander J; Walker, Elizabeth A; Lavery, Gareth G; Bujalska, Iwona J; Hughes, Beverly; Arlt, Wiebke; Stewart, Paul M; Ride, Jonathan P

    2011-03-08

    In peripheral target tissues, levels of active glucocorticoid hormones are controlled by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), a dimeric enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of cortisone to cortisol within the endoplasmic reticulum. Loss of this activity results in a disorder termed cortisone reductase deficiency (CRD), typified by increased cortisol clearance and androgen excess. To date, only mutations in H6PD, which encodes an enzyme supplying cofactor for the reaction, have been identified as the cause of disease. Here we examined the HSD11B1 gene in two cases presenting with biochemical features indicative of a milder form of CRD in whom the H6PD gene was normal. Novel heterozygous mutations (R137C or K187N) were found in the coding sequence of HSD11B1. The R137C mutation disrupts salt bridges at the subunit interface of the 11β-HSD1 dimer, whereas K187N affects a key active site residue. On expression of the mutants in bacterial and mammalian cells, activity was either abolished (K187N) or greatly reduced (R137C). Expression of either mutant in a bacterial system greatly reduced the yield of soluble protein, suggesting that both mutations interfere with subunit folding or dimer assembly. Simultaneous expression of mutant and WT 11β-HSD1 in bacterial or mammalian cells, to simulate the heterozygous condition, indicated a marked suppressive effect of the mutants on both the yield and activity of 11β-HSD1 dimers. Thus, these heterozygous mutations in the HSD11B1 gene have a dominant negative effect on the formation of functional dimers and explain the genetic cause of CRD in these patients.

  1. Steroid hormones related to 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in treated obesity.

    PubMed

    Máčová, L; Sosvorová, L; Vítků, J; Bičíková, M; Hill, M; Zamrazilová, H; Sedláčková, B; Stárka, L

    2015-01-01

    The local concentration of glucocorticoids is intensively regulated by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD 1). Human 11beta-HSD 1 also reversibly catalyzes the inter-conversion of 7alpha-hydroxy- and 7beta-hydroxy-dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) into 7-oxo-DHEA. The cohort of 282 obese adolescents, 154 girls (median age 15.31 years, range 14.17-16.68 years) and 128 boys (median age 14.95 years, range 13.87-16.16 years), BMI (Body Mass Index) >90th percentile was examined. In samples collected before and after one month of reductive diet therapy, circulating levels of steroids were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and radioimmunoassay methods. The model of the treatment efficacy prediction was calculated. A significant reduction in circulating levels of cortisone, E2 and increased levels of 7beta-hydroxy-DHEA after the reductive treatment was observed. Levels of cortisol, DHEA, DHT sustained without any significant change. The predictive Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures (OPLS) model explained 20.1 % of variability of BMI, z-score change by the basal levels of 7alpha-hydroxy-DHEA, DHEA, cortisol and E2 as the strongest predictors. Reduced levels of circulating cortisone and reduced ratios of oxygenated/reduced metabolites reflect increased reductase activity of 11beta-HSD 1 with reduced BMI, z-score. We hypothesize whether these changes can be attributed to the altered activity of 11beta-HSD 1 in the liver.

  2. A urine-concentrating defect in 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 null mice

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Louise C.; Livingstone, Dawn E.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Jansen, Maurits A.; Dear, James W.; Mullins, John J.

    2012-01-01

    In aldosterone target tissues, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2) is coexpressed with mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and protects the receptor from activation by glucocorticoids. Null mutations in the encoding gene, HSD11B2, cause apparent mineralocorticoid excess, in which hypertension is thought to reflect volume expansion secondary to sodium retention. Hsd11b2−/− mice are indeed hypertensive, but impaired natriuretic capacity is associated with significant volume contraction, suggestive of a urine concentrating defect. Water turnover and the urine concentrating response to a 24-h water deprivation challenge were therefore assessed in Hsd11b2−/− mice and controls. Hsd11b2−/− mice have a severe and progressive polyuric/polydipsic phenotype. In younger mice (∼2 mo of age), polyuria was associated with decreased abundance of aqp2 and aqp3 mRNA. The expression of other genes involved in water transport (aqp4, slc14a2, and slc12a2) was not changed. The kidney was structurally normal, and the concentrating response to water deprivation was intact. In older Hsd11b2−/− mice (>6 mo), polyuria was associated with a severe atrophy of the renal medulla and downregulation of aqp2, aqp3, aqp4, slc14a2, and slc12a2. The concentrating response to water deprivation was impaired, and the natriuretic effect of the loop diuretic bumetanide was lost. In older Hsd11b2−/− mice, the V2 receptor agonist desmopressin did not restore full urine concentrating capacity. We find that Hsd11b2−/− mice develop nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Gross changes to renal structure are observed, but these were probably secondary to sustained polyuria, rather than of developmental origin. PMID:22622456

  3. A distinct type of alcohol dehydrogenase, adh4+, complements ethanol fermentation in an adh1-deficient strain of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masao; Tohda, Hideki; Kumagai, Hiromichi; Giga-Hama, Yuko

    2004-03-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, only one alcohol dehydrogenase gene, adh1(+), has been identified. To elucidate the influence of adh1(+) on ethanol fermentation, we constructed the adh1 null strain (delta adh1). The delta adh1 cells still produced ethanol and grew fermentatively as the wild-type cells. Both DNA microarray and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that this ethanol production is caused by the enhanced expression of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH4-like gene product (SPAC5H10.06C named adh4(+)). Since the strain lacking both adh1 and adh4 genes (delta adh1 delta adh4) showed non-fermentative retarded growth, only these two ADHs produce ethanol for fermentative growth. This is the first observation that a S. cerevisiae ADH4-like alcohol dehydrogenase functions in yeast ethanol fermentation.

  4. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1, But Not Type 2, Deficiency Worsens Acute Inflammation and Experimental Arthritis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Agnes E.; Gray, Mohini; Brownstein, David G.; Salter, Donald M.; Sawatzky, Deborah A.; Clay, Spike; Gilmour, James S.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Savill, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoids profoundly influence immune responses, and synthetic glucocorticoids are widely used clinically for their potent antiinflammatory effects. Endogenous glucocorticoid action is modulated by the two isozymes of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD). In vivo, 11β-HSD1 catalyzes the reduction of inactive cortisone or 11-dehydrocorticosterone into active cortisol or corticosterone, respectively, thereby increasing intracellular glucocorticoid levels. 11β-HSD2 catalyzes the reverse reaction, inactivating intracellular glucocorticoids. Both enzymes have been postulated to modulate inflammatory responses. In the K/BxN serum transfer model of arthritis, 11β-HSD1-deficient mice showed earlier onset and slower resolution of inflammation than wild-type controls, with greater exostoses in periarticular bone and, uniquely, ganglion cysts, consistent with greater inflammation. In contrast, K/BxN serum arthritis was unaffected by 11β-HSD2 deficiency. In a distinct model of inflammation, thioglycollate-induced sterile peritonitis, 11β-HSD1-deficient mice had more inflammatory cells in the peritoneum, but again 11β-HSD2-deficient mice did not differ from controls. Additionally, compared with control mice, 11β-HSD1-deficient mice showed greater numbers of inflammatory cells in pleural lavages in carrageenan-induced pleurisy with lung pathology consistent with slower resolution. These data suggest that 11β-HSD1 limits acute inflammation. In contrast, 11β-HSD2 plays no role in acute inflammatory responses in mice. Regulation of local 11β-HSD1 expression and/or delivery of substrate may afford a novel approach for antiinflammatory therapy. PMID:22067318

  5. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase negatively regulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Host proteins are incorporated inside human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions during assembly and can either positively or negatively regulate HIV-1 infection. Although the identification efficiency of host proteins is improved by mass spectrometry, how those host proteins affect HIV-1 replication has not yet been fully clarified. Results In this study, we show that virion-associated glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) does not allosterically inactivate HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) but decreases the efficiency of reverse transcription reactions by decreasing the packaging efficiency of lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) and tRNALys3 into HIV-1 virions. Two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis demonstrated that some isozymes of GAPDH with different isoelectric points were expressed in HIV-1-producing CEM/LAV-1 cells, and a proportion of GAPDH was selectively incorporated into the virions. Suppression of GAPDH expression by RNA interference in CEM/LAV-1 cells resulted in decreased GAPDH packaging inside the virions, and the GAPDH-packaging-defective virus maintained at least control levels of viral production but increased the infectivity. Quantitative analysis of reverse transcription products indicated that the levels of early cDNA products of the GAPDH-packaging-defective virus were higher than those of the control virus owing to the higher packaging efficiencies of LysRS and tRNALys3 into the virions rather than the GAPDH-dependent negative allosteric modulation for RT. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation assay using an anti-GAPDH antibody showed that GAPDH directly interacted with Pr55gag and p160gag-pol and the overexpression of LysRS in HIV-1-producing cells resulted in a decrease in the efficiency of GAPDH packaging in HIV particles. In contrast, the viruses produced from cells expressing a high level of GAPDH showed decreased infectivity in TZM-bl cells and reverse transcription efficiency in TZM-bl cells and peripheral blood

  6. SDR-type human hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases involved in steroid hormone activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoqiu; Lukacik, Petra; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Oppermann, Udo

    2007-02-01

    Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases catalyze the NAD(P)(H)-dependent oxidoreduction of hydroxyl and oxo-functions at distinct positions of steroid hormones. This reversible reaction constitutes an important pre-receptor control mechanism for nuclear receptor ligands of the androgen, estrogen and glucocorticoid classes, since the conversion "switches" between receptor ligands and their inactive metabolites. The major reversible activities found in mammals acting on steroid hormones comprise 3alpha-, 11beta- and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, and for each group several distinct isozymes have been described. The enzymes differ in their expression pattern, nucleotide cofactor preference, steroid substrate specificity and subcellular localization, and thus constitute a complex system ensuring cell-specific adaptation and regulation of steroid hormone levels. Several isoforms constitute promising drug targets, of particular importance in cancer, metabolic diseases, neurodegeneration and immunity.

  7. In vivo relationship between monoamine oxidase type B and alcohol dehydrogenase: effects of ethanol and phenylethylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Aliyu, S.U.; Upahi, L.

    1988-01-01

    The role of acute ethanol and phenylethylamine on the brain and platelet monoamine oxidase activities, hepatic cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, redox state and motor behavior were studied in male rats. Ethanol on its own decreased the redox couple ratio, as well as, alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the liver while at the same time it increased brain and platelet monoamine oxidase activity due to lower Km with no change in Vmax. The elevation in both brain and platelet MAO activity was associated with ethanol-induced hypomotility in the rats. Co-administration of phenylethylamine and ethanol to the animals, caused antagonism of the ethanol-induced effects described above. The effects of phenylethylamine alone, on the above mentioned biochemical and behavioral indices, are more complex. Phenylethylamine on its own, like ethanol, caused reduction of the cytosolic redox, ratio and elevation of monoamine oxidase activity in the brain and platelets. However, in contrast to ethanol, this monoamine produced hypermotility and activation of the hepatic cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the animals.

  8. Several homozygous mutations in the gene for 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in patients with apparent mineralocorticoid excess

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.C.; Harbison, M.D.; Hanauske-Abel, H.M.; Licholai, T.

    1995-10-01

    Four deleterious mutations are described in the gene for HSD11B2, which encodes the type 2 isoenzyme of 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11{beta}HSD2). In seven families with one or more members affected by apparent mineralocortiocoid excess, this disorder is shown to be the result of a deficiency in 11{beta}HSD2. Surprisingly, the patients are all homozygous for their mutation. This results from consanguinity in two families and possibly from endogamy or a founder effect in four of the other five families. The absence of compound heterozygotes remains to be investigated. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Crystal structures of type III{sub H} NAD-dependent D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase from two thermophiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.M.; Pampa, K.J.; Manjula, M.; Hemantha Kumar, G.; Kunishima, Naoki; Lokanath, N.K.

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Determined the crystal structures of PGDH from two thermophiles. • Monomer is composed of nucleotide binding domain and substrate binding domain. • Crystal structures of type III{sub H} PGDH. - Abstract: In the L-Serine biosynthesis, D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH) catalyzes the inter-conversion of D-3-phosphoglycerate to phosphohydroxypyruvate. PGDH belongs to 2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenases family. We have determined the crystal structures of PGDH from Sulfolobus tokodaii (StPGDH) and Pyrococcus horikoshii (PhPGDH) using X-ray diffraction to resolution of 1.77 Å and 1.95 Å, respectively. The PGDH protomer from both species exhibits identical structures, consisting of substrate binding domain and nucleotide binding domain. The residues and water molecules interacting with the NAD are identified. The catalytic triad residues Glu-His-Arg are highly conserved. The residues involved in the dimer interface and the structural features responsible for thermostability are evaluated. Overall, structures of PGDHs with two domains and histidine at the active site are categorized as type III{sub H} and such PGDHs structures having this type are reported for the first time.

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of SDR-type pyridoxal dehydrogenase from Mesorhizobium loti.

    PubMed

    Chu, Huy Nhat; Kobayashi, Jun; Yoshikane, Yu; Mikami, Bunzo; Yagi, Toshiharu

    2010-06-01

    Pyridoxal 4-dehydrogenase from Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant selenomethionine-substituted enzyme was purified and crystallized by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals grew in the presence of 0.45 mM NAD(+). The crystals diffracted to 2.9 A resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 86.20, b = 51.11, c = 91.73 A, beta = 89.36 degrees. The calculated V(M) values suggested that the asymmetric unit contained four molecules.

  11. Electronic absorption and EPR spectroscopy of copper alcohol dehydrogenase: pink, violet and green forms of a type 1 copper center analog.

    PubMed

    Maret, W; Kozłowski, H

    1987-04-30

    Blue and non-blue states of the copper center in copper-substituted alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1) can be attained by coenzyme binding and/or ligand binding to the copper ion. Copper alcohol dehydrogenase has been studied by electronic absorption, CD and EPR spectroscopy in the presence and absence of coenzyme. On the basis of previous work on blue (Type 1) copper proteins with a CuSS*N2 chromophore the assignment of charge transfer transitions in copper alcohol dehydrogenase is discussed. The latter contains a CuS2N(OH2) unit in the ligand-free protein and a CuS2N2 unit in the ternary complex with NAD+ and pyrazole. It is proposed that the energy of the charge transfer transitions can be used as a structural marker in combination with EPR data. A comparison is made between the spectroscopic properties of the ternary complex of copper alcohol dehydrogenase and the copper centers in stellacyanin and cytochrome-c oxidase (CuA) in order to test the validity of recent structural models of the type CuS2N2, i.e., a cupric ion coordinated to two thiolate ligands. Finally, a close resemblance between the electronic absorption spectra of copper alcohol dehydrogenase and those of other variants of Type 1 copper centers such as the 'unusual' copper center of nitrous oxide reductase is noted as an indication of similar coordination environments.

  12. Comparison of fluorescence properties of wild type and the W15F mutant of horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftink, Maurice R.; Wong, Cing-Yuen; Park, Doo-Hong; Shearer, Gretchen L.; Plapp, Bryce V.

    1994-08-01

    Horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase is a homodimeric protein; each subunit has two tryptophan residues that are in distinctly different microenvironments. Trp-15 is located on the surface and Trp-314 is buried at the intersubunit interface. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence and phosphorescence studies have enabled the assignment of parameters, e.g., quantum yield, emission maximum, decay times, to the individual tryptophan residues of the protein. We have prepared, by site-directed mutagenesis, the mutated W15F protein and have characterized its fluorescence properties. We show that the Trp-314 of the mutant experiences an apolar microenvironment, but that the fluorescence decay and exposure to solute quenchers of the mutant are somewhat different than was expected from the assignments for the wild type.

  13. Uniparental Isodisomy of Chromosome 1 Unmasking an Autosomal Recessive 3-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type II-Related Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Panzer, Karin; Ekhaguere, Osayame A.; Darbro, Benjamin; Cook, Jennifer; Shchelochkov, Oleg A.

    2017-01-01

    Steroid 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (3β-HSD2) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We report the genetic basis of 3β-HSD2 deficiency arising from uniparental isodisomy (UPD) of chromosome 1. We describe a term undervirilized male whose newborn screen indicated borderline CAH. The patient presented on the 7th day of life in salt-wasting adrenal crisis. Steroid hormone testing revealed a complex pattern suggestive of 3β-HSD deficiency. Chromosomal microarray and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis revealed complete UPD of chromosome 1. Sanger sequencing of HSD3B2 revealed a previously described missense mutation, c.424G>A (p.E142K) in homozygous state, thus confirming the diagnosis of 3β-HSD2 deficiency. We provide evidence of the existence of an uncommon mechanism for HSD3B2 gene-related CAH arising from UPD of chromosome 1. PMID:27796263

  14. Screening Baccharin Analogs as Selective Inhibitors Against Type 5 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase (AKR1C3)

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Tianzhu; Verma, Kshitij; Chen, Mo; Jin, Yi; Trippier, Paul C.; Penning, Trevor M.

    2015-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3), also known as type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, is a downstream steroidogenic enzyme and converts androgen precursors to the potent androgen receptor ligands: testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Studies have shown that AKR1C3 is involved in the development of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and that it is a rational drug target for the treatment of CRPC. Baccharin, a component of Brazilian propolis, has been observed to exhibit a high inhibitory potency and selectivity for AKR1C3 over other AKR1C isoforms and is a promising lead compound for developing more potent and selective inhibitors. Here, we report the screening of fifteen baccharin analogs as selective inhibitors against AKR1C3 versus AKR1C2 (type 3 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase). Among these analogs, the inhibitory activity and selectivity of thirteen compounds were evaluated for the first time. The substitution of the 4-dihydrocinnamoyloxy group of baccharin by an acetate group displayed nanomolar inhibitory potency (IC50: 440 nM) and a 102-fold selectivity over AKR1C2. By contrast, when the cinnamic acid group of baccharin was esterified, there was a dramatic decrease in potency and selectivity for AKR1C3 in comparison to baccharin. Low or sub- micromolar inhibition was observed when the 3-prenyl group of baccharin was removed, and the selectivity over AKR1C2 was low. Although unsubstituted baccharin was still the most potent (IC50: 100 nM) and selective inhibitor for AKR1C3, these data provide structure-activity relationships required for the optimization of new baccharin analogs. They suggest that the carboxylate group on cinnamic acid, the prenyl group, and either retention of 4′-dihydrocinnamoyloxy group or acetate substituent on cinnamic acid are important to maintain the high potency and selectivity for AKR1C3. PMID:25555457

  15. [Late-onset riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (glutaric aciduria type II)].

    PubMed

    Liang, Yan; Liu, Li; Wei, Hong; Luo, Xiao-ping; Wang, Mu-ti

    2003-12-01

    Glutaric aciduria type II, or multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited defect of mitochondrial energy metabolism. The authors report two cases of late-onset glutaric aciduria type II, and evaluate the procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of this rare disease. The clinical and biochemical characteristics of 2 patients with late-onset glutaric aciduria type II were documented. Case 1 presented with lipid storage myopathy for 3 years. Case 2 presented with intermittent episodes of non-ketotic hypoglycemia and muscle weakness for 9 years. The diagnosis of the 2 cases was confirmed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of urine samples. Riboflavin supplementation and a low-fat, low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet were initiated as soon as the diagnosis was made. Organic acid analysis on both untreated cases revealed massive glutaric acid with elevated concentrations of isovalerylglycine, isobutyrylglycine, ethylmalonic acid, adipic acid, suberic acid and other dicarboxylic acids. The clinical manifestations were improved remarkably after the administration of riboflavin and diet control. Consistent improvements of sera enzymes and urine organic acids were observed during the course of treatment. Patients with unexplained myopathy, metabolic acidosis or hypoglycemia should be carefully screened for inherited metabolic disorders. Riboflavin in conjunction with appropriate diet control is an effective therapeutic regime for patients with late-onset glutaric aciduria type II.

  16. Hypoglycemic drugs induce antioxidant aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and remain high in patients with glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Picazo, Alejandra; Jiménez-Osorio, Angélica S; Zúñiga-Mejía, Porfirio; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Monroy, Adriana; Rodríguez-Arellano, M Eunice; Barrera-Oviedo, Diana

    2017-04-05

    The antioxidant system results essential to control and prevent lipid peroxidation due to stress damage in type 2 diabetes. An example is aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), an enzyme that is involved in the detoxification of aldehydes formed during lipid peroxidation. This study was conducted to evaluate ALDH activity and to determine their association with hypoglycemic treatment in type 2 diabetes patients. The study population consisted of 422 Mexican subjects: a control group and type 2 diabetes patients. Type 2 diabetes patients were re-classified as those with or without hypoglycemic treatment and those with or without glycemic control (according to glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)). Clinical parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities (ALDH, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and oxidative markers (reactive oxygen species and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) were evaluated. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers were higher in type 2 diabetes patients with hypoglycemic treatment and without glycemic control than control group. The activity of ALDH and SOD remained high in type 2 diabetes patients with moderate glycemic control while only ALDH's remained high in type 2 diabetes patients with tight glycemic control. Increased ALDH and SOD activities were associated with hypoglycemic therapy. TBARS levels were associated with glycemic control. The persistence of high ALDH and SOD activities in type 2 diabetes patients with glycemic control may be to avoid a significant damage due to the increase in reactive oxygen species and TBARS. It is possible that this new oxidative status prevented the development the classical complications of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Human 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in human breast cancer: clinical significance and prognostic associations.

    PubMed

    Hanamura, Toru; Ito, Tokiko; Kanai, Toshiharu; Maeno, Kazuma; Shimojo, Yasuyo; Uehara, Takeshi; Suzuki, Takashi; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi; Ito, Ken-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    Active sex steroids including estrogens and androgens are locally produced from circulating inactive steroids by various steroid-metabolizing enzymes, and play pivotal roles in the progression of hormone-dependent breast cancers. Human 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (3β-HSD type 1) is a critical enzyme in the formation of all classes of active steroid hormones, and is also involved in the inactivation of potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Therefore, this enzyme is suggested to modulate active sex steroid production or inactivation, with a role in hormone-dependent breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of 3β-HSD type 1 in human breast cancer. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we evaluated 3β-HSD type 1 expression in 161 human breast cancers and analyzed correlations of 3β-HSD type 1 expression with various clinicopathological factors. Of 161 breast cancer cases, 3β-HSD type 1 expression in cancer cells was detected in 119 cases (73.9%), and was positively correlated with estrogen receptor (ER)-positivity but not HER-2 status. In ER-positive cases (n = 130), 3β-HSD type 1 expression was inversely correlated with invasive tumor size (P = 0.0009), presence of invasive region (P = 0.0107), and lymphatic involvement (P = 0.0004). 3β-HSD type 1 expression was significantly associated with decreased risk of recurrence or improved prognosis by both univariate (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.009, respectively) and multivariate (P = 0.027 and P = 0.023, respectively) analyses. Our findings indicate that this enzyme is a prognostic factor in hormone-dependent breast cancer. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Inner mitochondrial translocase Tim50 interacts with 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 to regulate adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Kevin J; Prasad, Manoj; Thomas, James L; Whittal, Randy M; Bose, Himangshu S

    2011-11-11

    In the adrenals, testes, and ovaries, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (3βHSD2) catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrostenedione to androstenedione. Alterations in this pathway can have deleterious effects, including sexual development impairment, spontaneous abortion, and breast cancer. 3βHSD2, synthesized in the cytosol, is imported into the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) by translocases. Steroidogenesis requires that 3βHSD2 acts as both a dehydrogenase and isomerase. To achieve this dual functionality, 3βHSD2 must undergo a conformational change; however, what triggers that change remains unknown. We propose that 3βHSD2 associates with IMM or outer mitochondrial membrane translocases facing the intermembrane space (IMS) and that this interaction promotes the conformational change needed for full activity. Fractionation assays demonstrate that 3βHSD2 associated with the IMM but did not integrate into the membrane. Through mass spectrometry and Western blotting of mitochondrial complexes and density gradient ultracentrifugation, we show that that 3βHSD2 formed a transient association with the translocases Tim50 and Tom22 and with Tim23. This association occurred primarily through the interaction of Tim50 with the N terminus of 3βHSD2 and contributed to enzymatic activity. Tim50 knockdown inhibited catalysis of dehydroepiandrostenedione to androstenedione and pregnenolone to progesterone. Although Tim50 knockdown decreased 3βHSD2 expression, restoration of expression via proteasome and protease inhibition did not rescue activity. In addition, protein fingerprinting and CD spectroscopy reveal the flexibility of 3βHSD2, a necessary characteristic for forming multiple associations. In summary, Tim50 regulates 3βHSD2 expression and activity, representing a new role for translocases in steroidogenesis.

  19. Sodium homeostasis is preserved in a global 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 knockout mouse model.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Thorbjørn H; Bailey, Matthew A; Kenyon, Christopher J; Jensen, Boye L; Hunter, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Glucocorticoids act in the kidney to promote salt and water retention. Renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1), by increasing local concentrations of glucocorticoids, may exert an antinatriuretic effect. We hypothesized that global deletion of 11βHSD1 in the mouse would give rise to a salt-wasting renal phenotype. What is the main finding and its importance? We subjected a mouse model of global 11βHSD1 deletion to studies of water and electrolyte balance, renal clearance, urinary steroid excretion, renin-angiotensin system activation and renal sodium transporter expression. We found no significant effects on renal sodium or water excretion. Any effect of renal 11βHSD1 on sodium homeostasis is subtle. Glucocorticoids act in the kidney to regulate glomerular haemodynamics and tubular sodium transport; the net effect favours sodium retention. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) is expressed in the renal tubules and the interstitial cells of the medulla, where it is likely to regenerate active glucocorticoids from inert 11-keto forms. The physiological function of renal 11βHSD1 is largely unknown. We hypothesized that loss of renal 11βHSD1 would result in salt wasting and tested this in a knockout mouse model in which 11βHSD1 was deleted in all body tissues. In balance studies, 11βHSD1 deletion had no effect on water, sodium or potassium metabolism; transition to a low-sodium diet did not reveal a natriuretic phenotype. Renal clearance studies demonstrated identical haemodynamic parameters (arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate) in knockout and wild-type mice, but revealed an augmented kaliuretic response to thiazides in 11βHSD1 knockout animals. There was no effect on the natriuretic response to the amiloride analogue benzamil. Urinary excretion of deoxycorticosterone was higher in 11βHSD1 knockout mice, and there was hypertrophy of cells in the

  20. Type 2 NADH Dehydrogenases in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 Are Involved in Regulation Rather Than Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Howitt, Crispin A.; Udall, Pacer K.; Vermaas, Wim F. J.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of the genome of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 reveals three open reading frames (slr0851, slr1743, and sll1484) that may code for type 2 NAD(P)H dehydrogenases (NDH-2). The sequence similarity between the translated open reading frames and NDH-2s from other organisms is low, generally not exceeding 30% identity. However, NAD(P)H and flavin adenine dinucleotide binding motifs are conserved in all three putative NDH-2s in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803. The three open reading frames were cloned, and deletion constructs were made for each. An expression construct containing one of the three open reading frames, slr1743, was able to functionally complement an Escherichia coli mutant lacking both NDH-1s and NDH-2s. Therefore, slr0851, slr1743, and sll1484 have been designated ndbA, ndbB, and ndbC, respectively. Strains that lacked one or more of the ndb genes were created in wild-type and photosystem (PS) I-less backgrounds. Deletion of ndb genes led to small changes in photoautotrophic growth rates and respiratory activities. Electron transfer rates into the plastoquinone pool in thylakoids in darkness were consistent with the presence of a small amount of NDH-2 activity in thylakoids. No difference was observed between wild-type and the Ndb-less strains in the banding patterns seen on native gels when stained for either NADH or NADPH dehydrogenase activity, indicating that the Ndb proteins do not accumulate to high levels. A striking phenotype of the PS I-less background strains lacking one or more of the NDH-2s is that they were able to grow at high light intensities that were lethal to the control strain but they retained normal PS II activity. We suggest that the Ndb proteins in Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 are redox sensors and that they play a regulatory role responding to the redox state of the plastoquinone pool. PMID:10383967

  1. Mice deficient in 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 lack bone marrow adipocytes, but maintain normal bone formation.

    PubMed

    Justesen, Jeannette; Mosekilde, Lis; Holmes, Megan; Stenderup, Karin; Gasser, Jürg; Mullins, John J; Seckl, Jonathan R; Kassem, Moustapha

    2004-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) exert potent, but poorly characterized, effects on the skeleton. The cellular activity of GCs is regulated at a prereceptor level by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11betaHSDs). The type 1 isoform, which predominates in bone, functions as a reductase in intact cells and regenerates active cortisol (corticosterone) from circulating inert 11-keto forms. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of this intracrine activation of GCs on normal bone physiology in vivo using mice deficient in 11betaHSD1 (HSD1(-/-)). The HSD1(-/-) mice exhibited no significant changes in cortical or trabecular bone mass compared with wild-type (Wt) mice. Aged HSD1(-/-) mice showed age-related bone loss similar to that observed in Wt mice. Histomorphometric analysis showed similar bone formation and bone resorption parameters in HSD1(-/-) and Wt mice. However, examination of bone marrow composition revealed a total absence of marrow adipocytes in HSD1(-/-) mice. Cells from Wt and HSD1(-/-) mice exhibited similar growth rates as well as similar levels of production of osteoblastic markers. The adipocyte-forming capacity of in vitro cultured bone marrow stromal cells and trabecular osteoblasts was similar in HSD1(-/-) and Wt mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that 11betaHSD1 amplification of intracellular GC actions in mice may be required for bone marrow adipocyte formation, but not for bone formation. The clinical relevance of this observation remains to be determined.

  2. Anatomical location differences between mutated and wild-type isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 in low-grade gliomas.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jinhua; Shi, Zhifeng; Ji, Chunhong; Lian, Yuxi; Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Liang; Mao, Ying

    2017-01-06

    Anatomical location of gliomas has been considered as a factor implicating the contributions of a specific precursor cells during the tumor growth. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is a pathognomonic biomarker with a significant impact on the development of gliomas and remarkable prognostic effect. The correlation between anatomical location of tumor and IDH1 states for low-grade gliomas was analyzed quantitatively in this study. Ninety-two patients diagnosed of low-grade glioma pathologically were recruited in this study, including 65 patients with IDH1-mutated glioma and 27 patients with wide-type IDH1. A convolutional neural network was designed to segment the tumor from three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging images. Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping was then employed to study the tumor location distribution differences between gliomas with mutated and wild-type IDH1. In order to characterize the location differences quantitatively, the Automated Anatomical Labeling Atlas was used to partition the standard brain atlas into 116 anatomical volumes of interests (AVOIs). The percentages of tumors with different IDH1 states in 116 AVOIs were calculated and compared. Support vector machine and AdaBoost algorithms were used to estimate the IDH1 status based on the 116 location features of each patient. Experimental results proved that the quantitative tumor location measurement could be a very important group of imaging features in biomarker estimation based on radiomics analysis of glioma.

  3. Substrate Binding Process and Mechanistic Functioning of Type 1 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase from Enhanced Sampling Methods

    PubMed Central

    Recanatini, Maurizio; Cavalli, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    In humans, type 1 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD-1) plays a key role in the regulation of the glucocorticoids balance by converting the inactive hormone cortisone into cortisol. Numerous functional aspects of 11β-HSD-1 have been understood thanks to the availability at the Worldwide Protein Data Bank of a number of X-ray structures of the enzyme either alone or in complex with inhibitors, and to several experimental data. However at present, a complete description of the dynamic behaviour of 11β-HSD-1 upon substrate binding is missing. To this aim we firstly docked cortisone into the catalytic site of 11β-HSD-1 (both wild type and Y177A mutant), and then we used steered molecular dynamics and metadynamics to simulate its undocking. This methodology helped shedding light at molecular level on the complex relationship between the enzyme and its natural substrate. In particular, the work highlights a) the reason behind the functional dimerisation of 11β-HSD-1, b) the key role of Y177 in the cortisone binding event, c) the fine tuning of the active site degree of solvation, and d) the role of the S228-P237 loop in ligand recognition. PMID:21966510

  4. Adamantyl Ethanone Pyridyl Derivatives: Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Human 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiangdong; Pradaux-Caggiano, Fabienne; Vicker, Nigel; Thomas, Mark P; Halem, Heather; Culler, Michael D; Potter, Barry V L

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of active glucocorticoids have been implicated in the development of several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome, such as type 2 diabetes and obesity. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyses the intracellular conversion of inactive cortisone to cortisol. Selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitors have shown beneficial effects in various conditions, including diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity. A series of adamantyl ethanone pyridyl derivatives has been identified, providing potent and selective inhibitors of human 11β-HSD1. Lead compounds display low nanomolar inhibition against human and mouse 11β-HSD1 and are selective for this isoform, with no activity against 11β-HSD2 and 17β-HSD1. Structure–activity relationship studies reveal that an unsubstituted pyridine tethered to an adamantyl ethanone motif through an ether or sulfoxide linker provides a suitable pharmacophore for activity. The most potent inhibitors have IC50 values around 34–48 nm against human 11β-HSD1, display reasonable metabolic stability in human liver microsomes, and weak inhibition of key human CYP450 enzymes. PMID:21714097

  5. Selective inhibition of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 improves hepatic insulin sensitivity in hyperglycemic mice strains.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Pēteris; Nilsson, Cecilia; Selen, Göran; Engblom, Lars O M; Edling, Naimie H M; Norling, Solveig; Klingström, Gunnel; Larsson, Catarina; Forsgren, Margareta; Ashkzari, Mandana; Nilsson, Catrine E; Fiedler, Maj; Bergqvist, Elisabet; Ohman, Birgitta; Björkstrand, Eva; Abrahmsen, Lars B

    2003-11-01

    11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11 beta-HSD1) has been proposed as a new target for type 2 diabetes drugs. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of inhibition of 11 beta-HSD1 on blood glucose levels, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity in mouse models of type 2 diabetes. BVT.2733 is an isoform-selective inhibitor of mouse 11 beta-HSD1. Hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic ob/ob, db/db, KKAy, and normal C57BL/6J mice were orally administered BVT.2733 (200 mg/kg.d, twice daily). In hyperglycemic, but not in normal mice, BVT.2733 lowered circulating glucose (to 50-88% of control) and insulin (52-65%) levels. In oral glucose tolerance tests in ob/ob and KKAy mice, glucose concentrations were 65-75% of vehicle values after BVT.2733 treatment, and in KKAy mice insulin concentrations were decreased (62-74%). Euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamps demonstrated decreased endogenous glucose production (21-61%). Analysis of hepatic mRNA in KKAy mice showed reduced phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA (71%). A slight reduction in food intake was observed in ob/ob and KKAy mice. Cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acid levels were decreased to 81-86% in KKAy mice after a 4-h fast. The results support previous suggestions that selective 11 beta-HSD1 inhibitors lower blood glucose levels and improve insulin sensitivity in different mouse models of type 2 diabetes.

  6. Intense physical exercise increases systemic 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in healthy adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Dovio, Andrea; Roveda, Eliana; Sciolla, Chiara; Montaruli, Angela; Raffaelli, Andrea; Saba, Alessandro; Calogiuri, Giovanna; De Francia, Silvia; Borrione, Paolo; Salvadori, Piero; Carandente, Franca; Angeli, Alberto

    2010-03-01

    Intense physical exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis but little is known about changes in glucocorticoid sensitivity at the target cell level. No data are available on the acute effects of exercise on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) type 1 activity, which generates biologically active cortisol from inactive cortisone and is expressed also in skeletal muscle. Fifteen healthy, trained males (age mean +/- SE 28 +/- 1) were assessed on three non-consecutive days: at rest, during an endurance and strength sessions. During each session, between 1000 and 1600 hours, 6-h urine and four salivary samples were collected. Urinary total tetrahydrocortisol (THF) + alloTHF, tetrahydrocortisone (THE), cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) were measured with HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry; urinary-unconjugated F and E were measured by HPLC-UV. Salivary cortisol and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured by RIA and ELISA, respectively. Both endurance and strength exercises caused an increase in (THF + alloTHF)/THE ratio (mean +/- SE 1.90 +/- 0.07 and 1.82 +/- 0.05 vs. 1.63 +/- 0.06, P < 0.01 and P = 0.03, respectively), consistent with increased systemic 11beta-HSD type 1 activity. No relationship was found with age, BMI, VO(2max) maximal power load or perceived exertion. No significant change was apparent in F/E ratio, an index of 11beta-HSD type 2 activity. No effect of exercise on salivary cortisol and IL-6 was observed, whereas a significant effect of sampling time was found. Intense physical exercise acutely increases systemic 11beta-HSD type 1 activity in humans. Such an increase may lead to higher cortisol concentration in target tissues, notably in skeletal muscle where it could contribute to limit exercise-induced muscle inflammatory response.

  7. Association study of sorbitol dehydrogenase -888G>C polymorphism with type 2 diabetic retinopathy in Caucasian-Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fábio Netto; Crispim, Daisy; Canani, Luís Henrique; Gross, Jorge Luiz; dos Santos, Kátia Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common chronic complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people. Hyperglycemia increases glucose flux through the polyol pathway, in which aldose reductase converts glucose into intracellular sorbitol, which is subsequently converted to fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). The accelerated polyol pathway triggers a cascade of events leading to retinal vascular endothelial dysfunction and the eventual development of DR. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding aldose reductase have been consistently associated with DR. However, only two studies have analyzed the relationship between polymorphisms in the gene encoding SDH (SORD) and DR. In this case-control study, we investigated whether the -888G > C polymorphism (rs3759890) in the SORD gene is associated with the presence or severity of DR in 446 Caucasian-Brazilians with type 2 diabetes (241 subjects with and 205 subjects without DR). The -888G > C polymorphism was also examined in 105 healthy Caucasian blood donors, and the genotyping of this polymorphism was carried out by real-time PCR. The genotype and allele frequencies of the -888G > C polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes were similar to those of blood donors (G allele frequency = 0.16 in both groups of subjects). Similarly, the genotype and allele frequencies in patients with DR or the proliferative form of DR were similar to those of patients without this complication (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Thus, our findings suggest that the -888G > C polymorphism in the SORD gene is not involved in the pathogenesis of DR in type 2 diabetes.

  8. Inhibition of human and rat 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 by 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiangdong; Vicker, Nigel; Lawrence, Harshani; Smith, Andrew; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2007-05-01

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) plays an important role in regulating the cortisol availability to bind to corticosteroid receptors within specific tissue. Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of metabolic syndrome indicate that elevation of cortisol levels within specific tissues through the action of 11beta-HSD1 could contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Therefore, selective inhibitors of 11beta-HSD1 have been investigated as potential treatments for metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 2 or obesity. Here we report the discovery and synthesis of some 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18beta-GA) derivatives (2-5) and their inhibitory activities against rat hepatic11beta-HSD1 and rat renal 11beta-HSD2. Once the selectivity over the rat type 2 enzyme was established, these compounds' ability to inhibit human 11beta-HSD1 was also evaluated using both radioimmunoassay (RIA) and homogeneous time resolved fluorescence (HTRF) methods. The 11-modified 18beta-GA derivatives 2 and 3 with apparent selectivity for rat 11beta-HSD1 showed a high percentage inhibition for human microsomal 11beta-HSD1 at 10 microM and exhibited IC50 values of 400 and 1100 nM, respectively. The side chain modified 18beta-GA derivatives 4 and 5, although showing selectivity for rat 11beta-HSD1 inhibited human microsomal 11beta-HSD1 with IC50 values in the low micromolar range.

  9. Hypertrophy in the Distal Convoluted Tubule of an 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Knockout Model.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Robert W; Ivy, Jessica R; Flatman, Peter W; Kenyon, Christopher J; Craigie, Eilidh; Mullins, Linda J; Bailey, Matthew A; Mullins, John J

    2015-07-01

    Na(+) transport in the renal distal convoluted tubule (DCT) by the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) is a major determinant of total body Na(+) and BP. NCC-mediated transport is stimulated by aldosterone, the dominant regulator of chronic Na(+) homeostasis, but the mechanism is controversial. Transport may also be affected by epithelial remodeling, which occurs in the DCT in response to chronic perturbations in electrolyte homeostasis. Hsd11b2(-/-) mice, which lack the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2) and thus exhibit the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess, provided an ideal model in which to investigate the potential for DCT hypertrophy to contribute to Na(+) retention in a hypertensive condition. The DCTs of Hsd11b2(-/-) mice exhibited hypertrophy and hyperplasia and the kidneys expressed higher levels of total and phosphorylated NCC compared with those of wild-type mice. However, the striking structural and molecular phenotypes were not associated with an increase in the natriuretic effect of thiazide. In wild-type mice, Hsd11b2 mRNA was detected in some tubule segments expressing Slc12a3, but 11βHSD2 and NCC did not colocalize at the protein level. Thus, the phosphorylation status of NCC may not necessarily equate to its activity in vivo, and the structural remodeling of the DCT in the knockout mouse may not be a direct consequence of aberrant corticosteroid signaling in DCT cells. These observations suggest that the conventional concept of mineralocorticoid signaling in the DCT should be revised to recognize the complexity of NCC regulation by corticosteroids.

  10. Hypertrophy in the Distal Convoluted Tubule of an 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Knockout Model

    PubMed Central

    Ivy, Jessica R.; Flatman, Peter W.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Craigie, Eilidh; Mullins, Linda J.; Bailey, Matthew A.; Mullins, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Na+ transport in the renal distal convoluted tubule (DCT) by the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) is a major determinant of total body Na+ and BP. NCC-mediated transport is stimulated by aldosterone, the dominant regulator of chronic Na+ homeostasis, but the mechanism is controversial. Transport may also be affected by epithelial remodeling, which occurs in the DCT in response to chronic perturbations in electrolyte homeostasis. Hsd11b2−/− mice, which lack the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2) and thus exhibit the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess, provided an ideal model in which to investigate the potential for DCT hypertrophy to contribute to Na+ retention in a hypertensive condition. The DCTs of Hsd11b2−/− mice exhibited hypertrophy and hyperplasia and the kidneys expressed higher levels of total and phosphorylated NCC compared with those of wild-type mice. However, the striking structural and molecular phenotypes were not associated with an increase in the natriuretic effect of thiazide. In wild-type mice, Hsd11b2 mRNA was detected in some tubule segments expressing Slc12a3, but 11βHSD2 and NCC did not colocalize at the protein level. Thus, the phosphorylation status of NCC may not necessarily equate to its activity in vivo, and the structural remodeling of the DCT in the knockout mouse may not be a direct consequence of aberrant corticosteroid signaling in DCT cells. These observations suggest that the conventional concept of mineralocorticoid signaling in the DCT should be revised to recognize the complexity of NCC regulation by corticosteroids. PMID:25349206

  11. Distinct effect of stress on 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and corticosteroid receptors in dorsal and ventral hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Ergang, P; Kuželová, A; Soták, M; Klusoňová, P; Makal, J; Pácha, J

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence suggest the participation of the hippocampus in the feedback inhibition of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis during stress response. This inhibition is mediated by glucocorticoid feedback due to the sensitivity of the hippocampus to these hormones. The sensitivity is determined by the expression of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid (MR) receptors and 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11HSD1), an enzyme that regulates the conversion of glucocorticoids from inactive to active form. The goal of our study was to assess the effect of stress on the expression of 11HSD1, GR and MR in the ventral and dorsal region of the CA1 hippocampus in three different rat strains with diverse responses to stress: Fisher 344, Lewis and Wistar. Stress stimulated 11HSD1 in the ventral but not dorsal CA1 hippocampus of Fisher 344 but not Lewis or Wistar rats. In contrast, GR expression following stress was decreased in the dorsal but not ventral CA1 hippocampus of all three strains. MR expression was not changed in either the dorsal or ventral CA1 region. These results indicate that (1) depending on the strain, stress stimulates 11HSD1 in the ventral hippocampus, which is known to be involved in stress and emotion reactions whereas (2) independent of strain, stress inhibits GR in the dorsal hippocampus, which is predominantly involved in cognitive functions.

  12. 17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7 (Hsd17b7) reverts cholesterol auxotrophy in NS0 cells.

    PubMed

    Seth, Gargi; McIvor, R Scott; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2006-01-24

    NS0 is a host cell line widely used for the production of recombinant therapeutic proteins. In this work, we investigated the cholesterol-dependent phenotype of NS0 cells. Growth response to different precursors and comparative transcript analyses pointed to deficiency of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7 (Hsd17b7) in NS0 cells. Hsd17b7 was previously shown to encode for an enzyme involved in estrogenic steroid biosynthesis. Its recent cloning into a yeast mutant deficient in ERG27 led to its functional characterization as the 3-ketoreductase of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. To ascertain that its cholesterol biosynthesis is blocked at the reduction reaction catalyzed by Hsd17b7, we genetically engineered NS0 cells to over express Hsd17b7. The stable transfectants of Hsd17b7 were able to grow independent of cholesterol. The results affirm the role of Hsd17b7 in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in mammals. Further, the findings allow for rational engineering of this industrially important cell line to alleviate their cholesterol dependence.

  13. Evidence for sulfatase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activities in equine epididymis and uterus.

    PubMed

    Lemazurier, Emmanuel; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2002-07-01

    Our previous work showed that stallion testis produces high amounts of estrogens which are subsequently found in the ejaculate. These estrogens are mainly synthesized by testicular aromatase, and the major estrogen produced is estrone sulfate (E1S). The objective of this study was to investigate the potential role of E1S as a source of estrogens in the male and female horse reproductive tracts by determining whether both estrone sulfatase (Sulf) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I (17beta-HSD1) activities were present in equine testes, epididymis and uterus. We assessed E1S bioconversion into estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) in these tissues. Both Sulf and 17beta-HSD1 activities were well detected in the cauda epididymis and uterus. Additionally, Sulf activity was present in the distal corpus of the epididymis, and 17beta-HSDI in the proximal corpus. In contrast, aromatase gene expression, measured as an internal control of endogenous estrogen production, had high activity only in the testis. We found that seminal E1S of testicular origin can be metabolized to E2, especially in the cauda epididymis and uterus. Because E2 appears to play a major role in male and female reproduction, we propose that the bioconversion of seminal E1S could affect male and female fertility.

  14. Inhibiting 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 prevents stress effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and impairs contextual fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Sarabdjitsingh, R Angela; Zhou, Ming; Yau, Joyce L W; Webster, Scott P; Walker, Brian R; Seckl, Jonathan R; Joëls, Marian; Krugers, Harm J

    2014-06-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyzes intracellular regeneration of corticosterone and cortisol, thereby enhancing glucocorticoid action. Inhibition of 11β-HSD1 reverses the deficits in cognition with aging, a state of elevated glucocorticoid levels. However, any impact of 11β-HSD1 inhibition during high glucocorticoid states in younger animals is unknown. Here we examined whether a single injection of the selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor UE2316 modifies the effect of stress on hippocampal long-term potentiation and fear conditioning, a learning paradigm that is strongly modulated by glucocorticoids. We found that novelty stress suppresses hippocampal synaptic potentiation. This effect was completely prevented by administration of UE2316 one hour before stress exposure. A single injection of UE2316 also impaired contextual, but not tone-cue-fear conditioning. These observations suggest that local metabolism of glucocorticoids is relevant for the outcome of stress effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and contextual fear conditioning. Selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitors may be an interesting new approach to the prevention of trauma-associated psychopathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of testosterone, tibolone and black cohosh on purified mammary and placental 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    PubMed

    Stute, Petra; Kalkhake, Kathrin; Kiesel, Ludwig; Götte, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Mammary and placental 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17βHSD1). To assess the impact of testosterone, tibolone, and black cohosh on purified mammary and placental 17βHSD1. 17βHSD1 was purified from human mammary gland and placenta by column chromatography, its activity was monitored by a radioactive activity assay, and the degree of purification was determined by gel electrophoresis. Photometric cofactor transformation analysis was performed to assess 17βHSD1 activity without or in presence of testosterone, tibolone and black cohosh. 17βHSD1 from both sources displayed a comparable basal activity. Testosterone and tibolone metabolites inhibited purified mammary and placental 17βHSD1 activity to a different extent, whereas black cohosh had no impact. Studies on purified enzymes reveal the individual action of drugs on local regulatory mechanisms thus helping to develop more targeted therapeutic intervention. Testosterone, tibolone and black cohosh display a beneficial effect on local mammary estrogen metabolism by not affecting or decreasing local estradiol exposure.

  16. Discovery of adamantyl ethanone derivatives as potent 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiangdong; Pradaux-Caggiano, Fabienne; Thomas, Mark P; Szeto, Michelle W Y; Halem, Heather A; Culler, Michael D; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L

    2010-07-05

    11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSDs) are key enzymes regulating the pre-receptor metabolism of glucocorticoid hormones. The modulation of 11beta-HSD type 1 activity with selective inhibitors has beneficial effects on various conditions including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity. Inhibition of tissue-specific glucocorticoid action by regulating 11beta-HSD1 constitutes a promising treatment for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. A series of novel adamantyl ethanone compounds was identified as potent inhibitors of human 11beta-HSD1. The most active compounds identified (52, 62, 72, 92, 103 and 104) display potent inhibition of 11beta-HSD1 with IC(50) values in the 50-70 nM range. Compound 72 also proved to be metabolically stable when incubated with human liver microsomes. Furthermore, compound 72 showed very weak inhibitory activity for human cytochrome P450 enzymes and is therefore a candidate for in vivo studies. Comparison of the publicly available X-ray crystal structures of human 11beta-HSD1 led to docking studies of the potent compounds, revealing how these molecules may interact with the enzyme and cofactor.

  17. Class-Specific Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Promote 11-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Expression in JEG-3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Togher, Katie L.; Kenny, Louise C.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to maternal cortisol plays a crucial role in fetal organogenesis. However, fetal overexposure to cortisol has been linked to a range of short- and long-term adverse outcomes. Normally, this is prevented by the expression of an enzyme in the placenta called 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) which converts active cortisol to its inactive metabolite cortisone. Placental 11β-HSD2 is known to be reduced in a number of adverse pregnancy complications, possibly through an epigenetic mechanism. As a result, a number of pan-HDAC inhibitors have been examined for their ability to promote 11β-HSD2 expression. However, it is not known if the effects of pan-HDAC inhibition are a general phenomenon or if the effects are dependent upon a specific class of HDACs. Here, we examined the ability of pan- and class-specific HDAC inhibitors to regulate 11β-HSD2 expression in JEG3 cells. We find that pan-, class I, or class IIa HDAC inhibition promoted 11β-HSD2 expression and prevented cortisol or interleukin-1β-induced decrease in its expression. These results demonstrate that targeting a specific class of HDACs can promote 11β-HSD2 expression in JEG3 cells. This adds to the growing body of evidence suggesting that HDACs may be crucial in maintaining normal fetal development. PMID:28321257

  18. A Korean patient with glutaric aciduria type 1 with a novel mutation in the glutaryl CoA dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Su; Yu, Hee Joon; Lee, Jeehun; Park, Hyung-Doo; Kim, Ji Hye; Shin, Hyung-Jin; Jin, Dong Kyu; Lee, Munhyang

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase gene can result in Glutaric aciduria type 1(GA 1) by accumulation of glutaric acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid (3-OH-GA), and glutarylcarnitine (C5DC). GA 1 is characterized by macrocephaly, subdural hemorrhage (SDH), and dystonic movement disorder after acute encephalopathic crisis. We report a Korean patient with GA1 and a novel mutation. A 16-month-old boy presented with SDH, macrocephaly, and developmental delay. In the neurologic examination, the patient had mild axial hypotonia, but otherwise normal neurologic functions. The brain MRI showed large amounts of bilateral SDH and high signal intensity in both basal ganglia and thalamus. Metabolic screening tests detected highly elevated urinary GA levels but 3-OH-glutaric acid was normal. C5DC was 0.94 μM/L (reference range < 0.3 μM/L). The patient had compound heterozygous mutations of the GCDH gene: p.Arg257Gln (c.770G>A) and p.Cys308Arg (c.922T>C). p.Cys308Arg is a novel mutation; reports of p.Arg257Gln were also rare both in Caucasians and Asian populations. In summary, we hereby report one Korean patient with GA1 with clinical, biochemical, and radiologic characteristics confirmed by genetic analysis.

  19. Alteration in methylation level at 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 gene promoter in infants born to preeclamptic women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Preeclampsia reduces placental expression and activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD11B2), leading to an increase in fetal glucocordicoids. The latter has been proposed to be associated with low birth weight and high risk of metabolic diseases in later life of the offspring. This investigation aims to delineate the alteration in methylation levels at CpG sites of HSD11B2 promoter. Results Methylation levels of HSD9-2, HSD9-3, HSD23-2 and HSD23-3 and the mean methylation level were significantly lower in preeclampsia than in normal pregnancy (P = 0.002, 0.031, 0.047 and 0.001, respectively and P < 0.001 in mean). The mean methylation level was significantly correlated with preeclampsia after the adjustment of birth weight, maternal age, gestational age at delivery and fetal gender (r = 0.325, P < 0.001). Conclusions Preeclampsia reduced methylation level at fetal HSD11B2 promoter. A positive correlation existed between HSD11B2 promoter methylation and preeclampsia. Our findings suggest that the methyaltion status of HSD11B2 promoter is a potentially accessible biomarker for preeclampsia. However, further studies are required to address the mechanisms of thehypomethylation at HSD11B2 promoter and the significance of the hypomethylation in the development of metabolic diseases of the fetals born to preeclamptic women. PMID:25200528

  20. Attenuation of Hippocampal 11beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 by Chronic Psychosocial Stress in the Tree Shrew.

    PubMed

    Jamieson; Fuchs; Flugge; Seckl

    1997-12-01

    11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD-1) catalyses the interconversion of active cortisol and corticosterone with inert cortisone and 11-dehydrocorticosterone, thus regulating glucocorticoid access to intracellular receptors. In rats, chronic glucocorticoid excess or stress increases 11beta-HSD-1 in the hippocampus, producing suggestions that it may attenuate the deleterious effects of chronic glucocorticoid excess. However, 11beta-HSD-1 predominantly catalyses 11beta-reduction in the intact liver and hippocampal cells, thus regenerating active glucocorticoids from inert substrate. We studied 11beta-HSD activity in the tissues of male tree shrews following 28 days of sustained psychosocial stress or exogenous administration of cortisol. In the hippocampus, chronic psychosocial stress attenuated 11-HSD-1 activity (69 +/- 9% of control), whereas cortisol alone had no effect. In the liver, both chronic stress and cortisol administration decreased 11beta-HSD-1 activity (47 +/- 11% and 49 +/- 4% fall, resp.). Attenuation of 11beta-HSD-1 within tissues may reflect a homeostatic mechanism designed to minimise the adverse effects of prolonged stress and/or glucocorticoid excess.

  1. Comparison of alcohol dehydrogenases from wild-type and mutant strain, JW200 Fe 4, of `Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus`

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, F.O.; Ljungdahl, L.G.; Wiegel, J.

    1992-12-31

    A mutant strain of `Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus` (ATCC 31550) designated JW200 Fe 4 contains primary and secondary alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs). The primary ADH from JW200 Fe 4 was formed early in the growth cycle compared to the primary ADH from the wild-type strain (JW200 wt). The secondary ADH displayed 2.5-fold greater activity during the growth cycle of JW200 Fe 4 compared to the secondary ADH from JW200 Fe 4 were purified to homogeneity as determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate-gel electrophoresis. Relative molecular weight estimations indicated that both ADHs were tetrameric. Each ADH from JW200 Fe 4 contained approximately four Zn atoms per subunit and displayed Arrhenius plots similar to the ADHs from JW200 wt. The substrate specificity for the ADHs from JW200 Fe 4 was similar to that of the ADHs from JW200 wt. The secondary ADH oxidized 2-propanol at 51 times the rate of ethanol. Both ADHs from JW200 Fe 4 apparently reduce acetaldehyde to ethanol while only the secondary ADH from JW200 wt was suggested to contribute significantly to ethanol production.

  2. Enhanced levels of mitochondrial enzyme 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 in patients with Alzheimer disease and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kristofiková, Zdena; Bocková, Markéta; Hegnerová, Katerina; Bartos, Ales; Klaschka, Jan; Rícný, Jan; Rípová, Daniela; Homola, Jirí

    2009-10-01

    The multifunctional mitochondrial enzyme 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 might play a role in the development of Alzheimer disease via its high-affinity binding to amyloid beta peptides and its neuronal over-expression. It is suggested that the cerebrospinal fluid levels of the enzyme, free or bound to amyloid beta peptides, are a potential specific biomarker of Alzheimer disease. However, mitochondrial dysfunction seems to play a role in many neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis. In this study, the specificity of changes in relation to the enzyme over-expression was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent and surface plasmon resonance sensors. The data indicated pronounced increases in the enzyme levels, specifically to 179% in multiple sclerosis and to 573% in Alzheimer disease when compared to the age-matched controls. Although the differences between both diseases were statistically significant, enzyme levels do not appear to be a highly specific biomarker of Alzheimer disease. On the other hand, enhancement in levels of the enzyme bound to amyloid beta peptides was only observed in people with Alzheimer disease, which suggests that the complex should be further considered as a possible biomarker. In patients with multiple sclerosis, our results are the first to demonstrate significant changes in enzyme expression and to suggest possible alterations in amyloid beta peptides.

  3. A Novel Type II NAD+-Specific Isocitrate Dehydrogenase from the Marine Bacterium Congregibacter litoralis KT71.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Cai; Tian, Chang-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Mei; Xu, Lei; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In most living organisms, isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) convert isocitrate into ɑ-ketoglutarate (ɑ-KG). Phylogenetic analyses divide the IDH protein family into two subgroups: types I and II. Based on cofactor usage, IDHs are either NAD+-specific (NAD-IDH) or NADP+-specific (NADP-IDH); NADP-IDH evolved from NAD-IDH. Type I IDHs include NAD-IDHs and NADP-IDHs; however, no type II NAD-IDHs have been reported to date. This study reports a novel type II NAD-IDH from the marine bacterium Congregibacter litoralis KT71 (ClIDH, GenBank accession no. EAQ96042). His-tagged recombinant ClIDH was produced in Escherichia coli and purified; the recombinant enzyme was NAD+-specific and showed no detectable activity with NADP+. The Km values of the enzyme for NAD+ were 262.6±7.4 μM or 309.1±11.2 μM with Mg2+ or Mn2+ as the divalent cation, respectively. The coenzyme specificity of a ClIDH Asp487Arg/Leu488His mutant was altered, and the preference of the mutant for NADP+ was approximately 24-fold higher than that for NAD+, suggesting that ClIDH is an NAD+-specific ancestral enzyme in the type II IDH subgroup. Gel filtration and analytical ultracentrifugation analyses revealed the homohexameric structure of ClIDH, which is the first IDH hexamer discovered thus far. A 163-amino acid segment of CIIDH is essential to maintain its polymerization structure and activity, as a truncated version lacking this region forms a non-functional monomer. ClIDH was dependent on divalent cations, the most effective being Mn2+. The maximal activity of purified recombinant ClIDH was achieved at 35°C and pH 7.5, and a heat inactivation experiment showed that a 20-min incubation at 33°C caused a 50% loss of ClIDH activity. The discovery of a NAD+-specific, type II IDH fills a gap in the current classification of IDHs, and sheds light on the evolution of type II IDHs.

  4. 17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 and Type 2: association between mRNA expression and activity in cell lines.

    PubMed

    Day, Joanna M; Tutill, Helena J; Newman, Simon P; Purohit, Atul; Lawrence, Harshani R; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L; Reed, Michael J

    2006-03-27

    17Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) are a family of enzymes that regulate steroid availability within a tissue by catalysing the interconversion of active and inactive forms. Type 1 is up-regulated in many breast tumours, and is responsible for the reduction of oestrone to active oestradiol which stimulates cell proliferation within the tumour. Type 2 oxidises many active steroids to their inactive forms, including oestradiol to oestrone. In this study, we have compared the mRNA expression and enzyme activities of Type 1 and Type 2 in MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, T47D, JEG3 and 293-EBNA cell lines. Also studied were two cell lines stably expressing transfected Type 1 cDNA. RT-PCR indicated that little Type 1 mRNA is expressed in two of the breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, and in 293-EBNA cells, but that expression is much higher in the T47D breast cancer cell line, and in the choriocarcinoma cell line, JEG3. However, a higher level of expression of Type 1 is seen in the transfected cell lines MCF-7.8H and 293-EBNA[His617beta-HSD1]. Activity assays show that there is high association between mRNA expression and enzyme activity. Assays indicate that, with the exception of MDA-MB-231 cells, Type 2 activity is low in these lines. The study of the basal activities of these enzymes will be used in future studies investigating the regulation of the enzymes by endogenous and exogenous factors. An understanding of their regulation in both healthy and malignant tissues may lead to future therapeutic intervention at the regulatory level.

  5. E-ring modified steroids as novel potent inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Delphine S; Allan, Gillian M; Bubert, Christian; Vicker, Nigel; Smith, Andrew; Tutill, Helena J; Purohit, Atul; Wood, Lynn; Packham, Graham; Mahon, Mary F; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2005-09-08

    17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) are an important class of steroidogenic enzymes that regulate the bioavailability of active estrogens and androgens and are as yet a relatively unexploited therapeutic target. Based on our investigations and those of others, E-ring modified steroids were identified as a useful template for the design of inhibitors of 17beta-HSD type 1, an enzyme involved in the conversion of estrone into estradiol. The synthesis and biological evaluation of a new series of N- and C-substituted 1,3,5(10)-estratrien-[17,16-c]-pyrazoles and the corresponding SAR are discussed. Among the N-alkylated analogues, the most potent inhibitor was the 1'-methoxyethyl derivative, 41, with an IC(50) of 530 nM in T47-D human breast cancer cells. The X-ray crystal structure of the 1'-isobutyl derivative, was determined. Further optimization of the template using parallel synthesis resulted in a library of C5'-linked amides from which 73 emerged. This pyridylethyl amide had an IC(50) of 300 nM and its activity, with that of 41, suggests the importance of hydrogen bond acceptor groups in the pyrazole side chain. Both 41 and 73 displayed selectivity over 17beta-HSD type 2, and preliminary investigations showed 41 to be nonestrogenic in vitro in a luciferase reporter gene assay in contrast to the parent pyrazole 25. Molecular modeling studies, which support these findings, and a QSAR, the predictive power of which was demonstrated, are also presented.

  6. Tissue-Specific Increases in 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 in Normal Weight Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Therése; Simonyte, Kotryna; Andrew, Ruth; Strand, Magnus; Burén, Jonas; Walker, Brian R.; Mattsson, Cecilia; Olsson, Tommy

    2009-01-01

    With age and menopause there is a shift in adipose distribution from gluteo-femoral to abdominal depots in women. Associated with this redistribution of fat are increased risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Glucocorticoids influence body composition, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) which converts inert cortisone to active cortisol is a putative key mediator of metabolic complications in obesity. Increased 11βHSD1 in adipose tissue may contribute to postmenopausal central obesity. We hypothesized that tissue-specific 11βHSD1 gene expression and activity are up-regulated in the older, postmenopausal women compared to young, premenopausal women. Twenty-three pre- and 23 postmenopausal, healthy, normal weight women were recruited. The participants underwent a urine collection, a subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy and the hepatic 11βHSD1 activity was estimated by the serum cortisol response after an oral dose of cortisone. Urinary (5α-tetrahydrocortisol+5β-tetrahydrocortisol)/tetrahydrocortisone ratios were higher in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in luteal phase (P<0.05), indicating an increased whole-body 11βHSD1 activity. Postmenopausal women had higher 11βHSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05). Hepatic first pass conversion of oral cortisone to cortisol was also increased in postmenopausal women versus premenopausal women in follicular phase of the menstrual cycle (P<0.01, at 30 min post cortisone ingestion), suggesting higher hepatic 11βHSD1 activity. In conclusion, our results indicate that postmenopausal normal weight women have increased 11βHSD1 activity in adipose tissue and liver. This may contribute to metabolic dysfunctions with menopause and ageing in women. PMID:20041117

  7. A quantitative cytochemical study of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the membrana granulosa of the ovulable type of follicle of the rat.

    PubMed

    Zoller, L C; Weisz, J

    1979-08-01

    During the last four days of follicular development prior to ovulation, the activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 beta OHD) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) were quantified in cryostat sections of the rat ovary. The product of the enzyme reactions were measured using a scanning and integrating microdensitometer. The enzyme activity was measured in the peripheral region, the antral region and the cumulus of the membrana granulosa (MG) of these follicles on the morning of each of the four days of the estrous cycle. G-6-PD activity was measured in the presence and absence of an intermediate hydrogen acceptor, phenazine methosulphate, to provide a measure of the quantity of Type I and Type II Hydrogen (H) generated: Type I H is considered to be related to hydroxylating reactions such as those of steroids and Type II H to other general biosynthetic activities of cells. In all three regions of the MG of follicles of the ovulable type, 3 beta OHD activity was lowest in estrus and diestrus-1, increased on diestrus-2 and peaked in proestrus. In estrus and diestrus-1, the level of 3 beta OHD activity in the three regions was comparable. However, by diestrus-2, and even more conspicuously in proestrus, enzyme activity was significantly greater in the peripheral region than in the antral region or in the cumulus. During the same period, the level of enzyme activity remained comparable in the last two regions. Throughout the estrous cycle, both Type I and Type II H generation from G-6-PD was greatest in the peripheral region, less in the antral region and least in the cumulus. In the eripheral region, Type I H generation increased progressively after diestrus-1, to reach a maximum in prestrus. In the antral region, Type I H generation increased between diestrus-1 and diestrus-2 and then remained unchanged through proestrus. In the cumulus, Type I H generation remained at levels seen in estrus throughout the remainder of the cycle. Generation

  8. Regulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 following caloric restriction and re-feeding is species dependent.

    PubMed

    Loerz, Christine; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia; Huebbe, Patricia; Giller, Katrin; Metges, Cornelia; Rimbach, Gerald; Maser, Edmund

    2017-02-27

    Evidence in the current literature suggests that expression and activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), a key regulatory enzyme in glucocorticoid metabolism, is elevated in the liver and reduced in visceral adipose tissue and skeletal muscle following caloric restriction (CR). In order to investigate the influence of CR on 11β-HSD1 in more detail, we assessed expression and activity of 11β-HSD1 in several tissues in two independent CR and re-feeding animal models. Levels and activity of 11β-HSD1 after CR and re-feeding were measured [mouse liver and pig liver, pig visceral adipose tissue and pig skeletal muscle] using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, Western Blot analysis, and HPLC. After CR, no significant difference on mRNA levels was detected in mouse liver. But 11β-HSD1 mRNA expression was upregulated after subsequent re-feeding. In contrast, 11β-HSD1 protein expression after CR was significantly up-regulated, while no difference was detected after re-feeding. Interestingly, upregulation of protein after CR (1.4-fold) was lower than the increase in enzymatic activity (2.6-fold). Furthermore, while no difference was observed in protein levels after two weeks re-feeding, 11β-HSD1 activity increased 2.5-fold. In pig tissues neither 11β-HSD1 mRNA levels, protein expression or enzyme activity were influenced after CR and re-feeding. Overall, the results demonstrate species-dependent differences in regulation of 11β-HSD1 following CR and suggest the presence of an additional regulation step for 11β-HSD1 activity in mouse liver.

  9. Is there sufficient evidence to consider the use of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibition in children?

    PubMed

    Fürst-Recktenwald, Sabine; Dörr, Helmuth G; Quinkler, Marcus; Dötsch, Jörg; Stewart, Paul M

    2012-08-01

    Manifestations of the metabolic syndrome [obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, blood glucose derangements including prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)] in juvenile populations are becoming increasingly prevalent throughout the world and are at the point of being a global public health concern. Derangements in cortisol regeneration seem to be involved in the pathophysiology. Treatment with selective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) inhibitors could be a therapeutic strategy in paediatric patients with manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. Based on preclinical and clinical data regarding development of the 11β-HSD1 enzyme, it appears that maturation occurs within the first year of life. Different changes in biomarkers for assessing the efficacy and safety of 11β-HSD1 inhibitors are to be expected in paediatric patients compared to adults, reflecting differences in metabolism. The effect of 11β-HSD1 treatment in children on bone differentiation and development as well as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), circulating and local cortisol tissue concentrations, androgens and respective stress response is not yet known. Based on current literature, the concept of inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is considered a potentially effective mean to regulate local cortisol levels in the paediatric population, and 11β-HSD1 inhibitors may provide a valuable target and treatment option for the metabolic syndrome in paediatric patients. However, the uncertainty over effects on the developing skeleton combined with mild increases in adrenal androgen levels raises potential concerns regarding growth as well as onset of puberty as to their future use in children. Future clinical studies are needed to thoroughly assess the risks and benefits of this new class of drugs in the paediatric population.

  10. 11Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in human pregnancy and reduced expression in intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Shams, M; Kilby, M D; Somerset, D A; Howie, A J; Gupta, A; Wood, P J; Afnan, M; Stewart, P M

    1998-04-01

    The type 2 isoform of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD2), which inactivates cortisol (F) to cortisone (E), has been suggested to play a role in the ontogeny of the fetal pituitary-adrenal axis and also protect the developing fetus from the deleterious effects of circulating maternal glucocorticoids. The abundance of 11beta-HSD2 in the placenta and other fetal tissues was inferred from the F/E ratio in 17 term deliveries in both umbilical arterial (1.73 +/- 0.24, mean +/- SE) and umbilical venous blood (1.16 +/- 0.14) compared with adult peripheral venous blood (7.76 +/- 0.57, n = 70). Using sensitive assays for 11beta-HSD2 and an in-house human 11beta-HSD2 antibody, the expression and activity of this enzyme in fresh frozen human placenta increased progressively from first (8-12 weeks, n = 16) and second (13-20 weeks, n = 9) to third trimester (term) pregnancies (39-40 weeks, n = 50). Placental 11beta-HSD2 activity was significantly reduced in deliveries complicated by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) [25-36 weeks, n = 12, activity 380 pmol/mg/h median (225-671; 95% confidence interval)], compared with the term deliveries [888 (725-1362)] and with appropriately grown pre-term deliveries [27-36 weeks, n = 14, activity 810 (585-1269)], P < 0.05. In human pregnancy placental 11beta-HSD2 activity increases markedly in the third trimester of pregnancy at a time when maternal circulating levels of glucocorticoid are rising. The finding of attenuated placental 11beta-HSD2 activity in IUGR suggests that glucocorticoids may, in part, contribute to impaired fetal growth and that this is closely controlled in normal gestation through placental 11beta-HSD2 expression.

  11. In vivo activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Mai, K; Kullmann, V; Bobbert, T; Maser-Gluth, C; Möhlig, M; Bähr, V; Pfeiffer, A F H; Spranger, J; Diederich, S

    2005-10-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) induce hepatic insulin resistance and enhance hepatic gluconeogenesis. Glucocorticoids (GCs) also stimulate hepatic gluconeogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the FFA-induced hepatic insulin resistance is mediated by increased activity of hepatic 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1), accompanied by elevated hepatic cortisol levels. Following a 10-h overnight fast, six healthy male volunteers were investigated. A euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp was performed during lipid or saline infusion. To assess hepatic 11beta-HSD1 activity, plasma cortisol levels were measured after oral administration of cortisone acetate during lipid or saline infusion. In addition, 11beta-HSD activities were determined in vivo by calculating the urinary ratios of GC metabolites. Lipid infusion increased FFAs (5.41 +/- 1.00 vs. 0.48 +/- 0.20 mmol/l; P < 0.005) and significantly increased insulin resistance [glucose infusion rate (GIR) 6.02 +/- 2.60 vs. 4.08 +/- 2.15 mg/kg/min; P < 0.005]. After lipid and saline infusions no changes in 11beta-HSD1 activity were found, neither by changes in cortisone acetate to cortisol conversion nor by differences in urinary free cortisol (UFF) or cortisone (UFE), 5beta-tetrahydrocortisol (THF), 5alpha-THF, cortisone (THE), UFF/UFE and (5alpha-THF + THF)/THE ratios. We found no change in hepatic and whole-body 11beta-HSD1 activity during acute FFA-induced insulin resistance. Further studies are necessary to clarify whether 11beta-HSD1 in muscle and adipose tissue is influenced by FFAs and whether 11beta-HSD1 is involved in other conditions of insulin resistance.

  12. Molecular alterations and expression of succinate dehydrogenase complex in wild-type KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Celestino, Ricardo; Lima, Jorge; Faustino, Alexandra; Vinagre, João; Máximo, Valdemar; Gouveia, António; Soares, Paula; Lopes, José Manuel

    2013-05-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, disclosing somatic KIT, PDGFRA and BRAF mutations. Loss of function of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex is an alternative molecular mechanism in GISTs, namely in carriers of germline mutations of the SDH complex that develop Carney-Stratakis dyad characterized by multifocal GISTs and multicentric paragangliomas (PGLs). We studied a series of 25 apparently sporadic primary wild-type (WT) KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF GISTs occurring in patients without personal or familial history of PGLs, re-evaluated clinicopathological features and analyzed molecular alterations and immunohistochemistry expression of SDH complex. As control, we used a series of well characterized 49 KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. SDHB expression was absent in 20% and SDHB germline mutations were detected in 12% of WT GISTs. Germline SDHB mutations were significantly associated to younger age at diagnosis. A significant reduction in SDHB expression in WT GISTs was found when compared with KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. No significant differences were found when comparing DOG-1 and c-KIT expression in WT, SDHB-mutated and KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. Our results confirm the occurrence of germline SDH genes mutations in isolated, apparently sporadic WT GISTs. WT KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF GISTs without SDHB or SDHA/SDHB expression may correspond to Carney-Stratakis dyad or Carney triad. Most importantly, the possibility of PGLs (Carney-Stratakis dyad) and/or pulmonary chondroma (Carney triad) should be addressed in these patients and their kindred.

  13. Molecular alterations and expression of succinate dehydrogenase complex in wild-type KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Celestino, Ricardo; Lima, Jorge; Faustino, Alexandra; Vinagre, João; Máximo, Valdemar; Gouveia, António; Soares, Paula; Manuel Lopes, José

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract, disclosing somatic KIT, PDGFRA and BRAF mutations. Loss of function of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex is an alternative molecular mechanism in GISTs, namely in carriers of germline mutations of the SDH complex that develop Carney–Stratakis dyad characterized by multifocal GISTs and multicentric paragangliomas (PGLs). We studied a series of 25 apparently sporadic primary wild-type (WT) KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF GISTs occurring in patients without personal or familial history of PGLs, re-evaluated clinicopathological features and analyzed molecular alterations and immunohistochemistry expression of SDH complex. As control, we used a series of well characterized 49 KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. SDHB expression was absent in 20% and SDHB germline mutations were detected in 12% of WT GISTs. Germline SDHB mutations were significantly associated to younger age at diagnosis. A significant reduction in SDHB expression in WT GISTs was found when compared with KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. No significant differences were found when comparing DOG-1 and c-KIT expression in WT, SDHB-mutated and KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF-mutated GISTs. Our results confirm the occurrence of germline SDH genes mutations in isolated, apparently sporadic WT GISTs. WT KIT/PDGFRA/BRAF GISTs without SDHB or SDHA/SDHB expression may correspond to Carney–Stratakis dyad or Carney triad. Most importantly, the possibility of PGLs (Carney–Stratakis dyad) and/or pulmonary chondroma (Carney triad) should be addressed in these patients and their kindred. PMID:22948025

  14. Cadmium reduces 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity and expression in human placental trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kaiping; Julan, Laura; Rubio, Fran; Sharma, Anju; Guan, Haiyan

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium, a common environmental pollutant and a major constituent of tobacco smoke, has been identified as a new class of endocrine disruptors with a wide range of detrimental effects on mammalian reproduction. During human pregnancy, maternal cadmium exposure, via the environment and/or cigarette smoking, leads to fetal growth restriction (FGR), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Although a substantial amount of evidence suggests that cadmium may affect fetal growth indirectly via the placenta, the molecular targets remain to be identified. Given that reduced placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11 beta-HSD2, encoded by HSD11B2 gene) is causally linked to FGR, the present study was undertaken to examine the hypothesis that cadmium induces FGR in part by targeting placental HSD11B2. Using cultured human trophoblast cells as a model system, we showed that cadmium exposure resulted in a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in 11 beta-HSD2 activity, such that an 80% reduction was observed after 24-h treatment at 1 microM. It also led to a similar decrease in levels of 11 beta-HSD2 protein and mRNA, suggesting that cadmium reduced 11 beta-HSD2 expression. Furthermore, cadmium diminished HSD11B2 promoter activity, indicative of repression of HSD11B2 gene transcription. In addition, the effect of cadmium was highly specific, in that other divalent metals (Zn(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+)) as well as nicotine and cotinine (a major metabolite of nicotine) did not alter 11 beta-HSD2 activity. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that cadmium reduces human placental 11 beta-HSD2 expression and activity by suppressing HSD11B2 gene transcription. Thus the present study identifies placental 11 beta-HSD2 as a novel molecular target of cadmium. It also reveals a molecular mechanism by which this endocrine disruptor may affect human placental function and, consequently, fetal growth and development.

  15. Increased Production of 11β-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 in the Kidney Microsomes of Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Sadosky, Patti W; Scammell, Jonathan G

    2008-01-01

    In squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.), cortisol circulates at levels much higher than those seen in man and other Old World primates, but squirrel monkeys exhibit no physiologic signs of the mineralocorticoid effects of cortisol. These observations suggest that squirrel monkeys have mechanisms for protection of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) from these high levels of cortisol. We previously showed that the serum cortisol to cortisone ratio in these animals is low relative to that in human serum, suggesting that production of the MR protective enzyme, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), is increased in squirrel monkeys. Here, we directly evaluate whether increased production of 11β-HSD2, which inactivates cortisol to cortisone, is a mechanism for protection of MR. In vitro assays showed that 11β-HSD2 activity in squirrel monkey kidney microsomes was 3 to 7 times higher than that seen in kidney microsomes from pig or rabbit. 11β-HSD2 protein detected by Western blot analysis was 4 to 9 times greater in squirrel monkey microsomes than in pig or rabbit microsomes. Comparison of the effect of expression of either human or squirrel monkey 11β-HSD2 on MR transactivation activity showed similar inhibition of MR response to cortisol by both enzymes, indicating that the intrinsic activities of the human and squirrel monkey enzymes are similar. These findings suggest that one mechanism by which squirrel monkeys protect the MR from activation by high cortisol levels in the kidney is by upregulation of 11β-HSD2 activity through increased production of the enzyme. PMID:18524177

  16. Momordica charantia extract, a herbal remedy for type 2 diabetes, contains a specific 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Blum, Andreas; Loerz, Christine; Martin, Hans-Joerg; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia A; Maser, Edmund

    2012-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyzes the intracellular regeneration of active cortisol from inert cortisone in key metabolic tissues, thus regulating ligand access to glucocorticoid receptors. There is strong evidence that increased adipose 11β-HSD1 activity may be an important aetiological factor in the current obesity and diabetes type 2 epidemics. Hence, inhibition of 11β-HSD1 has emerged as a promising anti-diabetic strategy, a concept that is largely supported by numerous studies in rodent models as well as limited clinical data with prototype inhibitors. Momordica charantia (also known as bitter melon, bitter gourd or karela) is traditionally used for treatment of diabetes in Asia, South America, the Caribbean, and East Africa. In the present study, we show that M. charantia extract capsules contain at least one ingredient with selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitory activity. The finding constitutes an interesting additional explanation for the well-documented anti-diabetic and hypoglycaemic effects of M. charantia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Preadipocyte 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is a keto-reductase and contributes to diet-induced visceral obesity in vivo.

    PubMed

    De Sousa Peixoto, R A; Turban, S; Battle, J H; Chapman, K E; Seckl, J R; Morton, N M

    2008-04-01

    Glucocorticoid excess promotes visceral obesity and cardiovascular disease. Similar features are found in the highly prevalent metabolic syndrome in the absence of high levels of systemic cortisol. Although elevated activity of the glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) within adipocytes might explain this paradox, the potential role of 11beta-HSD1 in preadipocytes is less clear; human omental adipose stromal vascular (ASV) cells exhibit 11beta-dehydrogenase activity (inactivation of glucocorticoids) probably due to the absence of cofactor provision by hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. To clarify the depot-specific impact of 11beta-HSD1, we assessed whether preadipocytes in ASV from mesenteric (as a representative of visceral adipose tissue) and sc tissue displayed 11beta-HSD1 activity in mice. 11beta-HSD1 was highly expressed in freshly isolated ASV cells, predominantly in preadipocytes. 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and protein levels were comparable between ASV and adipocyte fractions in both depots. 11beta-HSD1 was an 11beta-reductase, thus reactivating glucocorticoids in ASV cells, consistent with hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA expression. Unexpectedly, glucocorticoid reactivation was higher in intact mesenteric ASV cells despite a lower expression of 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and protein (homogenate activity) levels than sc ASV cells. This suggests a novel depot-specific control over 11beta-HSD1 enzyme activity. In vivo, high-fat diet-induced obesity was accompanied by increased visceral fat preadipocyte differentiation in wild-type but not 11beta-HSD1(-/-) mice. The results suggest that 11beta-HSD1 reductase activity is augmented in mouse mesenteric preadipocytes where it promotes preadipocyte differentiation and contributes to visceral fat accumulation in obesity.

  18. 11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II in the human endometrium: localization and activity during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Smith, R E; Salamonsen, L A; Komesaroff, P A; Li, K X; Myles, K M; Lawrence, M; Krozowski, Z

    1997-12-01

    The 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II enzyme (11 beta HSD2) is a potent inactivator of glucocorticoids and is present in high amounts in the placental syncytiotrophoblast and sodium-transporting epithelia. Placental 11 beta HSD2 is thought to protect the fetus from high circulating levels of maternal glucocorticoids, whereas the renal enzyme is important in conferring aldosterone specificity on the mineralocorticoid receptor. An isoform of 11 beta HSD (11 beta HSD1) is also present in a wide range of tissues, but usually acts as an oxoreductase, converting the biologically inactive cortisone to cortisol. In the present study we have used an immunopurified antibody to the carboxy-terminus of human 11 beta HSD2 (HUH23) to demonstrate localization of the enzyme in luminal and glandular epithelia of human endometrium. In some specimens staining was uniformly distributed, but in others there was clear evidence of heterogeneity both between and within epithelia. Although 11 beta HSD2 was found mainly in the cytoplasm, some cells showed evidence of nuclear staining only. Western blot analysis showed a band at 41 kDa in endometrium and myometrium, confirming the presence of 11 beta HSD2. Measurement of activity throughout the menstrual cycle showed that mean levels (+/- SEM) of activity were 156 +/- 17 and 6.1 +/- 1.1 pmol product/min.g homogenate protein for 11 beta HSD2 and 11 beta HSD1, respectively. Patients taking combined estrogen/progesterone contraceptives had significantly lower activities of both enzymes (76 +/- 19 and 1.9 +/- 0.4; both P < 0.01) compared with the control group. 11 beta HSD2 activity was significantly higher in the secretory than in the proliferative phase of the cycle in controls (193 +/- 22 vs. 120 +/- 23; P < 0.05). All groups contained outliers with elevated enzyme activities, with some patients displaying 11 beta HSD2 levels comparable to those observed in human kidney (> 1000 pmol/min.g). Further analysis showed that there was a

  19. Association between aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 polymorphisms and the incidence of diabetic retinopathy among Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Morita, Kazunori; Saruwatari, Junji; Miyagawa, Haruna; Uchiyashiki, Yoshihiro; Oniki, Kentaro; Sakata, Misaki; Kajiwara, Ayami; Yoshida, Akira; Jinnouchi, Hideaki; Nakagawa, Kazuko

    2013-09-13

    Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) detoxifies reactive aldehydes in the micro- and macrovasculature. These substrates, including methylglyoxal and 4-hydroxynonenal formed from glucose and lipids, cause protein carbonylation and mitochondrial dysfunction, forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs). The present study aimed to confirm the association between the inactive ALDH2*2 allele and diabetic retinopathy (DR). A retrospective longitudinal analysis was conducted, among 234 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (156 males and 78 females) who had no DR signs at baseline and were treated for more than half a year. The ALDH2*1/*2 alleles were determined using a real-time TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidential intervals (CIs) for the cumulative incidence of the development of DR were examined using a Cox proportional hazard model, taking drinking habits and the serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level into consideration. The frequency of the ALDH2*2 allele was 22.3%. Fifty-two subjects cumulatively developed DR during the follow-up period of 5.5 ± 2.5 years. The ALDH2*2 allele carriers had a significantly higher incidence of DR than the non-carriers (HR: 1.92; P = 0.02). The incidence of DR was significantly higher in the drinkers with the ALDH2*2 allele than in those with the ALDH2*1/*1 genotype (HR: 2.61; P = 0.03), while the incidence of DR in the non-drinkers did not differ significantly between the ALDH2 genotype groups (P > 0.05). The incidence of DR was significantly higher in the ALDH2*2 allele carriers with a high GGT level than in the non-carriers with a high or low GGT level (HR: 2.45; P = 0.03; and HR: 2.63; P = 0.03, respectively). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a significant association between the ALDH2*2 allele and the incidence of DR. These findings provide additional evidence that ALDH2 protects both microvasculature and

  20. A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae lacking catabolic NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase. Growth characteristics of the mutant and regulation of enzyme synthesis in the wild-type strain.

    PubMed

    Middelhoven, W J; van Eijk, J; van Renesse, R; Blijham, J M

    1978-01-01

    NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH-B) was induced in a wild-type strain derived of alpha-sigma 1278b by alpha-amino acids, the nitrogen of which according to known degradative pathways is transferred to 2-oxoglutarate. A recessive mutant (gdhB) devoid of GDH-B activity grew more slowly than the wild type if one of these amino acids was the sole source of nitrogen. Addition of ammonium chloride, glutamine, asparagine or serine to growth media with inducing alpha-amino acids as the main nitrogen source increased the growth rate of the gdhB mutant to the wild-type level and repressed GDH-B synthesis in the wild type. Arginine, urea and allantoin similarly increased the growth rate of the gdhB mutant and repressed GDH-B synthesis in the presence of glutamate, but not in the presence of aspartate, alanine or proline as the main nitrogen source. These observations are consistent with the view that GDH-B in vivo deaminates glutamate. Ammonium ions are required for the biosynthesis of glutamine, asparagine, arginine, histidine and purine and pyrimidine bases. Aspartate and alanine apparently are more potent inducers of GDH-B than glutamate. Anabolic NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH-A) can not fulfil the function of GDH-B in the gdhB mutant. This is concluded from the equal growth rates in glutamate, aspartate and proline media as observed with a gdhB mutant and with a gdhA, gdhB double mutant in which both glutamate dehydrogenases area lacking. The double mutant showed an anomalous growth behaviour, growth rates on several nitrogen sources being unexpectedly low.

  1. The activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 enzyme and cortisol secretion in patients with adrenal incidentalomas.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Valentina; Polledri, Elisa; Mercadante, Rosa; Zhukouskaya, Volha; Palmieri, Serena; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Spada, Anna; Fustinoni, Silvia; Chiodini, Iacopo

    2016-09-01

    In adrenal incidentaloma (AI) patients, beside the cortisol secretion, a different 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD11B2) activity, measurable by 24-h urinary cortisol/cortisone ratio (R-UFF/UFE) (the higher R-UFF/UFE the lower HSD11B2 activity), could influence the occurrence of the subclinical hypercortisolism (SH)-related complications (hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity). We evaluated whether in AI patients, UFF levels are associated to UFE levels, and the HSD11B2 activity to the complications presence. In 156 AI patients (93F, age 65.2 ± 9.5 years), the following were measured: serum cortisol after 1 mg-dexamethasone test (1 mg-DST), ACTH, UFF, UFE levels, and R-UFF/UFE (by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry), the latter was also evaluated in 63 matched-controls. We diagnosed SH (n = 22) in the presence of ≥2 among ACTH <2.2 pmol/L, increased UFF levels, and 1 mg-DST >83 nmol/L. Patients showed higher UFF levels and R-UFF/UFE than controls (75.9 ± 43.1 vs 54.4 ± 22.9 nmol/24 h and 0.26 ± 0.12 vs 0.20 ± 0.07, p < 0.005, respectively) but comparable UFE levels (291 ± 91.1 vs 268 ± 61.5, p = 0.069). The R-UFF/UFE was higher in patients with high (h-UFF, n = 28, 0.41 ± 0.20) than in those with normal (n-UFF, 0.22 ± 0.10, p < 0.005) UFF levels and in patients with SH than in those without SH (0.30 ± 0.12 vs 0.25 ± 0.12, p = 0.04). UFF levels were associated with R-UFF/UFE (r = 0.849, p < 0.001) in n-UFF, but not in h-UFF patients. Among h-UFF patients, the complications prevalence was not associated with R-UFF/UFE values. In AI patients, the UFF increase is not associated with a UFE increase. The HSD11B2 activity is inversely associated with UFF levels in n-UFF patients but not in h-UFF patients, and it is not associated with the SH complications.

  2. Hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activity in obesity and type 2 diabetes using a novel triple tracer cortisol technique

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Simmi; Norby, Barbara; Pattan, Vishwanath; Lingineni, Ravi K.; Singh, Ravinder J.; Carter, Rickey E.; Basu, Ananda

    2017-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Dysregulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) enzyme activities are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. The aim of the study was to determine whether hepatic 11β-HSD type 1 (11β-HSD-1) enzyme activity differs in people with and without obesity and type 2 diabetes. Methods We measured hepatic 11β-HSD-1 activity in the overnight fasted state in 20 lean non-diabetic participants (LND), 21 overweight/obese non-diabetic participants (OND) and 20 overweight/obese participants with type 2 diabetes (ODM) using a non-invasive approach. One mg doses of [9,12,12-2H3]cortisol (D cortisol) and [4-13C]cortisone ([13C]cortisone) were ingested, while [1,2,6,7-3H]cortisol ([3H] cortisol) was infused intravenously to enable concurrent measurements of first-pass hepatic extraction of ingested D cortisol and hepatic conversion of ingested [13C]cortisone to C13 cortisol derived from the ingested cortisone (a measure of 11β-HSD-1 activity in the liver) using an isotope dilution technique. One-way ANOVA models and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to test the hypothesis. Results Plasma D cortisol and C13 cortisol concentrations were lower in OND than in LND (p<0.05) over 6 h of the study. There was no difference (p=0.15) in C13 and D cortisol concentrations between OND and ODM and between LND and ODM for the same study period. Hepatic conversion of [13C]cortisone to C13 cortisol was similar between groups. Conclusions/interpretation Hepatic conversion of [13C]cortisone to C13 cortisol did not differ between the groups studied. We conclude that hepatic 11β-HSD-1 activity is similar in individuals who are overweight/obese or who have type 2 diabetes. PMID:24771091

  3. Suppression of NDA-Type Alternative Mitochondrial NAD(P)H Dehydrogenases in Arabidopsis thaliana Modifies Growth and Metabolism, but not High Light Stimulation of Mitochondrial Electron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Wallström, Sabá V.; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Araújo, Wagner L.; Escobar, Matthew A.; Geisler, Daniela A.; Aidemark, Mari; Lager, Ida; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Rasmusson, Allan G.

    2014-01-01

    The plant respiratory chain contains several pathways which bypass the energy-conserving electron transport complexes I, III and IV. These energy bypasses, including type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases and the alternative oxidase (AOX), may have a role in redox stabilization and regulation, but current evidence is inconclusive. Using RNA interference, we generated Arabidopsis thaliana plants simultaneously suppressing the type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase genes NDA1 and NDA2. Leaf mitochondria contained substantially reduced levels of both proteins. In sterile culture in the light, the transgenic lines displayed a slow growth phenotype, which was more severe when the complex I inhibitor rotenone was present. Slower growth was also observed in soil. In rosette leaves, a higher NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+ ratio and elevated levels of lactate relative to sugars and citric acid cycle metabolites were observed. However, photosynthetic performance was unaffected and microarray analyses indicated few transcriptional changes. A high light treatment increased AOX1a mRNA levels, in vivo AOX and cytochrome oxidase activities, and levels of citric acid cycle intermediates and hexoses in all genotypes. However, NDA-suppressing plants deviated from the wild type merely by having higher levels of several amino acids. These results suggest that NDA suppression restricts citric acid cycle reactions, inducing a shift towards increased levels of fermentation products, but do not support a direct association between photosynthesis and NDA proteins. PMID:24486764

  4. The 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor protects against the insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaohuan; Li, Hongzhi; Bai, He; Zhao, Xiaojin; Zhang, Chunlei; Liu, Haifeng; Zhang, Yufei; Zhao, Binghai; Wu, Yan; Liu, Jieting; Xiang, Qi; Feng, Biao; Chu, Yanhui; Huang, Yadong

    2016-10-05

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) metabolism is regulated by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1). When GCs are present in excess, they can impair glucose-dependent insulin sensitivity. We have previously synthesized several curcumin analogues, of which four compounds were selective inhibitors of 11β-HSD1. Here, we present data supporting that the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor (H8) inhibits insulin resistance and ameliorates hepatic steatosis in db/db mice. We compared glucose and lipid metabolism in db/db mice with or without administration of H8, which significantly decreased fasting blood glucose levels and protected against insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis compared to when glucose and lipid metabolism were measured following curcumin administration. The hepatic enzyme was reduced significantly in the plasma samples from db/db mice which were treated with H8. Serum corticosterone (active) levels, which are regulated by 11β-HSD1 were reduced when mice received H8. H8 administration suppressed phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6-pase) expression, which are related to gluconeogenesis and enhanced glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein content in liver. Treatment with H8 improved obesity and metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis by suppressing activity of 11β-HSD1, suggesting that H8 might be a beneficial drug for the treatment of obesity and Type-2 diabetes (T2D).

  5. Suppression of NDA-type alternative mitochondrial NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in arabidopsis thaliana modifies growth and metabolism, but not high light stimulation of mitochondrial electron transport.

    PubMed

    Wallström, Sabá V; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Araújo, Wagner L; Escobar, Matthew A; Geisler, Daniela A; Aidemark, Mari; Lager, Ida; Fernie, Alisdair R; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Rasmusson, Allan G

    2014-05-01

    The plant respiratory chain contains several pathways which bypass the energy-conserving electron transport complexes I, III and IV. These energy bypasses, including type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases and the alternative oxidase (AOX), may have a role in redox stabilization and regulation, but current evidence is inconclusive. Using RNA interference, we generated Arabidopsis thaliana plants simultaneously suppressing the type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase genes NDA1 and NDA2. Leaf mitochondria contained substantially reduced levels of both proteins. In sterile culture in the light, the transgenic lines displayed a slow growth phenotype, which was more severe when the complex I inhibitor rotenone was present. Slower growth was also observed in soil. In rosette leaves, a higher NAD(P)H/NAD(P)⁺ ratio and elevated levels of lactate relative to sugars and citric acid cycle metabolites were observed. However, photosynthetic performance was unaffected and microarray analyses indicated few transcriptional changes. A high light treatment increased AOX1a mRNA levels, in vivo AOX and cytochrome oxidase activities, and levels of citric acid cycle intermediates and hexoses in all genotypes. However, NDA-suppressing plants deviated from the wild type merely by having higher levels of several amino acids. These results suggest that NDA suppression restricts citric acid cycle reactions, inducing a shift towards increased levels of fermentation products, but do not support a direct association between photosynthesis and NDA proteins.

  6. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: relevance of its modulation in the pathophysiology of obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, C D; Azevedo, I; Monteiro, R; Martins, M J

    2012-10-01

    Recent evidence strongly argues for a pathogenic role of glucocorticoids and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in obesity and the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) that includes insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidaemia, hypertension and visceral obesity. This has been partially prompted not only by the striking clinical resemblances between the metabolic syndrome and Cushing's syndrome (a state characterized by hypercortisolism that associates with metabolic syndrome components) but also from monogenic rodent models for the metabolic syndrome (e.g. the leptin-deficient ob/ob mouse or the leptin-resistant Zucker rat) that display overall increased secretion of glucocorticoids. However, systemic circulating glucocorticoids are not elevated in obese patients and/or patients with metabolic syndrome. The study of the role of 11β-HSD system shed light on this conundrum, showing that local glucocorticoids are finely regulated in a tissue-specific manner at the pre-receptor level. The system comprises two microsomal enzymes that either activate cortisone to cortisol (11β-HSD1) or inactivate cortisol to cortisone (11β-HSD2). Transgenic rodent models, knockout (KO) for HSD11B1 or with HSD11B1 or HSD11B2 overexpression, specifically targeted to the liver or adipose tissue, have been developed and helped unravel the currently undisputable role of the enzymes in metabolic syndrome pathophysiology, in each of its isolated components and in their prevention. In the transgenic HSD11B1 overexpressing models, different features of the metabolic syndrome and obesity are replicated. HSD11B1 gene deficiency or HSD11B2 gene overexpression associates with improvements in the metabolic profile. In face of these demonstrations, research efforts are now being turned both into the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 as a possible pharmacological target and into the role of dietary habits on the

  7. Piper sarmentosum Effects on 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Enzyme in Serum and Bone in Rat Model of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Asri, Siti Fadziyah; Mohd Ramli, Elvy Suhana; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana; Mat Noh, Muhamad Alfakry; Abdul Rashid, Abdul Hamid; Suhaimi, Farihah

    2016-11-15

    Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is one of the common causes of secondary osteoporosis. Piper sarmentosum (Ps) extract possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we determined the correlation between the effects of Ps leaf water extract with the regulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) type 1 enzyme activity in serum and bone of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporotic rats. Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were grouped into following: G1: sham-operated group administered with intramuscular vehicle olive oil and vehicle normal saline orally; G2: adrenalectomized (adrx) control group given intramuscular dexamethasone (120 μg/kg/day) and vehicle normal saline orally; G3: adrx group given intramuscular dexamethasone (120 μg/kg/day) and water extract of Piper sarmentosum (125 mg/kg/day) orally. After two months, the femur and serum were taken for ELISA analysis. Results showed that Ps leaf water extract significantly reduced the femur corticosterone concentration (p < 0.05). This suggests that Ps leaf water extract was able to prevent bone loss due to long-term glucocorticoid therapy by acting locally on the bone cells by increasing the dehydrogenase action of 11β-HSD type 1. Thus, Ps may have the potential to be used as an alternative medicine against osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture in patients on long-term glucocorticoid treatment.

  8. 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1, and not Type 12, is a target for endocrine therapy of hormone-dependent breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Day, Joanna M; Foster, Paul A; Tutill, Helena J; Parsons, Michael F C; Newman, Simon P; Chander, Surinder K; Allan, Gillian M; Lawrence, Harshani R; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L; Reed, Michael J; Purohit, Atul

    2008-05-01

    Oestradiol (E2) stimulates the growth of hormone-dependent breast cancer. 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) catalyse the pre-receptor activation/inactivation of hormones and other substrates. 17beta-HSD1 converts oestrone (E1) to active E2, but it has recently been suggested that another 17beta-HSD, 17beta-HSD12, may be the major enzyme that catalyses this reaction in women. Here we demonstrate that it is 17beta-HSD1 which is important for E2 production and report the inhibition of E1-stimulated breast tumor growth by STX1040, a non-oestrogenic selective inhibitor of 17beta-HSD1, using a novel murine model. 17beta-HSD1 and 17beta-HSD12 mRNA and protein expression, and E2 production, were assayed in wild type breast cancer cell lines and in cells after siRNA and cDNA transfection. Although 17beta-HSD12 was highly expressed in breast cancer cell lines, only 17beta-HSD1 efficiently catalysed E2 formation. The effect of STX1040 on the proliferation of E1-stimulated T47D breast cancer cells was determined in vitro and in vivo. Cells inoculated into ovariectomised nude mice were stimulated using 0.05 or 0.1 microg E1 (s.c.) daily, and on day 35 the mice were dosed additionally with 20 mg/kg STX1040 s.c. daily for 28 days. STX1040 inhibited E1-stimulated proliferation of T47D cells in vitro and significantly decreased tumor volumes and plasma E2 levels in vivo. In conclusion, a model was developed to study the inhibition of the major oestrogenic 17beta-HSD, 17beta-HSD1, in breast cancer. Both E2 production and tumor growth were inhibited by STX1040, suggesting that 17beta-HSD1 inhibitors such as STX1040 may provide a novel treatment for hormone-dependent breast cancer.

  9. A newborn lethal defect due to inactivation of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 3 is prevented by maternal retinoic acid treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dupé, Valérie; Matt, Nicolas; Garnier, Jean-Marie; Chambon, Pierre; Mark, Manuel; Ghyselinck, Norbert B.

    2003-01-01

    The retinoic acid (RA) signal, produced locally from vitamin A by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (Raldh) and transduced by the nuclear receptors for retinoids (RA receptor and 9-cis-RA receptor), is indispensable for ontogenesis and homeostasis of numerous tissues. We demonstrate that Raldh3 knockout in mouse suppresses RA synthesis and causes malformations restricted to ocular and nasal regions, which are similar to those observed in vitamin A-deficient fetuses and/or in retinoid receptor mutants. Raldh3 knockout notably causes choanal atresia (CA), which is responsible for respiratory distress and death of Raldh3-null mutants at birth. CA is due to persistence of nasal fins, whose rupture normally allows the communication between nasal and oral cavities. This malformation, which is similar to isolated congenital CA in humans and may result from impaired RA-controlled down-regulation of Fgf8 expression in nasal fins, can be prevented by a simple maternal treatment with RA. PMID:14623956

  10. A non-enzymatic function of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 is required for mitochondrial integrity and cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Rauschenberger, Katharina; Schöler, Katja; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Sauer, Sven; Djuric, Zdenka; Rumig, Cordula; Wolf, Nicole I; Okun, Jürgen G; Kölker, Stefan; Schwarz, Heinz; Fischer, Christine; Grziwa, Beate; Runz, Heiko; Nümann, Astrid; Shafqat, Naeem; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Hämmerling, Günter; Wanders, Ronald J A; Shield, Julian P H; Wendel, Udo; Stern, David; Nawroth, Peter; Hoffmann, Georg F; Bartram, Claus R; Arnold, Bernd; Bierhaus, Angelika; Oppermann, Udo; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Zschocke, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase involved in isoleucine metabolism causes an organic aciduria with atypical neurodegenerative course. The disease-causing gene is HSD17B10 and encodes 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 (HSD10), a protein also implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that clinical symptoms in patients are not correlated with residual enzymatic activity of mutated HSD10. Loss-of-function and rescue experiments in Xenopus embryos and cells derived from conditional Hsd17b10−/− mice demonstrate that a property of HSD10 independent of its enzymatic activity is essential for structural and functional integrity of mitochondria. Impairment of this function in neural cells causes apoptotic cell death whilst the enzymatic activity of HSD10 is not required for cell survival. This finding indicates that the symptoms in patients with mutations in the HSD17B10 gene are unrelated to accumulation of toxic metabolites in the isoleucine pathway and, rather, related to defects in general mitochondrial function. Therefore alternative therapeutic approaches to an isoleucine-restricted diet are required. PMID:20077426

  11. A non-enzymatic function of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 is required for mitochondrial integrity and cell survival.

    PubMed

    Rauschenberger, Katharina; Schöler, Katja; Sass, Jörn Oliver; Sauer, Sven; Djuric, Zdenka; Rumig, Cordula; Wolf, Nicole I; Okun, Jürgen G; Kölker, Stefan; Schwarz, Heinz; Fischer, Christine; Grziwa, Beate; Runz, Heiko; Nümann, Astrid; Shafqat, Naeem; Kavanagh, Kathryn L; Hämmerling, Günter; Wanders, Ronald J A; Shield, Julian P H; Wendel, Udo; Stern, David; Nawroth, Peter; Hoffmann, Georg F; Bartram, Claus R; Arnold, Bernd; Bierhaus, Angelika; Oppermann, Udo; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Zschocke, Johannes

    2010-02-01

    Deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase involved in isoleucine metabolism causes an organic aciduria with atypical neurodegenerative course. The disease-causing gene is HSD17B10 and encodes 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 (HSD10), a protein also implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Here we show that clinical symptoms in patients are not correlated with residual enzymatic activity of mutated HSD10. Loss-of-function and rescue experiments in Xenopus embryos and cells derived from conditional Hsd17b10(-/-) mice demonstrate that a property of HSD10 independent of its enzymatic activity is essential for structural and functional integrity of mitochondria. Impairment of this function in neural cells causes apoptotic cell death whilst the enzymatic activity of HSD10 is not required for cell survival. This finding indicates that the symptoms in patients with mutations in the HSD17B10 gene are unrelated to accumulation of toxic metabolites in the isoleucine pathway and, rather, related to defects in general mitochondrial function. Therefore alternative therapeutic approaches to an isoleucine-restricted diet are required.

  12. A Dedicated Type II NADPH Dehydrogenase Performs the Penultimate Step in the Biosynthesis of Vitamin K1 in Synechocystis and Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Fatihi, Abdelhak; Latimer, Scott; Schmollinger, Stefan; Block, Anna; Dussault, Patrick H.; Vermaas, Wim F.J.; Merchant, Sabeeha S.; Basset, Gilles J.

    2015-01-01

    Mutation of Arabidopsis thaliana NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE C1 (NDC1; At5g08740) results in the accumulation of demethylphylloquinone, a late biosynthetic intermediate of vitamin K1. Gene coexpression and phylogenomics analyses showed that conserved functional associations occur between vitamin K biosynthesis and NDC1 homologs throughout the prokaryotic and eukaryotic lineages. Deletion of Synechocystis ndbB, which encodes for one such homolog, resulted in the same defects as those observed in the cyanobacterial demethylnaphthoquinone methyltransferase knockout. Chemical modeling and assay of purified demethylnaphthoquinone methyltransferase demonstrated that, by virtue of the strong electrophilic nature of S-adenosyl-l-methionine, the transmethylation of the demethylated precursor of vitamin K is strictly dependent on the reduced form of its naphthoquinone ring. NDC1 was shown to catalyze such a prerequisite reduction by using NADPH and demethylphylloquinone as substrates and flavine adenine dinucleotide as a cofactor. NDC1 displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and was markedly inhibited by dicumarol, a competitive inhibitor of naphthoquinone oxidoreductases. These data demonstrate that the reduction of the demethylnaphthoquinone ring represents an authentic step in the biosynthetic pathway of vitamin K, that this reaction is enzymatically driven, and that a selection pressure is operating to retain type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in this process. PMID:26023160

  13. Gene structure and chromosomal localization of the human HSD11K gene encoding the kidney (type 2) isozyme of 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, A.K.; Rogerson, F.M.; Mune, T.; White, P.C.

    1995-09-01

    11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11{beta}HSD) converts glucocorticoids to inactive products and is thus thought to confer specificity for aldosterone on the type I mineralocorticoid receptor in the kidney. Recent studies indicate the presence of at least two isozymes of 11{beta}HSD. In vitro, the NAD{sup +}-dependent kidney (type 2) isozyme catalyzes 11{beta}-dehydrogenase but not reductase reactions, whereas the NADP{sup +}-dependent liver (type 1) isozyme catalyzes both reactions. We have now characterized the human gene encoding kidney 11{beta}HSD (HSD11K). A bacteriophage P1 clone was isolated after screening a human genomic library by hybridization with sheep HSD11K cDNA. The gene consists of 5 exons spread over 6 kb. The nucleotide binding domain lies in the first exon are GC-rich (80%), suggesting that the gene may be transcriptionally regulated by factors that recognize GC-rich sequences. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosomes with a positive P1 clone localized the gene to chromosome 16q22. In contrast, the HSD11L (liver isozyme) gene is located on chromosome 1 and contains 6 exons; the coding sequences of these genes are only 21% identical. HSD11K is expressed at high levels in the placenta and kidney of midgestation human fetuses and at lower levels in lung and testes. Different transcriptional start sites are utilized in kidney and placenta. These data should be applicable to genetic analysis of the syndrome of apparent mineralocorticoid excess, which may represent a deficiency of 11{beta}HSD. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Cofactor Specificity of the Bifunctional Alcohol and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (AdhE) in Wild-Type and Mutant Clostridium thermocellum and Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Tianyong; Olson, Daniel G.; Tian, Liang; Bomble, Yannick J.; Himmel, Michael E.; Lo, Jonathan; Hon, Shuen; Shaw, A. Joe; van Dijken, Johannes P.; Lynd, Lee R.; Metcalf, W. W.

    2015-05-26

    Clostridium thermocellum and type='genus-species'>Thermoanaerobacteriumtype='genus-species'> saccharolyticumare thermophilic bacteria that have been engineered to produce ethanol from the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of biomass, respectively. Although engineered strains oftype='genus-species'> T. saccharolyticumproduce ethanol with a yield of 90% of the theoretical maximum, engineered strains oftype='genus-species'>C. thermocellumproduce ethanol at lower yields (~50% of the theoretical maximum). In the course of engineering these strains, a number of mutations have been discovered in theiradhEgenes, which encode both alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. To understand the effects of these mutations, theadhEgenes from six strains oftype='genus-species'>C. thermocellumandtype='genus-species'>T. saccharolyticumwere cloned and expressed intype='genus-species'>Escherichia coli, the enzymes produced were purified by affinity chromatography, and enzyme activity was measured. In wild-type strains of both organisms, NADH was the preferred cofactor for both ALDH and ADH activities. In high-ethanol-producing (ethanologen) strains oftype='genus-species'>T. saccharolyticum, both ALDH and ADH activities showed increased NADPH-linked activity. Interestingly, the AdhE protein of the ethanologenic strain oftype='genus-species'>C. thermocellumhas acquired high NADPH-linked ADH activity while maintaining NADH-linked ALDH and ADH activities at wild-type levels. When single amino acid mutations in AdhE that caused increased NADPH-linked ADH activity

  15. DFT study of the active site of the XoxF-type natural, cerium-dependent methanol dehydrogenase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Justin A; Lewis, Andrew J; Schelter, Eric J

    2015-01-19

    Rare-earth metal cations have recently been demonstrated to be essential co-factors for the growth of the methanotrophic bacterium Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV. A crystal structure of the rare-earth-dependent methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) includes a cerium cation in the active site. Herein, the Ce-MDH active site has been analyzed through DFT calculations. The results show the stability of the Ce(III)-pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) semiquinone configuration. Calculations on the active oxidized form of this complex indicate a 0.81 eV stabilization of the PQQ(0) LUMO at cerium versus calcium, supporting the observation that the cerium cation in the active site confers a competitive advantage to Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV. Using reported aqueous electrochemical data, a semi-empirical correlation was established based on cerium(IV/III) redox potentials. The correlation allowed estimation of the cerium oxidation potential of +1.35 V versus saturated calomel electrode (SCE) in the active site. The results are expected to guide the design of functional model complexes and alcohol-oxidation catalysts based on lanthanide complexes of biologically relevant quinones.

  16. Annotated compound data for modulators of detergent-solubilised or lipid-reconstituted respiratory type II NADH dehydrogenase activity obtained by compound library screening

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Elyse A.; Cook, Gregory M.; Heikal, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The energy-generating membrane protein NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2), a proposed antibacterial drug target (see “Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs” Weinstein et al. 2005 [1]), was screened for modulators of activity in either detergent-solublised or lipid reconstituted (proteolipsome) form. Here we present an annotated list of compounds identified in a small-scale screen against NDH-2. The dataset contains information regarding the libraries screened, the identities of hit compounds and the physicochemical properties governing solubility and permeability. The implications of these data for future antibiotic discovery are discussed in our associated report, “Comparison of lipid and detergent enzyme environments for identifying inhibitors of membrane-bound energy-transducing proteins” [2]. PMID:26862571

  17. A post-weaning fish oil dietary intervention reverses adverse metabolic outcomes and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression in postnatal overfed rats.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yanyan; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Nan; Sha, Lijun; Zhou, Shanshan; Wang, Junle; Li, Xiaonan

    2016-11-01

    Early life is considered a critical period for determining long-term metabolic health. Postnatal over-nutrition may alter glucocorticoid (GC) metabolism and increase the risk of developing obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. Our aim was to assess the effects of the dose and timing of a fish oil diet on obesity and the expression of GC-activated enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD1) in postnatal overfed rats. Litter sizes were adjusted to three (small litter (SL)) or ten (normal litter) rats on postnatal day 3 to induce overfeeding or normal feeding. The SL rats were divided into three groups after weaning: high-dose fish oil (HFO), low-dose fish oil (LFO) and standard-diet groups. After 10 weeks, the HFO diet reduced body weight gain (16 %, P0·05). In conclusion, the post-weaning HFO diet could reverse adverse outcomes and decrease tissue GC activity in postnatal overfed rats.

  18. Annotated compound data for modulators of detergent-solubilised or lipid-reconstituted respiratory type II NADH dehydrogenase activity obtained by compound library screening.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Elyse A; Cook, Gregory M; Heikal, Adam

    2016-03-01

    The energy-generating membrane protein NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2), a proposed antibacterial drug target (see "Inhibitors of type II NADH:menaquinone oxidoreductase represent a class of antitubercular drugs" Weinstein et al. 2005 [1]), was screened for modulators of activity in either detergent-solublised or lipid reconstituted (proteolipsome) form. Here we present an annotated list of compounds identified in a small-scale screen against NDH-2. The dataset contains information regarding the libraries screened, the identities of hit compounds and the physicochemical properties governing solubility and permeability. The implications of these data for future antibiotic discovery are discussed in our associated report, "Comparison of lipid and detergent enzyme environments for identifying inhibitors of membrane-bound energy-transducing proteins" [2].

  19. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 shRNA ameliorates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance and lipolysis in mouse abdominal adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yan, Chaoying; Liu, Limei; Wang, Wei; Du, Hanze; Fan, Winnie; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Jiang, Meisheng; Friedman, Theodore C; Liu, Yanjun

    2015-01-01

    Long-term glucocorticoid exposure increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Prereceptor activation of glucocorticoid availability in target tissue by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) coupled with hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) is an important mediator of the metabolic syndrome. We explored whether the tissue-specific modulation of 11β-HSD1 and H6PDH in adipose tissue mediates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance and lipolysis and analyzed the effects of 11β-HSD1 inhibition on the key lipid metabolism genes and insulin-signaling cascade. We observed that corticosterone (CORT) treatment increased expression of 11β-HSD1 and H6PDH and induced lipase HSL and ATGL with suppression of p-Thr(172) AMPK in adipose tissue of C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, CORT induced adipose insulin resistance, as reflected by a marked decrease in IR and IRS-1 gene expression with a reduction in p-Thr(308) Akt/PKB. Furthermore, 11β-HSD1 shRNA attenuated CORT-induced 11β-HSD1 and lipase expression and improved insulin sensitivity with a concomitant stimulation of pThr(308) Akt/PKB and p-Thr(172) AMPK within adipose tissue. Addition of CORT to 3T3-L1 adipocytes enhanced 11β-HSD1 and H6PDH and impaired p-Thr(308) Akt/PKB, leading to lipolysis. Knockdown of 11β-HSD1 by shRNA attenuated CORT-induced lipolysis and reversed CORT-mediated inhibition of pThr(172) AMPK, which was accompanied by a parallel improvement of insulin signaling response in these cells. These findings suggest that elevated adipose 11β-HSD1 expression may contribute to glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance and adipolysis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Mutations of key hydrophobic surface residues of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 increase solubility and monodispersity in a bacterial expression system

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Alexander J; Walker, Elizabeth A; White, Scott A; Dafforn, Timothy R; Stewart, Paul M; Ride, Jonathan P

    2009-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is a key enzyme in the conversion of cortisone to the functional glucocorticoid hormone cortisol. This activation has been implicated in several human disorders, notably the metabolic syndrome where 11β-HSD1 has been identified as a novel target for potential therapeutic drugs. Recent crystal structures have revealed the presence of a pronounced hydrophobic surface patch lying on two helices at the C-terminus. The physiological significance of this region has been attributed to facilitating substrate access by allowing interactions with the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Here, we report that single mutations that alter the hydrophobicity of this patch (I275E, L266E, F278E, and L279E in the human enzyme and I275E, Y266E, F278E, and L279E in the guinea pig enzyme) result in greatly increased yields of soluble protein on expression in E. coli. Kinetic analyses of both reductase and dehydrogenase reactions indicate that the F278E mutant has unaltered Km values for steroids and an unaltered or increased kcat. Analytical ultracentrifugation shows that this mutation also decreases aggregation of both the human and guinea pig enzymes, resulting in greater monodispersity. One of the mutants (guinea pig F278E) has proven easy to crystallize and has been shown to have a virtually identical structure to that previously reported for the wild-type enzyme. The human F278E enzyme is shown to be a suitable background for analyzing the effects of naturally occurring mutations (R137C, K187N) on enzyme activity and stability. Hence, the F278E mutants should be useful for many future biochemical and biophysical studies of the enzyme. PMID:19507261

  1. Divergent effects of retinoic acids on the expression of ERalpha and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in endometrial carcinoma cells (RL 95-2).

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Li, Hui; Xiao, Zhi-Jie; Piao, Yun-Shang

    2002-02-01

    The effects of E2 are dependent on ERs and local E2 concentration in target cells. Modulation of intracellular E2 concentration involves the action of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17HSD) type 2, the enzyme converting E2 to estrone. In the present study, the influence of RAs on the growth of endometrial cancer cell line RL 95-2 as well as the expression of ERs and 17HSD type 2 have been investigated. It was found that RAs repress the growth of RL 95-2 cells, which express all subtypes of RXR and RAR, as examined by RT-PCR. Also, quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that both ERalpha and ERbeta are present in RL 95-2 cells, and Western blot assay further revealed that ERalpha expression was decreased by all trans-RA treatment. In contrast, RAs induced 17HSD type 2 mRNA expression in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. This stimulatory effect was also detected at the level of in vivo oxidative 17HSD activity in cultured cells. On the other hand, the abundance of 17HSD type 2 mRNA was not altered by RAs in cultured normal epithelial cells isolated from human early- and late-secretory endometrium. The data indicate that RAs have an inhibitory effect on the growth of RL 95-2 cells and a cross-talk with the estrogen pathway in estrogen-responsive endometrial cancer cells.

  2. Estrogen receptors (alpha and beta) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and 2 in thyroid disorders: possible in situ estrogen synthesis and actions.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Wakako; Suzuki, Takashi; Moriya, Takuya; Fujimori, Keisei; Naganuma, Hiroshi; Inoue, Satoshi; Kinouchi, Yositaka; Kameyama, Kaori; Takami, Hiroshi; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Sasano, Hironobu

    2003-05-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental findings suggest the possible roles of sex steroids in the pathogenesis and/or development of various human thyroid disorders. In this study, we evaluated the expression of estrogen receptors (ER) alpha and beta in normal thyroid glands (N = 25; female: n = 13, male: n = 10, unknown: n = 2) ranging in age from fetus to adult. Furthermore, using immunohistochemistry, we investigated the expression of ERalpha and beta in 206 cases of thyroid disorders, including 24 adenomatous goiters, 23 follicular adenomas, and 159 thyroid carcinomas. In addition, we also studied the mRNA expression of ERalpha and beta and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1 and 2, enzymes involved in the interconversion between estrone and estradiol, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in 48 of these 206 cases (10 adenomatous goiters, 10 follicular adenomas, and 28 papillary thyroid carcinomas) in which fresh frozen tissues were available for examination to further elucidate the possible involvement of intracrine estrogen metabolism and/or actions in thyroid disorders. ERalpha labeling index, or percentage of cells immunopositive for ERalpha, was significantly higher in adenomatous goiter (14.2 +/- 6.4), follicular adenoma (13.4 +/- 5.1), and thyroid carcinoma (16.4 +/- 2.1) than in normal thyroid gland (0; P <.05). Few follicular cells were positive for ERalpha in normal thyroid glands. In papillary carcinoma, ERalpha labeling index was significantly higher in premenopausal women (28.1 +/- 4.5) than in postmenopausal women (14.2 +/- 2.9) and in men of various ages (7.6 +/- 2.7; P <.05). In other histological types of thyroid carcinoma, no significant correlations were detected. ERbeta immunoreactivity was detected in both follicular and C-cells of normal thyroid glands, including those in developing fetal thyroid glands. In addition, ERbeta immunoreactivity was detected in the nuclei of various thyroid lesions. But no

  3. The Contribution of 17beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 to the Estradiol-Estrone Ratio in Estrogen-Sensitive Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Da-Chuan; Lin, Sheng-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Estrone and estradiol are both estrogens with estrone being the less potent form and estradiol being the most potent estrogen. The binding of the latter to cellular regulatory elements stimulates the proliferation of breast cancer cells. A high ratio of estradiol/estrone is related to increased cell proliferation, and is of great importance to understanding of breast cancer mechanisms. 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and type 2 play important roles in the activation of estrone and inactivation of estradiol. Breast cancer cells T47D, MCF-7, BT 20, and JEG 3 as control cells, were chosen to evaluate the contribution of these two enzymes to the ratio. Twenty four hours after addition of different concentrations of estrone and estradiol, the ratio stabilized to around 9/1 in breast cancer cell lines with high expression of type 1 (T47D, BT 20, and JEG 3), whereas it approached 1/5 in cells with low expression of type 1 (MCF-7). The estradiol/estrone concentration ratio was modified to 9/1 in MCF-7 and HEK-293 cells over-expressing type 1. In T47D and BT 20, this ratio was decreased from 9/1 to nearly 1/5 (19/81 and 17/83 respectively) after type 1 knockdown by specific siRNAs. Type 2 is mainly involved in the conversion of estradiol into estrone. This ratio was decreased from 9/1 to 7/3 after over-expression of type 2 in MCF-7 cells already over-expressing type 1. The ratio was further decreased by the addition of the oxidative cofactor, NAD, to the cell culture to facilitate the estradiol to estrone conversion catalyzed by type 2. These results demonstrate that the estradiol/estrone ratio is controlled by both type 1 and type 2 with an additional contribution by NAD, although type 1 is the first determining factor in the cellular environment compared with type 2 and cofactors. Moreover, kinetic studies were carried out in intact cells as a new approach, using HEK-293 cells over-expressing type 1 and T47D breast cancer cells. PMID:22253796

  4. Analysis of all subunits, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, SDHD, of the succinate dehydrogenase complex in KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GIST.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, Maria A; Astolfi, Annalisa; Urbini, Milena; Nannini, Margherita; Paterini, Paola; Indio, Valentina; Saponara, Maristella; Formica, Serena; Ceccarelli, Claudio; Casadio, Rita; Rossi, Giulio; Bertolini, Federica; Santini, Donatella; Pirini, Maria G; Fiorentino, Michelangelo; Basso, Umberto; Biasco, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Mutations of genes encoding the subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex were described in KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GIST separately in different reports. In this study, we simultaneously sequenced the genome of all subunits, SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD in a larger series of KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GIST in order to evaluate the frequency of the mutations and explore their biological role. SDHA, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHD were sequenced on the available samples obtained from 34 KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GISTs. Of these, in 10 cases, both tumor and peripheral blood (PB) were available, in 19 cases only tumor, and in 5 cases only PB. Overall, 9 of the 34 patients with KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GIST carried mutations in one of the four subunits of the SDH complex (six patients in SDHA, two in SDHB, one in SDHC). WB and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that patients with KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GIST who harbored SDHA mutations exhibited a significant downregulation of both SDHA and SDHB protein expression, with respect to the other GIST lacking SDH mutations and to KIT/PDGFRA-mutated GIST. Clinically, four out of six patients with SDHA mutations presented with metastatic disease at diagnosis with a very slow, indolent course. Patients with KIT/PDGFRA wild-type GIST may harbor germline and/or de novo mutations of SDH complex with prevalence for mutations within SDHA, which is associated with a downregulation of SDHA and SDHB protein expression. The presence of germline mutations may suggest that these patients should be followed up for the risk of development of other cancers.

  5. Regulation of a Glycerol-Induced Quinoprotein Alcohol Dehydrogenase by σ(54) and a LuxR-Type Regulator in Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vijay Shankar; Dubey, Ashutosh Prakash; Gupta, Ankush; Singh, Sudhir; Singh, Bhupendra Narain; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

    2017-07-01

    Azospirillum brasilense Sp7 uses glycerol as a carbon source for growth and nitrogen fixation. When grown in medium containing glycerol as a source of carbon, it upregulates the expression of a protein which was identified as quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase (ExaA). Inactivation of exaA adversely affects the growth of A. brasilense on glycerol. A determination of the transcription start site of exaA revealed an RpoN-dependent -12/-24 promoter consensus. The expression of an exaA::lacZ fusion was induced maximally by glycerol and was dependent on σ(54) Bioinformatic analysis of the sequence flanking the -12/-24 promoter revealed a 17-bp sequence motif with a dyad symmetry of 6 nucleotides upstream of the promoter, the disruption of which caused a drastic reduction in promoter activity. The electrophoretic mobility of a DNA fragment containing the 17-bp sequence motif was retarded by purified EraR, a LuxR-type transcription regulator that is transcribed divergently from exaA EraR also showed a positive interaction with RpoN in two-hybrid and pulldown assays.IMPORTANCE Quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase (ExaA) plays an important role in the catabolism of alcohols in bacteria. Although exaA expression is thought to be regulated by a two-component system consisting of EraS and EraR, the mechanism of regulation was not known. This study shows the details of the regulation of expression of the exaA gene in A. brasilense We have shown here that exaA of A. brasilense is maximally induced by glycerol and harbors a σ(54)-dependent promoter. The response regulator EraR binds to an inverted repeat located upstream of the exaA promoter. This study shows that a LuxR-type response regulator (EraR) binds upstream of the exaA gene and physically interacts with σ(54) The unique feature of this regulation is that EraR is a LuxR-type transcription regulator that lacks the GAFTGA motif, a characteristic feature of the enhancer binding proteins that are known to interact with σ(54

  6. Lactate dehydrogenase test

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003471.htm Lactate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a protein that helps produce energy ...

  7. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a protein that ...

  8. Role of Type 2 NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase NdbC in Redox Regulation of Carbon Allocation in Synechocystis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Huokko, Tuomas; Muth-Pawlak, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    NAD(P)H dehydrogenases comprise type 1 (NDH-1) and type 2 (NDH-2s) enzymes. Even though the NDH-1 complex is a well-characterized protein complex in the thylakoid membrane of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis), the exact roles of different NDH-2s remain poorly understood. To elucidate this question, we studied the function of NdbC, one of the three NDH-2s in Synechocystis, by constructing a deletion mutant (ΔndbC) for a corresponding protein and submitting the mutant to physiological and biochemical characterization as well as to comprehensive proteomics analysis. We demonstrate that the deletion of NdbC, localized to the plasma membrane, affects several metabolic pathways in Synechocystis in autotrophic growth conditions without prominent effects on photosynthesis. Foremost, the deletion of NdbC leads, directly or indirectly, to compromised sugar catabolism, to glycogen accumulation, and to distorted cell division. Deficiencies in several sugar catabolic routes were supported by severe retardation of growth of the ΔndbC mutant under light-activated heterotrophic growth conditions but not under mixotrophy. Thus, NdbC has a significant function in regulating carbon allocation between storage and the biosynthesis pathways. In addition, the deletion of NdbC increases the amount of cyclic electron transfer, possibly via the NDH-12 complex, and decreases the expression of several transporters in ambient CO2 growth conditions. PMID:28533358

  9. The R337C mutation generates a high Km 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II enzyme in a family with apparent mineralocorticoid excess

    SciTech Connect

    Obeyisekere, V.R.; Ferrari, P.; Funder, J.W.; Krozowski, Z.S.

    1995-10-01

    The 11{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II enzyme (11{beta}HSD2) inactivates glucocorticoids in the kidney and thus permits aldosterone to occupy the non-selective mineralocortiocid receptor in epithelial tissues. We have recently described a C to T transition in the HSD11B2 gene which results in an arginine to cysteine mutation (R337C) in the 11{beta}HSD2 enzyme in a consanguineous family with three siblings suffering from Apparent Mineralocorticoid Excess (AME). In the present study we have examined the metabolism of cortisol in mammalian cells transfected with plasmids expressing the wild type and mutant enzymes. In whole cells the Km of the normal enzyme was 110nM, while the enzyme containing the R337C mutation displayed a Km of 1010nM. Further experiments revealed that the mutant was totally inactive in cell free preparations, suggesting that it has additional properties which may compromise its activity in whole cells. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Optimization of brain penetrant 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type I inhibitors and in vivo testing in diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Frederick W; Dossetter, Alexander G; Scott, James S; Robb, Graeme R; Boyd, Scott; Groombridge, Sam D; Kemmitt, Paul D; Sjögren, Tove; Gutierrez, Pablo Morentin; deSchoolmeester, Joanne; Swales, John G; Turnbull, Andrew V; Wild, Martin J

    2014-02-13

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) has been widely considered by the pharmaceutical industry as a target to treat metabolic syndrome in type II diabetics. We hypothesized that central nervous system (CNS) penetration might be required to see efficacy. Starting from a previously reported pyrimidine compound, we removed hydrogen-bond donors to yield 3, which had modest CNS penetration. More significant progress was achieved by changing the core to give 40, which combines good potency and CNS penetration. Compound 40 was dosed to diet-induced obese (DIO) mice and gave excellent target engagement in the liver and high free exposures of drug, both peripherally and in the CNS. However, no body weight reduction or effects on glucose or insulin were observed in this model. Similar data were obtained with a structurally diverse thiazole compound 51. This work casts doubt on the hypothesis that localized tissue modulation of 11β-HSD1 activity alleviates metabolic syndrome.

  11. Stabilizing effect of four types of disaccharide on the enzymatic activity of freeze-dried lactate dehydrogenase: step by step evaluation from freezing to storage.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toru

    2007-10-01

    In order to understand the stabilizing effects of disaccharides on freeze-dried proteins, the enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) formulations containing four types of disaccharide (trehalose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose) at two relative humidity (RH) levels (about 0 and 32.8%) was investigated after three processes: freeze-thawing, freeze-drying, and storage at three temperatures (20, 40, and 60 degrees C) above and/or below the glass transition temperature (T(g)). The enzymatic activity was determined from the absorbance at 340 nm, and T(g) of the samples was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. At each RH condition, T(g) values of sucrose formulations were lower than those of other formulations. Although effects of the disaccharides on the process stability of LDH were comparable, storage stability was dependent on the type of disaccharide. All the formulations were destabilized significantly during storage at temperature above T(g). During storage at temperature below T(g), the LDH activity decreased with increases in the storage temperature and moisture. Maltose and lactose formulations showed significant destabilization with the change of color to browning. Taking the storage stability of freeze-dried proteins under the various conditions (temperature and RH) into consideration, trehalose is better suited as the stabilizer than other disaccharides.

  12. Evaluation of hepatic 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity by cortisone acetate test in young adults with diabetes mellitus type 1.

    PubMed

    Šimůnková, K; Hampl, R; Hill, M; Kříž, L; Vrbíková, J; Kvasničková, H; Vondra, K

    2011-01-01

    Cortisone acetate test was performed in twelve young adult patients with diabetes mellitus type 1, after dexamethasone administration to suppress endogenous cortisol production. Previous screening revealed that all of the subjects had peak cortisol responses in the range from subnormal to normal, as determined by a low-dose Synacthen test. The aim was to find out whether these patients would exhibit different conversion of cortisone to cortisol by 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Using multifactorial ANOVA the following significant relationships were obtained between cortisol or cortisol/cortisone ratio measured during the test and other parameters examined a) before dexamethasone suppression and b) during the test: a) Cortisol at 120(th) minute negatively correlated with daily insulin dose and positively with basal aldosterone. Cortisol/cortisone ratio at 60(th), 120(th), 180(th), and 240(th) minute negatively correlated with basal aldosterone/plasma renin activity ratio, urinary free cortisol/24 hours and positively with basal dehydroepindrosterone sulphate. b) Cortisol at 120(th) minute negatively correlated with suppressed basal serum glycemia; cortisol/cortisone ratio during the whole test negatively correlated with supressed basal ACTH. The examination of peripheral metabolism of cortisol using cortisone acetate test in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 showed adaptive changes of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenace activity associated with altered cortisol tissue supply.

  13. Fetal brain 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 selectively determines programming of adult depressive-like behaviors and cognitive function, but not anxiety behaviors in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Wyrwoll, Caitlin; Keith, Marianne; Noble, June; Stevenson, Paula L.; Bombail, Vincent; Crombie, Sandra; Evans, Louise C.; Bailey, Matthew A.; Wood, Emma; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Holmes, Megan C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stress or elevated glucocorticoids during sensitive windows of fetal development increase the risk of neuropsychiatric disorders in adult rodents and humans, a phenomenon known as glucocorticoid programming. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which catalyses rapid inactivation of glucocorticoids in the placenta, controls access of maternal glucocorticoids to the fetal compartment, placing it in a key position to modulate glucocorticoid programming of behavior. However, the importance of the high expression of 11β-HSD2 within the midgestational fetal brain is unknown. To examine this, a brain-specific knockout of 11β-HSD2 (HSD2BKO) was generated and compared to wild-type littermates. HSD2BKO have markedly diminished fetal brain 11β-HSD2, but intact fetal body and placental 11β-HSD2 and normal fetal and placental growth. Despite normal fetal plasma corticosterone, HSD2BKO exhibit elevated fetal brain corticosterone levels at midgestation. As adults, HSD2BKO show depressive-like behavior and have cognitive impairments. However, unlike complete feto-placental deficiency, HSD2BKO show no anxiety-like behavioral deficits. The clear mechanistic separation of the programmed components of depression and cognition from anxiety implies distinct mechanisms of pathogenesis, affording potential opportunities for stratified interventions. PMID:26036451

  14. Wiring of PQQ-dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Laurinavicius, Valdas; Razumiene, Julija; Ramanavicius, Arunas; Ryabov, Alexander D

    2004-12-15

    The performance of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and two types of PQQ-glucose dehydrogenases in solution and when immobilized on the carbon paste electrodes modified with ferrocene derivatives is investigated. The immobilization of ADH consisting of PQQ and four hemes improves its stability up to 10 times. Both PQQ and heme moieties are involved in the electron transport from substrate to electrode. The ferrocene derivatives improve the electron transport 10-fold. Membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase from Gluconobacter sp. 33, intracellular soluble glucose dehydrogenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus L.M.D. 79.41 (s-GDH), and the membrane-bound enzyme (m-GDH) from Erwinia sp. 34-1 were purified and investigated. Soluble and membrane-bound PQQ-glucose dehydrogenases display different behavior during the immobilization on the modified carbon electrodes. The immobilization of s-GDH leads to a decrease in both stability and substrate specificity of the enzyme. This suggests that PQQ dissociates from the enzyme active center and operates as a free-diffusing mediator. The rate-limiting step of the process is likely the loading of PQQ onto the apo-enzyme. The immobilization of m-GDH leads to its substantial stabilization and improves the substrate specificity. The nature of m-GDH binding to the electrode surface is presumably similar to the binding to the cell membrane through its anchor-subunit. The enzyme operates as an enzyme and mediator complex.

  15. Development of an amine dehydrogenase for synthesis of chiral amines.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Michael J; Vázquez-Figueroa, Eduardo; Woodall, Nicholas B; Moore, Jeffrey C; Bommarius, Andreas S

    2012-04-16

    A leucine dehydrogenase has been successfully altered through several rounds of protein engineering to an enantioselective amine dehydrogenase. Instead of the wild-type α-keto acid, the new amine dehydrogenase now accepts the analogous ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), which corresponds to exchange of the carboxy group by a methyl group to produce chiral (R)-1,3-dimethylbutylamine.

  16. Diabetes and Insulin Injection Modalities: Effects on Hepatic and Hippocampal Expression of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 in Juvenile Diabetic Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Rougeon, Véronica; Moisan, Marie-Pierre; Barthe, Nicole; Beauvieux, Marie-Christine; Helbling, Jean-Christophe; Pallet, Véronique; Marissal-Arvy, Nathalie; Barat, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is often encountered in diabetes, leading to several clinical complications. Our recent results showing an elevated tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocorticosterone ratio in morning urine of diabetic children compared to that of controls suggest an increased nocturnal activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in the former. We hypothesized that these observations could be explained by a reduced inhibition of hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity by exogenous insulin owing to its subcutaneous (SC) administration and absence of first hepatic passage. Additionally, we hypothesized that hippocampal 11β-HSD1 activity might also be impaired by diabetes. We therefore measured HPA axis activity and 11β-HSD1 expression and activity in liver and hippocampus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic juvenile rats treated with SC or intraperitoneal (IP) insulin. Plasma corticosterone levels were elevated in untreated diabetic rats during the resting phase and restored by both types of insulin treatment. The mRNA expression and activity of 11β-HSD1 were increased in the untreated diabetic group in liver. Although diabetes was controlled equally whatever the route of insulin administration, liver 11β-HSD1 gene expression and activity was decreased only in the IP group, suggesting that a first hepatic pass is needed for 11β-HSD1 hepatic inhibition. In hippocampus, 11β-HSD1 activity was elevated in the untreated diabetic group but restored by both types of insulin treatment. Thus, these data extend our findings in diabetic children by showing impairment of hippocampal 11β-HSD1 in diabetes and by demonstrating that IP is preferable to SC insulin administration to restore 11β-HSD1 activity in liver.

  17. Emodin, a natural product, selectively inhibits 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and ameliorates metabolic disorder in diet-induced obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ying; Huang, Su-ling; Dou, Wei; Zhang, Song; Chen, Jun-hua; Shen, Yu; Shen, Jian-hua; Leng, Ying

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is an attractive therapeutic target of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Emodin, a natural product and active ingredient of various Chinese herbs, has been demonstrated to possess multiple biological activities. Here, we investigated the effects of emodin on 11β-HSD1 and its ability to ameliorate metabolic disorders in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Scintillation proximity assay was performed to evaluate inhibition of emodin against recombinant human and mouse 11β-HSDs. The ability of emodin to inhibit prednisone- or dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance was investigated in C57BL/6J mice and its effect on metabolic abnormalities was observed in DIO mice. KEY RESULTS Emodin is a potent and selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor with the IC50 of 186 and 86 nM for human and mouse 11β-HSD1, respectively. Single oral administration of emodin inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity of liver and fat significantly in mice. Emodin reversed prednisone-induced insulin resistance in mice, whereas it did not affect dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance, which confirmed its inhibitory effect on 11β-HSD1 in vivo. In DIO mice, oral administration of emodin improved insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism, and lowered blood glucose and hepatic PEPCK, and glucose-6-phosphatase mRNA. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study demonstrated a new role for emodin as a potent and selective inhibitor of 11β-HSD1 and its beneficial effects on metabolic disorders in DIO mice. This highlights the potential value of analogues of emodin as a new class of compounds for the treatment of metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes. PMID:20718744

  18. Inhibition of 11β–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II selectively blocks the tumor COX-2 pathway and suppresses colon carcinogenesis in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Xu, Jie; Yao, Bing; Yin, Huiyong; Cai, Qiuyin; Shrubsole, Martha J.; Chen, Xiwu; Kon, Valentina; Zheng, Wei; Pozzi, Ambra; Harris, Raymond C.

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death, yet primary prevention remains the best approach to reducing overall morbidity and mortality. Studies have shown that COX-2–derived PGE2 promotes CRC progression, and both nonselective COX inhibitors (NSAIDs) and selective COX-2 inhibitors (such as glucocorticoids) reduce the number and size of colonic adenomas. However, increased gastrointestinal side effects of NSAIDs and increased cardiovascular risks of selective COX-2 inhibitors limit their use in chemoprevention of CRC. We found that expression of 11β–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (11βHSD2), which converts active glucocorticoids to inactive keto-forms, increased in human colonic and Apc+/min mouse intestinal adenomas and correlated with increased COX-2 expression and activity. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition or gene silencing of 11βHSD2 inhibited COX-2–mediated PGE2 production in tumors and prevented adenoma formation, tumor growth, and metastasis in mice. Inhibition of 11βHSD2 did not reduce systemic prostacyclin production or accelerate atherosclerosis in mice, thereby avoiding the major cardiovascular side effects seen with systemic COX-2 inhibitors. Therefore, 11βHSD2 inhibition represents what we believe to be a novel approach for CRC chemoprevention and therapy by increasing tumor glucocorticoid activity, which in turn selectively blocks local COX-2 activity. PMID:19307727

  19. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1(11β-HSD1) mediates insulin resistance through JNK activation in adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Kesong; Pan, Yong; Li, Jieli; Khan, Zia; Fan, Mendi; Yin, Haimin; Tong, Chao; Zhao, Yunjie; Liang, Guang; Zheng, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are used to treat a number of human diseases but often lead to insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is a key enzyme that catalyzes the intracellular conversion of cortisone to physiologically active cortisol. Despite the known role of 11β-HSD1 and active glucocorticoid in causing insulin resistance, the molecular mechanisms by which insulin resistance is induced remain elusive. The aim of this study is to identify these mechanisms in high fat diet (HFD) experimental models. Mice on a HFD were treated with 11β-HSD1 inhibitor as well as a JNK inhibitor. We then treated 3T3-L1-derived adipocytes with prednisone, a synthetic glucocorticoid, and cells with 11β-HSD1 overexpression to study insulin resistance. Our results show that 11β-HSD1 and JNK inhibition mitigated insulin resistance in HFD mice. Prednisone stimulation or overexpression of 11β-HSD1 also caused JNK activation in cultured adipocytes. Inhibition of 11β-HSD1 blocked the activation of JNK in adipose tissue of HFD mice as well as in cultured adipocytes. Furthermore, prednisone significantly impaired the insulin signaling pathway, and these effects were reversed by 11β-HSD1 and JNK inhibition. Our study demonstrates that glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance was dependent on 11β-HSD1, resulting in the critical activation of JNK signaling in adipocytes. PMID:27841334

  20. Association of the 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 gene polymorphism (-71A/G HSD17B5 SNP) with hyperandrogenemia in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Marioli, Dimitra J; Saltamavros, Alexandros D; Vervita, Vasiliki; Koika, Vasiliki; Adonakis, George; Decavalas, George; Markou, Kostas B; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the association of an activating single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position -71 of the promoter of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 5 gene (-71A/G HSD17B5 SNP) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a well characterized cohort of caucasian PCOS women with biochemical hyperandrogenemia. The PCOS patients and unrelated healthy control subjects were genotyped for the -71A/G HSD17B5 SNP. The acquired genotypic data was tested for association with PCOS and other quantitative phenotypic traits of the syndrome in PCOS patients. Subjects were recruited from the Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, at the University Hospital of Patras, Greece. Genotyping and biochemical determinations took place at the Laboratory of Molecular Endrocinology, University of Patras Medical School, Rion, Greece. Participants comprised 150 caucasian Greek PCOS women with biochemical hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation and polycystic ovarian morphology on ultrasound and 51 healthy control subjects. HSD17B5 genotype, serum testosterone, serum androstenedione. No association of the -71A/G HSD17B5 SNP with PCOS was detected. However, the -71G HSD17B5 variant was associated with increased serum testosterone levels and decreased androstenedione/testosterone ratio. The -71G HSD17B5 variant is not a major component of the molecular pathogenetic mechanisms of PCOS, although it might contribute to the severity of hyperandrogenemia in women with PCOS and biochemical hyperandrogenism.

  1. Upregulation of Retinal Dehydrogenase 2 in Alternatively Activated Macrophages during Retinoid-dependent Type-2 Immunity to Helminth Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Broadhurst, Mara J.; Leung, Jacqueline M.; Lim, K. C.; Girgis, Natasha M.; Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Fallon, Padraic G.; Premenko-Lanier, Mary; McKerrow, James H.; McCune, Joseph M.; Loke, P'ng

    2012-01-01

    Although the vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) plays a critical role in immune function, RA synthesis during infection is poorly understood. Here, we show that retinal dehydrogenases (Raldh), required for the synthesis of RA, are induced during a retinoid-dependent type-2 immune response elicited by Schistosoma mansoni infection, but not during a retinoid-independent anti-viral immune response. Vitamin A deficient mice have a selective defect in TH2 responses to S. mansoni, but retained normal LCMV specific TH1 responses. A combination of in situ imaging, intra-vital imaging, and sort purification revealed that alternatively activated macrophages (AAMφ) express high levels of Raldh2 during S. mansoni infection. IL-4 induces Raldh2 expression in bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro and peritoneal macrophages in vivo. Finally, in vivo derived AAMφ have an enhanced capacity to induce Foxp3 expression in CD4+ cells through an RA dependent mechanism, especially in combination with TGF-β. The regulation of Raldh enzymes during infection is pathogen specific and reflects differential requirements for RA during effector responses. Specifically, AAMφ are an inducible source of RA synthesis during helminth infections and TH2 responses that may be important in regulating immune responses. PMID:22927819

  2. Regulation of Human 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 by Adrenal Corticosteroids and Product-Feedback by Androstenedione in Human Adrenarche

    PubMed Central

    Rajapaksha, Maheshinie; Mack, Vance L.; DeMars, Geneva A.; Majzoub, Joseph A.; Bose, Himangshu S.

    2015-01-01

    In human adrenarche during childhood, the secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) from the adrenal gland increases due to its increased synthesis and/or decreased metabolism. DHEA is synthesized by 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase, and is metabolized by 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (3βHSD2). In this study, the inhibition of purified human 3βHSD2 by the adrenal steroids, androstenedione, cortisone, and cortisol, was investigated and related to changes in secondary enzyme structure. Solubilized, purified 3βHSD2 was inhibited competitively by androstenedione with high affinity, by cortisone at lower affinity, and by cortisol only at very high, nonphysiologic levels. When purified 3βHSD2 was bound to lipid vesicles, the competitive Ki values for androstenedione and cortisone were slightly decreased, and the Ki value of cortisol was decreased 2.5-fold, although still at a nonphysiologic level. The circular dichroism spectrum that measured 3βHSD2 secondary structure was significantly altered by the binding of cortisol, but not by androstenedione and cortisone. Our import studies show that 3βHSD2 binds in the intermitochondrial space as a membrane-associated protein. Androstenedione inhibits purified 3βHSD2 at physiologic levels, but similar actions for cortisol and cortisone are not supported. In summary, our results have clarified the mechanisms for limiting the metabolism of DHEA during human adrenarche. PMID:25355646

  3. Cognitive and Disease-Modifying Effects of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Inhibition in Male Tg2576 Mice, a Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sooy, Karen; Noble, June; McBride, Andrew; Binnie, Margaret; Yau, Joyce L. W.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Walker, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to elevated levels of glucocorticoids has been linked to age-related cognitive decline and may play a role in Alzheimer's disease. In the brain, 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) amplifies intracellular glucocorticoid levels. We show that short-term treatment of aged, cognitively impaired C57BL/6 mice with the potent and selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor UE2316 improves memory, including after intracerebroventricular drug administration to the central nervous system alone. In the Tg2576 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, UE2316 treatment of mice aged 14 months for 4 weeks also decreased the number of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques in the cerebral cortex, associated with a selective increase in local insulin-degrading enzyme (involved in Aβ breakdown and known to be glucocorticoid regulated). Chronic treatment of young Tg2576 mice with UE2316 for up to 13 months prevented cognitive decline but did not prevent Aβ plaque formation. We conclude that reducing glucocorticoid regeneration in the brain improves cognition independently of reduced Aβ plaque pathology and that 11β-HSD1 inhibitors have potential as cognitive enhancers in age-associated memory impairment and Alzheimer's dementia. PMID:26305888

  4. Cephalopod alcohol dehydrogenase: purification and enzymatic characterization.

    PubMed

    Rosario Fernández, M; Jörnvall, H; Moreno, A; Kaiser, R; Parés, X

    1993-08-16

    Octopus, squid and cuttle-fish organs were examined for alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Only one form was detectable, with properties typical of mammalian class III alcohol dehydrogenase. The corresponding protein was purified from octopus and enzymatically characterized. Ion-exchange and affinity chromatography produced a pure protein in excellent yield (73%) after 1600-fold purification. Enzymatic parameters with several substrates were similar to those for the human class III alcohol dehydrogenase, demonstrating a largely conserved function of the enzyme through wide lines of divergence covering vertebrates, cephalopods and bacteria. The results establish the universal occurrence of class III alcohol dehydrogenase and its strictly conserved functional properties in separate living forms. The absence of other alcohol dehydrogenases in cephalopods is compatible with the emergence of the ethanol-active class I type at a later stage, in lineages leading to vertebrates.

  5. The Type II NADPH Dehydrogenase Facilitates Cyclic Electron Flow, Energy-Dependent Quenching, and Chlororespiratory Metabolism during Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Nitrogen Deprivation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Arthur R.

    2016-01-01

    When photosynthetic organisms are deprived of nitrogen (N), the capacity to grow and assimilate carbon becomes limited, causing a decrease in the productive use of absorbed light energy and likely a rise in the cellular reduction state. Although there is a scarcity of N in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, a mechanistic understanding of how photosynthesis adjusts to low-N conditions and the enzymes/activities integral to these adjustments have not been described. In this work, we use biochemical and biophysical analyses of photoautotrophically grown wild-type and mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to determine the integration of electron transport pathways critical for maintaining active photosynthetic complexes even after exposure of cells to N deprivation for 3 d. Key to acclimation is the type II NADPH dehydrogenase, NDA2, which drives cyclic electron flow (CEF), chlororespiration, and the generation of an H+ gradient across the thylakoid membranes. N deprivation elicited a doubling of the rate of NDA2-dependent CEF, with little contribution from PGR5/PGRL1-dependent CEF. The H+ gradient generated by CEF is essential to sustain nonphotochemical quenching, while an increase in the level of reduced plastoquinone would promote a state transition; both are necessary to down-regulate photosystem II activity. Moreover, stimulation of NDA2-dependent chlororespiration affords additional relief from the elevated reduction state associated with N deprivation through plastid terminal oxidase-dependent water synthesis. Overall, rerouting electrons through the NDA2 catalytic hub in response to photoautotrophic N deprivation sustains cell viability while promoting the dissipation of excess excitation energy through quenching and chlororespiratory processes. PMID:26858365

  6. 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase types 1 and 2 in postnatal development of rat testis: gene expression, localization and regulation by luteinizing hormone and androgens.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-Yu; Chen, Xin-Xin; Lin, Han; Fei, Ai-Li; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2014-01-01

    11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and type 2 (11β-HSD2) are expressed in rat testis, where they regulate the local concentrations of glucocorticoids. Here, we investigated the expression and localization of 11β-HSD in rat testis during postnatal development, and the regulation of these genes by luteinizing hormone (LH) and androgens. mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively, in testes collected from rats at postnatal day (PND) 7, 14, 21, 35, and 90, and from rats treated with LH, 7α-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) and testosterone at PND 21 and PND 90. Immunohistochemical staining was used to identify the localization of the 11β-HSD in rat testis at PND 7, 14, and 90. We found that 11β-HSD1 expression was restricted to the interstitial areas, and that its levels increased during rat testis development. In contrast, whereas 11β-HSD2 was expressed in both the interstitial areas and seminiferous tubules at PND 7, it was present only in the interstitial areas at PND 90, and its levels declined during testicular development. Moreover, 11β-HSD1 mRNA was induced by LH in both the PND 21 and 90 testes and by MENT at PND 21, whereas 11β-HSD2 mRNA was induced by testosterone and MENT in the PND 21 testis and by LH in the PND 90 testis. In conclusion, our study indicates that the 11β-HSD1 and 11β-HSD2 genes have distinct patterns of spatiotemporal expression and hormonal regulation during postnatal development of the rat testis.

  7. The Type II NADPH Dehydrogenase Facilitates Cyclic Electron Flow, Energy-Dependent Quenching, and Chlororespiratory Metabolism during Acclimation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to Nitrogen Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Saroussi, Shai I; Wittkopp, Tyler M; Grossman, Arthur R

    2016-04-01

    When photosynthetic organisms are deprived of nitrogen (N), the capacity to grow and assimilate carbon becomes limited, causing a decrease in the productive use of absorbed light energy and likely a rise in the cellular reduction state. Although there is a scarcity of N in many terrestrial and aquatic environments, a mechanistic understanding of how photosynthesis adjusts to low-N conditions and the enzymes/activities integral to these adjustments have not been described. In this work, we use biochemical and biophysical analyses of photoautotrophically grown wild-type and mutant strains of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to determine the integration of electron transport pathways critical for maintaining active photosynthetic complexes even after exposure of cells to N deprivation for 3 d. Key to acclimation is the type II NADPH dehydrogenase, NDA2, which drives cyclic electron flow (CEF), chlororespiration, and the generation of an H(+) gradient across the thylakoid membranes. N deprivation elicited a doubling of the rate of NDA2-dependent CEF, with little contribution from PGR5/PGRL1-dependent CEF The H(+) gradient generated by CEF is essential to sustain nonphotochemical quenching, while an increase in the level of reduced plastoquinone would promote a state transition; both are necessary to down-regulate photosystem II activity. Moreover, stimulation of NDA2-dependent chlororespiration affords additional relief from the elevated reduction state associated with N deprivation through plastid terminal oxidase-dependent water synthesis. Overall, rerouting electrons through the NDA2 catalytic hub in response to photoautotrophic N deprivation sustains cell viability while promoting the dissipation of excess excitation energy through quenching and chlororespiratory processes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Pharmacological evaluation of adipose dysfunction via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in the development of diabetes in diet-induced obese mice with cortisone pellet implantation.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Nobuteru; Akiyama, Yuko; Kato, Hideaki; Kuroda, Takayuki; Ono, Takashi; Imagawa, Keiichi; Asakura, Kenji; Shinosaki, Toshihiro; Murayama, Toshihiko; Hanasaki, Kohji

    2014-04-01

    Signals from intracellular glucocorticoids (GCs) via 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in adipose tissues have been reported to serve as amplifiers leading to deterioration of glucose metabolism associated with obesity. To elucidate adipose dysfunction via 11β-HSD1 activation in the development of obesity-related diabetes, we established novel diabetic mice by implanting a cortisone pellet (CP) in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Cortisone pellet-implanted DIO mice (DIO/CP mice) showed hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, and ectopic fat accumulation, whereas cortisone pellet implantation in lean mice did not induce hyperglycemia. In DIO/CP mice, indexes of lipolysis such as plasma glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) increased before hyperglycemia appeared. Furthermore, the adipose mRNA level of 11β-HSD1 was up-regulated in DIO/CP mice compared with sham-operated DIO mice. RU486 (mifepristone, 11β-[p-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-17β-hydroxy-17-(1-propynyl)estra-4,9-dien-3-one), a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, decreased adipose mRNA levels of 11β-HSD1 as well as adipose triglyceride lipase. RU486 also improved plasma NEFA, glycerol, and glucose levels in DIO/CP mice. These results demonstrate that lipolysis in adipose tissues caused by GC activation via 11β-HSD1 serves as a trigger for diabetes with ectopic fat accumulation. Our findings also indicate the possibility of a vicious circle of GC signals via 11β-HSD1 up-regulation in adipose tissues, contributing to deterioration of glucose metabolism to result in diabetes. Our DIO/CP mouse could be a suitable model of type 2 diabetes to evaluate adipose dysfunction via 11β-HSD1.

  9. Histamine H4-Receptors Inhibit Mast Cell Renin Release in Ischemia/Reperfusion via Protein Kinase Cε-Dependent Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Type-2 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Aldi, Silvia; Takano, Ken-ichi; Tomita, Kengo; Koda, Kenichiro; Chan, Noel Y.-K.; Marino, Alice; Salazar-Rodriguez, Mariselis; Thurmond, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Renin released by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) from cardiac mast cells (MCs) activates a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) causing arrhythmic dysfunction. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) inhibits MC renin release and consequent activation of this local RAS. We postulated that MC histamine H4-receptors (H4Rs), being Gαi/o-coupled, might activate a protein kinase C isotype–ε (PKCε)–aldehyde dehydrogenase type-2 (ALDH2) cascade, ultimately eliminating MC-degranulating and renin-releasing effects of aldehydes formed in I/R and associated arrhythmias. We tested this hypothesis in ex vivo hearts, human mastocytoma cells, and bone marrow–derived MCs from wild-type and H4R knockout mice. We found that activation of MC H4Rs mimics the cardioprotective anti-RAS effects of IPC and that protection depends on the sequential activation of PKCε and ALDH2 in MCs, reducing aldehyde-induced MC degranulation and renin release and alleviating reperfusion arrhythmias. These cardioprotective effects are mimicked by selective H4R agonists and disappear when H4Rs are pharmacologically blocked or genetically deleted. Our results uncover a novel cardioprotective pathway in I/R, whereby activation of H4Rs on the MC membrane, possibly by MC-derived histamine, leads sequentially to PKCε and ALDH2 activation, reduction of toxic aldehyde-induced MC renin release, prevention of RAS activation, reduction of norepinephrine release, and ultimately to alleviation of reperfusion arrhythmias. This newly discovered protective pathway suggests that MC H4Rs may represent a new pharmacologic and therapeutic target for the direct alleviation of RAS-induced cardiac dysfunctions, including ischemic heart disease and congestive heart failure. PMID:24696042

  10. Coimmunopurification of phosphorylated bacterial- and plant-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylases with the plastidial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex from developing castor oil seeds.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, R Glen; O'Leary, Brendan; Spang, H Elizabeth; MacDonald, Justin A; She, Yi-Min; Plaxton, William C

    2008-03-01

    The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) interactome of developing castor oil seed (COS; Ricinus communis) endosperm was assessed using coimmunopurification (co-IP) followed by proteomic analysis. Earlier studies suggested that immunologically unrelated 107-kD plant-type PEPCs (p107/PTPC) and 118-kD bacterial-type PEPCs (p118/BTPC) are subunits of an unusual 910-kD hetero-octameric class 2 PEPC complex of developing COS. The current results confirm that a tight physical interaction occurs between p118 and p107 because p118 quantitatively coimmunopurified with p107 following elution of COS extracts through an anti-p107-IgG immunoaffinity column. No PEPC activity or immunoreactive PEPC polypeptides were detected in the corresponding flow-through fractions. Although BTPCs lack the N-terminal phosphorylation motif characteristic of PTPCs, Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein staining, immunoblotting with phospho-serine (Ser)/threonine Akt substrate IgG, and phosphate-affinity PAGE established that coimmunopurified p118 was multiphosphorylated at unique Ser and/or threonine residues. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of an endoproteinase Lys-C p118 peptide digest demonstrated that Ser-425 is subject to in vivo proline-directed phosphorylation. The co-IP of p118 with p107 did not appear to be influenced by their phosphorylation status. Because p118 phosphorylation was unchanged 48 h following elimination of photosynthate supply due to COS depodding, the signaling mechanisms responsible for photosynthate-dependent p107 phosphorylation differ from those controlling p118's in vivo phosphorylation. A 110-kD PTPC coimmunopurified with p118 and p107 when depodded COS was used. The plastidial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC(pl)) was identified as a novel PEPC interactor. Thus, a putative metabolon involving PEPC and PDC(pl) could function to channel carbon from phosphoenolpyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A and/or to recycle CO(2) from PDC(pl) to PEPC.

  11. Molecular Modeling Studies of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Inhibitors through Receptor-Based 3D-QSAR and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Qian, Haiyan; Chen, Jiongjiong; Pan, Youlu; Chen, Jianzhong

    2016-09-19

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is a potential target for the treatment of numerous human disorders, such as diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. In this work, molecular modeling studies combining molecular docking, 3D-QSAR, MESP, MD simulations and free energy calculations were performed on pyridine amides and 1,2,4-triazolopyridines as 11β-HSD1 inhibitors to explore structure-activity relationships and structural requirement for the inhibitory activity. 3D-QSAR models, including CoMFA and CoMSIA, were developed from the conformations obtained by docking strategy. The derived pharmacophoric features were further supported by MESP and Mulliken charge analyses using density functional theory. In addition, MD simulations and free energy calculations were employed to determine the detailed binding process and to compare the binding modes of inhibitors with different bioactivities. The binding free energies calculated by MM/PBSA showed a good correlation with the experimental biological activities. Free energy analyses and per-residue energy decomposition indicated the van der Waals interaction would be the major driving force for the interactions between an inhibitor and 11β-HSD1. These unified results may provide that hydrogen bond interactions with Ser170 and Tyr183 are favorable for enhancing activity. Thr124, Ser170, Tyr177, Tyr183, Val227, and Val231 are the key amino acid residues in the binding pocket. The obtained results are expected to be valuable for the rational design of novel potent 11β-HSD1 inhibitors.

  12. THE EFECTS OF ESTRADIOL ON 17β-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE TYPE IV AND ANDROGEN RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN THE DEVELOPING ZEBRA FINCH SONG SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J. Bayley; Dzubur, Eldin; Wade, Juli; Tomaszycki, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in zebra finches suggests that genes and hormones may act together to masculinize the brain. This study tested the effects of exogenous estradiol (E2) on 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase type IV (HSD17B4) and the co-localization of HSD17B4 and androgen receptor (AR) mRNA. We asked three primary questions: First, how does post-hatching E2 treatment affect HSD17B4 mRNA expression in males and females? Second, is this gene expressed in the same cells as AR, and, third, if so does E2 modulate co-expression? Female finches implanted with 50μg of E2 on the third day post-hatching showed a significant increase in the density of cells expressing HSD17B4 and AR in HVC at day 25. Co-localization of AR cells that also expressed HSD17B4 was high across groups (>81%). We found significant sex differences in co-localization in both the HVC and Area X of control animals, with males showing a higher percentage of cells expressing AR mRNA that also expressed HSD17B4 in comparison to females. However, although E2 treatments significantly increased the number of cells expressing HSD17B4 mRNA and AR mRNA in the HVC of females, the percentage of HSD17B4 cells co-expressing AR was reduced in HVC and Area X in E2-treated animals. These results lend support to the hypothesis that genes and hormones may act in concert to modulate the sexually differentiation of the zebra finch song system. Further, the data suggest that a single hormonal mechanism cannot mimic the complex development of male singing behavior and associated song nuclei. PMID:21665192

  13. Species differences of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 function in human and rat term placenta determined via LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Heussner, Kirsten; Ruebner, Matthias; Huebner, Hanna; Rascher, Wolfgang; Menendez-Castro, Carlos; Hartner, Andrea; Fahlbusch, Fabian B; Rauh, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced fetal programming has been associated with negative metabolic and cardiovascular sequelae in the adult. The placental enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) shields the fetus from maternal glucocorticoid excess by catalyzing the conversion of these hormones into biologically inactive derivatives. In vivo experiments addressing placental barrier function are mostly conducted in rodents. Therefore we set out to characterize species-specific differences of rat and human placental 11β-HSD2 steroid turnover, introducing Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass-Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as a tool for rat tissue analysis. Using LC-MS/MS we determined corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), cortisol (F), cortisone (E), corticosterone (B) and 11-dehydrocorticosterone (A) in human and rat placenta at term and measured the enzymatic 11β-HSD glucocorticoid conversion-rates in placental microsomes of both species. In parallel, further glucocorticoid derivatives and sex steroids were determined in the same placental samples. In contrast to the human placenta, we did not detect CRH in the rat placenta. While cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) were exclusively present in human term placenta (E/F-ratio >1), rat placenta showed significant levels of corticosterone (B) and 11-dehydrocorticosterone (A), with an A/B-ratio <1. In line with these species-specific findings, human placenta showed a prominent 11β-HSD2 activity, while in rat placenta higher 11β-HSD1 glucocorticoid turnover rates were determined. Placental steroid metabolism of human and rat shows relevant species-specific differences, especially regarding the barrier function of 11β-HSD2 at term. The exclusive expression of CRH in the human placenta further points to relevant differences in the regulation of parturition in rats. Consideration of these findings is warranted when transferring results from rodent placental glucocorticoid metabolism into humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  14. Selection and early clinical evaluation of the brain‐penetrant 11β‐hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β‐HSD1) inhibitor UE2343 (Xanamem™)

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Andrew; Binnie, Margaret; Sooy, Karen; Seckl, Jonathan R; Andrew, Ruth; Pallin, T David; Hunt, Hazel J; Perrior, Trevor R; Ruffles, Vincent S; Ketelbey, J William; Boyd, Alan; Walker, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose Reducing glucocorticoid exposure in the brain via intracellular inhibition of the cortisol‐regenerating enzyme 11β‐hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β‐HSD1) has emerged as a therapeutic strategy to treat cognitive impairment in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). We sought to discover novel, brain‐penetrant 11β‐HSD1 inhibitors as potential medicines for the treatment of AD. Experimental Approach Medicinal chemistry optimization of a series of amido‐thiophene analogues was performed to identify potent and selective 11β‐HSD1 inhibitors with optimized oral pharmacokinetics able to access the brain. Single and multiple ascending dose studies were conducted in healthy human subjects to determine the safety, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of the candidate compound. Results UE2343 was identified as a potent, orally bioavailable, brain‐penetrant 11β‐HSD1 inhibitor and selected for clinical studies. No major safety issues occurred in human subjects. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone was elevated (a marker of systemic enzyme inhibition) at doses of 10 mg and above, but plasma cortisol levels were unchanged. Following multiple doses of UE2343, plasma levels were approximately dose proportional and the terminal t 1/2 ranged from 10 to 14 h. The urinary tetrahydrocortisols/tetrahydrocortisone ratio was reduced at doses of 10 mg and above, indicating maximal 11β‐HSD1 inhibition in the liver. Concentrations of UE2343 in the CSF were 33% of free plasma levels, and the peak concentration in CSF was ninefold greater than the UE2343 IC50. Conclusions and Implications UE2343 is safe, well tolerated and reaches the brain at concentrations predicted to inhibit 11β‐HSD1. UE2343 is therefore a suitable candidate to test the hypothesis that 11β‐HSD1 inhibition in brain improves memory in patients with AD. PMID:28012176

  15. Novel cases of Tunisian patients with mutations in the gene encoding 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 and a founder effect.

    PubMed

    Ben Rhouma, Bochra; Kallabi, Fakhri; Mahfoudh, Nadia; Ben Mahmoud, Afif; Engeli, Roger T; Kamoun, Hassen; Keskes, Leila; Odermatt, Alex; Belguith, Neila

    2017-01-01

    17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17β-HSD3) is expressed almost exclusively in the testis and converts Δ4-androstene-3,17-dione to testosterone. Mutations in the HSD17B3 gene causing 17β-HSD3 deficiency are responsible for a rare recessive form of 46, XY Disorders of Sex Development (46, XY DSD). We report novel cases of Tunisian patients with 17β-HSD3 deficiency due to previously reported mutations, i.e. p.C206X and p.G133R, as well as a case with the novel compound heterozygous mutations p.C206X and p.Q176P. Moreover, the previously reported polymorphism p.G289S was identified in a heterozygous state in combination with a novel non-coding variant c.54G>T, also in a heterozygous state, in a male patient presenting with micropenis and low testosterone levels. The identification of four different mutations in a cohort of eight patients confirms the generally observed genetic heterogeneity of 17β-HSD3 deficiency. Nevertheless, analysis of DNA from 272 randomly selected healthy controls from the same geographic area (region of Sfax) revealed a high carrier frequency for the p.C206X mutation of approximately 1 in 40. Genotype reconstruction of the affected pedigree members revealed that all p.C206X mutation carriers harbored the same haplotype, indicating inheritance of the mutation from a common ancestor. Thus, the identification of a founder effect and the elevated carrier frequency of the p.C206X mutation emphasize the importance to consider this mutation in the diagnosis and genetic counseling of affected 17β-HSD3 deficiency pedigrees in Tunisia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Modification of estrone at the 6, 16, and 17 positions: novel potent inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    PubMed

    Allan, Gillian M; Lawrence, Harshani R; Cornet, Josephine; Bubert, Christian; Fischer, Delphine S; Vicker, Nigel; Smith, Andrew; Tutill, Helena J; Purohit, Atul; Day, Joanna M; Mahon, Mary F; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2006-02-23

    The 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) catalyze the interconversion between the oxidized and reduced forms of androgens and estrogens at the 17 position. The 17beta-HSD type 1 enzyme (17beta-HSD1) catalyzes the reduction of estrone to estradiol and is expressed in malignant breast cells. Inhibitors of this enzyme thus have potential as treatments for hormone dependent breast cancer. Here we report the syntheses and biological evaluation of novel inhibitors based on the estrone or estradiol template. These have been investigated by modification at the 6, 16 or 17 positions or combinations of these in order to gain information about structure-activity relationships by probing different areas in the enzyme active site. Activity data have been incorporated into a QSAR with predictive power, and the X-ray crystal structures of compounds 15 and 16c have been determined. Compound 15 has an IC50 of 320 nM for 17beta-HSD1 and is selective for 17beta-HSD1 over 17beta-HSD2. Three libraries of amides are also reported that led to the identification of inhibitors 19e and 20a, which have IC50 values of 510 and 380 nM respectively, and 20 h which, having an IC50 value of 37 nM, is the most potent inhibitor of 17beta-HSD1 reported to date. These amides are also selective for 17beta-HSD1 over 17beta-HSD2.

  17. Focused libraries of 16-substituted estrone derivatives and modified e-ring steroids: inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    PubMed

    Vicker, Nigel; Lawrence, Harshani R; Allan, Gillian M; Bubert, Christian; Smith, Andrew; Tutill, Helena J; Purohit, Atul; Day, Joanna M; Mahon, Mary F; Reed, Michael J; Potter, Barry V L

    2006-04-01

    17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1), an oxidoreductase which has a preferential reductive activity using NADPH as cofactor, converts estrone to estradiol and is expressed in many steroidogenic tissues including breast and in malignant breast cells. As estradiol stimulates the growth and development of hormone-dependent breast cancer, inhibition of the final step of its synthesis is an attractive target for the treatment of this disease. The parallel synthesis of novel focused libraries of 16-substituted estrone derivatives and modified E-ring pyrazole steroids as new potent 17beta-HSD1 inhibitors is described. Substituted 3-O-sulfamoylated estrone derivatives were used as templates and were immobilised on 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin to give resin-bound scaffolds with a multi-detachable linker. Novel focused libraries of 16-substituted estrone derivatives and new modified E-ring steroids were assembled from these immobilised templates using solid-phase organic synthesis and solution-phase methodologies. Among the derivatives synthesised, the most potent 17beta-HSD1 inhibitors were 25 and 26 with IC50 values in T-47D human breast cancer cells of 27 and 165 nm, respectively. Parallel synthesis resulting in a library of C5'-linked amides from the pyrazole E-ring led to the identification of 62 with an IC50 value of 700 nM. These potent inhibitors of 17beta-HSD1 have a 2-ethyl substituent which will decrease their estrogenic potential. Several novel 17beta-HSD1 inhibitors emerged from these libraries and these provide direction for further template exploration in this area. A new efficient diastereoselective synthesis of 25 has also been developed to facilitate supply for in vivo evaluation, and an X-ray crystal structure of this inhibitor is presented.

  18. 17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type IV, a Z-linked gene, is higher in females than in males in visual and auditory regions of developing zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Dzubur, Eldin

    2013-07-03

    One of the most important decisions in a monogamous animal's life is the choice of a partner (partner preference), but the process by which this occurs remains poorly understood. The present study tests the hypothesis that hormones and genes play a role in sexual differentiation of partner preferences, as in the song system. We focused on a Z-linked gene, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type IV (HSD17B4), coding for a steroidogenic enzyme that converts estradiol (E2) into an inactive metabolite. HSD17B4 mRNA is expressed more in the song regions of males compared to females throughout development, suggesting that regulation of E2 is important for male-typical song development. Here, we focused on four regions associated with sexual partner preferences. Females had significantly higher levels of HSD17B4 mRNA in auditory (caudomedial nidopallium) and visual (hyperpallium apicale) regions than did males at day 25. HSD17B4 was expressed in the hippocampus and caudolateral nidopallium, but there were no sex differences. In a second experiment, animals of both sexes were treated with E2 and HSD17B4 and androgen receptor (AR) mRNA were measured, since masculinization of the song system is, in part, accomplished by AR. AR was low across the four regions and was not sexually differentiated. E2 treatments increased HSD17B4 mRNA in the auditory region of males, which is contrary to findings in the song system. Our research suggests that different behaviors may be guided by the same genes and hormones, but that the exact nature of the gene-hormone relationships may differ according to brain region and behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A Novel Mutation Causing 17-β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 3 Deficiency in an Omani Child: First Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sinani, Aisha; Mula-Abed, Waad-Allah S.; Al-Kindi, Manal; Al-Kusaibi, Ghariba; Al-Azkawi, Hanan; Nahavandi, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    This is the first case report in Oman and the Gulf region of a 17-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17-β-HSD3) deficiency with a novel mutation in the HSD17B3 gene that has not been previously described in the medical literature. An Omani child was diagnosed with 17-β-HSD3 deficiency and was followed up for 11 years at the Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic, Royal Hospital, Oman. He presented at the age of six weeks with ambiguous genitalia, stretched penile and bilateral undescended testes. Ultrasound showed no evidence of any uterine or ovarian structures with oval shaped solid structures in both inguinal regions that were confirmed by histology to be testicular tissues with immature seminiferous tubules only. The diagnosis was made by demonstrating low serum testosterone and high androstenedione, estrone, and androstenedione:testosterone ratio. Karyotyping confirmed 46,XY and the infant was raised as male. Testosterone injections (25mg once monthly) were given at two and six months and then three months before his surgeries at five and seven years of age when he underwent multiple operations for orchidopexy and hypospadias correction. At the age of 10 years he developed bilateral gynecomastia (stage 4). Laboratory investigations showed raised follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, androstenedione, and estrone with low-normal testosterone and low androstendiol glucurunide. Testosterone injections (50mg once monthly for six months) were given that resulted in significant reduction in his gynecomastia. Molecular analysis revealed a previously unreported homozygous variant in exon eight of the HSD17B3 gene (NM_000197.1:c.576G>A.Trp192*). This variant creates a premature stop codon, which is very likely to result in a truncated protein or loss of protein production. This is the first report in the medical literature of this novel HSD17B3 gene mutation. A literature review was conducted to identify the previous studies related to this disorder. PMID

  20. Acute effects of physical exercise and phosphodiesterase's type 5 inhibition on serum 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases related glucocorticoids metabolites: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Di Luigi, Luigi; Botrè, Francesco; Sabatini, Stefania; Sansone, Massimiliano; Mazzarino, Monica; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo; Lenzi, Andrea; Caporossi, Daniela; Romanelli, Francesco; Sgrò, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    Endogenous glucocorticoids (GC) rapidly increase after acute exercise, and the phosphodiesterase's type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) tadalafil influences this physiological adaptation. No data exist on acute effects of both acute exercise and PDE5i administration on 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSDs)-related GC metabolites. We aimed to investigate the rapid effects of exercise on serum GC metabolites, with and without tadalafil administration. A double blind crossover study was performed in eleven healthy male volunteers. After the volunteers randomly received a short-term administration of placebo or tadalafil (20 mg/die for 2 days), a maximal exercise test to exhaustion on cycle ergometer was performed. Then, after a 2-week washout period, the volunteers were crossed over. Blood samples were collected before starting exercise and at 5 and 30 min of recovery (+5-Rec, +30-Rec). Serum ACTH, corticosterone (Cn), cortisol (F), cortisone (E), tetrahydrocortisol (THF), tetrahydrocortisone (THE), cortols, cortolones and respective ratios were evaluated. Pre-Ex THF was higher after tadalafil. Exercise increased ACTH, Cn, F, E, THE, cortols and cortolones after both placebo and tadalafil, and THF after placebo. The F/E ratio increased at +5-Rec and decreased at +30-Rec after placebo. Compared to placebo, after tadalafil lower ACTH, F and Cn, higher THF/F and THE/E, and not E (at +5-Rec) and F/E modifications were observed. Acute exercise rapidly influences serum GC metabolites concentrations. Tadalafil influences both GC adaptation and 11β-HSDs activity during acute exercise. Additional researches on the effects of both exercise and PDE5i on tissue-specific 11β-HSDs activity at rest and during physiological adaptation are warranted.

  1. Down-Regulation of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 by Bortezomib Sensitizes Jurkat Leukemia T Cells against Glucocorticoid-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaosong; Wang, Hongmei; Yang, Guang; Zhan, Fenghuang; Shi, Jumei

    2013-01-01

    11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases type 2 (11β-HSD2), a key regulator for pre-receptor metabolism of glucocorticoids (GCs) by converting active GC, cortisol, to inactive cortisone, has been shown to be present in a variety of tumors. But its expression and roles have rarely been discussed in hematological malignancies. Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has been shown to not only possess antitumor effects but also potentiate the activity of other chemotherapeutics. In this study, we demonstrated that 11β-HSD2 was highly expressed in two GC-resistant T-cell leukemic cell lines Jurkat and Molt4. In contrast, no 11β-HSD2 expression was found in two GC-sensitive non-hodgkin lymphoma cell lines Daudi and Raji as well as normal peripheral blood T cells. Inhibition of 11β-HSD2 by 11β-HSD inhibitor 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid or 11β-HSD2 shRNA significantly increased cortisol-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. Additionally, pretreatment of Jurkat cells with low-dose bortezomib resulted in increased cellular sensitivity to GC as shown by elevated induction of apoptosis, more cells arrested at G1 stage and up-regulation of GC-induced leucine zipper which is an important mediator of GC action. Furthermore, we clarified that bortezomib could dose-dependently inhibit 11β-HSD2 messenger RNA and protein levels as well as activity (cortisol-cortisone conversion) through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Therefore, we suggest 11β-HSD2 is, at least partially if not all, responsible for impaired GC suppression in Jurkat cells and also indicate a novel mechanism by which proteasome inhibitor bortezomib may influence GC action. PMID:23826195

  2. Association of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Expression and Activity with Estrogen Receptor β in Adipose Tissue from Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    McInnes, Kerry J; Andersson, Therése C; Šimonytė, Kotryna; Söderström, Ingegerd; Mattsson, Cecilia; Seckl, Jonathan R; Olsson, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    Objective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) regenerates active cortisol from inert cortisone in adipose tissue. Elevated adipose tissue 11βHSD1 activity is observed in obese humans and rodents where it is linked to obesity and its metabolic consequences. Menopause is also associated with increased abdominal fat accumulation suggesting that estrogen is also important in adipose tissue metabolism. The purpose of this current study was to establish whether estrogen signalling through estrogen receptors-α and -β (ERα and ERβ) can influence 11βHSD1 in premenopausal and postmenopausal adipose tissue. Methods 19 premenopausal (aged 26±5, BMI 23.6±1.6) and 23 postmenopausal healthy women (aged 63±4, BMI 23.4±1.9) were studied. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies and fasting venous blood samples were taken. Body composition was measured by bio-electrical impedance analysis. Human SGBS adipocyte cells were treated with ERα and ERβ-specific agonists for 24h. Basic anthropometric data, Serum 17β-estradiol and progesterone concentrations, ERα and ERβ mRNA levels and 11βHSD1 mRNA, protein and activity levels were assessed. Results ERβ and 11βHSD1, but not ERα mRNA was significantly increased in adipose tissue from postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women. ERβ had a significant positive correlation with the mRNA level of 11βHSD1 in adipose tissue from pre- and postmenopausal women. This association between ERβ and 11βHSD1 was greatest in adipose tissue from postmenopausal women. In human SGBS adipocytes, diarylpropiolnitrile (DPN), a selective ERβ agonist increased 11βHSD1 mRNA, protein and activity levels. Conclusions We conclude that in adipose tissue, ERβ-mediated estrogen-signalling can upregulate 11βHSD1 and that this may be of particular importance in postmenopausal women. PMID:23190557

  3. Lack of Renal 11 Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 at Birth, a Targeted Temporal Window for Neonatal Glucocorticoid Action in Human and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martinerie, Laetitia; Pussard, Eric; Meduri, Geri; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Boileau, Pascal; Lombès, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Background Glucocorticoid hormones play a major role in fetal organ maturation. Yet, excessive glucocorticoid exposure in utero can result in a variety of detrimental effects, such as growth retardation and increased susceptibility to the development of hypertension. To protect the fetus, maternal glucocorticoids are metabolized into inactive compounds by placental 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type2 (11βHSD2). This enzyme is also expressed in the kidney, where it prevents illicit occupation of the mineralocorticoid receptor by glucocorticoids. We investigated the role of renal 11βHSD2 in the control of neonatal glucocorticoid metabolism in the human and mouse. Methods Cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) concentrations were measured in maternal plasma, umbilical cord blood and human newborn urine using HPLC. 11βHSD2 activity was indirectly assessed by comparing the F/E ratio between maternal and neonatal plasma (placental activity) and between plasma and urine in newborns (renal activity). Direct measurement of renal 11βHSD2 activity was subsequently evaluated in mice at various developmental stages. Renal 11βHSD2 mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry during the perinatal period in both species. Results We demonstrate that, at variance with placental 11βHSD2 activity, renal 11βHSD2 activity is weak in newborn human and mouse and correlates with low renal mRNA levels and absence of detectable 11βHSD2 protein. Conclusions We provide evidence for a weak or absent expression of neonatal renal 11βHSD2 that is conserved among species. This temporal and tissue-specific 11βHSD2 expression could represent a physiological window for glucocorticoid action yet may constitute an important predictive factor for adverse outcomes of glucocorticoid excess through fetal programming. PMID:22359645

  4. Down-regulation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 by bortezomib sensitizes Jurkat leukemia T cells against glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Gao, Lu; Wu, Xiaosong; Wang, Hongmei; Yang, Guang; Zhan, Fenghuang; Shi, Jumei

    2013-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases type 2 (11β-HSD2), a key regulator for pre-receptor metabolism of glucocorticoids (GCs) by converting active GC, cortisol, to inactive cortisone, has been shown to be present in a variety of tumors. But its expression and roles have rarely been discussed in hematological malignancies. Proteasome inhibitor bortezomib has been shown to not only possess antitumor effects but also potentiate the activity of other chemotherapeutics. In this study, we demonstrated that 11β-HSD2 was highly expressed in two GC-resistant T-cell leukemic cell lines Jurkat and Molt4. In contrast, no 11β-HSD2 expression was found in two GC-sensitive non-hodgkin lymphoma cell lines Daudi and Raji as well as normal peripheral blood T cells. Inhibition of 11β-HSD2 by 11β-HSD inhibitor 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid or 11β-HSD2 shRNA significantly increased cortisol-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. Additionally, pretreatment of Jurkat cells with low-dose bortezomib resulted in increased cellular sensitivity to GC as shown by elevated induction of apoptosis, more cells arrested at G1 stage and up-regulation of GC-induced leucine zipper which is an important mediator of GC action. Furthermore, we clarified that bortezomib could dose-dependently inhibit 11β-HSD2 messenger RNA and protein levels as well as activity (cortisol-cortisone conversion) through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Therefore, we suggest 11β-HSD2 is, at least partially if not all, responsible for impaired GC suppression in Jurkat cells and also indicate a novel mechanism by which proteasome inhibitor bortezomib may influence GC action.

  5. Short-term inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 reversibly improves spatial memory but persistently impairs contextual fear memory in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Wheelan, Nicola; Webster, Scott P; Kenyon, Christopher J; Caughey, Sarah; Walker, Brian R; Holmes, Megan C; Seckl, Jonathan R; Yau, Joyce L W

    2015-04-01

    High glucocorticoid levels induced by stress enhance the memory of fearful events and may contribute to the development of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. In contrast, elevated glucocorticoids associated with ageing impair spatial memory. We have previously shown that pharmacological inhibition of the intracellular glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) improves spatial memory in aged mice. However, it is not known whether inhibition of 11β-HSD1 will have any beneficial effects on contextual fear memories in aged mice. Here, we examined the effects of UE2316, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor which accesses the brain, on both spatial and contextual fear memories in aged mice using a vehicle-controlled crossover study design. Short-term UE2316 treatment improved spatial memory in aged mice, an effect which was reversed when UE2316 was substituted with vehicle. In contrast, contextual fear memory induced by foot-shock conditioning was significantly reduced by UE2316 in a non-reversible manner. When the order of treatment was reversed following extinction of the original fear memory, and a second foot-shock conditioning was given in a novel context, UE2316 treated aged mice (previously on vehicle) now showed increased fear memory compared to vehicle-treated aged mice (previously on UE2316). Renewal of the original extinguished fear memory triggered by exposure to a new environmental context may explain these effects. Thus 11β-HSD1 inhibition reverses spatial memory impairments with ageing while reducing the strength and persistence of new contextual fear memories. Potentially this could help prevent anxiety-related disorders in vulnerable elderly individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of a steroidogenic enzyme, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 14, from the stony coral Euphyllia ancora (Cnidaria, Anthozoa).

    PubMed

    Shikina, Shinya; Chung, Yi-Jou; Chiu, Yi-Ling; Huang, Yi-Jie; Lee, Yan-Horn; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2016-03-01

    Sex steroids play a fundamental role not only in reproduction but also in various other biological processes in vertebrates. Although the presence of sex steroids has been confirmed in cnidarians (e.g., coral, sea anemone, jellyfish, and hydra), which are basal metazoans, only a few studies to date have characterized steroidogenesis-related genes in cnidarians. Based on a transcriptomic analysis of the stony coral Euphyllia ancora, we identified the steroidogenic enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 14 (17beta-hsd 14), an oxidative enzyme that catalyzes the NAD(+)-dependent inactivation of estrogen/androgen (estradiol to estrone and testosterone to androstenedione) in mammals. Phylogenetic analysis showed that E. ancora 17beta-Hsd 14 (Ea17beta-Hsd 14) clusters with other animal 17beta-HSD 14s but not with other members of the 17beta-HSD family. Subsequent quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed a lack of correlation of Ea17beta-hsd 14 transcript levels with the coral's reproductive cycle. In addition, Ea17beta-hsd 14 transcript and protein were detected in all tissues examined, such as the tentacles, mesenterial filaments, and gonads, at similar levels in both sexes, as determined by quantitative RT-PCR analysis and Western blotting with an anti-Ea17beta-Hsd 14 antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Ea17beta-Hsd 14 is mainly distributed in the endodermal regions of the polyps, but the protein was also observed in all tissues examined. These results suggest that Ea17beta-Hsd 14 is involved in important functions that commonly occur in endodermal cells or has multiple functions in different tissues. Our data provide information for comparison with advanced animals as well as insight into the evolution of steroidogenesis-related genes in metazoans.

  7. Expression of P450 aromatase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 at fetal-maternal interface during tubal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Qin, Li; Xiao, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Yan-Ling; Herva, Riitta; Leng, Jin-Hua; Lang, Jing-He; Isomaa, Veli; Piao, Yun-Shang

    2003-12-01

    Steroidogenesis in the placenta has been studied widely, but little is known about steroid metabolism in ectopic pregnancy. Previous studies have indicated that trophoblast invasion and placentation in the uterus and the fallopian tube may be controlled by similar mechanisms. As far as 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) production is concerned, it has been well demonstrated that its biosynthesis in the placenta involves the action of P450 aromatase (P450arom) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17HSD1). The purpose of this study was to characterize the expression pattern of P450arom and 17HSD1 at the fetal-maternal interface, particularly in various trophoblast cells, in tubal pregnancy. Using in situ hybridization, P450arom mRNA was localized in syncytiotrophoblast (ST) cells, which are mainly responsible for hormone production during pregnancy, whereas no signal was detected in villous cytotrophoblast (VCT), column CT and extravillous CT (EVCT) cells. Immunohistochemical assays revealed that 17HSD1 is present in ST cells, a large portion of EVCT cells and 20% of column CT cells. On the other hand, no expression of 17HSD1 was detected in VCT cells. In addition, 17HSD1 was found in epithelial cells of the fallopian tube. Interestingly, the expression level of 17HSD1 in fallopian tube epithelium during tubal pregnancy was significantly higher than that during normal cycle. Our data provide the first evidence that normal and tubal pregnancies possess identical expression of P450arom and 17HSD1 in ST cells and therefore, similar E(2) production in the placenta. Further, the association of 17HSD1 with EVCT cells indicates that 17HSD1 perhaps play a role in trophoblast invasion. Finally, increased expression of 17HSD1 in epithelial cells of fallopian tube may lead to a local E(2) supply sufficient for the maintenance of tubal pregnancy.

  8. Short-term inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 reversibly improves spatial memory but persistently impairs contextual fear memory in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Wheelan, Nicola; Webster, Scott P.; Kenyon, Christopher J.; Caughey, Sarah; Walker, Brian R.; Holmes, Megan C.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Yau, Joyce L.W.

    2015-01-01

    High glucocorticoid levels induced by stress enhance the memory of fearful events and may contribute to the development of anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder. In contrast, elevated glucocorticoids associated with ageing impair spatial memory. We have previously shown that pharmacological inhibition of the intracellular glucocorticoid-amplifying enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) improves spatial memory in aged mice. However, it is not known whether inhibition of 11β-HSD1 will have any beneficial effects on contextual fear memories in aged mice. Here, we examined the effects of UE2316, a selective 11β-HSD1 inhibitor which accesses the brain, on both spatial and contextual fear memories in aged mice using a vehicle-controlled crossover study design. Short-term UE2316 treatment improved spatial memory in aged mice, an effect which was reversed when UE2316 was substituted with vehicle. In contrast, contextual fear memory induced by foot-shock conditioning was significantly reduced by UE2316 in a non-reversible manner. When the order of treatment was reversed following extinction of the original fear memory, and a second foot-shock conditioning was given in a novel context, UE2316 treated aged mice (previously on vehicle) now showed increased fear memory compared to vehicle-treated aged mice (previously on UE2316). Renewal of the original extinguished fear memory triggered by exposure to a new environmental context may explain these effects. Thus 11β-HSD1 inhibition reverses spatial memory impairments with ageing while reducing the strength and persistence of new contextual fear memories. Potentially this could help prevent anxiety-related disorders in vulnerable elderly individuals. PMID:25497454

  9. Elevation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity in Holocaust survivor offspring: evidence for an intergenerational effect of maternal trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Bierer, Linda M; Bader, Heather N; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Lehrner, Amy L; Makotkine, Iouri; Seckl, Jonathan R; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-10-01

    Adult offspring of Holocaust survivors comprise an informative cohort in which to study intergenerational transmission of the effects of trauma exposure. Lower cortisol and enhanced glucocorticoid sensitivity have been previously demonstrated in Holocaust survivors with PTSD, and in offspring of Holocaust survivors in association with maternal PTSD. In other work, reduction in the activity of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD-2), which inactivates cortisol, was identified in Holocaust survivors in comparison to age-matched, unexposed Jewish controls. Therefore, we investigated glucocorticoid metabolism in offspring of Holocaust survivors to evaluate if similar enzymatic decrements would be observed that might help to explain glucocorticoid alterations previously shown for Holocaust offspring. Holocaust offspring (n=85) and comparison subjects (n=27) were evaluated with clinical diagnostic interview and self-rating scales, and asked to collect a 24-h urine sample from which concentrations of cortisol and glucocorticoid metabolites were assayed by GCMS. 11β-HSD-2 activity was determined as the ratio of urinary cortisone to cortisol. Significantly reduced cortisol excretion was observed in Holocaust offspring compared to controls (p=.046), as had been shown for Holocaust survivors. However, 11β-HSD-2 activity was elevated for offspring compared to controls (p=.008), particularly among those whose mothers had been children, rather than adolescents or adults, during World War II (p=.032). The effect of paternal Holocaust exposure could not be reliably investigated in the current sample. The inverse association of offspring 11β-HSD-2 activity with maternal age at Holocaust exposure is consistent with the influence of glucocorticoid programming. Whereas a long standing reduction in 11β-HSD-2 activity among survivors is readily interpreted in the context of Holocaust related deprivation, understanding the directional effect on offspring will

  10. Influence of human serum albumin on the bile acid-mediated inhibition of liver microsomal type 1 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yorio; Funagayama, Mayumi; Shinohara, Akio; Koshimoto, Chihiro; Furusawa, Hidemi; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yukiko; Saitoh, Tomokazu; Yamamoto, Takashi; Komaki, Kansei

    2014-09-01

    The influence of human serum albumin (HSA) on the bile acid-mediated inhibition of liver microsomal type 1 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1) was studied in vitro. A rat liver microsomal fraction was prepared, and the 11β-HSD1 enzyme activity in the presence of various concentrations of bile acids and HSA was determined using hydrocortisone as the substrate. The products of the reaction were extracted and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The magnitude of the inhibition decreased with the addition of HSA in a dose-dependent manner. Four percent human albumin decreased the inhibitory effects of 100 μM chenodeoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid from 89.9 ± 5.6 to 54.5 ± 6.1% and from 83.8 ± 4.8 to 20.8 ± 4.2%, respectively. In contrast, ursodeoxycholic acid and deoxycholic acid showed no inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity in the presence of 4% human serum albumin, and the addition of 1% γ-globulin to the assay mixture in the presence of bile acids did not affect the enzyme activity. Our in vitro study showed that the addition of HSA ameliorated the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 and that the magnitude of the change is dependent on the species of bile acid, presumably based on the numbers of hydroxyl groups. These results suggest that HSA seems to protect the bile acid-mediated inhibition of 11β-HSD1 in the healthy subject. On the other hand, in the patients with obstructive biliary diseases, not only elevated serum bile acid but also the accompanying hypoalbuminemia is important to evaluate the pathophysiology of the bile acid-mediated inhibition of 11β-HSD1 of the disease.

  11. Elevation of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 activity in Holocaust survivor offspring: evidence for an intergenerational effect of maternal trauma exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bierer, Linda M.; Bader, Heather N.; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P.; Lehrner, Amy; Makotkine, Iouri; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Yehuda, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Adult offspring of Holocaust survivors comprise an informative cohort in which to study intergenerational transmission of the effects of trauma exposure. Lower cortisol and enhanced glucocorticoid sensitivity have been previously demonstrated in Holocaust survivors with PTSD, and in offspring of Holocaust survivors in association with maternal PTSD. In other work, reduction in the activity of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD-2), which inactivates cortisol, was identified in Holocaust survivors in comparison to age-matched, unexposed Jewish controls. Therefore, we investigated glucocorticoid metabolism in offspring of Holocaust survivors to evaluate if similar enzymatic decrements would be observed that might help to explain glucocorticoid alterations previously shown for Holocaust offspring. Methods Holocaust offspring (n=85) and comparison subjects (n=27) were evaluated with clinical diagnostic interview and self-rating scales, and asked to collect a 24-hr urine sample from which concentrations of cortisol and glucocorticoid metabolites were assayed by GCMS. 11β-HSD-2 activity was determined as the ratio of urinary cortisone to cortisol. Results Significantly reduced cortisol excretion was observed in Holocaust offspring compared to controls (p=.046), as had been shown for Holocaust survivors. However, 11β-HSD-2 activity was elevated for offspring compared to controls (p=.008), particularly among those whose mothers had been children, rather than adolescents or adults, during World War II (p=.032). The effect of paternal Holocaust exposure could not be reliably investigated in the current sample. Conclusions The association of offspring 11β-HSD-2 activity with maternal age at Holocaust exposure is consistent with the influence of glucocorticoid programming. Whereas a long standing reduction in 11β-HSD-2 activity among survivors is readily interpreted in the context of Holocaust related deprivation, understanding the

  12. Plastidial Expression of Type II NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase Increases the Reducing State of Plastoquinones and Hydrogen Photoproduction Rate by the Indirect Pathway in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1.

    PubMed

    Baltz, Anthony; Dang, Kieu-Van; Beyly, Audrey; Auroy, Pascaline; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Peltier, Gilles

    2014-07-01

    Biological conversion of solar energy into hydrogen is naturally realized by some microalgae species due to a coupling between the photosynthetic electron transport chain and a plastidial hydrogenase. While promising for the production of clean and sustainable hydrogen, this process requires improvement to be economically viable. Two pathways, called direct and indirect photoproduction, lead to sustained hydrogen production in sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures. The indirect pathway allows an efficient time-based separation of O2 and H2 production, thus overcoming the O2 sensitivity of the hydrogenase, but its activity is low. With the aim of identifying the limiting step of hydrogen production, we succeeded in overexpressing the plastidial type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDA2). We report that transplastomic strains overexpressing NDA2 show an increased activity of nonphotochemical reduction of plastoquinones (PQs). While hydrogen production by the direct pathway, involving the linear electron flow from photosystem II to photosystem I, was not affected by NDA2 overexpression, the rate of hydrogen production by the indirect pathway was increased in conditions, such as nutrient limitation, where soluble electron donors are not limiting. An increased intracellular starch was observed in response to nutrient deprivation in strains overexpressing NDA2. It is concluded that activity of the indirect pathway is limited by the nonphotochemical reduction of PQs, either by the pool size of soluble electron donors or by the PQ-reducing activity of NDA2 in nutrient-limited conditions. We discuss these data in relation to limitations and biotechnological improvement of hydrogen photoproduction in microalgae.

  13. Differential Effect of Initiating Moderate Red Wine Consumption on 24-h Blood Pressure by Alcohol Dehydrogenase Genotypes: Randomized Trial in Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Gepner, Yftach; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Golan, Rachel; Durst, Ronen; Shelef, Ilan; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Spitzen, Shosana; Witkow, Shula; Novack, Lena; Friger, Michael; Tangi-Rosental, Osnat; Sefarty, Dana; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Cohen, Noa; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusi, Benny; Wolak, Talia; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2016-04-01

    Observational studies report inconsistent associations between moderate alcohol intake and blood pressure (BP). In a sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial, we assessed the effect of initiating moderate red wine consumption on 24-h BP recordings and the effect of a common genetic variant of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) among patients with type 2 diabetes. Fifty-four type 2 diabetes, alcohol abstainers were randomized to consume 150 ml/dinner dry red wine or mineral water. Both groups were guided to adhere to a Mediterranean diet, without caloric restriction. We measured 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) at baseline and after 6 months. Participants (age = 57 years; 85% men; mean 24-h BP = 129/77 mm Hg) had 92% 6-month retention. After 6 months of intervention, the average 24-h BP did not differ between the wine and water groups. A transient decrease in BP was observed in the red wine group at midnight (3-4 hours after wine intake: systolic BP: red wine = -10.6mm Hg vs. mineral water = +2.3 mm Hg; P = 0.031) and the following morning at 7-9 am (red wine: -6.2mm Hg vs. mineral water: +5.6mm Hg; P = 0.014). In a second post hoc sub-analysis among the red wine consumers, individuals who were homozygous for the gene encoding ADH1B*2 variant (Arg48His; rs1229984, TT, fast ethanol metabolizers), exhibited a reduction in mean 24-h systolic BP (-8.0mm Hg vs. +3.7 mm Hg; P = 0.002) and pulse pressure (-3.8 mm Hg vs. +1.2 mm Hg; P = 0.032) compared to heterozygotes and those homozygous for the ADH1B*1 variant (CC, slow metabolizers). Initiating moderate red wine consumption at dinner among type 2 diabetes patients does not have a discernable effect on mean 24-h BP. Yet, a modest temporal BP reduction could be documented, and a more pronounced BP-lowering effect is suggested among fast ethanol metabolizers. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00784433. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Resistance Are Associated With Increased Adipose 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Expression and Elevated Hepatic 5α-Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Jeremy W.; Finney, Joanne; Gay, Christopher; Hughes, Beverly A.; Hughes, Susan V.; Stewart, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—The precise molecular mechanisms contributing to the development of insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes are largely unknown. Altered endogenous glucocorticoid metabolism, including 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which generates active cortisol from cortisone, and 5α-reductase (5αR), which inactivates cortisol, has been implicated. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A total of 101 obese patients (mean age 48 ± 7 years, BMI 34.4 ± 4.3 kg/m2, 66 women, 35 men) underwent 75-g oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT), body composition analysis (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), assessment of glucocorticoid metabolism (24-h urine steroid metabolite analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry), and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies. RESULTS—A total of 22.7% of women had IGT compared with 34.2% of men. Two women and five men were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. In women, adipose 11β-HSD1 expression was increased in patients with IGT and correlated with glucose levels across the OGTT (R = 0.44, P < 0.001) but was independent of fat mass. Total glucocorticoid secretion was higher in men with and without IGT (normal 13,743 ± 863 vs. 7,453 ± 469 μg/24 h, P < 0.001; IGT 16,871 ± 2,113 vs. 10,133 ± 1,488 μg/24 h, P < 0.05), and in women, it was higher in those with IGT (7,453 ± 469 vs. 10,133 ± 1,488 μg/24 h, P < 0.001). In both sexes, 5αR activity correlated with fasting insulin (men R = 0.53, P = 0.003; women R = 0.33, P = 0.02), insulin secretion across an OGTT (men R = 0.46, P = 0.01; women R = 0.40, P = 0.004), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (men R = 0.52, P = 0.004; women R = 0.33, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS—Increased adipose 11β-HSD1 expression in women may contribute to glucose intolerance. Enhanced 5αR activity in both sexes is associated with insulin resistance but not body composition. Augmented glucocorticoid inactivation may serve as a

  15. Evidence for transcript-specific epigenetic regulation of glucocorticoid-stimulated skeletal muscle 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 activity in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) converts inactive cortisone into active cortisol in insulin target tissues. In people with type 2 diabetes, skeletal muscle (SkM) 11βHSD1 is upregulated by the potent glucocorticoid dexamethasone. The HSD11B1 gene has two promoters designated P1 and P2. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) is known to regulate expression of 11βHSD1 via the P2 promoter. In this study, we investigated the potential role of altered DNA methylation of the P1 and P2 promoters in the observed dexamethasone-induced upregulation of SkM 11βHSD1 oxoreductase activity in human diabetic subjects. SkM biopsies from 15 people with type 2 diabetes were collected before and after treatment with oral dexamethasone 4 mg/day for 4 days and SkM 11βHSD1, C/EBPβ and P1 and P2 promoter region mRNA levels were measured by quantitative RT-PCR. 11βHSD1 oxoreductase activity was quantified by measuring the conversion of radiolabeled 3H-cortisone to cortisol by thin layer chromatography. Analysis of HSD11B1 promoter methylation (P1 and P2) was performed using Sequenom MassARRAY EpiTYPER analysis. Results Dexamethasone treatment resulted in a significant increase in 11βHSD1 mRNA levels (P = 0.003), oxoreductase activity (P = 0.017) and C/EBPβ mRNA (P = 0.015), and increased expression of both the P1 (P = 0.008) and P2 (P = 0.016) promoter regions . The distal P1 promoter region showed a significant reduction in methylation following dexamethasone (P = 0.026). There was a significant negative correlation between the change in methylation at this site and the increment in 11βHSD1 oxoreductase activity (r = −0.62, P = 0.014). Conclusions Our findings of reduced methylation in the HSD11B1 P1 promoter in association with increased 11βHSD1 oxoreductase activity implicate complex multi-promoter epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of 11βHSD1 levels in SkM. PMID:23241228

  16. Association of Genetically Determined Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Activity with Diabetic Complications in Relation to Alcohol Consumption in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Fukuoka Diabetes Registry.

    PubMed

    Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ide, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Shinako; Jodai, Tamaki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Hirano, Atsushi; Nakamura, Udai; Kubo, Michiaki; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) detoxifies aldehyde produced during ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress. A genetic defect in this enzyme is common in East Asians and determines alcohol consumption behaviors. We investigated the impact of genetically determined ALDH2 activity on diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications in relation to drinking habits in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An ALDH2 single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs671) was genotyped in 4,400 patients. Additionally, the relationship of clinical characteristics with ALDH2 activity (ALDH2 *1/*1 active enzyme activity vs. *1/*2 or *2/*2 inactive enzyme activity) and drinking habits (lifetime abstainers vs. former or current drinkers) was investigated cross-sectionally (n = 691 in *1/*1 abstainers, n = 1,315 in abstainers with *2, n = 1,711 in *1/*1 drinkers, n = 683 in drinkers with *2). The multiple logistic regression analysis for diabetic complications was adjusted for age, sex, current smoking habits, leisure-time physical activity, depressive symptoms, diabetes duration, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, insulin use, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors use. Albuminuria prevalence was significantly lower in the drinkers with *2 than that of other groups (odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)]: *1/*1 abstainers as the referent, 0.94 [0.76-1.16] in abstainers with *2, 1.00 [0.80-1.26] in *1/*1 drinkers, 0.71 [0.54-0.93] in drinkers with *2). Retinal photocoagulation prevalence was also lower in drinkers with ALDH2 *2 than that of other groups. In contrast, myocardial infarction was significantly increased in ALDH2 *2 carriers compared with that in ALDH2 *1/*1 abstainers (odds ratio [95% CI]: *1/*1 abstainers as the referent, 2.63 [1.28-6.13] in abstainers with *2, 1.89 [0.89-4.51] in *1/*1 drinkers, 2.35 [1.06-5.79] in drinkers with *2). In summary, patients with type 2 diabetes and ALDH2 *2 displayed a

  17. Association of Genetically Determined Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Activity with Diabetic Complications in Relation to Alcohol Consumption in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

    PubMed Central

    Idewaki, Yasuhiro; Iwase, Masanori; Fujii, Hiroki; Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Ide, Hitoshi; Kaizu, Shinako; Jodai, Tamaki; Kikuchi, Yohei; Hirano, Atsushi; Nakamura, Udai; Kubo, Michiaki; Kitazono, Takanari

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) detoxifies aldehyde produced during ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress. A genetic defect in this enzyme is common in East Asians and determines alcohol consumption behaviors. We investigated the impact of genetically determined ALDH2 activity on diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications in relation to drinking habits in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An ALDH2 single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs671) was genotyped in 4,400 patients. Additionally, the relationship of clinical characteristics with ALDH2 activity (ALDH2 *1/*1 active enzyme activity vs. *1/*2 or *2/*2 inactive enzyme activity) and drinking habits (lifetime abstainers vs. former or current drinkers) was investigated cross-sectionally (n = 691 in *1/*1 abstainers, n = 1,315 in abstainers with *2, n = 1,711 in *1/*1 drinkers, n = 683 in drinkers with *2). The multiple logistic regression analysis for diabetic complications was adjusted for age, sex, current smoking habits, leisure-time physical activity, depressive symptoms, diabetes duration, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, insulin use, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and renin-angiotensin system inhibitors use. Albuminuria prevalence was significantly lower in the drinkers with *2 than that of other groups (odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)]: *1/*1 abstainers as the referent, 0.94 [0.76–1.16] in abstainers with *2, 1.00 [0.80–1.26] in *1/*1 drinkers, 0.71 [0.54–0.93] in drinkers with *2). Retinal photocoagulation prevalence was also lower in drinkers with ALDH2 *2 than that of other groups. In contrast, myocardial infarction was significantly increased in ALDH2 *2 carriers compared with that in ALDH2 *1/*1 abstainers (odds ratio [95% CI]: *1/*1 abstainers as the referent, 2.63 [1.28–6.13] in abstainers with *2, 1.89 [0.89–4.51] in *1/*1 drinkers, 2.35 [1.06–5.79] in drinkers with *2). In summary, patients with type 2 diabetes and ALDH2 *2

  18. Human type 2 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA and protein distribution in placental villi at mid and term pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Renée; Simard, Marc; Plante, Julie; Laberge, Philippe; Tremblay, Yves

    2007-07-10

    During human pregnancy, the placental villi produces high amounts of estradiol. This steroid is secreted by the syncytium, which is directly in contact with maternal blood. Estradiol has to cross placental foetal vessels to reach foetal circulation. The enzyme 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17beta-HSD2) was detected in placental endothelial cells of foetal vessels inside the villi. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of estradiol to estrone, and of testosterone to androstenedione. It was proposed that estradiol level into foetal circulation could be regulated by 17beta-HSD2. We obtained placentas from 10 to 26 6/7 weeks of pregnancy from women undergoing voluntary termination of pregnancy, term placentas were collected after normal spontaneous vaginal deliveries. We quantified 17beta-HSD2 mRNA levels in mid-gestation and term human placenta by RT-QPCR. We produced a new anti-17beta-HSD2 antibody to study its spatio-temporal expression by immunohistochemistry. We also compared steroid levels (testosterone, estrone and estradiol) and 17beta-HSD2 mRNA and protein levels between term placenta and endometrium. High 17beta-HSD2 mRNA and protein levels were found in both mid-gestation and term placentas. However, we showed that 17beta-HSD2 mRNA levels increase by 2.27 fold between mid-gestation and term. This period coincides with a transitional phase in the development of the villous vasculature. In mid-gestation placenta, high levels of 17beta-HSD2 were found in mesenchymal villi and immature intermediate villi, more precisely in endothelial cells of the stromal channel. At term, high levels of 17beta-HSD2 were found in the numerous sinusoidal capillaries of terminal villi. 17beta-HSD2 mRNA and protein levels in term placentas were respectively 25.4 fold and 30 to 60 fold higher than in the endometrium. Steroid levels were also significantly higher in term placenta than in the endometrium. The spatial and temporal expression of 17beta-HSD2 in the placenta

  19. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha upregulates 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-beta in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ignatova, Irena D; Kostadinova, Radina M; Goldring, Christopher E; Nawrocki, Andrea R; Frey, Felix J; Frey, Brigitte M

    2009-02-01

    The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) catalyzes the conversion of inactive to active glucocorticoids. 11beta-HSD1 plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of obesity and controls glucocorticoid actions in inflammation. Several studies have demonstrated that TNF-alpha increases 11beta-HSD1 mRNA and activity in various cell models. Here, we demonstrate that mRNA and activity of 11beta-HSD1 is increased in liver tissue from transgenic mice overexpressing TNF-alpha, indicating that this effect also occurs in vivo. To dissect the molecular mechanism of this increase, we investigated basal and TNF-alpha-induced transcription of the 11beta-HSD1 gene (HSD11B1) in HepG2 cells. We found that TNF-alpha acts via p38 MAPK pathway. Transient transfections with variable lengths of human HSD11B1 promoter revealed highest activity with or without TNF-alpha in the proximal promoter region (-180 to +74). Cotransfection with human CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha) and C/EBPbeta-LAP expression vectors activated the HSD11B1 promoter with the strongest effect within the same region. Gel shift and RNA interference assays revealed the involvement of mainly C/EBPalpha, but also C/EBPbeta, in basal and only of C/EBPbeta in the TNF-alpha-induced HSD11B1 expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed in vivo the increased abundance of C/EBPbeta on the proximal HSD11B1 promoter upon TNF-alpha treatment. In conclusion, C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta control basal transcription, and TNF-alpha upregulates 11beta-HSD1, most likely by p38 MAPK-mediated increased binding of C/EBPbeta to the human HSD11B1 promoter. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing involvement of p38 MAPK in the TNF-alpha-mediated 11beta-HSD1 regulation, and that TNF-alpha stimulates enzyme activity in vivo.

  20. Regulation of human 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-2 (3βHSD2) by molecular chaperones and the mitochondrial environment affects steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, James L; Bose, Himangshu S

    2015-07-01

    Human 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase types 1 and 2 (3βHSD1 and 3βHSD2, respectively) are expressed in a tissue-specific pattern by different genes. Site-directed mutagenesis studies have confirmed the function of the catalytic amino acids (Tyr154, Lys 158, Ser124 in both isoenzymes), substrate/inhibitor isoform-specific residues (His156 and Arg195 in 3βHSD1) and cofactor binding residues (Asp36 provides NAD(+) specificity in both isoenzymes). However, detailed analysis of isoform-specific organelle localization and characterization is difficult due to the 93% amino acid identity between the two isoforms. With recent advances in the knowledge of mitochondrial architecture and localization of the various translocases, our laboratory has studied the mechanisms regulating mitochondrial 3βHSD2 localization. The mitochondrial N-terminal leader sequence of 3βHSD2 directs its entry into the mitochondria where it is localized to the intermembrane space (IMS). Unlike other mitochondrial proteins, the N-terminal signal sequence of 3βHSD2 is not cleaved upon mitochondrial import. 3βHSD2 interacts with the mitochondrial translocase, Tim50, to regulate progesterone and androstenedione formation. Our studies suggest that its activity at the IMS is facilitated in a partially unfolded "molten globule" conformation by the proton pump between the matrix and IMS. The unfolded protein is refolded by the mitochondrial chaperones. The protons at the IMS are absorbed by the lipid vesicles, to maintain the proton pump and recycle 3βHSD2. As a result, one molecule of 3βHSD2 may participate in multiple catalytic reactions. In summary, the steroidogenic cell recycles 3βHSD2 to catalyze the reactions needed to produce androstenedione, progesterone and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone on demand in coordination with the mitochondrial translocase, Tim50. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Steroid/Sterol signaling'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fetal growth restriction alters transcription factor binding and epigenetic mechanisms of renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in a sex-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Rajwinderjit; Hale, Merica A.; Bares, Allyson; Yu, Xing; Callaway, Christopher W.; McKnight, Robert A.; Lane, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of serious adult morbidities such as hypertension. In an IUGR rat model of hypertension, we reported a persistent decrease in kidney 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) mRNA and protein levels from birth through postnatal (P) day 21. This enzyme deficiency can lead to hypertension by limiting renal glucocorticoid deactivation. In the present study, we hypothesized that IUGR affects renal 11β-HSD2 epigenetic determinants of chromatin structure and alters key transcription factor binding to the 11β-HSD2 promoter in association with persistent downregulation of its mRNA expression. To test this hypothesis, we performed bilateral uterine artery ligation on embryonic day 19.5 pregnant rats and harvested kidneys at day 0 (P0) and P21. Key transcription factors that can affect 11β-HSD2 expression include transcriptional enhancers specificity protein 1 (SP1) and NF-κB p65 and transcriptional repressors early growth response factor (Egr-1) and NF-κB p50. Our most important findings were as follows: 1) IUGR significantly decreased SP1 and NF-κB (p65) binding to the 11β-HSD2 promoter in males, while it increased Egr-1 binding in females and NF-κB (p50) binding in males; 2) IUGR increased CpG methylation status, as well as modified the pattern of methylation in several CpG sites of 11β-HSD2 promoter at P0 also in a sex-specific manner; and 3) IUGR decreased trimethylation of H3K36 in exon 5 of 11β-HSD2 at P0 and P21 in both genders. We conclude that IUGR is associated with altered transcriptional repressor/activator binding in connection with increased methylation in the 11β-HSD2 promoter region in a sex-specific manner, possibly leading to decreased transcriptional activity. Furthermore, IUGR decreased trimethylation of H3K36 of the 11β-HSD2 gene in both genders, which is associated with decreased transcriptional elongation. We speculate that alterations in transcription factor binding and

  2. STX2171, a 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 inhibitor, is efficacious in vivo in a novel hormone-dependent prostate cancer model.

    PubMed

    Day, Joanna M; Foster, Paul A; Tutill, Helena J; Schmidlin, Fabien; Sharland, Christopher M; Hargrave, Jonathan D; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L; Reed, Michael J; Purohit, Atul

    2013-02-01

    17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17β-HSDs) catalyse the 17-position reduction/oxidation of steroids. 17β-HSD type 3 (17β-HSD3) catalyses the reduction of the weakly androgenic androstenedione (adione) to testosterone, suggesting that specific inhibitors of 17β-HSD3 may have a role in the treatment of hormone-dependent prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia. STX2171 is a novel selective non-steroidal 17β-HSD3 inhibitor with an IC(50) of ∼200 nM in a whole-cell assay. It inhibits adione-stimulated proliferation of 17β-HSD3-expressing androgen receptor-positive LNCaP(HSD3) prostate cancer cells in vitro. An androgen-stimulated LNCaP(HSD3) xenograft proof-of-concept model was developed to study the efficacies of STX2171 and a more established 17β-HSD3 inhibitor, STX1383 (SCH-451659, Schering-Plough), in vivo. Castrated male MF-1 mice were inoculated s.c. with 1×10(7) cells 24 h after an initial daily dose of testosterone propionate (TP) or vehicle. After 4 weeks, tumours had not developed in vehicle-dosed mice, but were present in 50% of those mice given TP. One week after switching the stimulus to adione, mice were dosed additionally with the vehicle or inhibitor for a further 4 weeks. Both TP and adione efficiently stimulated tumour growth and increased plasma testosterone levels; however, in the presence of either 17β-HSD3 inhibitor, adione-dependent tumour growth was significantly inhibited and plasma testosterone levels reduced. Mouse body weights were unaffected. Both inhibitors also significantly lowered plasma testosterone levels in intact mice. In conclusion, STX2171 and STX1383 significantly lower plasma testosterone levels and inhibit androgen-dependent tumour growth in vivo, indicating that 17β-HSD3 inhibitors may have application in the treatment of hormone-dependent prostate cancer.

  3. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 Gene Knockout Attenuates Atherosclerosis and In Vivo Foam Cell Formation in Hyperlipidemic apoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    García, Ricardo A.; Search, Debra J.; Lupisella, John A.; Ostrowski, Jacek; Guan, Bo; Chen, Jian; Yang, Wen-Pin; Truong, Amy; He, Aiqing; Zhang, Rongan; Yan, Mujing; Hellings, Samuel E.; Gargalovic, Peter S.; Ryan, Carol S.; Watson, Linda M.; Langish, Robert A.; Shipkova, Petia A.; Carson, Nancy L.; Taylor, Joseph R.; Yang, Richard; Psaltis, George C.; Harrity, Thomas W.; Robl, Jeffrey A.; Gordon, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic glucocorticoid excess has been linked to increased atherosclerosis and general cardiovascular risk in humans. The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) increases active glucocorticoid levels within tissues by catalyzing the conversion of cortisone to cortisol. Pharmacological inhibition of 11βHSD1 has been shown to reduce atherosclerosis in murine models. However, the cellular and molecular details for this effect have not been elucidated. Methodology/Principal Findings To examine the role of 11βHSD1 in atherogenesis, 11βHSD1 knockout mice were created on the pro-atherogenic apoE−/− background. Following 14 weeks of Western diet, aortic cholesterol levels were reduced 50% in 11βHSD1−/−/apoE−/− mice vs. 11βHSD1+/+/apoE−/− mice without changes in plasma cholesterol. Aortic 7-ketocholesterol content was reduced 40% in 11βHSD1−/−/apoE−/− mice vs. control. In the aortic root, plaque size, necrotic core area and macrophage content were reduced ∼30% in 11βHSD1−/−/apoE−/− mice. Bone marrow transplantation from 11βHSD1−/−/apoE−/− mice into apoE−/− recipients reduced plaque area 39–46% in the thoracic aorta. In vivo foam cell formation was evaluated in thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages from 11βHSD1+/+/apoE−/− and 11βHSD1−/−/apoE−/− mice fed a Western diet for ∼5 weeks. Foam cell cholesterol levels were reduced 48% in 11βHSD1−/−/apoE−/− mice vs. control. Microarray profiling of peritoneal macrophages revealed differential expression of genes involved in inflammation, stress response and energy metabolism. Several toll-like receptors (TLRs) were downregulated in 11βHSD1−/−/apoE−/− mice including TLR 1, 3 and 4. Cytokine release from 11βHSD1−/−/apoE−/−-derived peritoneal foam cells was attenuated following challenge with oxidized LDL. Conclusions These findings suggest that 11βHSD1 inhibition may have the potential to limit

  4. Detection of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor in various adipose tissue depots of dairy cows supplemented with conjugated linoleic acids.

    PubMed

    Friedauer, K; Dänicke, S; Schulz, K; Sauerwein, H; Häussler, S

    2015-10-01

    Early lactating cows mobilize adipose tissue (AT) to provide energy for milk yield and maintenance and are susceptible to metabolic disorders and impaired immune response. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), mainly the trans-10, cis-12 isomer, reduce milk fat synthesis and may attenuate negative energy balance. Circulating glucocorticoids (GC) are increased during parturition in dairy cows and mediate differentiating and anti-inflammatory effects via glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the presence of the enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1). Activated GC are the main ligands for both receptors in AT; therefore, we hypothesized that tissue-specific GC metabolism is effected by varying amounts of GR, MR and 11βHSD1 and/or their localization within AT depots. Furthermore, the lipolytic and antilipogenic effects of CLA might influence the GC/GR/MR system in AT. Therefore, we aimed to localize GR and MR as well as the expression pattern and activity of 11βHSD1 in different AT depots during early lactation in dairy cows and to identify potential effects of CLA. Primiparous German Holstein cows were divided into a control (CON) and a CLA group. From day 1 post-partum (p.p.) until sample collection, the CLA group was fed with 100 g/d CLA (contains 10 g each of the cis-9, trans-11 and the trans-10, cis-12-CLA isomers). CON cows (n = 5 each) were slaughtered on day 1, 42 and 105 p.p., while CLA cows (n = 5 each) were slaughtered on day 42 and 105 p.p. Subcutaneous fat from tailhead, withers and sternum, and visceral fat from omental, mesenteric and retroperitoneal depots were sampled. The localization of GR and 11βHSD1 in mature adipocytes - being already differentiated - indicates that GC promote other effects via GR than differentiation. Moreover, MR were observed in the stromal vascular cell fraction and positively related to the pre-adipocyte marker Pref-1. However, only marginal CLA effects were observed in this study

  5. The Type I NADH Dehydrogenase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Counters Phagosomal NOX2 Activity to Inhibit TNF-α-Mediated Host Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jessica L.; Velmurugan, Kamalakannan; Cowan, Mark J.; Briken, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The capacity of infected cells to undergo apoptosis upon insult with a pathogen is an ancient innate immune defense mechanism. Consequently, the ability of persisting, intracellular pathogens such as the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to inhibit infection-induced apoptosis of macrophages is important for virulence. The nuoG gene of Mtb, which encodes the NuoG subunit of the type I NADH dehydrogenase, NDH-1, is important in Mtb-mediated inhibition of host macrophage apoptosis, but the molecular mechanism of this host pathogen interaction remains elusive. Here we show that the apoptogenic phenotype of MtbΔnuoG was significantly reduced in human macrophages treated with caspase-3 and -8 inhibitors, TNF-α-neutralizing antibodies, and also after infection of murine TNF−/− macrophages. Interestingly, incubation of macrophages with inhibitors of reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduced not only the apoptosis induced by the nuoG mutant, but also its capacity to increase macrophage TNF-α secretion. The MtbΔnuoG phagosomes showed increased ROS levels compared to Mtb phagosomes in primary murine and human alveolar macrophages. The increase in MtbΔnuoG induced ROS and apoptosis was abolished in NOX-2 deficient (gp91−/−) macrophages. These results suggest that Mtb, via a NuoG-dependent mechanism, can neutralize NOX2-derived ROS in order to inhibit TNF-α-mediated host cell apoptosis. Consistently, an Mtb mutant deficient in secreted catalase induced increases in phagosomal ROS and host cell apoptosis, both of which were dependent upon macrophage NOX-2 activity. In conclusion, these results serendipitously reveal a novel connection between NOX2 activity, phagosomal ROS, and TNF-α signaling during infection-induced apoptosis in macrophages. Furthermore, our study reveals a novel function of NOX2 activity in innate immunity beyond the initial respiratory burst, which is the sensing of persistent intracellular pathogens and subsequent induction of host

  6. The dilemma of the gender assignment in a Portuguese adolescent with disorder of sex development due to 17β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 3 enzyme deficiency.

    PubMed

    Costa, Carla; Castro-Correia, Cíntia; Mira-Coelho, Alda; Monteiro, Bessa; Monteiro, Joaquim; Hughes, Ieuan; Fontoura, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The development of male internal and external genitalia in an XY fetus requires a complex interplay of many critical genes, enzymes, and cofactors. The enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase type 3 (17βHSD3) is present almost exclusively in the testicles and converts Delta 4-androstenodione (Δ4) to testosterone. A deficiency in this enzyme is rare and is a frequently misdiagnosed autosomal recessive cause of 46,XY, disorder of sex development. The case report is of a 15-year-old adolescent, who was raised according to female gender. At puberty, the adolescent had a severe virilization and primary amenorrhea. The physical examination showed a male phenotype with micropenis and blind vagina. The Tanner stage was A3B1P4, nonpalpable gonads. The karyotype revealed 46,XY. The endocrinology study revealed: testosterone=2.38 ng/ml, Δ4>10.00 ng/ml, and low testosterone/Δ4 ratio=0.23. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdominal-pelvic showed the presence of testicles in inguinal canal, seminal vesicle, prostate, micropenis, and absence of uterus and vagina. The genetic study confirmed the mutation p.Glu215Asp on HSD17B3 gene in homozygosity. The dilemma of sex reassignment was seriously considered when the diagnosis was made. During all procedures the patient was accompanied by a child psychiatrist/psychologist. The teenager desired to continue being a female, so gonadectomy was performed. Estrogen therapy and surgical procedure to change external genitalia was carried out. In this case, there was a severe virilization at puberty. It is speculated to be due to a partial activity of 17βHSD3 in the testicles and/or extratesticular ability to convert Δ4 to testosterone by 17βHSD5. Prenatal exposure of the brain to androgens has increasingly been put forward as a critical factor in gender identity development, but in this case the social factor was more important for the gender assignment. In this case, we highlight the late diagnosis, probably because the patient

  7. The M405V allele of the glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase gene is an important marker for glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) low excretors.

    PubMed

    Schillaci, Lori-Anne P; Greene, Carol L; Strovel, Erin; Rispoli-Joines, Jessica; Spector, Elaine; Woontner, Michael; Scharer, Gunter; Enns, Gregory M; Gallagher, Renata; Zinn, Arthur B; McCandless, Shawn E; Hoppel, Charles L; Goodman, Stephen I; Bedoyan, Jirair K

    2016-09-01

    Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) is an autosomal recessive organic aciduria resulting from a functional deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase, encoded by GCDH. Two clinically indistinguishable diagnostic subgroups of GA-I are known; low and high excretors (LEs and HEs, respectively). Early medical and dietary interventions can result in significantly better outcomes and improved quality of life for patients with GA-I. We report on nine cases of GA-I LE patients all sharing the M405V allele with two cases missed by newborn screening (NBS) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). We describe a novel case with the known pathogenic M405V variant and a novel V133L variant, and present updated and previously unreported clinical, biochemical, functional and molecular data on eight other patients all sharing the M405V allele. Three of the nine patients are of African American ancestry, with two as siblings. GCDH activity was assayed in six of the nine patients and varied from 4 to 25% of the control mean. We support the use of urine glutarylcarnitine as a biochemical marker of GA-I by demonstrating that glutarylcarnitine is efficiently cleared by the kidney (50-90%) and that plasma and urine glutarylcarnitine follow a linear relationship. We report the allele frequencies for three known GA-I LE GCDH variants (M405V, V400M and R227P) and note that both the M405V and V400M variants are significantly more common in the population of African ancestry compared to the general population. This report highlights the M405V allele as another important molecular marker in patients with the GA-I LE phenotype. Therefore, the incorporation into newborn screening of molecular screening for the M405V and V400M variants in conjunction with MS/MS could help identify asymptomatic at-risk GA-I LE patients that could potentially be missed by current NBS programs.

  8. Metabolic Analysis of Wild-type Escherichia coli and a Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDHC)-deficient Derivative Reveals the Role of PDHC in the Fermentative Metabolism of Glucose*

    PubMed Central

    Murarka, Abhishek; Clomburg, James M.; Moran, Sean; Shanks, Jacqueline V.; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Pyruvate is located at a metabolic junction of assimilatory and dissimilatory pathways and represents a switch point between respiratory and fermentative metabolism. In Escherichia coli, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and pyruvate formate-lyase are considered the primary routes of pyruvate conversion to acetyl-CoA for aerobic respiration and anaerobic fermentation, respectively. During glucose fermentation, the in vivo activity of PDHC has been reported as either very low or undetectable, and the role of this enzyme remains unknown. In this study, a comprehensive characterization of wild-type E. coli MG1655 and a PDHC-deficient derivative (Pdh) led to the identification of the role of PDHC in the anaerobic fermentation of glucose. The metabolism of these strains was investigated by using a mixture of 13C-labeled and -unlabeled glucose followed by the analysis of the labeling pattern in protein-bound amino acids via two-dimensional 13C,1H NMR spectroscopy. Metabolite balancing, biosynthetic 13C labeling of proteinogenic amino acids, and isotopomer balancing all indicated a large increase in the flux of the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway (ox-PPP) in response to the PDHC deficiency. Because both ox-PPP and PDHC generate CO2 and the calculated CO2 evolution rate was significantly reduced in Pdh, it was hypothesized that the role of PDHC is to provide CO2 for cell growth. The similarly negative impact of either PDHC or ox-PPP deficiencies, and an even more pronounced impairment of cell growth in a strain lacking both ox-PPP and PDHC, provided further support for this hypothesis. The three strains exhibited similar phenotypes in the presence of an external source of CO2, thus confirming the role of PDHC. Activation of formate hydrogen-lyase (which converts formate to CO2 and H2) rendered the PDHC deficiency silent, but its negative impact reappeared in a strain lacking both PDHC and formate hydrogen-lyase. A stoichiometric analysis of CO2

  9. A novel protective mechanism for mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) in type i diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction: role of AMPK-regulated autophagy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuli; Yu, Wenjun; Sun, Dongdong; Wang, Jiaxing; Li, Congye; Zhang, Rongqing; Babcock, Sara A; Li, Yan; Liu, Min; Ma, Meijuan; Shen, Mingzhi; Zeng, Chao; Li, Na; He, Wei; Zou, Qian; Zhang, Yingmei; Wang, Haichang

    2015-02-01

    Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is known to offer myocardial protection against stress conditions including ischemia-reperfusion injury, alcoholism and diabetes mellitus although the precise mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ALDH2 on diabetes-induced myocardial injury with a focus on autophagy. Wild-type FVB and ALDH2 transgenic mice were challenged with streptozotozin (STZ, 200mg/kg, i.p.) for 3months to induce experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy. Diabetes triggered cardiac remodeling and contractile dysfunction as evidenced by cardiac hypertrophy, decreased cell shortening and prolonged relengthening duration, the effects of which were mitigated by ALDH2. Lectin staining displayed that diabetes promoted cardiac hypertrophy, the effect of which was alleviated by ALDH2. Western blot analysis revealed dampened autophagy protein markers including LC3B ratio and Atg7 along with upregulated p62 following experimental diabetes, the effect of which was reconciled by ALDH2. Phosphorylation level of AMPK was decreased and its downstream signaling molecule FOXO3a was upregulated in both diabetic cardiac tissue and in H9C2 cells with high glucose exposure. All these effect were partly abolished by ALDH2 overexpression and ALDH2 agonist Alda1. High glucose challenge dampened autophagy in H9C2 cells as evidenced by enhanced p62 levels and decreased levels of Atg7 and LC3B, the effect of which was alleviated by the ALDH2 activator Alda-1. High glucose-induced cell death and apoptosis were reversed by Alda-1. The autophagy inhibitor 3-MA and the AMPK inhibitor compound C mitigated Alda-1-offered beneficial effect whereas the autophagy inducer rapamycin mimicked or exacerbated high glucose-induced cell injury. Moreover, compound C nullified Alda-1-induced protection against STZ-induced changes in autophagy and function. Our results suggested that ALDH2 protects against diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction possibly through an

  10. Active site-specific reconstituted copper(II) horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase: a biological model for type 1 Cu2+ and its changes upon ligand binding and conformational transitions.

    PubMed

    Maret, W; Dietrich, H; Ruf, H H; Zeppezauer, M

    1980-06-01

    Insertion of Cu2+ ions into horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase depleted of its catalytic Zn2+ ions creates an artificial blue copper center similar to that of plastocyanin and similar copper proteins. The esr spectrum of a frozen solution and the optical spectra at 296 and 77 K are reported, together with the corresponding data for binary and ternary complexes with NAD+ and pyrazole. The binary complex of the cupric enzyme with pyrazole establishes a novel type of copper proteins having the optical characteristics of Type 1 and the esr parameters of Type 2 Cu2+. Ternary complex formation with NAD+ converts the Cu2+ ion to a Type 1 center. By an intramolecular redox reaction the cuprous enzyme is formed from the cupric enzyme. Whereas the activity of the cupric alcohol dehydrogenase is difficult to assess (0.5%-1% that of the native enzyme), the cuprous enzyme is distinctly active (8% of the native enzyme). The implications of these findings are discussed in view of the coordination of the metal in native copper proteins.

  11. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  12. Development of hormone-dependent prostate cancer models for the evaluation of inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3.

    PubMed

    Day, Joanna M; Tutill, Helena J; Foster, Paul A; Bailey, Helen V; Heaton, Wesley B; Sharland, Christopher M; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J

    2009-03-25

    17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17beta-HSDs) are responsible for the pre-receptor reduction/oxidation of steroids at the 17-position into active/inactive hormones, and the 15 known enzymes vary in their substrate specificity, localisation, and directional activity. 17beta-HSD Type 3 (17beta-HSD3) has been seen to be over-expressed in prostate cancer, and catalyses the reduction of androstenedione (Adione) to testosterone (T), which stimulates prostate tumour growth. Specific inhibitors of 17beta-HSD3 may have a role in the treatment of hormone-dependent prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia, and also have potential as male anti-fertility agents. A 293-EBNA-based cell line with stable expression of transfected human 17beta-HSD3 was created and used to develop a whole cell radiometric TLC-based assay to assess the 17beta-HSD3 inhibitory potency of a series of compounds. STX2171 and STX2624 (IC(50) values in the 200-450nM range) were two of several active inhibitors identified. In similar TLC-based assays these compounds were found to be inactive against 17beta-HSD1 and 17beta-HSD2, indicating selectivity. A novel proof of concept model was developed to study the efficacy of the compounds in vitro using the androgen receptor positive hormone-dependent prostate cancer cell line, LNCaPwt, and its derivative, LNCaP[17beta-HSD3], transfected and selected for stable expression of 17beta-HSD3. The proliferation of the parental cell line was most efficiently stimulated by 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), but the LNCaP[17beta-HSD3] cells were equally stimulated by Adione, indicating that 17beta-HSD3 efficiently converts Adione to T in this model. Adione-stimulated proliferation of LNCaP[17beta-HSD3] cells was inhibited in the presence of either STX2171 or STX2624. The compounds alone neither stimulated proliferation of the cells nor caused significant cell death, indicating that they are non-androgenic with low cytotoxicity. STX2171 inhibited Adione

  13. The co-immobilization of P450-type nitric oxide reductase and glucose dehydrogenase for the continuous reduction of nitric oxide via cofactor recycling.

    PubMed

    Garny, Seike; Beeton-Kempen, Natasha; Gerber, Isak; Verschoor, Jan; Jordaan, Justin

    2016-04-01

    The co-immobilization of enzymes on target surfaces facilitates the development of self-contained, multi-enzyme biocatalytic platforms. This generally entails the co-immobilization of an enzyme with catalytic value in combination with another enzyme that performs a complementary function, such as the recycling of a critical cofactor. In this study, we co-immobilized two enzymes from different biological sources for the continuous reduction of nitric oxide, using epoxide- and carboxyl-functionalized hyper-porous microspheres. Successful co-immobilization of a fungal nitric oxide reductase (a member of the cytochrome P450 enzyme family) and a bacterial glucose dehydrogenase was obtained with the carboxyl-functionalized microspheres, with enzyme activity maintenance of 158% for nitric oxide reductase and 104% for glucose dehydrogenase. The optimal stoichiometric ratio of these two enzymes was subsequently determined to enable the two independent chemical reactions to be catalyzed concomitantly, allowing for near-synchronous cofactor conversion rates. This dual-enzyme system provides a novel research tool with potential for in vitro investigations of nitric oxide, and further demonstrates the successful immobilization of a P450 enzyme with potential application towards the immobilization of other cytochrome P450 enzymes.

  14. Antisense reduction of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enhances energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity independent of food intake in C57BL/6J mice on a Western-type diet.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoping; Hernandez-Ono, Antonio; Crooke, Rosanne M; Graham, Mark J; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2012-06-01

    We recently reported that inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) by antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) improved hepatic lipid metabolism independent of food intake. In that study, 11β-HSD1 ASO-treated mice lost weight compared with food-matched control ASO-treated mice, suggesting treatment-mediated increased energy expenditure. We have now examined the effects of 11β-HSD1 ASO treatment on adipose tissue metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and whole-body energy expenditure. We used an ASO to knock down 11β-HSD1 in C57BL/6J mice consuming a Western-type diet (WTD). The 11β-HSD1 ASO-treated mice consumed less food, so food-matched control ASO-treated mice were also evaluated. We characterized body composition, gene expression of individual adipose depots, and measures of energy metabolism. We also investigated glucose/insulin tolerance as well as acute insulin signaling in several tissues. Knockdown of 11β-HSD1 protected against WTD-induced obesity by reducing epididymal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous white adipose tissue while activating thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue. The latter was confirmed by demonstrating increased energy expenditure in 11β-HSD1 ASO-treated mice. The 11β-HSD1 ASO treatment also protected against WTD-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance; this protection was associated with smaller cells and fewer macrophages in epididymal white adipose tissue as well as enhanced in vivo insulin signaling. Our results indicate that ASO-mediated inhibition of 11β-HSD1 can protect against several WTD-induced metabolic abnormalities. These effects are, at least in part, mediated by increases in the oxidative capacity of brown adipose tissue. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Production, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Allochromatium vinosum thiosulfate dehydrogenase TsdA, an unusual acidophilic c-type cytochrome

    PubMed Central

    Brito, José A.; Gutierres, André; Denkmann, Kevin; Dahl, Christiane; Archer, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    The ability to perform the very simple oxidation of two molecules of thiosulfate to tetrathionate is widespread among prokaryotes. Despite the prevalent occurrence of tetrathionate formation and its well documented significance within the sulfur cycle, little is known about the enzymes that catalyze the oxidative condensation of two thiosulfate anions. To fill this gap, the thiosulfate dehydrogenase (TsdA) enzyme from the purple sulfur bacterium Allochromatium vinosum was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized, and a crystallographic data set was collected. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 79.2, b = 69.9, c = 57.9 Å, β = 129.3°, contained one monomer per asymmetric unit and diffracted to a resolution of 1.98 Å. PMID:25286955

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone affects the expression of multiple genes in rat liver including 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1: a cDNA array analysis.

    PubMed

    Gu, Shi; Ripp, Sharon L; Prough, Russell A; Geoghegan, Thomas E

    2003-03-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a C-19 adrenal steroid precursor to the gonadal steroids. In humans, circulating levels of DHEA, as its sulfated conjugate, are high at puberty and throughout early adulthood but decline with age. Dietary supplementation to maintain high levels of DHEA purportedly has beneficial effects on cognitive memory, the immune system, and fat and carbohydrate metabolism. In rodents, DHEA is a peroxisome proliferator that induces genes for the classical peroxisomal and microsomal enzymes associated with this response. These effects are mediated through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha). However, DHEA can affect the expression of genes independently of PPAR alpha, including the gene for the major inducible drug and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme, cytochrome P450 3A23. To elucidate the biochemistry associated with DHEA treatment, we employed a cDNA gene expression array using liver RNA from rats treated with DHEA or the classic peroxisome proliferator nafenopin. Principal components analysis identified 30 to 35 genes whose expression was affected by DHEA and/or nafenopin. Some were genes previously identified as PPAR-responsive genes. Changes in expression of several affected genes were verified by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. These included aquaporin 3, which was induced by DHEA and to a lesser extent nafenopin, nuclear tyrosine phosphatase, which was induced by both agents, and 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1, which was decreased by treatment with DHEA in a dose-dependent fashion. Regulation of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 expression is important since the enzyme is believed to amplify local glucocorticoid signaling, and its repression may cause some of the metabolic effects associated with DHEA.

  17. The multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenation disorders, glutaric aciduria type II and ethylmalonic-adipic aciduria. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, and electron transfer flavoprotein activities in fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Amendt, B A; Rhead, W J

    1986-01-01

    The multiple acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenation disorders (MAD) include severe (S) and mild (M) variants, glutaric aciduria type II (MAD:S) and ethylmalonic-adipic aciduria (MAD:M). Intact MAD:M mitochondria oxidized [1-14C]octanoate, [1-14C]palmityl-CoA, and [1,5-14C]glutarate at 20-46% of control levels; MAD:S mitochondria oxidized these three substrates at 0.4-18% of control levels. In MAD:M mitochondria, acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were similar to control, whereas MAD:S ADH activities ranged from 38% to 73% of control. Electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) activities in five MAD:M cell lines ranged from 29 to 51% of control (P less than 0.01); ETF deficiency was the primary enzymatic defect in two MAD:M lines. In four MAD:S patients, ETF activities ranged from 3% to 6% of control (P less than 0.001); flavin adenine dinucleotide addition increased residual ETF activity from 4% to 21% of control in a single MAD:S line (P less than 0.01). Three MAD:S patients had ETF activities ranging from 33 to 53% of control; other investigators found deficient ETF-dehydrogenase activity in these MAD:S and three of our MAD:M cell lines. PMID:3722376

  18. Expression of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and glucocorticoid receptors in reproductive tissue of male horses at different stages of sexual maturity.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Luna, C V; Budik, S; Helmreich, M; Walter, I; Aurich, C

    2013-04-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) as mediators of the stress response may affect Leydig cell function by inhibiting either luteinizing hormone receptor expression or testosterone biosynthesis. The isozymes 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD) 1 and 11βHSD2 control the intracellular cortisol levels. Little is known about the effects of stress on fertility in the equine. The objective of the present study was to determine the presence and cellular localization of glucocorticoid receptors (GCR) and glucocorticoid-metabolizing enzymes (11βHSD1 and 11βHSD2) in equine epididymal and testicular tissue with special regard to sexual maturation. Testicular and epididymal tissue was collected from 21 healthy stallions, and four age groups were designed: pre-pubertal, young, mature and older horses. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were used. Pre-pubertal horses showed higher testicular gene expression of 11βHSD1, 11βHSD2 and GCR than horses of all other groups (p < 0.05). A positive intranuclear immunoreaction for GCR was seen in epithelial cells of caput, corpus and cauda epididymidis and in Leydig cells. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between age groups occurred. The number of Leydig cells staining positive for GCR was highest in immature stallions (p < 0.05). The enzyme 11βHSD1 was localized in epithelial cells of the caput and corpus epididymidis and in Leydig cells. As determined by enzyme assay, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependant dehydrogenase (oxidation) activity was not detected in testicular tissue from immature stallions but in all other age groups (n = 3 per group). Results of this study suggest a contribution of GCs to maturation of male reproductive tissue in horses. In mature stallions, expression of 11βHSD enzymes and the oxidative 11βHSD activity in Leydig cells and epididymal basal and principal cells suggest a protective role on these tissues contributing to physiological intracellular

  19. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 contributes to the balance between 7-keto- and 7-hydroxy-oxysterols in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mitić, Tijana; Shave, Steven; Semjonous, Nina; McNae, Iain; Cobice, Diego F; Lavery, Gareth G; Webster, Scott P; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Walker, Brian R; Andrew, Ruth

    2013-07-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11βHSD1; EC 1.1.1.146) generates active glucocorticoids from inert 11-keto metabolites. However, it can also metabolize alternative substrates, including 7β-hydroxy- and 7-keto-cholesterol (7βOHC, 7KC). This has been demonstrated in vitro but its consequences in vivo are uncertain. We used genetically modified mice to investigate the contribution of 11βHSD1 to the balance of circulating levels of 7KC and 7βOHC in vivo, and dissected in vitro the kinetics of the interactions between oxysterols and glucocorticoids for metabolism by the mouse enzyme. Circulating levels of 7KC and 7βOHC in mice were 91.3±22.3 and 22.6±5.7 nM respectively, increasing to 1240±220 and 406±39 nM in ApoE(-/-) mice receiving atherogenic western diet. Disruption of 11βHSD1 in mice increased (p<0.05) the 7KC/7βOHC ratio in plasma (by 20%) and also in isolated microsomes (2 fold). The 7KC/7βOHC ratio was similarly increased when NADPH generation was restricted by disruption of hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Reduction and oxidation of 7-oxysterols by murine 11βHSD1 proceeded more slowly and substrate affinity was lower than for glucocorticoids. in vitro 7βOHC was a competitive inhibitor of oxidation of corticosterone (Ki=0.9 μM), whereas 7KC only weakly inhibited reduction of 11-dehydrocorticosterone. However, supplementation of 7-oxysterols in cultured cells, secondary to cholesterol loading, preferentially slowed reduction of glucocorticoids, rather than oxidation. Thus, in mouse, 11βHSD1 influenced the abundance and balance of circulating and tissue levels of 7βOHC and 7KC, promoting reduction of 7KC. In health, 7-oxysterols are unlikely to regulate glucocorticoid metabolism. However, in hyperlipidaemia, 7-oxysterols may inhibit glucocorticoid metabolism and modulate signaling through corticosteroid receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Opine dehydrogenases in marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Harcet, Matija; Perina, Drago; Pleše, Bruna

    2013-10-01

    It is well known today that opine production anaerobic pathways are analogs to the classical glycolytic pathway (lactate production pathway). These pathways, catalyzed by a group of enzymes called opine dehydrogenases (OpDHs), ensure continuous flux of glycolysis and a constant supply of ATP by maintaining the NADH/NAD(+) ratio during exercise and hypoxia, thus regulating the cytosolic redox balance in glycolysis under anoxia. OpDHs are distributed in a wide range of marine invertebrate phyla, including sponges (Porifera). Phylogenetic analyses supported with enzymatic assays strongly indicate that sponge OpDHs constitute an enzyme class unrelated to other OpDHs. Therefore, OpDHs in marine invertebrates are divided into two groups, a mollusk/annelid type and a sponge type, which belongs to the OCD/mu-crystallin family.

  1. "Enzymogenesis": classical liver alcohol dehydrogenase origin from the glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase line.

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, O; Jörnvall, H

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the activity and structure of lower vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenases reveals that relationships between the classical liver and yeast enzymes need not be continuous. Both the ethanol activity of class I-type alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) and the glutathione-dependent formaldehyde activity of the class III-type enzyme [formaldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase (glutathione-formylating), EC 1.2.1.1] are present in liver down to at least the stage of bony fishes (cod liver: ethanol activity, 3.4 units/mg of protein in one enzyme; formaldehyde activity, 4.5 units/mg in the major form of another enzyme). Structural analysis of the latter protein reveals it to be a typical class III enzyme, with limited variation from the mammalian form and therefore with stable activity and structure throughout much of the vertebrate lineage. In contrast, the classical alcohol dehydrogenase (the class I enzyme) appears to be the emerging form, first in activity and later also in structure. The class I activity is present already in the piscine line, whereas the overall structural-type enzyme is not observed until amphibians and still more recent vertebrates. Consequently, the class I/III duplicatory origin appears to have arisen from a functional class III form, not a class I form. Therefore, ethanol dehydrogenases from organisms existing before this duplication have origins separate from those leading to the "classical" liver alcohol dehydrogenases. The latter now often occur in isozyme forms from further gene duplications and have a high rate of evolutionary change. The pattern is, however, not simple and we presently find in cod the first evidence for isozymes also within a class III alcohol dehydrogenase. Overall, the results indicate that both of these classes of vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase are important and suggest a protective metabolic function for the whole enzyme system. Images PMID:1409630

  2. Function of muscle-type lactate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase of the Galápagos marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, in relation to temperature.

    PubMed

    Fields, Peter A; Strothers, Chad M; Mitchell, Mark A

    2008-05-01

    The Galápagos marine iguana, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, is unique among lizards in foraging subtidally, leading to activity across a broad range of ambient temperatures ( approximately 14-40 degrees C). To determine whether the marine iguana shows any biochemical changes consistent with maintaining enzyme function at both warm and cold body temperatures, we examined the function of the aerobic enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and the muscle isoform of the anaerobic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (A(4)-LDH) in A. cristatus and a confamilial species, Iguana iguana, from 14 to 46 degrees C. We also deduced amino acid sequences from cDNA of each enzyme. In CS, despite two amino acid substitutions, we found no difference in the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant K(m) of oxaloacetate at any temperature, indicating that the substrate affinity of CS in A. cristatus has not adapted to changes in thermal environment. In A(4)-LDH, we used site-directed mutagenesis to show that the substitutions T9A and I283V (A. cristatus --> I. iguana) individually have no effect on kinetics, but together significantly decrease the K(m) of pyruvate and catalytic rate constant (k(cat)) of the A. cristatus ortholog. Thus, our data show that A. cristatus A(4)-LDH has not become cold adapted in response to this species' aquatic foraging behavior, and instead may be consistent with moderate warm adaptation with respect to the I. iguana ortholog.

  3. Fundamental molecular differences between alcohol dehydrogenase classes.

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, O; Atrian, S; Luque, T; Hjelmqvist, L; Gonzàlez-Duarte, R; Jörnvall, H

    1994-01-01

    Two types of alcohol dehydrogenase in separate protein families are the "medium-chain" zinc enzymes (including the classical liver and yeast forms) and the "short-chain" enzymes (including the insect form). Although the medium-chain family has been characterized in prokaryotes and many eukaryotes (fungi, plants, cephalopods, and vertebrates), insects have seemed to possess only the short-chain enzyme. We have now also characterized a medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenase in Drosophila. The enzyme is identical to insect octanol dehydrogenase. It is a typical class III alcohol dehydrogenase, similar to the corresponding human form (70% residue identity), with mostly the same residues involved in substrate and coenzyme interactions. Changes that do occur are conservative, but Phe-51 is of functional interest in relation to decreased coenzyme binding and increased overall activity. Extra residues versus the human enzyme near position 250 affect the coenzyme-binding domain. Enzymatic properties are similar--i.e., very low activity toward ethanol (Km beyond measurement) and high selectivity for formaldehyde/glutathione (S-hydroxymethylglutathione; kcat/Km = 160,000 min-1.mM-1). Between the present class III and the ethanol-active class I enzymes, however, patterns of variability differ greatly, highlighting fundamentally separate molecular properties of these two alcohol dehydrogenases, with class III resembling enzymes in general and class I showing high variation. The gene coding for the Drosophila class III enzyme produces an mRNA of about 1.36 kb that is present at all developmental stages of the fly, compatible with the constitutive nature of the vertebrate enzyme. Taken together, the results bridge a previously apparent gap in the distribution of medium-chain alcohol dehydrogenases and establish a strictly conserved class III enzyme, consistent with an important role for this enzyme in cellular metabolism. Images PMID:8197167

  4. Intratumoral localization and activity of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 in non-small cell lung cancer: a potent prognostic factor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Estrogens were recently demonstrated to be synthesized in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) via aromatase activity and aromatase inhibitor (AI) did suppressed estrogen receptor (ER) positive NSCLC growth. However, other enzymes involved in intratumoral production and metabolism of estrogens, i.e. 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (i.e. 17βHSD1 and 17βHSD2) and others have not been studied. Therefore, in this study, we examined the clinical/ biological significance of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in NSCLCs. Methodology Archival materials obtained from 103 NSCLC patients were immunohistochemically evaluated using anti-17βHSD1 and anti-17βHSD2 antibodies. The findings of immunohistochemistry were then correlated with intratumoral estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) concentration, clinicopathological factors and overall survival of the patients. We further employed NSCLC cell lines, A549 and LK87 to study the functional significance of 17βHSD1, in vitro. Results A higher 17βHSD1 immunoreactivity tended to be positively associated with aromatase (p=0.057) and tumor stage (p=0.055) whereas a higher 17βHSD2 immunoreactivity was positively associated with a squamous cell and adenosquamous cell carcinomas subtypes (p=0.031), tumor stage (p=0.004), T factor of TNM classification (p=0.010), maximum tumor diameter (p=0.002) and tended to be associated with N factor of TMN classification (p=0.065). A higher 17βHSD1 immunoreactivity was also significantly associated with lower intratumoral E1 concentration (p=0.040) and a higher intratumoral E2/E1 concentration ratio (p=0.028). On the other hand a higher 17βHSD2 immunoreactivity was significantly associated with higher intratumoral E1 concentration (p=0.035). Results of multivariate regression analysis demonstrated an increased 17βHSD1 immunoreactivity in tumor cells as an independent negative prognostic factor (HR= 2.83, p=0.007). E1 treatment in 17βHSD1 positive NSCLC cells, A549 and LK87

  5. Prolactin receptor-associated protein/17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 7 gene (Hsd17b7) plays a crucial role in embryonic development and fetal survival.

    PubMed

    Shehu, Aurora; Mao, Jifang; Gibori, Gil B; Halperin, Julia; Le, Jamie; Devi, Y Sangeeta; Merrill, Bradley; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Gibori, Geula

    2008-10-01

    Our laboratory has previously cloned and purified a protein named PRAP (prolactin receptor-associated protein) that was shown to be a novel 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) enzyme with dual activity. This enzyme, renamed HSD17B7 or PRAP/17beta-HSD7, converts estrone to estradiol and is also involved in cholesterol biosynthesis. The major site of its expression is the corpus luteum of a great number of species including rodents and humans. To examine the functional significance of HSD17B7 in pregnancy, we generated a knockout mouse model with targeted deletions of exons 1-4 of this gene. We anticipated a mouse with a severe fertility defect due to its inability to regulate estrogen levels during pregnancy. The heterozygous mutant mice are normal in their development and gross anatomy. The females cycle normally, and both male and female are fertile with normal litter size. To our surprise, the breeding of heterozygous mice yielded no viable HSD17B7 null mice. However, we found HSD17B7 null embryo alive in utero on d 8.5 and d 9.5. By d 10.5, the fetuses grow and suffer from severe brain malformation and heart defect. Because the brain depends on in situ cholesterol biosynthesis for its development beginning at d 10, the major cause of fetal death appears to be due to the cholesterol synthetic activity of this enzyme. By ablating HSD17B7 function, we have uncovered, in vivo, an important requirement for this enzyme during fetal development.

  6. Insulin, CCAAT/Enhancer-Binding Proteins and Lactate Regulate the Human 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2 Gene Expression in Colon Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Alikhani-Koupaei, Rasoul; Ignatova, Irena D.; Guettinger, Andreas; Frey, Felix J.; Frey, Brigitte M.

    2014-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11beta-HSD) modulate mineralocorticoid receptor transactivation by glucocorticoids and regulate access to the glucocorticoid receptor. The isozyme 11beta-HSD2 is selectively expressed in mineralocorticoid target tissues and its activity is reduced in various disease states with abnormal sodium retention and hypertension, including the apparent mineralocorticoid excess. As 50% of patients with essential hypertension are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinemic, we hypothesized that insulin downregulates the 11beta-HSD2 activity. In the present study we show that insulin reduced the 11beta-HSD2 activity in cancer colon cell lines (HCT116, SW620 and HT-29) at the transcriptional level, in a time and dose dependent manner. The downregulation was reversible and required new protein synthesis. Pathway analysis using mRNA profiling revealed that insulin treatment modified the expression of the transcription factor family C/EBPs (CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins) but also of glycolysis related enzymes. Western blot and real time PCR confirmed an upregulation of C/EBP beta isoforms (LAP and LIP) with a more pronounced increase in the inhibitory isoform LIP. EMSA and reporter gene assays demonstrated the role of C/EBP beta isoforms in HSD11B2 gene expression regulation. In addition, secretion of lactate, a byproduct of glycolysis, was shown to mediate insulin-dependent HSD11B2 downregulation. In summary, we demonstrate that insulin downregulates HSD11B2 through increased LIP expression and augmented lactate secretion. Such mechanisms are of interest and potential significance for sodium reabsorption in the colon. PMID:25133511

  7. An alpha-proteobacterial type malate dehydrogenase may complement LDH function in Plasmodium falciparum. Cloning and biochemical characterization of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Abhai K; Desai, Prashant V; Pradhan, Anupam; Khan, Shabana I; Avery, Mitchell A; Walker, Larry A; Tekwani, Babu L

    2004-09-01

    Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) may be important in carbohydrate and energy metabolism in malarial parasites. The cDNA corresponding to the MDH gene, identified on chromosome 6 of the Plasmodium falciparum genome, was amplified by RT-PCR, cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant Pf MDH was purified to homogeneity and biochemically characterized as an NAD(+)(H)-specific MDH, which catalysed reversible interconversion of malate to oxaloacetate. Pf MDH could not use NADP/NADPH as a cofactor, but used acetylpyridine adenine dinucleoide, an analogue of NAD. The enzyme exhibited strict substrate and cofactor specificity. The highest levels of Pf MDH transcripts were detected in trophozoites while the Pf MDH protein level remained high in trophozoites as well as schizonts. A highly refined model of Pf MDH revealed distinct structural characteristics of substrate and cofactor binding sites and important amino acid residues lining these pockets. The active site amino acid residues involved in substrate binding were conserved in Pf MDH but the N-terminal glycine motif, which is involved in nucleotide binding, was similar to the GXGXXG signature sequence found in Pf LDH and also in alpha-proteobacterial MDHs. Oxamic acid did not inhibit Pf MDH, while gossypol, which interacts at the nucleotide binding site of oxidoreductases and shows antimalarial activity, inhibited Pf MDH also. Treatment of a synchronized culture of P. falciparum trophozoites with gossypol caused induction in expression of Pf MDH, while expression of Pf LDH was reduced and expression of malate:quinone oxidoreductase remained unchanged. Pf MDH may complement Pf LDH function of NAD/NADH coupling in malaria parasites. Thus, dual inhibitors of Pf MDH and Pf LDH may be required to target this pathway and to develop potential new antimalarial drugs.

  8. Mediastinal adipose tissue expresses a pathogenic profile of 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Type 1, glucocorticoid receptor, and CD68 in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Atalar, Fatmahan; Gormez, Selcuk; Caynak, Baris; Akan, Gokce; Tanriverdi, Gamze; Bilgic-Gazioglu, Sema; Gunay, Demet; Duran, Cihan; Akpinar, Belhhan; Ozbek, Ugur; Buyukdevrim, Ahmet Sevim; Yazıcı, Zeliha

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac visceral fat is accepted to be a new marker for cardiometabolic risk due to its association with increased cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to compare the expression of 11 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (11β-HSD)-1, glucocorticoid receptor (GCR), and CD68 in mediastinal and subcutaneous adipose tissues (MAT, and SAT, respectively) and to assess their possible relationships with the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Expression of 11β-HSD-1, GCR, and CD68 mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in MAT and SAT tissues of 37 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting due to CAD (CAD group) and 19 non-CAD patients (controls) undergoing heart valve surgery. 11β-HSD-1 in MAT and SAT and GCR expression in MAT and SAT were found to be significantly increased in CAD group when compared with controls (P<.05, respectively). In CAD group, 11β-HSD-1 mRNA levels were found to be significantly higher in MAT compared to SAT (P<.05). CD68 mRNA levels were significantly higher in MAT of CAD group compared to controls (P<.05). Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated the presence of CD68+ cells and increased 11β-HSD-1 expression in MAT of CAD group compared to SAT. The present study demonstrate that the mediastinal fat exhibits a pathogenic mRNA profile of 11β-HSD-1, GCR, and CD68. The identification of 11β-HSD-1 expression within the mediastinal fat, along with increased GCR expressions and the presence of CD68+ cells highlight that MAT potentially contributes to the pathogenesis of CAD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. POLYOL DEHYDROGENASES OF AZOTOBACTER AGILIS

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Leon; Marr, Allen G.

    1961-01-01

    Marcus, Leon (University of California, Davis), and Allen G. Marr. Polyol dehydrogenases of Azotobacter agilis. J. Bacteriol. 82:224–232. 1961.—Two soluble diphosphopyridine-linked polyol dehydrogenases are formed by Azotobacter agilis (A. vinelandii). The first, d-mannitol dehydrogenase is induced by d-mannitol and all of the pentitols except l-arabitol. Ribitol is an excellent inducer of mannitol dehydrogenase although it is not metabolized, nor does the enzyme act upon it. This allows study of the gratuitous induction of mannitol dehydrogenase. Of the polyols tested, mannitol dehydrogenase oxidizes d-mannitol, d-arabitol, d-rhamnitol, and perseitol, demonstrating its requirement for substrates bearing the d-manno configuration. The corresponding 2-ketoses, d-fructose, d-xylulose, and presumably d-rhamnulose, and perseulose are reduced. The second enzyme, l-iditol dehydrogenase is induced only by polyols containing the d-xylo configuration, i.e., sorbitol and xylitol. l-Iditol dehydrogenase oxidizes d-xylo polyols seven times faster than it does d-ribo polyols. Substrates oxidized include l-iditol, sorbitol, xylitol, and ribitol. The corresponding 2-ketoses, l-sorbose, d-fructose, d-xylulose, and d-ribulose, are reduced. The two polyol dehydrogenases have been separated and purified by chromatography on a modified cellulose ion exchanger. PMID:13766585

  10. Cyanobacterial NADPH dehydrogenase complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Teruo; Mi, Hualing

    2007-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess functionally distinct multiple NADPH dehydrogenase (NDH-1) complexes that are essential to CO2 uptake, photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration. The unique nature of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes is the presence of subunits involved in CO2 uptake. Other than CO2 uptake, chloroplastic NDH-1 complex has similar role as cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes in photosystem-1 cyclic electron transport and respiration (chlororespiration). In this mini-review we focus on the structure and function of cyanobacterial NDH-1 complexes and their phylogeny. The function of chloroplastic NDH-1 complex and characteristics of plants defective in NDH-1 are also described forcomparison.

  11. Association studies between microsatellite markers within the gene encoding human 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and body mass index, waist to hip ratio, and glucocorticoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Draper, N; Echwald, S M; Lavery, G G; Walker, E A; Fraser, R; Davies, E; Sørensen, T I A; Astrup, A; Adamski, J; Hewison, M; Connell, J M; Pedersen, O; Stewart, P M

    2002-11-01

    Two isozymes of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) interconvert active cortisol (F) and inactive cortisone (E). 11beta-HSD1 is an oxo-reductase (E to F) expressed in several glucocorticoid target tissues, including liver and adipose tissue, where it facilitates glucocorticoid-induced gluconeogenesis and adipocyte differentiation, respectively. We have isolated a full-length HSD11B1 genomic clone; the gene is more than 30 kb in length, not 9 kb in length as previously reported, principally due to a large intron 4. Two polymorphic (CA)(n) repeats have been characterized within intron 4: a CA(19) repeat 2.7 kb 3' of exon 4 and a CA(15) repeat 3 kb 5' of exon 5. The microsatellites, CA(19) and CA(15), were PCR amplified using fluorescent primers and were genotyped on an ABI 377 DNA sequencer from DNA of 413 normal individuals enrolled in the MONICA study of cardiovascular risk factors and 557 Danish men (ADIGEN study), of whom 234 were obese [body mass index (BMI), >/=31 kg/m(2) ] at draft board examination and 323 were randomly selected controls from the draftee population with BMI below 31 kg/m(2) (mean +/- SE, 21.7 +/- 0.41). Genotypic data from the normal MONICA cohort was compared with gender, 5beta-tetrahydrocortisol+5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratio, and waist to hip (W:H) ratio. When analyzed by allele length (0, 1, or 2 short alleles) for the CA(19) marker, there was a trend toward a higher 5beta-tetrahydrocortisol+5alpha-tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocortisone ratio (P = 0.058) and an increased W:H ratio (2 vs. 0.1 short; P(c) = 0.10) with overrepresentation of short alleles. The opposite was true for the CA(15) locus, with longer alleles at this locus predicting increased 11beta-HSD1 activity, particularly in females. Genotypic data from the ADIGEN case-control population was compared with clinical markers of obesity such as BMI and W:H ratio. There was no significant difference in the distribution of either microsatellite

  12. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Sylvia I; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Tao, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci.

  13. A new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3{beta}-HSD gene causes salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Sakkal-Alkaddour, S.; Chang, Ying T.; Yang, Xiaojiang; Songya Pang

    1996-01-01

    We report a new compound heterozygous frameshift mutation in the type II 3{Beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) gene in a Pakistanian female child with the salt-wasting form of 3{Beta}-HSD deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The etiology for her congenital adrenal hyperplasia was not defined. Although the family history suggested possible 3{beta}-HSd deficiency disorder, suppressed adrenal function caused by excess glucocorticoid therapy in this child at 7 yr of age did not allow hormonal diagnosis. To confirm 3{beta}-HSD deficiency, we sequenced the type II 3{beta}-HSD gene in the patient, her family, and the parents of her deceased paternal cousins. The type II 3{beta}-HSD gene region of a putative promotor, exons I, II, III, and IV, and exon-intron boundaries were amplified by PCR and sequenced in all subjects. The DNA sequence of the child revealed a single nucleotide deletion at codon 318 [ACA(Thr){r_arrow}AA] in exon IV in one allele, and two nucleotide deletions at codon 273 [AAA(Lys){r_arrow}A] in exon IV in the other allele. The remaining gene sequences were normal. The codon 318 mutation was found in one allele from the father, brother, and parents of the deceased paternal cousins. The codon 273 mutation was found in one allele of the mother and a sister. These findings confirmed inherited 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the child caused by the compound heterozygous type II 3{beta}-HSD gene mutation. Both codons at codons 279 and 367, respectively, are predicted to result in an altered and truncated type II 3{beta}-HSD protein, thereby causing salt-wasting 3{beta}-HSD deficiency in the patient. 21 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. First Crystal Structure of l-Lysine 6-Dehydrogenase as an NAD-dependent Amine Dehydrogenase*

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Kazunari; Fukuda, Junya; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2010-01-01

    A gene encoding an l-lysine dehydrogenase was identified in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii. The gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and its product was purified and characterized. The expressed enzyme is the most thermostable l-lysine dehydrogenase yet described, with a half-life of 180 min at 100 °C. The product of the enzyme's catalytic activity is Δ1-piperideine-6-carboxylate, which makes this enzyme an l-lysine 6-dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.18) that catalyzes the reductive deamination of the ϵ- amino group and a type of NAD-dependent amine dehydrogenase. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined using the mercury-based multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion method at a resolution of 2.44 Å in the presence of NAD and sulfate ion. The asymmetric unit consisted of two subunits, and a crystallographic 2-fold axis generated the functional dimer. Each monomer consisted of a Rossmann fold domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain, and the fold of the catalytic domain showed similarity to that of saccharopine reductase. Notably, the structures of subunits A and B differed significantly. In subunit A, the active site contained a sulfate ion that was not seen in subunit B. Consequently, subunit A adopted a closed conformation, whereas subunit B adopted an open one. In each subunit, one NAD molecule was bound to the active site in an anti-conformation, indicating that the enzyme makes use of pro-R-specific hydride transfer between the two hydrides at C-4 of NADH (type A specificity). This is the first description of the three-dimensional structure of l-lysine 6-dehydrogenase as an NAD-dependent amine dehydrogenase. PMID:20056607

  15. Higher Vulnerability of Menadione-Exposed Cortical Astrocytes of Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficient Mice to Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Cell Death: Implications for the Neurodegeneration in Glutaric Aciduria Type I.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marília Danyelle Nunes; Seminotti, Bianca; Zanatta, Ângela; de Mello Gonçalves, Aline; Bellaver, Bruna; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Quincozes-Santos, André; Goodman, Stephen Irwin; Woontner, Michael; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Wajner, Moacir

    2017-08-01

    Patients affected by glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) show progressive cortical leukoencephalopathy whose pathogenesis is poorly known. In the present work, we exposed cortical astrocytes of wild-type (Gcdh (+/+) ) and glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase knockout (Gcdh (-/-) ) mice to the oxidative stress inducer menadione and measured mitochondrial bioenergetics, redox homeostasis, and cell viability. Mitochondrial function (MTT and JC1-mitochondrial membrane potential assays), redox homeostasis (DCFH oxidation, nitrate and nitrite production, GSH concentrations and activities of the antioxidant enzymes SOD and GPx), and cell death (propidium iodide incorporation) were evaluated in primary cortical astrocyte cultures of Gcdh (+/+) and Gcdh (-/-) mice unstimulated and stimulated by menadione. We also measured the pro-inflammatory response (TNFα levels, IL1-β and NF-ƙB) in unstimulated astrocytes obtained from these mice. Gcdh (-/-) mice astrocytes were more vulnerable to menadione-induced oxidative stress (decreased GSH concentrations and altered activities of the antioxidant enzymes), mitochondrial dysfunction (decrease of MTT reduction and JC1 values), and cell death as compared with Gcdh (+/+) astrocytes. A higher inflammatory response (TNFα, IL1-β and NF-ƙB) was also observed in Gcdh (-/-) mice astrocytes. These data indicate a higher susceptibility of Gcdh (-/-) cortical astrocytes to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, probably leading to cell death. It is presumed that these pathomechanisms may contribute to the cortical leukodystrophy observed in GA-I patients.

  16. Comparison of a homology model and the crystallographic structure of human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) in a structure-based identification of inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miguet, Laurence; Zhang, Ziding; Barbier, Maryse; Grigorov, Martin G.

    2006-02-01

    Human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1) catalyzes the interconversion of cortisone into active cortisol. 11βHSD1 inhibition is a tempting target for the treatment of a host of human disorders that might benefit from blockade of glucocorticoid action, such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes type 2. Here, we report an in silico screening study aimed at identifying new selective inhibitors of human 11βHSD1 enzyme. In the first step, homology modeling was employed to build the 3D structure of 11βHSD1. Further, molecular docking was used to validate the predicted model by showing that it was able to discriminate between known 11βHSD1 inhibitors or substrates and non-inhibitors. The homology model was found to reproduce closely the crystal structure that became publicly available in the final stages of this work. Finally, we carried out structure-based virtual screening experiments on both the homology model and the crystallographic structure with a database of 114'000 natural molecules. Among these, 15 molecules were consistently selected as inhibitors based on both the model and crystal structures of the enzyme, implying a good quality for the homology model. Among these putative 11βHSD1 inhibitors, two were flavonone derivatives that have already been shown to be potent inhibitors of the enzyme.

  17. LACTIC DEHYDROGENASES OF PSEUDOMONAS NATRIEGENS.

    PubMed

    WALKER, H; EAGON, R G

    1964-07-01

    Walker, Hazel (University of Georgia, Athens), and R. G. Eagon. Lactic dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 88:25-30. 1964.-Lactic dehydrogenases specific for d- and l-lactate were demonstrated in Pseudomonas natriegens. The l-lactic dehydrogenase showed considerable heat stability, and 40% of the activity remained in extracts after heating at 60 C for 10 min. An essential thiol group for enzyme activity was noted. The results of these experiments were consistent with the view that lactate was dehydrogenated initially by a flavin cofactor and that electrons were transported through a complete terminal oxidase system to oxygen. The intracellular site of these lactic dehydrogenases was shown to be the cell membrane. It was suggested that the main physiological role of these lactic dehydrogenases is that of lactate utilization.

  18. LACTIC DEHYDROGENASES OF PSEUDOMONAS NATRIEGENS

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Hazel; Eagon, R. G.

    1964-01-01

    Walker, Hazel (University of Georgia, Athens), and R. G. Eagon. Lactic dehydrogenases of Pseudomonas natriegens. J. Bacteriol. 88:25–30. 1964.—Lactic dehydrogenases specific for d- and l-lactate were demonstrated in Pseudomonas natriegens. The l-lactic dehydrogenase showed considerable heat stability, and 40% of the activity remained in extracts after heating at 60 C for 10 min. An essential thiol group for enzyme activity was noted. The results of these experiments were consistent with the view that lactate was dehydrogenated initially by a flavin cofactor and that electrons were transported through a complete terminal oxidase system to oxygen. The intracellular site of these lactic dehydrogenases was shown to be the cell membrane. It was suggested that the main physiological role of these lactic dehydrogenases is that of lactate utilization. Images PMID:14197895

  19. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1) inhibitors based on a thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one core.

    PubMed

    Lilienkampf, Annamaria; Karkola, Sampo; Alho-Richmond, Sari; Koskimies, Pasi; Johansson, Nina; Huhtinen, Kaisa; Vihko, Kimmo; Wähälä, Kristiina

    2009-11-12

    Many breast tumors are hormone-dependent, and estrogens, especially estradiol (E2), have a pivotal role in their growth and development. 17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of female sex steroids, catalyzing the NADPH-dependent reduction of estrone into biologically active estradiol. In this study, a library of fused (di)cycloalkeno thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one based compounds was synthesized, and the biological activities against 17beta-HSD1 in a cell-free and in a cell-based assay were evaluated. Several thieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-one based compounds, at 0.1 and 1 muM test concentrations, were found to be potent 17beta-HSD1 inhibitors. For example, 4-(3-hydroxyphenylthio)-1,2,7,8,9,10,11,13-octahydro-13-oxo-[1]benzothieno[2',3':4,5]-pyrimido[1,2-a]azepine-3-carboxaldehyde (7f) is one of the most potent nonsteroidal 17beta-HSD1 inhibitors reported to date with 94% inhibition of the recombinant enzyme at 0.1 muM test concentration. Importantly, the majority of these compounds exhibited excellent selectivity over the oxidative isoform 17beta-HSD2 and lacked estrogenic effects in an estrogen receptor (ER) binding assay.

  20. Human adrenal cells that express both 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD3B2) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) contribute to adrenal androstenedione production

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Xing, Yewei; Hui, Xiao-Gang; Kurotaki, Yumi; Ono, Katsuhiko; Cohen, Tony; Sasano, Hironobu; Rainey, William E

    2014-01-01

    Androstenedione is one of several weak androgens produced in the human adrenal gland. 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD3B2) and cytochrome b5 (CYB5A) are both required for androstenedione production. However, previous studies demonstrated the expression of HSD3B2 within the zona glomerulosa (ZG) and fasciculata (ZF) but low levels in the zona reticularis. In contrast, CYB5A expression increases in the zona reticularis (ZR) in human adrenal glands. Although their colocalization has been reported in gonadal theca and Leydig cells this has not been studied in the human adrenal. Therefore, we immonolocalized HSD3B2 and CYB5A in normal human adrenal glands and first demonstrated their co-expression in the cortical cells located at the border between the ZF and ZR in normal human adrenal. Results of in vitro studies using the human adrenal H295R cells treated with the HSD3B2 inhibitor, trilostane, also demonstrated a markedly decreased androstenedione production. Decreasing CYB5A mRNA using its corresponding siRNA also resulted in significant inhibition of androstenedione production in the H295R cells. These findings together indicate that there are a group of cells co-expressing HSD3B2 and CYB5A with hybrid features of both ZF and ZR in human adrenal cortex, and these hybrid cortical cells may play an important role in androstenedione production in human adrenal gland. PMID:21185375

  1. Investigation of the In Vitro and In Vivo efficiency of RM-532-105, a 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 inhibitor, in LAPC-4 prostate cancer cell and tumor models

    PubMed Central

    Kenmogne, Lucie Carolle; Roy, Jenny; Maltais, René; Rouleau, Mélanie; Neveu, Bertrand; Pouliot, Frédéric; Poirier, Donald

    2017-01-01

    In the fight against androgen-sensitive prostate cancer, the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 3 (17β-HSD3) is an attractive therapeutic target considering its key role in the formation of androgenic steroids. In this study, we attempted to assess the in vivo efficacy of the compound RM-532-105, an androsterone derivative developed as an inhibitor of 17β-HSD3, in the prostate cancer model of androgen-sensitive LAPC-4 cells xenografted in nude mice. RM-532-105 did not inhibit the tumor growth induced by 4-androstene-3,17-dione (4-dione); rather, the levels of the androgens testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) increased within the tumors. In plasma, however, DHT levels increased but T levels did not. In troubleshooting experiments, the non-androgenic potential of RM-532-105 was confirmed by two different assays (LAPC-4 proliferation and androgen receptor transcriptional activity assays). The enzyme 5α-reductase was also revealed to be the predominant enzyme metabolizing 4-dione in LAPC-4 cells, yielding 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and not T. Other 17β-HSDs than 17β-HSD3 seem responsible in the androgen synthesis. From experiments with LAPC-4 cells, we fortuitously came across the interesting finding that 17β-HSD3 inhibitor RM-532-105 is concentrated inside tumors. PMID:28182747

  2. Gene structure and mutations of glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase: Impaired association of enzyme subunits that is due to an A421V substitution causes glutaric acidemia type I in the Amish

    SciTech Connect

    Biery, B.J.; Stein, D.E.; Goodman, S.I.

    1996-11-01

    The structure of the human glutaryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (GCD) gene was determined to contain 11 exons and to span {approximately}7 kb. Fibroblast DNA from 64 unrelated glutaric academia type I (GA1) patients was screened for mutations by PCR amplification and analysis of SSCP. Fragments with altered electrophoretic mobility were subcloned and sequenced to detect mutations that caused GA1. This report describes the structure of the GCD gene, as well as point mutations and polymorphisms found in 7 of its 11 exons. Several mutations were found in more than one patient, but no one prevalent mutation was detected in the general population. As expected from pedigree analysis, a single mutant allele causes GA1 in the Old Order Amish of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. Several mutations have been expressed in Escherichia coli, and all produce diminished enzyme activity. Reduced activity in GCD encoded by the A421V mutation in the Amish may be due to impaired association of enzyme subunits. 13 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Novel N-methylsulfonamide and retro-N-methylsulfonamide derivatives as 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17β-HSD2) inhibitors with good ADME-related physicochemical parameters.

    PubMed

    Perspicace, Enrico; Giorgio, Annalaura; Carotti, Angelo; Marchais-Oberwinkler, Sandrine; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2013-11-01

    Under physiological conditions healthy bones are maintained by a well tightened balance between osteoclast (OCs) and osteoblast (OBs) activity. Disruption of this balance leads to osteoporosis characterized by decline in bone function and skeletal rigidity. Inhibition of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (17β-HSD2) could help maintaining the appropriate bone mass density by increasing the level of estradiol and testosterone in bone. Herein, we described the synthesis, the physicochemical properties and the biological evaluation of novel N-methylsulfonamide and retro-N-methylsulfonamide derivatives as 17β-HSD2 inhibitors showing high potency (compound 10f, IC₅₀ = 23 nM), with a good selectivity toward 17β-HSD1 (the isoenzyme responsible of the reverse reaction), and a likely good in vitro ADME profile. It was also shown that the acidity of the phenolic hydroxy correlates with the inhibitory potency, suggesting pKa as a predictive parameter for the activity of this class of inhibitors.

  4. A point mutation in the putative TATA box, detected in nondiseased individuals and patients with hereditary breast cancer, decreases promoter activity of the 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 gene 2 (EDH17B2) in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Peltoketo, H.; Piao, Y.; Isomaa, V.

    1994-09-01

    EDH17B2, the gene encoding 17{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, has been suggested as a candidate for the familial breast cancer gene, BRCA1, located on 17q12-q21. We analyzed the promoter region of EDH17B2 in DNA from 20 control individuals and 40 patients with familial breast cancer. Two frequent (designated vI and vIII) and two rare (vII and vIV) nucleotide variations were present in both the breast cancer patients and the controls, except the alteration vII, which was found only in one patient. Although the data do not support the identification of EDH17B2 as the BRCA1 gene, it is of interest that point mutation vIV (A {yields} C) was located in the putative TATA box of the EDH17B2 gene. Reporter gene analysis showed that the mutation vIV decreases EDH17B2 promoter activity by an average of 45% in in vitro assays, suggesting that nucleotide A at position -27 is significant for efficient transcription. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 6 (CMTX6) patients with a p.R158H mutation in the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 3 gene.

    PubMed

    Kennerson, Marina L; Kim, Eun J; Siddell, Anna; Kidambi, Aditi; Kim, Sung M; Hong, Young B; Hwang, Sun H; Chung, Ki W; Choi, Byung-Ok

    2016-03-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy. Mutations in the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 3 (PDK3) gene have been found to cause X-linked dominant CMT type 6 (CMTX6). This study identified the p.R158H PDK3 mutation after screening 67 probable X-linked CMT families. The mutation fully segregated with the phenotype, and genotyping the family indicated the mutation arose on a different haplotype compared with the original Australian CMTX6 family. Results of bisulphite sequencing suggest that methylated deamination of a CpG dinucleotide may cause the recurrent p.R158H mutation. The frequency of the p.R158H PDK3 mutation in Koreans is very rare. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed fatty infiltration involving distal muscles in the lower extremities. In addition, fatty infiltrations were predominantly observed in the soleus muscles, with a lesser extent in tibialis anterior muscles. This differs from demyelinating CMT1A patients and is similar to axonal CMT2A patients. The clinical, neuroimaging, and electrophysiological findings from a second CMTX6 family with the p.R158H PDK3 mutation were similar to the axonal neuropathy reported in the Australian family.

  6. Inhibition of 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type II Suppresses Lung Carcinogenesis by Blocking Tumor COX-2 Expression as Well as the ERK and mTOR Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shilin; Yao, Bing; Zhang, Bixiang; Chen, Xiaoping; Pozzi, Ambra; Zhang, Ming-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is by far the leading cause of cancer death. Early diagnosis and prevention remain the best approach to reduce the overall morbidity and mortality. Experimental and clinical evidence have shown that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) contributes to lung tumorigenesis. COX-2 inhibitors suppress the development and progression of lung cancer. However, increased cardiovascular risks of COX-2 inhibitors limit their use in chemoprevention of lung cancers. Glucocorticoids are endogenous and potent COX-2 inhibitors, and their local actions are down-regulated by 11β–hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type II (11ßHSD2)-mediated metabolism. We found that 11βHSD2 expression was increased in human lung cancers and experimental lung tumors. Inhibition of 11βHSD2 activity enhanced glucocorticoid-mediated COX-2 inhibition in human lung carcinoma cells. Furthermore, 11βHSD2 inhibition suppressed lung tumor growth and invasion in association with increased tissue active glucocorticoid levels, decreased COX-2 expression, inhibition of ERK and mTOR signaling pathways, increased tumor endoplasmic reticulum stress as well as increased lifespan. Therefore, 11βHSD2 inhibition represents a novel approach for lung cancer chemoprevention and therapy by increasing tumor glucocorticoid activity, which in turn selectively blocks local COX-2 activity and/or inhibits the ERK and mTOR signaling pathways. PMID:26011146

  7. Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and pharmacokinetics of bis(hydroxyphenyl) substituted azoles, thiophenes, benzenes, and aza-benzenes as potent and selective nonsteroidal inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1).

    PubMed

    Bey, Emmanuel; Marchais-Oberwinkler, Sandrine; Werth, Ruth; Negri, Matthias; Al-Soud, Yaseen A; Kruchten, Patricia; Oster, Alexander; Frotscher, Martin; Birk, Barbara; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2008-11-13

    17beta-Estradiol (E2), the most potent female sex hormone, stimulates the growth of mammary tumors and endometriosis via activation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). 17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1), which is responsible for the catalytic reduction of the weakly active estrogen estrone (E1) into E2, is therefore discussed as a novel drug target. Recently, we have discovered a 2,5-bis(hydroxyphenyl) oxazole to be a potent inhibitor of 17beta-HSD1. In this paper, further structural optimizations were performed: 39 bis(hydroxyphenyl) azoles, thiophenes, benzenes, and aza-benzenes were synthesized and their biological properties were evaluated. The most promising compounds of this study show enhanced IC 50 values in the low nanomolar range, a high selectivity toward 17beta-HSD2, a low binding affinity to ERalpha, a good metabolic stability in rat liver microsomes, and a reasonable pharmacokinetic profile after peroral application. Calculation of the molecular electrostatic potentials revealed a correlation between 17beta-HSD1 inhibition and the electron density distribution.

  8. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of bis(hydroxyphenyl) azoles as potent and selective non-steroidal inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1) for the treatment of estrogen-dependent diseases.

    PubMed

    Bey, Emmanuel; Marchais-Oberwinkler, Sandrine; Kruchten, Patricia; Frotscher, Martin; Werth, Ruth; Oster, Alexander; Algül, Oztekin; Neugebauer, Alexander; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2008-06-15

    The 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1) catalyses the reduction of the weakly active estrone (E1) into the most potent estrogen, 17beta-estradiol (E2). E2 stimulates the growth of hormone-dependent diseases via activation of the estrogen receptors (ERs). 17beta-HSD1 is often over-expressed in breast cancer cells. Thus, it is an attractive target for the treatment of mammary tumours. The combination of a ligand- and a structure-based drug design approach led to the identification of bis(hydroxyphenyl) azoles as potential inhibitors of 17beta-HSD1. Different azoles and hydroxy substitution patterns were investigated. The compounds were evaluated for activity and selectivity with regard to 17beta-HSD2, ERalpha and ERbeta. The most potent compound is 3-[5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-oxazol-2-yl]phenol (18, IC(50)=0.31 microM), showing very good selectivity, high cell permeability and medium CaCo-2 permeability.

  9. New insights into the SAR and binding modes of bis(hydroxyphenyl)thiophenes and -benzenes: influence of additional substituents on 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1) inhibitory activity and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Bey, Emmanuel; Marchais-Oberwinkler, Sandrine; Negri, Matthias; Kruchten, Patricia; Oster, Alexander; Klein, Tobias; Spadaro, Alessandro; Werth, Ruth; Frotscher, Martin; Birk, Barbara; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2009-11-12

    17beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17beta-HSD1) is responsible for the catalytic reduction of weakly active E1 to highly potent E2. E2 stimulates the proliferation of hormone-dependent diseases via activation of the estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). Because of the overexpression of 17beta-HSD1 in mammary tumors, this enzyme should be an attractive target for the treatment of estrogen-dependent pathologies. Recently, we have reported on a series of potent 17beta-HSD1 inhibitors: bis(hydroxyphenyl) azoles, thiophenes, and benzenes. In this paper, different substituents are introduced into the core structure and the biological properties of the corresponding inhibitors are evaluated. Computational methods and analysis of different X-rays of 17beta-HSD1 lead to identification of two different binding modes for these inhibitors. The fluorine compound 23 exhibits an IC(50) of 8 nM and is the most potent nonsteroidal inhibitor described so far. It also shows a high selectivity (17beta-HSD2, ERalpha) and excellent pharmacokinetic properties after peroral application to rats.

  10. Development of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Aldo-Keto Reductase 1C3 (type 5 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase) Based on N-Phenyl-Aminobenzoates and Their Structure Activity Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Adeniji, Adegoke O.; Twenter, Barry M.; Byrns, Michael C.; Jin, Yi; Chen, Mo; Winkler, Jeffrey D.; Penning, Trevor M.

    2012-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3; type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) is overexpressed in castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and is implicated in the intratumoral biosynthesis of testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone. Selective AKR1C3 inhibitors are required since compounds should not inhibit the highly related AKR1C1 and AKR1C2 isoforms which are involved in the inactivation of 5α-dihydrotestosterone. NSAIDs, N-phenylanthranilates in particular are potent but non-selective AKR1C3 inhibitors. Using flufenamic acid, 2-{[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino}benzoic acid as lead compound, five classes of structural analogs were synthesized and evaluated for AKR1C3 inhibitory potency and selectivity. Structure activity relationship (SAR) studies revealed that a meta-carboxylic acid group relative to the amine conferred pronounced AKR1C3 selectivity without loss of potency, while electron withdrawing groups on the phenylamino B-ring were optimal for AKR1C3 inhibition. Lead compounds did not inhibit COX-1 or COX-2 but blocked the AKR1C3 mediated production of testosterone in LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells. These compounds offer promising leads towards new therapeutics for CRPC. PMID:22263837

  11. Purification, characterization and NNK carbonyl reductase activities of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 from human liver: enzyme cooperativity and significance in the detoxification of a tobacco-derived carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Maser, Edmund; Friebertshäuser, Jutta; Völker, Bernhard

    2003-02-01

    11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD 1) physiologically catalyzes the interconversion of receptor-active 11-hydroxy glucocorticoids (cortisol) to their receptor-inactive 11-oxo metabolites (cortisone), thereby acting as important pre-receptor control device in regulating access of glucocorticoid hormones to the glucocorticoid receptor. Evidence is emerging that 11beta-HSD 1 fulfills an additional role in the detoxification of non-steroidal carbonyl compounds, by catalyzing their reduction to the corresponding hydroxy derivatives that are easier to conjugate and eliminate. Whereas a number of methods were ineffective in purifying 11beta-HSD 1 from human liver, this membrane-bound enzyme was successfully obtained in an active state by a purification procedure that took advantage of a gentle solubilization method as well as providing a favourable detergent surrounding during the various chromatographic steps. We could demonstrate that 11beta-HSD 1 is active as a dimeric enzyme which exhibits cooperativity with cortisone and dehydrocorticosterone (11-oxoreducing activity) as substrates. Accordingly, this enzyme dynamically adapts to low (nanomolar) as well as to high (micromolar) substrate concentrations, thereby providing the fine tuning required as a consequence of great variations in circadian plasma glucocorticoid levels. Due to this kinetic peculiarity, 11beta-HSD 1 is also able to even metabolize nanomolar concentrations of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a fact which is important in view of the relatively low levels of this carcinogen observed in smokers. Finally, 11beta-HSD 1 is potently (in nM concentrations) inhibited by glycyrrhetinic acid, the main constituent of licorice. Licorice, however, in addition to being a confectionary, serves as a major cigarette additive, which is used in cigarette manufacturing as a taste and flavour intensifier. Hence, licorice exposure may affect NNK

  12. [The regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycogen synthase activities by insulin superfamily peptides in myometrium of pregnant women and its impairments under different types of diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, L A; Chistiakova, O V

    2009-01-01

    The regulatory effects of insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and relaxin on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and glycogen synthase (GS) activities have been studied in myometrium of pregnant women of control group and with diabetes mellitus of different etiology. In patients with type 1 diabetes G6PDH activity did not differ from the control group, but the enzyme activity was sharply decreased in pregnant women with type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. In the control group maximal stimulation of G6PDH activity was observed at 10(-9) M of peptides and their stimulating effect decreased in the following order: insulin > relaxin > IGF-1. In pregnant women with types 1 diabetes insulin effect on the enzyme activity was lower than in the control, and the effects of IGF-1 and relaxin were absent. In the group of pregnant women with type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes the effects of insulin and IGF-1 were decreased, but the effect of relaxin was somewhat higher thus giving the following order in their efficiency relaxin > IGF-1 = insulin. At 10(-9) M peptides exhibited similar stimulating effects on the active form of GS-I, but had no influence on the total enzyme activity in the control group of pregnant women. In patients with type 1 diabetes GS activity remained unchanged (versus control), and peptides did not stimulate the enzyme activity. In patients with type 2 diabetes a significant decrease in GS activity was accompanied by the decrease in the effect of peptides, giving the following order of their efficiency: insulin = IGF-1 > relaxin. In myometrium of pregnant women with gestational (treated and untreated) diabetes GS activity decreased, the effect of insulin was weaker, whereas the effects of relaxin and IGF-1 increased thus giving the following order of their efficiency: relaxin > IGF-1 > insulin. Insulin therapy of type 1 diabetes incompletely restored sensitivity of the enzymes to the peptide actions. At the same time, in women

  13. Green tea and one of its constituents, Epigallocatechine-3-gallate, are potent inhibitors of human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1.

    PubMed

    Hintzpeter, Jan; Stapelfeld, Claudia; Loerz, Christine; Martin, Hans-Joerg; Maser, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    The microsomal enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid deydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyzes the interconversion of glucocorticoid receptor-inert cortisone to receptor- active cortisol, thereby acting as an intracellular switch for regulating the access of glucocorticoid hormones to the glucocorticoid receptor. There is strong evidence for an important aetiological role of 11β-HSD1 in various metabolic disorders including insulin resistance, diabetes type 2, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity. Hence, modulation of 11β-HSD1 activity with selective inhibitors is being pursued as a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Since tea has been associated with health benefits for thousands of years, we sought to elucidate the active principle in tea with regard to diabetes type 2 prevention. Several teas and tea specific polyphenolic compounds were tested for their possible inhibition of cortisone reduction with human liver microsomes and purified human 11β-HSD1. Indeed we found that tea extracts inhibited 11β-HSD1 mediated cortisone reduction, where green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory potency with an IC50 value of 3.749 mg dried tea leaves per ml. Consequently, major polyphenolic compounds from green tea, in particular catechins were tested with the same systems. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) revealed the highest inhibition of 11β-HSD1 activity (reduction: IC50 = 57.99 µM; oxidation: IC50 = 131.2 µM). Detailed kinetic studies indicate a direct competition mode of EGCG, with substrate and/or cofactor binding. Inhibition constants of EGCG on cortisone reduction were Ki = 22.68 µM for microsomes and Ki = 18.74 µM for purified 11β-HSD1. In silicio docking studies support the view that EGCG binds directly to the active site of 11β-HSD1 by forming a hydrogen bond with Lys187 of the catalytic triade. Our study is the first to provide evidence that the health benefits of green tea and its polyphenolic compounds may

  14. Identification and characterization of the LysR-type transcriptional regulator HsdR for steroid-inducible expression of the 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase gene in Comamonas testosteroni.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wenjie; Xiong, Guangming; Maser, Edmund

    2012-02-01

    3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/carbonyl reductase (3α-HSD/CR) from Comamonas testosteroni is a key enzyme in steroid degradation in soil and water. 3α-HSD/CR gene (hsdA) expression can be induced by steroids like testosterone and progesterone. Previously, we have shown that the induction of hsdA expression by steroids is a derepression where steroidal inducers bind to two repressors, RepA and RepB, thereby preventing the blocking of hsdA transcription and translation, respectively (G. Xiong and E. Maser, J. Biol. Chem. 276:9961-9970, 2001; G. Xiong, H. J. Martin, and E. Maser, J. Biol. Chem. 278:47400-47407, 2003). In the present study, a new LysR-type transcriptional factor, HsdR, for 3α-HSD/CR expression in C. testosteroni has been identified. The hsdR gene is located 2.58 kb downstream from hsdA on the C. testosteroni ATCC 11996 chromosome with an orientation opposite that of hsdA. The hsdR gene was cloned and recombinant HsdR protein was produced, as was anti-HsdR polyclonal antibodies. While heterologous transformation systems revealed that HsdR activates the expression of the hsdA gene, electrophoresis mobility shift assays showed that HsdR specifically binds to the hsdA promoter region. Interestingly, the activity of HsdR is dependent on decreased repression by RepA. Furthermore, in vitro binding assays indicated that HsdR can come into contact with RNA polymerase. As expected, an hsdR knockout mutant expressed low levels of 3α-HSD/CR compared to that of wild-type C. testosteroni after testosterone induction. In conclusion, HsdR is a positive transcription factor for the hsdA gene and promotes the induction of 3α-HSD/CR expression in C. testosteroni.

  15. Oxidative Stress, Disrupted Energy Metabolism, and Altered Signaling Pathways in Glutaryl-CoA Dehydrogenase Knockout Mice: Potential Implications of Quinolinic Acid Toxicity in the Neuropathology of Glutaric Acidemia Type I.

    PubMed

    Seminotti, Bianca; Amaral, Alexandre Umpierrez; Ribeiro, Rafael Teixeira; Rodrigues, Marília Danyelle Nunes; Colín-González, Ana Laura; Leipnitz, Guilhian; Santamaría, Abel; Wajner, Moacir

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the effects of an acute intrastriatal QUIN administration on cellular redox and bioenergetics homeostasis, as well as on important signaling pathways in the striatum of wild-type (Gcdh (+/+) , WT) and knockout mice for glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (Gcdh (-/-) ) fed a high lysine (Lys, 4.7 %) chow. QUIN increased lactate release in both Gcdh (+/+) and Gcdh (-/-) mice and reduced the activities of complex IV and creatine kinase only in the striatum of Gcdh (-/-) mice. QUIN also induced lipid and protein oxidative damage and increased the generation of reactive nitrogen species, as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2, and glutathione-S-transferase in WT and Gcdh (-/-) animals. Furthermore, QUIN induced DCFH oxidation (reactive oxygen species production) and reduced GSH concentrations (antioxidant defenses) in Gcdh (-/-) . An early increase of Akt and phospho-Erk 1/2 in the cytosol and Nrf2 in the nucleus was also observed, as well as a decrease of cytosolic Keap1caused by QUIN, indicating activation of the Nrf2 pathway mediated by Akt and phospho-Erk 1/2, possibly as a compensatory protective mechanism against the ongoing QUIN-induced toxicity. Finally, QUIN increased NF-κB and diminished IκBα expression, evidencing a pro-inflammatory response. Our data show a disruption of energy and redox homeostasis associated to inflammation induced by QUIN in the striatum of Gcdh (-/-) mice submitted to a high Lys diet. Therefore, it is presumed that QUIN may possibly contribute to the pathophysiology of striatal degeneration in children with glutaric aciduria type I during inflammatory processes triggered by infections or vaccinations.

  16. 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 (11β-HSD1) Inhibitors Still Improve Metabolic Phenotype in Male 11β-HSD1 Knockout Mice Suggesting Off-Target Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Harno, Erika; Cottrell, Elizabeth C.; Yu, Alice; DeSchoolmeester, Joanne; Gutierrez, Pablo Morentin; Denn, Mark; Swales, John G.; Goldberg, Fred W.; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Andersén, Harriet; Wild, Martin J.; Turnbull, Andrew V.; Leighton, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is a target for novel type 2 diabetes and obesity therapies based on the premise that lowering of tissue glucocorticoids will have positive effects on body weight, glycemic control, and insulin sensitivity. An 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (compound C) inhibited liver 11β-HSD1 by >90% but led to only small improvements in metabolic parameters in high-fat diet (HFD)–fed male C57BL/6J mice. A 4-fold higher concentration produced similar enzyme inhibition but, in addition, reduced body weight (17%), food intake (28%), and glucose (22%). We hypothesized that at the higher doses compound C might be accessing the brain. However, when we developed male brain-specific 11β-HSD1 knockout mice and fed them the HFD, they had body weight and fat pad mass and glucose and insulin responses similar to those of HFD-fed Nestin-Cre controls. We then found that administration of compound C to male global 11β-HSD1 knockout mice elicited improvements in metabolic parameters, suggesting “off-target” mechanisms. Based on the patent literature, we synthesized another 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (MK-0916) from a different chemical series and showed that it too had similar off-target body weight and food intake effects at high doses. In summary, a significant component of the beneficial metabolic effects of these 11β-HSD1 inhibitors occurs via 11β-HSD1–independent pathways, and only limited efficacy is achievable from selective 11β-HSD1 inhibition. These data challenge the concept that inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is likely to produce a “step-change” treatment for diabetes and/or obesity. PMID:24169553

  17. Ultraviolet- and infrared-induced 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 activating skin photoaging is inhibited by red ginseng extract containing high concentration of ginsenoside Rg3(S).

    PubMed

    Nam, Jin-Ju; Min, Ji-Eun; Son, Min-Ho; Oh, Jin-Hwan; Kang, Seunghyun

    2017-08-09

    Sun irradiation is one of major extrinsic stressors responsible for premature skin aging through activation and expression of 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1), which converts inactive cortisone to active cortisol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effects of red ginseng extract containing high concentrations of ginsenoside Rg3 (S) (GERg3) on 11β-HSD1-induced skin photoaging. To evaluate the inhibitory effects of GERg3 on ultraviolet- (UV) or infrared (IR)-induced skin photoaging, human dermal fibroblasts or a normal human 3D skin model was exposed to UV or an IR. RT-PCR, ELISA, Western blot, and H&E staining were used for evaluations. GERg3 was isolated from crude red ginseng. GERg3 inhibited the increased expressions of 11β-HSD1, interleukin (IL)-6, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in UVB- or IR-exposed Hs68 cells. Additionally, the increased cortisol, IL-6, and MMP-1 expressions were effectively reduced by GERg3 in UVA-exposed 3D skin models. The photoinduced decrease in type 1 procollagen also recovered as a result of GERg3 treatment in Hs68 cells and the 3D skin model. In addition, the UVA-exposed dermal thickness was decreased in comparison with the UVA-protected 3D skin model, recovered with GERg3 treatment. GERg3 had antiphotoaging effects in UV- or IR-exposed human dermal fibroblasts and normal human 3D skin model. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) inhibitors still improve metabolic phenotype in male 11β-HSD1 knockout mice suggesting off-target mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Harno, Erika; Cottrell, Elizabeth C; Yu, Alice; DeSchoolmeester, Joanne; Gutierrez, Pablo Morentin; Denn, Mark; Swales, John G; Goldberg, Fred W; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad; Andersén, Harriet; Wild, Martin J; Turnbull, Andrew V; Leighton, Brendan; White, Anne

    2013-12-01

    The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) is a target for novel type 2 diabetes and obesity therapies based on the premise that lowering of tissue glucocorticoids will have positive effects on body weight, glycemic control, and insulin sensitivity. An 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (compound C) inhibited liver 11β-HSD1 by >90% but led to only small improvements in metabolic parameters in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed male C57BL/6J mice. A 4-fold higher concentration produced similar enzyme inhibition but, in addition, reduced body weight (17%), food intake (28%), and glucose (22%). We hypothesized that at the higher doses compound C might be accessing the brain. However, when we developed male brain-specific 11β-HSD1 knockout mice and fed them the HFD, they had body weight and fat pad mass and glucose and insulin responses similar to those of HFD-fed Nestin-Cre controls. We then found that administration of compound C to male global 11β-HSD1 knockout mice elicited improvements in metabolic parameters, suggesting "off-target" mechanisms. Based on the patent literature, we synthesized another 11β-HSD1 inhibitor (MK-0916) from a different chemical series and showed that it too had similar off-target body weight and food intake effects at high doses. In summary, a significant component of the beneficial metabolic effects of these 11β-HSD1 inhibitors occurs via 11β-HSD1-independent pathways, and only limited efficacy is achievable from selective 11β-HSD1 inhibition. These data challenge the concept that inhibition of 11β-HSD1 is likely to produce a "step-change" treatment for diabetes and/or obesity.

  19. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  20. Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, H. J.; Hanson, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase from Methylobacterium organophilum, a facultative methane-oxidizing bacterium, has been purified to homogeneity as indicated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-gel electrophoresis. It has several properties in common with the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The active enzyme is a dimeric protein, both subunits having molecular weights of about 62,000. The enzyme exhibits broad substrate specificity for primary alcohols and catalyzes the two-step oxidation of methanol to formate. The apparent Michaelis constants of the enzyme are 2.9 × 10−5 M for methanol and 8.2 × 10−5 M for formaldehyde. Activity of the purified enzyme is dependent on phenazine methosulfate. Certain characteristics of this enzyme distinguish it from the other alcohol dehydrogenases of other methylotrophic bacteria. Ammonia is not required for, but stimulates the activity of newly purified enzyme. An absolute dependence on ammonia develops after storage of the purified enzyme. Activity is not inhibited by phosphate. The fluorescence spectrum of the enzyme indicates that it and the cofactor associated with it may be chemically different from the alcohol dehydrogenases from other methylotrophic bacteria. The alcohol dehydrogenases of Hyphomicrobium WC-65, Pseudomonas methanica, Methylosinus trichosporium, and several facultative methylotrophs are serologically related to the enzyme purified in this study. The enzymes of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and of organisms of the Methylococcus group did not cross-react with the antiserum prepared against the alcohol dehydrogenase of M. organophilum. Images PMID:80974

  1. Discovery of 2-methyl-1-{1-[(5-methyl-1H-indol-2-yl)carbonyl]piperidin-4-yl}propan-2-ol: a novel, potent and selective type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazushi; Kakefuda, Akio; Yasuda, Minoru; Enjo, Kentaro; Kikuchi, Aya; Furutani, Takashi; Naritomi, Yoichi; Otsuka, Yukio; Okada, Minoru; Ohta, Mitsuaki

    2013-09-01

    Type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD5), also known as aldo-keto reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3), is a member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily of enzymes and is expressed in the human prostate. One of the main functions of 17β-HSD5 is to catalyze the conversion of the weak androgen, androstenedione, to the potent androgen, testosterone. The concentration of intraprostatic 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in patients following chemical or surgical castration has been reported to remain as high as 39% of that of healthy men, with 17β-HSD5 shown to be involved in this androgen synthesis. Inhibition of 17β-HSD5 therefore represents a promising target for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). To investigate this, we conducted high-throughput screening (HTS) and identified compound 2, which displayed a structure distinct from known 17β-HSD5 inhibitors. To optimize the inhibitory activity of compound 2, we first introduced a primary alcohol group. We then converted the primary alcohol group to a tertiary alcohol, which further enhanced the inhibitory activity, improved metabolic stability, and led to the identification of compound 17. Oral administration of compound 17 to castrated nude mice bearing the CWR22R xenograft resulted in the suppression of androstenedione (AD)-induced intratumoral testosterone production. Compound 17 also demonstrated good isoform selectivity, minimal inhibitory activity against either CYP or hERG, and enhanced pharmacokinetic and physicochemical properties.

  2. Role of glucocorticoid receptor and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha in the feed-forward induction of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression by cortisol in human amnion fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Guo, Chunming; Zhu, Ping; Li, Wenjiao; Myatt, Leslie; Sun, Kang

    2007-11-01

    The amount of cortisol available to its receptors is increased by the pre-receptor enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) which converts cortisone to cortisol. We examined the molecular mechanisms of the feedback effect of cortisol on 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression in human amnion fibroblasts. Our data showed that cortisol-induced 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression dose dependently in amnion fibroblasts, which could be completely blocked both by the mRNA transcription inhibitor 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole riboside and by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) antagonist RU486, and partially blocked by global inhibition of CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) with transfection of C/EBP-specific dominant-negative expression CMV500 plasmid (AC/EBP) into the cells. Likewise, the induction of the promoter activity by cortisol could also be completely blocked by RU486 and partially by AC/EBP transfection. Progressive 5' deletion of the 11beta-HSD1promoter located the region responsible for cortisol's induction within -204 bp upstream to the transcription start site. Specific nucleotide mutations of the putative glucocorticoid responsive element or CCAAT in this promoter region attenuated the induction by cortisol. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that GR and C/EBPalpha but not C/EBPbeta could bind this promoter region upon cortisol stimulation of amnion fibroblasts. In conclusion, we demonstrated that GR and C/EBPalpha were involved in cortisol-induced 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression via binding to 11beta-HSD1 promoter in amnion fibroblasts, which may cast a feed-forward production of cortisol in the fetal membranes at the end of gestation.

  3. Plastidial Expression of Type II NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase Increases the Reducing State of Plastoquinones and Hydrogen Photoproduction Rate by the Indirect Pathway in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Baltz, Anthony; Dang, Kieu-Van; Beyly, Audrey; Auroy, Pascaline; Richaud, Pierre; Cournac, Laurent; Peltier, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Biological conversion of solar energy into hydrogen is naturally realized by some microalgae species due to a coupling between the photosynthetic electron transport chain and a plastidial hydrogenase. While promising for the production of clean and sustainable hydrogen, this process requires improvement to be economically viable. Two pathways, called direct and indirect photoproduction, lead to sustained hydrogen production in sulfur-deprived Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultures. The indirect pathway allows an efficient time-based separation of O2 and H2 production, thus overcoming the O2 sensitivity of the hydrogenase, but its activity is low. With the aim of identifying the limiting step of hydrogen production, we succeeded in overexpressing the plastidial type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (NDA2). We report that transplastomic strains overexpressing NDA2 show an increased activity of nonphotochemical reduction of plastoquinones (PQs). While hydrogen production by the direct pathway, involving the linear electron flow from photosystem II to photosystem I, was not affected by NDA2 overexpression, the rate of hydrogen production by the indirect pathway was increased in conditions, such as nutrient limitation, where soluble electron donors are not limiting. An increased intracellular starch was observed in response to nutrient deprivation in strains overexpressing NDA2. It is concluded that activity of the indirect pathway is limited by the nonphotochemical reduction of PQs, either by the pool size of soluble electron donors or by the PQ-reducing activity of NDA2 in nutrient-limited conditions. We discuss these data in relation to limitations and biotechnological improvement of hydrogen photoproduction in microalgae. PMID:24820024

  4. Re-engineering the discrimination between the oxidized coenzymes NAD+ and NADP+ in clostridial glutamate dehydrogenase and a thorough reappraisal of the coenzyme specificity of the wild-type enzyme.

    PubMed

    Capone, Marina; Scanlon, David; Griffin, Joanna; Engel, Paul C

    2011-07-01

    Clostridial glutamate dehydrogenase mutants, designed to accommodate the 2'-phosphate of disfavoured NADPH, showed the expected large specificity shifts with NAD(P)H. Puzzlingly, similar assays with oxidized cofactors initially revealed little improvement with NADP(+) , although rates with NAD(+) were markedly diminished. This article reveals that the enzyme's discrimination in favour of NAD(+) and against NADP(+) had been greatly underestimated and has indeed been abated by a factor of > 16,000 by the mutagenesis. Initially, stopped-flow studies of the wild-type enzyme showed a burst increase of A(340) with NADP(+) but not NAD(+), with amplitude depending on the concentration of the coenzyme, rather than enzyme. Amplitude also varied with the commercial source of the NADP(+). FPLC, HPLC and mass spectrometry identified NAD(+) contamination ranging from 0.04 to 0.37% in different commercial samples. It is now clear that apparent rates of NADP(+) utilization mainly reflected the reduction of contaminating NAD(+), creating an entirely false view of the initial coenzyme specificity and also of the effects of mutagenesis. Purification of the NADP(+) eliminated the burst. With freshly purified NADP(+), the NAD(+) : NADP(+) activity ratio under standard conditions, previously estimated as 300 : 1, is 11,000. The catalytic efficiency ratio is even higher at 80,000. Retested with pure cofactor, mutants showed marked specificity shifts in the expected direction, for example, 16 200 fold change in catalytic efficiency ratio for the mutant F238S/P262S, confirming that the key structural determinants of specificity have been successfully identified. Of wider significance, these results underline that, without purification, even the best commercial coenzyme preparations are inadequate for such studies.

  5. Michael hydratase alcohol dehydrogenase or just alcohol dehydrogenase?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Michael hydratase – alcohol dehydrogenase (MhyADH) from Alicycliphilus denitrificans was previously identified as a bi-functional enzyme performing a hydration of α,β-unsaturated ketones and subsequent oxidation of the formed alcohols. The investigations of the bi-functionality were based on a spectrophotometric assay and an activity staining in a native gel of the dehydrogenase. New insights in the recently discovered organocatalytic Michael addition of water led to the conclusion that the previously performed experiments to identify MhyADH as a bi-functional enzyme and their results need to be reconsidered and the reliability of the methodology used needs to be critically evaluated. PMID:24949265

  6. Evidence for co-operativity in coenzyme binding to tetrameric Sulfolobus solfataricus alcohol dehydrogenase and its structural basis: fluorescence, kinetic and structural studies of the wild-type enzyme and non-co-operative N249Y mutant

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of coenzyme with thermostable homotetrameric NAD(H)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from the thermoacidophilic sulphur-dependent crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsADH) and its N249Y (Asn-249→Tyr) mutant was studied using the high fluorescence sensitivity of its tryptophan residues Trp-95 and Trp-117 to the binding of coenzyme moieties. Fluorescence quenching studies performed at 25 °C show that SsADH exhibits linearity in the NAD(H) binding [the Hill coefficient (h)∼1) at pH 9.8 and at moderate ionic strength, in addition to positive co-operativity (h=2.0–2.4) at pH 7.8 and 6.8, and at pH 9.8 in the presence of salt. Furthermore, NADH binding is positively co-operative below 20 °C (h∼3) and negatively co-operative at 40–50 °C (h∼0.7), as determined at moderate ionic strength and pH 9.8. Steady-state kinetic measurements show that SsADH displays standard Michaelis–Menten kinetics between 35 and 45 °C, but exhibits positive and negative co-operativity for NADH oxidation below (h=3.3 at 20 °C) and above (h=0.7 at 70–80 °C) this range of temperatures respectively. However, N249Y SsADH displays non-co-operative behaviour in coenzyme binding under the same experimental conditions used for the wild-type enzyme. In loop 270–275 of the coenzyme domain and segments at the interface of dimer A–B, analyses of the wild-type and mutant SsADH structures identified the structural elements involved in the intersubunit communication and suggested a possible structural basis for co-operativity. This is the first report of co-operativity in a tetrameric ADH and of temperature-induced co-operativity in a thermophilic enzyme. PMID:15651978

  7. Chirality of the hydrogen transfer to the coenzyme catalyzed by ribitol dehydrogenase from Klebsiella pneumoniae and D-mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Alizade, M A; Gaede, K; Brendel, K

    1976-08-01

    The stereochemistry of the hydrogen transfer to NAD catalyzed by ribitol dehydrogenase (ribitol:NAD 2-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.56) from Klebsiella pneumoniae and D-mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (D-mannitol-1-phosphate:NAD 2-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.17) from Escherichia coli was investigated. [4-3H]NAD was enzymatically reduced with nonlabelled ribitol in the presence of ribitol dehydrogenase and with nonlabelled D-mannitol 1-phosphate and D-mannitol 1-phosphate dehydrogenase, respectively. In both cases the [4-3H]-NADH produced was isolated and the chirality at the C-4 position determined. It was found that after the transfer of hydride, the label was in both reactions exclusively confined to the (4R) position of the newly formed [4-3H]NADH. In order to explain these results, the hydrogen transferred from the nonlabelled substrates to [4-3H]NAD must have entered the (4S) position of the nicotinamide ring. These data indicate for both investigated inducible dehydrogenases a classification as B or (S) type enzymes. Ribitol also can be dehydrogenated by the constitutive A-type L-iditol dehydrogenase (L-iditol:NAD 5-oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.14) from sheep liver. When L-iditol dehydrogenase utilizes ribitol as hydrogen donor, the same A-type classification for this oxidoreductase, as expected, holds true. For the first time, opposite chirality of hydrogen transfer to NAD in one organic reaction--ribitol + NAD = D-ribu + NADH + H--is observed when two different dehydrogenases, the inducible ribitol dehydrogenase from K. pneumoniae and the constitutive L-iditol dehydrogenase from sheep liver, are used as enzymes. This result contradicts the previous generalization that the chirality of hydrogen transfer to the coenzyme for the same reaction is independent of the source of the catalyzing enzyme.

  8. Quinohemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases: structure, function, and physiology.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Hirohide; Mathews, F Scott; Adachi, Osao; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2004-08-01

    Quino(hemo)protein alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) that have pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) as the prosthetic group are classified into 3 groups, types I, II, and III. Type I ADH is a simple quinoprotein having PQQ as the only prosthetic group, while type II and type III ADHs are quinohemoprotein having heme c as well as PQQ in the catalytic polypeptide. Type II ADH is a soluble periplasmic enzyme and is widely distributed in Proteobacteria such as Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, Comamonas, etc. In contrast, type III ADH is a membrane-bound enzyme working on the periplasmic surface solely in acetic acid bacteria. It consists of three subunits that comprise a quinohemoprotein catalytic subunit, a triheme cytochrome c subunit, and a third subunit of unknown function. The catalytic subunits of all the quino(hemo)protein ADHs have a common structural motif, a quinoprotein-specific superbarrel domain, where PQQ is deeply embedded in the center. In addition, in the type II and type III ADHs this subunit contains a unique heme c domain. Various type II ADHs each have a unique substrate specificity, accepting a wide variety of alcohols, as is discussed on the basis of recent X-ray crystallographic analyses. Electron transfer within both type II and III ADHs is discussed in terms of the intramolecular reaction from PQQ to heme c and also from heme to heme, and in terms of the intermolecular reaction with azurin and ubiquinone, respectively. Unique physiological functions of both types of quinohemoprotein ADHs are also discussed.

  9. Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient GISTs are characterized by IGF1R overexpression.

    PubMed

    Chou, Angela; Chen, Jason; Clarkson, Adele; Samra, Jaswinder S; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J; Hugh, Thomas J; Gill, Anthony J

    2012-09-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase-deficient gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) demonstrate unique pathological and clinical features, including the absence of activating mutations of KIT and PDGFRA, and primary resistance to imatinib. They arise exclusively in the stomach and account for 5-7.5% of all adult stomach GISTs and the great majority of these tumors in childhood. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) overexpression has been associated with wild-type and pediatric GISTs. We propose that IGF1R overexpression is a feature of succinate dehydrogenase-deficient GISTs as a group. We assessed succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit B (SDHB) and IGF1R expression by immunohistochemistry in eight known succinate dehydrogenase-deficient GISTs, three GISTs arising in the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1 syndrome and 40 unselected GISTs. Selected KIT and PDGFRA exons were amplified and sequenced from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples. All eight succinate dehydrogenase-deficient tumors were wild-type for KIT and PDGFRA, succinate dehydrogenase B negative and demonstrated IGF1R overexpression. The three neurofibromatosis-related tumors were succinate dehydrogenase B positive and IGF1R negative. Of the 40 unselected upper GISTs, five were wild-type for KIT and PDGFRA in the selected exons. Two of the wild-type GISTs were succinate dehydrogenase B negative and showed IGF1R overexpression and three were succinate dehydrogenase B positive and IGF1R negative. We conclude that IGF1R overexpression is a feature of succinate dehydrogenase deficient GIST as a group, rather than pediatric or wild-type GIST per se. Therefore, IGF1R inhibition represents a potential rational therapeutic approach in this recently recognized subgroup of GIST.

  10. Effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of the 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor ABT-384 and its two active metabolites in healthy volunteers: population analysis of data from a drug-drug interaction study.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Liu, Wei; Katz, David A; Marek, Gerard; Awni, Walid; Dutta, Sandeep

    2013-05-01

    ABT-384 [1-piperazineacetamide, N-[5-(aminocarbonyl) tricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]dec-2-yl]-α,α-dimethyl-4-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]-,stereoisomer] is a potent and selective inhibitor of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD-1). ABT-384 has been shown to be safe and well tolerated in humans at doses up to 100 mg daily, and to fully inhibit both peripheral and brain HSD-1 at a dose of 2 mg daily. The effect of ketoconazole on the pharmacokinetics of ABT-384 and its two active metabolites, A-1331480 and A-847082, was investigated in healthy volunteers. When 10 mg of ABT-384 was coadministered with ketoconazole, ABT-384 exposures increased 18-fold for area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity and 3.5-fold for Cmax. The results suggest that ABT-384 is a sensitive substrate of CYP3A. After ketoconazole coadministration, exposures of A-1331480 and A-847082 were also greatly increased. A population pharmacokinetic model was constructed for ABT-384 and its metabolites using NonMEM. A two-compartment model with three transit absorption compartments best described ABT-384 data. The model predicted a 69.3% decrease in ABT-384 clearance and 91.1% increase in the volume of distribution of ABT-384 in the presence of ketoconazole. A-1331480 was shown to be formation rate-limited and A-847082 was elimination rate-limited. Both metabolites were characterized by a one-compartment model with first-order rate constants of formation and elimination. Overall the model adequately captured the concentration-time profiles of ABT-384, A-1331480, and A-847082 in both ABT-384-alone and ketoconazole-coadministration conditions. Although ABT-384 exposures were greatly increased in the presence of ketoconazole, coadministration of ABT-384 with ketoconazole or other strong/moderate CYP3A inhibitors is not expected to contribute to any major clinical safety issues considering the favorable safety profile of ABT-384.

  11. PTGER1 and PTGER2 receptors mediate regulation of progesterone synthesis and type 1 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity by prostaglandin E2 in human granulosa–lutein cells

    PubMed Central

    Chandras, C; Harris, T E; López Bernal, A; Abayasekara, D R E; Michael, A E

    2007-01-01

    In luteinizing granulosa cells, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) can exert luteotrophic actions, apparently via the cAMP signalling pathway. In addition to stimulating progesterone synthesis, PGE2 can also stimulate oxidation of the physiological glucocorticoid, cortisol, to its inactive metabolite, cortisone, by the type 1 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD1) enzyme in human granulosa–lutein cells. Having previously shown these human ovarian cells to express functional G-protein coupled, E-series prostaglandin (PTGER)1, PTGER2 and PTGER4 receptors, the aim of this study was to delineate the roles of PTGER1 and PTGER2 receptors in mediating the effects of PGE2 on steroidogenesis and cortisol metabolism in human granulosa–lutein cells. PGE2-stimulated concentration-dependent increases in both progesterone production and cAMP accumulation (by 1·9±0·1- and 18·7±6·8-fold respectively at 3000 nM PGE2). While a selective PTGER1 antagonist, SC19220, could partially inhibit the steroidogenic response to PGE2 (by 55·9±4·1% at 1000 nM PGE2), co-treatment with AH6809, a mixed PTGER1/PTGER2 receptor antagonist, completely abolished the stimulation of progesterone synthesis at all tested concentrations of PGE2 and suppressed the stimulation of cAMP accumulation. Both PGE2 and butaprost (a preferential PTGER2 receptor agonist) stimulated concentration-dependent increases in cortisol oxidation by 11βHSD1 (by 42·5±3·1 and 40·0±3·0% respectively, at PGE2 and butaprost concentrations of 1000 nM). Co-treatment with SC19220 enhanced the ability of both PGE2 and butaprost to stimulate 11βHSD1 activity (by 30·2±0·2 and 30·5±0·6% respectively), whereas co-treatment with AH6809 completely abolished the 11βHSD1 responses to PGE2 and butaprost. These findings implicate the PTGER2 receptor–cAMP signalling pathway in the stimulation of progesterone production and 11βHSD1 activity by PGE2 in human granulosa–lutein cells. PMID:17761898

  12. Regulation of adipocyte 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) by CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) β isoforms, LIP and LAP.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Cristina L; Kelly, Val; Bégay, Valérie; Man, Tak Y; Morton, Nicholas M; Leutz, Achim; Seckl, Jonathan R; Chapman, Karen E

    2012-01-01

    11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyses intracellular regeneration of active glucocorticoids, notably in liver and adipose tissue. 11β-HSD1 is increased selectively in adipose tissue in human obesity, a change implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. With high fat (HF)-feeding, adipose tissue 11β-HSD1 is down-regulated in mice, plausibly to counteract metabolic disease. Transcription of 11β-HSD1 is directly regulated by members of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) family. Here we show that while total C/EBPβ in adipose tissue is unaltered by HF diet, the ratio of the C/EBPβ isoforms liver-enriched inhibitor protein (LIP) and liver-enriched activator protein (LAP) (C/EBPβ-LIP:LAP) is increased in subcutaneous adipose. This may cause changes in 11β-HSD1 expression since genetically modified C/EBPβ((+/L)) mice, with increased C/EBPβ-LIP:LAP ratio, have decreased subcutaneous adipose 11β-HSD1 mRNA levels, whereas C/EBPβ(ΔuORF) mice, with decreased C/EBPβ-LIP:LAP ratio, show increased subcutaneous adipose 11β-HSD1. C/EBPβ-LIP:LAP ratio is regulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mTOR signalling, both of which are altered in obesity. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, 11β-HSD1 mRNA levels were down-regulated following induction of ER stress by tunicamycin but were up-regulated following inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin. These data point to a central role for C/EBPβ and its processing to LIP and LAP in transcriptional regulation of 11β-HSD1 in adipose tissue. Down-regulation of 11β-HSD1 by increased C/EBPβ-LIP:LAP in adipocytes may be part of a nutrient-sensing mechanism counteracting nutritional stress generated by HF diet.

  13. Relationships between the H and A-O blood types, phosphohexose isomerase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase red cell enzyme systems and halothane sensitivity, and economic traits in a superior and an inferior selection line of swiss landrace pigs.

    PubMed

    Vögeli, P; Stranzinger, G; Schneebeli, H; Hagger, C; Künzi, N; Gerwig, C

    1984-12-01

    Associations between production traits and the genes for halothane sensitivity (HAL), S, A and H blood group systems and phosphohexose isomerase (PHI) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) enzyme systems were investigated in two lines of pigs selected for an index. The phenotypic variance-covariance matrix of the index included backfat thickness and daily gain, whereas the genetic variance-covariance matrix included daily gain, feed conversion and percentage of lean meat. The experiment was conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Animal Production and has been underway since 1973. The same index was applied but in two opposite directions to give a superior and inferior line in relation to the production traits. One hundred twenty-nine animals of the superior line in the seventh generation and 88 animals of the inferior line in the sixth generation were studied. Forty-two percent (54/129) of the animals of the superior line were halothane-positive. No animals in the inferior line were halothane reactors. Of the halothane-positive pigs, 70.4% (38/54) in the superior line had the HaHa and 94.4% (51/54) had the SsSs genotype, whereas only 4% (3/75) of the HaHa and 12% (9/75) of the SsSs pigs were halothane-negative. By practicing selection at the H and S loci, it seems possible to efficiently reduce halothane sensitivity in Swiss Landrace pigs. In pigs of the superior line, there were significant differences in percentage of lean meat, carcass length, pH1 (pH value at 45 min to 1 h postmortem, M. longissimus) and reflectance values among genotypes of the HAL, S and H systems and among some genotypes of the 6-PGD system. Poorest meat quality, highest percentage of lean meat and shortest carcass length were observed in pigs homozygous for the alleles HALn, Ss, Ha, PHIB and 6-PGDA. In the inferior line, these associations were absent. As the HAL locus is associated with the above mentioned production traits, linkage disequilibria may explain the

  14. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... dehydrogenase-B pieces (subunits) of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This enzyme is found throughout the body and is important ... cells. There are five different forms of this enzyme, each made up of four protein subunits. Various ...

  15. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Revisited

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Jerome T.; Henderson, Alfred R.

    1984-01-01

    Hemolytic diseases associated with drugs have been recognized since antiquity. Many of these anemias have been associated with oxidizing agents and deficiencies in the intraerythrocytic enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. This paper outlines the discovery, prevalence, and variants of this enzyme. Methods of diagnosis of associated anemias are offered. PMID:6502728

  16. Activity of select dehydrogenases with Sepharose-immobilized N6-carboxymethyl-NAD

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Justin; Vieille, Claire

    2015-01-01

    N6-carboxymethyl-NAD (N6-CM-NAD) can be used to immobilize NAD onto a substrate containing terminal primary amines. We previously immobilized N6-CM-NAD onto sepharose beads and showed that Thermotoga maritima glycerol dehydrogenase could use the immobilized cofactor with cofactor recycling. We now show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase, rabbit muscle L-lactate dehydrogenase (type XI), bovine liver L-glutamic dehydrogenase (type III), Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucose-6-phosphate dehydro-genase, and Thermotoga maritima mannitol dehydrogenase are active with soluble N6-CM-NAD. The products of all enzymes but 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone were formed when sepharose-immobilized N6-CM-NAD was recycled by T. maritima glycerol dehydrogenase, indicating that N6-immobilized NAD is suitable for use by a variety of different dehydrogenases. Observations of the enzyme active sites suggest that steric hindrance plays a greater role in limiting or allowing activity with the modified cofactor than do polarity and charge of the residues surrounding the N6-amine group on NAD. PMID:25611453

  17. Activity of select dehydrogenases with sepharose-immobilized N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Justin; Vieille, Claire

    2015-01-01

    N(6)-carboxymethyl-NAD (N(6)-CM-NAD) can be used to immobilize NAD onto a substrate containing terminal primary amines. We previously immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD onto sepharose beads and showed that Thermotoga maritima glycerol dehydrogenase could use the immobilized cofactor with cofactor recycling. We now show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcohol dehydrogenase, rabbit muscle L-lactate dehydrogenase (type XI), bovine liver L-glutamic dehydrogenase (type III), Leuconostoc mesenteroides glucose-6-phosphate dehydro-genase, and Thermotoga maritima mannitol dehydrogenase are active with soluble N(6)-CM-NAD. The products of all enzymes but 6-phospho-D-glucono-1,5-lactone were formed when sepharose-immobilized N(6)-CM-NAD was recycled by T. maritima glycerol dehydrogenase, indicating that N(6)-immobilized NAD is suitable for use by a variety of different dehydrogenases. Observations of the enzyme active sites suggest that steric hindrance plays a greater role in limiting or allowing activity with the modified cofactor than do polarity and charge of the residues surrounding the N(6)-amine group on NAD.

  18. Mammalian alcohol dehydrogenases of separate classes: intermediates between different enzymes and intraclass isozymes.

    PubMed Central

    Jörnvall, H; Höög, J O; von Bahr-Lindström, H; Vallee, B L

    1987-01-01

    A comparison of the structure of class II human liver alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) (containing pi subunits) with those of the human class I isozymes (containing alpha, beta, and gamma subunits) reveals differences at about 40% of all positions. Variations are large for active-site regions, the segment around the second zinc atom, and for segments involved in subunit interactions. The two classes of alcohol dehydrogenase have diverged to exhibit structural differences to about half the extent of those between alcohol and polyol dehydrogenases. Hence, the two classes of alcohol dehydrogenase represent steps in enzyme rather than isozyme divergence. An evolutionary scheme that relates different types of zinc-containing mammalian dehydrogenases to one another encompasses at least three levels of gene duplication subsequent to the early step(s) of assembly of building unit(s). The first level of duplication results in the formation of now clearly different enzymes. The second level concerns the various classes of alcohol dehydrogenase, forming steps between typical enzymes and isozymes. The third level encompasses recent and multiple duplications in isozyme evolution of alcohol dehydrogenases. This scheme, linking zinc-containing dehydrogenases at different levels, resembles that in other protein families and reflects general patterns in protein relationships. PMID:3472225

  19. Inhibition effects of furfural on alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Modig, Tobias; Lidén, Gunnar; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2002-01-01

    The kinetics of furfural inhibition of the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 1.1.1.1), aldehyde dehydrogenase (AlDH; EC 1.2.1.5) and the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex were studied in vitro. At a concentration of less than 2 mM furfural was found to decrease the activity of both PDH and AlDH by more than 90%, whereas the ADH activity decreased by less than 20% at the same concentration. Furfural inhibition of ADH and AlDH activities could be described well by a competitive inhibition model, whereas the inhibition of PDH was best described as non-competitive. The estimated K(m) value of AlDH for furfural was found to be about 5 microM, which was lower than that for acetaldehyde (10 microM). For ADH, however, the estimated K(m) value for furfural (1.2 mM) was higher than that for acetaldehyde (0.4 mM). The inhibition of the three enzymes by 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) was also measured. The inhibition caused by HMF of ADH was very similar to that caused by furfural. However, HMF did not inhibit either AlDH or PDH as severely as furfural. The inhibition effects on the three enzymes could well explain previously reported in vivo effects caused by furfural and HMF on the overall metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting a critical role of these enzymes in the observed inhibition. PMID:11964178

  20. Identification and overexpression of a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase responsible for ethanol production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuo; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2010-01-01

    Thermoanaerobacter mathranii contains four genes, adhA, adhB, bdhA and adhE, predicted to code for alcohol dehydrogenases involved in ethanol metabolism. These alcohol dehydrogenases were characterized as NADP(H)-dependent primary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA), secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB), butanol dehydrogenase (BdhA) and NAD(H)-dependent bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE), respectively. Here we observed that AdhE is an important enzyme responsible for ethanol production in T. mathranii based on the constructed adh knockout strains. An adhE knockout strain fails to produce ethanol as a fermentation product, while other adh knockout strains showed no significant difference from the wild type. Further analysis revealed that the ΔadhE strain was defective in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, but still maintained alcohol dehydrogenase activity. This showed that AdhE is the major aldehyde dehydrogenase in the cell and functions predominantly in the acetyl-CoA reduction to acetaldehyde in the ethanol formation pathway. Finally, AdhE was conditionally expressed from a xylose-induced promoter in a recombinant strain (BG1E1) with a concomitant deletion of a lactate dehydrogenase. Overexpressions of AdhE in strain BG1E1 with xylose as a substrate facilitate the production of ethanol at an increased yield. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Characterization of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 3

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Caroline E.; Brocklehurst, Keith; Pickersgill, Richard W.; Warren, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    RALDH3 (retinal dehydrogenase 3) was characterized by kinetic and binding studies, protein engineering, homology modelling, ligand docking and electrostatic-potential calculations. The major recognition determinant of an RALDH3 substrate was shown to be an eight-carbon chain bonded to the aldehyde group whose kinetic influence (kcat/Km at pH 8.5) decreases when shortened or lengthened. Surprisingly, the β-ionone ring of all-trans-retinal is not a major recognition site. The dissociation constants (Kd) of the complexes of RALDH3 with octanal, NAD+ and NADH were determined by intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. The similarity of the Kd values for the complexes with NAD+ and with octanal suggests a random kinetic mechanism for RALDH3, in contrast with the ordered sequential mechanism often associated with aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes. Inhibition of RALDH3 by tri-iodothyronine binding in competition with NAD+, predicted by the modelling, was established kinetically and by immunoprecipitation. Mechanistic implications of the kinetically influential ionizations with macroscopic pKa values of 5.0 and 7.5 revealed by the pH-dependence of kcat are discussed. Analogies with data for non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from Streptococcus mutans, together with the present modelled structure of the thioacyl RALDH3, suggest (a) that kcat characterizes deacylation of this intermediate for specific substrates and (b) the assignment of the pKa of the major ionization (approximating to 7.5) to the perturbed carboxy group of Glu280 whose conjugate base is envisaged as supplying general base catalysis to attack of a water molecule. The macroscopic pKa of the minor ionization (5.0) is considered to approximate to that of the carboxy group of Glu488. PMID:16241904

  2. Cellobiose dehydrogenase in cellulose degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, L.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Samejima, Masahiro

    1996-10-01

    Cellobiose dehydrogenase is produced by a variety of fungi. Although it was already discovered during the 70`s, it`s role in cellulose and lignin degradation is yet ambiguous. The enzyme contains both heme and FAD as prosthetic groups, and seems to have a domain specifically designed to bind the enzyme to cellulose. It`s affinity to amorphous cellulose is higher than to crystalline cellulose. We will report on the binding behavior of the enzyme, its usefulness in elucidation of cellulose structures and also, possibilities for applications such as its use in measuring individual and synergistic mechanisms for cellulose degradation by endo- and exo-glucanases.

  3. Molecular properties of succinate dehydrogenase isolated from Micrococcus luteus (lysodeikticus).

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, B A; Owen, P

    1983-01-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.99.1) of Micrococcus luteus was selectively precipitated from Triton X-100-solubilized membranes by using specific antiserum. The precipitated enzyme contained equimolar amounts of four polypeptides with apparent molecular weights of 72,000, 30,000, 17,000, and 15,000. The 72,000 polypeptide possessed a covalently bound flavin prosthetic group and appeared to be strongly antigenic as judged by immunoprinting experiments. Low-temperature absorption spectroscopy revealed the presence of cytochrome b556 in the antigen complex. By analogy with succinate dehydrogenase purified from other sources, the 72,000 and 30,000 polypeptides were considered to represent subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme, whereas one (or both) of the low-molecular-weight polypeptides was attributed to the apoprotein of the b-type cytochrome. A succinate dehydrogenase antigen cross-reacting with the M. luteus enzyme complex could be demonstrated in membranes of Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus flavus, and Sarcina lutea, but not in the membranes isolated from a wide variety of other gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Images PMID:6402500

  4. Purification and properties of Klebsiella aerogenes D-arabitol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, M S; Patterson, R A; Hartley, B S

    1979-01-01

    An Escherichia coli K12 strain was constructed that synthesized elevated quantities of Klebsiella aerogenes D-arabitol dehydrogenase; the enzyme accounted for about 5% of the soluble protein in this strain. Some 280 mg of enzyme was purified from 180 g of cell paste. The purified enzyme was active as a monomer of 46,000 mol.wt. The amino acid composition and kinetic constants of the enzyme for D-arabitol and D-mannitol are reported. The apparent Km for D-mannitol was more than 3-fold that for D-arabitol, whereas the maximum velocities with both substrates were indistinguishable. The enzyme purified from the E. coli K12 construct was indistinguishable by the criteria of molecular weight, electrophoretic mobility in native polyacrylamide gel and D-mannitol/D-arabitol activity ratio from D-arabitol dehydrogenase synthesized in wild-type K. aerogenes. Purified D-arabitol dehydrogenase showed no immunological cross-reaction with K. aerogenes ribitol dehydrogenase. During electrophoresis in native polyacrylamide gels, oxidation by persulphate catalysed the formation of inactive polymeric forms of the enzyme. Dithiothreitol and pre-electrophoresis protected against this polymerization. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:393250

  5. Efficiency of superoxide anions in the inactivation of selected dehydrogenases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodacka, Aleksandra; Serafin, Eligiusz; Puchala, Mieczyslaw

    2010-09-01

    The most ubiquitous of the primary reactive oxygen species, formed in all aerobes, is the superoxide free radical. It is believed that the superoxide anion radical shows low reactivity and in oxidative stress it is regarded mainly as an initiator of more reactive species such as rad OH and ONOO -. In this paper, the effectiveness of inactivation of selected enzymes by radiation-generated superoxide radicals in comparison with the effectiveness of the other products of water radiolysis is examined. We investigate three enzymes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). We show that the direct contribution of the superoxide anion radical to GAPDH and ADH inactivation is significant. The effectiveness of the superoxide anion in the inactivation of GAPDH and ADG was only 2.4 and 2.8 times smaller, respectively, in comparison with hydroxyl radical. LDH was practically not inactivated by the superoxide anion. Despite the fact that the studied dehydrogenases belong to the same class of enzymes (oxidoreductases), all have a similar molecular weight and are tetramers, their susceptibility to free-radical damage varies. The differences in the radiosensitivity of the enzymes are not determined by the basic structural parameters analyzed. A significant role in inactivation susceptibility is played by the type of amino acid residues and their localization within enzyme molecules.

  6. Amphibian alcohol dehydrogenase, the major frog liver enzyme. Relationships to other forms and assessment of an early gene duplication separating vertebrate class I and class III alcohol dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Cederlund, E.; Joernvall, H. ); Peralba, J.M.; Pares, X. )

    1991-03-19

    Submammalian alcohol dehydrogenase structures can be used to evaluate the origins and functions of different types of the mammalian enzyme. Two avian forms were recently reported, and the authors now define the major amphibian alcohol dehydrogenase. The enzyme from the liver of the Green frog Rana perezi was purified, carboxymethylated, and submitted to amino acid sequence determination by peptide analysis of six different digest. The protein has a 375-residue subunit and is a class I alcohol dehydrogenase, bridging the gap toward the original separation of the classes that are observable in the human alcohol dehydrogenase system. In relation to the human class I enzyme, the amphibian protein has residue identities exactly halfway (68%) between those for the corresponding avian enzyme (74%) and the human class III enzyme (62%), suggesting an origin of the alcohol dehnydrogenase classes very early in or close to the evolution of the vertebrate line. This conclusion suggests that these enzyme classes are more universal among animals than previously realized and constitutes the first real assessment of the origin of the duplications leading to the alcohol dehydrogenase classes. In conclusion, the amphibian enzyme allows a rough positioning of the divergence of the alcohol dehydrogenase classes, shows that the class I type is widesprread in vertebrates, and functionally conforms with greater variations at the substrate-binding than the coenzyme-binding site.

  7. Catalytic Mechanism of Short Ethoxy Chain Nonylphenol Dehydrogenase Belonging to a Polyethylene Glycol Dehydrogenase Group in the GMC Oxidoreductase Family

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Ohta, Takeshi; Kawabata, Takeshi; Kawai, Fusako

    2013-01-01

    Ethoxy (EO) chain nonylphenol dehydrogenase (NPEO-DH) from Ensifer sp. AS08 and EO chain octylphenol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida share common molecular characteristics with polyethylene glycol (PEG) dehydrogenases (PEG-DH) and comprise a PEG-DH subgroup in the family of glucose-methanol-choline (GMC) oxidoreductases that includes glucose/alcohol oxidase and glucose/choline dehydrogenase. Three-dimensional (3D) molecular modeling suggested that differences in the size, secondary structure and hydropathy in the active site caused differences in their substrate specificities toward EO chain alkylphenols and free PEGs. Based on 3D molecular modeling, site-directed mutagenesis was utilized to introduce mutations into potential catalytic residues of NPEO-DH. From steady state and rapid kinetic characterization of wild type and mutant NPEO-DHs, we can conclude that His465 and Asn507 are directly involved in the catalysis. Asn507 mediates the transfer of proton from a substrate to FAD and His465 transfers the same proton from the reduced flavin to an electron acceptor. PMID:23306149

  8. Crystal structure of quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes. A versatile dehydrogenase oxidizing alcohols and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Rozeboom, Henriëtte J; Yu, Shukun; Mikkelsen, Rene; Nikolaev, Igor; Mulder, Harm J; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2015-12-01

    The quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH, E.C. 1.1.5.2) from the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes IFO 14464 oxidizes primary alcohols (e.g. ethanol, butanol), secondary alcohols (monosaccharides), as well as aldehydes, polysaccharides, and cyclodextrins. The recombinant protein, expressed in Pichia pastoris, was crystallized, and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the native form, with PQQ and a Ca(2+) ion, and of the enzyme in complex with a Zn(2+) ion and a bound substrate mimic were determined at 1.72 Å and 1.84 Å resolution, respectively. PQQ-ADH displays an eight-bladed β-propeller fold, characteristic of Type I quinone-dependent methanol dehydrogenases. However, three of the four ligands of the Ca(2+) ion differ from those of related dehydrogenases and they come from different parts of the polypeptide chain. These differences result in a more open, easily accessible active site, which explains why PQQ-ADH can oxidize a broad range of substrates. The bound substrate mimic suggests Asp333 as the catalytic base. Remarkably, no vicinal disulfide bridge is present near the PQQ, which in other PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases has been proposed to be necessary for electron transfer. Instead an associated cytochrome c can approach the PQQ for direct electron transfer. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  9. Malic dehydrogenase locus of Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Williams, T J; Smith-Sonneborn, J

    1980-04-01

    A search was undertaken for naturally occurring genetic markers for use in clonal aging studies of Paramecium tetraurelia. Clonal age is defined as the number of cell divisions since the last sexual process. Autogamy (self-fertilization) is a sexual process which can occur in aging lines, resulting in homozygosity and initiation of the next generation. Such "illicit" autogamies must be detected and eliminated from the aged clone. With codominant alleles, heterozygous aging lines can be established which will express a phenotype distinguishable from that of either parental type and autogamy can then be monitored by the appearance of either segregant homozygous phenotype. However, very few codominant alleles are available in this species. Electrophoretic mobilities of malic dehydrogenase (MDH) were assayed in 11 stocks of Paramecium tetraurelia by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Nine stocks showed a single-banded "stock 51" type, while stock 174 and stock 29 each exhibited unique mobility. Crosses between stock 51 and the deviant stocks revealed distinct three-banded patterns indicative of heterozygosity of the F1 generation. In the autogamous F2 generation, 1:1 segregation of the parental types were recovered. The pattern of inheritance is consistent with codominant alleles and Mendelian inheritance. These naturally occurring biochemical markers are stable with increasing clonal age and are therefore useful genetic markers for studies of cellular aging.

  10. Spatial variability of the dehydrogenase activity in forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Błońska, Ewa; Lasota, Jarosław

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the spatial variability of the dehydrogenase activity (DH) in forest soils using geostatistics. We have studied variability soil dehydrogenase and their relationship with variability of some physic-chemical properties. Two study areas (A and B) were set up in southern Poland in the Zlotoryja Forest District. Study areas were covered by different types of vegetation (A- broadleaf forest with beech, ash and sycamore), B- coniferous forest with Norway spruce). The soils were classified as Dystric Cambisols (WRB 2006). The samples for laboratory testing were collected from 49 places on each areas. 15 cm of surface horizon of soil were taken (with previously removed litter). Dehydrogenase activity was marked with Lenhard's method according to the Casida procedure. Soil pH, nitrogen (N) and soil organic carbon (C) content (by LECO CNS 2000 carbon analyzer) was marked. C/N ratio was calculated. Particle size composition was determined using laser diffraction. Statistical analysis were performed using STATISTICA 10 software. Geostatistical analysis and mapping were done by application of GS 9+ (Gamma Design) and Surfer 11 (Golden Software). The activity of DH ranged between 5,02 and 71,20 mg TPP• kg-1 •24 h-1 on the A area and between 0,94 and 16,47 mg TPP• kg-1 •24 h-1. Differences in spatial variability of the analised features were noted. The variability of dehydrogenase activity on the A study area was described by an exponential model, whereas on the B study area the spatial correlation has not been noted. The relationship of dehydrogenase activity with the remaining parameters of soil was noted only in the case of A study area. The variability of organic carbon content on the A and B study areas were described by an exponential model. The variability of nitrogen content on both areas were described by an spherical model.

  11. Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Madiraju, Anila K; Erion, Derek M; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Zhang, Xian-Man; Braddock, Demetrios T; Albright, Ronald A; Prigaro, Brett J; Wood, John L; Bhanot, Sanjay; MacDonald, Michael J; Jurczak, Michael J; Camporez, Joao-Paulo; Lee, Hui-Young; Cline, Gary W; Samuel, Varman T; Kibbey, Richard G; Shulman, Gerald I

    2014-06-26

    Metformin is considered to be one of the most effective therapeutics for treating type 2 diabetes because it specifically reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis without increasing insulin secretion, inducing weight gain or posing a risk of hypoglycaemia. For over half a century, this agent has been prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide, yet the underlying mechanism by which metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that metformin non-competitively inhibits the redox shuttle enzyme mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, resulting in an altered hepatocellular redox state, reduced conversion of lactate and glycerol to glucose, and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute and chronic low-dose metformin treatment effectively reduced endogenous glucose production, while increasing cytosolic redox and decreasing mitochondrial redox states. Antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of hepatic mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in rats resulted in a phenotype akin to chronic metformin treatment, and abrogated metformin-mediated increases in cytosolic redox state, decreases in plasma glucose concentrations, and inhibition of endogenous glucose production. These findings were replicated in whole-body mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase knockout mice. These results have significant implications for understanding the mechanism of metformin's blood glucose lowering effects and provide a new therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes.

  12. [The PQQ-dehydrogenases. A novel example of bacterial quinoproteins].

    PubMed

    Flores-Encarnación, Marcos; Sánchez-Cuevas, Mariano; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    The word "quinoprotein" describes four groups of different enzymes which have cofactors containing o-quinones. Pyrrolo-quinoline quinone (PQQ) is not covalently attached. PQQ is the cofactor of several quinoprotein bacterial dehydrogenases including glucose dehydrogenase (G-DH), alcohol dehydrogenase (A-DH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AL-DH). These dehydrogenases are located in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria. This report summarises the structural properties of quinoprotein dehydrogenases, such as the biological functions and biotechnological aspects more important.

  13. Benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus. Substrate specificities and inhibition studies.

    PubMed Central

    MacKintosh, R W; Fewson, C A

    1988-01-01

    The apparent Km and maximum velocity values of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus were determined for a range of alcohols and aldehydes and the corresponding turnover numbers and specificity constants were calculated. Benzyl alcohol was the most effective alcohol substrate for benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase. Perillyl alcohol was the second most effective substrate, and was the only non-aromatic alcohol oxidized. The other substrates of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase were all aromatic in nature, with para-substituted derivatives of benzyl alcohol being better substrates than other derivatives. Coniferyl alcohol and cinnamyl alcohol were also substrates. Benzaldehyde was much the most effective substrate for benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II. Benzaldehydes with a single small substituent group in the meta or para position were better substrates than any other benzaldehyde derivatives. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II could also oxidize the aliphatic aldehydes hexan-1-al and octan-1-al, although poorly. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was substrate-inhibited by benzaldehyde when the assay concentration exceeded approx. 10 microM. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II, but not benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase, exhibited esterase activity with 4-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate. Both benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II were inhibited by the thiol-blocking reagents iodoacetate, iodoacetamide, 4-chloromercuribenzoate and N-ethylmaleimide. Benzyl alcohol or benzaldehyde respectively protected against these inhibitions. NAD+ also gave some protection. Neither benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase nor benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was inhibited by the metal-ion-chelating agents EDTA, 2,2'-bipyridyl, pyrazole or 2-phenanthroline. Neither enzyme was inhibited by a range of plausible metabolic inhibitors such as mandelate, phenylglyoxylate, benzoate, succinate, acetyl-CoA, ATP or ADP. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II was

  14. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Luzzatto, Lucio; Nannelli, Caterina; Notaro, Rosario

    2016-04-01

    G6PD is a housekeeping gene expressed in all cells. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is part of the pentose phosphate pathway, and its main physiologic role is to provide NADPH. G6PD deficiency, one of the commonest inherited enzyme abnormalities in humans, arises through one of many possible mutations, most of which reduce the stability of the enzyme and its level as red cells age. G6PD-deficient persons are mostly asymptomatic, but they can develop severe jaundice during the neonatal period and acute hemolytic anemia when they ingest fava beans or when they are exposed to certain infections or drugs. G6PD deficiency is a global health issue.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1445 - Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase isoenzymes test system is a device intended to measure the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes (a group of enzymes with similar biological activity) in serum. Measurements of...

  19. Physiological Function of Alcohol Dehydrogenases and Long-Chain (C30) Fatty Acids in Alcohol Tolerance of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus

    PubMed Central

    Burdette, D. S.; Jung, S.-H.; Shen, G.-J.; Hollingsworth, R. I.; Zeikus, J. G.

    2002-01-01

    A mutant strain (39E H8) of Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus that displayed high (8% [vol/vol]) ethanol tolerance for growth was developed and characterized in comparison to the wild-type strain (39E), which lacks alcohol tolerance (<1.5% [vol/vol]). The mutant strain, unlike the wild type, lacked primary alcohol dehydrogenase and was able to increase the percentage of transmembrane fatty acids (i.e., long-chain C30 fatty acids) in response to increasing levels of ethanol. The data support the hypothesis that primary alcohol dehydrogenase functions primarily in ethanol consumption, whereas secondary alcohol dehydrogenase functions in ethanol production. These results suggest that improved thermophilic ethanol fermentations at high alcohol levels can be developed by altering both cell membrane composition (e.g., increasing transmembrane fatty acids) and the metabolic machinery (e.g., altering primary alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities). PMID:11916712

  20. Molecular characterization of benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    PubMed Central

    Gillooly, D J; Robertson, A G; Fewson, C A

    1998-01-01

    The nucleotide sequences of xylB and xylC from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, the genes encoding benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase and benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II, were determined. The complete nucleotide sequence indicates that these two genes form part of an operon and this was supported by heterologous expression and physiological studies. Benzaldehyde dehydrogenase II is a 51654 Da protein with 484 amino acids per subunit and it is typical of other prokaryotic and eukaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenases. Benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase has a subunit Mr of 38923 consisting of 370 amino acids, it stereospecifically transfers the proR hydride of NADH, and it is a member of the family of zinc-dependent long-chain alcohol dehydrogenases. The enzyme appears to be more similar to animal and higher-plant alcohol dehydrogenases than it is to most other microbial alcohol dehydrogenases. Residue His-51 of zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases is thought to be necessary as a general base for catalysis in this category of alcohol dehydrogenases. However, this residue was found to be replaced in benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase from A. calcoaceticus by an isoleucine, and the introduction of a histidine residue in this position did not alter the kinetic coefficients, pH optimum or substrate specificity of the enzyme. Other workers have shown that His-51 is also absent from the TOL-plasmid-encoded benzyl alcohol dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas putida and so these two closely related enzymes presumably have a catalytic mechanism that differs from that of the archetypal zinc-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases. PMID:9494109

  1. Asparagusate dehydrogenases and lipoyl dehydrogenase from asparagus mitochondria. Physical, chemical, and enzymatic properties.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, H; Egami, F

    1976-06-25

    Asparagusate dehydrogenases I and II and lipoyl dehydrogenase have been obtained in homogeneous state from asparagus mitochondria. They are flavin enzymes with 1 mol of FAD/mol of protein. Asparagusate dehydrogenases I and II and lipoyl dehydrogenase have s20,w of 6.22 S, 6.39 S, and 5.91 S, respectively, and molecular weights of 111,000, 110,000, and 95,000 (sedimentation equilibrium) or 112,000, 112,000, and 92,000 (gel filtration). They are slightly acidic proteins with isoelectric points of 6.75, 5.75, and 6.80. Both asparagusate dehydrogenases catalyzed the reaction Asg(SH)2 + NAD+ equilibrium AsgS2 + NADH + H+ and exhibit lipoyl dehydrogenase and diaphorase activities. Lipoyl dehydrogenase is specific for lipoate and has no asparagusate dehydrogenase activity. NADP cannot replace NAD in any case. Optimum pH for substrate reduction of the three enzymes are near 5.9. Asparagusate dehydrogenases I and II have Km values of 21.5 mM and 20.0 mM for asparagusate and 3.0 mM and 3.3 mM for lipoate, respectively. Lipoyl dehydrogenase activity of asparagusate dehydrogenases is enhanced by NAD and surfactants such as lecithin and Tween 80, but asparagusate dehydrogenase activity is not enhanced. Asparagusate dehydrogenases are strongly inhibited by mercuric ion, p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, and N-ethylmaleimide. Amino acid composition of the three enzymes is presented and discussed.

  2. Identification of epsilon-crystallin from swan lens as lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Chiou, S H; Chang, W P; Lai, T A

    1989-10-01

    Characterization of lens crystallins from black swan, a rare aquatic bird belonging to the family Anatidae, was carried out to search for epsilon-crystallin with lactate dehydrogenase activity. Biochemical comparison of epsilon-crystallins isolated from the swan and duck lenses plus lactate dehydrogenase of chicken heart has also been made in order to establish the structural/functional relatedness of these proteins. Amino acid analyses showed essentially similar overall compositions for these three proteins. Kinetic analysis revealed differences between avian epsilon-crystallins and the authentic heart-type lactate dehydrogenase. The swan lenses similar to duck lenses appeared to contain a thermostable epsilon-crystallin which possesses very high enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase. The characterization of epsilon-crystallins from the available species of aquatic birds may provide some insights into the evolution of this unique crystallin in the Aves and their enzymatic roles inside the lens.

  3. Identification of c-crystallin from swan lens as lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Chiou, S-H; Chang, W-P; Lai, T-A

    1989-01-01

    Chuacterization of lens crystallins from black swan, a rare aquatic bird belonging to the family Anatidae, was carried out to search for e-crystallin with lactate dehydrogenase activity. Biochemical comparison of E-crystallins isolated from the swan and duck lenses plus lactate dehydrogenase of chicken heart has also been made in order to establish the structural/functional relatedness of these proteins. Amino acid analyses showed essentially similar overall compositions for these three proteins. Kinetic analysis revealed differences between avian E-crystallins and the authentic heart-type lactate dehydrogenase. The swan lenses similar to duck lenses appeared to contain a thermostable E-crystallin which possesses very high enzymatic activity of lactate dehydrogenase. The characterization of E-crystallins from the available species of aquatic birds may provide some insights into the evolution of this unique crystallin in the Aves and their enzymatic roles inside the lens.

  4. The Effect of Salinity on the Malic Dehydrogenase of Pea Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Hason-Porath, Edna; Poljakoff-Mayber, Alexandra

    1969-01-01

    Effect of salinity on malate dehydrogenase activity was studied. Pea root tips contain 2 different malate dehydrogenases. One is located in the particulate, mitochondrial fraction, the other in the soluble, cytoplasmic fraction. Both can act when coupled with either NAD or NADP. Growing plants in Na2SO4 salinated medium did not affect the pattern of the malate dehydrogenases in the root tips. Growing plants in NaCl salinated media resulted in the appearance of a new, third isoenzyme. This new isoenzyme was located in the cytoplasmic fraction. Salinity of both types, when present in growth medium, induced increases in the NADP coupled activity of the mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase. The NAD coupled activity, however, was depressed except in the cytoplasmic fraction of plants grown in media salinated with NaCl to 1 atmosphere. Addition of either of the salts to assay media of enzymes, isolated from plants grown in non salinated substrate, did not have any significant effect. PMID:16657152

  5. Enhancement of the activity of enzyme immobilized on polydopamine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles by rational orientation of formate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Ni, Kefeng; Zhao, Chengcheng; Ren, Yuhong; Wei, Dongzhi

    2014-10-20

    Immobilization of enzymes onto nanoparticles and retention of their structure and activity, which may be related to the orientation of enzymes on nanoparticles, remain a challenge. Here, we developed a novel enzyme-orientation strategy to enhance the activity of formate dehydrogenase immobilized on polydopamine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles via site-directed mutation. Seven mutants were constructed based on homology modeling of formate dehydrogenase and immobilized on polydopamine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles to investigate the influence of these mutations on immobilization. The immobilized mutant C242A/C275V/C363V/K389C demonstrated the highest immobilization yield and retained 90% of its initial activity, which was about 3-fold higher than that of wild-type formate dehydrogenase. Moreover, co-immobilization of formate dehydrogenase and leucine dehydrogenase was performed for the synthesis of l-tert-leucine. The catalytic efficiency of the co-immobilized mutant C242A/C275V/C363V/K389C and leucine dehydrogenase increased by more than 4-fold compared to that of co-immobilized wild-type formate dehydrogenase and leucine dehydrogenase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The conserved Lysine69 residue plays a catalytic role in Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The shikimate pathway is an attractive target for the development of antitubercular agents because it is essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, but absent in humans. M. tuberculosis aroE-encoded shikimate dehydrogenase catalyzes the forth reaction in the shikimate pathway. Structural and functional studies indicate that Lysine69 may be involved in catalysis and/or substrate binding in M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. Investigation of the kinetic properties of mutant enzymes can bring important insights about the role of amino acid residues for M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. Findings We have performed site-directed mutagenesis, steady-state kinetics, equilibrium binding measurements and molecular modeling for both the wild-type M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase and the K69A mutant enzymes. The apparent steady-state kinetic parameters for the M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase were determined; the catalytic constant value for the wild-type enzyme (50 s-1) is 68-fold larger than that for the mutant K69A (0.73 s-1). There was a modest increase in the Michaelis-Menten constant for DHS (K69A = 76 μM; wild-type = 29 μM) and NADPH (K69A = 30 μM; wild-type = 11 μM). The equilibrium dissociation constants for wild-type and K69A mutant enzymes are 32 (± 4) μM and 134 (± 21), respectively. Conclusion Our results show that the residue Lysine69 plays a catalytic role and is not involved in substrate binding for the M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase. These efforts on M. tuberculosis shikimate dehydrogenase catalytic mechanism determination should help the rational design of specific inhibitors, aiming at the development of antitubercular drugs. PMID:19917104

  7. The amino acid sequence of ribitol dehydrogenase-F, a mutant enzyme with improved xylitol dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Homsi-Brandeburgo, M I; Toyama, M H; Marangoni, S; Ward, R J; Giglio, J R; Hartley, B S

    1999-05-01

    A mutant ribitol dehydrogenase (RDH-F) was purified from Klebsiella aerogenes strain F which evolved from the wild-type strain A under selective pressure to improve growth on xylitol, a poor substrate used as sole carbon source. The ratio of activities on xylitol (500 mM) and ribitol (50 mM) was 0.154 for RDH-F compared to 0.033 for the wild-type (RDH-A) enzyme. The complete amino acid sequence of RDH-F showed the mutations. Q60 for E60 and V215 for L215 in the single polypeptide chain of 249 amino acid residues. Structural modeling based on homologies with two other microbial dehydrogenases suggests that E60 --> Q60 is a neutral mutation, since it lies in a region far from the catalytic site and should not cause structural perturbations. In contrast, L215 --> V215 lies in variable region II and would shift a loop that interacts with the NADH cofactor. Another improved ribitol dehydrogenase, RDH-D, contains an A196 --> P196 mutation that would disrupt a surface alpha-helix in region II. Hence conformational changes in this region appear to be responsible for the improved xylitol specificity.

  8. X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and autosomal 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) polymorphisms in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    VandeBerg, J.L.; Aivaliotis, M.J.; Samollow, P.B. )

    1992-12-01

    Electrophoretic polymorphisms of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) were examined in captive colonies of five subspecies of baboons (Papio hamadryas). Phenotype frequencies and family data verified the X-linked inheritance of the G6PD polymorphism. Insufficient family data were available to confirm autosomal inheritance of the 6PGD polymorphism, but the electrophoretic patterns of variant types (putative heterozygotes) suggested the codominant expression of alleles at an autosomal locus. Implications of the G6PD polymorphism are discussed with regard to its utility as a marker system for research on X-chromosome inactivation during baboon development and for studies of clonal cell proliferation and/or cell selection during the development of atherosclerotic lesions in the baboon model. 61 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  9. Shikimate dehydrogenase from Pinu sylvestris L. needles

    SciTech Connect

    Osipov, V.I.; Shein, I.V.

    1986-07-10

    Shikimate dehydrogenase was isolated by extraction from pine needles and partially purified by fractionation with ammonium sulfate. In conifers, in contrast to other plants, all three isoenzymes of shikimate dehydrogenase exhibit activity not only with NADP/sup +/, but also with NAD/sup +/. The values of K/sub m/ for shikimate, when NADP/sup +/ and NAD/sup +/ are used as cofactors, are 0.22 and 1.13 mM, respectively. The enzyme is maximally active at pH 10 with both cofactors. It is suggested that NAD-dependent shikimate dehydrogenase catalyzes the initial reaction of the alternative pathway of the conversion of shikimic acid to hydroxybenzoic acid. The peculiarities of the organization and regulation of the initial reactions of the shikimate pathway in conifers and in plants with shikimate dehydrogenase absolutely specific for NADP are discussed.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skin on the palms and soles (hand-foot syndrome); shortness of breath; and hair loss may also ... dehydrogenase deficiency , with its early-onset neurological symptoms, is a rare disorder. Its prevalence is ...

  11. Isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Waitkus, Matthew S.; Diplas, Bill H.; Yan, Hai

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, extraordinary progress has been made in elucidating the underlying genetic causes of gliomas. In 2008, our understanding of glioma genetics was revolutionized when mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) were identified in the vast majority of progressive gliomas and secondary glioblastomas (GBMs). IDH enzymes normally catalyze the decarboxylation of isocitrate to generate α-ketoglutarate (αKG), but recurrent mutations at Arg132 of IDH1 and Arg172 of IDH2 confer a neomorphic enzyme activity that catalyzes reduction of αKG into the putative oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutate (D2HG). D2HG inhibits αKG-dependent dioxygenases and is thought to create a cellular state permissive to malignant transformation by altering cellular epigenetics and blocking normal differentiation processes. Herein, we discuss the relevant literature on mechanistic studies of IDH1/2 mutations in gliomas, and we review the potential impact of IDH1/2 mutations on molecular classification and glioma therapy. PMID:26188014

  12. Mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex generates reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Starkov, Anatoly A; Fiskum, Gary; Chinopoulos, Christos; Lorenzo, Beverly J; Browne, Susan E; Patel, Mulchand S; Beal, M Flint

    2004-09-08

    Mitochondria-produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to contribute to cell death caused by a multitude of pathological conditions. The molecular sites of mitochondrial ROS production are not well established but are generally thought to be located in complex I and complex III of the electron transport chain. We measured H(2)O(2) production, respiration, and NADPH reduction level in rat brain mitochondria oxidizing a variety of respiratory substrates. Under conditions of maximum respiration induced with either ADP or carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone,alpha-ketoglutarate supported the highest rate of H(2)O(2) production. In the absence of ADP or in the presence of rotenone, H(2)O(2) production rates correlated with the reduction level of mitochondrial NADPH with various substrates, with the exception of alpha-ketoglutarate. Isolated mitochondrial alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (KGDHC) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDHC) complexes produced superoxide and H(2)O(2). NAD(+) inhibited ROS production by the isolated enzymes and by permeabilized mitochondria. We also measured H(2)O(2) production by brain mitochondria isolated from heterozygous knock-out mice deficient in dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (Dld). Although this enzyme is a part of both KGDHC and PDHC, there was greater impairment of KGDHC activity in Dld-deficient mitochondria. These mitochondria also produced significantly less H(2)O(2) than mitochondria isolated from their littermate wild-type mice. The data strongly indicate that KGDHC is a primary site of ROS production in normally functioning mitochondria.

  13. Characterization of two β-decarboxylating dehydrogenases from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kento; Nakanishi, Fumika; Tomita, Takeo; Akiyama, Nagisa; Lassak, Kerstin; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, a hyperthermoacidophilic archaeon, possesses two β-decarboxylating dehydrogenase genes, saci_0600 and saci_2375, in its genome, which suggests that it uses these enzymes for three similar reactions in lysine biosynthesis through 2-aminoadipate, leucine biosynthesis, and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. To elucidate their roles, these two genes were expressed in Escherichia coli in the present study and their gene products were characterized. Saci_0600 recognized 3-isopropylmalate as a substrate, but exhibited slight and no activity for homoisocitrate and isocitrate, respectively. Saci_2375 exhibited distinct and similar activities for isocitrate and homoisocitrate, but no detectable activity for 3-isopropylmalate. These results suggest that Saci_0600 is a 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase for leucine biosynthesis and Saci_2375 is a dual function enzyme serving as isocitrate-homoisocitrate dehydrogenase. The crystal structure of Saci_0600 was determined as a closed-form complex that binds 3-isopropylmalate and Mg(2+), thereby revealing the structural basis for the extreme thermostability and novel-type recognition of the 3-isopropyl moiety of the substrate.

  14. Biochemical Properties of Purified Human Retinol Dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12): Catalytic Efficiency toward Retinoids and C9 Aldehydes and Effects of Cellular Retinol-Binding Protein Type I (CRBPI) and Cellular Retinaldehyde-Binding Protein (CRALBP) on the Oxidation and Reduction of Retinoids†

    PubMed Central

    Belyaeva, Olga V.; Korkina, Olga V.; Stetsenko, Anton V.; Kim, Tom; Nelson, Peter S.; Kedishvili, Natalia Y.

    2008-01-01

    Retinol dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) is a novel member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily of proteins that was recently linked to Leber’s congenital amaurosis 3 (LCA). We report the first biochemical characterization of purified human RDH12 and analysis of its expression in human tissues. RDH12 exhibits ~2000-fold lower Km values for NADP+ and NADPH than for NAD+ and NADH and recognizes both retinoids and lipid peroxidation products (C9 aldehydes) as substrates. The kcat values of RDH12 for retinaldehydes and C9 aldehydes are similar, but the Km values are, in general, lower for retinoids. The enzyme exhibits the highest catalytic efficiency for all-trans-retinal (kcat/Km ~900 min−1 μM−1), followed by 11-cis-retinal (450 min−1 mM−1) and 9-cis-retinal (100 min−1 mM−1). Analysis of RDH12 activity toward retinoids in the presence of cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) type I or cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) suggests that RDH12 utilizes the unbound forms of all-trans- and 11-cis-retinoids. As a result, the widely expressed CRBPI, which binds all-trans-retinol with much higher affinity than all-trans-retinaldehyde, restricts the oxidation of all-trans-retinol by RDH12, but has little effect on the reduction of all-trans-retinaldehyde, and CRALBP inhibits the reduction of 11-cis-retinal stronger than the oxidation of 11-cis-retinol, in accord with its higher affinity for 11-cis-retinal. Together, the tissue distribution of RDH12 and its catalytic properties suggest that, in most tissues, RDH12 primarily contributes to the reduction of all-trans-retinaldehyde; however, at saturating concentrations of peroxidic aldehydes in the cells undergoing oxidative stress, for example, photoreceptors, RDH12 might also play a role in detoxification of lipid peroxidation products. PMID:15865448

  15. Microbial Oxidation of Methane and Methanol: Crystallization of Methanol Dehydrogenase and Properties of Holo- and Apo-Methanol Dehydrogenase from Methylomonas methanica

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ramesh N.; Hou, Ching T.; Felix, Andre

    1978-01-01

    Procedures are described for the purification and crystallization of methanol dehydrogenase from the soluble fraction of the type I obligate methylotroph Methylomonas methanica strain S1. The crystallized enzyme is homogeneous as judged by acrylamide gel electrophoresis and ultracentrifugation. The enzyme had a high pH optimum (9.5) and required ammonium salt as an activator. In the presence of phenazine methosulfate as an electron acceptor, the enzyme catalyzed the oxidation of primary alcohols and formaldehyde. Secondary, tertiary, and aromatic alcohols were not oxidized. The molecular weight as well as subunit size of methanol dehydrogenase was 60,000, indicating that it is monomeric. The sedimentation constant (s20,w) was 3.1S. The amino acid composition of the crystallized enzyme is also presented. Antisera prepared against the crystalline enzyme were nonspecific; they cross-reacted with and inhibited the isofunctional enzyme from other obligate methylotrophic bacteria. The crystalline methanol dehydrogenase had an absorption peak at 350 nm in the visible region and weak fluorescence peaks at 440 and 470 nm due to the presence of a pteridine derivative as the prosthetic group. A procedure was developed for the preparation of apo-methanol dehydrogenase. The molecular weights, sedimentation constants, electrophoretic mobilities, and immunological properties of apo- and holo-methanol dehydrogenases are identical. Apo-methanol dehydrogenase lacked the absorption peak at 350 nm and the fluorescence peaks at 440 and 470 nm and was catalytically inactive. All attempts to reconstitute an active enzyme from apo-methanol dehydrogenase, using various pteridine derivatives, were unsuccessful. Images PMID:415046

  16. Characterization of interactions of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase with its binding protein in the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Yun-Hee; Patel, Mulchand S.

    2010-05-07

    Unlike pyruvate dehydrogenase complexes (PDCs) from prokaryotes, PDCs from higher eukaryotes have an additional structural component, E3-binding protein (BP), for binding of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3) in the complex. Based on the 3D structure of the subcomplex of human (h) E3 with the di-domain (L3S1) of hBP, the amino acid residues (H348, D413, Y438, and R447) of hE3 for binding to hBP were substituted singly by alanine or other residues. These substitutions did not have large effects on hE3 activity when measured in its free form. However, when these hE3 mutants were reconstituted in the complex, the PDC activity was significantly reduced to 9% for Y438A, 20% for Y438H, and 18% for D413A. The binding of hE3 mutants with L3S1 determined by isothermal titration calorimetry revealed that the binding affinities of the Y438A, Y438H, and D413A mutants to L3S1 were severely reduced (1019-, 607-, and 402-fold, respectively). Unlike wild-type hE3 the binding of the Y438A mutant to L3S1 was accompanied by an unfavorable enthalpy change and a large positive entropy change. These results indicate that hE3-Y438 and hE3-D413 play important roles in binding of hE3 to hBP.

  17. High substrate specificity of ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH), a short-chain dehydrogenase from Ips pini bark beetles

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Pak, Heidi; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Ips spp. bark beetles use ipsdienol, ipsenol, ipsdienone and ipsenone as aggregation pheromone components and pheromone precursors. For Ips pini, the short-chain oxidoreductase ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH) converts (−)-ipsdienol to ipsdienone, and thus likely plays a role in determining pheromone composition. In order to further understand the role of IDOLDH in pheromone biosynthesis, we compared IDOLDH to its nearest functionally characterized ortholog with a solved structure: human L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type II/ amyloid-β binding alcohol dehydrogenase (hHADH II/ABAD), and conducted functional assays of recombinant IDOLDH to determine substrate and product ranges and structural characteristics. Although IDOLDH and hHADH II/ABAD had only 35% sequence identity, their predicted tertiary structures had high identity. We found IDOLDH is a functional homo-tetramer. In addition to oxidizing (−)-ipsdienol, IDOLDH readily converted racemic ipsenol to ipsenone, and stereo-specifically reduced both ketones to their corresponding (−)-alcohols. The (+)-enantiomers were never observed as products. Assays with various substrate analogs showed IDOLDH had high substrate specificity for (−)-ipsdienol, ipsenol, ipsenone and ipsdienone, supporting that IDOLDH functions as a pheromone-biosynthetic enzyme. These results suggest that different IDOLDH orthologs and or activity levels contribute to differences in Ips spp. pheromone composition. PMID:26953347

  18. High substrate specificity of ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH), a short-chain dehydrogenase from Ips pini bark beetles.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Pak, Heidi; Blomquist, Gary J; Tittiger, Claus

    2016-09-01

    Ips spp. bark beetles use ipsdienol, ipsenol, ipsdienone and ipsenone as aggregation pheromone components and pheromone precursors. For Ips pini, the short-chain oxidoreductase ipsdienol dehydrogenase (IDOLDH) converts (-)-ipsdienol to ipsdienone, and thus likely plays a role in determining pheromone composition. In order to further understand the role of IDOLDH in pheromone biosynthesis, we compared IDOLDH to its nearest functionally characterized ortholog with a solved structure: human L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type II/ amyloid-β binding alcohol dehydrogenase (hHADH II/ABAD), and conducted functional assays of recombinant IDOLDH to determine substrate and product ranges and structural characteristics. Although IDOLDH and hHADH II/ABAD had only 35% sequence identity, their predicted tertiary structures had high identity. We found IDOLDH is a functional homo-tetramer. In addition to oxidizing (-)-ipsdienol, IDOLDH readily converted racemic ipsenol to ipsenone, and stereo-specifically reduced both ketones to their corresponding (-)-alcohols. The (+)-enantiomers were never observed as products. Assays with various substrate analogs showed IDOLDH had high substrate specificity for (-)-ipsdienol, ipsenol, ipsenone and ipsdienone, supporting that IDOLDH functions as a pheromone-biosynthetic enzyme. These results suggest that different IDOLDH orthologs and or activity levels contribute to differences in Ips spp. pheromone composition. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Cloning, sequencing and mutagenesis of the genes for aromatic amine dehydrogenase from Alcaligenes faecalis and evolution of amine dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Chistoserdov, A Y

    2001-08-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the aromatic amine utilization (aau) gene region from Alcaligenes faecalis contained nine genes (orf-1, aauBEDA, orf-2, orf-3, orf-4 and hemE) transcribed in the same direction. The aauB and aauA genes encode the periplasmic aromatic amine dehydrogenase (AADH) large and small subunit polypeptides, respectively, and were homologous to mauB and mauA, the genes for the large and small subunits of methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH). aauE and aauD are homologous to mauE and mauD and apparently carry out the same function of transport and folding of the small subunit polypeptide in the periplasm. No analogues of the mauF, mauG, mauL, mauM and mauN genes responsible for biosynthesis of tryptophan tryptophylquinone (the prosthetic group of amine dehydrogenases) were found in the aau cluster. orf-2 was predicted to encode a small periplasmic monohaem c-type cytochrome. No biological function can be assigned to polypeptides encoded by orf-1, orf-3 and orf-4 and mutations in these genes appeared to be lethal. Mutants generated by insertions into mauD were not able to use phenylethylamine, tyramine and tryptamine as a source of carbon and phenylethylamine, 3'-hydroxytyramine (dopamine) and tyramine as a source of nitrogen, indicating that AADH is the only enzyme involved in utilization of primary amines in A. faecalis. AADH genes are present in Alcaligenes xylosoxydans subsp. xylosoxydans, but not in other beta- and gamma-proteobacteria. Phylogenetic analysis of amine dehydrogenases (MADH and AADH) indicated that AADH and MADH evolutionarily diverged before separation of proteobacteria into existing subclasses.

  20. Regulation of heart muscle pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ronald H.; Randle, Philip J.; Denton, Richard M.

    1974-01-01

    1. The activity of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase was assayed by the incorporation of [32P]phosphate from [γ-32P]ATP into the dehydrogenase complex. There was a very close correlation between this incorporation and the loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity with all preparations studied. 2. Nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP (at 100μm) and cyclic 3′:5′-nucleotides (at 10μm) had no significant effect on kinase activity. 3. The Km for thiamin pyrophosphate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was 0.76μm. Sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate, ADP and GTP were competitive inhibitors against thiamin pyrophosphate in the dehydrogenase reaction. 4. The Km for ATP of the intrinsic kinase assayed in three preparations of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase was in the range 13.9–25.4μm. Inhibition by ADP and adenylyl imidodiphosphate was predominantly competitive, but there was nevertheless a definite non-competitive element. Thiamin pyrophosphate and sodium pyrophosphate were uncompetitive inhibitors against ATP. It is suggested that ADP and adenylyl imidodiphosphate inhibit the kinase mainly by binding to the ATP site and that the adenosine moiety may be involved in this binding. It is suggested that thiamin pyrophosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, adenylyl imidodiphosphate and ADP may inhibit the kinase by binding through pyrophosphate or imidodiphosphate moieties at some site other than the ATP site. It is not known whether this is the coenzyme-binding site in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction. 5. The Km for pyruvate in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was 35.5μm. 2-Oxobutyrate and 3-hydroxypyruvate but not glyoxylate were also substrates; all three compounds inhibited pyruvate oxidation. 6. In preparations of pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase free of thiamin pyrophosphate, pyruvate inhibited the kinase reaction at all concentrations in the range 25–500μm. The inhibition was uncompetitive. In the presence of thiamin pyrophosphate

  1. Characterization of succinate dehydrogenase and alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Lenzen, S; Panten, U

    1983-12-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase activities in homogenates of rat and ob/ob mouse pancreatic islets were only 13% of the activities in homogenates of liver and were also several times lower than in homogenates of pancreatic acinar tissue. This indicates that the content of mitochondria in pancreatic islet cells is very low. The very low activity of succinate dehydrogenase is in agreement with the low mitochondrial volume in the cytoplasmic ground substance of pancreatic islet cells as observed in morphometric studies. This may represent the poor equipment of pancreatic islet cells with electron transport chains and thus provide a regulatory role for the generation of reducing equivalents and chemical energy for the regulation of insulin secretion. The activities of succinate dehydrogenase in tissue homogenates of pancreatic islets, pancreatic acinar tissue, and liver were significantly inhibited by malonate and diazoxide but not by glucose, mannoheptulose, streptozotocin, or verapamil. Tolbutamide inhibited only pancreatic islet succinate dehydrogenase significantly, providing evidence for a different behavior of pancreatic islet cell mitochondria. Therefore diazoxide and tolbutamide may affect pancreatic islet function through their effects on succinate dehydrogenase activity. The activities of alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in homogenates of pancreatic islets and liver from rats and ob/ob mice were in the same range, while activities in homogenates of pancreatic acinar tissue were lower. None of the test agents affected alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity. Thus the results provide no support for the recent contention that alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity may be critical for the regulation of insulin secretion.

  2. Aromatase, estrone sulfatase, and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase: structure-function studies and inhibitor development.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yanyan; Chen, Shiuan

    2011-07-04

    Aromatase, estrone sulfatase, and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 are involved in the key steps of 17β-estradiol biosynthesis. Structure-function studies of aromatase, estrone sulfatase and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 are important to evaluate the molecular basis of the interaction between these enzymes and their inhibitors. Selective and potent inhibitors of the three enzymes have been developed as antiproliferative agents in hormone-dependent breast carcinoma. New treatment strategies for hormone-dependent breast cancer are discussed.

  3. Digitalis metabolism and human liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Frey, W A; Vallee, B L

    1980-01-01

    Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol: NAD" oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) catalyzes the oxidation of the 3 beta-OH group of digitoxigenin, digoxigenin, and gitoxigenin to their 3-keto derivatives, which have been characterized by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. These studies have identified human liver alcohol dehydrogenase as the unknown NAD(H)-dependent liver enzyme specific for the free hydroxyl group at C3 of the cardiac genins; this hydroxyl is the critical site of the genins' enzymatic oxidation and concomitant pharmacological inactivation in humans. Several kinetic approaches have demonstrated that ethanol and the pharmacologically active components of the digitalis glycosides are oxidized with closely similar kcat/Km values at the same site on human liver alcohol dehydrogenase, for which they compete. Human liver alcohol dehydrogenase thereby becomes an important biochemical link in the metabolism, pharmacology, and toxicology of ethanol and these glycosides, structurally unrelated agents that are both used widely. Both the competition of ethanol with these cardiac sterols and the narrow margin of safety in the therapeutic use of digitalis derivatives would seem to place at increased risk those individuals who receive digitalis and simultaneously consume large amounts of ethanol or whose alcohol dehydrogenase function is impaired. PMID:6987673

  4. Benzene toxicity: emphasis on cytosolic dihydrodiol dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Bolcsak, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Blood dyscrasias such as leukopenia and anemia have been clearly identified as consequences of chronic benzene exposure. The metabolites, phenol, catechol, and hydroquinone produced inhibition of /sup 59/Fe uptake in mice which followed the same time course as that produced by benzene. The inhibitor of benzene oxidation, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, mitigated the inhibitory effects of benzene and phenol only. These data support the contention that benzene toxicity is mediated by a metabolite and suggest that the toxicity of phenol is a consequence of its metabolism to hydroquinone and that the route of metabolism to catechol may also contribute to the production of toxic metabolite(s). The properties of mouse liver cytosolic dihydrodiol dehydrogenases were examined. These enzymes catalyze the NADP/sup +/-dependent oxidation of trans-1,2-dihydro-1,2-dihydroxybenzene (BDD) to catechol, a possible toxic metabolite of benzene produced via this metabolic route. Four distinct dihydrodiol dehydrogenases (DD1, DD2, DD3, and DD4) were purified to apparent homogeneity as judged by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. DD1 appeared to be identical to the major ketone reductase and 17..beta..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity in the liver. DD2 exhibited aldehyde reductase activity. DD3 and DD4 oxidized 17..beta..-hydroxysteroids, but no carbonyl reductase activity was detected. These relationships between BDD dehydrogenases and carbonyl reductase and/or 17..beta..-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities were supported by several lines of evidence.

  5. Sorbitol dehydrogenase: structure, function and ligand design.

    PubMed

    El-Kabbani, O; Darmanin, C; Chung, R P-T

    2004-02-01

    Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), a member of the medium-chain dehydrogenase/reductase protein family and the second enzyme of the polyol pathway of glucose metabolism, converts sorbitol to fructose strictly using NAD(+) as coenzyme. SDH is expressed almost ubiquitously in all mammalian tissues. The enzyme has attracted considerable interest due to its implication in the development of diabetic complications and thus its tertiary structure may facilitate the development of drugs for the treatment of diabetes sufferers. Modelling studies suggest that SDH is structurally homologous to mammalian alcohol dehydrogenase with respect to conserved zinc binding motif and a hydrophobic substrate-binding pocket. Recently, the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of a mammalian SDH was solved, and it was found that while the overall 3-D structures of SDH and alcohol dehydrogenase are similar, the zinc coordination in the active sites of the two enzymes is different. The available structural and biochemical information of SDH are currently being utilized in a structure-based approach to develop drugs for the treatment or prevention of the complications of diabetes. This review provides an overview of the recent advances in the structure, function and drug development fields of sorbitol dehydrogenase.

  6. Monoterpene metabolism. Cloning, expression, and characterization of (-)-isopiperitenol/(-)-carveol dehydrogenase of peppermint and spearmint.

    PubMed

    Ringer, Kerry L; Davis, Edward M; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-03-01

    The essential oils of peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) are distinguished by the oxygenation position on the p-menthane ring of the constitutive monoterpenes that is conferred by two regiospecific cytochrome P450 limonene-3- and limonene-6-hydroxylases. Following hydroxylation of limonene, an apparently similar dehydrogenase oxidizes (-)-trans-isopiperitenol to (-)-isopiperitenone in peppermint and (-)-trans-carveol to (-)-carvone in spearmint. Random sequencing of a peppermint oil gland secretory cell cDNA library revealed a large number of clones that specified redox-type enzymes, including dehydrogenases. Full-length dehydrogenase clones were screened by functional expression in Escherichia coli using a recently developed in situ assay. A single full-length acquisition encoding (-)-trans-isopiperitenol dehydrogenase (ISPD) was isolated. The (-)-ISPD cDNA has an open reading frame of 795 bp that encodes a 265-residue enzyme with a calculated molecular mass of 27,191. Nondegenerate primers were designed based on the (-)-trans-ISPD cDNA sequence and employed to screen a spearmint oil gland secretory cell cDNA library from which a 5'-truncated cDNA encoding the spearmint homolog, (-)-trans-carveol-dehydrogenase, was isolated. Reverse transcription-PCR amplification and RACE were used to acquire the remaining 5'-sequence from RNA isolated from oil gland secretory cells of spearmint leaf. The full-length spearmint dehydrogenase shares >99% amino acid identity with its peppermint homolog and both dehydrogenases are capable of utilizing (-)-trans-isopiperitenol and (-)-trans-carveol. These isopiperitenol/carveol dehydrogenases are members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily and are related to other plant short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases involved in secondary metabolism (lignan biosynthesis), stress responses, and phytosteroid biosynthesis, but they are quite dissimilar (approximately 13% identity) to the monoterpene

  7. Anti-diabetic and anti-adipogenic effects of a novel selective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor, 2-(3-benzoyl)-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-2-yl-1-phenylethanone (KR-66344).

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Seon; Rhee, Sang Dal; Kang, Nam Sook; Jung, Won Hoon; Kim, Hee Youn; Kim, Jun Hyoung; Kang, Seung Kyu; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Ahn, Jin Hee; Kim, Ki Young

    2011-04-15

    The selective inhibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) have considerable potential for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. In the present study, we investigated the anti-diabetic and anti-adipogenic effects of 2-(3-benzoyl)-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-2-yl-1-phenylethanone (KR-66344), as a 11β-HSD1 inhibitor; we also investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms in the cortisone-induced 3T3-L1 adipogenesis model system and C57BL/6-Lep(ob/ob) mice. KR-66344 concentration-dependently inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in human liver microsome, mouse C2C12 myotube and human SW982 cells. In the C57BL/6-Lep(ob/ob) mice study, the administration of KR-66344 (200mg/kg/d, orally for 5 days) improved the glucose intolerance as determined by the oral glucose tolerance test, in which the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma glucose concentration was significantly reduced by 27% compared with the vehicle treated group. Further, KR-66344 suppressed adipocyte differentiation on cortisone-induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells is associated with the suppression of the cortisone-induced mRNA levels of FABP4, G3PD, PPARγ2 and Glut4, and 11β-HSD1 expression and activity. Our results additionally demonstrate evidence showing that KR-66344 improved glycemic control and inhibited adipogenesis via 11β-HSD1 enzyme activity. Taken together, these results may provide evidence of the therapeutic potential of KR-66344, as a 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, in obesity and type 2 diabetes patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Biochemical properties of purified human retinol dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12): catalytic efficiency toward retinoids and C9 aldehydes and effects of cellular retinol-binding protein type I (CRBPI) and cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) on the oxidation and reduction of retinoids.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, Olga V; Korkina, Olga V; Stetsenko, Anton V; Kim, Tom; Nelson, Peter S; Kedishvili, Natalia Y

    2005-05-10

    Retinol dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) is a novel member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily of proteins that was recently linked to Leber's congenital amaurosis 3 (LCA). We report the first biochemical characterization of purified human RDH12 and analysis of its expression in human tissues. RDH12 exhibits approximately 2000-fold lower K(m) values for NADP(+) and NADPH than for NAD(+) and NADH and recognizes both retinoids and lipid peroxidation products (C(9) aldehydes) as substrates. The k(cat) values of RDH12 for retinaldehydes and C(9) aldehydes are similar, but the K(m) values are, in general, lower for retinoids. The enzyme exhibits the highest catalytic efficiency for all-trans-retinal (k(cat)/K(m) approximately 900 min(-)(1) microM(-)(1)), followed by 11-cis-retinal (450 min(-)(1) mM(-)(1)) and 9-cis-retinal (100 min(-)(1) mM(-)(1)). Analysis of RDH12 activity toward retinoids in the presence of cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) type I or cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) suggests that RDH12 utilizes the unbound forms of all-trans- and 11-cis-retinoids. As a result, the widely expressed CRBPI, which binds all-trans-retinol with much higher affinity than all-trans-retinaldehyde, restricts the oxidation of all-trans-retinol by RDH12, but has little effect on the reduction of all-trans-retinaldehyde, and CRALBP inhibits the reduction of 11-cis-retinal stronger than the oxidation of 11-cis-retinol, in accord with its higher affinity for 11-cis-retinal. Together, the tissue distribution of RDH12 and its catalytic properties suggest that, in most tissues, RDH12 primarily contributes to the reduction of all-trans-retinaldehyde; however, at saturating concentrations of peroxidic aldehydes in the cells undergoing oxidative stress, for example, photoreceptors, RDH12 might also play a role in detoxification of lipid peroxidation products.

  9. [Interaction of succinate dehydrogenase and oxaloacetate].

    PubMed

    Kotliar, A B; Vinogradov, A D

    1984-04-01

    The equilibrium and rate constants for interaction of the reduced and oxidized membrane-bound succinate dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.99.1) with oxaloacetate were determined. The 10-fold decrease in the oxaloacetate affinity for the reduced enzyme was shown to be due to the 10-fold increase of the enzyme-inhibitor complex dissociation rate, which occurs upon its reduction. The rate of dissociation induced by succinate is 10 times higher than that induced by malonate in the submitochondrial particles, being equal in the soluble enzyme preparations. The rates of dissociation induced by malonate excess, or by the enzyme irreversibly utilizing oxaloacetate (transaminase in the presence of glutamate) are also equal. The data obtained suggest that succinate dehydrogenase interaction with succinate and oxaloacetate results from the competition for a single dicarboxylate-specific site. In submitochondrial particles all succinate dehydrogenase molecules are in redox equilibrium provided for by endogenous ubiquinone. No electronic equilibrium between the individual enzyme molecules exists, when succinate dehydrogenase is solubilized.

  10. Effects of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Gan, Li-Qin; Li, Shu-Ke; Zheng, Jie-Cong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Various alcoholic beverages containing different concentrations of ethanol are widely consumed, and excessive alcohol consumption may result in serious health problems. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is often accompanied by non-alcoholic beverages, such as herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages to relieve drunk symptoms. The aim of this study was to supply new information on the effects of these beverages on alcohol metabolism for nutritionists and the general public, in order to reduce problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The effects of 57 kinds of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity were evaluated. Generally, the effects of these beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity are very different. The results suggested that some beverages should not be drank after excessive alcohol consumption, and several beverages may be potential dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of problems related to excessive alcohol consumption.

  11. Determination of the Subunit Molecular Mass and Composition of Alcohol Dehydrogenase by SDS-PAGE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Barbara T.

    2007-01-01

    SDS-PAGE is a simple, rapid technique that has many uses in biochemistry and is readily adaptable to the undergraduate laboratory. It is, however, a technique prone to several types of procedural pitfalls. This article describes the use of SDS-PAGE to determine the subunit molecular mass and composition of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase employing…

  12. Determination of the Subunit Molecular Mass and Composition of Alcohol Dehydrogenase by SDS-PAGE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Barbara T.

    2007-01-01

    SDS-PAGE is a simple, rapid technique that has many uses in biochemistry and is readily adaptable to the undergraduate laboratory. It is, however, a technique prone to several types of procedural pitfalls. This article describes the use of SDS-PAGE to determine the subunit molecular mass and composition of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase employing…

  13. NAD(+)-linked alcohol dehydrogenase 1 regulates methylglyoxal concentration in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Min-Kyu; Ku, MyungHee; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2014-04-02

    We purified a fraction that showed NAD(+)-linked methylglyoxal dehydrogenase activity, directly catalyzing methylglyoxal oxidation to pyruvate, which was significantly increased in glutathione-depleted Candida albicans. It also showed NADH-linked methylglyoxal-reducing activity. The fraction was identified as a NAD(+)-linked alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1) through mass spectrometric analyses. In ADH1-disruptants of both the wild type and glutathione-depleted cells, the intracellular methylglyoxal concentration increased significantly; defects in growth, differentiation, and virulence were observed; and G2-phase arrest was induced.

  14. Glucose metabolism and regulation of glycolysis in Lactococcus lactis strains with decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Garrigues, C; Goupil-Feuillerat, N; Cocaign-Bousquet, M; Renault, P; Lindley, N D; Loubiere, P

    2001-07-01

    The distribution of carbon flux at the pyruvate node was investigated in Lactococcus lactis under anaerobic conditions with mutant strains having decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity. Strains previously selected by random mutagenesis by H. Boumerdassi, C. Monnet, M. Desmazeaud, and G. Corrieu (Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63, 2293-2299, 1997) were found to have single punctual mutations in the ldh gene and presented a high degree of instability. The strain L. lactis JIM 5711 in which lactate dehydrogenase activity was diminished to less than 30% of the wild type maintained homolactic metabolism. This was due to an increase in the intracellular pyruvate concentration, which ensures the maintained flux through the lactate dehydrogenase. Pyruvate metabolism was linked to the flux limitation at the level of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, as previously postulated for the parent strain (C. Garrigues, P. Loubière, N. D. Lindley, and M. Cocaign-Bousquet (1997) J. Bacteriol. 179, 5282-5287, 1997). However, a strain (L. lactis JIM 5954) in which the ldh gene was interrupted reoriented pyruvate metabolism toward mixed metabolism (production of formate, acetate, and ethanol), though the glycolytic flux was not strongly diminished. Only limited production of acetoin occurred despite significant overflow of pyruvate. Intracellular metabolite profiles indicated that the in vivo glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was no longer flux limiting in the Deltaldh strain. The shift toward mixed acid fermentation was correlated with the lower intracellular trioses phosphate concentration and diminished allosteric inhibition of pyruvate formate lyase. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  15. Biochemical Characterization of Putative Adenylate Dimethylallyltransferase and Cytokinin Dehydrogenase from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120

    PubMed Central

    Frébortová, Jitka; Greplová, Marta; Seidl, Michael F.; Heyl, Alexander; Frébort, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, are adenine derivatives common to many different organisms. In plants, these play a crucial role as regulators of plant development and the reaction to abiotic and biotic stress. Key enzymes in the cytokinin synthesis and degradation in modern land plants are the isopentyl transferases and the cytokinin dehydrogenases, respectively. Their encoding genes have been probably introduced into the plant lineage during the primary endosymbiosis. To shed light on the evolution of these proteins, the genes homologous to plant adenylate isopentenyl transferase and cytokinin dehydrogenase were amplified from the genomic DNA of cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The putative isopentenyl transferase was shown to be functional in a biochemical assay. In contrast, no enzymatic activity was detected for the putative cytokinin dehydrogenase, even though the principal domains necessary for its function are present. Several mutant variants, in which conserved amino acids in land plant cytokinin dehydrogenases had been restored, were inactive. A combination of experimental data with phylogenetic analysis indicates that adenylate-type isopentenyl transferases might have evolved several times independently. While the Nostoc genome contains a gene coding for protein with characteristics of cytokinin dehydrogenase, the organism is not able to break down cytokinins in the way shown for land plants. PMID:26376297

  16. Ethylbenzene Dehydrogenase and Related Molybdenum Enzymes Involved in Oxygen-Independent Alkyl Chain Hydroxylation.

    PubMed

    Heider, Johann; Szaleniec, Maciej; Sünwoldt, Katharina; Boll, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Ethylbenzene dehydrogenase initiates the anaerobic bacterial degradation of ethylbenzene and propylbenzene. Although the enzyme is currently only known from a few closely related denitrifying bacterial strains affiliated to the Rhodocyclaceae, it clearly marks a universally occurring mechanism used for attacking recalcitrant substrates in the absence of oxygen. Ethylbenzene dehydrogenase belongs to subfamily 2 of the DMSO reductase-type molybdenum enzymes together with paralogous enzymes involved in the oxygen-independent hydroxylation of p-cymene, the isoprenoid side chains of sterols and even possibly n-alkanes; the subfamily also extends to dimethylsulfide dehydrogenases, selenite, chlorate and perchlorate reductases and, most significantly, dissimilatory nitrate reductases. The biochemical, spectroscopic and structural properties of the oxygen-independent hydroxylases among these enzymes are summarized and compared. All of them consist of three subunits, contain a molybdenum-bis-molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide cofactor, five Fe-S clusters and a heme b cofactor of unusual ligation, and are localized in the periplasmic space as soluble enzymes. In the case of ethylbenzene dehydrogenase, it has been determined that the heme b cofactor has a rather high redox potential, which may also be inferred for the paralogous hydroxylases. The known structure of ethylbenzene dehydrogenase allowed the calculation of detailed models of the reaction mechanism based on the density function theory as well as QM-MM (quantum mechanics - molecular mechanics) methods, which yield predictions of mechanistic properties such as kinetic isotope effects that appeared consistent with experimental data. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Biochemical Characterization of Putative Adenylate Dimethylallyltransferase and Cytokinin Dehydrogenase from Nostoc sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Frébortová, Jitka; Greplová, Marta; Seidl, Michael F; Heyl, Alexander; Frébort, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinins, a class of phytohormones, are adenine derivatives common to many different organisms. In plants, these play a crucial role as regulators of plant development and the reaction to abiotic and biotic stress. Key enzymes in the cytokinin synthesis and degradation in modern land plants are the isopentyl transferases and the cytokinin dehydrogenases, respectively. Their encoding genes have been probably introduced into the plant lineage during the primary endosymbiosis. To shed light on the evolution of these proteins, the genes homologous to plant adenylate isopentenyl transferase and cytokinin dehydrogenase were amplified from the genomic DNA of cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 and expressed in Escherichia coli. The putative isopentenyl transferase was shown to be functional in a biochemical assay. In contrast, no enzymatic activity was detected for the putative cytokinin dehydrogenase, even though the principal domains necessary for its function are present. Several mutant variants, in which conserved amino acids in land plant cytokinin dehydrogenases had been restored, were inactive. A combination of experimental data with phylogenetic analysis indicates that adenylate-type isopentenyl transferases might have evolved several times independently. While the Nostoc genome contains a gene coding for protein with characteristics of cytokinin dehydrogenase, the organism is not able to break down cytokinins in the way shown for land plants.

  18. Markerless Mutagenesis in Methanococcus maripaludis Demonstrates Roles for Alanine Dehydrogenase, Alanine Racemase, and Alanine Permease

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C.; Leigh, John A.

    2005-01-01

    Among the archaea, Methanococcus maripaludis has the unusual ability to use l- or d-alanine as a nitrogen source. To understand how this occurs, we tested the roles of three adjacent genes encoding homologs of alanine dehydrogenase, alanine racemase, and alanine permease. To produce mutations in these genes, we devised a method for markerless mutagenesis that builds on previously established genetic tools for M. maripaludis. The technique uses a negative selection strategy that takes advantage of the ability of the M. maripaludis hpt gene encoding hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase to confer sensitivity to the base analog 8-azahypoxanthine. In addition, we developed a negative selection method to stably incorporate constructs into the genome at the site of the upt gene encoding uracil phosphoribosyltransferase. Mutants with in-frame deletion mutations in the genes for alanine dehydrogenase and alanine permease lost the ability to grow on either isomer of alanine, while a mutant with an in-frame deletion mutation in the gene for alanine racemase lost only the ability to grow on d-alanine. The wild-type gene for alanine dehydrogenase, incorporated into the upt site, complemented the alanine dehydrogenase mutation. Hence, the permease is required for the transport of either isomer, the dehydrogenase is specific for the l isomer, and the racemase converts the d isomer to the l isomer. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all three genes had been acquired by lateral gene transfer from the low-moles-percent G+C gram-positive bacteria. PMID:15659675

  19. Calculations of hydrogen tunnelling and enzyme catalysis: a comparison of liver alcohol dehydrogenase, methylamine dehydrogenase and soybean lipoxygenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tresadern, Gary; McNamara, Jonathan P.; Mohr, Matthias; Wang, Hong; Burton, Neil A.; Hillier, Ian H.

    2002-06-01

    Although the potential energy barrier for hydrogen transfer is similar for the enzymes liver alcohol dehydrogenase, methylamine dehydrogenase and soybean lipoxygenase, the degree of tunnelling is predicted to differ greatly, and is reflected by their primary kinetic isotope effects.

  20. [Dihydropirymidine dehydrogenase (DPD)--a toxicity marker for 5-fluorouracil?].

    PubMed

    Jedrzychowska, Adriana; Dołegowska, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In proceedings relating to patients suffering from cancer, an important step is predicting response and toxicity to treatment. Depending on the type of cancer, physicians use the generally accepted schema of treatment, for example pharmacotherapy. 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is the most widely used anticancer drug in chemotherapy for colon, breast, and head and neck cancer. Patients with dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) deficiency, which is responsible for the metabolism of 5-FU, may experience severe side effects during treatment, and even death. In many publications the need for determining the activity of DPD is discussed, which would protect the patient from the numerous side effects of treatment. However, in practice these assays are not done routinely, despite the high demand. In most cases, a genetic test is used to detect changes in the gene encoding DPD (such as in the USA), but because of the large number of mutations the genetic test cannot be used as a screening test. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity has been shown to have high variability among the general population, with an estimated proportion of at least 3-5% of individuals showing low or deficient DPD activity. In this publication we presents data about average dihydropirymidine dehydrogenase activity in various populations of the world (e.g. Japan, Ghana, Great Britain) including gender differences and collected information about the possibility of determination of DPD activity in different countries. Detection of reduced DPD activity in patients with planned chemotherapy will allow a lower dosage of 5-FU or alternative treatment without exposing them to adverse reactions.

  1. [Thermal stability of lactate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase incorporated into highly concentrated gels].

    PubMed

    Kulis, Iu Iu

    1979-03-01

    The rate constants for inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase in solution at 65 degrees C (pH 7,5) are 0,72 and 0,013 min-1, respectively. The enzyme incorporation into acrylamide gels results in immobilized enzymes, whose residual activity is 18--25% of the original one. In 6,7% gels the rate of thermal inactivation for lactate dehydrogenase is decreased nearly 10-fold, whereas the inactivation rate for alcohol dehydrogenase is increased 4,6-fold as compared to the soluble enzymes. In 14% and 40% gels the inactivation constants for lactate dehydrogenase are 6,3.10(-3) and 5,9.10(-4) min-1, respectively. In 60% gels the thermal inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase is decelerated 3600-fold as compared to the native enzyme. The enthalpy and enthropy for the inactivation of the native enzyme are equal to 62,8 kcal/mole and 116,9 cal/(mole.grad.) for the native enzyme and those of gel-incorporated (6,7%) enzyme -- 38,7 kcal/mole and 42 cal/(mole.grad.), respectively. The thermal stability of alcohol dehydrogenase in 60% gels is increased 12-fold. To prevent gel swelling, methacrylic acid and allylamine were added to the matrix, with subsequent treatment by dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. The enzyme activity of the modified gels is 2,7--3% of that for the 6,7% gels. The stability of lactate dehydrogenase in such gels is significantly increased. A mechanism of stabilization of the subunit enzymes in highly concentrated gels is discussed.

  2. Properties of formate dehydrogenase in Methanobacterium formicicum

    SciTech Connect

    Schauer, N.L.; Ferry, J.G.

    1982-04-01

    Soluble formate dehydrogenase from Methanobacterium formicicum was purified 71-fold with a yield of 35%. Purification was performed anaerobically in the presence of 10 mM sodium azide which stabilized the enzyme. The purified enzyme reduced, with formate, 50..mu..mol of methyl viologen per min per mg of protein and 8.2 ..mu..mol of coenzyme F/sub 420/ per min per mg of protein. The apparent K/sub m/ for 7,8-didemethyl-8-hydroxy-5-deazariboflavin, a hydrolytic derivative of coenzyme F/sub 420/, was 10-fold greater (63 ..mu..M) than for coenzyme F/sub 420/ (6 ..mu..M). The purified enzyme also reduced flavin mononucleotide (K/sub m/ = 13 ..mu..M) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (K/sub m/ = 25 ..mu..M) with formate, but did not reduce NAD/sup +/ or NADP/sup +/. The reduction of NADP/sup +/ with formate required formate dehydrogenase, coenzyme F/sub 420/, and coenzyme F/sub 420/:NADP/sup +/ oxidoreductase. The formate dehydrogenase had an optimal pH of 7.9 when assayed with the physiological electron acceptor coenzyme F/sub 420/. The optimal reaction rate occurred at 55/sup 0/C. The molecular weight was 288,000 as determined by gel filtration. The purified formate dehydrogenase was strongly inhibited by cyanide (K/sub i/ = 6 ..mu..M), azide (K/sub i/ = 39 ..mu..M),..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..-dipyridyl, and 1,10-phenanthroline. Denaturation of the purified formate dehydrogenase with sodium dodecyl sulfate under aerobic conditions revealed a fluorescent compound. Maximal excitation occurred at 385 nm, with minor peaks at 277 and 302 nm. Maximal fluorescence emission occurred at 455 nm.

  3. Characterization of xylitol dehydrogenase from Debaryomyces hansenii

    SciTech Connect

    Girio, F.M.; Amaral-Collaco, M.T.; Pelica, F.

    1996-01-01

    The xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.9) from xylose-grown cells of Debaryomyces hansenii was partially purified in two chromatographic steps, and characterization studies were carried out in order to investigate the role of the xylitol dehydrogenase-catalyzed step in the regulation of D-xylose metabolism. The enzyme was most active at pH 9.0-9.5, and exhibited a broad polyol specificity. The Michaelis constants for xylitol and NAD{sup +} were 16.5 and 0.55 mM, respectively. Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, and Mn{sup 2+} did not affect the enzyme activity. Conversely, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} strongly inhibited the enzyme activity. It was concluded that NAD{sup +}-xylitol dehydrogenase from D. hansenii has similarities with other xylose-fermenting yeasts in respect to optimal pH, substrate specificity, and K{sub m} value for xylitol, and therefore should be named L-iditol:NAD{sup +}-5-oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.1.14). The reason D. hansenii is a good xylitol producer is not because of its value of K for xylitol, which is low enough to assure its fast oxidation by NAD{sup +}-xylitol dehydrogenase. However, a higher K{sub m} value of xylitol dehydrogenase for NAD{sup +} compared to the K{sub m} values of other xylose-fermenting yeasts may be responsible for the higher xylitol yields. 22 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Role of NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in nitrogen metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, S M; Magasanik, B

    1990-01-01

    We cloned GDH2, the gene that encodes the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, by purifying the enzyme, making polyclonal antibodies to it, and using the antibodies to screen a lambda gt11 yeast genomic library. A yeast strain with a deletion-disruption allele of GDH2 which replaced the wild-type gene grew very poorly with glutamate as a nitrogen source, but growth improved significantly when the strain was also provided with adenine or other nitrogenous compounds whose biosynthesis requires glutamine. Our results indicate that the NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase catalyzes the major, but not sole, pathway for generation of ammonia from glutamate. We also isolated yeast mutants that lacked glutamate synthase activity and present evidence which shows that normally NAD-linked glutamate dehydrogenase is not involved in glutamate biosynthesis, but that if the enzyme is overexpressed, it may function reversibly in intact cells. PMID:1975578

  5. Increasing Anaerobic Acetate Consumption and Ethanol Yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-Specific Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Henningsen, Brooks M.; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F.; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D. Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F.; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C.

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter−1 acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter−1 glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter−1, this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter−1 and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. PMID:26386051

  6. Increasing anaerobic acetate consumption and ethanol yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Henningsen, Brooks M; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C; Zelle, Rintze M

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level.

  7. Proline dehydrogenase 2 (PRODH2) is a hydroxyproline dehydrogenase (HYPDH) and molecular target for treating primary hyperoxaluria

    PubMed Central

    Summitt, Candice B.; Johnson, Lynnette C.; Jönsson, Thomas J.; Parsonage, Derek; Holmes, Ross P.; Lowther, W. Todd

    2015-01-01

    The primary hyperoxalurias (PH), types 1–3, are disorders of glyoxylate metabolism that result in increased oxalate production and calcium oxalate stone formation. The breakdown of trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (Hyp) from endogenous and dietary sources of collagen makes a significant contribution to the cellular glyoxylate pool. Proline dehydrogenase 2 (PRODH2), historically known as hydroxyproline oxidase, is the first step in the hydroxyproline catabolic pathway and represents a drug target to reduce the glyoxylate and oxalate burden of PH patients. This study is the first report of the expression, purification, and biochemical characterization of human PRODH2. Evaluation of a panel of N-terminal and C-terminal truncation variants indicated that residues 157–515 contain the catalytic core with one FAD molecule. The 12-fold higher kcat/Km value of 0.93 M−1·s−1 for Hyp over Pro demonstrates the preference for Hyp as substrate. Moreover, an anaerobic titration determined a Kd value of 125 μM for Hyp, a value ~1600-fold lower than the Km value. A survey of ubiquinone analogues revealed that menadione, duroquinone, and CoQ1 reacted more efficiently than oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor during catalysis. Taken together, these data and the slow reactivity with sodium sulfite support that PRODH2 functions as a dehydrogenase and most likely utilizes CoQ10 as the terminal electron acceptor in vivo. Thus, we propose that the name of PRODH2 be changed to hydroxyproline dehydrogenase (HYPDH). Three Hyp analogues were also identified to inhibit the activity of HYPDH, representing the first steps toward the development of a novel approach to treat all forms of PH. PMID:25697095

  8. Class 2 aldehyde dehydrogenase. Characterization of the hamster enzyme, sensitive to daidzin and conserved within the family of multiple forms.

    PubMed

    Hjelmqvist, L; Lundgren, R; Norin, A; Jörnvall, H; Vallee, B; Klyosov, A; Keung, W M

    1997-10-13

    Mitochondrial (class 2) hamster aldehyde dehydrogenase has been purified and characterized. Its primary structure has been determined and correlated with the tertiary structure recently established for this class from another species. The protein is found to represent a constant class within a complex family of multiple forms. Variable segments that occur in different species correlate with non-functional segments, in the same manner as in the case of the constant class of alcohol dehydrogenases (class III type) of another protein family, but distinct from the pattern of the corresponding variable enzymes. Hence, in both these protein families, overall variability and segment architectures behave similarly, with at least one 'constant' form in each case, class III in the case of alcohol dehydrogenases, and at least class 2 in the case of aldehyde dehydrogenases.

  9. Structural organization of the human sorbitol dehydrogenase gene (SORD)

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, T.; Carper, D.; Popescu, N.C.

    1995-03-01

    The primary structure of human sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD) was determined by cDNA and genomic cloning. The nucleotide sequence of the mRNA covers 2471 bp including an open reading frame that yields a protein of 356 amino acid residues. The gene structure of SORD spans approximatley 30 kb divided into 9 exons and 8 introns. The gene was localized to chromosome 15q21.1 by in situ hybridization. Two transcription initiation sites were detected. Three Sp1 sites and a repetitive sequence (CAAA){sub 5} were observed in the 5{prime} noncoding region; no classical TATAA or CCAAT elements were found. The related alcohol dehydrogenases and {zeta}-crystallin have the same gene organization split by 8 introns, but no splice points coincide between SORD and these gene types. The deduced amino acid sequence of the SORD structure differs at a few positions from the directly determined protein sequence, suggesting allelic forms of the enzyme. High levels of SORD transcripts were observed in lens and kidney, as judged from Northern blot analysis. 42 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. The 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase reaction in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    de Silva, A O; Fraenkel, D G

    1979-10-25

    This study is an attempt to relate in vivo use of the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase reaction in Escherichia coli with the characteristics of the enzyme determined in vitro. 1) The enzyme was obtained pure by affinity chromatography and kinetically characterized; as already known, ATP and fructose-1,6-P2 were inhibitors. 2) A series of isogenic strains were made in which in vivo use of thereaction might differ, e.g. a wild type strain versus a mutant lacking 6-phosphogluconate dehydrase, as grown on gluconate; a phosphoglucose isomerase mutant grown on glucose or glycerol. 3) The in vivo rate of use of the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase reaction was determined from measurements of growth rate and yield and from the specific activity of alanine after growth in 1-14C-labeled substrates. 4) The intracellular concentrations of 6-phosphogluconate, NADP+, fructose-1,6-P2, and ATP were measured for the strains in growth on several carbon sources. 5) The metabolite concentrations were used for assay of the enzyme in vitro. The results allow one to calculate how fast the reaction would function in vivo if ATP and fructose-1,6-P2 were its important effectors and if the in vitro assay conditions apply in vivo. The predicted in vivo rates ranged down to as low as one-tenth of the actual rates, and, accordingly, one cannot yet draw firm conclusions about how the reaction is actually controlled in vivo.

  11. Phytoestrogens as inhibitors of fungal 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kristan, Katja; Krajnc, Katja; Konc, Janez; Gobec, Stanislav; Stojan, Jure; Rizner, Tea Lanisnik

    2005-09-01

    Different phytoestrogens were tested as inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (17beta-HSDcl), a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. Phytoestrogens inhibited the oxidation of 100 microM 17beta-hydroxyestra-4-en-3-one and the reduction of 100 microM estra-4-en-3,17-dione, the best substrate pair known. The best inhibitors of oxidation, with IC(50) below 1 microM, were flavones hydroxylated at positions 3, 5 and 7: 3-hydroxyflavone, 3,7-dihydroxyflavone, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (chrysin) and 5-hydroxyflavone, together with 5-methoxyflavone. The best inhibitors of reduction were less potent; 3-hydroxyflavone, 5-methoxyflavone, coumestrol, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (kaempferol) and 5-hydroxyflavone all had IC(50) values between 1 and 5 microM. Docking the representative inhibitors chrysin and kaempferol into the active site of 17beta-HSDcl revealed the possible binding mode, in which they are sandwiched between the nicotinamide moiety and Tyr212. The structural features of phytoestrogens, inhibitors of both oxidation and reduction catalyzed by the fungal 17beta-HSD, are similar to the reported structural features of phytoestrogen inhibitors of human 17beta-HSD types 1 and 2.

  12. Phytoestrogens as inhibitors of fungal 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kristan, Katja; Krajnc, Katja; Konc, Janez; Gobec, Stanislav; Stojan, Jure; Lanisnik Rizner, Tea

    2005-08-01

    Different phytoestrogens were tested as inhibitors of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (17beta-HSDcl), a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily. Phytoestrogens inhibited the oxidation of 100microM 17beta-hydroxyestra-4-en-3-one and the reduction of 100microM estra-4-en-3,17-dione, the best substrate pair known. The best inhibitors of oxidation, with IC(50) below 1microM, were flavones hydroxylated at positions 3, 5 and 7: 3-hydroxyflavone, 3,7-dihydroxyflavone, 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (chrysin) and 5-hydroxyflavone, together with 5-methoxyflavone. The best inhibitors of reduction were less potent; 3-hydroxyflavone, 5-methoxyflavone, coumestrol, 3,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavone (kaempferol) and 5-hydroxyflavone, all had IC(50) values between 1 and 5microM. Docking the representative inhibitors chrysin and kaempferol into the active site of 17beta-HSDcl revealed the possible binding mode, in which they are sandwiched between the nicotinamide moiety and Tyr212. The structural features of phytoestrogens, inhibitors of both oxidation and reduction catalyzed by the fungal 17beta-HSD, are similar to the reported structural features of phytoestrogen inhibitors of human 17beta-HSD types 1 and 2.

  13. Phenylbutyrate Therapy for Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency and Lactic Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferriero, Rosa; Manco, Giuseppe; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nusco, Edoardo; Ferrante, Mariella I.; Sordino, Paolo; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Lee, Brendan; Zeviani, Massimo; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is a build-up of lactic acid in the blood and tissues, which can be due to several inborn errors of metabolism as well as nongenetic conditions. Deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is the most common genetic disorder leading to lactic acidosis. Phosphorylation of specific serine residues of the E1α subunit of PDHC by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inactivates the enzyme, whereas dephosphorylation restores PDHC activity. We found that phenylbutyrate enhances PDHC enzymatic activity in vitro and in vivo by increasing the proportion of unphosphorylated enzyme through inhibition of PDK. Phenylbutyrate given to C57B6/L wild-type mice results in a significant increase in PDHC enzyme activity and a reduction of phosphorylated E1α in brain, muscle, and liver compared to saline-treated mice. By means of recombinant enzymes, we showed that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α through binding and inhibition of PDK, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate on PDHC activity. Phenylbutyrate increases PDHC activity in fibroblasts from PDHC-deficient patients harboring various molecular defects and corrects the morphological, locomotor, and biochemical abnormalities in the noam631 zebrafish model of PDHC deficiency. In mice, phenylbutyrate prevents systemic lactic acidosis induced by partial hepatectomy. Because phenylbutyrate is already approved for human use in other diseases, the findings of this study have the potential to be rapidly translated for treatment of patients with PDHC deficiency and other forms of primary and secondary lactic acidosis. PMID:23467562

  14. Differing roles of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases during mouse oocyte maturation

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xiaojing; Zhang, Liang; Han, Longsen; Ge, Juan; Ma, Rujun; Zhang, Xuesen; Moley, Kelle; Schedl, Tim; Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs) modulate energy homeostasis in multiple tissues and cell types, under various nutrient conditions, through phosphorylation of the α subunit (PDHE1α, also known as PDHA1) of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex. However, the roles of PDKs in meiotic maturation are currently unknown. Here, by undertaking knockdown and overexpression analysis of PDK paralogs (PDK1–PDK4) in mouse oocytes, we established the site-specificity of PDKs towards the phosphorylation of three serine residues (Ser232, Ser293 and Ser300) on PDHE1α. We found that PDK3-mediated phosphorylation of Ser293-PDHE1α results in disruption of meiotic spindle morphology and chromosome alignment and decreased total ATP levels, probably through inhibition of PDH activity. Unexpectedly, we discovered that PDK1 and PDK2 promote meiotic maturation, as their knockdown disturbs the assembly of the meiotic apparatus, without significantly altering ATP content. Moreover, phosphorylation of Ser232-PDHE1α was demonstrated to mediate PDK1 and PDK2 action in meiotic maturation, possibly through a mechanism that is distinct from PDH inactivation. These findings reveal that there are divergent roles of PDKs during oocyte maturation and indicate a new mechanism controlling meiotic structure. PMID:25991547

  15. Purification of arogenate dehydrogenase from Phenylobacterium immobile.

    PubMed

    Mayer, E; Waldner-Sander, S; Keller, B; Keller, E; Lingens, F

    1985-01-07

    Phenylobacterium immobile, a bacterium which is able to degrade the herbicide chloridazon, utilizes for L-tyrosine synthesis arogenate as an obligatory intermediate which is converted in the final biosynthetic step by a dehydrogenase to tyrosine. This enzyme, the arogenate dehydrogenase, has been purified for the first time in a 5-step procedure to homogeneity as confirmed by electrophoresis. The Mr of the enzyme that consists of two identical subunits amounts to 69000 as established by gel electrophoresis after cross-linking the enzyme with dimethylsuberimidate. The Km values were 0.09 mM for arogenate and 0.02 mM for NAD+. The enzyme has a high specificity with respect to its substrate arogenate.

  16. Peafowl lactate dehydrogenase: problem of isoenzyme identification.

    PubMed

    Rose, R G; Wilson, A C

    1966-09-16

    Peafowl, like other vertebrates, contain multiple forms of lactate dehydrogenase. The electrophoretic properties of the peafowl isoenzymes are unusual in that the isoenzyme from heart tissue can be either more or less anodic than that of muscle, depending on the pH. This finding focuses attention on the problem of isoenzyme identification. It is suggested that isoenzymes be identified on the basis of properties that are chemically and biologically more significant than electrophoretic mobility.

  17. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Smithgall, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate carcinogens derived from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 5-methylchrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Since microsomal activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is highly stereospecific, the stereochemical course of enzymatic trans-dihydrodiol oxidation was monitored using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. The major product formed from the dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of the trans-1,2-dihydrodiol of naphthalene was characterized using UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, and appears to be 4-hydroxy-1,2-naphthoquinone. Mass spectral analysis suggests that an analogous hydroxylated o-quinone is formed as the major product of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols was shown to be potently inhibited by all of the major classes of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Enhancement of trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogen oxidation may protect against possible adverse effects of the aspirin-like drugs, and help maintain the balance between activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  18. Relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase extended family.

    PubMed Central

    Perozich, J.; Nicholas, H.; Wang, B. C.; Lindahl, R.; Hempel, J.

    1999-01-01

    One hundred-forty-five full-length aldehyde dehydrogenase-related sequences were aligned to determine relationships within the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) extended family. The alignment reveals only four invariant residues: two glycines, a phenylalanine involved in NAD binding, and a glutamic acid that coordinates the nicotinamide ribose in certain E-NAD binary complex crystal structures, but which may also serve as a general base for the catalytic reaction. The cysteine that provides the catalytic thiol and its closest neighbor in space, an asparagine residue, are conserved in all ALDHs with demonstrated dehydrogenase activity. Sixteen residues are conserved in at least 95% of the sequences; 12 of these cluster into seven sequence motifs conserved in almost all ALDHs. These motifs cluster around the active site of the enzyme. Phylogenetic analysis of these ALDHs indicates at least 13 ALDH families, most of which have previously been identified but not grouped separately by alignment. ALDHs cluster into two main trunks of the phylogenetic tree. The largest, the "Class 3" trunk, contains mostly substrate-specific ALDH families, as well as the class 3 ALDH family itself. The other trunk, the "Class 1/2" trunk, contains mostly variable substrate ALDH families, including the class 1 and 2 ALDH families. Divergence of the substrate-specific ALDHs occurred earlier than the division between ALDHs with broad substrate specificities. A site on the World Wide Web has also been devoted to this alignment project. PMID:10210192

  19. Xanthine dehydrogenase and 2-furoyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida Fu1: two molybdenum-containing dehydrogenases of novel structural composition.

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, K; Andreesen, J R

    1990-01-01

    The constitutive xanthine dehydrogenase and the inducible 2-furoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase could be labeled with [185W]tungstate. This labeling was used as a reporter to purify both labile proteins. The radioactivity cochromatographed predominantly with the residual enzymatic activity of both enzymes during the first purification steps. Both radioactive proteins were separated and purified to homogeneity. Antibodies raised against the larger protein also exhibited cross-reactivity toward the second smaller protein and removed xanthine dehydrogenase and 2-furoyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity up to 80 and 60% from the supernatant of cell extracts, respectively. With use of cell extract, Western immunoblots showed only two bands which correlated exactly with the activity stains for both enzymes after native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Molybdate was absolutely required for incorporation of 185W, formation of cross-reacting material, and enzymatic activity. The latter parameters showed a perfect correlation. This evidence proves that the radioactive proteins were actually xanthine dehydrogenase and 2-furoyl-CoA dehydrogenase. The apparent molecular weight of the native xanthine dehydrogenase was about 300,000, and that of 2-furoyl-CoA dehydrogenase was 150,000. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of both enzymes revealed two protein bands corresponding to molecular weights of 55,000 and 25,000. The xanthine dehydrogenase contained at least 1.6 mol of molybdenum, 0.9 ml of cytochrome b, 5.8 mol of iron, and 2.4 mol of labile sulfur per mol of enzyme. The composition of the 2-furoyl-CoA dehydrogenase seemed to be similar, although the stoichiometry was not determined. The oxidation of furfuryl alcohol to furfural and further to 2-furoic acid by Pseudomonas putida Fu1 was catalyzed by two different dehydrogenases. Images PMID:2170335

  20. Purification and in vitro complementation of mutant histidinol dehydrogenases. [Salmonella typhimurium

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Grubmeyer, C.T.

    1987-09-01

    The biochemistry of interallelic complementation within the Salmonella typhimurium hisD gene was investigated by in vitro protein complementation of mutant histidinol dehydrogenases (EC 1.1.1.23). Double-mutant strains were constructed containing the his01242 (constitutive overproducer) attenuator mutations and selected hisDa or hisDb mutations. Extracts from such hisDa986 and hisDb1799 mutant cells failed to show histidinol dehydrogenase activity but complemented to produce active enzyme. Inactive mutant histidinol dehydrogenases were purified from each of the two mutants by ion-exchange chromatography. Complementation by the purified mutant proteins required the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol and MnCl/sub 2/, and protein-protein titrations indicated that heterodimers were strongly preferred in mixtures of the complementary mutant enzymes. Both purified mutant proteins failed to catalyze NAD-NADH exchange reactions reflective of the first catalytic step of the two-step reaction. The inactive enzymes bound /sup 54/Mn/sup 2 +/ weakly or not at all in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, in contrast to wild-type enzyme which bound /sup 54/Mn/sup 2 +/ to 0.6 sites per monomer under the same conditions. The mutant proteins, like wild-type histidinol dehydrogenase, behaved as dimers on analytical gel filtration chromatography, but dissociated to form monomers in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. This effect of 20-mercaptoethanol was prevented by low levels of MnCl/sub 2/.

  1. Molecular Determinants of the Cofactor Specificity of Ribitol Dehydrogenase, a Short-Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Hee-Jung; Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Singh, Ranjitha

    2012-01-01

    Ribitol dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis (ZmRDH) catalyzes the conversion of ribitol to d-ribulose and concomitantly reduces NAD(P)+ to NAD(P)H. A systematic approach involving an initial sequence alignment-based residue screening, followed by a homology model-based screening and site-directed mutagenesis of the screened residues, was used to study the molecular determinants of the cofactor specificity of ZmRDH. A homologous conserved amino acid, Ser156, in the substrate-binding pocket of the wild-type ZmRDH was identified as an important residue affecting the cofactor specificity of ZmRDH. Further insights into the function of the Ser156 residue were obtained by substituting it with other hydrophobic nonpolar or polar amino acids. Substituting Ser156 with the negatively charged amino acids (Asp and Glu) altered the cofactor specificity of ZmRDH toward NAD+ (S156D, [kcat/Km,NAD]/[kcat/Km,NADP] = 10.9, where Km,NAD is the Km for NAD+ and Km,NADP is the Km for NADP+). In contrast, the mutants containing positively charged amino acids (His, Lys, or Arg) at position 156 showed a higher efficiency with NADP+ as the cofactor (S156H, [kcat/Km,NAD]/[kcat/Km,NADP] = 0.11). These data, in addition to those of molecular dynamics and isothermal titration calorimetry studies, suggest that the cofactor specificity of ZmRDH can be modulated by manipulating the amino acid residue at position 156. PMID:22344653

  2. Molecular determinants of the cofactor specificity of ribitol dehydrogenase, a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hee-Jung; Tiwari, Manish Kumar; Singh, Ranjitha; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2012-05-01

    Ribitol dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis (ZmRDH) catalyzes the conversion of ribitol to d-ribulose and concomitantly reduces NAD(P)(+) to NAD(P)H. A systematic approach involving an initial sequence alignment-based residue screening, followed by a homology model-based screening and site-directed mutagenesis of the screened residues, was used to study the molecular determinants of the cofactor specificity of ZmRDH. A homologous conserved amino acid, Ser156, in the substrate-binding pocket of the wild-type ZmRDH was identified as an important residue affecting the cofactor specificity of ZmRDH. Further insights into the function of the Ser156 residue were obtained by substituting it with other hydrophobic nonpolar or polar amino acids. Substituting Ser156 with the negatively charged amino acids (Asp and Glu) altered the cofactor specificity of ZmRDH toward NAD(+) (S156D, [k(cat)/K(m)(,NAD)]/[k(cat)/K(m)(,NADP)] = 10.9, where K(m)(,NAD) is the K(m) for NAD(+) and K(m)(,NADP) is the K(m) for NADP(+)). In contrast, the mutants containing positively charged amino acids (His, Lys, or Arg) at position 156 showed a higher efficiency with NADP(+) as the cofactor (S156H, [k(cat)/K(m)(,NAD)]/[k(cat)/K(m)(,NADP)] = 0.11). These data, in addition to those of molecular dynamics and isothermal titration calorimetry studies, suggest that the cofactor specificity of ZmRDH can be modulated by manipulating the amino acid residue at position 156.

  3. Improved Production of Propionic Acid in Propionibacterium jensenii via Combinational Overexpression of Glycerol Dehydrogenase and Malate Dehydrogenase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Zhuge, Xin; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua

    2015-01-01

    Microbial production of propionic acid (PA), an important chemical building block used as a preservative and chemical intermediate, has gained increasing attention for its environmental friendliness over traditional petrochemical processes. In previous studies, we constructed a shuttle vector as a useful tool for engineering Propionibacterium jensenii, a potential candidate for efficient PA synthesis. In this study, we identified the key metabolites for PA synthesis in P. jensenii by examining the influence of metabolic intermediate addition on PA synthesis with glycerol as a carbon source under anaerobic conditions. We also further improved PA production via the overexpression of the identified corresponding enzymes, namely, glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and fumarate hydratase (FUM). Compared to those in wild-type P. jensenii, the activities of these enzymes in the engineered strains were 2.91- ± 0.17- to 8.12- ± 0.37-fold higher. The transcription levels of the corresponding enzymes in the engineered strains were 2.85- ± 0.19- to 8.07- ± 0.63-fold higher than those in the wild type. The coexpression of GDH and MDH increased the PA titer from 26.95 ± 1.21 g/liter in wild-type P. jensenii to 39.43 ± 1.90 g/liter in the engineered strains. This study identified the key metabolic nodes limiting PA overproduction in P. jensenii and further improved PA titers via the coexpression of GDH and MDH, making the engineered P. jensenii strain a potential industrial producer of PA. PMID:25595755

  4. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hormones, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Markey, Keira A; Uldall, Maria; Botfield, Hannah; Cato, Liam D; Miah, Mohammed A L; Hassan-Smith, Ghaniah; Jensen, Rigmor H; Gonzalez, Ana M; Sinclair, Alexandra J

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) results in raised intracranial pressure (ICP) leading to papilledema, visual dysfunction, and headaches. Obese females of reproductive age are predominantly affected, but the underlying pathological mechanisms behind IIH remain unknown. This review provides an overview of pathogenic factors that could result in IIH with particular focus on hormones and the impact of obesity, including its role in neuroendocrine signaling and driving inflammation. Despite occurring almost exclusively in obese women, there have been a few studies evaluating the mechanisms by which hormones and adipokines exert their effects on ICP regulation in IIH. Research involving 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, a modulator of glucocorticoids, suggests a potential role in IIH. Improved understanding of the complex interplay between adipose signaling factors such as adipokines, steroid hormones, and ICP regulation may be key to the understanding and future management of IIH. PMID:27186074

  5. Dehydrogenase and Oxoreductase Activities of Porcine Placental 11Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    activity (p < .001). There were positive linear associations (p < . 01) between net dehydrogenase activity (dehydrogenase minus oxoreductase) and...Fragments ( ~ 3 grams ) of placentae from 7-8 fetuses from each of three gilts were removed and placed in ice cold sterile Eagle’s Minimum Essential...Females (n) Males Fetal weight ( grams ) 12 272.7 ± 20.7b 10 302.5 ± 12.8b Fetal length (mm) 12 185.9 ± 5.4 b 10 196.4± 4.8b Placental weight ( grams

  6. Inhibitory effect of disulfiram (Antabuse) on alcohol dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Carper, W R; Dorey, R C; Beber, J H

    1987-10-01

    We investigated the effect of disulfiram (Antabuse) on the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1) in vitro. We observed a time-dependent inhibition of this dehydrogenase by disulfiram and diethyldithiocarbamate similar to that obtained for aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3). These results suggest a possible explanation for various side effects observed in the clinical use of Antabuse.

  7. Inhibition of membrane-bound succinate dehydrogenase by disulfiram.

    PubMed

    Jay, D

    1991-04-01

    The effect of disulfiram on succinate oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase activities of beef heart submitochondrial particles was studied. Results show that disulfiram inhibits both functions. Succinate and malonate suppress the inhibitory action of disulfiram when succinate dehydrogenase is stabilized in an active conformation. Disulfiram is not able to inhibit the enzyme when succinate dehydrogenase is inactivated by oxaloacetate. The inhibitory effect of disulfiram is reverted by the addition of dithiothreitol. From these results, it is proposed that disulfiram inhibits the utilization of succinate by a direct modification of an -SH group located in the catalytically active site of succinate dehydrogenase.

  8. A lipoamide dehydrogenase from Neisseria meningitidis has a lipoyl domain.

    PubMed

    Bringas, R; Fernandez, J

    1995-04-01

    A protein of molecular weight of 64 kDa (p64k) found in the outer membrane of Neisseria meningitidis shows a high degree of homology with both the lipoyl domain of the acetyltransferase and the entire sequence of the lipoamide dehydrogenase, the E2 and E3 components of the dehydrogenase multienzyme complexes, respectively. The alignment of the p64k with lipoyl domains and lipoamide dehydrogenases from different species is presented. The possible implications of this protein in binding protein-dependent transport are discussed. This is the first lipoamide dehydrogenase reported to have a lipoyl domain.

  9. Placental glucose dehydrogenase polymorphism in Koreans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y J; Paik, S G; Park, H Y

    1994-12-01

    The genetic polymorphism of placental glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was investigated in 300 Korean placentae using horizontal starch gel electrophoresis. The allele frequencies for GDH1, GDH2 and GDH3 were 0.537, 0.440 and 0.005, respectively, which were similar to those in Japanese. We also observed an anodal allele which was similar to the GDH4 originally reported in Chinese populations at a low frequency of 0.015. An additional new cathodal allele (named GDH6) was observed in the present study with a very low frequency of 0.003.

  10. Spectra of glutamate dehydrogenase with diethylstilbestrol.

    PubMed

    Hillar, M

    1978-02-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase displays hyperchromicity at 256 nm and at 276 nm upon binding of diethylstilbestrol. Increase in absorbancy is linear at both regions up to 250 micrometer DES, and becomes parabolic at higher concentration of DES. ADP in the presence of DES causes decrease in absorbancy at 256 nm; absorbancy at 276 nm increased by DES is not affected by ADP. DES prevents spectral effects produced by GTP (decrease in absorbancy at 254 nm and at 276 nm). ADP still decreases absorbancy at 254 nm, leaving the 276 nm region unchanged. ADP enhances spectral effects produced by GTP. GTP, however, prevents changes produced by ADP.

  11. Hydrogenases and formate dehydrogenases of Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans.

    PubMed

    de Bok, F A M; Roze, E H A; Stams, A J M

    2002-08-01

    The syntrophic propionate-oxidizing bacterium Syntrophobacter fumaroxidans possesses two distinct formate dehydrogenases and at least three distinct hydrogenases. All of these reductases are either loosely membrane-associated or soluble proteins and at least one of the hydrogenases is located in the periplasm. These enzymes were expressed on all growth substrates tested, though the levels of each enzyme showed large variations. These findings suggest that both H2 and formate are involved in the central metabolism of the organism, and that both these compounds may serve as interspecies electron carriers during syntrophic growth on propionate.

  12. The Mitochondrial Alcohol Dehydrogenase Adh3p Is Involved in a Redox Shuttle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Bakker, Barbara M.; Bro, Christoffer; Kötter, Peter; Luttik, Marijke A. H.; van Dijken, Johannes P.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2000-01-01

    NDI1 is the unique gene encoding the internal mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The enzyme catalyzes the transfer of electrons from intramitochondrial NADH to ubiquinone. Surprisingly, NDI1 is not essential for respiratory growth. Here we demonstrate that this is due to in vivo activity of an ethanol-acetaldehyde redox shuttle, which transfers the redox equivalents from the mitochondria to the cytosol. Cytosolic NADH can be oxidized by the external NADH dehydrogenases. Deletion of ADH3, encoding mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase, did not affect respiratory growth in aerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures. Also, an ndi1Δ mutant was capable of respiratory growth under these conditions. However, when both ADH3 and NDI1 were deleted, metabolism became respirofermentative, indicating that the ethanol-acetaldehyde shuttle is essential for respiratory growth of the ndi1Δ mutant. In anaerobic batch cultures, the maximum specific growth rate of the adh3Δ mutant (0.22 h−1) was substantially reduced compared to that of the wild-type strain (0.33 h−1). This is consistent with the hypothesis that the ethanol-acetaldehyde shuttle is also involved in maintenance of the mitochondrial redox balance under anaerobic conditions. Finally, it is shown that another mitochondrial alcohol dehydrogenase is active in the adh3Δ ndi1Δ mutant, contributing to residual redox-shuttle activity in this strain. PMID:10940011

  13. Targeted disruption of the murine dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase gene (Dld) results in perigastrulation lethality

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark T.; Yang, Hsin-Sheng; Magnuson, Terry; Patel, Mulchand S.

    1997-01-01

    The Dld gene product, known as dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase or the E3 component, catalyzes the oxidation of dihydrolipoyl moieties of four mitochondrial multienzyme complexes: pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase, and the glycine cleavage system. Deficiency of E3 activity in humans results in various degrees of neurological dysfunction and organic acidosis caused by accumulation of branched-chain amino acids and lactic acid. In this study, we have introduced a null mutation into the murine Dld gene (Dldtm1mjp). The heterozygous animals are shown to have approximately half of wild-type activity levels for E3 and all affected multienzyme complexes but are phenotypically normal. In contrast, the Dld−/− class dies prenatally with apparent developmental delay at 7.5 days postcoitum followed by resorption by 9.5 days postcoitum. The Dld−/− embryos cease to develop at a time shortly after implantation into the uterine wall when most of the embryos have begun to gastrulate. This null phenotype provides in vivo evidence for the requirement of a mitochondrial oxidative pathway during the perigastrulation period. Furthermore, the early prenatal lethal condition of the complete deficiency state may explain the low incidence of detectable cases of E3 deficiency in humans. PMID:9405644

  14. Identity of the subunits and the stoicheiometry of prosthetic groups in trimethylamine dehydrogenase and dimethylamine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Kasprzak, A A; Papas, E J; Steenkamp, D J

    1983-01-01

    Trimethylamine dehydrogenases from bacterium W3A1 and Hyphomicrobium X and the dimethylamine dehydrogenase from Hyphomicrobium X were found to contain only one kind of subunit. The millimolar absorption coefficient of a single [4Fe-4S] cluster in trimethylamine dehydrogenase from bacterium W3A1 was estimated to be 14.8 mM-1 . cm-1 at 443 nm. From this value a 1:1 stoicheiometry of the prosthetic groups, 6-S-cysteinyl-FMN and the [4Fe-4S] cluster, was established. Millimolar absorption coefficients of the three enzymes were in the range 49.4-58.7 mM-1 . cm-1 at approx. 440 nm. This range of values is consistent with the presence of two [4Fe-4S] clusters and two flavin residues, for which the millimolar absorption coefficient had earlier been found to be 12.3 mM-1 . cm-1 at 437 nm. The N-terminal amino acid was alanine in each of the three enzymes. Sequence analysis of the first 15 residues from the N-terminus of dimethylamine dehydrogenase indicated a single unique sequence. Two identical subunits, each containing covalently bound 6-S-cysteinyl-FMN and a [4Fe-4S] cluster, in each of the enzymes are therefore indicated. Images Fig. 1. PMID:6882357

  15. Separate physiological roles for two isozymes of pyridine nucleotide-linked glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in chicken.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, H. B., III; Kaplan, N. O.

    1972-01-01

    The isozymes considered are designated 'liver type' and 'muscle type' based on the tissue of highest concentration. Electrophoretic analysis shows that the liver type is found in small amounts or is undetectable in all tissues studied except liver. The muscle type is found in skeletal muscles and kidney. Presumptive hybrid enzymes occur at low levels in chicken liver and kidney. The tissue distribution of glyceron-3-P dehydrogenase in several birds capable of sustained flight is different than in chicken.

  16. Separate physiological roles for two isozymes of pyridine nucleotide-linked glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in chicken.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, H. B., III; Kaplan, N. O.

    1972-01-01

    The isozymes considered are designated 'liver type' and 'muscle type' based on the tissue of highest concentration. Electrophoretic analysis shows that the liver type is found in small amounts or is undetectable in all tissues studied except liver. The muscle type is found in skeletal muscles and kidney. Presumptive hybrid enzymes occur at low levels in chicken liver and kidney. The tissue distribution of glyceron-3-P dehydrogenase in several birds capable of sustained flight is different than in chicken.

  17. Kinetic mechanism of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Bruguera, P; Lopez-Cabrera, A; Canela, E I

    1988-01-01

    The kinetic behaviour of chicken-liver xanthine dehydrogenase (xanthine/NAD+ oxidoreductase; EC 1.2.1.37) has been studied. Steady-state results, obtained from a wide range of concentrations of substrates and products, were fitted by rational functions of degree 1:1, 1:2, 2:2 and 3:3 with respect to substrates, and 0:1, 1:1, 0:2 and 1:2 with regard to products, using a non-linear regression program which guarantees the fit. The goodness of fit was improved using a computer program that combines model discrimination, parameter refinement and sequential experimental design. The AIC and F tests were also used for model discrimination. For comparative purposes, the xanthine/oxygen oxidoreductase reaction was also studied. From the functions which give the maximum improvement, the complete rate equation was deduced. The significance of the terms was stated by the above methods. It was concluded that xanthine dehydrogenase requires a minimum mechanism of degree 1:1 for xanthine, 2:2 for NAD+, 1:1 for uric acid and 1:2 for NADH in the xanthine/NAD+ oxidoreductase reaction. These are the minimum degrees required but a rate equation of higher degree is not excluded. PMID:3422556

  18. Properties of a Purified Halophilic Malic Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, P. K.; Halvorson, H. Orin

    1965-01-01

    Holmes, P. K. (University of Illinois, Urbana), and H. Orin Halvorson. Properties of a purified halophilic malic dehydrogenase. J. Bacteriol. 90:316–326. 1965.—The malic dehydrogenase (MDH) from Halobacterium salinarium required high concentrations of monovalent ions for stability and activity. Studies of inactivation rates at different salt concentrations suggested that approximately 25% NaCl (w/v) is required to stabilize MDH. From 50 to 100% reactivation, depending on the salt concentration present during inactivation, could occur in 2.5 to 5 m NaCl or KCl. The optimal salt concentration for activity of MDH was a function of the pH, and ranged from 1 to 3 m NaCl or KCl. The effect of salt concentration on the pH-activity curves occurred chiefly below pH 7.0. Inactivation of MDH with heat or thiol reagents showed that the enzyme was more labile in the state induced by absence of salt. The activation of MDH by salts was attributed to a decreased rate of dissociation of MDH and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH2). The inactivation of the enzyme in the absence of salt could be largely prevented by the presence of NADH2. The S20.w of MDH decreased threefold at low salt concentrations. The enzyme was assumed to be in its native compact configuration only in the presence of a high concentration of salt. PMID:14329442

  19. Structure of glycerol dehydrogenase from Serratia.

    PubMed

    Musille, Paul; Ortlund, Eric

    2014-02-01

    The 1.90 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of glycerol dehydrogenase derived from contaminating bacteria present during routine Escherichia coli protein expression is presented. This off-target enzyme showed intrinsic affinity for Ni(2+)-Sepharose, migrated at the expected molecular mass for the target protein during gel filtration and was crystallized before it was realised that contamination had occurred. In this study, it is shown that liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can efficiently identify the protein composition of crystals in a crystallization experiment as part of a structure-determination pipeline for an unknown protein. The high-resolution X-ray data enabled sequencing directly from the electron-density maps, allowing the source of contamination to be placed within the Serratia genus. Incorporating additional protein-identity checks, such as tandem LC-MS/MS, earlier in the protein expression, purification and crystallization workflow may have prevented the unintentional structure determination of this metabolic enzyme, which represents the first enterobacterial glycerol dehydrogenase reported to date.

  20. Catecholamine regulation of lactate dehydrogenase in rat brain cell culture

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; McGinnis, J.F.; de Vellis, J.

    1980-03-25

    The mechanism of catecholamine induction of the soluble cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) was studied in the rat glial tumor cell line, C6. Lactate dehydrogenase was partially purified from extracts of (/sup 3/H)leucine-labeled cells by affinity gel chromatography and quantitatively immunoprecipitated with anti-lactate dehydrogenase-5 IgG and with antilactate dehydrogenase-1 IgG. The immunoprecipitates were dissociated and electrophoresed on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels. Using this methodology, the increased enzyme activity of lactate dehydrogenase in norepinephrine-treated C6 cells was observed to be concomitant with the increased synthesis of enzyme molecules. Despite the continued presence of norepinephrine, the specific increase in the rate of synthesis of lactate dehydrogenase was transient. It was first detected at 4 h, was maximum at 9 h, and returned to basal levels by 24 h. The half-life of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity was 36 h during the induction and 40 h during deinduction. The half-life for decay of /sup 3/H-labeled lactate dehydrogenase was 41 h. These observations suggest that the increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity in norepinephrine-treated cells does not involve any change in the rate of degradation. Norepinephrine increased the specific rate of synthesis of both lactate dehydrogenase-5 (a tetramer of four M subunits) and lactate dehydrogenase-1 (a tetramer of four H subunits), although to different extents. Since these subunits are coded for by two separate genes on separate chromosomes, it suggests that the regulatory mechanism involves at least two separate sites of action.

  1. Pleiotropic effects of lactate dehydrogenase inactivation in Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Viana, Rosa; Yebra, María Jesús; Galán, José Luis; Monedero, Vicente; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2005-01-01

    In lactic acid bacteria, conversion of pyruvic to lactic acid through the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (Ldh) constitutes the final step of the homofermentative pathway. Lactobacillus casei has two characterized genes encoding Ldh activities. The ldhL gene codes for an L-Ldh, which specifically catalyzes the formation of L-lactate, whereas the hicD gene codes for a D-hydroxyisocaproate dehydrogenase (HicDH), which catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate into D-lactate. In L. casei cells fermenting glucose, a mixture of L-/D-lactate with a 97:3% ratio was formed. Inactivation of hicD led to undetectable D-lactate levels after glucose fermentation, while L-lactate levels remained constant. Inactivation of ldhL did not abolish the production of L-lactate, but the lactate final concentration decreased about 25% compared to the wild type, suggesting the presence of at least a second L-Ldh. Moreover, part of the pyruvate flux was rerouted and half of the lactate produced was in the D-isomer form. ldhL inactivation in L. casei showed additional interesting effects. First, the glycolytic flux from pyruvate to lactate was redirected and other fermentation products, including acetate, acetoin, pyruvate, ethanol, diacetyl, mannitol and CO(2), were produced. Second, a lack of carbon catabolite repression of lactose metabolism and N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activity was observed. This second effect could be partly avoided by growing the cells under aeration, since NADH oxidases could account for NAD+ regeneration.

  2. Lactate dehydrogenase A silencing in IDH mutant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Chesnelong, Charles; Chaumeil, Myriam M.; Blough, Michael D.; Al-Najjar, Mohammad; Stechishin, Owen D.; Chan, Jennifer A.; Pieper, Russell O.; Ronen, Sabrina M.; Weiss, Samuel; Luchman, H. Artee; Cairncross, J. Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 gene (IDH1/2) were initially thought to enhance cancer cell survival and proliferation by promoting the Warburg effect. However, recent experimental data have shown that production of 2-hydroxyglutarate by IDH mutant cells promotes hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α degradation and, by doing so, may have unexpected metabolic effects. Methods We used human glioma tissues and derived brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) to study the expression of HIF1α target genes in IDH mutant (mt) and IDH wild-type (wt) tumors. Focusing thereafter on the major glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), we used standard molecular methods and pyrosequencing-based DNA methylation analysis to identify mechanisms by which LDHA expression was regulated in human gliomas. Results We found that HIF1α-responsive genes, including many essential for glycolysis (SLC2A1, PDK1, LDHA, SLC16A3), were underexpressed in IDHmt gliomas and/or derived BTSCs. We then demonstrated that LDHA was silenced in IDHmt derived BTSCs, including those that did not retain the mutant IDH1 allele (mIDHwt), matched BTSC xenografts, and parental glioma tissues. Silencing of LDHA was associated with increased methylation of the LDHA promoter, as was ectopic expression of mutant IDH1 in immortalized human astrocytes. Furthermore, in a search of The Cancer Genome Atlas, we found low expression and high methylation of LDHA in IDHmt glioblastomas. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of downregulation of LDHA in cancer. Although unexpected findings, silencing of LDHA and downregulation of several other glycolysis essential genes raise the intriguing possibility that IDHmt gliomas have limited glycolytic capacity, which may contribute to their slow growth and better prognosis. PMID:24366912

  3. Physicochemical Characterization of a Thermostable Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Pyrobaculum aerophilum

    PubMed Central

    Vitale, Annalisa; Thorne, Natasha; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Hu, Xin; Shen, Min; D'Auria, Sabato; Auld, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we characterize an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum (PyAeADHII). We have previously found that PyAeADHII has no activity when standard ADH substrates are used but is active when α-tetralone is used as substrate. Here, to gain insights into enzyme function, we screened several chemical libraries for enzymatic modulators using an assay employing α-tetralone. The results indicate that PyAeADHII activity in the presence of α-tetralone was inhibited by compounds such as flunarizine. We also examined metal coordination of the enzyme in solution by performing metal substitution of the enzyme-bound zinc (Zn2+) with cobalt. The solution-based absorption spectra for cobalt substituted PyAeADHII supports substitution at the structural Zn2+ site. To gain structural insight, we obtained the crystal structure of both wild-type and cobalt-substituted PyAeADHII at 1.75 Å and 2.20 Å resolution, respectively. The X-ray data confirmed one metal ion per monomer present only at the structural site with otherwise close conservation to other ADH enzymes. We next determined the co-crystal structure of the NADPH-bound form of the enzyme at 2.35 Å resolution to help define the active site region of the enzyme and this data shows close structural conservation with horse ADH, despite the lack of a catalytic Zn2+ ion in PyAeADHII. Modeling of α-tetralone into the NADPH bound structure suggests an arginine as a possible catalytic residue. The data presented here can yield a better understanding of alcohol dehydrogenases lacking the catalytic zinc as well as the structural features inherent to thermostable enzymes. PMID:23755111

  4. Monoterpene Metabolism. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of (−)-Isopiperitenol/(−)-Carveol Dehydrogenase of Peppermint and Spearmint1

    PubMed Central

    Ringer, Kerry L.; Davis, Edward M.; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-01-01

    The essential oils of peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) are distinguished by the oxygenation position on the p-menthane ring of the constitutive monoterpenes that is conferred by two regiospecific cytochrome P450 limonene-3- and limonene-6-hydroxylases. Following hydroxylation of limonene, an apparently similar dehydrogenase oxidizes (−)-trans-isopiperitenol to (−)-isopiperitenone in peppermint and (−)-trans-carveol to (−)-carvone in spearmint. Random sequencing of a peppermint oil gland secretory cell cDNA library revealed a large number of clones that specified redox-type enzymes, including dehydrogenases. Full-length dehydrogenase clones were screened by functional expression in Escherichia coli using a recently developed in situ assay. A single full-length acquisition encoding (−)-trans-isopiperitenol dehydrogenase (ISPD) was isolated. The (−)-ISPD cDNA has an open reading frame of 795 bp that encodes a 265-residue enzyme with a calculated molecular mass of 27,191. Nondegenerate primers were designed based on the (−)-trans-ISPD cDNA sequence and employed to screen a spearmint oil gland secretory cell cDNA library from which a 5′-truncated cDNA encoding the spearmint homolog, (−)-trans-carveol-dehydrogenase, was isolated. Reverse transcription-PCR amplification and RACE were used to acquire the remaining 5′-sequence from RNA isolated from oil gland secretory cells of spearmint leaf. The full-length spearmint dehydrogenase shares >99% amino acid identity with its peppermint homolog and both dehydrogenases are capable of utilizing (−)-trans-isopiperitenol and (−)-trans-carveol. These isopiperitenol/carveol dehydrogenases are members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily and are related to other plant short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases involved in secondary metabolism (lignan biosynthesis), stress responses, and phytosteroid biosynthesis, but they are quite dissimilar (approximately 13

  5. Multivalent Repression of Aspartic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli K-12

    PubMed Central

    Boy, Emmanuelle; Patte, Jean-Claude

    1972-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli in which the lysine-sensitive aspartokinase is feedback-resistant are described. In these strains, as well as in the wild type, aspartic semialdehyde dehydrogenase is subject to multivalent repression by lysine, threonine, and methionine. When these amino acids were added to a culture in minimal medium, the differential rate of synthesis of the enzyme dropped to zero and remained there for about one generation. PMID:4404058

  6. RDH12, a retinol dehydrogenase causing Leber's congenital amaurosis, is also involved in steroid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Keller, Brigitte; Adamski, Jerzy

    2007-05-01

    Three retinol dehydrogenases (RDHs) were tested for steroid converting abilities: human and murine RDH 12 and human RDH13. RDH12 is involved in retinal degeneration in Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA). We show that murine Rdh12 and human RDH13 do not reveal activity towards the checked steroids, but that human type 12 RDH reduces dihydrotestosterone to androstanediol, and is thus also involved in steroid metabolism. Furthermore, we analyzed both expression and subcellular localization of these enzymes.

  7. Isolation and partial characterization of the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, D A

    1980-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; alcohol: NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) gene (Adh) of Drosophila melanogaster was isolated by utilizing a mutant strain in which the Adh locus is deleted. Adult RNA from wild-type flies was enriched in ADH sequences by gel electrophoresis and then used to prepare labeled cDNA for screening a bacteriophage lambda library of genomic Drosophila DNA. Of the clones that hybridized in the initial screen, one clone was identified that hybridized with labeled cDNA prepared from a wild-type Drosophila strain but did not hybridize with cDNA prepared from an Adh deletion strain. This clone was shown to contain ADH structural gene sequences by three criteria: in situ hybridization, in vitro translation of mRNA selected by hybridization to the cloned DNA, and comparison of the ADH protein sequence with a nucleotide sequence derived from the cloned DNA. Comparison of the restriction site maps from clones of three different wild-type Drosophila strains revealed the presence of a 200-nucleotide sequence in one strain that was absent from the other two strains. The ADH mRNA sequences were located within the cloned DNA by hybridization mapping experiments. Two intervening sequences were identified within Adh by S1 nuclease mapping experiments. Images PMID:6777776

  8. Yeast surface display of dehydrogenases in microbial fuel-cells.

    PubMed

    Gal, Idan; Schlesinger, Orr; Amir, Liron; Alfonta, Lital

    2016-12-01

    Two dehydrogenases, cellobiose dehydrogenase from Corynascus thermophilus and pyranose dehydrogenase from Agaricus meleagris, were displayed for the first time on the surface of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the yeast surface display system. Surface displayed dehydrogenases were used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs. Surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase has demonstrated a midpoint potential of -28mV (vs. Ag/AgCl) at pH=6.5 and was used in a mediator-less anode compartment of a microbial fuel cell producing a power output of 3.3μWcm(-2) using lactose as fuel. Surface-displayed pyranose dehydrogenase was used in a microbial fuel cell and generated high power outputs using different substrates, the highest power output that was achieved was 3.9μWcm(-2) using d-xylose. These results demonstrate that surface displayed cellobiose dehydrogenase and pyranose dehydrogenase may successfully be used in microbial bioelectrochemical systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A chemical proteomic probe for detecting dehydrogenases: catechol rhodanine.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xia; Sem, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Inherent complexity of the proteome often demands that it be studied as manageable subsets, termed subproteomes. A subproteome can be defined in a number of ways, although a pragmatic approach is to define it based on common features in an active site that lead to binding of a common small molecule ligand (e.g., a cofactor or a cross-reactive drug lead). The subproteome, so defined, can be purified using that common ligand tethered to a resin, with affinity chromatography. Affinity purification of a subproteome is described in the next chapter. That subproteome can then be analyzed using a common ligand probe, such as a fluorescent common ligand that can be used to stain members of the subproteome in a native gel. Here, we describe such a fluorescent probe, based on a catechol rhodanine acetic acid (CRAA) ligand that binds to dehydrogenases. The CRAA ligand is fluorescent and binds to dehydrogenases at pH > 7, and hence can be used effectively to stain dehydrogenases in native gels to identify what subset of proteins in a mixture are dehydrogenases. Furthermore, if one is designing inhibitors to target one or more of these dehydrogenases, the CRAA staining can be performed in a competitive assay format, with or without inhibitor, to assess the selectivity of the inhibitor for the targeted dehydrogenase. Finally, the CRAA probe is a privileged scaffold for dehydrogenases, and hence can easily be modified to increase affinity for a given dehydrogenase.

  10. Toxic Neuronal Death by Glyeraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase and Mitochondria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-08-01

    Neuroreport, 10(5), 1149-1153. Sioud, M., & Jespersen, L. (1996). Enhancement of hammerhead ribozyme catalysis by glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase...1996) Enhancemen t of hammerhead r ibozyme cata lysis by glycera ldehyde-3- phospha te dehydrogenase. J Mol Biol 257:775–789. Sirover MA (1997) Role of

  11. Dimerization and enzymatic activity of fungal 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily

    PubMed Central

    Kristan, Katja; Deluca, Dominga; Adamski, Jerzy; Stojan, Jure; Rižner, Tea Lanišnik

    2005-01-01

    Background 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase from the fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (17β-HSDcl) is a member of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. SDR proteins usually function as dimers or tetramers and 17β-HSDcl is also a homodimer under native conditions. Results We have investigated here which secondary structure elements are involved in the dimerization of 17β-HSDcl and examined the importance of dimerization for the enzyme activity. Sequence similarity with trihydroxynaphthalene reductase from Magnaporthe grisea indicated that Arg129 and His111 from the αE-helices interact with the Asp121, Glu117 and Asp187 residues from the αE and αF-helices of the neighbouring subunit. The Arg129Asp and His111Leu mutations both rendered 17β-HSDcl monomeric, while the mutant 17β-HSDcl-His111Ala was dimeric. Circular dichroism spectroscopy analysis confirmed the conservation of the secondary structure in both monomers. The three mutant proteins all bound coenzyme, as shown by fluorescence quenching in the presence of NADP+, but both monomers showed no enzymatic activity. Conclusion We have shown by site-directed mutagenesis and structure/function analysis that 17β-HSDcl dimerization involves the αE and αF helices of both subunits. Neighbouring subunits are connected through hydrophobic interactions, H-bonds and salt bridges involving amino acid residues His111 and Arg129. Since the substitutions of these two amino acid residues lead to inactive monomers with conserved secondary structure, we suggest dimerization is a prerequisite for catalysis. A detailed understanding of this dimerization could lead to the development of compounds that will specifically prevent dimerization, thereby serving as a new type of inhibitor. PMID:16359545

  12. Biochemical analysis of the modular enzyme inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Nimmesgern, E; Black, J; Futer, O; Fulghum, J R; Chambers, S P; Brummel, C L; Raybuck, S A; Sintchak, M D

    1999-11-01

    Two prominent domains have been identified in the X-ray crystal structure of inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), a core domain consisting of an alpha/beta barrel which contains the active site and an inserted subdomain whose structure is less well defined. The core domain encompassing amino acids 1-108 and 244-514 of wild-type human IMPDH (II) connected by the tetrapeptide linker Ile-Arg-Thr-Gly was expressed. The subdomain including amino acids 99-244 of human wild-type IMPDH (II) was expressed as a His-tagged fusion protein, where the His-tag was removable by enterokinase cleavage. These two proteins as well as wild-type human IMPDH (II), all proteins expressed in Escherichia coli, have been purified to apparent homogeneity. Both the wild-type and core domain proteins are tetrameric and have very similar enzymatic activities. In contrast, the subdomain migrates as a monomer or dimer on a gel filtration column and lacks enzymatic activity. Circular dichroism spectropolarimetry indicates that the core domain retains secondary structure very similar to full-length IMPDH, with 30% alpha-helix and 30% beta-sheet vs 33% alpha-helix and 29% beta-sheet for wild-type protein. Again, the subdomain protein is distinguished from both wild-type and core domain proteins by its content of secondary structure, with only 15% each of alpha-helix and beta-sheet. These studies demonstrate that the core domain of IMPDH expressed separately is both structurally intact and enzymatically active. The availability of the modules of IMPDH will aid in dissecting the architecture of this enzyme of the de novo purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway, which is an important target for immunosuppressive and antiviral drugs.

  13. Conformations of Diphosphopyridine Coenzymes upon Binding to Dehydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yu; Eichner, Ronald D.; Kaplan, Nathan O.

    1973-01-01

    The binding of oxidized as well as reduced coenzyme to some dehydrogenases has been studied under different concentration ratios and temperatures by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A significant difference in the spectral behavior between DPN+ and DPNH upon binding is interpreted in terms of fast and slow on-off rates relative to the nuclear magnetic resonance time scale in the binding of these two coenzymes. Significant downfield shifts of DPN+ were observed upon binding, comparable in magnitude to those expected upon opening (destacking) of the coenzymes in the case of chicken-muscle and lobster-tail lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) and yeast alchol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1.). A preliminary survey of several other dehydrogenases is consistent with these findings. In the case of 3-phosphoglyceraldehyde dehydrogenase, there is a possibility that the coenzyme exists in the folded form. PMID:4351183

  14. Origins of the High Catalytic Activity of Human Alcohol Dehydrogenase 4 Studied with Horse Liver A317C Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Herdendorf, Timothy J.; Plapp, Bryce V.

    2011-01-01

    The turnover numbers and other kinetic constants for human alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 4 (“stomach” isoenzyme) are substantially larger (10–100-fold) than those for human class I and horse liver alcohol dehydrogenases. Comparison of the primary amino acid sequences (69% identity) and tertiary structures of these enzymes led to the suggestion that residue 317, which makes a hydrogen bond with the nicotinamide amide nitrogen of the coenzyme, may account for these differences. Ala-317 in the class I enzymes is substituted with Cys in human ADH4, and locally different conformations of the peptide backbones could affect coenzyme binding. This hypothesis was tested by making the A317C substitution in horse liver ADH1E and comparisons to the wild-type ADH1E. The steady-state kinetic constants for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and the reduction of benzaldehyde catalyzed by the A317C enzyme were very similar (up to about 2-fold differences) to those for the wild-type enzyme. Transient kinetics showed that the rate constants for binding of NAD+ and NADH were also similar. Transient reaction data were fitted to the full ordered bi bi mechanism and showed that the rate constants for hydride transfer decreased by about 2.8-fold with the A317C substitution. The structure of A317C ADH1E complexed with NAD+ and 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl alcohol at 1.2 Ǻ resolution is essentially identical to the structure of the wild-type enzyme, except near residue 317 where the additional sulfhydryl group displaces a water molecule that is present in the wild-type enzyme. ADH is adaptable and can tolerate internal substitutions, but the protein dynamics apparently are affected, as reflected in rates of hydride transfer. The A317C substitution is not solely responsible for the larger kinetic constants in human ADH4; thus, the differences in catalytic activity must arise from one or more of the other hundred substitutions in the enzyme. PMID:21184752

  15. Characterization of the developmentally regulated Bacillus subtilis glucose dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Lampel, K A; Uratani, B; Chaudhry, G R; Ramaley, R F; Rudikoff, S

    1986-01-01

    The DNA sequence of the structural gene for glucose dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.47) of Bacillus subtilis was determined and comprises 780 base pairs. The subunit molecular weight of glucose dehydrogenase as deduced from the nucleotide sequence is 28,196, which agrees well with the subunit molecular weight of 31,500 as determined from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The sequence of the 49 amino acids at the NH2 terminus of glucose dehydrogenase purified from sporulating B. subtilis cells matched the amino acid sequence derived from the DNA sequence. Glucose dehydrogenase was purified from an Escherichia coli strain harboring pEF1, a plasmid that contains the B. subtilis gene encoding glucose dehydrogenase. This enzyme has the identical amino acid sequence at the NH2 terminus as the B. subtilis enzyme. A putative ribosome-binding site, 5'-AGGAGG-3', which is complementary to the 3' end of the 16S rRNA of B. subtilis, was found 6 base pairs preceding the translational start codon of the structural gene of glucose dehydrogenase. No known promoterlike DNA sequences that are recognized by B. subtilis RNA polymerases were present immediately preceding the translational start site of the glucose dehydrogenase structural gene. The glucose dehydrogenase gene was found to be under sporulation control at the trancriptional level. A transcript of 1.6 kilobases hybridized to a DNA fragment within the structural gene of glucose dehydrogenase. This transcript was synthesized 3 h after the cessation of vegetative growth concomitant to the appearance of glucose dehydrogenase. Images PMID:3082854

  16. GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE-S, A SPERM-SPECIFIC GLYCOLYTIC ENZYME, IS REQUIRED FOR SPERM MOTILITY AND MALE FERTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    While glycolysis is highly conserved, it is remarkable that several novel isozymes in this central metabolic pathway are found in mammalian sperm. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S (GAPDS) is the product of a mouse gene expressed only during spermatogenesis and, like it...

  17. GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE-S, A SPERM-SPECIFIC GLYCOLYTIC ENZYME, IS REQUIRED FOR SPERM MOTILITY AND MALE FERTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    While glycolysis is highly conserved, it is remarkable that several novel isozymes in this central metabolic pathway are found in mammalian sperm. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase-S (GAPDS) is the product of a mouse gene expressed only during spermatogenesis and, like it...

  18. Enantiocomplementary Yarrowia lipolytica Oxidoreductases: Alcohol Dehydrogenase 2 and Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A.; Sonavane, Manoj N.; Avi, Manuela; Robins, Karen; Winkler, Margit

    2013-01-01

    Enzymes of the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica seem to be tailor-made for the conversion of lipophilic substrates. Herein, we cloned and overexpressed the Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase ADH2 from Yarrowia lipolytica in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme was characterized in vitro. The substrate scope for YlADH2 mediated oxidation and reduction was investigated spectrophotometrically and the enzyme showed a broader substrate range than its homolog from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A preference for secondary compared to primary alcohols in oxidation direction was observed for YlADH2. 2-Octanone was investigated in reduction mode in detail. Remarkably, YlADH2 displays perfect (S)-selectivity and together with a highly (R)-selective short chain dehydrogenase/ reductase from Yarrowia lipolytica it is possible to access both enantiomers of 2-octanol in >99% ee with Yarrowia lipolytica oxidoreductases. PMID:24970175

  19. The dihydroorotate dehydrogenases: Past and present.

    PubMed

    Reis, Renata A G; Calil, Felipe Antunes; Feliciano, Patricia Rosa; Pinheiro, Matheus Pinto; Nonato, M Cristina

    2017-06-27

    The flavoenzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase catalyzes the stereoselective oxidation of (S)-dihydroorotate to orotate in the fourth of the six conserved enzymatic reactions involved in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway. Inhibition of pyrimidine metabolism by selectively targeting DHODHs has been exploited in the development of new therapies against cancer, immunological disorders, bacterial and viral infections, and parasitic diseases. Through a chronological narrative, this review summarizes the efforts of the scientific community to achieve our current understanding of structural and biochemical properties of DHODHs. It also attempts to describe the latest advances in medicinal chemistry for therapeutic development based on the selective inhibition of DHODH, including an overview of the experimental techniques used for ligand screening during the process of drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. NADH electrochemical sensor coupled with dehydrogenase enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, Hideko; Mascini, Marco )

    1992-06-01

    A graphite electrode assembled in a flow cell has shown to be a good detector for NADH. Current is linearly dependent on concentration in the range 10{sup {minus}7}-10{sup {minus}3} M without any mediator at the potential applied of 300 mV vs Ag/AgCl. Lactate and alcohol dehydrogenases were immobilized near to the electrode surface or in a reactor to obtain an NADH-based biosensor for lactate or ethanol. With lactate the authors succeeded to obtain a response only if the reactor was used and for alcohol a current proportional to the concentration was obtained either if the enzyme was immobilized in a membrane and placed near the electrode surface or when the enzyme was immobilized in a reactor form. By FIA procedures fast responses and recoveries were obtained, but with a short linear range.

  1. Fast internal dynamics in alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Monkenbusch, M.; Stadler, A. Biehl, R.; Richter, D.; Ollivier, J.; Zamponi, M.

    2015-08-21

    Large-scale domain motions in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) have been observed previously by neutron spin-echo spectroscopy (NSE). We have extended the investigation on the dynamics of ADH in solution by using high-resolution neutron time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron backscattering (BS) spectroscopy in the incoherent scattering range. The observed hydrogen dynamics were interpreted in terms of three mobility classes, which allowed a simultaneous description of the measured TOF and BS spectra. In addition to the slow global protein diffusion and domain motions observed by NSE, a fast internal process could be identified. Around one third of the protons in ADH participate in the fast localized diffusive motion. The diffusion coefficient of the fast internal motions is around two third of the value of the surrounding D{sub 2}O solvent. It is tempting to associate the fast internal process with solvent exposed amino acid residues with dangling side chains.

  2. Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme patterns in cetaceans.

    PubMed

    Reidarson, T H; McBain, J; Dalton, L M

    1999-06-01

    Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzyme activity was analyzed in cetaceans. Animals that were treated by i.m. injection and others that received azole therapy had distinctly different LDH isoenzyme profiles. A third distinctive pattern was occasionally observed in clinically normal animals with elevations in total transaminase and LDH activity levels. DH isoenzyme activity patterns were not affected by mild or moderate hemolysis, refrigeration after 24 hr, or freezing for 24 hr with subsequent thawing. However, severe hemolysis produced artifactual changes similar to those observed in individuals that received injections but of a lesser magnitude. DH isoenzyme activity patterns may provide useful corroboration of other clinical findings when diagnostic modalities are limited, especially to differentiate nonspecific enzyme elevation from nonpathologic elevations in serum enzyme concentrations due to i.m. injections or azole therapy.

  3. Stability of immobilized yeast alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Ooshima, H.; Genko, Y.; Harano, Y.

    1981-12-01

    The effects of substrate on stabilities of native (NA) and three kinds of immobilized yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (IMA), namely PGA (the carrier; porous glass), SEA (agarose gel) prepared covalently, and AMA (anion-exchange resin) prepared ionically, were studied. The following results were obtained. 1) The deactivations of NA and IMA free from the substrate or in the presence of ethanol obey the first-order kinetics, whereas, in the presence of butyraldehyde, their deactivation behaviors are explained on the basis of coexistence of two components of YADHs, namely the labile E1 and the comparatively stable E2, with different first-order deactivation constants. (2) A few attempts for stabilization of IMA were carried out from the viewpoint of the effects of crosslinkages among the subunits of YADH for PGA and the multibonding between the carrier and enzyme for SEA. The former is effective for the stabilization, whereas the latter is not. (Refs. 19).

  4. [Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Japan].

    PubMed

    Kanno, Hitoshi; Ogura, Hiromi

    2015-07-01

    In the past 10 years, we have diagnosed congenital hemolytic anemia in 294 patients, approximately 33% of whom were found to have glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. It is becoming more common for Japanese to marry people of other ethnic origins, such that G6PD deficiency is becoming more prevalent in Japan. Japanese G6PD deficiency tends to be diagnosed in the neonatal period due to severe jaundice, while G6PD-deficient patients with foreign ancestors tend to be diagnosed at the onset of an acute hemolytic crisis before the age of six. It is difficult to predict the clinical course of each patient by G6PD activity, reduced glutathione content, or the presence/absence of severe neonatal jaundice. We propose that both neonatal G6PD screening and systematic analyses of G6PD gene mutations may be useful for personalized management of patients with G6PD-deficient hemolytic anemia.

  5. Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and cardiac diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Che-Hong; Sun, Lihan; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2010-01-01

    Numerous conditions promote oxidative stress, leading to the build-up of reactive aldehydes that cause cell damage and contribute to cardiac diseases. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are important enzymes that eliminate toxic aldehydes by catalysing their oxidation to non-reactive acids. The review will discuss evidence indicating a role for a specific ALDH enzyme, the mitochondrial ALDH2, in combating oxidative stress by reducing the cellular ‘aldehydic load’. Epidemiological studies in humans carrying an inactive ALDH2, genetic models in mice with altered ALDH2 levels, and small molecule activators of ALDH2 all highlight the role of ALDH2 in cardioprotection and suggest a promising new direction in cardiovascular research and the development of new treatments for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20558439

  6. Crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana cytokinin dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Euiyoung; Bingman, Craig A.; Bitto, Eduard; Aceti, David J.; Phillips, Jr., George N.

    2008-08-13

    Since first discovered in Zea mays, cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX) genes have been identified in many plants including rice and Arabidopsis thaliana, which possesses CKX homologues (AtCKX1-AtCKX7). So far, the three-dimensional structure of only Z. mays CKX (ZmCKX1) has been determined. The crystal structures of ZmCKX1 have been solved in the native state and in complex with reaction products and a slowly reacting substrate. The structures revealed four glycosylated asparagine residues and a histidine residue covalently linked to FAD. Combined with the structural information, recent biochemical analyses of ZmCKX1 concluded that the final products of the reaction, adenine and a side chain aldehyde, are formed by nonenzymatic hydrolytic cleavage of cytokinin imine products resulting directly from CKX catalysis. Here, we report the crystal structure of AtCKX7 (gene locus At5g21482.1, UniProt code Q9FUJ1).

  7. Fast internal dynamics in alcohol dehydrogenase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monkenbusch, M.; Stadler, A.; Biehl, R.; Ollivier, J.; Zamponi, M.; Richter, D.

    2015-08-01

    Large-scale domain motions in alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) have been observed previously by neutron spin-echo spectroscopy (NSE). We have extended the investigation on the dynamics of ADH in solution by using high-resolution neutron time-of-flight (TOF) and neutron backscattering (BS) spectroscopy in the incoherent scattering range. The observed hydrogen dynamics were interpreted in terms of three mobility classes, which allowed a simultaneous description of the measured TOF and BS spectra. In addition to the slow global protein diffusion and domain motions observed by NSE, a fast internal process could be identified. Around one third of the protons in ADH participate in the fast localized diffusive motion. The diffusion coefficient of the fast internal motions is around two third of the value of the surrounding D2O solvent. It is tempting to associate the fast internal process with solvent exposed amino acid residues with dangling side chains.

  8. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes of spinach

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.D.; Weretilnyk, E.A.; Weigel, P.

    1986-04-01

    Betaine is synthesized in spinach chloroplasts via the pathway Choline ..-->.. Betaine Aldehyde ..-->.. Betaine; the second step is catalyzed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). The subcellular distribution of BADH was determined in leaf protoplast lysates; BADH isozymes were separated by 6-9% native PAGE. The chloroplast stromal fraction contains a single BADH isozyme (number1) that accounts for > 80% of the total protoplast activity; the extrachloroplastic fraction has a minor isozyme (number2) which migrates more slowly than number1. Both isozymes appear specific for betaine aldehyde, are more active with NAD than NADP, and show a ca. 3-fold activity increase in salinized leaves. The phenotype of a natural variant of isozyme number1 suggests that the enzyme is a dimer.

  9. Kinetic studies of dogfish liver glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Electricwala, A H; Dickinson, F M

    1979-01-01

    Initial-rate studies were made of the oxidation of L-glutamate by NAD+ and NADP+ catalysed by highly purified preparations of dogfish liver glutamate dehydrogenase. With NAD+ as coenzyme the kinetics show the same features of coenzyme activation as seen with the bovine liver enzyme [Engel & Dalziel (1969) Biochem. J. 115, 621--631]. With NADP+ as coenzyme, initial rates are much slower than with NAD+, and Lineweaver--Burk plots are linear over extended ranges of substrate and coenzyme concentration. Stopped-flow studies with NADP+ as coenzyme give no evidence for the accumulation of significant concentrations of NADPH-containing complexes with the enzyme in the steady state. Protection studies against inactivation by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate indicate that NAD+ and NADP+ give the same degree of protection in the presence of sodium glutarate. The results are used to deduce information about the mechanism of glutamate oxidation by the enzyme. Initial-rate studies of the reductive amination of 2-oxoglutarate by NADH and NADPH catalysed by dogfish liver glutamate dehydrogenase showed that the kinetic features of the reaction are very similar with both coenzymes, but reactions with NADH are much faster. The data show that a number of possible mechanisms for the reaction may be discarded, including the compulsory mechanism (previously proposed for the enzyme) in which the sequence of binding is NAD(P)H, NH4+ and 2-oxoglutarate. The kinetic data suggest either a rapid-equilibrium random mechanism or the compulsory mechanism with the binding sequence NH4+, NAD(P)H, 2-oxoglutarate. However, binding studies and protection studies indicate that coenzyme and 2-oxoglutarate do bind to the free enzyme. PMID:35153

  10. Variants of glycerol dehydrogenase having D-lactate dehydrogenase activity and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Qingzhao; Shanmugam, Keelnatham T.; Ingram, Lonnie O'Neal

    2017-08-29

    The present invention provides methods of designing and generating glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH) variants that have altered function as compared to a parent polypeptide. The present invention further provides nucleic acids encoding GlyDH polypeptide variants having altered function as compared to the parent polypeptide. Host cells comprising polynucleotides encoding GlyDH variants and methods of producing lactic acids are also provided in various aspects of the invention.

  11. Regulation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in rats fed a high-fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Objective: Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) regulates branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at the level of branched chain alpha-ketoacid (BCKA) catabolism. It has been demonstrated that the activity of hepatic BCKDC is markedly decreased in type 2 diabetic animal...

  12. “Scanning mutagenesis” of the amino acid sequences flanking phosphorylation site 1 of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is regulated by reversible seryl-phosphorylation of the E1alpha subunit by a dedicated, intrinsic kinase. The phospho-complex is reactivated when dephosphorylated by an intrinsic PP2C-type protein phosphatase. Both the position of the phosphorylated...

  13. Novel 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid analogues as potent and selective inhibitors of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiangdong; Lawrence, Harshani; Ganeshapillai, Dharshini; Cruttenden, Adrian; Purohit, Atul; Reed, Michael J; Vicker, Nigel; Potter, Barry V L

    2004-08-15

    Extensive structural modifications to the 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid template are described and their effects on the SAR of the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase isozymes type 1 and 2 from the rat are investigated. Isoform selective inhibitors have been discovered and compound 7 N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3beta-hydroxy-11-oxo-18beta-olean-12-en-30-oic acid amide is highlighted as a very potent selective inhibitor of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 with an IC(50) = 4pM.

  14. Cytoplasm-to-myonucleus ratios and succinate dehydrogenase activities in adult rat slow and fast muscle fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, B. S.; Kasper, C. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between myonuclear number, cellular size, succinate dehydrogenase activity, and myosin type was examined in single fiber segments (n = 54; 9 +/- 3 mm long) mechanically dissected from soleus and plantaris muscles of adult rats. One end of each fiber segment was stained for DNA before quantitative photometric analysis of succinate dehydrogenase activity; the other end was double immunolabeled with fast and slow myosin heavy chain monoclonal antibodies. Mean +/- S.D. cytoplasmic volume/myonucleus ratio was higher in fast and slow plantaris fibers (112 +/- 69 vs. 34 +/- 21 x 10(3) microns3) than fast and slow soleus fibers (40 +/- 20 vs. 30 +/- 14 x 10(3) microns3), respectively. Slow fibers always had small volumes/myonucleus, regardless of fiber diameter, succinate dehydrogenase activity, or muscle of origin. In contrast, smaller diameter (< 70 microns) fast soleus and plantaris fibers with high succinate dehydrogenase activity appeared to have low volumes/myonucleus while larger diameter (> 70 microns) fast fibers with low succinate dehydrogenase activity always had large volume/myonucleus. Slow soleus fibers had significantly greater numbers of myonuclei/mm than did either fast soleus or fast plantaris fibers (116 +/- 51 vs. 55 +/- 22 and 44 +/- 23), respectively. These data suggest that the myonuclear domain is more limited in slow than fast fibers and in the fibers with a high, compared to a low, oxidative metabolic capability.

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel Dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 1 genea from human fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q; Xu, M; Cheng, C; Zhou, Z; Huang, Y; Zhao, W; Zeng, L; Xu, J; Fu, X; Ying, K; Xie, Y; Mao, Y

    2001-01-01

    Short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR) constitute a large protein family of NAD(P)(H)-dependent oxidoreductase. They are defined by distinct, common sequence motifs and show a wide range of substrate specialisms. By large-scale sequencing analysis of a human fetal brain cDNA library, we isolated a novel human SDR-type dehydrogenase/reductase gene named Dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR family) member 1 (DHRS1). The DHRS1 cDNA is 1411 base pair in length, encoding a 314-amino-acid polypeptide which has a SDR motif. Northern blot reveals two bands, of about 0.9 and 1.4 kb in size. These two forms are expressed in many tissues. The DHRS1 gene is localized on chromosome 14q21.3. It has 9 exons and spans 9.2 kb of the genomic DNA.

  16. Characterisation of the PQQ cofactor radical in quinoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kay, Christopher W M; Mennenga, Bina; Görisch, Helmut; Bittl, Robert

    2004-04-23

    The binding pocket of the pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) cofactor in quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases contains a characteristic disulphide ring formed by two adjacent cysteine residues. To analyse the function of this unusual structural motif we have investigated the wild-type and a double cysteine:alanine mutant of the quinoprotein ethanol dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Thus, we have obtained the principal values for the full rhombic g-tensor of the PQQ semiquinone radical by high-field (94 GHz) EPR necessary for a discrimination of radical species in dehydrogenases containing PQQ together with other redox-active cofactors. Our results show that the characteristic disulphide ring is no prerequisite for the formation of the functionally important semiquinone form of PQQ.

  17. Effect of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase inhibitor on wound healing.

    PubMed

    Seo, Seung Yong; Han, Song-Iy; Bae, Chun Sik; Cho, Hoon; Lim, Sung Chul

    2015-06-01

    PGE2 is an important mediator of wound healing. It is degraded and inactivated by 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH). Various growth factors, type IV collagen, TIMP-2 and PGE2 are important mediators of inflammation involving wound healing. Overproduction of TGF-β and suppression of PGE2 are found in excessive wound scarring. If we make the condition downregulating growth factors and upregulating PGE2, the wound will have a positive effect which results in little scar formation after healing. TD88 is a 15-PGDH inhibitor based on thiazolinedione structure. We evaluated the effect of TD88 on wound healing. In 10 guinea pigs (4 control and 6 experimental groups), we made four 1cm diameter-sized circular skin defects on each back. TD88 and vehicle were applicated on the wound twice a day for 4 days in the experimental and control groups, respectively. Tissue samples were harvested for qPCR and histomorphometric analyses on the 2nd and 4th day after treatment. Histomorphometric analysis showed significant reepithelization in the experimental group. qPCR analysis showed significant decrease of PDGF, CTGF and TIMP-2, but significant increase of type IV collagen in the experimental group. Taken together TD88 could be a good effector on wound healing, especially in the aspects of prevention of scarring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Autoantibodies to mitochondrial 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complexes in localized scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, M; Sato, S; Ihn, H; Tamaki, T; Kikuchi, K; Soma, Y; Tamaki, K

    1996-08-01

    Sera from patients with localized scleroderma frequently produce cytoplasmic staining by indirect immunofluorescence, although the antigen remains to be determined. We studied the prevalence, antigen specificity and associated clinical characteristics of anti-cytoplasmic antibodies in localized scleroderma. Serum samples from 60 patients with localized scleroderma were examined by indirect immunofluorescence analysis and immunoblotting. By immunofluorescence analysis on HEp-2 cell substrate, seven of 60 (12%) patients were shown to be positive for anti-cytoplasmic antibodies. Among these, six patients with generalized morphea had anti-mitochondrial antibodies as shown by immunoblotting: they showed reactivity with the E2 component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), with protein X, and with the E2 component of alpha-oxo-glutarate dehydrogenase complex, while two of them showed reactivity with PDC-E1 alpha. One of these patients who was positive for anti-PDC-E1 alpha antibody showed laboratory abnormalities, suggesting the presence of primary biliary cirrhosis. The age of disease onset was significantly higher in these six patients than in those without anti-mitochondrial antibodies. Furthermore, five of them were classified into generalized morphea with multiple plaque lesions but without linear lesions (multiple plaque type). These observations suggest that major antigens for anti-cytoplasmic antibodies in patients with localized scleroderma are mitochondrial enzymes, 2-oxo-acid dehydrogenase complexes. Patients with anti-mitochondrial antibodies may comprise a unique subset of localized scleroderma designated multiple plaque type of generalized morphea of older onset.

  19. Biochemical and structural characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum Lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cook, William J; Senkovich, Olga; Hernandez, Agustin; Speed, Haley; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-03-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes waterborne diseases worldwide. There is no effective therapy for C. parvum infection. The parasite depends mainly on glycolysis for energy production. Lactate dehydrogenase is a major regulator of glycolysis. This paper describes the biochemical characterization of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase and high resolution crystal structures of the apo-enzyme and four ternary complexes. The ternary complexes capture the enzyme bound to NAD/NADH or its 3-acetylpyridine analog in the cofactor binding pocket, while the substrate binding site is occupied by one of the following ligands: lactate, pyruvate or oxamate. The results reveal distinctive features of the parasitic enzyme. For example, C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase prefers the acetylpyridine analog of NADH as a cofactor. Moreover, it is slightly less sensitive to gossypol inhibition compared with mammalian lactate dehydrogenases and not inhibited by excess pyruvate. The active site loop and the antigenic loop in C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are considerably different from those in the human counterpart. Structural features and enzymatic properties of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are similar to enzymes from related parasites. Structural comparison with malate dehydrogenase supports a common ancestry for the two genes.

  20. Increased Cortisol and Cortisone Levels in Overweight Children.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lanling; Shen, Kangwei; Liu, Ping; Ye, Kan; Wang, Yu; Li, Chen; Kang, Xuejun; Song, Yuan

    2017-02-09

    BACKGROUND It has been unclear whether relatively high cortisol and cortisone levels are related to overweight in childhood, parental body mass index (BMI), and family dietary habits. The aim of this study was to compare cortisol and cortisone levels in urine and saliva from overweight and normal children, as well as correlations between children's BMI, parental BMI and family dietary behavior questionnaire score (QS). MATERIAL AND METHODS We analyzed the data from 52 overweight children and 53 age- and sex-matched normal-weight children aged 4-5 years. The concentrations of salivary cortisol (SF), salivary cortisone (SE), urinary cortisol (UF) and urinary cortisone (UE) were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The family dietary behavior QS was answered by the parent mainly responsible for the family diet. RESULTS Average cortisol and cortisone levels were significantly higher in overweight children. There was no significant difference in the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (Rcc) and the marker of 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2) activities. The results displayed correlations among cortisol, cortisone, and Rcc. Positive correlations were weak-to-moderate between BMI and SF, SE, UF, and UE. There were correlations between BMI and maternal BMI (mBMI), and BMI was significantly associated with QS. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that cortisol and cortisone levels are associated with overweight in children, but the 11β-HSD2 activities showed no significant differences. Unhealthy family diet was associated with higher BMI, UF, and UE, and families with maternal overweight or obesity had a higher prevalence of children's overweight or obesity.

  1. Priapism and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: An underestimated correlation?

    PubMed

    De Rose, Aldo Franco; Mantica, Guglielmo; Tosi, Mattia; Bovio, Giulio; Terrone, Carlo

    2016-10-05

    Priapism is a rare clinical condition characterized by a persistent erection unrelated to sexual excitement. Often the etiology is idiopathic. Three cases of priapism in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency patients have been described in literature. We present the case of a 39-year-old man with glucose- 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, who reached out to our department for the arising of a non-ischemic priapism without arteriolacunar fistula. We suggest that the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency could be an underestimated risk factor for priapism.

  2. [Kinetics of the inhibition of succinate dehydrogenase in bull adrenal cortex by malonate and oxaloacetate].

    PubMed

    Mandrik, K A; Vonsovich, V A; Vinogradov, V V

    1983-01-01

    The activity of succinate dehydrogenase from bull adrenal cortex was studied as affected by malonate and oxaloacetate. The both substrate analogs without preincubation (separately and in the mixture) inhibit the enzyme by the competitive type. After a 3 min oxaloacetate preincubation of the enzyme inhibition is of a mixed character. Malonate under these conditions lowers the oxaloacetate effect without changing the type of inhibition. It is supposed that the protective effect is due to a high rate of formation and decay of the enzyme-inhibitory malonate complex.

  3. Structural and Thermodynamic Basis for Weak Interactions between Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase and Subunit-binding Domain of the Branched-chain α-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Brautigam, Chad A.; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Naik, Mandar T.; Young, Brittany B.; Huang, Tai-huang; Chuang, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The purified mammalian branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain α-keto acids, is essentially devoid of the constituent dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component (E3). The absence of E3 is associated with the low affinity of the subunit-binding domain of human BCKDC (hSBDb) for hE3. In this work, sequence alignments of hSBDb with the E3-binding domain (E3BD) of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex show that hSBDb has an arginine at position 118, where E3BD features an asparagine. Substitution of Arg-118 with an asparagine increases the binding affinity of the R118N hSBDb variant (designated hSBDb*) for hE3 by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. The enthalpy of the binding reaction changes from endothermic with the wild-type hSBDb to exothermic with the hSBDb* variant. This higher affinity interaction allowed the determination of the crystal structure of the hE3/hSBDb* complex to 2.4-Å resolution. The structure showed that the presence of Arg-118 poses a unique, possibly steric and/or electrostatic incompatibility that could impede E3 interactions with the wild-type hSBDb. Compared with the E3/E3BD structure, the hE3/hSBDb* structure has a smaller interfacial area. Solution NMR data corroborated the interactions of hE3 with Arg-118 and Asn-118 in wild-type hSBDb and mutant hSBDb*, respectively. The NMR results also showed that the interface between hSBDb and hE3 does not change significantly from hSBDb to hSBDb*. Taken together, our results represent a starting point for explaining the long standing enigma that the E2b core of the BCKDC binds E3 far more weakly relative to other α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. PMID:21543315

  4. Structural and Thermodynamic Basis for Weak Interactions between Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase and Subunit-binding Domain of the Branched-chain [alpha]-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Brautigam, Chad A.; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Naik, Mandar T.; Young, Brittany B.; Huang, Tai-huang; Chuang, David T.

    2012-02-27

    The purified mammalian branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain {alpha}-keto acids, is essentially devoid of the constituent dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component (E3). The absence of E3 is associated with the low affinity of the subunit-binding domain of human BCKDC (hSBDb) for hE3. In this work, sequence alignments of hSBDb with the E3-binding domain (E3BD) of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex show that hSBDb has an arginine at position 118, where E3BD features an asparagine. Substitution of Arg-118 with an asparagine increases the binding affinity of the R118N hSBDb variant (designated hSBDb*) for hE3 by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. The enthalpy of the binding reaction changes from endothermic with the wild-type hSBDb to exothermic with the hSBDb* variant. This higher affinity interaction allowed the determination of the crystal structure of the hE3/hSBDb* complex to 2.4-{angstrom} resolution. The structure showed that the presence of Arg-118 poses a unique, possibly steric and/or electrostatic incompatibility that could impede E3 interactions with the wild-type hSBDb. Compared with the E3/E3BD structure, the hE3/hSBDb* structure has a smaller interfacial area. Solution NMR data corroborated the interactions of hE3 with Arg-118 and Asn-118 in wild-type hSBDb and mutant hSBDb*, respectively. The NMR results also showed that the interface between hSBDb and hE3 does not change significantly from hSBDb to hSBDb*. Taken together, our results represent a starting point for explaining the long standing enigma that the E2b core of the BCKDC binds E3 far more weakly relative to other {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes.

  5. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase (HBD) in plasma or serum. HBD measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, renal damage (such as rejection of transplants), certain hematological diseases (such as acute...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase (HBD) in plasma or serum. HBD measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, renal damage (such as rejection of transplants), certain hematological diseases (such as acute...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase (HBD) in plasma or serum. HBD measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, renal damage (such as rejection of transplants), certain hematological diseases (such as acute...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1440 - Lactate dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of liver diseases such as acute viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma of the liver, cardiac diseases such as myocardial...

  13. ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASES EXPRESSION DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT: LIVER VS. LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment, and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Although the lung can be a major target for aldehyde toxicity, development of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which detoxify aldehydes, in lung has be...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1380 - Hydroxybutyric dehydrogenase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... dehydrogenase (HBD) in plasma or serum. HBD measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardial infarction, renal damage (such as rejection of transplants), certain hematological diseases (such as...

  15. Protein engineering reveals ancient adaptive replacements in isocitrate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Antony M.; Golding, G. Brian

    1997-01-01

    Evolutionary analysis indicates that eubacterial NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases (EC 1.1.1.42) first evolved from an NAD-dependent precursor about 3.5 billion years ago. Selection in favor of utilizing NADP was probably a result of niche expansion during growth on acetate, where isocitrate dehydrogenase provides 90% of the NADPH necessary for biosynthesis. Amino acids responsible for differing coenzyme specificities were identified from x-ray crystallographic structures of Escherichia coli isocitrate dehydrogenase and the distantly related Thermus thermophilus NAD-dependent isopropylmalate dehydrogenase. Site-directed mutagenesis at sites lining the coenzyme binding pockets has been used to invert the coenzyme specificities of both enzymes. Reconstructed ancestral sequences indicate that these replacements are ancestral. Hence the adaptive history of molecular evolution is amenable to experimental investigation. PMID:9096353

  16. Glucose oxidation and PQQ-dependent dehydrogenases in Gluconobacter oxydans.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Tina; Schleyer, Ute; Merfort, Marcel; Bringer-Meyer, Stephanie; Görisch, Helmut; Sahm, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Gluconobacter oxydans is famous for its rapid and incomplete oxidation of a wide range of sugars and sugar alcohols. The organism is known for its efficient oxidation of D-glucose to D-gluconate, which can be further oxidized to two different keto-D-gluconates, 2-keto-D-gluconate and 5-keto-D-gluconate, as well as 2,5-di-keto-D-gluconate. For this oxidation chain and for further oxidation reactions, G. oxydans possesses a high number of membrane-bound dehydrogenases. In this review, we focus on the dehydrogenases involved in D-glucose oxidation and the products formed during this process. As some of the involved dehydrogenases contain pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) as a cofactor, also PQQ synthesis is reviewed. Finally, we will give an overview of further PQQ-dependent dehydrogenases and discuss their functions in G. oxydans ATCC 621H (DSM 2343). Copyright (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASES EXPRESSION DURING POSTNATAL DEVELOPMENT: LIVER VS. LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules present in the environment, and can be produced during biotransformation of xenobiotics. Although the lung can be a major target for aldehyde toxicity, development of aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), which detoxify aldehydes, in lung has be...

  18. Mammalian class IV alcohol dehydrogenase (stomach alcohol dehydrogenase): structure, origin, and correlation with enzymology.

    PubMed Central

    Parés, X; Cederlund, E; Moreno, A; Hjelmqvist, L; Farrés, J; Jörnvall, H

    1994-01-01

    The structure of a mammalian class IV alcohol dehydrogenase has been determined by peptide analysis of the protein isolated from rat stomach. The structure indicates that the enzyme constitutes a separate alcohol dehydrogenase class, in agreement with the distinct enzymatic properties; the class IV enzyme is somewhat closer to class I (the "classical" liver alcohol dehydrogenase; approximately 68% residue identities) than to the other classes (II, III, and V; approximately 60% residue identities), suggesting that class IV might have originated through duplication of an early vertebrate class I gene. The activity of the class IV protein toward ethanol is even higher than that of the classical liver enzyme. Both Km and kcat values are high, the latter being the highest of any class characterized so far. Structurally, these properties are correlated with replacements at the active site, affecting both substrate and coenzyme binding. In particular, Ala-294 (instead of valine) results in increased space in the middle section of the substrate cleft, Gly-47 (instead of a basic residue) results in decreased charge interactions with the coenzyme pyrophosphate, and Tyr-363 (instead of a basic residue) may also affect coenzyme binding. In combination, these exchanges are compatible with a promotion of the off dissociation and an increased turnover rate. In contrast, residues at the inner part of the substrate cleft are bulky, accounting for low activity toward secondary alcohols and cyclohexanol. Exchanges at positions 259-261 involve minor shifts in glycine residues at a reverse turn in the coenzyme-binding fold. Clearly, class IV is distinct in structure, ethanol turnover, stomach expression, and possible emergence from class I. PMID:8127901

  19. Enzymic and structural studies on Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase and other short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases.

    PubMed

    Smilda, T; Kamminga, A H; Reinders, P; Baron, W; van Hylckama Vlieg, J E; Beintema, J J

    2001-05-01

    Enzymic and structural studies on Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenases and other short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) are presented. Like alcohol dehydrogenases from other Drosophila species, the enzyme from D. simulans is more active on secondary than on primary alcohols, although ethanol is its only known physiological substrate. Several secondary alcohols were used to determine the kinetic parameters kcat and Km. The results of these experiments indicate that the substrate-binding region of the enzyme allows optimal binding of a short ethyl side-chain in a small binding pocket, and of a propyl or butyl side-chain in large binding pocket, with stereospecificity for R(-) alcohols. At a high concentration of R(-) alcohols substrate activation occurs. The kcat and Km values determined under these conditions are about two-fold, and two orders of magnitude, respectively, higher than those at low substrate concentrations. Sequence alignment of several SDRs of known, and unknown three-dimensional structures, indicate the presence of several conserved residues in addition to those involved in the catalyzed reactions. Structural roles of these conserved residues could be derived from observations made on superpositioned structures of several SDRs with known structures. Several residues are conserved in tetrameric SDRs, but not in dimeric ones. Two halohydrin-halide-lyases show significant homology with SDRs in the catalytic domains of these enzymes, but they do not have the structural features required for binding NAD+. Probably these lyases descend from an SDR, which has lost the capability to bind NAD+, but the enzyme reaction mechanisms may still be similar.

  20. Human liver aldehyde dehydrogenase: coenzyme binding

    SciTech Connect

    Kosley, L.L.; Pietruszko, R.

    1987-05-01

    The binding of (U-/sup 14/C) NAD to mitochondrial (E2) and cytoplasmin(E1) aldehyde dehydrogenase was measured by gel filtration and sedimentation techniques. The binding data for NAD and (E1) yielded linear Scatchard plots giving a dissociation constant of 25 (+/- 8) uM and the stoichiometry of 2 mol of NAD bound per mol of E1. The binding data for NAD and (E2) gave nonlinear Scatchard plots. The binding of NADH to E2 was measured via fluorescence enhancement; this could not be done with E1 because there was no signal. The dissociation constant for E2 by this technique was 0.7 (+/- 0.4) uM and stoichiometry of 1.0 was obtained. The binding of (U-/sup 14/C) NADH to (E1) and (E2) was also measured by the sedimentation technique. The binding data for (E1) and NADH gave linear Scatchard plots giving a dissociation constant of 13 (+/- 6) uM and the stoichiometry of 2.0. The binding data for NADH to (E2) gave nonlinear Scatchard plots. With (E1), the dissociation constants for both NAD and NADH are similar to those determined kinetically, but the stoichiometry is only half of that found by stopped flow technique. With (E2) the dissociation constant by fluorometric procedure was 2 orders of magnitude less than that from catalytic reaction.

  1. Elusive transition state of alcohol dehydrogenase unveiled.

    PubMed

    Roston, Daniel; Kohen, Amnon

    2010-05-25

    For several decades the hydride transfer catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase has been difficult to understand. Here we add to the large corpus of anomalous and paradoxical data collected for this reaction by measuring a normal (> 1) 2 degrees kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for the reduction of benzaldehyde. Because the relevant equilibrium effect is inverse (< 1), this KIE eludes the traditional interpretation of 2 degrees KIEs. It does, however, enable the development of a comprehensive model for the "tunneling ready state" (TRS) of the reaction that fits into the general scheme of Marcus-like models of hydrogen tunneling. The TRS is the ensemble of states along the intricate reorganization coordinate, where H tunneling between the donor and acceptor occurs (the crossing point in Marcus theory). It is comparable to the effective transition state implied by ensemble-averaged variational transition state theory. Properties of the TRS are approximated as an average of the individual properties of the donor and acceptor states. The model is consistent with experimental findings that previously appeared contradictory; specifically, it resolves the long-standing ambiguity regarding the location of the TRS (aldehyde-like vs. alcohol-like). The new picture of the TRS for this reaction identifies the principal components of the collective reaction coordinate and the average structure of the saddle point along that coordinate.

  2. Targeting isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takeo; Khawaja, Muhammad Rizwan; DiNardo, Courtney D; Atkins, Johnique T; Janku, Filip

    2016-05-01

    Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an essential enzyme for cellular respiration in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Recurrent mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 are prevalent in several cancers including glioma, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cholangiocarcinoma and chondrosarcoma. The mutated IDH1 and IDH2 proteins have a gain-of-function, neomorphic activity, catalyzing the reduction of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) to 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) by NADPH. Cancer-associated IDH mutations block normal cellular differentiation and promote tumorigenesis via the abnormal production of the oncometabolite 2-HG. High levels of 2-HG have been shown to inhibit α-KG dependent dioxygenases, including histone and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) demethylases, which play a key role in regulating the epigenetic state of cells. Current targeted inhibitors of IDH1 (AG120, IDH305), IDH2 (AG221), and pan-IDH1/2 (AG881) selectively inhibit mutant IDH protein and induce cell differentiation in in vitro and in vivo models. Preliminary results from phase I clinical trials with IDH inhibitors in patients with advanced hematologic malignancies have demonstrated an objective response rate ranging from 31% to 40% with durable responses (>1 year) observed. Furthermore, the IDH inhibitors have demonstrated early signals of activity in solid tumors with IDH mutations, including cholangiocarcinomas and low grade gliomas.

  3. Iodination of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jean O.; Harris, J. Ieuan

    1970-01-01

    1. A high degree of homology in the positions of tyrosine residues in glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase from lobster and pig muscle, and from yeast, prompted an examination of the reactivity of tyrosine residues in the enzyme. 2. Iodination of the enzyme from lobster muscle with low concentrations of potassium tri-[125I]-iodide led to the identification of tyrosine residues of differing reactivity. Tyrosine-46 appeared to be the most reactive in the native enzyme. 3. When the monocarboxymethylated enzyme was briefly treated with small amounts of iodine, iodination could be confined almost entirely to tyrosine-46 in the lobster enzyme; tyrosine-39 or tyrosine-42, or both, were also beginning to react. 4. These three tyrosine residues were also those that reacted most readily in the carboxymethylated pig and yeast enzymes. 5. The difficulties in attaining specific reaction of the native enzyme are considered. 6. The differences between our results and those of other workers are discussed. ImagesPLATE 1PLATE 2 PMID:5530750

  4. Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Activity in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Lorite, María J.; Tachil, Jörg; Sanjuán, Juán; Meyer, Ortwin; Bedmar, Eulogio J.

    2000-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 110spc4 was capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth with carbon monoxide (CO) as a sole energy and carbon source under aerobic conditions. The enzyme carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH; EC 1.2.99.2) has been purified 21-fold, with a yield of 16% and a specific activity of 58 nmol of CO oxidized/min/mg of protein, by a procedure that involved differential ultracentrifugation, anion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and gel filtration. The purified enzyme gave a single protein and activity band on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and had a molecular mass of 230,000 Da. The 230-kDa enzyme was composed of large (L; 75-kDa), medium (M; 28.4-kDa), and small (S; 17.2-kDa) subunits occurring in heterohexameric (LMS)2 subunit composition. The 75-kDa polypeptide exhibited immunological cross-reactivity with the large subunit of the CODH of Oligotropha carboxidovorans. The B. japonicum enzyme contained, per mole, 2.29 atoms of Mo, 7.96 atoms of Fe, 7.60 atoms of labile S, and 1.99 mol of flavin. Treatment of the enzyme with iodoacetamide yielded di(carboxamidomethyl)molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide, identifying molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide as the organic portion of the B. japonicum CODH molybdenum cofactor. The absorption spectrum of the purified enzyme was characteristic of a molybdenum-containing iron-sulfur flavoprotein. PMID:10788353

  5. Targeting Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2: New Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Che-Hong; Ferreira, Julio Cesar Batista; Gross, Eric R.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2014-01-01

    A family of detoxifying enzymes called aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) has been a subject of recent interest, as its role in detoxifying aldehydes that accumulate through metabolism and to which we are exposed from the environment has been elucidated. Although the human genome has 19 ALDH genes, one ALDH emerges as a particularly important enzyme in a variety of human pathologies. This ALDH, ALDH2, is located in the mitochondrial matrix with much known about its role in ethanol metabolism. Less known is a new body of research to be discussed in this review, suggesting that ALDH2 dysfunction may contribute to a variety of human diseases including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, and cancer. Recent studies suggest that ALDH2 dysfunction is also associated with Fanconi anemia, pain, osteoporosis, and the process of aging. Furthermore, an ALDH2 inactivating mutation (termed ALDH2*2) is the most common single point mutation in humans, and epidemiological studies suggest a correlation between this inactivating mutation and increased propensity for common human pathologies. These data together with studies in animal models and the use of new pharmacological tools that activate ALDH2 depict a new picture related to ALDH2 as a critical health-promoting enzyme. PMID:24382882

  6. Elusive transition state of alcohol dehydrogenase unveiled

    PubMed Central

    Roston, Daniel; Kohen, Amnon

    2010-01-01

    For several decades the hydride transfer catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase has been difficult to understand. Here we add to the large corpus of anomalous and paradoxical data collected for this reaction by measuring a normal (> 1) 2° kinetic isotope effect (KIE) for the reduction of benzaldehyde. Because the relevant equilibrium effect is inverse (< 1), this KIE eludes the traditional interpretation of 2° KIEs. It does, however, enable the development of a comprehensive model for the “tunneling ready state” (TRS) of the reaction that fits into the general scheme of Marcus-like models of hydrogen tunneling. The TRS is the ensemble of states along the intricate reorganization coordinate, where H tunneling between the donor and acceptor occurs (the crossing point in Marcus theory). It is comparable to the effective transition state implied by ensemble-averaged variational transition state theory. Properties of the TRS are approximated as an average of the individual properties of the donor and acceptor states. The model is consistent with experimental findings that previously appeared contradictory; specifically, it resolves the long-standing ambiguity regarding the location of the TRS (aldehyde-like vs. alcohol-like). The new picture of the TRS for this reaction identifies the principal components of the collective reaction coordinate and the average structure of the saddle point along that coordinate. PMID:20457944

  7. Herbicidal Activity of an Isopropylmalate Dehydrogenase Inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Wittenbach, V. A.; Teaney, P. W.; Hanna, W. S.; Rayner, D. R.; Schloss, J. V.

    1994-01-01

    Isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IPMDH) is the third enzyme specific to leucine biosynthesis. It catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of 3-isopropylmalate (3-IPM) to 2-ketoisocaproic acid. The partially purified enzyme from pea (Pisum sativum L.) shows a broad pH optimum of 7.8 to 9.1 and has Km values for 3-IPM and NAD of 18 and 40 [mu]M, respectively. O-Isobutenyl oxalylhydroxamate (O-IbOHA) has been discovered to be an excellent inhibitor of the pea IPMDH, with an apparent inhibitor constant of 5 nM. As an herbicide, O-IbOHA showed only moderate activity on a variety of broadleaf and grass species. We characterized the herbicidal activity of O-IbOHA on corn (Zea mays L.), a sensitive species; giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) and morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea [L.] Roth), moderately tolerant species; and soybean [Glycine max L. Merr.), a tolerant species. Differences in tolerance among the species were not due to differences in the sensitivity of IPMDH. Studies with [14C]O-IbOHA suggested that uptake and translocation were not major limitations for herbicidal activity, nor were they determinants of tolerance. Moreover, metabolism could not account for the difference in tolerance of corn, foxtail, and morning glory, although it might account for the tolerance of soybean. Herbicidal activity on all four species was correlated with the accumulation of 3-IPM in the plants. PMID:12232331

  8. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Lai, H. C.; Lai, Michael P. Y.; Leung, Kevin S. N.

    1968-01-01

    In a Chinese population 1,000 full-term male neonates and a further 117 jaundiced neonates of both sexes were studied in an investigation of the frequency of deficiency of erythrocyte glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). This enzyme was found to be deficient in 3·6% of male neonates. Correlation of the results with the birthplace of the 602 mothers who were known to come from Kwangtung province showed no significant differences in the frequency of the deficiency between certain parts of the province. The deficiency of G6PD in hemizygous males is profound but it is not associated with erythrocyte acid monophosphoesterase deficiency in Chinese in Hong Kong. The G6PD deficiency accounts for 15·4% of all the 117 cases of neonatal jaundice. The relative importance of G6PD deficiency as a cause of neonatal jaundice does not differ materially in male and female mutants. Neonatal jaundice can occur in all genotypes of G6PD mutation in Chinese. PMID:5697334

  9. Halophile aldehyde dehydrogenase from Halobacterium salinarum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo-Jeong; Joo, Won-A; Cho, Chang-Won; Kim, Chan-Wha

    2006-01-01

    Halobacterium salinarum is a member of the halophilic archaea. In the present study, H. salinarum was cultured at various NaCl concentrations (3.5, 4.3, and 6.0 M NaCl), and its proteome was determined and identificated via proteomics technique. We detected 14 proteins which were significantly down-regulated in 3.5 M and/or 6 M NaCl. Among the identified protein spots, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) was selected for evaluation with regard to its potential applications in industry. The most effective metabolism function exhibited by ALDH is the oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. The ALDH gene from H. salinarum (1.5 kb fragment) was amplified by PCR and cloned into the E. coli strain, BL21 (DE3), with the pGEX-KG vector. We subsequently analyzed the enzyme activity of the recombinant ALDH (54 kDa) at a variety of salt concentrations. The purified recombinant ALDH from H. salinarum exhibited the most pronounced activity at 1 M NaCl. Therefore, the ALDH from H.salinarum is a halophilic enzyme, and may prove useful for applications in hypersaline environments.

  10. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Lorite, M J; Tachil, J; Sanjuán, J; Meyer, O; Bedmar, E J

    2000-05-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum strain 110spc4 was capable of chemolithoautotrophic growth with carbon monoxide (CO) as a sole energy and carbon source under aerobic conditions. The enzyme carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH; EC 1.2.99.2) has been purified 21-fold, with a yield of 16% and a specific activity of 58 nmol of CO oxidized/min/mg of protein, by a procedure that involved differential ultracentrifugation, anion-exchange chromatography, hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and gel filtration. The purified enzyme gave a single protein and activity band on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and had a molecular mass of 230,000 Da. The 230-kDa enzyme was composed of large (L; 75-kDa), medium (M; 28.4-kDa), and small (S; 17.2-kDa) subunits occurring in heterohexameric (LMS)(2) subunit composition. The 75-kDa polypeptide exhibited immunological cross-reactivity with the large subunit of the CODH of Oligotropha carboxidovorans. The B. japonicum enzyme contained, per mole, 2.29 atoms of Mo, 7.96 atoms of Fe, 7.60 atoms of labile S, and 1.99 mol of flavin. Treatment of the enzyme with iodoacetamide yielded di(carboxamidomethyl)molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide, identifying molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide as the organic portion of the B. japonicum CODH molybdenum cofactor. The absorption spectrum of the purified enzyme was characteristic of a molybdenum-containing iron-sulfur flavoprotein.

  11. Function of formate dehydrogenases in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Sofia M; Voordouw, Johanna; Leitão, Cristina; Martins, Mónica; Voordouw, Gerrit; Pereira, Inês A C

    2013-08-01

    The genome of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough encodes three formate dehydrogenases (FDHs), two of which are soluble periplasmic enzymes (FdhAB and FdhABC3) and one that is periplasmic but membrane-associated (FdhM). FdhAB and FdhABC3 were recently shown to be the main enzymes present during growth with lactate, formate or hydrogen. To address the role of these two enzymes, ΔfdhAB and ΔfdhABC3, mutants were generated and studied. Different phenotypes were observed in the presence of either molybdenum or tungsten, since both enzymes were important for growth on formate in the presence of Mo, whereas in the presence of W only FdhAB played a role. Both ΔfdhAB and ΔfdhABC3 mutants displayed defects in growth with lactate and sulfate providing the first direct evidence for the involvement of formate cycling under these conditions. In support of this mechanism, incubation of concentrated cell suspensions of the mutant strains with lactate and limiting sulfate also gave elevated formate concentrations, as compared to the wild-type strain. In contrast, both mutants grew similarly to the wild-type with H2 and sulfate. In the absence of sulfate, the wild-type D. vulgaris cells produced formate when supplied with H2 and CO2, which resulted from CO2 reduction by the periplasmic FDHs. The conversion of H2 and CO2 to formate allows the reversible storage of reducing power in a much more soluble molecule. Furthermore, we propose this may be an expression of the ability of some sulfate-reducing bacteria to grow by hydrogen oxidation, in syntrophy with organisms that consume formate, but are less efficient in H2 utilization.

  12. Determinants of performance in the isocitrate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, A. M.; Shiau, A. K.; Koshland, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    The substrate specificity of the NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli was investigated by combining site-directed mutagenesis and utilization of alternative substrates. A comparison of the kinetics of the wild-type enzyme with 2R-malate reveals that the gamma-carboxylate of 2R,3S-isocitrate contributes a factor of 12,000,000 to enzyme performance. Analysis of kinetic data compiled for 10 enzymes and nine different substrates reveals that a factor of 1,650 can be ascribed to the hydrogen bond formed between S113 and the gamma-carboxylate of bound isocitrate, a factor of 150 to the negative charge of the gamma-carboxylate, and a factor of 50 for the gamma-methyl. These results are entirely consistent with X-ray structures of Michaelis complexes that show a hydrogen bond positions the gamma-carboxylate of isocitrate so that a salt bridge can form to the nicotinamide ring of NADP. PMID:8745412

  13. Single amino acid polymorphism in aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily.

    PubMed

    Priyadharshini Christy, J; George Priya Doss, C

    2015-01-01

    The aldehyde dehydrogenase gene superfamily comprises of 19 genes and 3 pseudogenes. These superfamily genes play a vital role in the formation of molecules that are involved in life processes, and detoxification of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes. ALDH superfamily genes associated mutations are implicated in various diseases, such as pyridoxine-dependent seizures, gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria, type II Hyperprolinemia, Sjogren-Larsson syndrome including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Accumulation of large DNA variations data especially Single Amino acid Polymorphisms (SAPs) in public databases related to ALDH superfamily genes insisted us to conduct a survey on the disease associated mutations and predict their function impact on protein structure and function. Overall this study provides an update and highlights the importance of pathogenic mutations in associated diseases. Using KD4v and Project HOPE a computational based platform, we summarized all the deleterious properties of SAPs in ALDH superfamily genes by the providing valuable insight into structural alteration rendered due to mutation. We hope this review might provide a way to define the deleteriousness of a SAP and helps to understand the molecular basis of the associated disease and also permits precise diagnosis and treatment in the near future.

  14. A mechanism of sulfite neurotoxicity: direct inhibition of glutamate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Vincent, Annette Shoba; Halliwell, Barry; Wong, Kim Ping

    2004-10-08

    Exposure of Neuro-2a and PC12 cells to micromolar concentrations of sulfite caused an increase in reactive oxygen species and a decrease in ATP. Likewise, the biosynthesis of ATP in intact rat brain mitochondria from the oxidation of glutamate was inhibited by micromolar sulfite. Glutamate-driven respiration increased the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and this was abolished by sulfite but the MMP generated by oxidation of malate and succinate was not affected. The increased rate of production of NADH from exogenous NAD+ and glutamate added to rat brain mitochondrial extracts was inhibited by sulfite, and mitochondria preincubated with sulfite failed to reduce NAD+. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in rat brain mitochondrial extract was inhibited dose-dependently by sulfite as was the activity of a purified enzyme. An increase in the Km (glutamate) and a decrease in Vmax resulting in an attenuation in Vmax/Km (glutamate) at 100 microm sulfite suggest a mixed type of inhibition. However, uncompetitive inhibition was noted with decreases in both Km (NAD+) and Vmax, whereas Vmax/Km (NAD+) remained relatively constant. We propose that GDH is one target of action of sulfite, leading to a decrease in alpha-ketoglutarate and a diminished flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle accompanied by a decrease in NADH through the mitochondrial electron transport chain, a decreased MMP, and a decrease in ATP synthesis. Because glutamate is a major metabolite in the brain, inhibition of GDH by sulfite could contribute to the severe phenotype of sulfite oxidase deficiency in human infants.

  15. Green tea catechins: inhibitors of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chung-Cheng; Wu, Bo-Tsung; Tsuei, Yi-Wei; Shih, Li-Jane; Kuo, Yu-Liang; Kao, Yung-Hsi

    2010-05-01

    Green tea catechins, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are known to regulate obesity and fat accumulation. We performed a kinetic analysis in a cell-free system to determine the mode of inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH; EC 1.1.1.8) by EGCG. GPDH catalyzes the beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-dependent reduction of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to yield glycerol-3-phosphate, which serves as one of the major precursors of triacylglycerols. We found that EGCG dose-dependently inhibited GPDH activity at a concentration of approximately 20 muM for 50 % inhibition. The IC (50) values of other green tea catechins, such as (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epigallocatechin, were all above 100 microM. This suggests a catechin type-dependent effect. Based on double-reciprocal plots of the kinetic data, EGCG was a noncompetitive inhibitor of the GPDH substrates, NADH and DHAP, with respective inhibition constants (Ki) of 18 and 31 microM. Results of this study possibly support previous studies that EGCG mediates fat content. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart. New York.

  16. Lactate Dehydrogenase in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Something Old, Something New.

    PubMed

    Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Memeo, Riccardo; Casadei Gardini, Andrea; Giampieri, Riccardo; Bittoni, Alessandro; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Del Prete, Michela; Cascinu, Stefano; Scartozzi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver tumour (80-90%) and represents more than 5.7% of all cancers. Although in recent years the therapeutic options for these patients have increased, clinical results are yet unsatisfactory and the prognosis remains dismal. Clinical or molecular criteria allowing a more accurate selection of patients are in fact largely lacking. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is a glycolytic key enzyme in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate under anaerobic conditions. In preclinical models, upregulation of LDH has been suggested to ensure both an efficient anaerobic/glycolytic metabolism and a reduced dependence on oxygen under hypoxic conditions in tumour cells. Data from several analyses on different tumour types seem to suggest that LDH levels may be a significant prognostic factor. The role of LDH in HCC has been investigated by different authors in heterogeneous populations of patients. It has been tested as a potential biomarker in retrospective, small, and nonfocused studies in patients undergoing surgery, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and systemic therapy. In the major part of these studies, high LDH serum levels seem to predict a poorer outcome. We have reviewed literature in this setting trying to resume basis for future studies validating the role of LDH in this disease.

  17. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 in stem cells and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kaori; Tanaka, Takuji; Hara, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The human genome contains 19 putatively functional aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes, which encode enzymes critical for detoxification of endogenous and exogenous aldehyde substrates through NAD(P)+-dependent oxidation. ALDH1 has three main isotypes, ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, and ALDH1A3, and is a marker of normal tissue stem cells (SC) and cancer stem cells (CSC), where it is involved in self-renewal, differentiation and self-protection. Experiments with murine and human cells indicate that ALDH1 activity, predominantly attributed to isotype ALDH1A1, is tissue- and cancer-specific. High ALDH1 activity and ALDH1A1 overexpression are associated with poor cancer prognosis, though high ALDH1 and ALDH1A1 levels do not always correlate with highly malignant phenotypes and poor clinical outcome. In cancer therapy, ALDH1A1 provides a useful therapeutic CSC target in tissue types that normally do not express high levels of ALDH1A1, including breast, lung, esophagus, colon and stomach. Here we review the functions and mechanisms of ALDH1A1, the key ALDH isozyme linked to SC populations and an important contributor to CSC function in cancers, and we outline its potential in future anticancer strategies. PMID:26783961

  18. Natural history of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency through adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Evan Cole; De Meulemeester, Christine; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Gibson, K. Michael; Torres, Carlos; Guberman, Alan; Salomons, Gajja S.; Jakobs, Cornelis; Ali-Ridha, Andre; Parviz, Mahsa; Pearl, Phillip L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The natural history of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency in adulthood is unknown; we elucidate the clinical manifestations of the disease later in life. Methods: A 63-year-old man with long-standing intellectual disability was diagnosed with SSADH deficiency following hospitalization for progressive decline, escalating seizures, and prolonged periods of altered consciousness. We present a detailed review of his clinical course and reviewed our SSADH deficiency database adult cohort to derive natural history information. Results: Of 95 patients in the database for whom age at diagnosis is recorded, there are 40 individuals currently aged 18 years or older. Only 3 patients were diagnosed after age 18 years. Of 25 adults for whom data are available after age 18, 60% have a history of epilepsy. Predominant seizure types are generalized tonic-clonic, absence, and myoclonic. EEGs showed background slowing or generalized epileptiform discharges in two-thirds of adults for whom EEG data were collected. History of psychiatric symptoms was prominent, with frequent anxiety, sleep disturbances, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Conclusions: We identified patients older than 18 years with SSADH deficiency in our database following identification and review of a patient diagnosed in the seventh decade of life. The illness had a progressive course with escalating seizures in the index case, with fatality at age 63. Diagnosis in adulthood is rare. Epilepsy is more common in the adult than the pediatric SSADH deficiency cohort; neuropsychiatric morbidity remains prominent. PMID:26268900

  19. Genetic control of alcohol dehydrogenase levels in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Maroni, G

    1978-06-01

    Among the progeny of Drosophila flies heterozygous for two noncomplementing Adh-negative alleles, two individuals were found that had recovered appreciable alcohol dehydrogenase activity, thereby surviving the ethanol medium used as a screen. The most likely explanation is that these Adh-positive flies are the product of intracistronic recombination within the Adh locus. Judging by the distribution of outside markers, one of the crossovers would have been a conventional reciprocal exchange while the other appears to have been an instance of nonreciprocal recombination. The enzymes produced in strains derived from the original survivors can be easily distinguished from wild-type enzymes ADH-S and ADH-F on the basis of their sensitivity to denaturing agents. None of various physical and catalytic properties tested revealed differences between the enzymes of the survivor strains except that in one of them the level of activity is 55--65% of the other. Quantitative immunological determinations of ADH gave estimates of enzyme protein which are proportional to the measured activity levels. These results are interpreted to indicate that different amounts of ADH protein are being accumulated in the two strains.

  20. [Alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase as tumour markers and factors intensifying carcinogenesis in colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Jelski, Wojciech; Orywal, Karolina; Kedra, Bogusław; Szmitkowski, Maciej

    2008-06-01

    Numerous experiments have shown that alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are present in cells of various cancers and play role in carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to compare the capacity for ethanol metabolism measured by ADH isoenzymes and ALDH activity, between colorectal cancer and normal colonic mucosa. We have also investigated the serum activity of these enzymes in colorectal cancer patients as potential tumour markers. The activities of ADH isoenzymes and ALDH were measured in the: cancer tissue, healthy colonic mucosa and serum of 42 patients with colorectal cancer. For the measurement of the activity of class I ADH isoenzyme and ALDH activity the fluorometric methods was employed. The total ADH activity and activity of class III and IV isoenzymes was measured by the photometric method. The activity of total alcohol dehydrogenase and class I of ADH were significantly higher in cancer cells than in healthy tissues. The other tested classes of ADH had higher activities in cancer tissue but the differences were not statistically significant. The activity of ALDH was significantly lower in the cancer cells. The activities of all tested enzymes and isoenzymes in colorectal cancer tissue were not significantly higher in drinkers than in non-drinkers. Additionally we observed statistically significant increasing activity of class I ADH isoenzymes in the sera of patients with colorectal cancer. For this reason the total ADH activity was also significantly increased. The activities of ADH III and ADH IV isoenzymes and ALDH were unchanged in the sera of patients. There were no marked differences in activities of all tested enzymes and isoenzymes between drinkers and non-drinkers (with colorectal cancer). The differences in activities of total ADH and class I ADH isoenzymes between colorectal cancer tissues and healthy mucosa might be a factor of ethanol metabolism disorders, which can intensify carcinogenesis. The increased total

  1. Succinate Dehydrogenase Loss in Familial Paraganglioma: Biochemistry, Genetics, and Epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Her, Yeng F.; Maher, L. James

    2015-01-01

    It is counterintuitive that metabolic defects reducing ATP production can cause, rather than protect from, cancer. Yet this is precisely the case for familial paraganglioma, a form of neuroendocrine malignancy caused by loss of succinate dehydrogenase in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Here we review biochemical, genetic, and epigenetic considerations in succinate dehydrogenase loss and present leading models and mysteries associated with this fascinating and important tumor. PMID:26294907

  2. Enzymatic Transformation of Morphine by Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas testosteroni

    PubMed Central

    Liras, Paloma; Kasparian, Stephen S.; Umbreit, Wayne W.

    1975-01-01

    Enzyme preparations from Pseudomonas testosteroni containing α- and β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases catalyzed the oxidation of morphine and codeine by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Morphine was converted in relatively low yield into 14-hydroxymorphinone probably via morphinone as an intermediate. Codeine was converted to codeinone and 14-hydroxycodeinone. Only the conversions at the 6-position were carried out by the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Hydroxylation at the 14-position did occur spontaneously (or enzymatically with a contaminating enzyme) after oxidation at the 6-position. PMID:172013

  3. Structural and functional analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Halavaty, Andrei S; Rich, Rebecca L; Chen, Chao; Joo, Jeong Chan; Minasov, George; Dubrovska, Ievgeniia; Winsor, James R; Myszka, David G; Duban, Mark; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Yakunin, Alexander F; Anderson, Wayne F

    2015-05-01

    When exposed to high osmolarity, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) restores its growth and establishes a new steady state by accumulating the osmoprotectant metabolite betaine. Effective osmoregulation has also been implicated in the acquirement of a profound antibiotic resistance by MRSA. Betaine can be obtained from the bacterial habitat or produced intracellularly from choline via the toxic betaine aldehyde (BA) employing the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzymes. Here, it is shown that the putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early MRSA isolate COL (SaBADH) utilizes betaine aldehyde as the primary substrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) as the cofactor. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the affinity of NAD(+), NADH and BA for SaBADH is affected by temperature, pH and buffer composition. Five crystal structures of the wild type and three structures of the Gly234Ser mutant of SaBADH in the apo and holo forms provide details of the molecular mechanisms of activity and substrate specificity/inhibition of this enzyme.

  4. Structural and functional analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus

    SciTech Connect

    Halavaty, Andrei S.; Rich, Rebecca L.; Chen, Chao; Joo, Jeong Chan; Minasov, George; Dubrovska, Ievgeniia; Winsor, James R.; Myszka, David G.; Duban, Mark; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Anderson, Wayne F.

    2015-04-25

    When exposed to high osmolarity, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) restores its growth and establishes a new steady state by accumulating the osmoprotectant metabolite betaine. Effective osmoregulation has also been implicated in the acquirement of a profound antibiotic resistance by MRSA. Betaine can be obtained from the bacterial habitat or produced intracellularly from choline via the toxic betaine aldehyde (BA) employing the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzymes. Here, it is shown that the putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early MRSA isolate COL ( SaBADH) utilizes betaine aldehyde as the primary substrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as the cofactor. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the affinity of NAD+, NADH and BA for SaBADH is affected by temperature, pH and buffer composition. Finally, five crystal structures of the wild type and three structures of the Gly234Ser mutant of SaBADH in the apo and holo forms provide details of the molecular mechanisms of activity and substrate specificity/inhibition of this enzyme.

  5. Structural and functional analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Halavaty, Andrei S.; Rich, Rebecca L.; Chen, Chao; Joo, Jeong Chan; Minasov, George; Dubrovska, Ievgeniia; Winsor, James R.; Myszka, David G.; Duban, Mark; Shuvalova, Ludmilla; Yakunin, Alexander F.; Anderson, Wayne F.

    2015-01-01

    When exposed to high osmolarity, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) restores its growth and establishes a new steady state by accumulating the osmoprotectant metabolite betaine. Effective osmoregulation has also been implicated in the acquirement of a profound antibiotic resistance by MRSA. Betaine can be obtained from the bacterial habitat or produced intracellularly from choline via the toxic betaine aldehyde (BA) employing the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzymes. Here, it is shown that the putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early MRSA isolate COL (SaBADH) utilizes betaine aldehyde as the primary substrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as the cofactor. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the affinity of NAD+, NADH and BA for SaBADH is affected by temperature, pH and buffer composition. Five crystal structures of the wild type and three structures of the Gly234Ser mutant of SaBADH in the apo and holo forms provide details of the molecular mechanisms of activity and substrate specificity/inhibition of this enzyme. PMID:25945581

  6. 3 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of Ruminococcus sp. from human intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed

    Akao, T; Akao, T; Hattori, M; Namba, T; Kobashi, K

    1986-05-01

    Ruminococcus sp. PO1-3 obtained from human intestinal flora is able to reduce dehydrocholate as well as 3-ketoglycyrrhetinate. From this bacterium dehydrocholate- and 3-ketoglycyrrhetinate-reducing activities were purified one thousand-fold together with 3-ketocholanate-reducing and 3-beta-hydroxyglycyrrhetinate (glycyrrhetic acid) oxidizing activities by means of Matrex Red A, Sephadex G-200 and Octyl-Sepharose column chromatography. The purified enzyme catalyzed the reduction of dehydrocholic acid to 3 beta-hydroxy-7,12-diketocholanic acid and of 3-ketocholanic acid to 3 beta-hydroxycholanic acid. Studies on substrate specificity revealed that the enzyme had absolute specificity for the beta-configuration of a hydroxyl group at the 3 position of bile acid and steroids having no double bond in the A/B ring. This enzyme was neither beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase [EC 1.1.1.51] nor 3 beta-hydroxy-delta 5-steroid dehydrogenase [EC 1.1.1.145], but a novel type of enzyme, defined as 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase.

  7. Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on lipoamide dehydrogenase, a member of three multienzyme complexes.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Aditya; Bryk, Ruslana; Shi, Shuangping; Rhee, Kyu; Rath, Poonam; Schnappinger, Dirk; Ehrt, Sabine; Nathan, Carl

    2011-01-20

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) adapts to persist in a nutritionally limited macrophage compartment. Lipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd), the third enzyme (E3) in Mtb's pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH), also serves as E1 of peroxynitrite reductase/peroxidase (PNR/P), which helps Mtb resist host-reactive nitrogen intermediates. In contrast to Mtb lacking dihydrolipoamide acyltransferase (DlaT), the E2 of PDH and PNR/P, Lpd-deficient Mtb is severely attenuated in wild-type and immunodeficient mice. This suggests that Lpd has a function that DlaT does not share. When DlaT is absent, Mtb upregulates an Lpd-dependent branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKADH) encoded by pdhA, pdhB, pdhC, and lpdC. Without Lpd, Mtb cannot metabolize branched-chain amino acids and potentially toxic branched-chain intermediates accumulate. Mtb deficient in both DlaT and PdhC phenocopies Lpd-deficient Mtb. Thus, Mtb critically requires BCKADH along with PDH and PNR/P for pathogenesis. These findings position Lpd as a potential target for anti-infectives against Mtb.

  8. Structural and functional analysis of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus

    DOE PAGES

    Halavaty, Andrei S.; Rich, Rebecca L.; Chen, Chao; ...

    2015-04-25

    When exposed to high osmolarity, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) restores its growth and establishes a new steady state by accumulating the osmoprotectant metabolite betaine. Effective osmoregulation has also been implicated in the acquirement of a profound antibiotic resistance by MRSA. Betaine can be obtained from the bacterial habitat or produced intracellularly from choline via the toxic betaine aldehyde (BA) employing the choline dehydrogenase and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) enzymes. Here, it is shown that the putative betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase SACOL2628 from the early MRSA isolate COL ( SaBADH) utilizes betaine aldehyde as the primary substrate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)more » as the cofactor. Surface plasmon resonance experiments revealed that the affinity of NAD+, NADH and BA for SaBADH is affected by temperature, pH and buffer composition. Finally, five crystal structures of the wild type and three structures of the Gly234Ser mutant of SaBADH in the apo and holo forms provide details of the molecular mechanisms of activity and substrate specificity/inhibition of this enzyme.« less

  9. Histochemical modification of the active site of succinate dehydrogenase with N-acetylimidazole.

    PubMed

    Nakae, Y; Shono, M

    1986-04-01

    The kinetics of acetylation of mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase [EC 1.3.99.1] in the two fibre types (A and C) of rat gastrocnemius with N-acetylimidazole was studied by a newly modified histochemical technique. Acetylimidazole partially inactivated the enzyme, but subsequent deacetylation with hydroxylamine restored the enzyme activity completely. Inactivation of the enzyme by acetylimidazole was prevented by malonate, which is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. The value of the inhibition constant (Ki = 34 microM) for malonate, obtained from the dependence of the pseudo-first order rate constant of acetylation of the enzyme with acetylimidazole on the malonate concentration, was in good agreement with the Ki value (33 microM) obtained by a different method, the dependence of the initial velocity of succinate oxidation by the dehydrogenase on the substrate concentration in the presence of malonate. These findings suggest that a tyrosyl residue is located in the malonate binding site (the active site) of succinate dehydrogenase in the gastrocnemius and plays a role in substrate binding, but is not a catalytic group.

  10. Structure-guided Development of Specific Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Inhibitors Targeting the ATP-binding Pocket*

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Shih-Chia; Qi, Xiangbing; Gui, Wen-Jun; Wu, Cheng-Yang; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Wernstedt-Asterholm, Ingrid; Morlock, Lorraine K.; Owens, Kyle R.; Scherer, Philipp E.; Williams, Noelle S.; Tambar, Uttam K.; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoforms (PDKs 1–4) negatively regulate activity of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex by reversible phosphorylation. PDK isoforms are up-regulated in obesity, diabetes, heart failure, and cancer and are potential therapeutic targets for these important human diseases. Here, we employed a structure-guided design to convert a known Hsp90 inhibitor to a series of highly specific PDK inhibitors, based on structural conservation in the ATP-binding pocket. The key step involved the substitution of a carbonyl group in the parent compound with a sulfonyl in the PDK inhibitors. The final compound of this series, 2-[(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)sulfonyl]isoindoline-4,6-diol, designated PS10, inhibits all four PDK isoforms with IC50 = 0.8 μm for PDK2. The administration of PS10 (70 mg/kg) to diet-induced obese mice significantly augments pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity with reduced phosphorylation in different tissues. Prolonged PS10 treatments result in improved glucose tolerance and notably lessened hepatic steatosis in the mouse model. The results support the pharmacological approach of targeting PDK to control both glucose and fat levels in obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:24356970

  11. The Occurrence of Glycolate Dehydrogenase and Glycolate Oxidase in Green Plants

    PubMed Central

    Frederick, Sue Ellen; Gruber, Peter J.; Tolbert, N. E.

    1973-01-01

    Homogenates of various lower land plants, aquatic angiosperms, and green algae were assayed for glycolate oxidase, a peroxisomal enzyme present in green leaves of higher plants, and for glycolate dehydrogenase, a functionally analogous enzyme characteristic of certain green algae. Green tissues of all lower land plants examined (including mosses, liverworts, ferns, and fern allies), as well as three freshwater aquatic angiosperms, contained an enzyme resembling glycolate oxidase, in that it oxidized l- but not d-lactate in addition to glycolate, and was insensitive to 2 mm cyanide. Many of the green algae (including Chlorella vulgaris, previously claimed to have glycolate oxidase) contained an enzyme resembling glycolate dehydrogenase, in that it oxidized d- but not l-lactate, and was inhibited by 2 mm cyanide. Other green algae had activity characteristic of glycolate oxidase and, accordingly, showed a substantial glycolate-dependent O2 uptake. It is pointed out that this distribution pattern of glycolate oxidase and glycolate dehydrogenase among the green plants may have phylogenetic significance. Activities of catalase, a marker enzyme for peroxisomes, were also determined and were generally lower in the algae than in the land plants or aquatic angiosperms. Among the algae, however, there were no consistent correlations between levels of catalase and the type of enzyme which oxidized glycolate. PMID:16658555

  12. Prospects for robust biocatalysis: engineering of novel specificity in a halophilic amino acid dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Munawar, Nayla; Engel, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    Heat- and solvent-tolerant enzymes from halophiles, potentially important industrially, offer a robust framework for protein engineering, but few solved halophilic structures exist to guide this. Homology modelling has guided mutations in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) from Halobacterium salinarum to emulate conversion of a mesophilic GDH to a methionine dehydrogenase. Replacement of K89, A163 and S367 by leucine, glycine and alanine converted halophilic GDH into a dehydrogenase accepting L-methionine, L-norleucine and L-norvaline as substrates. Over-expression in the halophilic expression host Haloferax volcanii and three-step purification gave ~98 % pure protein exhibiting maximum activity at pH 10. This enzyme also showed enhanced thermostability and organic solvent tolerance even at 70 °C, offering a biocatalyst resistant to harsh industrial environments. To our knowledge, this is the first reported amino acid specificity change engineered in a halophilic enzyme, encouraging use of mesophilic models to guide engineering of novel halophilic biocatalysts for industrial application. Calibrated gel filtration experiments show that both the mutant and the wild-type enzyme are stable hexamers.

  13. The functional readthrough extension of malate dehydrogenase reveals a modification of the genetic code

    PubMed Central

    Hofhuis, Julia; Schueren, Fabian; Nötzel, Christopher; Lingner, Thomas; Gärtner, Jutta; Jahn, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Translational readthrough gives rise to C-terminally extended proteins, thereby providing the cell with new protein isoforms. These may have different properties from the parental proteins if the extensions contain functional domains. While for most genes amino acid incorporation at the stop codon is far lower than 0.1%, about 4% of malate dehydrogenase (MDH1) is physiologically extended by translational readthrough and the actual ratio of MDH1x (extended protein) to ‘normal' MDH1 is dependent on the cell type. In human cells, arginine and tryptophan are co-encoded by the MDH1x UGA stop codon. Readthrough is controlled by the 7-nucleotide high-readthrough stop codon context without contribution of the subsequent 50 nucleotides encoding the extension. All vertebrate MDH1x is directed to peroxisomes via a hidden peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS) in the readthrough extension, which is more highly conserved than the extension of lactate dehydrogenase B. The hidden PTS of non-mammalian MDH1x evolved to be more efficient than the PTS of mammalian MDH1x. These results provide insight into the genetic and functional co-evolution of these dually localized dehydrogenases. PMID:27881739

  14. Kinetic and mechanistic studies of methylated liver alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, C S

    1978-01-01

    Reductive methylation of lysine residues activates liver alcohol dehydrogenase in the oxidation of primary alcohols, but decreases the activity of the enzyme towards secondary alcohols. The modification also desensitizes the dehydrogenase to substrate inhibition at high alcohol concentrations. Steady-state kinetic studies of methylated liver alcohol dehydrogenase over a wide range of alcohol concentrations suggest that alcohol oxidation proceeds via a random addition of coenzyme and substrate with a pathway for the formation of the productive enzyme-NADH-alcohol complex. To facilitate the analyses of the effects of methylation on liver alcohol dehydrogenase and factors affecting them, new operational kinetic parameters to describe the results at high substrate concentration were introduced. The changes in the dehydrogenase activity on alkylation were found to be associated with changes in the maximum velocities that are affected by the hydrophobicity of alkyl groups introduced at lysine residues. The desensitization of alkylated liver alcohol dehydrogenase to substrate inhibition is identified with a decrease in inhibitory Michaelis constants for alcohols and this is favoured by the steric effects of substituents at the lysine residues. PMID:697732

  15. Expression and Characterization of a Novel 1,3-Propanediol Dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xianghui; Yun, Junhua; Qi, Yilin; Zhang, Huanhuan; Wang, Fei; Guo, Qi; Cao, Zheng

    2016-07-01

    1,3-Propanediol dehydrogenase (PDOR) is important in the biosynthesis of 1,3-propanediol. In the present study, the dhaT gene encoding PDOR was cloned from Lactobacillus brevis 6239 and expressed in Escherichia coli for the first time. Sequence analysis revealed that PDOR containing two Fe(2+)-binding motifs and a cofactor motif belongs to the type III alcohol dehydrogenase. The purified recombinant PDOR exhibited a single band of 42 kDa according to SDS-PAGE. Optimal temperatures and pH values of this dehydrogenase are 37 °C, 7.5 for reduction and 25 °C, 9.5 for oxidation, respectively. We found that PDOR was more stable in acid buffer than in alkaline condition, and 60 % of its relative activity still remained after a 2-h incubation at 37 °C. The activity of PDOR can be enhanced in the presence of Mn(2+) or Fe(2+) iron and inhibited by EDTA or PMSF by different degrees. The K m and V max of this dehydrogenase are 1.25 mM, 64.02 μM min(-1) mg(-1) for propionaldehyde and 2.26 mM, 35.05 μM min(-1) mg(-1) for 1,3-PD, respectively. Substrate specificity analysis showed that PDOR has a broad range of substrate specificities. The modeling superposition indicated that the structural differences may account for the diversity of PDORs' properties. Thus, our PDOR is a potential candidate for facilitating the 1,3-PD biosynthesis.

  16. The Genetics of Alcohol Metabolism: Role of Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Variants

    PubMed Central

    Edenberg, Howard J.

    2007-01-01

    The primary enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism are alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Both enzymes occur in several forms that are encoded by different genes; moreover, there are variants (i.e., alleles) of some of these genes that encode enzymes with different characteristics and which have different ethnic distributions. Which ADH or ALDH alleles a person carries influence his or her level of alcohol consumption and risk of alcoholism. Researchers to date primarily have studied coding variants in the ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2 genes that are associated with altered kinetic properties of the resulting enzymes. For example, certain ADH1B and ADH1C alleles encode particularly active ADH enzymes, resulting in more rapid conversion of alcohol (i.e., ethanol) to acetaldehyde; these alleles have a protective effect on the risk of alcoholism. A variant of the ALDH2 gene encodes an essentially inactive ALDH enzyme, resulting in acetaldehyde accumulation and a protective effect. It is becoming clear that noncoding variants in both ADH and ALDH genes also may influence alcohol metabolism and, consequently, alcoholism risk; the specific nature and effects of these variants still need further study. PMID:17718394

  17. Effect of fermented sea tangle on the alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jae-Young; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Bae-Jin; Cho, Young-Su

    2011-08-01

    Sea tangle, a kind of brown seaweed, was fermented with Lactobacillus brevis BJ-20. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in fermented sea tangle (FST) was 5.56% (w/w) and GABA in total free amino acid of FST was 49.5%. The effect of FST on the enzyme activities and mRNA protein expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) involved in alcohol metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Yeast was cultured in YPD medium supplemented with different concentrations of FST powder [0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.0% (w/v)] for 18 h. FST had no cytotoxic effect on the yeast growth. The highest activities and protein expressions of ADH and ALDH from the cell-free extracts of S. cerevisiae were evident with the 0.4% and 0.8% (w/v) FST-supplemented concentrations, respectively. The highest concentrations of GABA as well as minerals (Zn, Ca, and Mg) were found in the cell-free extracts of S. cerevisiae cultured in medium supplemented with 0.4% (w/v) FST. The levels of GABA, Zn, Ca, and Mg in S. cerevisiae were strongly correlated with the enzyme activities of ADH and ALDH in yeast. These results indicate that FST can enhance the enzyme activities and protein expression of ADH and ALDH in S. cerevisiae.

  18. Complete knockout of the lactate dehydrogenase A gene is lethal in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, 2, 3 down-regulated CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Yip, Shirley S M; Zhou, Meixia; Joly, John; Snedecor, Bradley; Shen, Amy; Crawford, Yongping

    2014-09-01

    Accumulation of high level of lactate can negatively impact cell growth during fed-batch culture process. In this study, we attempted to knockout the lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) gene in CHO cells in order to attenuate the lactate level. To prevent the potential deleterious effect of pyruvate accumulation, consequent to LDHA knockout, on cell culture, we chose a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, 2, and 3 (PDHK1, 2, and 3) knockdown cell line in which to knock out LDHA alleles. Around 3,000 clones were screened to obtain 152 mutants. Only heterozygous mutants were identified. An attempt to knockout the remaining wild-type allele from one such heterozygote yielded only two mutants after screening 567 clones. One had an extra valine. Another evidenced a duplication event, possessing at lease one wild-type and two different frameshifted alleles. Both mutants still retained LDH activity. Together, our data strongly suggest that a co